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Sample records for ciprofloxacine therapy compared

  1. Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y; Bulkacz, J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin was assessed against 362 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with that of cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and mezlocillin. Only 31% of the strains tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The other agents were active against most of the strains tested.

  2. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.; Humphries, Romney M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection.

  3. Reversible leukopenia related to ciprofloxacin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, P W; Gantz, N M

    1990-05-01

    In general, ciprofloxacin is well tolerated. The most common adverse effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, nervousness, and rash. Reversible leukopenia can be associated with the use of oral ciprofloxacin, as shown by our case. Leukopenia should be watched for as the use of this drug increases. PMID:2188377

  4. Ciprofloxacin therapy for Mediterranean spotted fever.

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    Raoult, D.; Gallais, H.; De Micco, P; Casanova, P

    1986-01-01

    We report the treatment of five patients with Mediterranean spotted fever with the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin. The treatment was administered intravenously for 2 days and then perorally for 8 days. All five patients were cured. These preliminary data seem to correlate with the in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Rickettsia conorii.

  5. Intravenous/oral ciprofloxacin therapy versus intravenous ceftazidime therapy for selected bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaut, P L; Carron, W C; Ching, W T; Meyer, R D

    1989-11-30

    The efficacy and toxicity of sequential intravenous and oral ciprofloxacin therapy was compared with intravenously administered ceftazidime in a prospective, randomized, controlled, non-blinded trial. Thirty-two patients (16 patients receiving ciprofloxacin and 16 patients receiving ceftazidime) with 38 infections caused by susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteric gram-negative rods, Salmonella group B, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Xanthomonas maltophilia at various sites were evaluable for determination of efficacy. Length of therapy varied from seven to 25 days. Concomitant antimicrobials included intravenously administered beta-lactams for gram-positive organisms, intravenous/oral metronidazole and clindamycin for anaerobes, and intravenous/local amphotericin B for Candida albicans. Intravenous administration of 200 mg ciprofloxacin every 12 hours to 11 patients produced peak serum levels between 1.15 and 3.12 micrograms/ml; trough levels ranged between 0.08 and 0.86 micrograms/ml. Overall response rates were similar for patients receiving ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. Emergence of resistance was similar in both groups--one Enterobacter cloacae and two P. aeruginosa became resistant after ciprofloxacin therapy and two P. aeruginosa became resistant after ceftazidime therapy. The frequency of superinfection with a variety of organisms was also similar in both groups. Adverse events related to ciprofloxacin included transient pruritus at the infusion site and generalized rash leading to drug discontinuation (one patient each), and with ceftazidime adverse effects included pain at the site of infusion and the development of allergic interstitial nephritis (one patient each). Overall, intravenous/oral ciprofloxin therapy appears to be as safe and effective as intravenous ceftazidime therapy in the treatment of a variety of infections due to susceptible aerobic gram-negative organisms. PMID:2686417

  6. Persistence mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients undergoing ciprofloxacin therapy.

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    Diver, J M; Schollaardt, T; Rabin, H R; Thorson, C; Bryan, L E

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of persistence to ciprofloxacin in nine sets of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated during ciprofloxacin therapy of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients were studied. Low to moderate levels of ciprofloxacin resistance developed in each case. Each set of pretherapy ciprofloxacin-susceptible, during-therapy ciprofloxacin-resistant, and posttherapy ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates were shown to be genotypically related by using a radiolabeled epidemiological g...

  7. Ciprofloxacin and rifampin, alone and in combination, for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, G W; Seo, S M; Barriere, S L; Albrecht, L M; Rybak, M J

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic activities of ciprofloxacin (25 mg/kg every 8 h), rifampin (10 mg/kg every 24 h), ciprofloxacin plus rifampin, and vancomycin (17.5 mg/kg every 6 h) were compared by using the rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Animals infected with one of two test strains (SA1199 or SA487) were randomized into treatment groups and received 6 days of therapy. For SA1199, ciprofloxacin plus rifampin was most effective at reducing vegetation bacterial counts. For SA487, ciproflo...

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Levels in GCF and Plasma of Chronic Periodontitis Patients: Quasi Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denthumdas, Sunil Kumar; Wadgave, Umesh; Pharne, Pooja Mohan; Patil, Sandeep Jambukumar; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Deshpande, Pavan; Koppikar, Rajesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For any antimicrobial approach to be successful in periodontal therapy, it is important that the antimicrobial agent targets the sub-gingival biofilm by attaining sufficient concentration at the sub-gingival site. Aim The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the concentrations of ciprofloxacin present in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) and plasma after its systemic administration. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects, in the age group of 30-60 years satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were chosen from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad and consent was obtained. Subjects were put on oral ciprofloxacin therapy (Baycip, Bayer Corporation) of 500mg twice daily doses for five days to establish steady state tissue levels of the agent. GCF and serum samples were collected at the 72nd hour after the first dose of ciprofloxacin and were compared using unpaired t test. Results The mean gingival index value of the subjects was 1.8 ± 0.59 and the mean probing depth of the subjects taken in the study was 5.724 ± 0.47mm. The results of this study showed that ciprofloxacin concentrations were significantly higher (pperiodontal sites via GCF. This property of ciprofloxacin may be useful for eradication of periodontal pathogens, thus improving the outcome of periodontal therapy. PMID:27504410

  9. A randomized trial of high-dose ciprofloxacin versus azlocillin and netilmicin in the empirical therapy of febrile neutropenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P R; Liu Yin, J A; Tooth, J A

    1992-08-01

    A prospective, randomized trial comparing monotherapy with high-dose ciprofloxacin versus a standard combination regimen of azlocillin and netilmicin in the empirical treatment of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients was performed. One hundred and forty-six patient episodes were randomized, but ten (seven ciprofloxacin and three azlocillin/netilmicin) were considered unevaluable for efficacy, and three episodes were withdrawn due to incorrect randomization or non-neutropenia. Of the remaining 133 episodes, infections resolved without modification of therapy in 25/66 (38%) versus 28/67 (42%) of ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin treated groups respectively (P = 0.72). Considering all randomized episodes, therapy was modified in 46/73 (63%) episodes with ciprofloxacin and 39/70 (56%) with azlocillin/netilmicin (P = 0.40). Of 73 patient episodes randomized to ciprofloxacin, 25 (34%) received oral follow-on therapy after a median of three days of intravenous therapy. Infections were microbiologically documented in 31/73 (42%) ciprofloxacin and 32/70 (46%) azlocillin/netilmicin, of which 8/27 (30%) and 14/31 (45%) of evaluable episodes resolved without modification of therapy respectively (P = 0.28). Gram-positive organisms accounted for 78% of all organisms cultured with 36% coagulase-negative staphylococci. Bacteriological eradication was recorded in 18/24 (75%) and 26/29 (90%) evaluable patient episodes treated with ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin respectively (P = 0.27). Superinfections were seen in 14% of episodes in both groups, and subsequent infections in 12% ciprofloxacin and 14% azlocillin/netilmicin treated patients. Two patients (one ciprofloxacin and one azlocillin/netilmicin) died within 48 h of randomization, and a further 13 patients (four ciprofloxacin and nine azlocillin/netilmicin) died before resolution of neutropenia. Adverse events were recorded in 9% and 15% of ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin treated patients respectively

  10. Comparative analysis of ciprofloxacin in different pharmaceutical products by high performance liquid chromatograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharmaceutical products with different trade names having ciprofloxacin as an active ingredient were collected from the market. The products were assayed under similar conditions for active ingredient applying HPLC technique. Results obtained from quantification of ciprofloxacin contents of each product were compared with their label claims. Comparative analysis of these products was performed based on the quantity of ciprofloxacin. (author)

  11. Synergistic antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronqui, Maria Rita; de Aguiar Coletti, Tatiana Maria Starck Fogaça; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Miranda, Elaine Toscano; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of a variety of pathogens resistant to current antibiotics remains the major problem in medical care, especially when bacterial infections are established as biofilms. In this study, we propose the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a monotherapy and associated with antibiotic as an alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PDT mediated by methylene blue (MB) on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in both biofilm and planktonic phases. Several concentrations of MB and light doses were tested. The bactericidal effects of PDT as a monotherapy did not increase with the concentration of photosensitizer, but were light dose-dependent. In addition, bacteria in biofilms were less affected than cells in the planktonic phase. Although not concentration-dependent, the disruption effect of PDT on biofilms was clearly illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also carried out experiments that evaluated the synergistic effect of photodynamic therapy and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The best results were obtained after combination treatment of photodynamic therapy followed by ciprofloxacin on biofilms, which increased bacterial reduction on biofilms, resulting in a 5.4 log reduction for S. aureus biofilm and approximately 7 log for E. coli biofilm. PMID:26971277

  12. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of concurrent oral ciprofloxacin and rifampin therapy in elderly patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, M H; Toler, S M; Rapp, R P; Muder, R R; Korvick, J A

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to investigate the influence of concomitant drug therapy with ciprofloxacin and rifampin on the individual pharmacokinetic profile of each agent in elderly patients. Twelve nursing home patients (age, 74 +/- 7 years), colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, were randomized to receive 14-day therapy with oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 h) (group A; n = 6) or ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 h) and oral rifampin (300 mg every 12 h) (g...

  13. Quinolone therapy of Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis following irradiation: Comparison of pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I.; Elliott, T.B.; Ledney, G.D. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to whole-body irradiation is associated with fatal gram-negative sepsis. The effect of oral therapy with three quinolones, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, for orally acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection was tested in B6D2F1 mice exposed to 8.0 Gy whole-body irradiation from bilaterally positioned 60Co sources. A dose of 10(8) organisms was given orally 2 days after irradiation, and therapy was started 1 day later. Quinolones reduced colonization of the ileum with K. pneumoniae: 16 of 28 (57%) untreated mice harbored the organisms, compared to only 12 of 90 (13%) mice treated with quinolones (P less than 0.005). K. pneumoniae was isolated from the livers of 6 of 28 untreated mice, compared to only 1 of 90 treated mice (P less than 0.001). Only 5 of 20 (25%) untreated mice survived for at least 30 days compared with 17 of 20 (85%) mice treated with ofloxacin, 15 of 20 (75%) mice treated with pefloxacin, and 14 of 20 (70%) treated with ciprofloxacin (P less than 0.05). These data illustrate the efficacy of quinolones for oral therapy of orally acquired K. pneumoniae infection in irradiated hosts.

  14. Quinolone therapy of Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis following irradiation: Comparison of pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to whole-body irradiation is associated with fatal gram-negative sepsis. The effect of oral therapy with three quinolones, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, for orally acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection was tested in B6D2F1 mice exposed to 8.0 Gy whole-body irradiation from bilaterally positioned 60Co sources. A dose of 10(8) organisms was given orally 2 days after irradiation, and therapy was started 1 day later. Quinolones reduced colonization of the ileum with K. pneumoniae: 16 of 28 (57%) untreated mice harbored the organisms, compared to only 12 of 90 (13%) mice treated with quinolones (P less than 0.005). K. pneumoniae was isolated from the livers of 6 of 28 untreated mice, compared to only 1 of 90 treated mice (P less than 0.001). Only 5 of 20 (25%) untreated mice survived for at least 30 days compared with 17 of 20 (85%) mice treated with ofloxacin, 15 of 20 (75%) mice treated with pefloxacin, and 14 of 20 (70%) treated with ciprofloxacin (P less than 0.05). These data illustrate the efficacy of quinolones for oral therapy of orally acquired K. pneumoniae infection in irradiated hosts

  15. Therapy of experimental murine brucellosis with streptomycin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, doxycycline, and rifampin.

    OpenAIRE

    Shasha, B; Lang, R.; Rubinstein, E

    1992-01-01

    Mice infected with Brucella melitensis were treated with streptomycin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and rifampin intraperitoneally and with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, doxycycline, and rifampin orally for 14 to 21 days. Doxycycline- and rifampin-treated animals (either route) demonstrated a cure rate significantly better than that of controls. Longer therapy periods were associated with a significantly better outcome. Therapy failure was observed in all mice treated w...

  16. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin compared with placebo in bacterial diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, H E; Diridl, G; Stickler, K; Wolf, D

    1987-04-27

    In a double-blind, randomized trial, 85 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice daily or placebo for five days. Seventy-six patients were evaluated, 38 patients in the ciprofloxacin group (16 with Salmonella species, 19 with Campylobacter jejuni, and three with Shigella species) and 38 patients in the placebo group (21 with Salmonella species, 11 with C. jejuni, and six with Shigella species). The duration of fever in patients treated with ciprofloxacin was 1.3 days versus 3.1 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.05). The mean duration of diarrhea in the ciprofloxacin group was 1.5 days versus 2.9 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.001). The corresponding numbers in patients with salmonellosis were 1.9 versus 3.4 days (p less than 0.01). In the ciprofloxacin group, all stool culture results became negative within 48 hours of treatment. Relapse occurred in four patients with salmonellosis within three weeks after the end of treatment. In the placebo group, only four of 38 patients had negative stool culture results during treatment and results were negative in only 13 at one week after the treatment period (p less than 0.001). Modest transient elevation of serum transaminase levels was detected in three patients in the ciprofloxacin group and in two patients in the placebo group. Epigastric pain occurred in one patient, and leukopenia occurred in one patient in the ciprofloxacin group. Gastrointestinal discomfort was recorded in two patients and rash was found in one patient in the placebo group. PMID:3555057

  17. Ofloxacin compared with ciprofloxacin in the treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromann-Andersen, B; Sommer, P; Pers, C; Larsen, V; Rasmussen, F

    1988-09-01

    In a double-blind, double-dummy study 61 patients with structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and verified infection were treated for 7 days with ofloxacin 100 mg bd or ciprofloxacin 250 mg bd by mouth. Of 62 isolated strains none was resistant to ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in vitro. Nineteen patients (63%) in both groups were free from infection ten days after therapy. Clinical resolution of symptoms occurred in 83% in the ofloxacin group and 68% in the ciprofloxacin group. Adverse reactions were reported in four patients (6.5%), two with skin rash, one with gastrointestinal disturbance and one with influenza-like symptoms. This study demonstrates that ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are effective in the treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infection. PMID:3182457

  18. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin therapy for gram-negative bacillary osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, M T; Ingerman, M J; Kaufman, D H; Weiner, P; Santoro, J; Korzeniowski, O M; Boscia, J; Topiel, M; Bush, L M; Kaye, D

    1987-04-27

    The efficacy and toxicity of ciprofloxacin, an orally administered fluoroquinolone, were evaluated in 24 infections in 23 patients with osteomyelitis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and the results of bone biopsy and culture of bone or deep soft tissue. The aerobic gram-negative bacilli were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15 isolates), Serratia marcescens (five isolates), Escherichia coli (three isolates), Enterobacter species (three isolates), Proteus mirabilis (one isolate), Pseudomonas fluorescens (one isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one isolate). Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were 1.56 micrograms/ml or less for all but one isolate. Nine infections were polymicrobial, involving aerobic gram-positive cocci or anaerobes in addition to aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Additional antibiotics to which the aerobic gram-negative bacilli were resistant were given when the additional organisms were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Patients received 750 mg of ciprofloxacin twice daily for a mean of 62 days. Peak serum levels of ciprofloxacin were at least threefold higher than the MBCs in 20 of 24 patients. Twenty of 22 infections in which a full course of therapy was completed were without evidence of active disease at one to 17 months posttreatment. A sternotomy wound infection relapsed after eight weeks of therapy with a newly resistant S. marcescens strain, and an infection of a compound fracture relapsed two months posttreatment with a still sensitive P. aeruginosa strain. Toxicity was minimal in most patients: eosinophilia (six patients), nausea (eight patients), mild elevation in transaminase levels (three patients), pruritus (one patient), diarrhea (two patients), thrush (two patients), rash (two patients), and mild leukopenia (one patient). Two additional patients had severe side effects (vertigo in one and acute renal failure in another) that required discontinuation of ciprofloxacin therapy. Overall

  19. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković Aleksandra; Tajber Lidia; Paluch Krzysztof J.; Djurić Zorica; Parojčić Jelena; Corrigan Owen I.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution ...

  20. Efficacy of intravenous ciprofloxacin in patients with febrile neutropenia refractory to initial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Shirahashi, Akihiko; Koga, Shin; Suzushima, Hitoshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Okamura, Seiichi; Kawano, Fumio; Tamura, Kazuo

    2006-08-01

    We previously reported that monotherapy with carbapenem or cefepime exhibited efficacy equivalent to cefepime plus an aminoglycoside as initial therapy for febrile neutropenia (FN), achieving an adequate response in two-thirds of the patients. However, only one-third of the remaining poor responders to monotherapy became afebrile after an aminoglycoside was added to the initial carbapenem or cefepime. The present study was designed to evaluate the benefit of intravenous ciprofloxacin for neutropenic patients with fever who were refractory to initial therapy given for the first 3 days. Patients with FN--as defined by an axillary temperature >or=37.5 degrees C and a neutrophil count ciprofloxacin 600 mg/day. They were otherwise managed according to the Japanese guidelines for FN. An adequate response was defined as a decline of temperature to ciprofloxacin treatment. Thirty-one patients with FN (seventeen male and fourteen female; mean age 53.1 +/- 14.8 years) were entered in the study. The initial antibiotics were cefepime (2 - 4 g/day) in twenty and carbapenem (1 - 2 g/day) in eleven. Three patients were excluded from analysis, leaving 28 patients for evaluation of efficacy. The response rate was 16/31 patients (51.6%),with four patients judged non-assessable due to adverse effects, protocol violation or early change to other agents. Adverse events occurred in seventeen patients, but all were mild and reversible. Only three patients had adverse events (skin rash, hepatic dysfunction and elevation of alkaline phosphatase in one patient, respectively) considered related to ciprofloxacin. These findings indicate that addition of intravenous ciprofloxacin is effective against FN refractory to initial antibiotic therapy and has acceptable toxicity. PMID:16966275

  1. Comparative in vitro activities of ofloxacin, difloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other selected antimicrobial agents against Brucella melitensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Y.; Dizon, M; Kiel, F W

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro activities of three quinolones (ofloxacin, difloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) were compared with those of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline, and rifampin against 47 Brucella melitensis strains. Ofloxacin was the most active of the test antimicrobial agents. It inhibited 90% of B. melitensis strains at a concentration of 0.02 micrograms/ml.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Rebecca S.; Fish, Douglas N.; Abraham, Edward; Teitelbaum, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were studied in intensive care unit patients during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH; four patients received levofloxacin, and five received ciprofloxacin) or hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; six patients received levofloxacin, and five received ciprofloxacin). Levofloxacin clearance was substantially increased during both CVVH and CVVHDF, while ciprofloxacin clearance was affected less. The results of this ...

  3. The comparative activity of pefloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin and 13 other antimicrobial agents against enteropathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Roebben, E; Nyssen, H J; Nulens, E; Leger, J; De Schepper, N

    1986-01-01

    In this study, we compared the activity of pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin against 269 enteropathogenic strains (Campylobacter jejuni, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia enterocolitica) with that of rosoxacin, flumequin, nifuroxazide, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, amikacin, netilmicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole. Pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin were always among the most active compounds. Furthermore, resistant strains or strains with elevated MIC values were not found. The MIC90 value for these three compounds was less than or equal to 0.25 mg/l, except for C. jejuni where it was 0.3 mg/l and 1.4 mg/l for pefloxacin and enoxacin, respectively. PMID:3546145

  4. The potential of liposome–encapsulated ciprofloxacin as a tularemia therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Karleigh A.; Wong, Jonathan P.; Blanchard, James D.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2014-01-01

    Liposome-encapsulation has been suggested as method to improve the efficacy of ciprofloxacin against the intracellular pathogen, Francisella tularensis. Early work with a prototype formulation, evaluated for use against the F. tularensis live vaccine strain, showed that a single dose of liposomal ciprofloxacin given by the intranasal or inhalational route could provide protection in a mouse model of pneumonic tularemia. Liposomal ciprofloxacin offered better protection than ciprofloxacin give...

  5. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of ... in the clear front part of the eye). Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic ointment is used to treat conjunctivitis. Ciprofloxacin ...

  6. Efficacy of Rifaximin Compared with Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, You Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jang, Byung-Ik; Park, Young-Sook; Lee, Kang-Moon; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Ciprofloxacin has been widely prescribed for acute infectious diarrhea. However, the resistance to this drug is increasing. Rifaximin is a novel but poorly absorbed rifamycin derivative. This study evaluated and compared the efficacies of rifaximin and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. Methods We performed a randomized controlled multicenter study in Korea. Patients with acute diarrhea were enrolled and randomized to receive rifaximin or ciprofloxacin for 3 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time to last unformed stool (TLUS). Secondary endpoints were enteric wellness (reduction of at least 50% in the number of unformed stools during 24-hour postenrollment intervals), general wellness (subjective feeling of improvement), and proportion of patients with treatment failure. Results Intent-to-treat analysis (n=143) showed no significant difference between the rifaximin and ciprofloxacin groups in the mean TLUS (36.1 hours vs 43.6 hours, p=0.163), enteric wellness (49% vs 57%, p=0.428), general wellness (67% vs 78%, p=0.189), or treatment failure rate (9% vs 12%, p=0.841). The adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions These results suggest that rifaximin is as safe and effective as ciprofloxacin in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. PMID:20981213

  7. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests. PMID:24670353

  8. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO42(Cl2(ciprofloxacin2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  9. Comparison of Ciprofloxacin-Based Triple Therapy with Conventional Triple Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Mehri; Fallahi, Gholamhosein; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh; Mahdi Marashi, Sayed; Shoaran, Maryam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a prevalent disease among Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ciprofloxacin and furazolidone on eradicating helicobacter pylori in Iranian children in combination with amoxicillin and omeprazole. In this cohort study, helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by gastroscopy, rapid urease test or pathologic assessments. A total of 66 children were randomly enrolled; based on the random number table, and were divided into two groups; first, a combination regimen consisting of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole; second, a three-medication regimen consisting of amoxicillin, furazolidone, and omeprazole. The effect of both medical regimens on the successful eradication of helicobacter pylori infection was assessed and compared. Chi-square test was used for evaluating the association between quantitative variables. All comparisons were made at the significance of Peradication of the helicobacter pylori infection was reported 87.9% (29/33) in the first group (CAO) and 60.6% (20.33) in the second group (FAO) (P=0.011). It appears that a major advantage of our proposed regimen over others is a lack of wide use of fluoroquinolones for treating children's diseases. Given FDA's recommendation about the possibility of prescribing ciprofloxacin for infected patients with multidrug resistance, we can use the regimen proposed in this study in patients with resistance to standard treatments. PMID:27306347

  10. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using ciprofloxacin injection and call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical help: rash hives itching peeling or blistering of the skin ...

  11. High dose intravenous ciprofloxacin in febrile neutropenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P R; Yin, J A; Tooth, J A

    1990-12-01

    We have evaluated the use of high-dose intravenous ciprofloxacin as monotherapy in the empirical therapy of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients during the course of a randomized trial comparing ciprofloxacin with a standard combination regimen. Sixty-four episodes of fever were studied in a high risk population of 42 patients mostly undergoing intensive chemotherapy for leukaemia. Ciprofloxacin achieved clinical responses as follows: completely successful in 39%, partially successful in 20%, and unsuccessful in 41%. Infections were microbiologically documented in 37 (58%), with Gram-positive bacteria (of which 37% were coagulase negative staphylococci and 34% were streptococci) accounting for 81% of all organisms cultured. Responses in documented infections were as follows; completely successful in 32%, partially successful in 27%, and unsuccessful in 41%. One infection-related death occurred 30 h after starting ciprofloxacin, and a further three patients died before the resolution of neutropenia. The early death was caused by fulminant infection with a ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No other ciprofloxacin resistance was seen amongst eight Gram-negative isolates. There was no evidence of emerging ciprofloxacin resistance during the course of the study. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a low incidence of adverse events with skin rash (five cases) and nausea (one case) being reported as possibly or probably related to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that high-dose intravenous ciprofloxacin may be safely employed as monotherapy in the empirical treatment of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients. It has the additional advantages of twice daily administration, the availability of intravenous and oral presentations, and absence of cross-allergy in beta-lactam antibiotic hypersensitive patients. PMID:2292537

  12. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: rash hives itching tingling swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness Ophthalmic ciprofloxacin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  13. Imaging prostatitis with Tc-99m ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Tc-99m ciprofloxacin (Infecton) imaging was developed to discriminate infection from inflammation. It claims to show an area of viable, proliferating bacterial population that is actively using DNA gyrase, which the ciprofloxacin inhibits. The application of this imaging has been reported in patients with infected arthroplasty, soft tissue infection, pelvic inflammatory diseases, etc. Clinical evaluation with conventional urological laboratory tests often provides insufficient data in differentiating chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) from pelvic pain syndrome, which causes inappropriate or inadequate antibiotic therapy without definite evidence of presence or absence of bacterial infection. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic value of the Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging for CBP by comparing the results of the imaging with those from the conventional tests. Materials and Methods: We custom-formulated a Tc-99m ciprofloxacin kit. We used stannous tartrate for a reducing agent in making the kit. SPECT images of the region of interest were obtained at 3 hours after injection of the radiopharmaceutical. For positive control, we imaged 2 patients: acute prostatitis and urethritis. Then the actual study included 20 subjects. We excluded from the study the patients who had received antibiotic therapy within 6 weeks. The conventional tests included CBC, urinalysis, 4-glass tests, microscopic examination of expressed prostatic secretion, bacterial culture, or PCR for chlamydia trachomatis. Kappa statistics were obtained for comparison of the two tests. Results: By conventional tests, there were 10 subjects with CBP and 10 normal subjects. The typical pattern in the Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging indicating CBP was the increased uptake around the prostatic urethra. Five of the 10 subjects with CBP diagnosed by conventional tests showed the increased uptake to be positive cases in the Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging. Of the 10 subjects diagnosed as normal by the

  14. Comparative Activity of Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Assessed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations and Time-Kill Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Antoine; Schramm, Frédéric; Kleinberg, Magali; Jehl, François

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to three fluoroquinolones. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were examined by E-test® for a total of 40 K. pneumoniae strains, 40 S. maltophilia strains and 40 P. aeruginosa strains. Then, the bactericidal activity of these fluoroquinolones was investigated on five strains of each bacterial species by means of time-kill curves. For K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, the distance of the measured MIC from the clinical break-point is a good indicator of the bactericidal activity for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin as obtained in our experiments. The lower the MIC, the better the bactericidal activity in term of CFU Log decreases. If MIC of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against the considered bacteria are far from clinical breakpoint, these two antibiotics are equivalent. According to our MIC50 and modal MIC, the breakpoints of both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin seem to be somewhat high and data suggest reducing them. On S. maltophilia, none of the tested antibiotics showed a satisfactory activity. PMID:27257956

  15. Ciprofloxacin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprofloxacin In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... advice from your health care provider. What is ciprofloxacin? Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a ...

  16. Suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K M; Wilson, M G

    1990-04-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a rare but serious adverse effect of many drugs and usually is diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms of hematuria, proteinuria, eosinophilia, fever, azotemia, and rash. Ciprofloxacin is one drug that has been reported to cause interstitial nephritis. Renal toxicities have been reported in less than one percent of the patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy. Limited documentation of this adverse effect exists in the literature. This article describes a patient with suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis. PMID:2327115

  17. Comparative Activities of Clinafloxacin, Grepafloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, and Trovafloxacin and Nonquinolones Linozelid, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, Gentamicin, and Vancomycin against Clinical Isolates of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Mark E.; Visser, Maarten R.; Klootwijk, Miriam; Heisig, Peter; Verhoef, Jan; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    1999-01-01

    The activities of eight fluoroquinolones and linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin (Synercid), gentamicin, and vancomycin were tested against 96 ciprofloxacin-susceptible and 205 ciprofloxacin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Overall, clinafloxacin, followed by moxifloxacin and trovafloxacin, was the most active quinolone tested. For all isolates, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin showed activities that were at least comparable to vancomycin, with no cross-resistance to any other...

  18. Ciprofloxacin and Dexamethasone Otic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone otic is used to treat outer ear infections in adults and children and acute ( ... middle ear infections in children with ear tubes. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of medications called quinolone ...

  19. Comparative study of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy, 18F-FDG PET and diffusion weighted imaging for detecting secondary infection associated with severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic values of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT, 18F-FDG PET and MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for detecting secondary infection associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in swine. Methods: Swine models were constructed and grouped, including control group (normal swine, n=6), non-infected SAP group (inoculated with inactivation Escherichia coli, n=6)and infected SAP group (inoculated with Escherichia coli, n=16). At 7 d after inoculation,a series of 99Tcmciprofloxacin SPECT, 18F-FDG PET and MR DWI scans were performed. The imaging findings were visually evaluated and semi-quantitative analyzed. Lesion-background radioactive counts ratio (L/B), SUVmax and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated. The image results were compared with histopathological and bacteriological results, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Bonferroni test, the least significant difference t test and χ2 test were used for statistical data analysis. Results: (1) The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT via visual analysis were 93.8% (15/16), 5/6, 90.9% (20/22), 93.8%(15/16) and 5/6, whereas 81.2% (13/16), 2/6, 68.2% (15/22), 76.5%(13/17) and 2/5 for 18F-FDG PET, and 15.4% (2/13), 5/6, 36.8%(7/19), 2/3 and 31.3% (5/16) for MRI DWI respectively. Both 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT and 18F-FDG PET had higher sensitivities (both P>0.05), but the specificity of 18F-FDG PET was lower. (2)99Tcm-ciprofloxacin imaging showed the changes of L/B for the infected SAP swine were significantly different from those of the non-infected and normal swine (F=95.66, P<0.001). 18F-FDG PET early-phase images showed SUVmax was not significantly different between infected SAP (2.61±1.07) and non-infected SAP (1.87±0.76) groups (P>0.05), but the SUVmax of infected SAP group was higher than that of non

  20. Treatment of serious infections with intravenous ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, B E; Neu, H C

    1987-04-27

    Thirty-four patients were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Thirty infections occurring in 28 patients were assessable for the efficacy analysis. The drug dosage was 300 mg every 12 hours in 19 patients and 200 mg intravenously every 12 hours in nine patients. Twelve patients were also given ciprofloxacin orally after initial intravenous therapy. The mean duration of total therapy was 31 days. The overall clinical response rate was 87 percent, and the bacteriologic response rate was 70 percent. Favorable responses were observed in 10 of 12 patients with osteomyelitis/septic arthritis; seven of eight with soft tissue infection; four of four with pneumonitis; one of two with cystic fibrosis; and four of four with urinary tract infections. Resistance to ciprofloxacin developed in three Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Toxicity was minor: phlebitis occurred in six patients, nausea in six, and rash in one. Intravenously administered ciprofloxacin or intravenous ciprofloxacin followed by oral ciprofloxacin is a safe and effective therapy for serious infections. PMID:3555062

  1. Doxycycline plus streptomycin versus ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin in spinal brucellosis [ISRCTN31053647

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumerkan Bulent

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment regimen and duration of the therapy is still controversial in spinal brucellosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, adverse drug reactions, complications and cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin versus doxycycline plus streptomycin in the treatment of spinal brucellosis. Methods The patients diagnosed as spinal brucellosis between January 2002 to December 2004 were enrolled into the study. Patients were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups (doxycycline plus streptomycin vs. ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin consecutively. For the cost analysis of the two regimens, only the cost of antibiotic therapy was analysed for each patient. Results During the study period, 31 patients with spinal brucellosis were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups. Fifteen patients were included in doxycycline plus streptomycin group and 16 patients were included in ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group. Forty-two levels of spinal column were involved in 31 patients. The most common affected site was lumbar spine (n = 32, 76% and involvement level was not different in two groups. Despite the disadvantages (older age, more prevalent operation and abscess formation before the therapy of the patients in the ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group, the duration of the therapy (median 12 weeks in both groups and clinical response were not different from the doxycycline plus streptomycin. The cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin therapy was 1.2 fold higher than the cost of doxycycline plus streptomycin therapy. Conclusion Classical regimen (doxycycline plus streptomycin, with the appropriate duration (at least 12 weeks, is still the first line antibiotics and alternative therapies should be considered when adverse drug reactions were observed.

  2. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis delays initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and reduces the overall use of antimicrobial agents during induction therapy for acute leukaemia: A single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallböök, Helene; Lidström, Anna-Karin; Pauksens, Karlis

    2016-06-01

    Background Due to an outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was questioned. As a result, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the impact of ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis on the use of broad-spectrum antibioctics and anti-mycotics. Methods A cohort of 139 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia treated with remission-inducing induction chemotherapy between 2004-2012 at the Department of Haematology in Uppsala University Hospital was analysed. Results Fifty-three patients (38%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics at the initiation of chemotherapy and were not eligible for prophylaxis. Of the remaining patients, the initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics was delayed by 3 days in those receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (n = 47) compared with those receiving no prophylaxis (n = 39). The median duration of systemic antibiotic treatment was 6 days shorter in patients receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (12 vs 18 days; p = 0.0005) and the cumulative (total) median days on systemic antibiotic treatment was shortened by 8 days (15 vs 23 days, p = 0.0008). Piperacillin/tazobactam (p = 0.02), carbapenems (p = 0.05) and empiric broad-spectrum antifungals (p antibiotic use in this study. These benefits must be evaluated vs the risks of development of resistant bacterial strains, making fluoroquinolone prophylaxis an open question for debate. PMID:27030917

  3. Genotoxic Evaluation of the Antibacterial Drug, Ciprofloxacin, in Cultured Lymphocytes of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    İkbal, Mevlit; DOĞAN, Hasan; Odabaş, Hatice; PİRİM, İbrahim

    2004-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a quinolone carboxylic acid derivative and is commonly used in medicine. The genotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with urinary tract infection. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE), mitotic index (MI) and replicative index (RI) were measured before and after ciprofloxacin therapy. Our results showed that SCE frequency significantly increased after ciprofloxacin therapy (P < 0.001), but MI and RI decreased (P &...

  4. Acute renal failure due to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, M; Lopez, E J; Min, K W

    1990-10-01

    Acute renal failure developed in three patients within a few days of starting ciprofloxacin hydrochloride therapy. An allergic interstitial nephritis was suggested by fever and eosinophiluria in one patient and by erythema multiforme in another. A kidney biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis in one patient. Renal function improved shortly after withdrawal of the drug in all three patients. Literature survey revealed an additional three patients with a similar complication. Allergic manifestations, such as fever or rash, were a feature in most reported cases. In view of this potential complication, renal function should be closely monitored in patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy, especially if other potentially nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed concomitantly. PMID:2222106

  5. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E;

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta...

  6. Comparative studies for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride pre-formed gels and thermally triggered (in situ) gels: in vitro and in vivo appraisal using a bacterial keratitis model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Mansour, Heba F

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on comparative in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation of pre-formed cellulose-based gels, methylcellulose (MC) and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and in situ gel-forming Pluronic F127 (PL) for ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cipro) by using a bacterial keratitis model and histological corneal examination. Drug-polymer interactions were studied employing thermal analysis. Further, different concentrations (1-3% w/w or 10-30% w/w) of gels depending on the nature of the polymer used were prepared, characterized for clarity, pH, rheology and in vitro release. Selected gel formulations were evaluated for ocular delivery to Staphylococcus aureus-infected rabbit corneas; and ocular toxicity through histological examination of the cornea. The results demonstrated no Cipro-polymers physicochemical interactions and pseudoplastic flow for all gels used at 35 °C. Both polymer concentrations and drug solubility in the gels are dominantly the rate-determining factors for in vitro drug release. The corneal healing rate for all gel-based formulations was significantly faster (p < 0.05) than that for Cipro solution-treated rabbits. PL-based gel induced significant swelling/edema of the corneal stroma, compared with MC- and CMC-based gels. In conclusion, cellulose-based polymers have superior ocular tolerability/dramatically less irritant; and superior efficacy with more convenient administration compared with PL and Cipro solution, respectively. PMID:24392945

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a London sexually transmitted infection clinic not fully sensitive to quinolones: are isolates imported and how effective is ciprofloxacin as a first-line therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, D; Martin, I; Ison, C

    2000-12-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae not fully sensitive to ciprofloxacin from a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in London and where the isolates were acquired from. Data of antibiotic sensitivities of N. gonorrhoeae from 292 patients were reviewed over a 6-month period at St Mary's Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) Clinic, London. Isolates which exhibited reduced susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 0.03-0.12 mg/l) and high level resistance (MIC>0.12 mg/l) to ciprofloxacin represented 10% and 1.3% of the total respectively. All patients infected with a high level resistant isolate to ciprofloxacin had had a recent sexual partner from abroad but 18 of the 28 patients infected with a reduced susceptibility isolate denied recent travel. None of the 20 patients with a non-sensitive isolate who re-attended for post treatment cultures had persistant gonococcal infection. From this study we concluded that although N. gonorrhoeae resistant to ciprofloxacin was rare and probably always acquired abroad, isolates exhibiting reduced susceptibility were more common and were mainly as a result of infection from the UK. A stat dose of ciprofloxacin 500 mg and doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for one week was effective treatment. PMID:11138910

  8. Stability-indicating methods for the analysis of ciprofloxacin in the presence of its acid induced degradation product: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of its acidic degradation product. The methods under study are ratio derivative, ratio difference, mean centering and dual wavelength. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories.

  9. Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharoy, S R

    1994-12-01

    Although serum sickness-like reactions are uncommon, various drugs have recently been implicated to manifest the reaction. The following case report is of a possible serum sickness-like reaction secondary to ciprofloxacin use, a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the US. A 62-y-old female developed polyarthralgias, myalgia and a generalized urticarial rash following 5 d use of ciprofloxacin. On admission to the hospital, patient was placed on cefazolin and gentamicin for suspected bacteremia. However, the regimen was discontinued after 72 h because of worsening clinical condition. Patient was placed on iv methylprednisolone therapy, and within 18 h a significant improvement was noted in her myalgias and rash. Over the next 72 h the steroid therapy was changed to a po regimen and the patient became asymptomatic 5 d after the initiation of steroid therapy. Patient was discharged on day 9 of hospital admission. Though serum sickness-like reactions have been reported with various drugs, only 1 case has been reported implicating ciprofloxacin. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse event secondary to ciprofloxacin use. PMID:7900274

  10. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S S

    1989-01-01

    The sputum pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections is reviewed. Following intravenous administration, ciprofloxacin penetrates rapidly into bronchial tissue; the elimination half life is between 3 and 4 h and a dose dependency is seen. Following oral intake, the time to reach maximal concentrations is approximately two hours and after a dose of 750 mg the concentration may reach 1.7 mg/l in patients without cystic fibrosis and range from 0.5 to 3.4 mg/l in cystic fibrosis patients. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin increases serum levels and decreases total body clearance of theophylline. In controlled comparative clinical trials, ciprofloxacin has been found to have similar clinical efficacy as amoxycillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, imipenem-cilastatin and ceftazidime for the treatment of a range of lower respiratory tract infections. Ciprofloxacin has been found to be superior in clinical efficacy to cefaclor. Experimental animal models suggest a role for ciprofloxacin in infections caused by Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The clinical and bacteriological efficacy of ciprofloxacin is less pronounced in lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but is comparable to the combination of beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Development of resistance is frequently observed during ciprofloxacin treatment of Ps. aeruginosa. Because of the availability of other oral and effective agents, ciprofloxacin is not recommended for empirical treatment of community acquired lower respiratory infections, but should be reserved for infections caused by multiply resistant organisms. PMID:2667111

  11. The influence of chronic administration of calcium carbonate on the bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, J; Healy, D P; Stotka, J; Polk, R E

    1993-01-01

    Six healthy male volunteers participated in a two-period, two-treatment study to determine the effect of chronic calcium carbonate administration on ciprofloxacin bioavailability. There was a mean reduction of 40% in Cmax and 43% in AUC when calcium carbonate was administered with ciprofloxacin, compared with ciprofloxacin alone (P < 0.05). There were no changes in either half-life or tmax. It is therefore recommended that patients being treated with ciprofloxacin for serious infections refra...

  12. Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration

  13. Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin as a Representative of Veterinary Fluoroquinolones in Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Riddle, Christa; Lemons, Carol L.; Papich, Mark G.; Altier, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Currently in veterinary medicine, ciprofloxacin is often used in susceptibility testing to represent the entire class of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials. Using quality control organisms as well as clinical isolates, we compared the MIC of ciprofloxacin to those of three other fluoroquinolones used in animals and found that ciprofloxacin is not an adequate representative of other members of this class.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, P M; Wilson, R C; Tyler, J W; Duran, S H

    1995-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was investigated in healthy, mature ponies. Ciprofloxacin was administered intravenously to six ponies at a dose of 5 mg per kg body weight. Seven days later, ciprofloxacin was administered orally to each pony at the same dose. Intravenous ciprofloxacin concentration vs. time data best fit a two-compartment open model with first-order elimination from the central compartment. Mean plasma half-life, based on the terminal phase, was 157.89 min (harmonic mean). Total body clearance of ciprofloxacin was 18.12 +/- 3.99 mL/min/kg. Volume of distribution at steady-state was 3.45 +/- 0.72 L/kg. From the pharmacokinetic data and reported minimum inhibitory concentrations for equine gram-negative pathogens, the appropriate dosage of ciprofloxacin was determined to be 5.32 mg per kg body weight at 12 h intervals. Bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin in ponies was 6.8 +/- 5.33%. Owing to the poor bioavailability, a dosage regimen could not be proposed for oral ciprofloxacin administration in horses. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were determined in tissues and body fluids at 1, 2 and 4 h after intravenous administration. At all times, tissue concentrations exceeded plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Highest concentrations were achieved in kidneys and urine. Potentially therapeutic concentrations were obtained in cerebrospinal and joint fluid, but low concentrations were achieved in aqueous humour. PMID:7752310

  15. Clinical Efficacy of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The cliniueal efficacy, antibacterial activity and adverse effects of ciprofloxacin (CPLX) and ofloxacin (OFLX) produced in our country were compared in five clinical hospitals in Beijing and Guangzhou in 1992. Two groups, each consisting of 100 cases, were treated with. CPLX and OFLX respectively. The total

  16. Kefiran-alginate gel microspheres for oral delivery of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandón, Lina M; Islan, German A; Castro, Guillermo R; Noseda, Miguel D; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic associated with gastric and intestinal side effects after extended oral administration. Alginate is a biopolymer commonly employed in gel synthesis by ionotropic gelation, but unstable in the presence of biological metal-chelating compounds and/or under dried conditions. Kefiran is a microbial biopolymer able to form gels with the advantage of displaying antimicrobial activity. In the present study, kefiran-alginate gel microspheres were developed to encapsulate ciprofloxacin for antimicrobial controlled release and enhanced bactericidal effect against common pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the hybrid gel microspheres showed a spherical structure with a smoother surface compared to alginate gel matrices. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin from kefiran-alginate microspheres was less than 3.0% and 5.0% at pH 1.2 (stomach), and 5.0% and 25.0% at pH 7.4 (intestine) in 3 and 21h, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed the displacement of typical bands of ciprofloxacin and kefiran, suggesting a cooperative interaction by hydrogen bridges between both molecules. Additionally, the thermal analysis of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed a protective effect of the biopolymer against ciprofloxacin degradation at high temperatures. Finally, antimicrobial assays of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhymurium, and Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated the synergic effect between ciprofloxacin and kefiran against the tested microorganisms. PMID:27289312

  17. Postantibiotic Effect and Postantibiotic Sub-MIC Effect of Levofloxacin Compared to Those of Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin against 20 Pneumococci

    OpenAIRE

    Spangler, Sheila K.; Lin, Gengrong; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respec...

  18. Postantibiotic effect and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect of levofloxacin compared to those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, S K; Lin, G; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1998-05-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respectively, for quinolones and 1 to 8, 1 to 8, and 1 to 6, respectively, for macrolides. PMID:9593160

  19. Ciprofloxacin Improves the Stemness of Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayanin Kiratipaiboon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in the expansion method of adult stem cells may augment their use in regenerative therapy. Using human dermal papilla cell line as well as primary dermal papilla cells as model systems, the present study demonstrated that ciprofloxacin treatment could prevent the loss of stemness during culture. Clonogenicity and stem cell markers of dermal papilla cells were shown to gradually decrease in the culture in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with nontoxic concentrations of ciprofloxacin could maintain both stem cell morphology and clonogenicity, as well as all stem cells markers. We found that ciprofloxacin exerted its effect through ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase/glycogen synthase kinase3β dependent mechanism which in turn upregulated β-catenin. Besides, ciprofloxacin was shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DPCs as the transcription factors ZEB1 and Snail were significantly increased. Furthermore, the self-renewal proteins of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, Nanog and Oct-4 were significantly upregulated in the ciprofloxacin-treated cells. The effects of ciprofloxacin in preserving stem cell features were confirmed in the primary dermal papilla cells directly obtained from human hair follicles. Together, these results revealed a novel application of ciprofloxacin for stem cell maintenance and provided the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the stemness in dermal papilla cells.

  20. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25680964

  1. Automated radiosynthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We transferred the previously published manual synthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin (decay-corrected RCY: 5.5±1.0%) to an automated synthesis module (TRACERlabTM FXFDG, GE Healthcare) and observed a strong decrease in RCY (0.4±0.4%). When replacing the standard 15-mL glassy carbon reactor of the synthesis module with a 3-mL V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor a considerable improvement in RCY was observed. [18F]Ciprofloxacin was obtained in a RCY of 2.7±1.4% (n=23) with a specific activity at EOS of 1.4±0.5 GBq/µmol in a synthesis time of 160 min. - Highlights: • Automated synthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin in a TRACERlabTM FXFDG (GE Healthcare) synthesis module was developed. • Dependence of radiochemical yield on reactor type was observed. • 3-mL V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor gave higher radiochemical yield as compared with standard 15-mL glassy carbon reactor. • V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor might also give higher radiochemical yield for other [18F]radiotracers than [18F]ciprofloxacin

  2. Uptake of ciprofloxacin by macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Easmon, C. S.; Crane, J P

    1985-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was concentrated within mouse peritoneal macrophages to between two and three times extracellular values. Uptake was rapid, occurred equally well with dead cells, and was not affected by lowering the pH or by prior ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus. Intracellular staphylococci were killed by extracellular concentrations of ciprofloxacin as low as 0.5 mg/l.

  3. Comparing Postoperative Radiation Therapies for Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, patients with one to four brain metastases who have had at least one of the metastatic tumors removed surgically will be randomly assigned to undergo whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery.

  4. Biological Considerations When Comparing Proton Therapy. With Photon Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paganetti, Harald; van Luijk, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the limited availability of data on the outcome of proton therapy, treatments are generally optimized based on broadly available data on photon-based treatments. However, the microscopic pattern of energy deposition of protons differs from that of photons, leading to a different biological

  5. Differential Effects of Linezolid and Ciprofloxacin on Toxin Production by Bacillus anthracis in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic System

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Arnold; VanScoy, Brian D.; Heine, Henry S.; Liu, Weiguo; Abshire, Terry; Holman, Kari; Kulawy, Robert; Brown, David L.; Drusano, George L.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax. Ciprofloxacin is a gold standard for the treatment of anthrax. Previously, using the non-toxin-producing ΔSterne strain of B. anthracis, we demonstrated that linezolid was equivalent to ciprofloxacin for reducing the total (vegetative and spore) bacterial population. With ciprofloxacin therapy, the total population consisted of spores. With linezolid therapy, the population consisted primarily of vegetative bacteria. Linezolid is a protein synthesis inhibito...

  6. Increased oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin in cystic fibrosis patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensson, B A; Nilsson-Ehle, I; Ljungberg, B; Lindblad, A.; Malmborg, A. S.; Hjelte, L; Strandvik, B

    1992-01-01

    The altered pharmacokinetic properties of, e.g., aminoglycosides in cystic fibrosis patients have to be considered when pulmonary exacerbations are treated. Since reported data on ciprofloxacin, a fluorinated quinolone, are conflicting, we compared intravenous and oral administration in cystic fibrosis patients when treating them for mild symptoms of pulmonary infection. All of the patients were colonized with Pseudomonas species. Ciprofloxacin was administered orally (15 mg/kg of body weight...

  7. Laser therapy and comparative therapy methods in parodontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This two studies aim to examine application of a diode-laser in periodontal therapy. The aim of the pilot-study was to examine the immediate effect of the diode-laser in reducing the bacterial concentration in periodontal pockets. 50 patients were randomly subdivided into two groups (laser group, control group) and microbiologic samples were collected. One week after the therapy (1st group: scaling and laser, 2nd group: scaling) there were taken further more samples from the same periodontal pockets treated before. The microbiologic samples were evaluated to verify bacterial elimination from the periodontal pockets, especially Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans could be considerably eliminated from periodontal pockets by the diode laser. In the long-term study, there were two groups, one laser-group and one control-group. All 50 patients were required to have periodontal pockets with a minimum depth of 4 mm in each quadrate. The bacterial reduction, the change of bleeding on probing and the pocket depth had been evaluated six months after therapy. The irradiation with the diode laser allows considerable bacterial elimination, the index of bleeding on probing came out to be significantly better than in the control group. The reduction of pocket depth was also greater than in the control group. (author)

  8. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin in water and soil and its effects on the microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Cristobal, E-mail: cristobal.girardi-lavin@ufz.de [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Greve, Josephine [Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001 8400 (United States); Lamshoeft, Marc [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn-Str. 6, NRW 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Fetzer, Ingo [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Miltner, Anja [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineralisation of toxic pollutants can be higher in soil than in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin affects the microbial communities and activities in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity of ciprofloxacin is reduced in soil due to sorption processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Despite the buffering capacity of soil, ciprofloxacin remains active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin resistance can develop in soils contaminated with this antibiotic. - Abstract: While antibiotics are frequently found in the environment, their biodegradability and ecotoxicological effects are not well understood. Ciprofloxacin inhibits active and growing microorganisms and therefore can represent an important risk for the environment, especially for soil microbial ecology and microbial ecosystem services. We investigated the biodegradation of {sup 14}C-ciprofloxacin in water and soil following OECD tests (301B, 307) to compare its fate in both systems. Ciprofloxacin is recalcitrant to biodegradation and transformation in the aqueous system. However, some mineralisation was observed in soil. The lower bioavailability of ciprofloxacin seems to reduce the compound's toxicity against microorganisms and allows its biodegradation. Moreover, ciprofloxacin strongly inhibits the microbial activities in both systems. Higher inhibition was observed in water than in soil and although its antimicrobial potency is reduced by sorption and aging in soil, ciprofloxacin remains biologically active over time. Therefore sorption does not completely eliminate the effects of this compound.

  9. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin in water and soil and its effects on the microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mineralisation of toxic pollutants can be higher in soil than in water. ► Ciprofloxacin affects the microbial communities and activities in soil. ► Toxicity of ciprofloxacin is reduced in soil due to sorption processes. ► Despite the buffering capacity of soil, ciprofloxacin remains active. ► Ciprofloxacin resistance can develop in soils contaminated with this antibiotic. - Abstract: While antibiotics are frequently found in the environment, their biodegradability and ecotoxicological effects are not well understood. Ciprofloxacin inhibits active and growing microorganisms and therefore can represent an important risk for the environment, especially for soil microbial ecology and microbial ecosystem services. We investigated the biodegradation of 14C-ciprofloxacin in water and soil following OECD tests (301B, 307) to compare its fate in both systems. Ciprofloxacin is recalcitrant to biodegradation and transformation in the aqueous system. However, some mineralisation was observed in soil. The lower bioavailability of ciprofloxacin seems to reduce the compound's toxicity against microorganisms and allows its biodegradation. Moreover, ciprofloxacin strongly inhibits the microbial activities in both systems. Higher inhibition was observed in water than in soil and although its antimicrobial potency is reduced by sorption and aging in soil, ciprofloxacin remains biologically active over time. Therefore sorption does not completely eliminate the effects of this compound.

  10. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Jianxi [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Huajie [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhou Yanqing [Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Jinye, E-mail: jywang@mail.sioc.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 {mu}m. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  11. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 μm. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  12. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin scintigraphy in evaluation of orthopedic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of bacterial infection in orthopedic practice is an important issue for appropriate management. Conventional radiography including CT examination has limited role in such a situation. A Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin has been developed to localize bacterial infection in order to differentiate infection from inflammation. Critical evaluation of role of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin scintigraphy in orthopedic practice was done in the present study. 104 patients with suspected infection in orthopedic clinic were taken up for Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin scintigraphy. A dose of 370 MBq of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously. Imaging was performed using Siemens integrated DIACAM camera with low energy all parallel or high-resolution collimators. Multiple spot views at serial time (1 hour, 4 hours and 24 hours) were obtained in 256 x 256 matrix size in ICON computer. Focal area of abnormal radionuclide concentration, which increased with time, was considered to be the pattern suggestive of presence of infection. In cases of equivocal qualitative appearance, quantitation of uptake was ascertained by the count statistics obtained using region of interest program. Final diagnosis of sepsis was based on microbiological examination or evidence of beneficial response to antibiotic therapy. Tc-99 Ciprofloxacin scintigraphy showed most favourable results in peripheral tubercular as well as non-tubercular osteomyelitis, tubercular arthritis and in cases with prosthesis (including vascular stent). It showed limited role in Pott's spine. The best sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin using the defined criteria was 90%, 84% and 88% respectively in cases with non-tubercular osteomyelitis. Serial imaging up to 24 hours was required in ∼ 70% of cases. In ∼ 30% of cases quantification was required to form an opinion. We conclude that Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is a highly useful technique in the management of infection in orthopedic practice. The procedure should

  13. Effect of generics on price and consumption of ciprofloxacin in primary healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich S; Muller, Arno; Brandt, Christian T;

    2010-01-01

    ciprofloxacin and on ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli urine isolates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective ecological study collecting monthly national data on the number of marketed versions and primary healthcare (PHC) sales of ciprofloxacin during January 1995-December 2005. Data were compared...... with a median price per defined daily dose (DDD) of ciprofloxacin during September 1999-December 2005. Yearly PHC consumption data from seven Danish counties were compared with the antimicrobial resistance profiles of PHC E. coli urine isolates. RESULTS: During 2002, the number of marketed versions...

  14. Treatment of serious infections with intravenous ciprofloxacin. French Multicenter Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, J

    1989-11-30

    Ninety-four patients, 61 men and 33 women with a mean age of 54 years, were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Eighty-one patients (86 percent) were in serious or fair condition. Pathogens included Enterobacteriaceae (74 patients), Pseudomonas sp. (23 patients), other gram-negative bacilli (five patients), staphylococci (19 patients), other gram-positive cocci (seven patients), and Rickettsia conorii (five patients). Thirty-eight patients were given parenteral therapy (ciprofloxacin at a mean daily dose of 200 mg every 12 hours, mean duration of therapy, nine days). Fifty-six patients were also given ciprofloxacin orally after initial intravenous therapy at a dose of either 500 or 750 mg every 12 hours (mean duration of therapy, 36 days). Another antibiotic was given concomitantly in 25 cases (27 percent). The overall clinical response was 93 percent and the bacteriologic response rate was 84 percent. There was no difference between patients treated by intravenous ciprofloxacin and those treated by intravenous ciprofloxacin followed by oral ciprofloxacin. Favorable responses (resolution of improvement) were observed in 39 of 42 patients (93 percent) with bacteremia, 28 of 30 (93 percent) with urinary tract infection, 10 of 13 (77 percent) with respiratory tract infection, 11 of 12 (92 percent) with bone and joint infection, three of three (100 percent) with skin and soft-tissue infection, nine of nine (100 percent) with intra-abdominal infection, three of three (100 percent) with typhoid fever, and two of two (100 percent) with meningitis. All five patients with R. conorii infections had a response to therapy. The adverse effects were minor and transient. Seven patients experienced clinical adverse effects: pain at the injection site (three patients), rash (two patients), and headache (2 patients). Serum transaminase levels were increased in 11 patients. Intravenously administered ciprofloxacin or intravenous ciprofloxacin followed by oral ciprofloxacin is a

  15. Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid and pH on bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, E M; Echols, R M

    1987-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is active in vitro against most bacteria that cause peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effects of pH (5.5 and 7.4) and medium (dialysis fluid) on the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, vancomycin plus rifampin, and rifampin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and three strains of staphylococci. The bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin was not significantly affected by pH or medium, in contrast to the activity of tobr...

  16. Compound list: ciprofloxacin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ciprofloxacin CPX 00050 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/ciprofloxacin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/ciprofloxacin...edbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ciprofloxacin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp:...//ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/ciprofloxacin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidne...y.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/ciprofloxacin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  17. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Amin Harati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has increased in community acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin and hexahydroquino-line derivatives against methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus.Methods: Identification of S. aureus was performed by routine microbiological tests in the Department of Pathobiology in Winter 2012. The susceptibility of S. aureus strains to both methicillin and ciprofloxacin was examined by the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, hexahydroquinoline derivatives and their combination were separately determined by broth microdilution method against methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin decreased in the presence of hexahydroquinolinein derivatives in comparison with ciprofloxacin alone.Conclusion: This study showed that hexahydroquinoline derivatives enhance the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin against methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus. Therefore, these derivatives could be used as inhibitors of antibiotic resistance in combination therapies. This enhancement may be related to the inhibitory effect of hexahydroquinoline derivatives on the expression of antibiotic efflux pump in the bacteria. However, the structural features of a fluoroquinolone that determine whether it is affected by efflux transporters are not fully

  18. Treatment of bone, joint, and soft-tissue infections with oral ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R N; Kennedy, D J; Reilly, P M; Luppen, K L; Weinandt, W J; Bollinger, M R; Aguirre, F; Kodesch, F; Saeed, A M

    1987-02-01

    We treated 52 patients with orally administered ciprofloxacin. In this study of 34 men and 18 women who completed therapy and who could be evaluated, there were 29 patients with nonhematogenous osteomyelitis, 20 patients with skin or soft-tissue infections, and 3 patients with joint infections. During the study, 92 isolates of pathogenic facultative aerobic bacteria, including 37 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 30 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and 21 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, were recovered, and 88 (96%) of the isolates were found to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Of the 29 patients with osteomyelitis, 14 have not experienced relapse after a follow-up of at least 1 year. Overall, 61% of infections were resolved, as judged by both clinical and microbiological criteria, during therapy. One patient developed Streptococcus salivarius sepsis during ciprofloxacin therapy, and one patient developed a rash which required discontinuation of ciprofloxacin. Otherwise, there were no serious reactions or complications. PMID:3566245

  19. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis, Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Smita; Purnapatre, Kedar P.; Kalia, Vandana; Dube, Smita; Nair, Deepti; Deb, Monorama; Aggarwal, Pushpa; Gupta, Sunil; Dilip J. Upadhyay; Rattan, Ashok; RAJ, V. SAMUEL

    2007-01-01

    Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis isolates to ciprofloxacin emerged from an outbreak in Delhi, India. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the meningococcal isolates to ciprofloxacin and further sequencing of DNA gyrase A quinolone-resistance–determining region confirmed the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in the outbreak.

  20. Ciprofloxacin treatment of murine typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, O; Strömberg, A

    1990-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman developed fever, severe headache, myalgia and rash 3 weeks after a visit to Cyprus where she experienced insect bites in her bed. Treatment with ciprofloxacin resulted in a remarkable and rapid effect. Endemic typhus was proved by serology. PMID:2218412

  1. New Synthetic Method of Ciprofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new synthetic method of ciprofloxacin is started with 2,4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone, via oxaly lation, ethoxymethylenation, amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and piperazination. The reaction temperature is moderate and the operation is easily controlled. Additional four new compounds are prepared by the method.

  2. New Synthetic Method of Ciprofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英奇; 戴立言

    2001-01-01

    A new synthetic method of ciprofloxacin is started with 2,4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone, via oxaly-lation, ethoxymethylenation, amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and piperazination. The reaction temperature is moderate and the operation is easily controlled. Additional four new compounds are prepared by the method.

  3. Unwanted effects of ciprofloxacin in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K

    1993-07-01

    The present study was an attempt to evaluate epidemiological profile of adverse reactions of ciprofloxacin and factors influencing them in Indian population. The study was conducted in indoor patients of All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The patients were in the age group of 21-65 years. Gastrointestinal upsets (nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort), headache, dizziness and skin rash were observed. Route of administration influenced the onset of ADRs. Severity of ADRs was proportional to dose. All reactions were reversible and the incidence of ADRs is lower in Indian population as compared to USA(1) but higher than seen in Japanese (2). PMID:8276503

  4. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Munk Petersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. RESULTS: After successful colonization with the IBD associated E. coli strains in mice the introduction of E. coli Nissle did not result in eradication of either IBD associated strains or an E. coli from a healthy control, instead, co-colonization at high levels were obtained. Treatment of mice, precolonized with IBD associated E. coli, with ciprofloxacin for three days alone apparently resulted in effective eradication of tested E. coli. However, treatment of precolonized mice with a combination of ciprofloxacin for 3 days followed by E. coli Nissle surprisingly allowed one IBD associated E. coli to re-colonize the mouse intestine, but at a level 3 logs under E. coli Nissle. A prolonged treatment with ciprofloxacin for 7 days did not change this outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In the mouse model E. coli Nissle can not be used alone to eradicate IBD associated E. coli; rather, 3 days of ciprofloxacin are apparently efficient in eradicating these strains, but surprisingly, after ciprofloxacin treatment (3 or 7 days, the introduction of E. coli Nissle may support re-colonization with IBD associated E. coli.

  5. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated E. coli with Ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2011-01-01

    Background E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intesti...

  6. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi;

    2011-01-01

    E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA......) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine....

  7. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated E. coli with Ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Munk Petersen; Susanne Schjørring; Sarah Choi Gerstrøm; Karen Angeliki Krogfelt

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intest...

  8. Ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in an adult cystic fibrosis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolland, Julia P; Murphy, Bryan P; Boyle, Julie; Hall, Valerie; McKenna, Kevin E; Elborn, J Stuart

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of phototoxicity as a side effect of ciprofloxacin appears to be increased in patients with cystic fibrosis compared to the general population (approximately 2.4%). We used an interview-based questionnaire to determine the incidence of such phototoxic skin reactions in cystic fibrosis patients. Results from 105 respondents revealed the incidence of ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in the adult cystic fibrosis population in Northern Ireland to be 48.4% with only 66% of the patients recalling being given sun care information beforehand. We concluded that the incidence of phototoxicity is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and that it is important for all to receive good sun care information prior to taking ciprofloxacin given the high risk of developing phototoxic rash. PMID:22971191

  9. The epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci in CAPD patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, M S; Talsania, H; McCann, M.; Cookson, B D; Phillips, I

    1992-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was used as empirical therapy for peritonitis in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 26 months, providing an opportunity to study the epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance amongst coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Swabs were collected from the CAPD patients, staff, and clinic environment before, during and after the time this antibiotic was prescribed. Clinical isolates were also studied, and records kept of patient hospital attendanc...

  10. Comparative trial of five antimicrobial compounds in the treatment of cholera in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, W A; Begum, M; Salam, M A; Bardhan, P K; Islam, M R; Mahalanabis, D

    1995-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid and pivmecillinam in the treatment of tetracycline-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 in adults, a randomized, open, clinical trial was conducted. A tetracycline group was used for comparison. Seventy-five adult men infected with V. cholerae O1 were randomly assigned to receive either 400 mg pivmecillinam or 500 mg of one of each of the other drugs. Ciprofloxacin was given every 12 h and the others every 6 h for 3 d. The mean total stool volume per kg was 155 mL for the ciprofloxacin group, 212 mL for the erythromycin and pivmecillinam groups, 246 mL for nalidixic acid, and 293 mL for tetracycline. The difference between ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was significant (P = 0.045). After 72 h, diarrhoea had stopped in 14 patients (93%) in the ciprofloxacin group and 12 (80%) in the erythromycin group, compared to 5 (42%) of those receiving tetracycline (P = 0.006 and 0.049, respectively). Bacteriological clearance was 100% at 24 h in patients treated with ciprofloxacin compared to 20% and 8.3% (P < 0.001 for both comparisons) in the erythromycin and tetracycline groups. Ciprofloxacin in conjunction with appropriate fluid therapy was the most effective treatment for cholera in adults; erythromycin was the next best. PMID:7747291

  11. A case of ciprofloxacin-induced acute polymorphic psychosis with a distinct deficit of the executive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Dr. Oliver; Alm, Dr. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old female patient who developed an acute polymorphic psychosis after treatment with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The patient showed a distinct neuropsychological deficit of the executive function. Comparing the psychopharmacological features of ketamine and ciprofloxacine we hypothesize that ciprofloxacine leads to psychosis similar to a ketamine induced psychosis. Our case report is unique not only because fluorquinolone induced psychosis has a very low ...

  12. Ciprofloxacin@SiO2: Fluorescent nanobubbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M J Rosemary; V Suryanarayanan; P Ganapati Reddy; Ian Maclaren; S Baskaran; T Pradeep

    2003-10-01

    We report a new nanomaterial in which ciprofloxacin molecules are incorporated inside silica nanobubbles, denoted as ciprofloxacin@SiO2. The material has been characterised using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and emission spectroscopy. The material is stable and the freestanding particles can be precipitated and redispersed in several solvents. Confinement of the molecule is complete as leaching through the shell is minimal. The material behaves like free ciprofloxacin in solution; however, effects of confinement are manifested. Energy transfer reaction between ciprofloxacin@SiO2 and Tb3+ was monitored by emission spectroscopy. The emission intensity decreased with metal ion exposure indicating selective electronic interaction.

  13. Bilateral akillesseneruptur efter behandling med ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with...... ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin....

  14. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. ► MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. ► MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. ► MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. ► MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO·) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide–OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on MnOx/MWCNT catalytic ozonation.

  15. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Minghao, E-mail: suiminghao.sui@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing, Sichu; Sheng, Li; Huang, Shuhang; Guo, Hongguang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO{center_dot}) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide-OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on

  16. CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUMATRIPTAN VERSUS ERGOTAMINE THERAPY IN MIGRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Giriraja; Pavitra,; Bindumathi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Migraine is a common neurological problem accounting for large morbidity and disability. Ergotamine and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of severe migraine. To study the clinical comparison between sumatriptan and ergotamine in migraine patients. AIM This study compared the safety efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of triptans verses ergotamine therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study sample included 100 patients of either gender aged 1...

  17. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Daum, T E; Schaberg, D R; Terpenning, M S; Sottile, W S; Kauffman, C A

    1990-01-01

    We demonstrated the marked emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin among Staphylococcus arueus strains isolated at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center. All S. aureus isolates tested from 1984 to 1985 were susceptible, whereas 55.1% of methicillin-resistant and 2.5% of methicillin-susceptible strains from 1989 had high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  18. Adaptive mutations produce resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Riesenfeld, C; Everett, M.; Piddock, L J; Hall, B G

    1997-01-01

    Mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance continually occurred in nondividing Escherichia coli cells during a 7-day exposure to ciprofloxacin in agar, while no accumulation of rifampin resistance mutations was detected in those cells. We propose that the resistance mutations result from adaptive mutations, which preferentially produce phenotypes that promote growth in nondividing cells.

  19. Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    We report the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan from January to May 2004. All isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins carried bla CMY-2, and all ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates were genetically related.

  20. Ciprofloxacin in neonatal Enterobacter cloacae septicaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bannon, M J; Stutchfield, P R; Weindling, A M; Damjanovic, V.

    1989-01-01

    Multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae infection in six premature infants was eradicated with intravenous ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg/day). Bacterial resistance did not develop. Adequate plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were achieved in all treated patients. No clinical evidence of side effects was observed.

  1. Ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are taking antacids containing aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta, Tums, others); didanosine (Videx); calcium, iron, zinc, or vitamin supplements; or sucralfate (Carafate), ...

  2. Theoretical structure and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin: Density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Gao, Hongwei

    2013-02-01

    The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin(1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) have been calculated using the different density functional theory (DFT) methods and various basis sets. This paper examines the comparative performance of different DFT methods at various basis sets in predicting molecular and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin. The calculation results show that SVWN/LANL2DZ level and SVWN/6-31G level offer the highest certainty to predict the structure and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin, respectively.

  3. Ciprofloxacin-Induced Antibacterial Activity Is Atteneuated by Pretreatment with Antioxidant Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Khabour, Omar F; Al-Buhairan, Ahlam M

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin works through interfering with replication and transcription of bacterial DNA, which leads to increased oxidative stress, and death of bacterial cells. Drugs with strong antioxidant such as tempol, melatonin and pentoxifylline might interfere with the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin. In the current study, the effect of these drugs on the cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was investigated against several reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains included Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923). The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin with or without treatment of bacterial cells by tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline was assessed using the disc diffusion method and by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All of the tested bacterial strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. When treated with tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline, all bacterial strains showed significantly smaller zones of inhibition and larger MIC values compared ciprofloxacin alone. In correlation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by ciprofloxacin antibacterial action was diminished by treatment of bacterial cells with tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline. In conclusion, results indicate the possible antagonistic properties for agents with antioxidant properties such as tempol, melatonin and pentoxifylline when they are used concurrently with flouroquinolones. This could be related to the ability of these agents to inhibit oxidative stress in bacterial cells. PMID:27005666

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Injection Therapies in Lateral Epicondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Bartels, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Torkell;

    2012-01-01

    Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available....

  5. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  6. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  7. CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUMATRIPTAN VERSUS ERGOTAMINE THERAPY IN MIGRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Migraine is a common neurological problem accounting for large morbidity and disability. Ergotamine and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of severe migraine. To study the clinical comparison between sumatriptan and ergotamine in migraine patients. AIM This study compared the safety efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of triptans verses ergotamine therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study sample included 100 patients of either gender aged 18 to 65 yrs reporting in Neurology OPD in Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. The study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014. RESULTS Triptans was found to be more efficacious than ergotamine in curing an attack of migraine and its associated symptoms, but looking into the contraindications, side effects and cost of the triptans, there has been limitations in its prescriptions as well as use. CONCLUSION Ergotamine is more effective in sustained pain relief with less recurrence rate, less adverse effects and more economical compared to sumatriptan.

  8. Safety study of Ciprofloxacin in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Thomas; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Zhao, Wei; Guimiot, Fabien; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Durand, Estelle; Ringot, Maud; Gallego, Jorge; Storme, Thomas; Le Guellec, Chantal; Kassaï, Behrouz; Turner, Mark A; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Matrot, Boris

    2016-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent belonging to the fluoroquinolone family, is prescribed off-label in infants less than one year of age. Ciprofloxacin is included in the European Medicines Agency priority list of off-patent medicinal products requiring evaluation in neonates. This evaluation is undergoing within the TINN (Treat Infections in Neonates) FP7 EU project. As part of the TINN project, the present preclinical study was designed to assess the potential adverse effects of Ciprofloxacin on neurodevelopment, liver and joints in mice. Newborn mice received subcutaneous Ciprofloxacin at 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg/day from 2 to 12 postnatal days. Peak plasma levels of Ciprofloxacin were in the range of levels measured in human neonates. We examined vital functions in vivo, including cardiorespiratory parameters and temperature, psychomotor development, exploratory behavior, arthro-, nephro- and hepato-toxic effects. We found no effect of Ciprofloxacin at 10 and 30 mg/kg/day. In contrast, administration at 100 mg/kg/day delayed weight gain, impaired cardiorespiratory and psychomotor development, caused inflammatory infiltrates in the connective tissues surrounding the knee joint, and moderately increased extramedullary hematopoiesis. The present study pleads for careful watching of cardiorespiratory and motor development in neonates treated with Ciprofloxacin, in addition to the standard surveillance of arthrotoxicity. PMID:26627140

  9. Antibiotic combination therapy can select for broad-spectrum multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm; Marvig, Rasmus L.;

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy with several antibiotics is one strategy that has been applied in order to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We compared the de novo evolution of resistance during combination therapy with the β-lactam ceftazidime and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin with the...

  10. Cellular Accumulation and Activity of Quinolones in Ciprofloxacin-Resistant J774 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Michot, Jean-Michel; Heremans, Marie F.; Caceres, Nancy E; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is the substrate for a multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP)-like multidrug transporter in J774 mouse macrophages, which also modestly affects levofloxacin but only marginally affects garenoxacin and moxifloxacin (J.-M. Michot et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:2429-2437, 2005). Two clones of ciprofloxacin-resistant cells were obtained by a stepwise increase in drug concentration (from 34 to 51 to 68 mg/liter) in the culture fluid. Compared to wild-type cells, ciprofl...

  11. Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...

  12. EFFECT OF MANUAL THERAPY VERSUS CONVENTIONAL THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwat Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effectiveness of manual therapy with conventional therapy on pain and disability in patients with plantar fasciitis. Background: There is limited evidence available which support that manual therapy can be used as an intervention in the management of plantar fasciitis. Study Design: experimental study and different subject design Methods: Patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis underwent a standard evaluation and completed a self-report questionnaire including the Foot Function Index (FFI, and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS. 30 patients were randomly divided in two groups, to be treated with either Conventional therapy or Manual therapy approach. Outcomes of treatment were captured on the 1st day and 21st day of the treatment session. Results: The data was analysed using unpaired‘t’ tests. NPRS was mean 6.53 versus 6.80 for pre-treatment in group A and group B respectively; t28=0.50, p=0.62 and mean 2.27 versus 1.00 for post-treatment in group A and group B respectively; t28=2.62, p=0.01 FFI was mean 41.01 versus 42.67 for pre-treatment in group A and group B respectively; t28=0.77, p=0.49 and mean 6.20 versus 4.16 for post-treatment in group A and group B respectively; t28=2.68, p=0.01 Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that manual therapy is a superior approach in improving pain and disability in individuals with plantar fasciitis and can be incorporated in the regular treatment regime of the same.

  13. Strukturelle Charakterisierung eines unbekannten Metaboliten von Ciprofloxacin [Structural characterization of an unknown metabolite of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Kees, Frieder K.; Raasch, W.; Grobecker, H. F.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical structure of an unknown metabolite of ciprofloxacin (CAS 85721-33-1) is characterized by means of reversed phase ion pair liquid chromatography, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, partition coefficients as well as chemical and enzymatic hydrolytic degradation. A chemical structure of the unknown metabolite is proposed: N-formyl-desethylen-ciprofloxacin. It can be formed as an intermediate in the oxidative degradation of ciprofloxacin via oxociprofloxacin to desethylen-cipr...

  14. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas isolates from the ears and skin of dogs to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildermuth, Brett Everett; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Boord, Mona J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare susceptibilities of ear and skin Pseudomonas spp. isolates to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Specimens were obtained from dogs examined in a veterinary dermatology referral hospital. Susceptibilities of ear isolates to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were 46.9%, 66.7%, and 75.0%, respectively. Susceptibilities of skin isolates to the same drugs were 76.2%, 81.0%, and 80.0%, respectively. Ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than to ciprofloxacin (P=0.021), and ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than were skin isolates (P=0.034). When fluoroquinolone resistance was present, ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than to ciprofloxacin (P<0.001) and marbofloxacin (P=0.014). PMID:17975216

  15. Generierung und genotypische Untersuchung eines Ciprofloxacin-resistenten Bacillus cereus Stammes und Entwicklung von real-time-PCR-Schnelltests zum Nachweis von Resistenzen gegen Ciprofloxacin in Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, Anika

    2014-01-01

    Die gebräuchliche Therapie gegen Milzbrand besteht aus der Gabe von Antibiotika. Als Therapie der Wahl gilt hierbei das Fluorochinolon Ciprofloxacin. Resistenzen gegen dieses Antibiotikum wurden bei B. anthracis in vivo noch nicht, in vitro jedoch im Rahmen mehrerer Studien beschrieben. Es existieren herkömmliche Resistenztests, wie der Gradientendiffusions- oder der Mikrodilutionstest, welche bei einer Milzbranderkrankung genutzt werden können. Diese nehmen jedoch aufgrund der kulturellen An...

  16. Physical Therapy to Treat Torn Meniscus Comparable to Surgery for Many Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2013 August 2013 (historical) Physical Therapy to Treat Torn Meniscus Comparable to Surgery for ... to avoid surgery and achieve comparable relief from physical therapy, according to a recent, multisite study funded by ...

  17. Oral ciprofloxacin for treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguti, A; Trevisanello, C; Lobo, I M; Carvalho, M C; Bortoletto, M L; Silva, M L; Brasil Filho, R; Levi, G C; Mendonça, J S

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen adult patients with chronic osteomyelitis were treated with oral ciprofloxacin, 750 mg twice daily. Treatment ranged from 28 to 254 days. Efficacy was considered to be good, based upon clinical resolution observed in 13 patients (76%). Clinical and microbiological failure was observed in 3 patients (18%), and there was one case of reinfection. Tolerance was very satisfactory, since the adverse reactions were mild and transitory; these occurred in 7 patients (41%), being cutaneous rash in 4 patients and diarrhoea in 3 patients. No patient had to discontinue treatment. Thus, oral ciprofloxacin may be useful option for the prolonged treatment of chronic osteomyelitis, provided that it is always associated with surgical debridement. Due to the probable development of ciprofloxacin resistance in the S. aureus multiresistant strain, already observed in two patients in the present investigation, it is suggested that for the treatment of such infections another drug with antistaphylococcal activity should be associated with the ciprofloxacin. PMID:8354592

  18. Evaluation of the Influence of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in the Development of an Old World Screwworm Fly, Chrysomya putoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Filho, Renato Geraldo da Silva; Valéria M. Aguiar-Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chlo...

  19. Randomized double-blind evaluation of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for Mediterranean spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiol, F.; Pallares, R.; Carratala, J; Bolao, F; Ariza, J.; Rufi, G; Viladrich, P F

    1989-01-01

    A study of 43 patients with Mediterranean spotted fever showed that a 2-day course of ciprofloxacin or a 2-day course of doxycycline may be an effective mode of therapy. All patients in both arms of the study were cured; however, doxycycline produced a more rapid defervescence.

  20. Ciprofloxacin oxidation by UV-C activated peroxymonosulfate in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi-Ahmed, Moussa; Chiron, Serge, E-mail: Serge.Chiron@msem.univ-montp2.fr

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • UV/PMS more efficient than UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for ciprofloxacin removal in wastewater. • PMS decomposition into sulfate radical was activated by bicarbonate ions. • CIP degradation pathways elucidation support sulfate radical attacks as a main route. • Sulfate radical generation allows for CIP antibacterial activity elimination. -- Abstract: This work aimed at demonstrating the advantages to use sulfate radical anion for eliminating ciprofloxacin residues from treated domestic wastewater by comparing three UV-254 nm based advanced oxidation processes: UV/persulfate (PDS), UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In distilled water, the order of efficiency was UV/PDS > UV/PMS > UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} while in wastewater, the most efficient process was UV/PMS followed by UV/PDS and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mainly because PMS decomposition into sulfate radical anion was activated by bicarbonate ions. CIP was fully degraded in wastewater at pH 7 in 60 min for a [PMS]/[CIP] molar ratio of 20. Nine transformation products were identified by liquid chromatography–high resolution-mass spectrometry allowing for the establishment of degradation pathways in the UV/PMS system. Sulfate radical anion attacks prompted transformations at the piperazinyl ring through a one electron oxidation mechanism as a major pathway while hydroxyl radical attacks were mainly responsible for quinolone moiety transformations as a minor pathway. Sulfate radical anion generation has made UV/PMS a kinetically effective process in removing ciprofloxacin from wastewater with the elimination of ciprofloxacin antibacterial activity.

  1. Ciprofloxacin oxidation by UV-C activated peroxymonosulfate in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • UV/PMS more efficient than UV/H2O2 for ciprofloxacin removal in wastewater. • PMS decomposition into sulfate radical was activated by bicarbonate ions. • CIP degradation pathways elucidation support sulfate radical attacks as a main route. • Sulfate radical generation allows for CIP antibacterial activity elimination. -- Abstract: This work aimed at demonstrating the advantages to use sulfate radical anion for eliminating ciprofloxacin residues from treated domestic wastewater by comparing three UV-254 nm based advanced oxidation processes: UV/persulfate (PDS), UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and UV/H2O2. In distilled water, the order of efficiency was UV/PDS > UV/PMS > UV/H2O2 while in wastewater, the most efficient process was UV/PMS followed by UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 mainly because PMS decomposition into sulfate radical anion was activated by bicarbonate ions. CIP was fully degraded in wastewater at pH 7 in 60 min for a [PMS]/[CIP] molar ratio of 20. Nine transformation products were identified by liquid chromatography–high resolution-mass spectrometry allowing for the establishment of degradation pathways in the UV/PMS system. Sulfate radical anion attacks prompted transformations at the piperazinyl ring through a one electron oxidation mechanism as a major pathway while hydroxyl radical attacks were mainly responsible for quinolone moiety transformations as a minor pathway. Sulfate radical anion generation has made UV/PMS a kinetically effective process in removing ciprofloxacin from wastewater with the elimination of ciprofloxacin antibacterial activity

  2. Reversible Encephalopathy and Delirium in patients with chronic renalfailure who had received Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe four patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) who developedsignificant neurotoxicity after receiving short-term ciprofloxacin. Three ofthem had developed encephalopathy with myoclonic jerks and one patient haddelirium. All patients had advanced chronic renal failure (mean estimatedcreatinine clearance 16+-6 ml/min), although they were not yet on renalreplacement therapy). The mean received dose of ciprofloxacin was 2150+-1300mg and symptoms started to appear after the first 24 hours of drug intake.Investigations ruled out other possible causes of these neurologicalpresentations and withdrawal of ciprofloxacin was followed by completeresolution, after a mean of 8.5+- 4 days. Advanced renal failure in allpatients and underlying neurologic disease in two patients may havepredisposed them to the neurotoxicity. The report of these cases should helpto draw the attention of clinicians to the potential occurrence of theseadverse effects in patients with CRF. (author)

  3. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadya Gatha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.

  4. Comparative analysis of 60Co intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Lynch, Bart; Men, Chunhua; Aleman, Dionne M.; Dempsey, James F.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we perform a scientific comparative analysis of using 60Co beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In particular, we evaluate the treatment plan quality obtained with (i) 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co IMRT; (ii) different numbers of static multileaf collimator (MLC) delivered 60Co beams and (iii) a helical tomotherapy 60Co beam geometry. We employ a convex fluence map optimization (FMO) model, which allows for the comparison of plan quality between different beam energies and configurations for a given case. A total of 25 clinical patient cases that each contain volumetric CT studies, primary and secondary delineated targets, and contoured structures were studied: 5 head-and-neck (H&N), 5 prostate, 5 central nervous system (CNS), 5 breast and 5 lung cases. The DICOM plan data were anonymized and exported to the University of Florida optimized radiation therapy (UFORT) treatment planning system. The FMO problem was solved for each case for 5-71 equidistant beams as well as a helical geometry for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung cases, and for 3-7 equidistant beams in the upper hemisphere for breast cases, all with 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co dose models. In all cases, 95% of the target volumes received at least the prescribed dose with clinical sparing criteria for critical organs being met for all structures that were not wholly or partially contained within the target volume. Improvements in critical organ sparing were found with an increasing number of equidistant 60Co beams, yet were marginal above 9 beams for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung. Breast cases produced similar plans for 3-7 beams. A helical 60Co beam geometry achieved similar plan quality as static plans with 11 equidistant 60Co beams. Furthermore, 18 MV plans were initially found not to provide the same target coverage as 6 MV and 60Co plans; however, adjusting the trade-offs in the optimization model allowed equivalent target coverage for 18 MV. For plans with comparable target coverage

  5. Evaluation of the influence of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in the development of an Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya putoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 + 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neolarvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α= 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chisquared test (χ(2)). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the postembryonic period. PMID:25373150

  6. Ciprofloxacin : Use and resistance in Community, Nursing Home and Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    van Hees, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to analyze some aspects of ciprofloxacin use and clinical and (molecular) epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance in different settings, both within hospitals (chapter 3,4 and 6), community and nursing homes (chapter 2 and 5). With its broad spectrum against gram negative organisms and favorable pharmacokinetics, ciprofloxacin use has increased over the last two decades, as did resistance against ciprofloxacin. Chapter 2 describes a nation-...

  7. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Upadya Gatha; Ruxana K

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis....

  8. Ciprofloxacin interactions with imipenem and amikacin against multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Giamarellou, H; Petrikkos, G

    1987-01-01

    In vitro interactions of ciprofloxacin with imipenem and amikacin were evaluated by the killing-curve technique against 26 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to amikacin and resistant or moderately susceptible to ciprofloxacin and imipenem. Imipenem enhanced killing by ciprofloxacin in tests with 11 strains, whereas amikacin enhanced killing in tests with only 4 strains.

  9. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin against Leptospira interrogans serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Shalit, I; Barnea, A; Shahar, A

    1989-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin activity against Leptospira interrogans serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae was studied in vitro and in an animal model. The MBC of ciprofloxacin was 0.6 microgram/ml. Three of three Syrian hamsters died 8 to 9 days after intraperitoneal challenge with 10(6) leptospires. In contrast, five of six animals given ciprofloxacin 3 or 5 days after challenge survived.

  10. Dosimetric advantages of proton therapy compared with photon therapy using an adaptive strategy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schoot, Agustinus J A J; de Boer, Peter; Crama, Koen F; Visser, Jorrit; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Rasch, Coen R N; Bel, Arjan

    2016-07-01

    Background Image-guided adaptive proton therapy (IGAPT) can potentially be applied to take into account interfraction motion while limiting organ at risk (OAR) dose in cervical cancer radiation therapy (RT). In this study, the potential dosimetric advantages of IGAPT compared with photon-based image-guided adaptive RT (IGART) were investigated. Material and methods For 13 cervical cancer patients, full and empty bladder planning computed tomography (CT) images and weekly CTs were acquired. Based on both primary clinical target volumes (pCTVs) [i.e. gross tumor volume (GTV), cervix, corpus-uterus and upper part of the vagina] on planning CTs, the pretreatment observed full range primary internal target volume (pITV) was interpolated to derive pITV subranges. Given corresponding ITVs (i.e. pITVs including lymph nodes), patient-specific photon and proton plan libraries were generated. Using all weekly CTs, IGART and IGAPT treatments were simulated by selecting library plans and recalculating the dose. For each recalculated IGART and IGAPT fraction, CTV (i.e. pCTV including lymph nodes) coverage was assessed and differences in fractionated substitutes of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (V15Gy, V30Gy, V45Gy, Dmean, D2cc) for bladder, bowel and rectum were tested for significance (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Also, differences in toxicity-related DVH parameters (rectum V30Gy, bowel V45Gy) were approximated based on accumulated dose distributions. Results In 92% (96%) of all recalculated IGAPT (IGART) fractions adequate CTV coverage (V95% >98%) was obtained. All dose parameters for bladder, bowel and rectum, except the fractionated substitute for rectum V45Gy, were improved using IGAPT. Also, IGAPT reduced the mean dose to bowel, bladder and rectum significantly (p photon-based IGART, IGAPT maintains target coverage while significant dose reductions for the bladder, bowel and rectum can be achieved. PMID:26934821

  11. Predicting the ciprofloxacin-theophylline interaction from single plasma theophylline measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K A; Schwartz, J I; Jauregui, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ciprofloxacin treatment on theophylline clearance was evaluated with a theophylline multiple dose, multiple sample protocol and with a single dose, single sample protocol. The object was to determine whether a single dose, single sample protocol for estimating theophylline clearance could be used as a screening strategy for evaluating host factor influences on theophylline clearance. Ciprofloxacin (750 mg per os) was administered every 12 h for nine doses in the multidose study and every 12 h for seven doses in the single dose protocol. Subjects were sixteen healthy, non-smoking young adult males. The oral clearance of theophylline at steady state, (CL/F)ss, decreased from a mean (+/- s.d.) value of 0.035 (+/- 0.008) 1 h-1 kg-1 to 0.024 (+/- 0.004) 1 h-1 kg-1 during ciprofloxacin treatment. Single sample estimates of theophylline clearance, CL/F, similarly decreased from 0.040 (+/- 0.014) 1 h-1 kg-1 to 0.018 (+/- 0.008) 1 h-1 kg-1. Mean theophylline clearances were significantly different when comparing control with ciprofloxacin treatment means (P less than 0.01), but were not different when comparing single sample vs multiple sample clearances for a given treatment (i.e. control or ciprofloxacin). It is concluded that a single dose, single sample strategy may be used in screening for host-factor influences on theophylline clearance. PMID:3207556

  12. Identification of the Efflux Transporter of the Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in Murine Macrophages: Studies with Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Béatrice; Caceres, Nancy E; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, the most widely used totally synthetic antibiotic, is subject to active efflux mediated by a MRP-like transporter in wild-type murine J774 macrophages. To identify the transporter among the seven potential Mrps, we used cells made resistant to ciprofloxacin obtained by long-term exposure to increasing drug concentrations (these cells show less ciprofloxacin accumulation and provide a protected niche for ciprofloxacin-sensitive intracellular Listeria monocytogenes). In the prese...

  13. Intraventricular ciprofloxacin usage in treatment of multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Karaaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms appear as important nosocomial pathogens which treatment is quite difficult. As sufficient drug levels could not be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid during intravenous antibiotic therapy for central nervous system infections and due to multidrug-resistance treatment alternatives are limited. In this study, four cases of central nervous system infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms who were successfully treated with removal of the devices and intraventricular ciprofloxacin are presented. In conclusion, intraventricular ciprofloxacin can be used for treatment of central nervous system infections if the causative microorganism is sensitive to the drug and no other alternative therapy is available.

  14. Ciprofloxacin oxidation by UV-C activated peroxymonosulfate in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi-Ahmed, M.; Chiron, Serge

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at demonstrating the advantages to use sulfate radical anion for eliminating ciprofloxacin residues from treated domestic wastewater by comparing three UV-254 nm based advanced oxidation processes: UV/persulfate (PDS), UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and UV/H2O2. In distilled water, the order of efficiency was UV/PDS>UV/PMS>UV/H2O2 while in wastewater, the most efficient process was UV/PMS followed by UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 mainly because PMS decomposition into sulfate radical anion wa...

  15. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Ya-Siang; Tsai, Yolin; Jean, Jiin-Shuh [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Krukowski, Keith [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin removal by birnessite was accompanied by interlayer cation exchange. ► Layer expansion and FTIR data suggested ciprofloxacin intercalation into birnessite. ► Adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin into birnessite was limited by surface area. ► Birnessite in soil systems may provide host for ciprofloxacin accumulation. -- Abstract: With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl{sub 3} at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation.

  16. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin removal by birnessite was accompanied by interlayer cation exchange. ► Layer expansion and FTIR data suggested ciprofloxacin intercalation into birnessite. ► Adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin into birnessite was limited by surface area. ► Birnessite in soil systems may provide host for ciprofloxacin accumulation. -- Abstract: With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl3 at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation

  17. Urinary Tract Physiological Conditions Promote Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Low-Level-Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Manuel; Costas, Coloma; Aznar, Javier; Pascual, Álvaro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli isolates carrying chromosomally encoded low-level-quinolone-resistant (LLQR) determinants are frequently found in urinary tract infections (UTIs). LLQR mutations are considered the first step in the evolutionary pathway producing high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Therefore, their evolution and dissemination might influence the outcome of fluoroquinolone treatments of UTI. Previous studies support the notion that low urine pH decreases susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (CIP) in E. coli However, the effect of the urinary tract physiological parameters on the activity of ciprofloxacin against LLQR E. coli strains has received little attention. We have studied the activity of ciprofloxacin under physiological urinary tract conditions against a set of well-characterized isogenic E. coli derivatives carrying the most prevalent chromosomal mutations (ΔmarR, gyrA-S83L, gyrA-D87N, and parC-S80R and some combinations). The results presented here demonstrate that all the LLQR strains studied became resistant to ciprofloxacin (according to CLSI guidelines) under physiological conditions whereas the control strain lacking LLQR mutations did not. Moreover, the survival of some LLQR E. coli variants increased up to 100-fold after challenge with a high concentration of ciprofloxacin under UTI conditions compared to the results seen with Mueller-Hinton broth. These selective conditions could explain the high prevalence of LLQR mutations in E. coli Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that recommended methods for MIC determination produce poor estimations of CIP activity against LLQR E. coli in UTIs. PMID:27139482

  18. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin against experimental infections with Listeria monocytogenes in hydrocortisone-treated mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogtrop, M.L.; Mattie, H; Sekh, B R; Van Strijen, E; van Furth, R

    1992-01-01

    The efficacies of ciprofloxacin and ampicillin against Listeria monocytogenes in an immunosuppressed mouse model of listeriosis were compared. Immunosuppression was achieved by administration of 2.5 mg of hydrocortisone acetate daily. Both ciprofloxacin and ampicillin were effective in reducing the number of viable L. monocytogenes cells in the liver and spleen. After treatment with 100 mg of ampicillin per kg of body weight every 6 h for 3 days, virtually no L. monocytogenes could be recover...

  19. Preparation of ciprofloxacin-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles and their antibacterial effects against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif, Sepideh; Kazempour, Zarah Bahri; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza;

    2011-01-01

    carbonyl group in ciprofloxacin is actively involved in forming chemical - rather than physical - bonds with zinc oxide nanoparticles. Also the antibacterial activity of free zinc oxide nanoparticles and ciprofloxacin-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles have been evaluated against different clinical isolates...... pure ciprofloxacin) considerably enhanced the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (4 to 32 fold increase). The result is of particular value, since it demonstrates that, by using biocompatible zinc oxide...... nanoparticles in combination therapy, lower amounts of antibiotics may be needed...

  20. Concomitant Effect of Ciprofloxacin and Echinacea Counteracting Severity of Radiation Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has investigated the influence of therapeutic treatment with ciprofloxacin CPX (300 mg/Kg body wt) and/ or echinacea (250 mg/Kg body wt) in drinking water on changes induced by fractionated whole body gamma irradiation 12 Gy (2 Gy/week for 6 weeks) in female rats. Irradiation induced significant decrease in total number of bone marrow (BM) cells, percentage of viable marrow cells, WBCs, RBCs, Hb and Hct %, K+ concentration and GSH content while it elevated MDA, N+ and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) compared to the control. CPX alone elevated BM total no and viable cells % and significantly reduced blood parameters and GSH, elevated MDA and AOPP compared to the control. CPX with irradiation significantly elevated BM total number and viable cells % and WBCs, while it reduced N? conc. compared to the irradiated group, normalized K conc. and aggravated irradiation effect on GSH, MDA and AOPP. Echinacea administration alone significantly elevated BM total count and viable cells % above the control. Whereas its administration with irradiation significantly elevated BM and WBCs above the irradiated group, ameliorated blood parameters, normalized K+ and reduced N+ conc., MDA and AOPP compared to the irradiated group. CPX and echinacea treatment accompanied by irradiation ameliorated the blood parameters, normalized K and ameliorated the GSH and AOPP which may suggest potential role in radiation therapy

  1. The radio-labeling of Ciprofloxacin with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even with rapid technological development in the field of diagnostic imaging, the localization of infection continues to pose challenges in day-to-day routine clinical practice. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is a relatively new radiopharmaceutical, which has proven its utility in imaging infection. This paper presents a new method of labeling Ciprofloxacin with Tc-99m using SnCI2.2H20 as reducing agent. The procedure used 2 mg of Ciprofloxacin manufactured by Bayer, 400 μg of SnCI2.2H20 (Sigma Chemical Co.) and 185MBq of Technetium-99m in the form of pertechnetate (Tc-99mO4) in a volume of 300 μl. The labeling was carried out at 100 deg. C for 10 minutes and at ambient temperature for a similar period of time. The solution obtained was filtered using millipore filter of 0.22 μm size. The efficiency of the labeling, verified by ascending chromatography on Whatman No.1 paper was found to be 97.3 % (±1.6), while it was 96.8% (±2.3) using Whatman No.3 paper and 96.6% (± 2.1) using thin-layer chromatography. Chromatography by exclusion chromatography (Bio-Gel P 10) was used for confirmation of the above results. The labeled molecules were eluted first, followed by the molecules of Technetium-99m while the colloids remained attached to the column. The results of the present study are comparable with the results of previous studies reported in literature. (author)

  2. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW alone; (ii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW; (iii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW. Blood samples (1 mL were collected from the marginal ear vein up to 240 minutes postdose. The plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The maximum concentration and oral bioavailability (AUC0-240 min of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased by 49 % and 32 % when administered concomitantly with attapulgite (p < 0.001. Attapulgite appeared to have no significant effect on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin when administered 2 hours before ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was markedly reduced when administered concomitantly with attapulgite. This drug-drug interaction may decrease clinical efficacy and promote microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin. However, the interaction could be minimized by separating the adminsitration of these drugs at least 2 hours.

  3. Specific and ultrasensitive ciprofloxacin detection by responsive photonic crystal sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong; Wang, Yong [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yu, Li-Ping, E-mail: lipingyu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Sensor was designed by integrating complexes into responsive photonic crystal. • Ternary tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes were chosen for sensing. • Excellent sensing of ciprofloxacin was achieved in aqueous media. - Abstract: A new approach for specific and ultrasensitive measurement of ciprofloxacin has been developed by integrating ternary complexes into responsive photonic crystal (RPC). Tryptophan was first immobilized within the polyacrylamide hydrogel substrates of RPC. The determination of ciprofloxacin was via the existence of zinc(II) ions that function as a ‘bridge’ to form specific tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes step by step, which resulted in a stepwise red-shift of the diffraction wavelength. A maximum wavelength shift from 798 to 870 nm for ciprofloxacin was observed when the RPC film was immersed in 10{sup −4} M ciprofloxacin. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Δλ of diffraction peak and logarithm of ciprofloxacin concentration at pH 5.0 in the range of 10{sup −10} to 10{sup −4} M. And the least detectable concentration in present work is about 5 × 10{sup −11} M. The results demonstrated that the as-designed ternary complexes-based RPC sensor exhibited high sensitivity, satisfactory specificity and excellent recoverability for sensing of ciprofloxacin in aqueous media and were validated by detecting ciprofloxacin in the eye-drop sample.

  4. Specific and ultrasensitive ciprofloxacin detection by responsive photonic crystal sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sensor was designed by integrating complexes into responsive photonic crystal. • Ternary tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes were chosen for sensing. • Excellent sensing of ciprofloxacin was achieved in aqueous media. - Abstract: A new approach for specific and ultrasensitive measurement of ciprofloxacin has been developed by integrating ternary complexes into responsive photonic crystal (RPC). Tryptophan was first immobilized within the polyacrylamide hydrogel substrates of RPC. The determination of ciprofloxacin was via the existence of zinc(II) ions that function as a ‘bridge’ to form specific tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes step by step, which resulted in a stepwise red-shift of the diffraction wavelength. A maximum wavelength shift from 798 to 870 nm for ciprofloxacin was observed when the RPC film was immersed in 10−4 M ciprofloxacin. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Δλ of diffraction peak and logarithm of ciprofloxacin concentration at pH 5.0 in the range of 10−10 to 10−4 M. And the least detectable concentration in present work is about 5 × 10−11 M. The results demonstrated that the as-designed ternary complexes-based RPC sensor exhibited high sensitivity, satisfactory specificity and excellent recoverability for sensing of ciprofloxacin in aqueous media and were validated by detecting ciprofloxacin in the eye-drop sample

  5. Treatment of bone, joint, and soft-tissue infections with oral ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, R N; Kennedy, D J; Reilly, P M; Luppen, K L; Weinandt, W J; Bollinger, M R; Aguirre, F.; Kodesch, F; Saeed, A M

    1987-01-01

    We treated 52 patients with orally administered ciprofloxacin. In this study of 34 men and 18 women who completed therapy and who could be evaluated, there were 29 patients with nonhematogenous osteomyelitis, 20 patients with skin or soft-tissue infections, and 3 patients with joint infections. During the study, 92 isolates of pathogenic facultative aerobic bacteria, including 37 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 30 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and 21 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate...

  6. A novel and rapid microbiological assay for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports a simple, fast and sensitive microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO HCl) in ophthalmic solutions. The validation method yielded good results and included excellent linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The bioassay is based on the inhibitory effect of CIPRO HCl upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as the test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r¼0.9994, in the range of 14.0-56.0 mg/mL), precise (intraday RSD%¼2.06;interday RSD%¼2.30) and accurate (recovery ¼ 99.7%). The turbidimetric assay was compared to the UV spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for the same drug. The turbidimetric bioassay described on this paper for determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in ophthalmic solution is an alternative to the physicochemical methods disclosed in the literature and can be used in quality control routine.

  7. Ciprofloxacin induced erythema multiforme: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Narasimhamurthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition that is considered to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers like flavorings and preservatives, such as benzoic acid and cinnamon, immunologic disorders, such as transient selective C4 deficiency of infancy, collagen diseases, vasculitides, sarcoidosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, myeloid metaplasia, and polycythemia, physical or mechanical factors, such as tattooing, radiotherapy, cold, and sunlight, foods, including salmon berries and margarine, malignancy, and hormonal. EM may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. EM minor represents a localized eruption of the skin with minimal or no mucosal involvement. According to a consensus definition, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS was separated from the EM spectrum and added to toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. The two spectra are now divided into the following: (1 EM consisting of erythema minor and major and (2 SJS/TEN. Ciprofloxacin is a second generation fluoroquinolone. Fluoroquinolones are rapidly bactericidal in vitro and are considerably potent against Escherichia coli and various species of Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Campylobacter, and Neisseria. Mainly used in urinary tract infections, prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, gastrointestinal and abdominal infections, respiratory tract infections, bone-joint and soft tissue infections. Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antimicrobial medication used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is on the World Health Organizations list of essential medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Here we report the case of a 39-year-old male patient who presented with EM to the dermatology outpatient department, Adichunchanagiri Hospital and Research Centre. The patient gave a history of taking

  8. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-01-01

    The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after s...

  9. Ciprofloxacin-Induced Tendinopathy of the Gluteal Tendons

    OpenAIRE

    Shimatsu, Kaumakaokalani; Subramaniam, Somasundaram; Sim, Helen; Aronowitz, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy most commonly affects the Achilles tendon; however, involvement of several other tendons has been described. This is a case report of ciprofloxacin-induced tendinopathy of the gluteal tendons with MRI findings. An obese 25-year-old woman with no significant past medical history was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis and was treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Shortly after her first dose of ciprofloxacin, she developed severe left hip pain and decreas...

  10. Effect of ciprofloxacin on mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gollapudi, S V; Prabhala, R H; Thadepalli, H

    1986-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was tested for its inhibitory or stimulatory effects on concanavalin A- and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated proliferation (measured by [3H]thymidine uptake) of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine splenocytes. Ciprofloxacin did not diminish or enhance mononuclear cell proliferation at concentrations of 5 to 125 micrograms/ml. Further, the proliferative response of splenocytes of mice previously treated with ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) was essent...

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy compared with radiation therapy alone in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to assess the outcomes of patients receiving such treatment. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 137 previously untreated and histologically confirmed advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with either radiation therapy only or combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the Seoul National University Hospital between 1984 and 1996. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC Stage III-21, Stage IV-61 in the radiation therapy group (RT group); AJCC Stage III-1, Stage IV-54 in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy group (CT/RT group). The median follow-up for surviving patients was 48 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 71% for the CT/RT group and 59% for the RT group (p = 0.04). The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 63% for the CT/RT group and 52% for the RT group (p = 0.04). Distant metastasis (DM) incidence was significantly lower in the CT/RT group. The 5-year freedom from distant metastasis rates were 84% for the CT/RT group and 66% for the RT group (p 0.01). The incidence of locoregional failures was also lower in the CT/RT group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (69% vs. 56%, p = 0.09) Conclusion: While not providing conclusive evidence, historical evidence from this institution suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improves both overall and the disease-free survival of patients with advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  12. Comparative Study of Cryostripping and Endovenous Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins: Mid-Term Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Hyoung; Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Kwang Taik; Lee, Sung Ho; Son, Ho Sung; Jung, Jae Seung; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Seung Hun

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional stripping is considered to be the standard procedure for great saphenous vein (GSV) varicosities, but many other alternative treatments such as cryostripping, endovenous laser therapy (EVLT), radio-frequency ablation, and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy have been developed. Among them, both cryostripping and laser therapy have been reported to be less traumatic, with lower rates of complications and recurrences when compared to conventional stripping. To compare t...

  13. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrotul Izzah; Veronica Gratia; Toetik Aryani; Suharjono

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) alone; (ii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW); (iii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW). Blood s...

  14. Combined anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy and DMARD therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients reduces inflammatory gene expression in whole blood compared to DMARD therapy alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl K Edwards

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodic assessment of gene expression for diagnosis and monitoring in rheumatoid arthritis (RA may provide a readily available and useful method to detect subclinical disease progression and follow responses to therapy with disease modifying anti-rheumatic agents (DMARDs or anti-TNF-α therapy. We used quantitative real-time PCR to compare peripheral blood gene expression profiles in active ("unstable" RA patients on DMARDs, stable RA patients on DMARDs, and stable RA patients treated with a combination of a DMARD and an anti-TNF-α agent (infliximab or etanercept to healthy human controls. The expression of 48 inflammatory genes were compared between healthy controls (N=122, unstable DMARD patients (N=18, stable DMARD patients (N=26, and stable patients on combination therapy (N=20. Expression of 13 genes was very low or undetectable in all study groups. Compared to healthy controls, patients with unstable RA on DMARDs exhibited increased expression of 25 genes, stable DMARD patients exhibited increased expression of 14 genes and decreased expression of five genes, and combined therapy patients exhibited increased expression of six genes and decreased expression of 10 genes. These findings demonstrate that active RA is associated with increased expression of circulating inflammatory markers whereas increases in inflammatory gene expression are diminished in patients with stable disease on either DMARD or anti-TNF-α therapy. Furthermore, combination DMARD and anti-TNF-α therapy is associated with greater reductions in circulating inflammatory gene expression compared to DMARD therapy alone. These results suggest that assessment of peripheral blood gene expression may prove useful to monitor disease progression and response to therapy.

  15. Comparing the efficacy of combined Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy in reducing dysfunctional attitudes of patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah omidi; Abolfazl Mohammadi; Fatemeh Zargar; Goodarz Akkasheh

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Major depressive disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder having frequent relapse. One of the aspects of the pathology of depression is dysfunctional thoughts and attitudes in individuals. Cognitive - behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most widely used treatment in the active phase of the disorder and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a new treatment in the prevention of recurrence of major depressive disorder. The present study aimed at comparing the eff...

  16. A Randomized Effectiveness Study Comparing Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Therapy as Usual for Youth

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, few trials have been conducted in community clinics, few have used therapy as usual (TAU) as a comparison group, and none have been conducted outside of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT in regular community settings compared with TAU. One hundred fifty-six traumatized youth (M age = 15.1 years, range = 1...

  17. A Pilot Prospective Randomized Control Trial Comparing Exercises Using Videogame Therapy to Standard Physical Therapy: 6 Months Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Ingrid; Painting, Lynda; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Molitor, Fred; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available, interactive videogames that use body movements for interaction are used clinically in burn rehabilitation and have been shown to facilitate functional range of motion (ROM) but their efficacy with burn patients has not yet been proven. The purpose of this pilot randomized control study was to prospectively compare planar and functional ROM, compliance, pain, enjoyment, and exertion in pediatric burn patients receiving two types of rehabilitation therapy. Seventeen school-aged children with 31 affected limbs who demonstrated limited shoulder ROM from burn injury were randomized to receive exercises using either standard therapy ROM activities (ST) or interactive videogame therapy (VGT). Patients received 3 weeks of the designated therapy intervention twice daily. They were then given a corresponding home program of the same type of therapy to perform regularly for 6 months. Standard goniometry and three-dimensional motion analysis during functional tasks were used to assess ROM. Measures were taken at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Pain was measured before and after each treatment session during the 3-week intervention. There was no difference in compliance, enjoyment, or exertion between the groups. Patients in both the ST and VGT groups showed significant improvement in shoulder flexion (P videogames were equally effective as traditional therapy for overall ROM gains and resulted in quicker recovery of motion with less pain experienced. Such videogames are a useful adjunct to therapy and should be considered as part of a holistic approach to rehabilitation within the hospital and at home after discharge in pediatric patients recovering from burn injury. PMID:26335108

  18. Comparative Study of Apo-Cetirizine Single Therapy and Intermittent Sequential Therapy with Cetirizine, Loratadine and Chlorpheniramine in Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi Naini, Ali; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Mazloom, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    There are limited numbers of articles, studying combined use of antihistamines. In this study, we compare single therapy of Apo-Cetirizine with a new regimen of intermittent sequential therapy with cetirizine, loratadine and chlorpheniramine in treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. This randomized clinical trial was performed between April and September at the peak prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Fifty-four eligible patients diagnosed clinically to have seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomized in two groups: 24 cases in single therapy arm, received Apo-Cetirizine 10 mg tablet daily and in other arm, 30 patients received sequential regimen of cetirizine 10 mg tablet, loratadine 10 mg tablet and chlorpheniramine 4 mg tablet, one tablet each day. Major Symptom Complex Score (MSCS) and Total Symptom Complex Score (TSCS) of patients were recorded before treatment and after 30 days of treatment in two groups. The average post-treatment MSCS and TSCS in combination therapy group showed better improvement than single therapy group but difference was not statistically significant (p value = 0.053 and p value = 0.104 respectively). Combination therapy regimen was better in improvement of nasal congestion (p value = 0.006). There were no significant difference between two groups in efficacy, side effects and patient's satisfaction. Combination therapy would be effective on a wide spectrum of symptoms with lower price and theoretically offers lower chance of tolerance and re-appearance of complaints. PMID:27508135

  19. Effect of drying and loading methods on the release behavior of ciprofloxacin from starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aimin; Li, Dong; Liu, Hongzhi; Adhikari, Benu; Wang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Drug loading into and release from starch nanoparticles (StNPs), one kind of novel biological macromolecule, were investigated. Two drying methods (spray and vacuum freeze drying) and drug loading methods (coating and adsorption) were used for evaluation. 40% (w/w) of ciprofloxacin was loaded using coating method while only 7% for adsorption method. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting point temperature (Tmp) of ciprofloxacin loaded starch nanoparticles varied from 40°C to 55°C and 125°C to 175°C. Particles using adsorption method had lower loading rate of ciprofloxacin, higher Tg, Tmp and release rate compared to using coating method. Tg and Tmp were not affected by these two drying methods. Release rate of ciprofloxacin was higher from freeze dried particles than from spray dried particles using coating method. For adsorption method, drying methods had not effect on the release rate. A double decay exponential model was able to fit the release data suitably well with coefficient of determination (R(2))>0.97. PMID:26893049

  20. Effect of induced pyrexia on the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, M Irfan; Arshed, M Javed

    2009-12-01

    Ciprofloxacin was administered intravenously @5 mg/kg body weight to six healthy dogs. After a washout period of two weeks, fever was induced by injecting Escherichia (E) coli endotoxin. Ciprofloxacin was administered again. Blood samples were collected at various time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin with HPLC. The kinetic analysis revealed the volume of distribution in healthy vs. febrile dogs as 2.12 +/- 0.32 vs. 1.79 +/- 0.43 L/Kg, respectively. The elimination half life was 2.23 +/- 0.78 and 2.07 +/- 0.74 hours in healthy and febrile dogs, respectively. Similarly, dogs under healthy and febrile conditions showed comparable total plasma clearance of 0.66 +/- 0.06 and 0.60 +/- 0.07 L/Kg/h, respectively. All these and other investigated kinetic parameters were statistically non significant. This study concludes that the pharmacokinetic behavior of ciprofloxacin is similar under healthy and febrile conditions. Thus, the kinetic studies of fluoroquinolones conducted in normal/healthy animals may be used to depict the pharmacokinetic parameters in diseased animals. PMID:19728130

  1. TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY OF ULTRASOUND THERAPY WITH EXERCISES VERSUS LASER THERAPY WITH EXERCISES IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Somashekhar; Raja; Kanchan Kanti; Ranganath; Yatish; Vivek

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare and measure the effectiveness of Ultrasound therapy with exercises versus Laser therapy with exercises on affected shoulder in reducing pain which can be measured by Visual Analogue Scale in case of SAIS. To compare and measure the effectiveness of Ultrasound therapy with exercises versus Laser therapy with exercises in evaluating the active range of motion using Universal Goniometer. BACKGROUND: Sub acromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) is a painful ...

  2. Comparative study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radon therapy is used radon (222Rn) gas, which mainly emits alpha-rays, and induces a small amount of active oxygen in the body. Because most of the diseases to which the radon therapy as well as the thermal therapy is applied are related to activated oxygen, in this study the effects of the radioactivity of radon and thermal effects were compared under the room or the hot spring condition with the similar chemical component, using as the parameters which are closely involved in the clinical for radon therapy. In the results, the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation function, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produce in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response, and increased the level of CD4, which is the marker of helper T cell, and decreased the level of CD8, which is the common marker of killer T cell and supresser T cell, in the white cell differentiation antigen (CD4/CD8) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that the radon therapy more contributes to the prevention of life style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune depression than thermal therapy. Moreover these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain) and diabetes mellitus brought about more radon therapy than thermal therapy

  3. Acetic and Acrylic Acid Molecular Imprinted Model Silicone Hydrogel Materials for Ciprofloxacin-HCl Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses, as an alternative drug delivery vehicle for the eye compared to eye drops, are desirable due to potential advantages in dosing regimen, bioavailability and patient tolerance/compliance. The challenge has been to engineer and develop these materials to sustain drug delivery to the eye for a long period of time. In this study, model silicone hydrogel materials were created using a molecular imprinting strategy to deliver the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Acetic and acrylic acid were used as the functional monomers, to interact with the ciprofloxacin template to efficiently create recognition cavities within the final polymerized material. Synthesized materials were loaded with 9.06 mM, 0.10 mM and 0.025 mM solutions of ciprofloxacin, and the release of ciprofloxacin into an artificial tear solution was monitored over time. The materials were shown to release for periods varying from 3 to 14 days, dependent on the loading solution, functional monomer concentration and functional monomer:template ratio, with materials with greater monomer:template ratio (8:1 and 16:1 imprinted tending to release for longer periods of time. Materials with a lower monomer:template ratio (4:1 imprinted tended to release comparatively greater amounts of ciprofloxacin into solution, but the release was somewhat shorter. The total amount of drug released from the imprinted materials was sufficient to reach levels relevant to inhibit the growth of common ocular isolates of bacteria. This work is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of molecular imprinting in model silicone hydrogel-type materials.

  4. Ciprofloxacin : Use and resistance in Community, Nursing Home and Hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to analyze some aspects of ciprofloxacin use and clinical and (molecular) epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance in different settings, both within hospitals (chapter 3,4 and 6), community and nursing homes (chapter 2 and 5). With its broad spect

  5. Influence of N substitution on antimycobacterial activity of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Haemers, A; Leysen, D C; Bollaert, W; ZHANG, M.Q.; Pattyn, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin analogs with various substitutions on the piperazine nitrogen were tested against several mycobacteria. In contrast to what has been found with other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, alkyl analogs such as N-isopropylciprofloxacin were shown to be significantly more active than ciprofloxacin. MICs of 0.125 microgram/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found.

  6. Differentiation of Mycobacterium chelonei from M. fortuitum by ciprofloxacin susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. H.; Yates, M D; Uttley, A H

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum were inhibited by 3.0 mg/l ciprofloxacin but 36 strains of M. chelonei were resistant. The results correlated well with those obtained by the nitratase test. The ciprofloxacin sensitivity test is a useful supplement to the tests used to identify these two species.

  7. Lack of ciprofloxacin ototoxicity after repeated ototopical application.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Claes; Govaerts, P J; Van de Heyning, P H; Peeters, S.

    1991-01-01

    The possible side effects of ototopically applied ciprofloxacin on inner ear function were investigated. The hearing function of pigmented guinea pigs was evaluated by daily frequency-specific evoked response audiometry after repeated application of the drug to both ears. Ciprofloxacin appeared to have no statistically significant effect on the hearing thresholds of the experimental animals.

  8. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of ciprofloxacin in a pharmaceutical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Serap Saglik; Demir, Betul

    2010-01-01

    Two kinetic spectrophotometric methods were developed for determination of ciprofloxacin (CIP) in a pharmaceutical preparation. The methods are based on oxidation of CIP with potassium permanganate in alkaline media and measurement of the enhancement in the absorbance of manganate ion at 603 nm by spectrophotometry. The calibration graphs were constructed using the initial rate and fixed time methods. The linearity range for concentrations of CIP was found to be 4.0-20.0 microg/mL. The RSD values for intraday and interday precision were 0.05-0.50 and 0.07-0.63%, respectively. The procedures were applied successfully for determination of CIP in commercial tablets. The results compared well with those from a reference HPLC method. The proposed methods can be recommended for routine analysis of CIP in QC laboratories. PMID:20480897

  9. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Imani; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Banafsheh Gharraee; Alireza Noroozi; Mojtaba Habibi; Sarah Bowen

    2015-01-01

     Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the u...

  10. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance in...... S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  11. Cooperation between prokaryotic (Lde) and eukaryotic (MRP) efflux transporters in J774 macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes: studies with ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismond, Ann; Tulkens, Paul M; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Courvalin, Patrice; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2008-09-01

    Antibiotic efflux is observed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, modulating accumulation and resistance. The present study examines whether eukaryotic and prokaryotic fluoroquinolone transporters can cooperate in the context of an intracellular infection. We have used (i) J774 macrophages (comparing a ciprofloxacin-resistant cell line overexpressing an MRP-like transporter with wild-type cells with basal expression), (ii) Listeria monocytogenes (comparing a clinical isolate [CLIP21369] displaying ciprofloxacin resistance associated with overexpression of the Lde efflux system with a wild-type strain [EGD]), (iii) ciprofloxacin (substrate of both Lde and MRP) and moxifloxacin (nonsubstrate), and (iv) probenecid and reserpine (preferential inhibitors of MRP and Lde, respectively). The ciprofloxacin MICs for EGD were unaffected by reserpine, while those for CLIP21369 were decreased approximately fourfold (and made similar to those of EGD). Neither probenecid nor reserpine affected the moxifloxacin MICs against EGD or CLIP21369. In dose-response studies (0.01x to 100x MIC) in broth, reserpine fully restored the susceptibility of CLIP21369 to ciprofloxacin (no effect on EGD) but did not influence the activity of moxifloxacin. In studies with intracellular bacteria, reserpine, probenecid, and their combination increased the activity of ciprofloxacin in wild-type and ciprofloxacin-resistant macrophages in parallel with an increase in ciprofloxacin accumulation in macrophages for EGD and an increase in accumulation and decrease in MIC (in broth) for CLIP21369. Moxifloxacin accumulation and intracellular activity were consistently not affected by the inhibitors. A bacterial efflux pump may thus actively cooperate with a eukaryotic efflux transporter to reduce the activity of a common substrate (ciprofloxacin) toward an intracellular bacterial target. PMID:18573933

  12. Evaluation of the Influence of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in the Development of an Old World Screwworm Fly, Chrysomya putoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Filho, Renato Geraldo da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/ replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neo-larvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α = 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chi-squared test (χ2). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the post-embryonic period. PMID:25373150

  13. Safety and efficacy of levofloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Chao Zhang; Feng-Shuo Jin; Dong-Ming Liu; Zhou-Jun Shen; Ying-Hao Sun; Ying-Lu Guo

    2012-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone that is usually used to treat chronic bacterial prostatitis.We investigated the safety and efficacy of levofloxacin compared with ciprofloxacin for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in Chinese patients.This was a multicenter,open-label,randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.Four hundred and seventy-one patients with clinical symptoms/signs were enrolled into the study,and 408 patients were microbiologically confirmed chronic bacterial prostatitis,who were randomized to either oral levofloxacin (500 mg q.d.) or ciprofloxacin (500 mg b.i.d.) for 4 weeks.Bacterial clearance rate,clinical symptoms/signs,adverse reactions and disease recurrence were assessed.The clinical symptoms and signs (including dysuria,perineal discomfort or pain) and bacteria cultures in 209 patients treated with levofloxacin and 199 patients treated with ciprofloxacin were similar.The most common bacteria were Escherichia coliand Staphylococcus aureus.One to four weeks after the end of 4 weeks treatment,the bacterial clearance rate (86.06% vs.60.03%; P<O.05) and the clinical efficacy (including clinical cure and clinical improvement(93.30% vs.71.86%; P<O.05)) were significantly higher in the levofioxacin-treated group than in the ciprofloxacin-treated group.The microbiological recurrence rate was significantly lower in the levofloxacin-treated group than in the ciprofloxacin-treated group (4.00% vs.19.25%; P<O.05).Rates of adverse events and treatment-related adverse events were slightly lower in the levofloxacin-treated group than in ciprofloxacin-treated group.Levofloxacin showed some advantages over ciprofloxacin in terms of clinical efficacy and disease recurrence,with a low rate of adverse events,for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in Chinese patients.

  14. Comparison of biological behavior of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) and 99Tcm-HIgG in rabbit models of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin(Infecton) and 99Tcm-HIgG are both radiopharmaceuticals for inflammation and infectious disease imaging. It was reported that 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton)was able to distinguish inflammation from infection, while 99Tcm-HIgG was a nonspecific agent. The study was designed to compare the in vivo characteristics between 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin(Infecton) and 99Tcm-HIgC in rabbit model of inflammation. Methods: Eight rabbits were grouped as inflammation model (the first group), infection mod- el (the second group), concomitant inflammation and infection model (the third group), and control (the fourth group) groups. A total of 185 MBq (0.5 ml) 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) was administered intravenously to each rabbit, a serious dynamic images were acquired till 24 h post-injection. Repeated examination with 99Tcm-HIgG was carried out 2 d later. Results: 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) scan was negative in the inflammation models and controls, and was positive in the infection models. In the third group 99Tcm- ciprofloxacin (Infecton) showed infection focus in the left thigh but negative uptake at inflammation focus in the right thigh. 99Tcm-HIgG scan were positive in all models. The optimal image time for 99Tcm-ciproftoxacin (Infecton) was 3 h after administration, but positive image could still be observed 24 h later. Conclusion 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) appears to specifically accumulate in the infective lesion. (authors)

  15. Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Allison, David Post [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhoea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

  16. The effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin concentrations on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Trevino-Dopatka, Sonia [ORNL; Maggart, Michael J [ORNL; Boisen, Nadia [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Nataro, James [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Allison, David P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

  17. The efficacy of maggot debridement therapy - a review of comparative clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, K.; Jemec, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, maggot debridement therapy (MDT) has been recognized by many clinicians as a potential adjunct to conventional therapy, and many patients with non healing, chronic ulcers have been treated. Numerous case reports and case series have described the successful use of MDT in a...... sericata applied on ulcers with various aetiologies. Of these, seven studies had debridement and/or healing as an outcome variable. When evaluating maggots as debriding agents, the studies report MDT as being significantly more effective than hydrogel or a mixture of conventional therapy modalities......, including hydrocolloid, hydrogel and saline moistened gauze. However, the design of the studies was suboptimal, with important differences in the use of other therapies, such as compression, that may influence both debridement and healing between the compared groups, as well as inappropriately short follow...

  18. Preparation, degradation and in vitro release of ciprofloxacin-eluting ureteral stents for potential antibacterial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Xiao, Yan; Xu, Heng; Lei, Kun; Lang, Meidong

    2016-09-01

    Drug-eluting stents with biodegradable polymers as reservoirs have shown great potential in the application of interventional therapy due to their capability of local drug delivery. Herein, poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) with three different compositions as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate (CIP) was coated on ureteral stents by the dipping method. To simulate a body environment, degradation behavior of PLCL as both the bulk film and the stent coating was evaluated in artificial urine (AU, pH6.20) respectively at 37°C for 120days by tracing their weight/Mn loss, water absorption and surface morphologies. Furthermore, the release profile of the eluting drug CIP on each stent exhibited a three-stage pattern, which was greatly affected by the degradation behavior of PLCL except for the burst stage. Interestingly, the degradation results on both macroscopic and molecular level indicated that the release mechanism at stage I was mainly controlled by chain scission instead of the weight loss or morphological changes of the coatings. While for stage II, the release profile was dominated by erosion resulting from the hydrolysis reaction autocatalyzed by acidic degradation residues. In addition, ciprofloxacin-loaded coatings displayed a significant bacterial resistance against E. coli and S. aureus without obvious cytotoxicity to Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Our results suggested that PLCL copolymers with tunable degradation rate as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate could be used as a promising long-term antibacterial coating for ureteral stents. PMID:27207042

  19. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  20. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin - Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca{sup 2+} as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK{sub a2} (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d{sub 001}) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  1. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca2+ as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pKa2 (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d001) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  2. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Won Sick [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  3. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation on protein damage by ciprofloxacin under ultrasonic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Dong-Jing; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bing-Mi; Kong, Yu-Mei; He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Jun; Xu, Shu-Kun

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, sonodynamic activities of many drugs have attracted more and more attention of researchers. The correlative study will promote the development of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) in anti-tumor treatment. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a protein model to investigate the intensifying effects of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) ultrasonically induced protein damage by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, the conformation of BSA is changed upon the addition of CPFX and metal ions under ultrasound (US) so that the damaging site of BSA is considered. Various influencing factors, such as US irradiation time, metal ions, solution temperature and ionic strength, on the ultrasonically induced BSA damage are discussed. It was showed that CPFX could enhance ultrasonically induced BSA damage. The damage degree of BSA was aggravated with the increasing of US irradiation time, solution temperature, ionic strength as well as the addition of metal ions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in reaction system were detected by oxidation-extraction photometry (OEP). Experimental results also showed that US could activate CPFX to produce ROS, which were mainly determined as superoxide radical anion ( rad O 2-) and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH).

  5. Clinical and chemical interactions between iron preparations and ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, M; Hasinoff, B B; McKay, D. W.; Campbell, N R

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of ferrous sulphate (300 mg), ferrous gluconate (600 mg), and a combination tablet of iron (10 mg), magnesium (100 mg), zinc (15 mg), calcium (162 mg), copper (2 mg), and manganese (5 mg) (Centrum Forte) co-administration on ciprofloxacin bioavailability was tested in eight healthy subjects. 2. Peak serum ciprofloxacin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly reduced when ciprofloxacin was administered with 300 mg ferrous sulphate (3.0 vs 2.0 mg l-1, P le...

  6. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungurarat, A.; Ngamprayad, T.; Dangprasert, M.; Phumkem, S.; Jowanaridhi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated by varying factors which affected this compound. The optimum conditions for preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and a lyophilized kit for Tc-99m labelling were studied. The results from biodistribution study showed that the percentages of the injected dose per gram tissues of infected area at 1 and 3 hours after injection were around 0.25-0.56. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was found sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic. Radiochemical purity was greater than 90% with greater than 6 hours of stability.

  7. Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy compared to optimised general practitioners’ care for depression : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A.H.; Baas, K.D.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lucassen, P.; Bockting, C.L.H.; Wittkampf, K.A.; Huyser, J.; van Weert, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and pro

  8. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  9. Selection of Cross-Resistance following Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates to Ciprofloxacin or Cefepime

    OpenAIRE

    Alyaseen, Samer A.; Piper, Kerryl E.; Mark S. Rouse; James M Steckelberg; Patel, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of ciprofloxacin- and cefepime-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin selected for ciprofloxacin resistance in 26/27 and cefepime nonsusceptibility in 7/27 isolates. Exposure of the isolates to increasing concentrations of cefepime selected for cefepime nonsusceptibility in 20/27 isolates but not for ciprofloxacin resistance.

  10. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, Jillian R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ketonen, Leena [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Jeremy Y. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Weinberg, Jeffrey [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boehling, Nicholas S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khatua, Soumen [Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Adesina, Adekunle [Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem.

  11. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem

  12. Ciprofloxacin concentrations and impact of the colon microflora in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Brismar, B; Edlund, C; Malmborg, A S; Nord, C E

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was given perorally in two doses of 750 mg each with a 12-h interval starting 24 h prior to surgery, 400 mg of ciprofloxacin was given intravenously at the induction of anesthesia, and 400 mg of ciprofloxacin was given 12 h later to 21 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The maximum concentrations in serum (mean value +/- standard deviation, 11.1 +/- 7.8 mg/liter) during surgery were reached 30 min after ciprofloxacin was administered. The ciprofloxacin concentratio...

  13. HIFU Therapy Compared with Other Thermal Ablation Methods in a Perfused Organ Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Jürgen W.; Risse, Frank; Häcker, Axel; Peters, Kristina; Siegler, Peter; Divkovic, Gabriela Wilzbach; Huber, Peter E.

    2007-05-01

    Therapy with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be both safe and clinically practical in a growing number of patient studies for a variety of different target organs. Especially in cancer therapy there are comparable ablation methods like radio frequency (RFA) or laser (LITT) ablation, which are clinically more accepted. In an ongoing study we compare HIFU with RF- and laser ablation under MRI guidance in a perfused organ model. All evaluated techniques were appropriate to induce defined and localized ablation necrosis in the renal cortex. Our HIFU system and the laser system were completely MRI compatible. The tested RF- system showed local needle artefacts and disturbed the MR images during operation. The ablation rate of HIFU using a spot scanning technique was clearly lower compared to the other ablation techniques. However, advanced HIFU scanning methods might overcome this limitation. In addition HIFU is the only complete non-invasive ablation technique.

  14. A comparative study of split versus continuous radiation therapy in patients of carcinoma cervix state IIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study compares the continuous 5-day-a-week regime with split course regime. It was observed that introduction of a rest period of 2-3 weeks after 4000-4400 rads of external radiotherapy has no adverse effect on disease-free survival at 24 months follow-up; patients tolerate the course of radio-therapy better with split course technique. Better local control of disease at 24 months was observed in patients treated by external teletherapy followed by brachy-therapy. More patients could be treated by brachy-therapy after split period in split course regime than in continuous 5-day-a-week regime. (author). 10 refs

  15. Mucoadhesive controlled release ciprofloxacin nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumba, Sujata S.

    Controlled release of drugs to the lungs is an interesting and evolving field of research. The influence of physicochemical properties of nanoparticles on the controlled release of ciprofloxacin and in-vivo pharmacokinetics following pulmonary administration was evaluated. The physicochemical properties had an effect on encapsulation efficiency and surface charge, but no significant effect on particle size. The in-vitro release profiles of ciprofloxacin in phosphate buffered saline showed small differences over the range of physicochemical properties evaluated. The physicochemical properties of ciprofloxacin nanoparticles resulted in variable and unreliable nebulizer output using a vibrating mesh nebulizer whereas the impact on the aerosol properties of a jet nebulizer was negligible. Addition of mucoadhesive polymers in the nanoparticles had a three-fold increase in apparent half-life in rats by releasing ciprofloxacin over an extended release period on the surfaces of the lungs.

  16. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of '9'9'mTc-Ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated in this research. Factors including pH, injected dose and the purity of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin were determined. The optimal labeling condition of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin was found to be at pH 4.0-5.0. In terms of efficiency, the injected dose per gram of infected area was 0.25-0.56, which lasted for the duration of 1-3 h after injection. The radiochemical purity remained >90% with stability for the duration of 6 h. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the preparation of sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin.

  17. Yoga Therapy Research: A Whole-Systems Perspective on Comparative Effectiveness and Patient-Centered Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Jennifer G

    2015-01-01

    For the yoga research community to capitalize on its current momentum, it is critical to consider certain developments in research theory and innovative methodologies. The concept of model validity must be incorporated in yoga therapy research so that explanatory constructs employed and outcome measures chosen reflect the principles of traditional yogic science. Focusing on effectiveness research will ensure maximum generalizability of study results and reflect real-world therapy delivery settings, thereby increasing the relevance of outcomes. Whole systems of healing require research methodologies that address complex relationships between multi-target therapies with multiple potential treatment results. Complex, dynamic systems theory provides the theoretical and methodological innovations necessary to design studies, choose outcomes, and analyze data in a way that can account for charting complex, cyclical, therapeutic trajectories across time. Emphasizing patient-centered outcomes is aligned with the patent-oriented and tailored natured of yoga therapy delivery. Increasing the quality and quantity of comparative effectiveness research to analyze the harms and benefits of contrasting therapies can provide an infrastructure for designing studies that can have significant practical impact. The creation of practice-based research networks within the yoga research community will incentivize links between mainstream clinical researchers and yoga therapy delivery settings, ultimately developing collaborative networks. Yoga therapy centers can facilitate patient recruitment for studies and inform standards for yoga researchers. Collaborative efforts between the yoga and ayurvedic research communities will streamline efforts, solidify expertise, cross-pollinate theoretical and methodological innovation, and consolidate efforts to secure research funding and increase publication and dissemination of study findings. PMID:26667283

  18. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously

  19. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sug; Choi, Jong Tae; Jung, Kyoon Soon; Jung, Seung Hye [Jeil Women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously.

  20. Profile of radiopharmaceutical single vial dried-kit of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (99mTc-ciprofloxacin) is used in nuclear medicine to diagnose infection by imaging method. This radiopharmaceutical is available in the dried-kit which is packed in a single vial and the preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into the dried-kit. The aim of this research was to know the profile of single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceutical of ciprofloxacin. The preparation of the dried-kit using lyophilized method has been carried out. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was determined by double chromatography system using Whatman I/methyl ethyl ketone and ITLC-SG with ethanol - water - ammonia (2:5:1) as a mobile phase. The stability test on 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, in-vitro stability in plasma and the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit were performed by determining their radiochemical purity. Studies on the effect of volume on Na99mTcO4 solution to the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiochemical purity, and sterility test of the dried-kit had also been carried out. The lyophilized process has made the single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceuticals sterile and vacuum. The result showed that 99mTc-ciprofloxacin contained 92.07 ± 1.39% of radiochemical purity, which was stable for 30 minutes either at room temperature (26 ± 1°C ) or at 4 ± 1°C in storage. In-vitro stability test of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in plasma indicated that more than 90% of the radiochemical purity was still stable until 5 hours of storage. Utilization of Na99mTcO4 volume was more than 1.6 mL on the labelling of ciprofloxacin dried-kit gave less than 90 % of radiochemical purity. Studies on the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit showed that the kit remained stable with the radiochemical purity more than 90 % after 17 weeks of storage 4 ± 2°C . (author)

  1. Music therapy internship supervisors and preinternship students: a comparative analysis of questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of professional competency between preinternship music therapy students and internship supervisors. Preinternship music therapy students and internship supervisors were asked to fill out the Internship Concerns Questionnaire (ICQ-ST, student; ICQ-SU, supervisor). Participants (N = 106) included 85 students at 16 AMTA-approved universities (n = 85), and 21 internship supervisors at active AMTA national roster internship sites (n = 21). Twenty items on the ICQ were rated on a Likert-type scale, and 1 item (Part B) asked the participant to indicate any other concerns not addressed in the ICQ. Music therapy interns and supervisors differed significantly in their mean ratings on 2 of the 20 items: "Communicating with facility staff" (p = .025) and "Maintaining client confidence" (p = .016). In both cases the student interns reported a significantly lower mean level of concern about getting assistance in these areas than did their supervisors. The present study suggests that music therapy educators may better prepare music therapy students for a successful internship by evaluating the perceptual gaps in professional training expectations between students and supervisors prior to the internship. Internship supervisors may also benefit from student's own perceptions of their knowledge and skills upon beginning the internship. Ultimately, the student is responsible for being prepared to begin the process from intern to beginning professional at the start of the internship, and to commit to gaining as much as possible from the combination of academic and clinical experiences available to them. PMID:18447574

  2. Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activities of Tc-99m infecton and ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was little evidence that Tc-99m labeled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) located inside of bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of infecton could be an indirect evidence of its location. We compared in vitro antimicrobial ativities of infecton and ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Infecton and ciprofloxacin against three standard strains of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were measured using modified broth macrodilution techniques and pour plate methods, respectively. Data were expressed as mean ±SE (range). MICs of infecton and ciprofloxacin were 1.12 ±0.20 (0.8 ∼ 1.6) μg/ml and 0.36±0.04 (0.2∼0.4) μg/ml for S. aureus, 0.03±0.005 (0.025 ∼0.05) μg/ml and 0.011±0.001 (0.006∼0.012) μg/ml for E. coli, and 0.96±0.16 (0.8 ∼1.6) μg/ml and 0.56±0.098(0.4 ∼0.8) μg/ml for P. aeruginosa, respectively. MBCs of Infecton and ciprofloxacin were 2.56±0.39 (1.6∼3.2 )μg/ml and 0.88 ±0.2 (0.4 ∼1.6) μg/ml for S, aureus, 0.04±0.06(0.025∼0.05) μg/ml and 0.02 ±0.01(0.025∼0.05) μg/ml for E. Coli, and 2.24±0.39 (1.6 ∼ 3.2) μg/ml and 1.44 ±0.16 (0.8 ∼1.6)μg/ml for P. aeruginosa, respectively. Although both MICs and MBCs of infecton were higher than those of ciprofloxacin, all three standard bacterial strains were sensitive to infecton. It could be an indirect evidence that Tc-99m infecton be a specific imaging agent for bacterial infecton

  3. Comparative Activities of Clinafloxacin against Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Activities of clinafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, trovafloxacin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 354 ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -intermediate-resistant organisms were tested by agar dilution. Clinafloxacin yielded the lowest quinolone MICs (≤0.5 μg/ml against ciprofloxacin-susceptible organisms and ≤16.0 μg/ml against ciprofloxacin-intermediate-resistant organisms) compared to those of levofloxaci...

  4. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  5. Influence of induced ciprofloxacin resistance on efflux pump activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qin ZHONG; Shun ZHANG; Hong PAN; Ting CAI

    2013-01-01

    The efflux pump (EP) is one of the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae.However,there are few reports on the effect of the abuse of antibiotic use on the activity of EPs.To determine whether the use of low efficacy antibiotics has any effect on the activity of EPs and induces drug resistance in K.pneumoniae,we investigated the effect of ciprofloxacin on the activity of EPs in K.pneumoniae strains.Methods:Sixteen susceptible K.pneumoniae strains were isolated from patients and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin were measured in the absence and presence of the pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP).The strains were then induced with a gradient of ciprofloxacin until the MICs of the strains showed no further increase,to obtain induced resistant strains.The EP activities of the strains before and after induction were compared using EP inhibition and ethidium bromide (EtBr) accumulation assays.Results:The MIC values of the strains were 16-256 times higher after induction than before induction.In the presence of CCCP,the MIC values of 50% of the induced strains were 2-4-fold lower than that in the absence of this inhibitor.The EtBr accumulation assay showed that the fluorescence of EtBr in the induced cells was lower than that in the cells before induction.Conclusions:EPs are widespread in susceptible and drug-resistant K.pneumoniae strains.Induction with ciprofloxacin may increase the activity of EPs in K.pneumoniae.The EtBr accumulation assay is more sensitive than the EP inhibition assay in evaluating the activity of EPs in K.pneumoniae.

  6. Ciprofloxacin residue and antibiotic-resistant biofilm bacteria in hospital effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Jérôme; Bricheux, Geneviève; Togola, Anne; Bonnet, Jean Louis; Donnadieu-Bernard, Florence; Nakusi, Laurence; Forestier, Christiane; Traore, Ousmane

    2016-07-01

    Discharge of antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria in hospital effluents is supposed to have strong impacts on the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment. This study aimed to characterize the effluents of the Gabriel Montpied teaching hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France, by simultaneously measuring the concentration of ciprofloxacin and of biological indicators resistant to this molecule in biofilms formed in the hospital effluent and by comparing these data to ciprofloxacin consumption and resistant bacterial isolates of the hospital. Determination of the measured environmental concentration of ciprofloxacin by spot sampling and polar organic chemical integrative (POCIS) sampling over 2 weeks, and comparison with predicted environmental concentrations produced a hazard quotient >1, indicating a potential ecotoxicological risk. A negative impact was also observed with whole hospital effluent samples using the Tetrahymena pyriformis biological model. During the same period, biofilms were formed within the hospital effluent, and analysis of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates indicated that Gamma-Proteobacteria were numerous, predominantly Aeromonadaceae (69.56%) and Enterobacteriaceae (22.61%). Among the 115 isolates collected, plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone-resistant genes were detected, with mostly aac(6')-lb-cr and qnrS. In addition, 60% of the isolates were resistant to up to six antibiotics, including molecules mostly used in the hospital (aminosides and third-generation cephalosporins). In parallel, 1247 bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients and resistant to at least one of the fluoroquinolones were collected. Only 5 of the 14 species identified in the effluent biofilm were also found in the clinical isolates, but PFGE typing of the Gram-negative isolates found in both compartments showed there was no clonality among the strains. Altogether, these data confirm the role of hospital loads as sources of pollution for wastewater

  7. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-KanRyu; Seong-MinLee; Do-WhanSeong; Jun-KyuSuh; SungeunKim; WonsickChoe; YeonsookMoon; Soo-HwanPai

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the value of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in the differential diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Methods: The study included 4 normal subjects as the negative controls, 2 patients with acute prostatitis or cystourethritis as the positive controls and 59 patients diagnosed as chronic bacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome by traditional laboratory tests. In every subject, the single photon emission computer-ized tomography images were obtained 3 h after intravenous injection of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. The results of the imaging were compared with those of laboratory tests. Results: On the images, negative uptake was observed in all normal subjects, while strong hot uptake, in the whole prostate of acute prostatitis patients and in the whole urethra of acute cystourethritis patients. In 13 (68 %) of 19 patients categorized as chronic bacterial prostatitis by standard laboratory tests, hot uptake with less intensity than that of acute prostatitis was observed in the prostate area around the prostatic urethra. Negative uptake in the prostate was observed in 6 of 19 patients (32 %) categorized as chronic bacterial prostatitis. Interestingly, hot uptake in the prostate was exhibited in 28 (70 %) of the 40 patients categorized as chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Conclusion: Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging is helpful in the differential diagnosis of prostatitis syndrome. (Asian J Androl 2003 Sep; 5:179-183 )

  8. Improved persistence and adherence to diuretic fixed-dose combination therapy compared to diuretic monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preblick Ronald

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diuretics are recommended as initial treatment for hypertension. Several studies have suggested suboptimal persistence and adherence to thiazide diuretic monotherapy; this study compared patient persistence and adherence with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ monotherapy to fixed-dose combinations containing HCTZ. Methods Patients with at least one prescription claim during 2001 to 2003 for either HCTZ or one of the following fixed-dose combinations: angiotensin-receptor blockers/HCTZ (ARB/HCTZ, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/HCTZ (ACEI/HCTZ, or beta blockers/HCTZ (BB/HCTZ were identified. Patients were required to be continuously benefit-eligible six months pre- and one year post-index date, and to have no prescription claims for any antihypertensive therapy six months prior to the index date. Patients were followed for one year to assess persistence, medication possession ratio (MPR, adherence (MPR >80%, and proportion of days covered (PDC with initial antihypertensive therapy. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for persistence, adherence and PDC, adjusted for age, gender, business segment, RxRisk disease categories, average co-pay and concurrent cardiovascular-related medication utilization. Results The study cohort consisted of 48,212 patients; 72.5% used HCTZ, 13.2% ACEI/HCTZ, 9.3% ARB/HCTZ, and 5.0% BB/HCTZ. Mean age was 53.7 years and 66.5% were female. A significantly lower proportion of patients using HCTZ (29.9% remained persistent with therapy at 12 months compared with ARB/HCTZ (52.6%; OR = 0.37, CI = 0.36, 0.38, ACEI/HCTZ (51.4%; OR = 0.38, CI = 0.37, 0.39, and BB/HCTZ (51.9%; OR = 0.38, 0.37, 0.40. Similarly, PDC was lower for HCTZ patients (32.5% as compared to ARB/HCTZ (53.7%; OR = 0.39, CI = 0.37, 0.40, ACEI/HCTZ (50.9%; OR = 0.42, CI = 0.40, 0.43, and BB/HCTZ (51.3%; OR = 0.44, CI 0.42, 0.45. MPR was also significantly lower for HCTZ patients as compared to those using fixed

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Single versus Combination Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Infections after Transrectal Prostate Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Kaylee; Parlee, Anne; Orlando, Ralph; Lerner, Lori; Strymish, Judith; Gupta, Kalpana

    2015-12-01

    An increase in fluoroquinolone resistance and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate (TRUS) biopsy infections has prompted the need for alternative effective antibiotic prophylaxis. We aimed to compare ciprofloxacin and other single-agent therapies to combination therapy for efficacy and adverse effects. Men who underwent a TRUS biopsy within the VA Boston health care system with documented receipt of prophylactic antibiotics periprocedure were eligible for inclusion. Postprocedure infections within 30 days were ascertained by chart review from electronic records, including any inpatient, outpatient, or urgent-care visits. Among 455 evaluable men over a 3-year period, there were 25 infections (5.49%), with sepsis occurring in 2.4%, urinary tract infections (UTI) in 1.54%, and bacteremia in 0.44% of patients. Escherichia coli was the most common urine (89%) and blood (92%) pathogen, with fluoroquinolone resistance rates of 88% and 91%, respectively. Ciprofloxacin alone was associated with significantly more infections than ciprofloxacin plus an additional agent (P = 0.014). Intramuscular gentamicin alone was also significantly associated with a higher infection rate obtained with all other regimens (P = 0.004). Any single-agent regimen, including ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin, was associated with significantly higher infection rates than any combination regimen (odds ratio [OR], 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47, 10.85; P = 0.004). Diabetes, immunosuppressive condition or medication, hospitalization within the previous year, and UTI within the previous 6 months were not associated with infection risk. Clostridium difficile infections were similar. These findings suggest that ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin alone are inferior to a combination regimen. Institutions with high failure rates of prophylaxis for TRUS biopsies should consider combination regimens derived from their local data. PMID:26369958

  10. A comparison of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, azithromycin and cefixime examined by observational cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, L V; Pearce, G L; Mann, R D

    1996-04-01

    1. The safety in everyday clinical usage of three 4-quinolone antibiotics, (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin), was compared with similar data for azithromycin and cefixime, each agent being examined by Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM) during the early post-marketing period. 2. In PEM the exposure data are derived from general practitioner prescriptions confidentially provided by the Prescription Pricing Authority. Outcome data are provided by questionnaires (green forms) on which the prescribing medical practitioner records event data. When necessary, further information is obtained from a number of sources which include follow-up of all pregnancies and the patients' life-time medical record. 3. The main outcome measures were demographic information, including the patient's date of birth and sex; the indication for prescribing the drug being monitored; the reason for stopping treatment; the start and stop dates of treatment and the events recorded during and after treatment. 4. The final cohort for each of the five antibiotics exceeded 11000 patients. The only event significantly related to the use of all five antibiotics was nausea/vomiting. This was also the most frequent adverse event causing treatment to be discontinued with norfloxacin, ofloxacin and azithromycin (relevant information was not requested in the studies of ciprofloxacin and cefixime). Vaginal candidiasis was significantly more frequently associated with the use of the three 4-quinolones than with azithromycin and cefixime but it was frequently delayed until the week or two after the cessation of therapy. Within each event, as recorded in these studies, the highest event rates (the number of events per 1000 patients) in the week following the start of therapy were: 9.2 for diarrhoea with cefixime; 4.9 for nausea/vomiting with ofloxacin; 2.4 for rash with azithromycin; 2.2 for abdominal pain with norfloxacin; 1.5 for headache/migraine with ofloxacin; 1.4 for malaise/lassitude with

  11. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...... experimental groups were demographically comparable and showed reduced anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared with 51 control patients. The 25 HT patients did not differ significantly in numbers of dropouts during training compared with the 30 GT patients or 68 SD patients. For patients completing...... treatment, HT (n = 22) reduced dental anxiety to the same degree as GT (n = 24) and SD (n = 60). HT and SD patients required more therapist hours per patient than did GT, but total dropouts at 1 yr after specialist treatment were significantly greater in HT (13/ 25) than for SD rehearsals (5/34) or SD video...

  12. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  13. Increasing spectrum in antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh: resistance to azithromycin and ceftriaxone and decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Shoma, Shereen; Rashid, Harunur; El Arifeen, Shams; Baqui, A H; Siddique, A K; Nair, G B; Sack, D A

    2007-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh, during 2001-2002, was studied and compared with that of 1991-1992 to identify the changes in resistance patterns and trends. A significant increase in resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (from 52% to 72%, p or =3 anti-Shigella drugs (multidrug-resistant [MDR]) compared to 52% of 369 strains (p or =32 microg/mL) and had 10-fold higher MIC90 (0.25 microg/mL) to ciprofloxacin than that of nalidixic acid-susceptible strains exhibiting decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, which were detected as ciprofloxacin-susceptible and nalidixic acid-resistant by the disc-diffusion method. These strains were frequently associated with MDR traits. High modal MICs were observed to azithromycin (MIC 6 microg/mL) and nalidixic acid (MIC 128 micdrog/mL) and low to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.023 microg/mL). Conjugative R-plasmids-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was responsible for resistance to ceftriaxone/cefixime. The growing antimicrobial resistance of Shigella is worrying and mandates monitoring of resistance. Pivmecillinam or ciprofloxacin might be considered for treating shigellosis with caution. PMID:17985817

  14. Ciprofloxacin encapsulation into giant unilamellar vesicles: membrane binding and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszás, Nóra; Bozó, Tamás; Budai, Marianna; Gróf, Pál

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating some respects of binding and interaction between water-soluble drugs and liposomal carrier systems depending on their size and lamellarity. As model substance, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPFX) was incorporated into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to study their CPFX encapsulation/binding capacity. To characterize molecular interactions of various CPFX microspecies with lipid bilayer, zeta potential and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements were performed. The increase of the zeta potential at pH 5.4 but no change at pH 7.2 was interpreted in terms of the CPFX microspecies' distribution at the two pH values. EPR observations showed an increased fluidity because of CPFX binding to GUVs. We worked out and applied a three-compartment dialysis model to separately determine the rate of drug diffusion through the liposomal membrane. Equilibrium dialysis showed (a) different permeation of CPFX through the membranes of GUVs and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), with characteristic half-lives of 54.4 and 18.1 h, respectively; and (b) increased retention of CPFX in case of GUVs with released amounts of 70% compared with about 97% in case of MLVs. Our results may provide further details for efficient design of liposomal formulations incorporating water-soluble drugs. PMID:23233199

  15. Detection of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in equine hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnett, Mark; Richardson, Dean W; Lees, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Hair analysis to detect drug administration has not been studied extensively in horses. This study aimed to (a) develop an analytical method for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in mane and tail hair, (b) relate measured values to doses, routes of administration, hair colour, and (c) demonstrate long-term detectability. Samples were extracted in trifluoroacetic acid at 70 degrees C. Extracts were cleaned-up by solid-phase extraction and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection. Analyte recoveries were > 87%. Horses were sampled after therapeutic enrofloxacin administration either orally at 7.5 mg/kg daily for 3-13 days or twice daily for 10-14 days (Group 1, n=7) or intravenously at 5.0 mg/kg daily for 12 and 15 days (Group 2, n=2). Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were detected at concentrations up to 452 and 19 ng/mg, respectively, up to 10 months post-treatment. In vitro, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were extensively bound to melanin (> 96%) and in vivo, their uptake was 40-fold greater in black than white hair. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations correlated to enrofloxacin dose (r2=0.777 and r2=0.769). Enrofloxacin:ciprofloxacin ratios were 21:1 and 13:1 following intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Longitudinal analyte distributions correlated to treatment-sampling interval. PMID:15196904

  16. Clinical studies and antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride medicated dental gels for periodontal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao N

    2009-01-01

    formulation along with scaling and root planning when compared to the other groups. Similarly, the results of GI, BOP, and PD also showed a significant reduction ( P < 0.05 in the groups treated with formulation along with scaling and root planning compared to other groups. The above studies revealed that the adjunctive use of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride gels along with scaling and root planning results in significant benefits, in the treatment of periodontitis.

  17. Comparing Treatment Outcome of Guided Imagery and Music and Psychodynamic Imaginative Trauma Therapy for Women with Complex PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Carola

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the use of recorded music enhances therapy outcome in psychodynamic trauma therapy for women with Complex PTSD, outcome measures of three groups of patients were compared. One group received 50 hours of outpatient trauma therapy with the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and...... Music (GIM), another group received 50 hours of outpatient trauma therapy with Psychodynamic Imaginative Trauma Therapy (PITT). The third group was a waiting-list control group of women who had to wait at least nine months for therapy. The participants filled out questionnaires measuring symptoms of....... Participants treated with GIM showed significantly better outcome in all measurements than participants treated with PITT. This indicates that the use of music is beneficial for women with Complex PTSD treated with psychodynamic trauma therapy....

  18. Fluoroquinolone–macrolide combination therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis: retrospective analysis of pathogen eradication rates, inflammatory findings and sexual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Magri, Vittorio; Montanari, Emanuele; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Marras, Emanuela; Restelli, Antonella; Naber, Kurt G.; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the safety and efficacy of fluoroquinolone–macrolide combination therapy in category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). The aim of this study is to retrospectively compare the microbiological and clinical findings of two treatment schemes for CBP based on the combination of azithromycin (500 mg, thrice-weekly) with a once-daily 500- or 750-mg dose of ciprofloxacin (Cipro-500 or Cipro-750 cohort, respectively). Combined administration of azithromycin (1500 mg we...

  19. Efficacy of exclusive nutritional therapy in pediatric Crohn?s disease comparing fractionated oral versus continuous enteral feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Amandine; Pigneur, Benedicte; Garnier-Lengliné, Helene; Talbotec, Cecile; Schmitz, Jacques; Canioni, Danielle; Goulet, Olivier; Ruemmele, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nutritional therapy has an established role as induction therapy in paediatric Crohn?s disease (CD). However, compliance is the main difficulty and may be greatly influenced by the administration route. Aim: To analyse efficiency of exclusive nutrition to induce remission in children with CD comparing fractionated oral versus continuous enteral feeding. Methods: The medical records of 106 patients treated by exclusive nutritional therapy (Modulen IBD?) b...

  20. Comparison of Infection and Urosepsis Rates of Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone Prophylaxis before Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective and Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Demirtas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the choice and administration duration of ideal antibiotic prophylaxis before percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL operation, a treatment modality for nephrolithiasis. The study included 90 patients who had no internal problem, yet had a negative urine culture and underwent a PNL operation. We compared infection rates between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone groups and their subgroups. The results showed no statistical difference between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone groups in terms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS (CIPP=0.306, CTX P=0.334. As a result of this study no statistical difference was observed between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone in terms of SIRS. It seems, however, reasonable to choose ceftriaxone, considering antibiotic sensitivity of microorganisms and detection of three cases accepted as urosepsis in the ciprofloxacin group. As there is no difference between short, and long-term prophylactic use of these antibiotics, preference of short-term prophylaxis for patients with no risk of infection will be important to avoid inappropriate antibiotic usage.

  1. Oral ciprofloxacin in the treatment of serious soft tissue and bone infections. Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, D E; Cumbo, T J; Kuritzky, P; DeVito, J M; Schentag, J J

    1987-04-27

    Forty-eight patients were enrolled in a clinical study of oral ciprofloxacin for the treatment of soft tissue or bone infections. Patients received 500 to 750 mg of ciprofloxacin every 12 hours. In the predominantly older population studied, there were 13 patients with osteomyelitis, 24 diabetic patients with soft tissue infection and probable osteomyelitis, and 11 patients with other soft tissue infections. Infecting pathogens included Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 25 patients, Serratia species in nine patients, Staphylococcus aureus in 13 patients, and other aerobic gram-negative rods in 21 patients. Clinical response (defined as resolution or improvement) was noted in 84 percent of patients with non-diabetic osteomyelitis, in 79 percent of patients with diabetic infections, and in 91 percent of patients with soft tissue infections. Microbiologic outcome was very favorable in 75 percent of cases, and Pseudomonas responded as well as any other pathogen. Pharmacokinetic properties of ciprofloxacin were evaluated in 12 patients, and the data were analyzed using both compartmental and non-compartmental analyses. Mean values for compartmental rate constants (hours-1) were as follows: absorption rate constant = 1.15; intercompartmental rate constants, k12 = 0.48, and k21 = 0.58; elimination rate constant = 0.46; distribution rate constant = 1.31; and terminal elimination rate constant = 0.19. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state/bioavailability was 196 liters and total body clearance/bioavailability was 45.9 liters/hour. The mean time to peak concentration was 1.3 hours. The mean peak concentration as determined by compartmental fitting (2.4 micrograms/ml) underestimated the observed peak (3.2 micrograms/ml) by 24.8 percent. Clearance of ciprofloxacin was similar regardless of the method used to fit the data, whereas the volume of distribution was significantly different when the two analysis techniques were compared. Ciprofloxacin was well tolerated, with

  2. Topical vs Combination Ciprofloxacin in the Management of Discharging Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Renukananda, G.S.; U P, Santosh; George, Nitha Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the microbial flora and determine the efficacy of topical ciprofloxacin ear drops in comparison with combination of topical and oral ciprofloxacin as first line management in patients diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media.

  3. Effect of renal function on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisance, K I; Drusano, G. L.; Forrest, A.; Weir, M R; Standiford, H C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of renal function on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was studied in 21 subjects with measured creatinine clearances ranging from 0 to 8.99 liters/h per 1.73 m2. Each subject received ciprofloxacin, 200 mg intravenously and 750 mg orally, separated by at least 1 week. Serial (12 to 15) blood samples were obtained over 24 to 48 h. Concentrations in serum were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Area under the curve was calculated by the trapezoidal rule with extrapol...

  4. Fatal case of ciprofloxacin-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh D. Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a very commonly used antibiotic. Mild to moderate gastrointestinal side effects commonly reported whereas serious reactions such as Steven and ndash;Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are very rare. We report the fatal case of 25 years female who had TEN after ingestion of tablet ciprofloxacin. This case report highlights the need to be critically aware of this rare, but life-threatening side effect of this commonly prescribed antibiotic. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1090-1092

  5. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin in acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media: A randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To compare the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media (AECSOM. Materials and Methods : Adult patients diagnosed with AECSOM were screened and patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive either cefpodoxime 200 mg twice daily or ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily orally for 7 days. The primary outcome of this randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial (Registration Number - CTRI/2011/10/002079 was clinical success rate at day 14 visit and the secondary outcome was incidence of adverse events (AEs. Forty-six patients were enrolled: 23 in the cefpodoxime group and 23 in the ciprofloxacin group. Results : The clinical success rates were 95.6% in the cefpodoxime group versus 90.9% in the ciprofloxacin group. These rates are comparable, but no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Few mild and self-limiting AEs were observed and the tolerability of both the drugs was also good. Conclusion : The results of this randomized, open-labeled phase IV clinical trial showed that a 7-day course of cefpodoxime is therapeutically comparable to ciprofloxacin in terms of both clinical effectiveness and safety for the treatment of patients with AECSOM.

  6. In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudin, J E; Norden, C W; Shinners, E M

    1984-01-01

    For 177 gram-negative isolates, the MICs for ciprofloxacin ranged from 0.02 microgram/ml (Escherichia coli) to 0.31 microgram/ml (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In time-kill curves, ciprofloxacin at 8 X the MIC almost completely killed 10(6) CFU of P. aeruginosa by 24 h. Ciprofloxacin at 4 X the MIC allowed bacterial regrowth by 24 h, with development of partial resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  7. Prevalence and role of efflux pump activity in ciprofloxacin resistance in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Aathithan, S.; French, G L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the prevalence and role of efflux pump activity and possible drug influx resistance in ciprofloxacin susceptibility amongst 26 distinct clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae of varying ciprofloxacin susceptibilities and known quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) genotypes. Cellular [14C]ciprofloxacin accumulation patterns and the amount of cell-associated [14C]ciprofloxacin of mid-logarithmic phase cells were determined before and after chall...

  8. Enhanced elimination of ciprofloxacin after multiple-dose administration of rifampin to rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Barriere, S L; Kaatz, G W; Seo, S M

    1989-01-01

    The combination of ciprofloxacin and rifampin is potentially useful for the treatment of selected infections. However, rifampin may induce the metabolism of ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was given in single doses to healthy rabbits before and after six daily doses of intramuscular rifampin. Total clearance of ciprofloxacin increased from 0.96 +/- 0.32 (standard deviation) to 1.57 +/- 0.63 liters/h per kg (P less than 0.05). This change in elimination is potentially significant for the outcome ...

  9. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Imani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU.Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy and control groups (the Usual Treatment.The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program.  Methods:The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results:The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion:The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders.

  10. Combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke: a comparative study with simple intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, safety and risk of combined intravenous and local intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy (IV + IA) for ischemic stroke and to compare the results with those obtained by simple intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy (IA). Methods: A total of 46 consecutive patients with ischemic strokes, who were suitable candidates for thrombolytic therapy, were randomly divided into (IV + IA) group (n=24) and IA group (n=22). After the treatment, the arterial recanalization rates, the early clinical improvement, the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, the favourable outcome rate and the mortality were evaluated, and the results were compared between the two groups. Results: The average interval between the onset of symptoms and the start of thrombolytic therapy in (IV + IA) group was 255 minutes, which was remarkably lower than that in IA group (310 minutes) with P=0.012. After the thrombolytic therapy, the arterial recanalization rate for (IV + IA) group and IA group was 54.1% and 40.9% respectively (P=0.226). The occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage for (IV + IA) group and IA group was 16.7% and 22.7% respectively (P=0.361). There months after the treatment the favourable outcome rate (modified Rankin Scale, 0 to 2) of (IV + IA) group was 54.2%, which was higher than that of IA group (36.4%), and the mortality in (IV + IA) group and IA group was 8.3% and 9.1% (P=0.927) respectively. No statistically significant difference in recanalization rate and mortality existed between the two groups. Conclusion: This pilot indicates that both (IV + IA) thrombolytic therapy and simple IA thrombolytic therapy are clinically feasible and safe in treating acute ischemic stroke. Compared to simple IA thrombolytic therapy, (IV + IA) thrombolytic therapy is more effective with rather minimal risks. The conclusion of this study needs to be further proved by double-blind and controlled studies with large sample. (authors)

  11. The TOPSHOCK study: Effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy compared to focused shockwave therapy for treating patellar tendinopath - design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diercks Ron L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patellar tendinopathy is a chronic overuse injury of the patellar tendon that is especially prevalent in people who are involved in jumping activities. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy is a relatively new treatment modality for tendinopathies. It seems to be a safe and promising part of the rehabilitation program for patellar tendinopathy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy originally used focused shockwaves. Several years ago a new kind of shockwave therapy was introduced: radial shockwave therapy. Studies that investigate the effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy as treatment for patellar tendinopathy are scarce. Therefore the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy as treatments for patellar tendinopathy. Methods/design The TOPSHOCK study (Tendinopathy Of Patella SHOCKwave is a two-armed randomised controlled trial in which the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy are directly compared. Outcome assessors and patients are blinded as to which treatment is given. Patients undergo three sessions of either focused shockwave therapy or radial shockwave therapy at 1-week intervals, both in combination with eccentric decline squat training. Follow-up measurements are scheduled just before treatments 2 and 3, and 1, 4, 7 and 12 weeks after the final treatment. The main outcome measure is the Dutch VISA-P questionnaire, which asks for pain, function and sports participation in subjects with patellar tendinopathy. Secondary outcome measures are pain determined with a VAS during ADL, sports and decline squats, rating of subjective improvement and overall satisfaction with the treatment. Patients will also record their sports activities, pain during and after these activities, and concurrent medical treatment on a weekly basis in a web-based diary. Results will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion

  12. Effect of ciprofloxacin on carrier rate of Neisseria meningitidis in army recruits in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Renkonen, O V; Sivonen, A; Visakorpi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in eradicating pharyngeal colonization of Neisseria meningitidis was studied among army recruits in Finland. Ciprofloxacin (250 mg) or placebo was given twice a day for 2 days to 118 meningococcal carriers. Meningococcal carriage was eradicated in 96% of subjects given ciprofloxacin and in 13% of those given placebos.

  13. Outer membrane alterations in multiresistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa selected by ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Legakis, N. J.; Tzouvelekis, L. S.; Makris, A; Kotsifaki, H

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneous mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa selected by ciprofloxacin were studied for outer membrane alterations. Acquisition of ciprofloxacin resistance was at least partially related to defects in lipopolysaccharide synthesis. When ciprofloxacin resistance was combined with resistance to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, several alterations in outer membrane proteins were noted.

  14. Influence of Renal Failure on Intestinal Clearance of Ciprofloxacin in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dautrey, Sophie; Rabbaa, Lydia; Laouari, Denise; Lacour, Bernard; Carbon, Claude; Farinotti, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Following intravenous doses, ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in control and nephrectomized rats were studied. There were no differences between control and nephrectomized rats for area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or biliary clearance. The intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin was increased in nephrectomized rats. Intestinal elimination seems to compensate partially for the decrease in urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in nephrectomized rats.

  15. Patterns of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Colonization in Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Dommeti, Parimala; WANG, Linda; Flannery, Erika L; Symons, Kathleen; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of colonization with all gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB among nursing home residents with and without indwelling devices. We found that device presence increases the risk of colonization with all GNB and with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB. Colonization with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB increases with decreasing functional status.

  16. A pilot study of myofascial release therapy compared to Swedish massage in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptan, Ginevra; Mist, Scott; Wright, Cheryl; Arzt, Anna; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread muscle pain and soft tissue tenderness. However, a lack of definitive muscle pathology has made FM both a diagnostic and a treatment puzzle. Much of the evidence for pathology in FM lies in the central nervous system - in particular abnormal amplification of pain signals in the spinal cord - a manifestation of central sensitization. An emerging body of evidence posits that peripheral pain generated from the muscles and fascia may trigger and maintain central sensitization in FM. Since FM patients so frequently seek manual therapy to relieve muscle symptoms, the present study compared two different manual therapy techniques in a parallel study of women with FM. Eight subjects received myofascial release (MFR) while four subjects received Swedish massage, 90 min weekly for four weeks. Overall symptom burden and physical function were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQ-R). A unique challenge for the manual therapist in treating conditions involving central sensitization is to determine if localized pain reduction can be achieved with targeted therapy in the context of ongoing widespread pain. Localized pain improvement was measured by a novel questionnaire developed for this study, the modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Between-group differences in FIQ-R did not reach statistical significance, but the total change scores on FIQ-R for the MFR group (mean = 10.14, SD = 16.2) trended in the hypothesized and positive direction compared to the Swedish massage group (mean = 0.33, SD = 4.93) yielding a positive Aikin separation test. Although overall modified NMQ scores improved in both groups there were no consistent focal areas of improvement for the Swedish massage group. In contrast, the MFR group reported consistent pain reductions in the neck and upper back regions on the NMQ. These data support the need for larger randomized controlled trials of MFR versus other

  17. Comparing the Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy with Prolonged Exposure Therapy on the Trauma impact symptoms in Veterans Suffering from Chronic PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    A Maredpour; F. Naderi; M Mehrabizadeh-Honarmand

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Post-traumatic stress disorder is considered as set of symptoms developed afterward an individual witness, hear or involved. The current research was purposed to compare the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy with prolonged exposure therapy on the trauma impact symptoms in veterans suffering from chronic PTSD. Methods: in this clinical trail research randomly sampled 48 veterans diagnosed with PTSD who had psychiatric rec...

  18. Cognitive Mediators of Treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder: Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Niles, AN; Burklund, LJ; Arch, JJ; Lieberman, MD; Saxbe, D; Craske, MG

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between session-by-session mediators and treatment outcomes in traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for social anxiety disorder. Method: Session-by-session changes in negative cognitions (a theorized mediator of CBT) and experiential avoidance (a theorized mediator of ACT) were assessed in 50 adult outpatients randomized to CBT (n = 25) or ACT (n = 25) for DSM-IV social anxiety disorder. Results: Multi...

  19. Scintillography utility with ciprofloxacin-Tc99m in the diagnosis of infection focus; our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our goal is to evaluate the performance of the Ciprofloxacin-Tc99m Scintigraphy in the detection of infection sites in bones, joints and soft tissues. Material and Methods: We analyze 60 exams of Ciprofloxacin-Tc99m from 8-12-2001 to 16-04-2004 in our institution. 10 patients were discarded owing to lack of clinical data or bacteriologic confirmation. The 50 patients evaluated were divided in: 32 hips, 7 knees, 2 femur, 1 leg, 3 feet, 3 spines, and 2 soft tissues. We used a planar gamma camera (technicare omega 500) and a SPECT gamma camera (elscint spx-2) All the percentages concerning sensibility and specificity were obtained including only those patients with absolute confirmation. Results: From the 50 patients, 30 were diagnosed as positives for infection; 27 corresponding to true positives and 3 to false positives (2 knees and 1 foot), sensibility 84.4%; 20 were diagnosed negatives for infection, 15 corresponding to true negatives and 5 to false negatives (4 hips and 1 spine); specificity 83%. All the exams were evaluated separately by two specialists in Nuclear Medicine; and then discussed until reaching a consensus. Conclusions: Our study shows a good sensibility for diagnosing a great variety of bacterial infectious processes. We achieved a fast localization of the infection site in order to determine the surgical option or the drainage of the abscess; and also in the clinical aspect of the treatment, monitoring the response and the lapse of the antibiotic therapy. (author)

  20. Ultrasound aspects in therapy-naive CIDP compared to long-term treated CIDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexander; Vittore, Debora; Schubert, Victoria; Rasenack, Maria; Décard, Bernhard F; Heiling, Bianka; Hammer, Nadin; Axer, Hubertus

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the use of nerve ultrasound (NUS) along with the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines and clinical scores in untreated, recently diagnosed chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) vs. long-lasting treated CIDP. NUS and nerve conduction studies (NCS) of predefined nerves/cervical roots were performed in CIDP on diagnostic onset and "chronic-CIDP" (diagnosis and therapy >6 months), compared to controls. Nerve morphology was quantified using the modified ultrasound pattern sum score mUPSS, which is the sum of 3 ultrasound scores derived at 12 predefined measurement points and the homogeneity score (HS) in ulnar, median, and tibial nerve. 21 onset-CIDP, 21 "chronic-CIDP", and 21 age-matched controls were included. No differences in clinical scores or in the number of electrophysiologically affected nerves existed between the groups. Significantly enlarged cross-sectional areas of the nerves and diameters of the roots ensued already in onset-CIDP; however, with proximal predominance, whilst in chronic-CIDP, nerve enlargement was more prominent and ubiquitous. Increased UPS scores were shown in both patient groups compared to the controls. Significant differences between the patient groups were found particularly in the peripheral nerve score UPSA. Evaluation by means of HS revealed that the nerves in onset-CIDP were mostly regionally enlarged (often sparing distal segments) whereas in chronic-CIDP, nerves were more generalized enlarged. Onset- and chronic-CIDP show enlarged nerves and therefore increased mUPSS, however, nerve enlargement shows a more generalized pattern in chronic-CIDP compared to disease onset and correlates with disease duration and delayed therapy start, but not with disability. PMID:27017343

  1. Ureolytic Biomineralization Reduces Proteus mirabilis Biofilm Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobao; Lu, Nanxi; Brady, Hannah R; Packman, Aaron I

    2016-05-01

    Ureolytic biomineralization induced by urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis, is responsible for the formation of urinary tract calculi and the encrustation of indwelling urinary catheters. Such microbial biofilms are challenging to eradicate and contribute to the persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, but the mechanisms responsible for this recalcitrance remain obscure. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of wild-type (ure+) and urease-negative (ure-) P. mirabilis biofilms to killing by ciprofloxacin. Ure+ biofilms produced fine biomineral precipitates that were homogeneously distributed within the biofilm biomass in artificial urine, while ure- biofilms did not produce biomineral deposits under identical growth conditions. Following exposure to ciprofloxacin, ure+ biofilms showed greater survival (less killing) than ure- biofilms, indicating that biomineralization protected biofilm-resident cells against the antimicrobial. To evaluate the mechanism responsible for this recalcitrance, we observed and quantified the transport of Cy5-conjugated ciprofloxacin into the biofilm by video confocal microscopy. These observations revealed that the reduced susceptibility of ure+ biofilms resulted from hindered delivery of ciprofloxacin into biomineralized regions of the biofilm. Further, biomineralization enhanced retention of viable cells on the surface following antimicrobial exposure. These findings together show that ureolytic biomineralization induced by P. mirabilis metabolism strongly regulates antimicrobial susceptibility by reducing internal solute transport and increasing biofilm stability. PMID:26953206

  2. Selective ciprofloxacin antibiotic detection by fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Madhuri K; Tayade, Kundan C; Sahoo, Suban K; Mahulikar, Pramod P; Kuwar, Anil S; Chaudhari, Bhushan L

    2016-07-15

    Fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin (PVD) was produced from a soil isolate Pseudomonas monteilii strain MKP 213. The PVD was purified near to homogeneity and applied for the fluorescent chemosensing of various antibiotics in aqueous solution (pH=7.0). Upon addition of ciprofloxacin, PVD showed new UV-vis absorption bands at 252 and 321nm due to an internal charge transfer mechanism. Also, the addition of ciprofloxacin induced a highly selective fluorescence enhancement of PVD with a 13nm blue shift from 458 to 445nm. The combination of a long peptide chain along with the chromophore unit of PVD generates a converging cleft for ciprofloxacin recognition with LOD and LOQ of 7.13μM and 21.6μM, respectively without interference from other studied antibiotics. The association constant (Ka) of PVD with ciprofloxacin was calculated to be as low as 1.40×10(5)M(-1) using Benesi-Hildebrand plot depicting its significance in detection. The pharmaceutical tablet analysis measures the sensing with negligible matrix effect and quantitative recovery. PMID:26971273

  3. Comparing the efficacy of photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy in non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Conor; Nesbitt, Heather; Nicholas, Dean; Kavanagh, Oisin N; McKenna, Kevin; Loan, Philip; Jack, Iain G; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F

    2016-07-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) involves the activation of a non-toxic sensitiser drug using low-intensity ultrasound to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Given the low tissue attenuation of ultrasound, SDT provides a significant benefit over the more established photodynamic therapy (PDT) as it enables activation of sensitisers at a greater depth within human tissue. In this manuscript, we compare the efficacy of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT and SDT in a squamous cell carcinoma (A431) cell line as well as the ability of these treatments to reduce the size of A431 ectopic tumours in mice. Similarly, the relative cytotoxic ability of Rose Bengal mediated PDT and SDT was investigated in a B16-melanoma cell line and also in a B16 ectopic tumour model. The results reveal no statistically significant difference in efficacy between ALA mediated PDT or SDT in the non-melanoma model while Rose Bengal mediated SDT was significantly more efficacious than PDT in the melanoma model. This difference in efficacy was, at least in part, attributed to the dark pigmentation of the melanoma cells that effectively filtered the excitation light preventing it from activating the sensitiser while the use of ultrasound circumvented this problem. These results suggest SDT may provide a better outcome than PDT when treating highly pigmented cancerous skin lesions. PMID:27234890

  4. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant drug influence on a radio therapy efficiency and oxidative status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Siprov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is a comparative analysis of the effect of melatonin (Melaxen and 3-hydroxypyridine (Mexidol on antitumor and antimetastatic influence of chemoradiotherapy and oxidative status at mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. Material — Experiments have been organized on 95 mice of C57Bl/6 line and of 20–22 g in weight. Cyclophosphan has been abdominally administered two times in a dosage of 60 mg/kg within the interval of 120 hours — 20-30 min before radiotherapy. It has been located on the area of initial tumor in a dosage of 2 g at the same time as cyclophosphan injection. Melaxen and Mexidol have been intramuscularly injecting in the dosage of 45 and 50 mg/ kg for 14 days. Antitumor and antimetastatic effect of the applied therapy and changes in the oxidative status of the animals have been estimated. Results — Melaxen and Mexidol do not decrease antitumour and antimetastatic effects of radiotherapy and prevent the activation of free radical processes at animals with tumors. Mexidol was more effective than Melaxen in correction of superoxide dismutase activity in liver. The drugs under the study do not decrease radiotherapy-induced lipid peroxidation in the initial tumor. Conclusion — Melaxen and Mexidol do not decrease the radio therapy efficiency and oxidative status at mice with tumor (on the background of antitumor treatment.

  5. Orthotics Compared to Conventional Therapy and Other Non-Surgical Treatments for Plantar Fasciitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca D.; Wright, Paul; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical Question In adults with acute plantar fasciitis whose symptoms have not been relieved with the conventional regimen of NSAIDS, stretching and lifestyle modification, do the addition of orthotics (prefabricated or custom fitted) reduce pain and improve function compared with other non-surgical treatments (manipulative chiropractic, physical therapy and/or heel steroid injections)? Answer Yes. Studies have shown that orthotics, both prefabricated and custom fitted, reduce pain and improve function in adults with acute plantar fasciitis with few risks or side effects. Used alone or in addition to conventional therapy (NSAIDs, stretching, lifestyle modification), orthotics are effective and well tolerated by patients for short-term pain relief and improved function. Prefabricated orthotics are less costly and provide similar relief to more expensive custom orthotics. Level of Evidence of the Answer A Search Terms Plantar fasciitis, heel pain, treatment, orthotics, Limits Adult, human, English, Review, Randomized-Control Trials, Systematic Reviews, adults age 18 or more, publication dates 2004 to present. Date Search was Conducted January 16, 2014; updated January 20, 2015 Inclusion Criteria Recent published systematic reviews, randomized controlled, meta-analyses; adults with confirmed acute or recent diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Exclusion Criteria Studies older than 10 years, children, adolescents less than 18 years of age, chronic or recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. PMID:26855444

  6. A Danish randomized trial comparing breast-preserving therapy with mastectomy in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study comprises 847 women operated upon for invasive breast carcinoma at 19 surgical departments and enrolled in protocol DBCG-82TM from January 1983 to November 1987. Among them 662 (78%) were allocated for breast-preserving therapy or mastectomy by randomization, while 185 patients (22%) did not accept randomization. Within the randomized group 6% could not be entered into adjuvant protocols, i.e. subsequent programmes of postoperative therapy and follow-up. This left 619 evaluable patients. In the non-randomized series 26% did not fulfil the demands for entrance into the adjuvant protocols, leaving 136 evaluable patients, 60 of whom had chosen a breast-preserving operation and 76 mastectomy. In the randomized series the patients in the two treatment arms were comparable in age, menopausal status, site of tumour, pathoanatomical diameter of the tumour, number of removed axillary lymph nodes, number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes, and distribution on adjuvant regimens. Ninety per cent of the patients in the randomized group accepted the method offered, whereas 10% declined and wanted the alternate form of operation. The median follow-up period was approximately 1.75 years. The cumulative recurrence rate in the randomized group was 13% and in the non-randomized group 7%. These results are preliminary. Life-table analyses have not so far demonstrated differences in recurrence-free survival either in the randomized or the non-randomized series. (orig.)

  7. Musculoskeletal infection imaging using 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin: preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Clinically available infection imaging techniques employing labelled leukocytes (WBC) and gallium citrate are sensitive for inflammation but often lack specificity for infection. 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), a labelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, is potentially more specific for infection. We present the CIPRO findings from 13 pts (8 M; 5 F; mean age 58 years) referred with possible current musculoskeletal sepsis. WBC were performed in 10 pts and temporally preceded CIPRO in 7. The average time between scans was 3 days. Eleven of the 13 pts had a prior history of documented infection secondary to trauma or joint surgery. All received antibiotics at some stage prior to CIPRO with 10 on antibiotics at the time of the scan. Final diagnosis of infection (diagnosed in 7 pts) was based on microbiological results from swabs and surgical specimens (7 pts) or the clinical course over the subsequent months (6 pts). CIPRO correctly identified 10/13 pts (77%) as having infection or no infection compared to 6/10 (60%) using WBC (P = N.S.). CIPRO and WBC were concordant in 7/10 pts. Discordant results were due to 1 false-positive CIPRO, 2 false-positive WBC. Scan accuracy in both groups may be affected by the inclusion of a patient with an equivocal diagnosis of infection; and the timing of the scans. Our preliminary observations are: (1) CIPRO is a promising diagnostic agent for musculoskeletal sepsis deserving further evaluation. (2) CIPRO appears at least as accurate as WBC but with significant preparation advantages. (3) Optimal CIPRO scanning time yet to be determined but should be at least 3-4 h post-injection to lessen blood pool effect

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE EFFICACIES OF ULTRASOUND THERAPY WITH CRYOKINETICS VERSUS ULTRASOUND THERAPY WITH SOFT TISSUE MASSAGE (DEEP FRICTION MASSAGE IN ACUTE SUPRASPINATUS TENDINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Supraspinatus tendinitis is the non-traumatic, inflammatory and degenerative changes of tendon. This condition is common in athletes involving repetitive overhead activities like bowling, swimming, and javelin throw etc. and even in persons involving these repetitive overhead activities at their work places. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition have a dramatic impact on physical mobility and function. This study was done to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound and cryokinetics versus ultrasound and soft tissue massage (deep friction massage in patients suffering from acute supraspinatus tendinitis. AIMS: To compare the efficacy of ultrasound therapy with cryokinetics versus ultrasound therapy with soft tissue massage (deep fiction massage in acute supraspinatus tendinitis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: It is a comparative experimental study dividing in to two groups. 60 subjects aged between 30-60 years 30 in each group. Group A: (n=30:- Treated with ultrasound therapy and cryokinetics Group B: (n=30:- Treated with ultrasound therapy and soft tissue massage (deep friction massage. Analysis was based on VAS scores and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI.Treatment was given for 6 days a week for 2 weeks. The following outcome measures were measured at baseline, day 7 and day14 with 1 week follow up. VAS Score, and Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI. The baseline measurements were compared to data at the end of 2nd week. RESULTS: The VAS, SPADI percentage across baseline, day 7 and day 14 follow up showed a significant improvement statistically in their mean scores within Group A and Group B (P<0.001. Statistically significant greater changes in score were found in ultrasound therapy and soft tissue massage (deep friction massage in (Group B for VAS, and SPADI as compared to ultrasound therapy and cryokinetics (Group A. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that ultrasound therapy with cryokinetics (Group A and

  9. Ozonation and advanced oxidation by the peroxone process of ciprofloxacin in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bubble reactor was used for ozonation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Effects of process parameters ozone inlet concentration, ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature, pH and H2O2 concentration were tested. Desethylene ciprofloxacin was identified, based on HPLC-MS analysis, as one of the degradation products. Formation of desethylene ciprofloxacin was highly dependent on pH, with the highest concentration measured at pH 10. Radical scavengers t-butanol and parachlorobenzoic acid were added in order to gain mechanistic understanding. Radical species other than hydroxyl radicals were suggested to occur at acidic pH which can explain fast ciprofloxacin ozonation at pH 3

  10. Sublethal Ciprofloxacin Treatment Leads to Rapid Development of High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance during Long-Term Experimental Evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Wassermann, Tina; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Hengzuang, Wang; Molin, Søren; Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of occurrence and the genetic basis of ciprofloxacin resistance were studied in a long-term evolution experiment (940 generations) in wild-type, reference strain (PAO1) and hypermutable (PAOΔmutS and PAOMY-Mgm) P. aeruginosa populations continuously exposed to sub-MICs (1/4) of ciprofloxacin. A rapid occurrence of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants (MIC of ≥12 μg/ml, representing 100 times the MIC of the original population) were observed in all ciprofloxacin-exposed lineages of PAO...

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Spain: Clonal Diversity and Appearance of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Epidemic Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Alou, Luis; Ramirez, Mario; García-Rey, César; Prieto, José; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiles of 82 pneumococcal isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC) and of 90 co-occurring susceptible isolates indicates a considerable genetic diversity among isolates with RCS and points to a close relation between the two groups. This finding suggests that pneumococci with RCS emerge through independent mutational events.

  12. A case of rhinoscleroma treated with ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Badia, L; Lund, V J

    2001-01-01

    Respiratory scleroma (often termed \\'rhinoscleroma\\') is a chronic inflammatory condition in which deforming masses of tissue distend the nasal cavity. Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis is the causative agent of this infection and the Mikulicz cell is specific to the lesion being a large macrophage with clear cytoplasm containing the bacilli. Antibiotic therapy has traditionally consisted of streptomycin and tetracycline long-term but this presents problems with adverse side-effects and poor patien...

  13. Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

  14. Intensity modulated radiotherapy versus volumetric modulated arc therapy in breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Muralidhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has the capacity to optimize the dose distribution. We analyzed the dosimetric differences of plans in treatment planning system (TPS between VMAT and IMRT in treating breast cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients were simulated, planned, and treated with VMAT using single, double or partial arcs. IMRT treatments were generated using 4 to 5 tangential IMRT fields for the same patients. All treatment plans were planned for 50 Gy in 25 fractions. The VMAT and IMRT plans were compared using the planning target volume (PTV dose and doses to the other organs at risk (OARs. Results: For the PTV, comparable minimum, mean, maximum, median, and modal dose as well equivalent sphere diameter of the structure (Equis were observed between VMAT and IMRT plans and found that these values were significantly equal in both techniques. The right lung mean and modal doses were considerably higher in VMAT plans while maximum value was considerably lower when compared with IMRT plans. The left lung mean and modal doses were higher with VMAT while maximum doses were higher in IMRT plans. The mean dose to the heart and maximum dose to the spinal cord was lower with IMRT. The mean dose to the body was higher in VMAT plans while the maximum dose was higher in IMRT plans. Conclusion: Four field tangential IMRT delivered comparable PTV dose with generally less dose to normal tissues in our breast cancer treatment study. The IMRT plans typically had more favourable dose characteristics to the lung, heart, and spinal cord and body dose when compared with VMAT. The only minor advantage of VMAT for breast cases was slightly better PTV coverage.

  15. Prospective trial in Saudi Arabia comparing the 14-day standard triple therapy with the 10-day sequential therapy for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Fahad Alsohaibani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Treatment success for Helicobacter pylori infection in Saudi Arabia is relatively unexplored. This prospective study compared the efficacy of sequential versus standard triple therapy in curing H. pylori infections. Patients and Methods: Eligible patients underwent upper endoscopy at a single center in Saudi Arabia from October 2011 to February 2014. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to sequential therapy or standard triple therapy. Sequential treatment: Esomeprazole (20 mg bid for 10 days, amoxicillin (1000 mg for 5 days, then clarithromycin 500 mg and tinidazole 500 mg; both bid for 5 days. Standard triple treatment: Esomeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and amoxicillin 1000 mg each bid for 14 days. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients were tested for cure using a validated urea breath test. Application of the E-test determined susceptibility of H. pylori to different antibiotics. Results: Of the 115 patients who received sequential therapy, 93 completed treatment. In the triple-therapy arm, 103 of 117 patients completed treatment. The eradication rate was 58/93 (62.3% with sequential therapy and 69/102 (67.6% with standard triple therapy, P = 0.44. Risk ratio was 0.92 (95% CI; 0.75–1.13, and number needed to treat was 19. Overall primary resistance: Metronidazole (48.5%, clarithromycin (23.3%, amoxicillin (14.8%, levofloxacin (11.1%, and tetracycline (2.3%. Mild adverse events occurred in 35 and 17 patients in the sequential and standard therapy groups, respectively. Conclusion: Sequential and standard triple therapies were similarly effective at eradicating H. pylori in two-thirds of Saudi patients. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance to H. pylori strains was common.

  16. Evaluation of Helicobacter Pylori eradication in pediatric patients by triple therapy plus lactoferrin and probiotics compared to triple therapy alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolone Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the addition of a probiotic could improve Helicobacter pylori (H.P. eradication rates and reduce the side effects of treatment in children. Methods Between July 2008 and July 2011 all patients with a clinical, laboratory and endoscopic diagnosis of H.P. positive gastritis referred to our Unit were included in the study. Patients suffering from allergy to any of drugs used in the study, with previous attempts to eradicate H.P. and those who received antibiotics, PPIs or probiotics within 4 weeks were excluded from the present study. Patients were randomized into two therapy regimens (group A and B: both groups received standard triple treatment (omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin while only group B patients were also given a probiotic (Probinul - Cadigroup. Patients compliance was evaluated at the end of the treatment. Successful eradication was defined as a negative 13 C-urea breath test (C13-ubt result four weeks after therapy discontinuation. Results A total of 68 histopathologically proven H.P.-infection children (32 male and 36 females were included in the study. All of the patients in both groups used more than 90% of the therapies and no patients were lost at follow up. All side effects were selflimiting and disappeared once the therapy was terminated. Epigastric pain was observed in 6 (17.6% group A vs 2 (5.8% group B patients (P Conclusion The addition of a probiotic formula to triple therapy significantly decreased the frequency of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

  17. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or 90Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  18. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeline, Julien [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Crouzet, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Boucher, Eveline [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Campillo-Gimenez, Boris [Centre Eugene Marquis, Clinical Research Department, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy [Centre Eugene Marquis, Imaging Department, Rennes (France); Guillygomarc' h, Anne [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatology Department, Rennes (France); Boudjema, Karim [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatobiliary Surgery, Rennes (France); Lenoir, Laurence [Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Adhoute, Xavier [Hopital Saint-Joseph, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Marseille (France); Clement, Bruno [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Blanc, Jean-Frederic [Hopital Saint-Andre, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Bordeaux (France); Garin, Etienne [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or {sup 90}Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  19. Release of Ciprofloxacin-HCl and Dexamethasone Phosphate by Hyaluronic Acid Containing Silicone Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon Jones

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the covalent incorporation of hyaluronic acid (HA into conventional hydrogel and hydrogels containing silicone as models for contact lens materials on the uptake and release of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin and the anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone phosphate. A 3 mg/mL ciprofloxacin solution (0.3% w/v and a 1 mg/mL dexamethasone phosphate solution (0.1% was prepared in borate buffered saline. Three hydrogel material samples (pHEMA; pHEMA TRIS; DMAA TRIS were prepared with and without the covalent incorporation of HA of molecular weight (MW 35 or 132 kDa. Hydrogel discs were punched from a sheet of material with a uniform diameter of 5 mm. Uptake kinetics were evaluated at room temperature by soaking the discs for 24 h. Release kinetics were evaluated by placing the drug-loaded discs in saline at 34 °C in a shaking water bath. At various time points over 6–7 days, aliquots of the release medium were assayed for drug amounts. The majority of the materials tested released sufficient drug to be clinically relevant in an ophthalmic application, reaching desired concentrations for antibiotic or anti-inflammatory activity in solution. Overall, the silicone-based hydrogels (pHEMA TRIS and DMAA TRIS, released lower amounts of drug than the conventional pHEMA material (p < 0.001. Materials with HA MW132 released more ciprofloxacin compared to materials with HA MW35 and lenses without HA (p < 0.02. Some HA-based materials were still releasing the drug after 6 days.

  20. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and conservative therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a clinical comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacies of percutaneous vertebroplasty and conservative therapy in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: One hundred and four vertebrae in 83 patients with osteoporotic compression fractures were shown by MRI, CT and plain radiography. Forty four patients with 58 vertebrae were assigned to group 1 treated by PVP, and 39 patients with 46 vertebrae were assigned to group 2 treated by conservative therapy. The efficacies of two groups were evaluated by measuring the heights of vertebrae on the lateral plain films during follow-up. Results: No serious complications occurred with PVP. Pain relief was obtained in all of 44 patients and VAS score decreased from 8.5 before the procedure to 2.6 at 1 week after PVP(improvement of 5.9). Pain still remained in all 39 patients at 1 week after conservative treatment. Improvement was significantly greater in the group 1 than in group 2 at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months, but no difference at 6 months after treatment (P>0.05). Within 8.9 months of mean follow-up, 3 new fractures occurred in 3 patients in group 1, 2 new fractures occurred in 2 patients in group 2, showing no significant difference. The average increase in vertebral body height on the X-ray plains at 1 week after PVP was 2.2 mm anteriorly, 2.3 mm centrally and unchanged posteriorly. Comparing with the plain film at 1 week after PVP, the heights of vertebrae showed no significant difference at 3 and 6 months of follow-up respectively the heights of vertebrae were unchanged at 1 week after conservative therapy. Average reduction in vertebral body height was 1.9 mm anteriorly, 2.1 mm centrally, unchanged posteriorly at 3 months, but no more collapse at 6 months after conventional treatment. The vertebral body height was significantly higher in the group 1 than in group 2 at 3 months after treatment. Conclusions: PVP is an effective and safe procedure for treating persistent painful osteoporotic

  1. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  2. Wii Fit™ exercise therapy for the rehabilitation of ankle sprains: Its effect compared with physical therapy or no functional exercises at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, I M; Ziltener, J-L; Monnin, D; Allet, L

    2016-07-01

    Lateral ankle sprains represent the most common sports-related injuries. The Nintendo Wii Fit™ could be useful in the treatment of ankle sprains. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of exercise training using the Wii Fit™ in ankle sprain patients: (a) with physical therapy; and (b) a control group not receiving any treatment. Ninety lateral ankle sprain patients were randomized to a Wii Fit™, physical therapy, or control group. We assessed the following outcome measures before, and 6 weeks after starting the allocated treatment: Foot and Ankle Ability Measure, pain during rest and walking, delay before return to sport, patient satisfaction, and effectiveness of the allocated treatment. Six weeks after the baseline measures, foot and ankle ability scores had improved in all groups, and pain had decreased during walking (P  0.050). In conclusion, the Wii Fit™ could be used as an exercise therapy to treat ankle sprain patients. However, Wii Fit™ was not more effective than only physical therapy, or no exercise therapy at all. Patients who did not receive treatment showed similar results as people who got any kind of exercise therapy. PMID:26076737

  3. Comparative Metabolomic Profiling of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Treated with Sorafenib Monotherapy vs. Sorafenib-Everolimus Combination Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Jian-feng; Lu, Juan; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Guo, Wu-hua; Zhang, Ji-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Sorafenib-everolimus combination therapy may be more effective than sorafenib monotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To better understand this effect, we comparatively profiled the metabolite composition of HepG2 cells treated with sorafenib, everolimus, and sorafenib-everolimus combination therapy. Material/Methods A 2D HRMAS 1H-NMR metabolomic approach was applied to identify the key differential metabolites in 3 experimental groups: sorafenib (5 μM), everolimus (5 μM), ...

  4. Comparing In-Person to Videoconference-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbings, Daniel R; Rees, Clare S.; Roberts, Lynne D.; Kane, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness for treating mood and anxiety disorders. Dissemination of CBT via videoconference may help improve access to treatment. Objective The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of CBT administered via videoconference to in-person therapy for a mixed diagnostic cohort. Methods A total of 26 primarily Caucasian clients (mean age 30 years, SD 11) who had a primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ...

  5. Students of physical therapy. A comparative study of student profiles at a college and university in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Nitza Davidovitch; Josepha Danziger

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the attributes of students of physical therapy in order to compare the profiles of students of physical therapy (PT) in two institutions of higher learning in Israel: Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the Academic College of Judea and Samaria (ACJS). This study focuses on a department where studies have an occupational/applicative/practical orientation and high status in the higher education system. Findings of this study indicate broad similarities in the profiles of stud...

  6. Comparing Physical Therapy Accompanying Exercise with Only Exercise Treatments in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Yılmaz; Pınar Küçük Eroğlu; Fatma Gül Yurdakul; Yeşim Garip Çimen; Filiz Eser; Aslıhan Alhan; Hatice Bodur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Investigating and comparing the effects of exercise and physical therapy accompanying exercise treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty three patients with mechanical type low back existing more than 3 months were included one of the exercise or the physical therapy+exercise groups according to their application sequence. Both of the groups performed lumbar flexion and extension exercises, strengthening of the lumbar and abdominal...

  7. Evaluating Sarconesiopsis magellanica blowfly-derived larval therapy and comparing it to Lucilia sericata-derived therapy in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Gaona, María A; Segura, Nidya A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio

    2016-02-01

    Larval therapy is used as alternative treatment for hard-to-heal chronic and infected wounds. Lucilia sericata is the most used blowfly species. However, it has been shown recently that Sarconesiopsis magellanica larval excretions and secretions have potent antibacterial activity; this blowfly belongs to the Calliphoridae family. The present work has dealt with evaluating larval therapy using S. magellanica on wounds induced in diabetic rabbits and its action was compared to the effect induced by L. sericata. Twelve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used; they were divided into 4 groups, the first two being treated with larval therapy derived from both aforementioned necrophagous blowflies, an antibiotic was used in the third and the fourth was used as control. All the animals were wounded on the back and infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Samples of the secretion from each animal's infected wound were taken and sown on blood agar. The colony forming units were then counted. The PUSH scale was used for the macroscopic evaluation of the wounds. Bacterial control was encountered 48 h post-treatment in the treatments involving larval therapy and to a lesser extent with the antibiotic. Likewise, wound debridement was quicker and more efficient with larval therapy compared to the antibiotic group; however, wound closing time was 23 days in all treatments. The group treated with S. magellanica larvae had relatively quicker evolution until the proliferation phase and the start of maturation, even though there were no significant differences between both blowfly species evaluated here regarding treatments by the end of the treatment period. The present study has validated the diabetic rabbit model for inducing chronic wounds regarding larval therapy and has likewise confirmed the effectiveness of S. magellanica-derived larval therapy as an alternative for curing and healing wounds. PMID:26546725

  8. TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY OF ULTRASOUND THERAPY WITH EXERCISES VERSUS LASER THERAPY WITH EXERCISES IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare and measure the effectiveness of Ultrasound therapy with exercises versus Laser therapy with exercises on affected shoulder in reducing pain which can be measured by Visual Analogue Scale in case of SAIS. To compare and measure the effectiveness of Ultrasound therapy with exercises versus Laser therapy with exercises in evaluating the active range of motion using Universal Goniometer. BACKGROUND: Sub acromial impingement syndrome (SAIS is a painful condition resulting from the entrapment of anatomical structures between the antero inferior corner of the acromion and the greater tuberosity of the humerus. Van der Windt et al.,(1995 and Vecchio et al.,(1995 have postulated that Sub acromial impingement syndrome (SAIS of the shoulder is the most common disorder of the shoulder, accounting for 44-65% of all complaints of shoulder pain. Shoulder Impingement syndrome is usually treated conservatively, but sometimes it is treated with arthroscopic surgery or open surgery. Conservative treatment includes rest, cessation of painful activity, ultrasound therapy, laser therapy and physiotherapy focused at maintaining range of movement and avoids shoulder stiffness. NSAID‟s and ice packs may be used for pain relief. Therapeutic injections of corticosteroid and local anaesthetic may be used for persistent impingement syndrome. In this study the researcher would like to compare and see the effectiveness of ultrasound with exercises and laser therapy with exercises on SAIS. METHODS: For this study 60 patients with acute SAIS of both the sex were taken. Patients were randomly divided into group A and group B. Group A were treated with US therapy for 5 minutes along with shoulder exercises and Group B were treated with LLLT of Ga-As for 5-6 minutes along with shoulder exercises to maintain ROM within available pain free range. Both the groups were treated 5 times per week for 2 weeks. Patients were evaluated with VAS and ROM on every 3rd

  9. Comparative Efficacy of Zonisamide and Pregabalin as an Adjunctive Therapy in Children with Refractory Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi TAGHDIRI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Taghdiri MM, Bakhshandeh Bali MK, Karimzadeh P, Ashrafi MR, Tonekaboni SH, Ghofrani M. Comparative Efficacy of Zonisamide and Pregabalin as an Adjunctive Therapy in Children with Refractory Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:49-55.AbstractObjectiveApproximately one third of epileptic children are resistant to anticonvulsant drugs. This study evaluates the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of pregabalin as adjunctive therapy in epileptic children relative to Zonisamide.Materials & MethodsFrom April 2012 to November 2012,121 children were referred to MofidChildren’s Hospital with intractable epilepsy and enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups (A and B randomly. Group A was treated with Zonisamide and group B was treated with Pregabalin in addition to prior medication. We assessed seizure frequency and severity during a 4-week interval from the beginning of the drug treatment and compared the efficacy of each in these two groups.ResultsGroup A consists of 61 patients, 26 (42.6% girls, and35 (57.4% boys with an age range from 1.5 months–14 years (mean, 73.9± 44.04 months. Group B consists of 60 patients, 31(51.7% girls, 29 (48.3% boys with an age range from 6 months–16 years (mean, 71±42.9 months. Age, gender, seizure onset, seizure frequency, seizure type, and previous antiepileptic medications showed that there was no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05. Zonisamide and pregabalin reduced more than 50% of seizure intensity in 40.2%; 45.8% of patients also had a seizure frequency decline between35.8–44.4%, respectively and there was no significant superiority between these two novel anticonvulsants (P>0.05.ConclusionIn this survey both pregabalin and Zonisamide were impressive for seizure control in children with intractable epilepsy and well sustained with mild complications that were completely reversible. 

  10. [Comparative analysis of gerontologic prophylaxis efficiency and membranotropic action of various gas therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, E N; Meshchaninov, V N; Zvezdina, E M; Katyreva, Iu E; Tkachenko, E L; Gavrilov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The research was executed on 320 male patients aged 35-92 years with various polyorgan pathology in a compensation stage. The treatment by gases was used: hyperbaric oxygenation, dry carbonic acid baths, ozon therapy, hypo oxygen therapy and their combinations. On indicators of biological age various age-dependent geroprophylactics effect of gas therapy was established. On indicators of resistance of erythrocytes various safety of used modes was found. PMID:25826995

  11. Fixed drug eruptions to ciprofloxacin - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruptions (FDE are common adverse drug reactions and they recur at the same site with each exposure to a particular drug. Drugs inducing FDE are usually those taken intermittently. Most common drugs causing fixed drug eruptions are antibiotics and analgesics. Here, we report a case of FDE to ciprofloxacin which was used in treatment of upper respiratory tract infection. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 221-222

  12. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of ciprofloxacin in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamarik, T A; Wilson, W D; Wiebe, V J; Pusterla, N; Edman, J; Papich, M G

    2010-12-01

    Using a randomized, cross-over study design, ciprofloxacin was administered i.g. to eight adult mares at a dose of 20 mg/kg, and to seven of the eight horses at a dose of 5 mg/kg by bolus i.v. injection. The mean C(0) was 20.5 μg/mL (±8.8) immediately after i.v. administration. The C(max) was 0.6 μg/mL (±0.36) at T(max) 1.46 (±0.66) h after the administration of oral ciprofloxacin. The mean elimination half-life after i.v. administration was 5.8 (±1.6) h, and after oral administration the terminal half-life was 3.6 (±1.7) h. The overall mean systemic availability of the oral dose was 10.5 (±2.8)%. Transient adverse effects of mild to moderate severity included agitation, excitement and muscle fasciculation, followed by lethargy, cutaneous edema and loss of appetite developed in all seven horses after i.v. administration. All seven horses developed mild transient diarrhea at 36-48 after i.v. dosing. All eight horses dosed intragastrically experienced adverse events attributable to ciprofloxacin administration. Adverse events included mild transient diarrhea to severe colitis, endotoxemia and laminitis necessitating euthanasia of three horses on humane grounds. The high incidences of adverse events preclude oral and rapid i.v. push administration of ciprofloxacin. PMID:21062312

  13. DRESS syndrome following ciprofloxacin exposure: An unusual association

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhateeb, Haider; Said, Sarmad; Cooper, Chad J.; Gaur, Sumit; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: DRESS syndrome Symptoms: Fever • rash • facial and body swelling • muscular pain • diarrhea Medication: Ciprofloxacin Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine • Hematology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, potentially life-threatening drug reaction with a mean latency period of 3.9 weeks. It has been described in association with many medicatio...

  14. Alternative methods of synthesizing 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. We synthesized Infecton by modifying the procedure described by Keith Britton's group (Lancet 1996; 347: 233-235) and reported our findings at the ANZSNM meeting last year. Since the methodology was cumbersome, we investigated simpler alternative ways of labelling ciprofloxacin with 99Tcm-pertechnetate for routine imaging. There were several limitations in the previously described method: (1) Need to prepare pure ciprofloxacin which was unstable on storage. (2) Synthetic procedure using formimidine sulphinic acid (FSA) was complicated and required boiling step. (3) The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the product was low (45-50%) requiring purification. (4) Biodistribution studies showed a marked uptake by the liver which could interfere with scan interpretation in this region. The results of our present studies showed that Infecton could be prepared by a simple two-step method: (1) Reduce 99Tcm-pertechnetate with stannous salt (SnCl2 or Sn-tartrate). (2) Mix with Ciproxin IV-100. The RCP of the product was up to 98%, which obviates the need for further purification. Infecton synthesized by the above method showed avid localization in abscesses induced with Staphylococcus aureus in rats. The biodistribution studies showed that Infecton was renally excreted with minimal accumulation in the liver or other organs

  15. Modified Sequential Therapy Regimen versus Conventional Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in China: A Multicenter Clinical Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antimicrobial resistance has decreased eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection worldwide. To observe the effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and the treatment of duodenal ulcer by 2 kinds of modified sequential therapy through comparing with that of 10-day standard triple therapy. Methods. A total of 210 patients who were confirmed in duodenal ulcer active or heal period by gastroscopy and H. pylori positive confirmed by rapid urease test, serum anti-H. pylori antibody (ELASE, or histological examination enrolled in the study. All the patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (70 cases and group B (70 cases were provided 10-day modified sequential therapy; group C (70 cases was provided 10-day standard triple therapy. Patients of group A received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group B received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group C received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for standard 10-day therapy. All drugs were given twice daily. H. pylori eradication rate was checked four to eight weeks after taking the medicine by using a 13C urea breath test. In the first, second, third, seventh, twenty-first, thirty-fifth days respectively, the symptoms of patients such as epigastric gnawing, burning pain, and acidity were evaluated simultaneously. Results. Overall, 210 patients accomplished all therapy schemes, 9 case patients were excluded. The examination result indicated that the H. pylori eradication rate of each group was as follows: group A 92.5% (62/67, group B 86.8% (59/68, and group C 78.8% (52/66. The H. pylori

  16. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 % in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %, which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .

  17. Comparing marginal structural models to standard methods for estimating treatment effects of antihypertensive combination therapy

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    Gerhard Tobias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to time-dependent confounding by blood pressure and differential loss to follow-up, it is difficult to estimate the effectiveness of aggressive versus conventional antihypertensive combination therapies in non-randomized comparisons. Methods We utilized data from 22,576 hypertensive coronary artery disease patients, prospectively enrolled in the INternational VErapamil-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST. Our post-hoc analyses did not consider the randomized treatment strategies, but instead defined exposure time-dependently as aggressive treatment (≥3 concomitantly used antihypertensive medications versus conventional treatment (≤2 concomitantly used antihypertensive medications. Study outcome was defined as time to first serious cardiovascular event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or all-cause death. We compared hazard ratio (HR estimates for aggressive vs. conventional treatment from a Marginal Structural Cox Model (MSCM to estimates from a standard Cox model. Both models included exposure to antihypertensive treatment at each follow-up visit, demographics, and baseline cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure. The MSCM further adjusted for systolic blood pressure at each follow-up visit, through inverse probability of treatment weights. Results 2,269 (10.1% patients experienced a cardiovascular event over a total follow-up of 60,939 person-years. The HR for aggressive treatment estimated by the standard Cox model was 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.07. The equivalent MSCM, which was able to account for changes in systolic blood pressure during follow-up, estimated a HR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.71-0.92. Conclusions Using a MSCM, aggressive treatment was associated with a lower risk for serious cardiovascular outcomes compared to conventional treatment. In contrast, a standard Cox model estimated similar risks for aggressive and conventional treatments. Trial registration Clinicaltrials

  18. Periodontal status of HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy compared to HIV-therapy naive patients: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fricke Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although severe oral opportunistic infections decreased with the implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, periodontitis is still a commonly described problem in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The objective of the present investigation was to determine possible differences in periodontal parameters between antiretroviral treated and untreated patients. Methods The study population comprised 80 patients infected with HIV divided into two groups. The first group was receiving antiretroviral therapy while the second group was therapy naive. The following parameters were examined: probing pocket depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment level, papilla bleeding score, periodontal screening index and the index for decayed, missed and filled teeth. A questionnaire concerning oral hygiene, dental care and smoking habits was filled out by the patients. Results There were no significant differences regarding the periodontal parameters between the groups except in the clinical marker for inflammation, the papilla bleeding score, which was twice as high (P Conclusion There is no indication for advanced periodontal damage in HIV-infected versus non-infected patients in comparable age groups. Due to their immunodeficiency, HIV-infected patients should be monitored closely to prevent irreversible periodontal damage. Periodontal monitoring and early therapy is recommended independent of an indication for highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  19. Incidence, epidemiology and evolution of reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop; Erdenechemeg, L.; Soon Song, Kyung; Hun Shin, Kwang

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the decrease of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, determine the size of the recently reported new beta-lactamase plasmid and explain the high prevalence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). METHODS: Gonococci were isolated from prostitutes in Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by NCCLS disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Plasmid was isolated by an alkaline lysis method. Patterns of Nhel-digested genomic DNA were compared after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin for 50% of the isolates rose from 0.015 mg/L in 1993 to 0.12 mg/L in 1996. The proportion of PPNG remained at 70% or over during the 5-year period. The size of a novel beta-lactamase plasmid, first reported in 1994, was determined to be approximately 3.2 MDa, and 48% of the PPNG isolates contained it. Twelve of 50 isolates had the same PFGE pattern and nine others another pattern. CONCLUSION: The rapid decrease of fluoroquinolone-susceptible gonococci suggests that in the near future the drug may become less useful for gonorrhea treatment. The new 3.2-MDa plasmid may have been introduced as a result of the recent increase in overseas travel. The PFGE pattern suggests that high prevalence of PPNG may be due to dissemination of a few resistant clones among the high-risk groups. PMID:11864261

  20. An indirect atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHMOUD MOHAMED ISSA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive indirect atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS method has been developed for the determination of very low concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium. The method is based on the oxidation of these drugs with iron(III. The excess of iron(III was extracted into diethyl ether and then the iron(II in the aqueous layer was aspirated into an air–acetylene flame and determined by AAS. The linear concentration ranges were 25–400, 50–500 and 60–600 ng ml-1 for ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium, respectively. The results were statistically compared with the official method using t- and f-test at p < 0.05. There were insignificant interferences from most of the excipients present. The intra- and inter-day assay coefficients of variation were less than 6.1 % and the recoveries ranged from 95 to 103 %. The method was applied for the analysis of these drug substances in their commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

  1. Robust Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Urease Inhibitory Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Qayum, Mughal; Khan, Ajmal; Farooq, Umar; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ali, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip) has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold) nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH₄ as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl) solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip) has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL). MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains. PMID:27023506

  2. Robust Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Urease Inhibitory Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nisar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH4 as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL. MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains.

  3. Effectiveness of Constraint induced movement therapy as compared to bimanual therapy in Upper motor function outcome in child with hemiplegic Cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafer, Hira; Amjad, Imran; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Shaukat, Enfall

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at determining the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy as compared to bimanual therapy for improving functional status in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: This study was a randomized control trial, children (n = 20) with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy was randomly allocated to CIMT (constraint induced movement therapy) and BMT (bimanual therapy) group. The children with spastic hemiplegia, age between 1.5 and 12 year and having 10 degrees of wrist extension and 10 degrees of finger extension were included in study. Treatment regime was two hours of daily training six days a week for two weeks. Constraint was applied to CIMT group for six hours. The outcome tool QUEST was used for baseline and post treatment assessment. Result: CIMT had superior outcome as compared to BMT in improving functional status (p=0.007). On QUEST tool grasp and dissociated movements results were significant (p=0.005) and (p=0.028) respectively. Weight bearing and protective extension resulted in no significant outcome (p=0.080) and (p=0.149) respectively. Dissociated movements and grasp are significantly improved but there is no difference for weight bearing and protective extension in CIMT treated group as compared to BMT treated group. Conclusion: CIMT approach is better in improving functional status of child with cerebral palsy as compared to BMT. Significant improvement in grasp and dissociated movement is noted in group of CIMT while there was no significant improvement in weight bearing and protective extension in CIMT group when compared to BMT. CIMT is considered the appropriate treatment approach for unilateral conditions while BMT for bilateral conditions. PMID:27022371

  4. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy a long with Conventional Treatment in Asthma Patients Compared with Solely Conventional Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jamalimotlagh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While origin of Asthma is allergy and infection, mental stresses can also indicate asthma attacks. Most people with asthma argue that the reason of asthma attacks is mental- psychological problems such as stress. Aim & objective: Asthma is a chronic and recurrent disease. High levels of stress in this disease are associated with increased hospitalization and mortality, so this research aims to use cognitive behavioral therapy in order to control stress among patients with Asthma. Method/Study Design: Present study is a field and Quasi-experimental whose statistical society includes all patients with Asthma who have referred to Khatamol-Anbia Hospital for treatment. A total of 48 individuals were tested and controlled by purposive sampling procedure. 8 individual CBT sessions were conducted in experimental group during intervention period then the number of asthma attacks in the pre-test and post-test periods was evaluated Results/Finding: After analyzing data with SPSS software, results show that there exists significant difference between experimental and control group in post-test in ACQ, ASES and AQLQ questionnaires which is significant between two groups by a difference of ρ<0.001 but this difference wasn’t significant in pre-test. Conclusion: The results suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy along with conventional treatment in asthma patients can be effective on reduction of asthma attacks. Individual management improvement is based on such behavioral factors as daily scanning on symptoms and adherence to treatment which is affected by Asthma Self-Efficacy (ASE. This issue suggests the trust to ability in performing necessary behaviors on personal management for disease symptoms and prevention of recurrence.

  5. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Astal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  6. Correlation between Fecal Concentrations of Ciprofloxacin and Fecal Counts of Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Piglets Treated with Ciprofloxacin: toward New Means To Control the Spread of Resistance? : CIPROFLOXACIN LEVELS AND RESISTANT BACTERIA IN FECES

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Chachaty, Elisabeth; Huy, Clarisse; Cambier, Carole; de Gunzburg, Jean; Mentré, France; Andremont, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    We assessed in a piglet model the relationship between fecal ciprofloxacin concentrations and ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae counts. Twenty-nine piglets were orally treated with placebo or with 1.5 or 15 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight/day from day 1 (D1) to D5. Areas under the curve (AUC) of concentrations increased sharply with dose and correlated positively with AUC of resistant bacteria log counts between D1 and D9. Removing residual colonic quinolones could help to control...

  7. Postoperative radiotherapy for keloids following surgical excision compared with breast conservative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postoperative radiation of the scar prevented keloid formation effectively. Although about 30% of cases of keloid still recur, no keloid formation has been found in our series of patients who are treated with breast conservative therapy. Similarly, no case of keloid after breast conservative therapy has been found in the literature. Investigating the reason why keloid does not develop after breast conserving therapy may lead to decreasing the recurrence rate of keloids. Proper radiation techniques including field size, treatment margin, treatment depth, total dose, fractionation, and overall treatment time remain unclear and require further investigation. (author)

  8. Randomized prospective study comparing a single radioiodine dose and a single laser therapy session in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Bonnema, Steen Joop;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) with radioiodine in hot thyroid nodules. DESIGN: Thirty consecutive outpatients with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism and a scintigraphically solitary hot nodule with extraglandular suppression were randomized to...... effects were seen. CONCLUSIONS: This first randomized study, comparing ILP with standard therapy, demonstrates that ILP and (131)I therapy approximately halves thyroid nodule volume within 6 months; but in contrast to (131)I, extranodular thyroid volume is unaffected by ILP and no patient developed...... hypothyroidism. Using the present design, ILP seems inferior to (131)I therapy in normalization of serum TSH. The potential value of ILP as a non-surgical alternative to (131)I needs further investigation...

  9. Comparative efficacy trial of cupping and serkangabin versus conventional therapy of migraine headaches: A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghani Firoozabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine headaches are the most common acute and recurrent headaches. Current treatment of a migraine headache consists of multiple medications for control and prevention of recurrent attacks. Global emergence of alternative medicine led us to examine the efficacy of cupping therapy plus serkangabin syrup in the treatment of migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, open-label, comparative efficacy trial. We randomly assigned patients with migraine into cupping therapy plus serkangabin group (30 patients and conventional treatment group (30 patients. An investigator assessed the severity of headache, frequency of attacks in a week and duration of attacks per hour in 5 visits (at the end of 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months. Generalized estimating equations approach was used to analyze repeated measures data to compare outcomes in both groups. Results: Average age for cupping therapy group and conventional treatment group were 31.7 (±7.6 and 32.6 (±12.7 years, respectively (P = 0.45. After treatment for 2 weeks; and 1, 3 and 6 months, severity of headache (P = 0.80, frequency of migraine attacks (P = 0.63 and duration of attacks per hours (P = 0.48 were similar in conventional and cupping groups but these symptoms were decreased in each group during the study (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between cupping plus serkangabin therapy and conventional treatment in the treatment and prophylaxis of migraine. The alternative therapy may be used in cases of drug intolerance, no medication response, and in primary care.

  10. A comparative evaluation of teaching methods in an introductory neuroscience course for physical therapy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Gilbert M.

    Background and purpose. Use of computer based instruction (CBI) in physical therapy (P.T.) education is growing. P.T. educators have reported few studies regarding the effectiveness of CBI compared to lecture based instruction, and none have specifically addressed the area of neuroscience. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CBI would be a better alternative than lecture for teaching introductory neuroscience information to first year P.T. students. Subjects. This study was conducted over two years, with 28 participants in 2003 and 34 in 2004. Methods. A randomized, cross-over design was employed for this investigation. The course in which the study took place was divided into two sections with an exam after each. Both sections included 5 one hour lectures (or 5 equivalent CBI modules) and a two hour laboratory experience. Exams consisted of 30 multiple choice questions. Students in one group participated in CBI during the first half of the course and lecture during the second half. The order of participation was reversed for students in the other group. A review exam (60 multiple choice questions) was also taken by participants six months post-participation in the course. Exam scores, study time, course development costs, and student opinions regarding teaching methods were collected after each section of the course and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in "within course" or review exam scores between participant groups based on instructional method, however, CBI taught students spent less time studying. Student opinions did not distinguish a major preference for either instruction method. Many students preferred that CBI be used as a complimentary rather than mutually exclusive instructional method. Lecture based instruction was clearly more cost effective than CBI. Conclusion. In this study, lecture based instruction was clearly the better choice of teaching method in

  11. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, Eelco, E-mail: e.lens@amc.uva.nl; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  12. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V95% >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V10Gy, V20Gy, V30Gy, V40Gy, Dmean and D2cc for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D2cc of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE OF CIPROFLOXACIN BY USING VARIOUS SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaiah Bonthagarala*, Leela Madhuri Pola and Sreekanth Nama

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research wok is to formulate and evaluate Ciprofloxacin solid dispersions system by using the different techniques. This will increase the solubility of the drug or Ciprofloxacin and give the immediate release of the drug from the formulations. The main objective is to formulate a drug product as immediate release oral solid dosage form of Ciprofloxacin solid dispersion system which is considered to be stable, robust quality and enhanced dissolution rate. To optimize the metho...

  14. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite as carrier material for controlled delivery of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; S. Ramasamy; Ramakrishnan, V.; Kumar, J.

    2011-01-01

    In bone disorders infections are common. The concentration of majority of antibiotics is very low in the bone tissue. A high local dose can be obtained from the ciprofloxacin-loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The present study is aimed at developing the use of hydroxyapatite and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as a carrier for ciprofloxacin drug delivery system. The ciprofloxacin-loaded hydroxyapatite and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite have a good antibacterial activity against Pseudomo...

  15. Pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males [corrected

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, L L; Chan, R K; Nadarajah, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effectiveness of single-dose pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males. SETTING--Department of STD Control, Kelantan Road, Singapore. METHOD--160 male patients with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis were assigned alternately to receive single oral doses of either pefloxacin 800 mg or ciprofloxacin 250 mg. RESULTS--Of the pefloxacin group 98.5% (65/66 patients) and of the ciprofloxacin group 98.6% (74/75 patients) we...

  16. Development and clinical application of the radiopharmaceutical dried-kit of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiopharmaceutical is available in the form of liquid-kit, which is separately packed with its radionuclide. The radiopharmaceuticals in that form has low stability. In order to fulfill the necessity of radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of infection, the modification of the preparation radiopharmaceutical dried-kit of ciprofloxacin using a commercial ciprofloxacin infuse solution by lyophilization method has been carried out. Ciprofloxacin dried-kit consists of 2 mg of ciprofloxacin lactate in the vial A and 2 mg of stannous tartrate in the vial B. The preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into the vial A dissolved in sterile water for injection, followed by addition of Sn-tartrate solution from the vial B at the optimum condition of labeling. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was analyzed by chromatographic method using ITLC-SG as a stationary phase and acetone as a mobile phase. In vitro determination of the biological activity and uptake of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin were performed to microorganism. Meanwhile, the sterility, toxicity and clinical evaluation were also observed. The labelling result of ciprofloxacin dried-kit with 99mTc radionuclide indicated that radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was 96.39 ± 2.01 %. The determination of biological activity to S. aureus and E. coli showed that after labelling the bactericide activity was not change i.e. 83.06 ± 10.95 % and 80.26 ± 8.58 % for S. aureus and E. coli respectively, whereas the maximum uptake were occurred after one hour incubation. Clinical evaluation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin to liver and bone marrow abscess patients showed the radioactivity accumulation around those areas. Clinical application of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin with tomography technique using gamma camera showed that this radiopharmaceutical could be used for infection imaging. (author)

  17. Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Cacchillo, David A.; Walters, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a pathogen associated with aggressive periodontitis, resists phagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It is susceptible to ciprofloxacin, which PMNs actively accumulate. This study tested the hypothesis that ciprofloxacin-loaded PMNs are more effective at killing A. actinomycetemcomitans than control PMNs. Isolated human PMNs were loaded by brief incubation with 0.5 μg of ciprofloxacin/ml. Opsonized bacteria (ATCC 43718) were incubated a...

  18. A Case Study of In Silico Modelling of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride/Metallic Compound Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Stojkovic, Aleksandra; Parojcic, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica; Corrigan, Owen I.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of physiologically based absorption models, there is an increased scientific and regulatory interest in in silico modelling and simulation of drug–drug and drug–food interactions. Clinically significant interactions between ciprofloxacin and metallic compounds are widely documented. In the current study, a previously developed ciprofloxacin-specific in silico absorption model was employed in order to simulate ciprofloxacin/metallic compound interaction observed in vivo. C...

  19. Transepithelial transport of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin by human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavet, M E; West, M.; Simmons, N L

    1997-01-01

    Although fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin are able to gain access to lung tissue and both pleural and bronchial secretions, the characteristics of transport and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin in human epithelial lung tissue remain obscure. We have chosen human airway epithelial (Calu-3) cells, reconstituted as functional epithelial layers grown on permeable filter supports, as a model with which to assess both transepithelial transport and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin. ...

  20. [The comparative effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatskiĭ, Iu L; Denisova, O A; Ivanenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children. The study involved 67 children at the mean age of 6.9±2.7 years. Group 1 was comprised of 35 children given framycetin as topical therapy, the patients of group 2 were treated by the endonasal administration of a 2% silver proteinate solution. It was shown that the use of framycetin as a component of combined therapy of adenoiditis enhances the effectiveness of the treatment and compliance to therapy in comparison with the same parameters in the case of the application of traditional topical antibacterial preparations. PMID:25588492

  1. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik C Bervoets

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Design: Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal disorders. Interventions: Massage therapy (manual manipulation of the soft tissues as a stand-alone intervention. Outcome: The primary outcomes were pain and function. Results: The 26 eligible randomised trials involved 2565 participants. The mean sample size was 95 participants (range 16 to 579 per study; 10 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias. Overall, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage reduces pain in the short term compared to no treatment in people with shoulder pain and osteoarthritis of the knee, but not in those with low back pain or neck pain. Furthermore, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage improves function in the short term compared to no treatment in people with low back pain, knee arthritis or shoulder pain. Low-to-very-low-level evidence from single studies indicated no clear benefits of massage over acupuncture, joint mobilisation, manipulation or relaxation therapy in people with fibromyalgia, low back pain and general musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions: Massage therapy, as a stand-alone treatment, reduces pain and improves function compared to no treatment in some musculoskeletal conditions. When massage is compared to another active treatment, no clear benefit was evident. [Bervoets DC, Luijsterburg PAJ, Alessie JJN, Buijs MJ, Verhagen AP (2015 Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 106–116

  2. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  3. Incorporating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy into a Public Health Care System: Canada and England Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Noushon Farmanara; Marchildon, Gregory P.; Amélie Quesnel-Vallée

    2016-01-01

    Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT) focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). In contrast, Canadian interventio...

  4. A Randomized Study Comparing the Shaker Exercise with Traditional Therapy: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Logemann, Jeri A.; Rademaker, Alfred; Pauloski, Barbara Roa; Kelly, Amy; Stangl-McBreen, Carrie; Antinoja, Jodi; Grande, Barbara; Farquharson, Julie; Kern, Mark; Easterling, Caryn; Shaker, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Seven institutions participated in this small clinical trial that included 19 patients who exhibited oropharyngeal dysphagia on videofluorography (VFG) involving the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and who had a 3-month history of aspiration. All patients were randomized to either traditional swallowing therapy or the Shaker exercise for 6 weeks. Each patient received a modified barium swallow pre- and post-therapy, including two swallows each of 3 ml and 5 ml liquid barium and 3 ml barium p...

  5. A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment of Venous Leg Ulcers Using Mechanically Versus Electrically Powered Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, William A.; Armstrong, David G.; Reyzelman, Alexander M.; Kirsner, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study compares two different negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) modalities in the treatment of venous leg ulcers (VLUs), the ultraportable mechanically powered (MP) Smart Negative Pressure (SNaP®) Wound Care System to the electrically powered (EP) Vacuum-Assisted Closure (V.A.C.®) System.

  6. Comparing Physical Therapy Accompanying Exercise with Only Exercise Treatments in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigating and comparing the effects of exercise and physical therapy accompanying exercise treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty three patients with mechanical type low back existing more than 3 months were included one of the exercise or the physical therapy+exercise groups according to their application sequence. Both of the groups performed lumbar flexion and extension exercises, strengthening of the lumbar and abdominal muscle exercises and iliopsoas, hamstring and quadriceps stretching exercises two times a day for 14 days. The physical therapy group was given hot pack+therapeutic ultrasound+ interferential current for 10 days additionally. Degree of the low back pain was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS, range of joint motion was evaluated with hand finger floor distance (HFFD and Modified Schober test, functional status was evaluated with Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale and quality of life was evaluated with Short form-36 (SF-36 before and a month after the treatments. Results: In both groups (exercise group: average age 59 years, 21 females, 2 males; physical therapy group: average age 60 years, 20 females, 3 males pain intensity and HFFD decreased and Modified Schober increased, functionality recovered, pain and physical functions of SF-36 improved after the treatments. SF-36-physical role difficulty also improved in the exercise group. Decrease in pain, increase in HFFD andimproving of the functional status were all significantly more in the physical therapy group. There were no difference between the groups in terms of Modified Schober measurement and changes of the quality of life. Conclusions: Exercises and exercise+physical therapy are both effective in chronic low back pain. Successful results can be taken by addition of the physical therapy in patients who do not benefit sufficiently from exercise therapy. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 73-8

  7. Detection of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin by solid-phase extraction and UV/Vis spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengwei; Jiang, Jia Qian

    2012-07-01

    A simple and economic solid-phase extraction coupled with UV/Vis spectrophotometric method is described for the analysis of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin. Following solid-phase extraction from model wastewater samples containing standard ibuprofen or ciprofloxacin, elutes were analyzed by a UV/Vis spectrophotometer at 225 nm for ibuprofen and 280 nm for ciprofloxacin. The assay was linear for both compounds with good coefficients of correlation. This method shows good recoveries for both compounds with 101.0 ± 9.8% for ibuprofen and 99.4 ± 11.8% ciprofloxacin.

  8. Treatment planning study comparing proton therapy, RapidArc and intensity modulated radiation therapy for a synchronous bilateral lung cancer case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to perform a treatment planning study on a synchronous bilateral non-small cell lung cancer case using three treatment modalities: uniform scanning proton therapy, RapidArc, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. Methods: The maximum intensity projection (MIP images obtained from the 4 dimensional-computed tomography (4DCT scans were used for delineation of tumor volumes in the left and right lungs. The average 4D-CT was used for the treatment planning among all three modalities with identical patient contouring and treatment planning goal. A proton therapy plan was generated in XiO treatment planning system (TPS using 2 fields for each target. For a comparative purpose, IMRT and RapidArc plans were generated in Eclipse TPS. Treatment plans were generated for a total dose of 74 CGE or Gy prescribed to each planning target volume (PTV (left and right with 2 CGE or Gy per fraction. In IMRT and RapidArc plans, normalization was done based on PTV coverage values in proton plans. Results: The mean PTV dose deviation from the prescription dose was lower in proton plan (within 3.4%, but higher in IMRT (6.5% to 11.3% and RapidArc (3.8% to 11.5% plans. Proton therapy produced lower mean dose to the total lung, heart, and esophagus when compared to IMRT and RapidArc. The relative volume of the total lung receiving 20, 10, and 5 CGE or Gy (V20, V10, and V5, respectively were lower using proton therapy than using IMRT, with absolute differences of 9.71%, 22.88%, and 39.04%, respectively. The absolute differences in the V20, V10, and V5 between proton and RapidArc plans were 4.84%, 19.16%, and 36.8%, respectively, with proton therapy producing lower dosimetric values. Conclusion: Based on the results presented in this case study, uniform scanning proton therapy has a dosimetric advantage over both IMRT and RapidArc for a synchronous bi-lateral NSCLC, especially for the normal lung tissue, heart, and

  9. Pilot study comparing multi-family therapy to single family therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa in an intensive eating disorder program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Gina; Farquhar, Jamie C; Freeman, Victoria Emily; Colton, Patricia Anne; Olmsted, Marion Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Multi-family therapy (MFT) has yet to be evaluated in families of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The study aims were: (i) assess the feasibility of MFT for AN; and, (ii) assess whether MFT is associated with improved outcomes for families compared with single-family therapy (SFT). Adult patients with AN consecutively referred to an eating disorder treatment program were assigned (non-randomly) to receive eight sessions of SFT or MFT. Assessment occurred pre-therapy, immediately post-therapy, and at 3-month follow-up. A total of 37 female patients (13 SFT, 24 MFT) and 45 family members (16 SFT, 29 MFT) completed treatment. There were significant time effects for patients' BMI, eating disorder-related psychopathology and multiple family outcome measures. There were no differences between MFT and SFT on family outcome measures at end of treatment and 3 months post treatment. MFT is a feasible intervention that can be used in adult intensive treatment for those with AN. PMID:25823423

  10. The Effectiveness of Fissure Sealant Therapy Placed by Professional Complementary to Dentistry Compared with Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nilchian

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a process that may take place on any tooth surface in the oral cavity where a microbial biofilm (dental plaque is allowed to develop over a period. From the public health perspective, the prevention of caries is still a major challenge. The development of dental caries within the mouth follows a fixed hierarchy indicating that tooth surfaces vary in caries susceptibility. The most susceptible surfaces are the buccal pits and occlusal-fissured surfaces of the first molar teeth. Since the 1960`s many trials have investigated the effectiveness of using sealants on pit and fissure surfaces. However, the cost effectiveness of sealants is an important issue considered by many studies noted that cost-effectiveness of sealants would be enhanced by using trained auxiliaries to apply them. The changes in dentistry and oral health reveal a need to review the roles of dental auxiliaries in order to deliver quality care cost-effectively. There were number of studies conducted on the effectiveness of dental auxiliaries around the world. According to the purpose of this project, studies evaluated the effectiveness of Professional complementary to dentistry (PCDs and different type of dental auxiliaries in carrying out complete restorations and in the preventive therapies, fissure sealants, traumatic restorative treatment were evaluated in literature review. The aim of the present study is to review the literature and assess whether PCDs can perform pit and fissure sealants as effectively as dentist through investigation of the caries preventive effect of sealant placed by dentist relative to sealant placed by PCDs. Method: Electronic databases were searched till January 2005. The databases which were used are: Medline via Ovid, Cochrane databases of systematic review , DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, CCTR (Clinical Controlled Trials Register Cochrane Library, Dissertation Abstracts International database

  11. Comparative cost-effectiveness of stereotactic body radiation therapy versus intensity-modulated and proton radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju eParthan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the cost-effectiveness of several external beam radiation treatment modalities for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer.Methods. A lifetime Markov model incorporated the probabilities of experiencing treatment-related long-term toxicity or death. Toxicity probabilities were derived from published sources using meta-analytical techniques. Utilities and costs in the model were obtained from publically available secondary sources. The model calculated quality-adjusted life expectancy and expected lifetime cost per patient, and derived ratios of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained between treatments. Analyses were conducted from both a payer and societal perspectives. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.Results. Compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and proton beam therapy (PT, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT was less costly and resulted in more QALYs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions in the base-case scenario were robust with respect to variations in toxicity and cost parameters consistent with available evidence. At a threshold of $50,000/QALY, SBRT was cost effective in 75%, and 94% of probabilistic simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, from a payer perspective. From a societal perspective, SBRT was cost-effective in 75%, and 96% of simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, at a threshold of $50,000/QALY. In threshold analyses, SBRT was less expensive with better outcomes compared to IMRT at toxicity rates 23% greater than the SBRT base-case rates. Conclusions. Based on the assumption that each treatment modality results in equivalent long-term efficacy, SBRT is a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved quality-adjusted survival compared to IMRT and PT for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  12. Clinical Comparative Study on Massage Therapy and Cisapride in Treating Functional Dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-fu; LIN Qiang; LIU Hong-bo; ZHOU Ping; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2007-01-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of massage therapy and Cisapride in the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD).Methods:Eighty subjects were randomized into two groups:treatment group in which 40 cases were treated by massage therapy and control group in which 40 cases were treated by Cisapride,with a course of 4 weeks;meanwhile,another 40 healthy people were taken as normal group.Abdominal fullness,acid regurgitation,diminished appetite and anorexia,nausea and vomiting and health survey were observed;symptom scores were recorded.Results:These two treatment methods were effective for FD.Conclusion:Mental disorder is one cause of FD;massage therapy is quite effective for it.

  13. Effects of mental practice embedded in daily therapy compared to therapy as usual in adult stroke patients in Dutch nursing homes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beurskens Anna J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental practice as an additional cognitive therapy is getting increased attention in stroke rehabilitation. A systematic review shows some evidence that several techniques in which movements are rehearsed mentally might be effective but not enough to be certain. This trial investigates whether mental practice can contribute to a quicker and/or better recovery of stroke in two Dutch nursing homes. The objective is to investigate the therapeutic potential of mental practice embedded in daily therapy to improve individually chosen daily activities of adult stroke patients compared to therapy as usual. In addition, we will investigate prognostic variables and feasibility (process evaluation. Methods A randomised, controlled, observer masked prospective trial will be conducted with adult stroke patients in the (subacute phase of stroke recovery. Over a six weeks intervention period the control group will receive multi professional therapy as usual. Patients in the experimental group will be instructed how to perform mental practice, and will receive care as usual in which mental practice is embedded in physical, occupation and speech therapy sessions. Outcome will be assessed at six weeks and six months. The primary outcome measure is the patient-perceived effect on performance of daily activities as assessed by an 11-point Likert Scale. Secondary outcomes are: Motricity Index, Nine Hole Peg Test, Barthel Index, Timed up and Go, 10 metres walking test, Rivermead Mobility Index. A sample size of the patients group and all therapists will be interviewed on their opinion of the experimental program to assess feasibility. All patients are asked to keep a log to determine unguided training intensity. Discussion Advantages and disadvantages of several aspects of the chosen design are discussed. Trial registration ISRCTN27582267

  14. Comparative antibacterial activities of temafloxacin hydrochloride (A-62254) and two reference fluoroquinolones.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, D J; Swanson, R N; Hensey, D M; Ramer, N R; Bower, R R; Hanson, C W; Chu, D T; Fernandes, P B

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo properties of a new 1-difluorophenyl-6-fluoroquinolone, temafloxacin hydrochloride (A-62254), were compared with those of difloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Temafloxacin hydrochloride was as active as ciprofloxacin and difloxacin against staphylococci and as active as ciprofloxacin and 2 twofold dilutions more active than difloxacin against streptococci. Against gram-negative enteric bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, temafloxacin hydrochloride was 2 twofold dilutions mo...

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of technetium-99m labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Infecton is Tc-99m labelled Ciprofloxacin, which is a synthetic carboxyquinolone derivative with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. Conventional imaging agents such as Tc-99m or In-111 labelled leucocytes are either time-consuming or hazardous due to blood handling. These can be obviated by the use of Infecton which we synthesised by modifying the procedure described by Britton and co-workers (Lancet 1996;..347: 233-235). Bioassay and animal studies have been performed with a view to its use in infection imaging in patients. The first task was to prepare pure ciprofloxacin from its commercially available lactate salt. This was achieved by isoelectric precipitation at pH 8.6 by adding sodium hydroxide to the formulation. The resultant precipitate was washed with 200 mL of water for injection and filtered through a cintered-glass filtering unit. The precipitate was free of lactate and sodium as analysed by Biochem analyser. The UV spectrophotometric analysis showed an absorption peak at 276.3 nm which is close to the theoretical value of 277 nm, thus confirming the purity of the compound. Infecton was synthesised by adding 2 mg of pure ciprofloxacin, 0.4 mg of formimidine sulfinic acid ( non-stannous reducing agent) and 1.0 GBq Tc-99m pertechnetate in a final volume of 1.0 mL saline into a sterile N2-filled Amersham vial and boiling the mixture at 100 deg C for 10 min. The purity of the product was 40-45%. It was passed through a DEAE Sephadex A-25 column and eluted with phosphate buffered saline (0.01M, pH 6.9) with a purity of >96%. The preparation was characterised by bioassay (n=3) by adding Infecton to four different broths of bacterial strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA with resultant binding of 50.4, 45.6, 48.5 and 50.3% respectively. The binding was less than 1.0% when either ciprofloxacin or

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of technetium-99m labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Choong, K.K.L.; Olma, T.R.; Mieczkowski, S. [Westmead and the New Childrens Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicineand Ultrasound and Centre for infectious Diseases and Microbiology laboratory Services

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Infecton is Tc-99m labelled Ciprofloxacin, which is a synthetic carboxyquinolone derivative with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. Conventional imaging agents such as Tc-99m or In-111 labelled leucocytes are either time-consuming or hazardous due to blood handling. These can be obviated by the use of Infecton which we synthesised by modifying the procedure described by Britton and co-workers (Lancet 1996;..347: 233-235). Bioassay and animal studies have been performed with a view to its use in infection imaging in patients. The first task was to prepare pure ciprofloxacin from its commercially available lactate salt. This was achieved by isoelectric precipitation at pH 8.6 by adding sodium hydroxide to the formulation. The resultant precipitate was washed with 200 mL of water for injection and filtered through a cintered-glass filtering unit. The precipitate was free of lactate and sodium as analysed by Biochem analyser. The UV spectrophotometric analysis showed an absorption peak at 276.3 nm which is close to the theoretical value of 277 nm, thus confirming the purity of the compound. Infecton was synthesised by adding 2 mg of pure ciprofloxacin, 0.4 mg of formimidine sulfinic acid ( non-stannous reducing agent) and 1.0 GBq Tc-99m pertechnetate in a final volume of 1.0 mL saline into a sterile N{sub 2}-filled Amersham vial and boiling the mixture at 100 deg C for 10 min. The purity of the product was 40-45%. It was passed through a DEAE Sephadex A-25 column and eluted with phosphate buffered saline (0.01M, pH 6.9) with a purity of >96%. The preparation was characterised by bioassay (n=3) by adding Infecton to four different broths of bacterial strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA with resultant binding of 50.4, 45.6, 48.5 and 50.3% respectively. The binding was less than 1.0% when either ciprofloxacin or

  17. Experimental imaging study of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin in detection of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Most of the current imaging agents fox inflammatory and(or) infectious dis- eases are not specific enough. It was studied that using ciprofloxacin(an antibiotics)labeled with 99Tcm for a novel imaging agent detected inflammatory and(or) infectious foci in vivo. Methods: In this investigation, the biological properties were evaluated by pharmacologic experiments. The end points of this study were two. One was to study the biodistribution of 99Tcm labeled ciprofloxacin (an antibiotics)in vivo. The other was to understand the potential role of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin in detecting inflammatory and(or) infectious foci in rabbit models. The biodistribution of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was studied in mice models. Scintigraphy of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was performed in rabbit models. Results: The labeling rate was over 90%. The dissociation of 99Tcm ciprofloxacin was minimal within 8 h at room temperature. After intravenous injection, rapid plasma clearance and renal clearance were observed. Kidney, liver and spleen were the target organs for the accumulation of injected 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin. In the infectious rabbit models (n=3), accumulation of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was found at the infective lesion (left thigh). The dynamic study showed that the optimal acquisition time for 99Tcm ciprofloxacin imaging was at 3 h after injection. Moreover, images could still be positive at 24 h after injection. Notably, little 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin accumulation was observed at the inflammation foci in above rabbit models. Conclusion: 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin could be a potential imaging agent for infectious rather than inflammatory disease in vivo in the future. (authors)

  18. Randomized clinical trial comparing affect regulation and supportive group therapies for victimization-related PTSD with incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D; Chang, Rocío; Levine, Joan; Zhang, Wanli

    2013-06-01

    Traumatic victimization and associated problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and affect dysregulation are prevalent among incarcerated women, but there is limited evidence to support psychotherapeutic interventions for these problems in this underserved population. A group psychotherapy designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing-Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET)-was compared to a supportive group therapy (SGT) in a randomized clinical trial with 72 incarcerated women with full or partial PTSD. Both interventions achieved statistically significant reductions in PTSD and associated symptom severity and increased self-efficacy. Dropout rates for both interventions were low (forgiveness toward others who have caused harm in the past. Group therapy that teaches affect regulation may enhance incarcerated women's ability to achieve affective resolution (forgiveness) while also reducing their victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Experiential-focused supportive group therapy also may reduce victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Both group therapy approaches warrant further study with this vulnerable population. PMID:23611076

  19. Determination of the etiological organism during acute exacerbations of COPD and efficacy of azithromycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor. Turkish Thoracic Society COPD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umut, S; Tutluoglu, B; Aydin Tosun, G; Müsellim, B; Erk, M; Yildirim, N; Vahapoglu, H; Yilmaz, N; Arseven, O; Türker, H; Erelel, M; Ilvan, A; Göylüsün, V; Yilmaz Kuyucu, T; Koşar, F; Soysal, F; Gür, A; Unutmaz, S; Oztürk, S; Akman, M

    1999-06-01

    Acute exacerbations, most of which are due to lower respiratory tract infections, cause great morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most of these are due to lower respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the causative organism and the effects of azithromycin, ampicillin sulbactam (sultamicillin), ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate therapy in COPD. One hundred and six patients with COPD in acute exacerbation were randomized into four groups for empiric antibiotic treatment following lung function tests and sputum examination. The most common strains isolated from sputum were Haemophilus influenzae (30.8%), Streptoccocus pneumoniae (12%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (7.7%). Azithromycin, sultamicillin, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate were found to be effective in treating COPD exacerbations. PMID:10435684

  20. Comparative Kinetic Methods used for the Therapy of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena AMARICĂI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is one of the most common axial deviations of the spine. Because of its incidence and the fact that, with the evolution of technology, adolescents spend increasingly more time sitting at desk, adopting positions often incorrect, this paper aims to study the evolution of adolescent patients diagnosed with scoliosis using different kinetic methods of treatment. Another objective is to highlight the most effective method of treatment in terms of overall rehabilitation period, the time spent by the patient in the rehabilitation centre and the preservation of scoliosis correction. 9 adolescents patients (aged between 14 and 17 years with idiopathic scoliosis were divided into three groups based on the followed kinetic method. Three patients underwent a physical therapy program based on the conventional Klapp and Cotrel method, three patients performed Schroth method, and the other three patients performed Vojta method. All patients were monitored for 6 months. They followed a certain rehabilitation therapy in a specialized centre under the guidance of specialized therapist. Height, weight and scoliosis curvature (measured by the Cobb angle were assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 months of kinetic program. The small number of patients in each group could not issue conclusions regarding the statistical efficiency of the three methods of therapy. However, besides the conventional therapy, both Schroth method and Vojta method represent possibilities to treat the adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  1. Modified Sequential Therapy Regimen versus Conventional Triple Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in China: A Multicenter Clinical Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Qun; Xu, Ling; Wang, Bing-Fang; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Jian-Ye; Wang, Chun-Yan; Guo, Chuan-Yong; Xu, Xuan-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Antimicrobial resistance has decreased eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection worldwide. To observe the effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and the treatment of duodenal ulcer by 2 kinds of modified sequential therapy through comparing with that of 10-day standard triple therapy. Methods. A total of 210 patients who were confirmed in duodenal ulcer active or heal period by gastroscopy and H. pylori positive confirmed by rapid urease test, serum anti-H. pylori antibody (ELASE), or histological examination enrolled in the study. All the patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (70 cases) and group B (70 cases) were provided 10-day modified sequential therapy; group C (70 cases) was provided 10-day standard triple therapy. Patients of group A received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group B received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group C received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for standard 10-day therapy. All drugs were given twice daily. H. pylori eradication rate was checked four to eight weeks after taking the medicine by using a (13)C urea breath test. In the first, second, third, seventh, twenty-first, thirty-fifth days respectively, the symptoms of patients such as epigastric gnawing, burning pain, and acidity were evaluated simultaneously. Results. Overall, 210 patients accomplished all therapy schemes, 9 case patients were excluded. The examination result indicated that the H. pylori eradication rate of each group was as follows: group A 92.5% (62/67), group B 86.8% (59/68), and group C 78.8% (52/66). The H. pylori eradication rate of

  2. The phenotypic evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations changes in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassermann, Tina; Meinike Jørgensen, Karin; Ivanyshyn, Karolina;

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a widely used antibiotic, in the class of quinolones, for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The immediate response of P. aeruginosa to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin has been investigated previously. However, the long-term phenotypic adaptation, which...

  3. Mutation patterns in gyrA and parC genes of ciprofloxacin resistant isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from India

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, U; Ray, K; Bala, M; Saluja, D

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To analyse mutations in the gyrA and parC genes leading to possible increase in ciprofloxacin resistance (high MIC values for ciprofloxacin) in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Delhi, India.

  4. Susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Germany to Ciprofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, and Tetracycline

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Jutta; Jabbusch, Miriam; Eisenblätter, Martin; Hahn, Helmut; Wendt, Constanze; Ignatius, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate Campylobacter jejuni resistance to antibiotics in Germany, MICs of ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline were determined (using agar dilution) for 144 clinical isolates. The data indicate a considerable ciprofloxacin resistance (45.1%) without a clonal relationship of the strains and a greater in vitro activity of moxifloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin.

  5. Validation of the ultraviolet spectrophotometry method for the quality control of ciprofloxacin chlorhydrate in Ciprecu tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinolones are a group of antimicrobials of high clinical significance. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate is a second-generation antibacterial fluoroquinolone for treatment of several infections and is marketed as eye drops, injections, capsule and tablets. To develop and to validate an ultraviolet spectrophotometric analytical method to be used in the quality control of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate in newly manufactured Ciprecu tablets

  6. Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures treated with ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Soltanian

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that 20 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin was the dilution of choice for mycoplasma elimination followed by 200 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin. Concentrations of 3, 30 and 300 of enrofloxacin, respectively, are appropriate for mycoplasma removal. More detailed works would be needed to verify the authenticity of the proposed simple and affordable way of mycoplasma elimination.

  7. Role of ciprofloxacin in patients with cholestasis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thawee Ratanachu-ek; Pitchaya Prajanphanit; Kawin Leelawat; Suchart Chantawibul; Sukij Panpimanmas; Somboon Subwongcharoen; Jerasak Wannaprasert

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of ciprofloxacin in reducing cholangitis in cholestatic patients with adequate biliary drainage after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial was performed in 48 cholestatic patients at Rajavithi Hospital (Tertiary Referral Center for ERCP: 600 cases per year). All the 48 patients received 200 mg ciprofloxacin intravenous injection for 30 min before starting any procedures, and then were randomly divided in two groups. Twenty-two patients in study group continually received ciprofloxacin until 48 h after ERCP. Causes of biliary obstruction, bacteriology of bile and blood (in cholangitis) and clinical cholangitis were recorded.RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled and divided into continuous ciprofloxacin treatment group (n = 22) and discontinuous ciprofloxacin treatment group (n = 26). During ERCP, stones were found in 22 patients,malignant diseases in 24 patients and other pathologic lesions in 5 patients. One (4.5%) of the 22 patients who received ciprofloxacin and 2 (6.3%) of the 26 patients who discontinued ciprofloxacin after ERCP developed cholangitis (relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.14-3.65;P = 0.88). Bacterobilia was found in 27 (56.3%) out of 48 patients. E. coli and Streptococcus viridans were the most common organisms.CONCLUSION: Continual use of ciprofloxacin in patients with cholestasis after adequate biliary drainage procedures plays no role in reducing cholangitis.

  8. Influence of montmorillonite on antimicrobial activity of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guocheng; Pearce, Cody W.; Gleason, Andrea; Liao, Libing; MacWilliams, Maria P.; Li, Zhaohui

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics are used not only to fight infections and inhibit bacterial growth, but also as growth promotants in farm livestock. Farm runoff and other farm-linked waste have led to increased antibiotic levels present in the environment, the impact of which is not completely understood. Soil, more specifically clays, that the antibiotic contacts may alter its effectiveness against bacteria. In this study a swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was preloaded with antibiotics tetracycline and ciprofloxacin at varying concentrations and bioassays were conducted to examine whether the antibiotics still inhibited bacterial growth in the presence of montmorillonite. Escherichia coli was incubated with montmorillonite or antibiotic-adsorbed montmorillonite, and then the number of viable bacteria per mL was determined. The antimicrobial activity of tetracycline was affected in the presence of montmorillonite, as the growth of non-resistant bacteria was still found even when extremely high TC doses were used. Conversely, in the presence of montmorillonite, ciprofloxacin did inhibit E. coli bacterial growth at high concentrations. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in clayey soils depends on the amount of antibiotic substance present, and on the interactions between the antibiotic and the clays in the soil, as well.

  9. Voice Quality After Treatment of Early Vocal Cord Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Laser Surgery With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Early laryngeal cancer is usually treated with either transoral laser surgery or radiation therapy. The quality of voice achieved with these treatments has not been compared in a randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Male patients with carcinoma limited to 1 mobile vocal cord (T1aN0M0) were randomly assigned to receive either laser surgery (n=32) or external beam radiation therapy (n=28). Surgery consisted of tumor excision with a CO2 laser with the patient under general anaesthesia. External beam radiation therapy to the larynx was delivered to a cumulative dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions over 6.5 weeks. Voice quality was assessed at baseline and 6 and 24 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were expert-rated voice quality on a grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, videolaryngostroboscopic findings, and the patients' self-rated voice quality and its impact on activities of daily living. Results: Overall voice quality between the groups was rated similar, but voice was more breathy and the glottal gap was wider in patients treated with laser surgery than in those who received radiation therapy. Patients treated with radiation therapy reported less hoarseness-related inconvenience in daily living 2 years after treatment. Three patients in each group had local cancer recurrence within 2 years from randomization. Conclusions: Radiation therapy may be the treatment of choice for patients whose requirements for voice quality are demanding. Overall voice quality was similar in both treatment groups, however, indicating a need for careful consideration of patient-related factors in the choice of a treatment option

  10. Voice Quality After Treatment of Early Vocal Cord Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Laser Surgery With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, Leena-Maija, E-mail: leena-maija.aaltonen@hus.fi [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Rautiainen, Noora; Sellman, Jaana [Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mäkitie, Antti; Rihkanen, Heikki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Laranne, Jussi; Kleemola, Leenamaija [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, and University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland); Wigren, Tuija [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital, and University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland); Sala, Eeva [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Lindholm, Paula [Department of Oncology, Turku University Hospital, and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Grenman, Reidar [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-01

    Objective: Early laryngeal cancer is usually treated with either transoral laser surgery or radiation therapy. The quality of voice achieved with these treatments has not been compared in a randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Male patients with carcinoma limited to 1 mobile vocal cord (T1aN0M0) were randomly assigned to receive either laser surgery (n=32) or external beam radiation therapy (n=28). Surgery consisted of tumor excision with a CO{sub 2} laser with the patient under general anaesthesia. External beam radiation therapy to the larynx was delivered to a cumulative dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions over 6.5 weeks. Voice quality was assessed at baseline and 6 and 24 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were expert-rated voice quality on a grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, videolaryngostroboscopic findings, and the patients' self-rated voice quality and its impact on activities of daily living. Results: Overall voice quality between the groups was rated similar, but voice was more breathy and the glottal gap was wider in patients treated with laser surgery than in those who received radiation therapy. Patients treated with radiation therapy reported less hoarseness-related inconvenience in daily living 2 years after treatment. Three patients in each group had local cancer recurrence within 2 years from randomization. Conclusions: Radiation therapy may be the treatment of choice for patients whose requirements for voice quality are demanding. Overall voice quality was similar in both treatment groups, however, indicating a need for careful consideration of patient-related factors in the choice of a treatment option.

  11. Evaluation and Characterization of The Radiopharmaceutical Lyophilized-Kit of Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiopharmaceutical is available in the lyophilized-kit which is separately packed in two vials, ciprofloxacin lactate and Sn-tartrate, respectively. Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into ciprofloxacin lactate solution, followed by addition of Sn-tartrate solution. The complement information was needed by user in order to assure the successful preparation and utilization of this radiopharmaceutical. Meanwhile, this investigation was performed to obtained the several physicochemical and biological characters of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin prepared from the radiopharmaceutical lyophilized-kit of ciprofloxacin lactate. The radiochemical purity was determined with instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) using acetone and solution of dichloromethane : methanol : ammonium hydroxide : acetonitrile : (4:4:2:1) as a mobile phases. The plasma binding protein of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was investigated in-vitro by precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid solution, whereas the lipophilicity (P) was obtained by determination of octanol-water partition. Beside that, studies on the effect of volume of Na99mTcO4 solution to radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin has been carried out. From the experiment, it was obtained that 99mTc-ciprofloxacin has 95.85 ± 2.10 % of radiochemical purity, the human plasma binding protein of 58.35 ± 2.05 % and the lipophilicity (P) = 0.024 ± 0.005. The volume more than 2 mL of Na99mTcO4 solution on the labelling of ciprofloxacin gave less than 90 % of radiochemical purity. The labelling efficiency of 44.79 % was obtained after filtration of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin. The stability test on 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin lyophilized-kit were performed by determining their radiochemical purities. The 99mTcciprofloxacin was still able to be used until 4 hours after labelling with radiochemical purity of 91.61 ± 1.60 %. The stability determination showed that the

  12. Intensity modulated radiotherapy versus volumetric modulated arc therapy in breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    KR Muralidhar; Bhudevi Soubhagya; Shabbir Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has the capacity to optimize the dose distribution. We analyzed the dosimetric differences of plans in treatment planning system (TPS) between VMAT and IMRT in treating breast cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients were simulated, planned, and treated with VMAT using single, double or partial arcs. IMRT treatments were generated using 4 to 5 tangential IMRT fields for the same patients. All treatment plan...

  13. Comparing Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Models of Depression: a Longitudinal Study Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Odriozola-González, Paula

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the interrelationships between key constructs of cognitive therapy (CT; depressogenic schemas), metacognitive therapy (MCT; dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; psychological inflexibility) in the prediction of depressive symptoms. With a lapse of nine months, 106 nonclinical participants responded twice to an anonymous online survey containing the following questionnaires: the Depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale Revised (DAS-R), the Positive beliefs, Negative beliefs and Need to control subscales of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II). Results showed that when controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and demographic variables, psychological inflexibility longitudinally mediated the effect of depressogenic schemas (path ab = .023, SE = .010; 95% BC CI [.008, .048]) and dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs on depressive symptoms (positive metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .052, SE = .031; 95% BC CI [.005, .134]; negative metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .087, SE = .049; 95% BC CI [.016, .214]; need to control: path ab = .087, SE = .051; 95% BC CI [.013, .220]). Results are discussed emphasizing the role of psychological inflexibility in the CT and MCT models of depression. PMID:26076977

  14. A comparative study between the efficacy of tramadol, celecoxib and ibuprofen in pain control after root canal therapy of tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Eshagh A Saberi; S. Mohsen Hosseini-Goosheh; Roohollah Mirkahnooj; Hossein Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Background: Root canal therapy of teeth can relief the endodontic pain, but post-endodontic pain and discomfort are its undesirable effects. There are many studies on various drugs for alleviation of post-endodontic pain. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol, celecoxib and ibuprofen in vital teeth.Materials & Method: In this double blind randomized clinical trial study, 104 patients with vital first mandibular molar tooth were selected. The patients were divid...

  15. Clamp ablation of the testes compared to bilateral orchiectomy as androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    AD Zarrabi; CF Heyns

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Burdizzo clamp ablation of the testes (CAT) may provide an incisionless, cost-effective form of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ACP) who find bilateral orchiectomy (BO) unacceptable or can not afford medical ADT. The aim of this study was to compare CAT with BO as primary ADT in men with ACP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Written, informed consent was obtained from men with locally advanced or metastatic ACP. Patients were prospectively randomi...

  16. Comparing the effects of minimal handling protocols on the physiological parameters of preterm infants receiving exogenous surfactant therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Laura A.; Velloso, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of minimal handling is recommended for preterm infants (PTIs). However, few studies have investigated the effects of this practice among these infants or the time needed to ensure greater physiological stability, especially after exogenous surfactant treatments. Objective The current study compared the effects of two protocols of minimal handling on the physiological variables of PTIs after surfactant therapy. Method An exploratory prospective observational study was p...

  17. Comparing the effects of minimal handling protocols on the physiological parameters of preterm infants receiving exogenous surfactant therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Laura A.; Marcelo Velloso

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The practice of minimal handling is recommended for preterm infants (PTIs). However, few studies have investigated the effects of this practice among these infants or the time needed to ensure greater physiological stability, especially after exogenous surfactant treatments. OBJECTIVE: The current study compared the effects of two protocols of minimal handling on the physiological variables of PTIs after surfactant therapy. METHOD : An exploratory prospective observational...

  18. Penetration of Ciprofloxacin into the Interstitial Space of Inflamed Foot Lesions in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Markus; Brunner, Martin; Hollenstein, Ursula; Joukhadar, Christian; Schmid, Rainer,; Minar, Erich; Ehringer, Herbert; Eichler, Hans Georg

    1999-01-01

    Interstitial ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured by microdialysis in inflamed foot lesions of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients following intravenous administration of 0.2 g of ciprofloxacin. Interstitial ciprofloxacin concentrations were significantly lower than corresponding serum concentrations. There was no significant difference in the penetration of ciprofloxacin into inflamed and unaffected tissue (area under the concentration-time curveinfection/area under the co...

  19. Alteration of GyrA Amino Acid Required for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in China▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yingmei; Guo, Lishuang; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Gu, Jiaao; Xu, Jianfeng; Chen, Xiaobei; Zhao, Yuehui; Ma, Jiayu; Liu, Xinghan; Zhang, Fengmin

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in 111 (48.1%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from China. GyrA alterations were identified in the ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. The results, including previously published data, indicate that the single substitution Ser83→Ile and three types of double mutations at Ser83 and Asp87 were required for ciprofloxacin resistance (P < 0.05).

  20. Reinforcement of the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm by hyperbaric oxygen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Mousavi, Nabi; Sams, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    diffusive supply for aerobic respiration during ciprofloxacin treatment. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that biofilm reoxygenation by HBOT can significantly enhance the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa. Combining ciprofloxacin treatment with HBOT thus clearly has potential...... mechanisms affecting antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms remain unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of several bactericidal antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is enhanced by stimulation of the aerobic respiration of pathogens, and that lack of O2 increases their tolerance. Reoxygenation...... of O2-depleted biofilms may thus improve susceptibility to ciprofloxacin possibly by restoring aerobic respiration. We tested such a strategy using reoxygenation of O2-depleted P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 agarose-embedded biofilms by hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) (100% O2, 2.8bar), enhancing the...

  1. Ciprofloxacin Loaded Bovine Serum Albumin Microspheres: Prepa-ration and Drug Release Characterization In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiFengqian; HuJinhong; LuBin; ZhuQuangang; SunHuajun

    2001-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin loaded microspheres were prepared by spray drying technique, with bovine serum albumin as the natural biodegradable wall materials. The obtained microspheres, using aqueous system, were organic solvent-free. The diameters of the spherical microspheres were in the range of 1-5 1:4. The drug entrapment of microspheres, formulated with different ciprofloxacin/albumin ratios as 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4, were 46.93%, 32.96% and 20.56% (n=3). And the encapsulation efflciencies for ciprofloxacin during spray drying were higher than 90%. Thermal denaturation programs at different temperatures (100-120℃) for different time intervals (3-6-12 h) were further processed to stabilize the spray-dried microspheres. The higher the extent for thermal denaturation, the slower the rate of ciprofloxacin released from microspheres in vitro. So the release rate of ciprofloxacin from microspheres can be controlled by modifing the conditions of thermal denaturation.

  2. Ozonation and advanced oxidation by the peroxone process of ciprofloxacin in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Bavo de [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dewulf, Jo [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jo.dewulf@UGent.be; Demeestere, Kristof; Langenhove, Herman van [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2009-01-30

    A bubble reactor was used for ozonation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Effects of process parameters ozone inlet concentration, ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature, pH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration were tested. Desethylene ciprofloxacin was identified, based on HPLC-MS analysis, as one of the degradation products. Formation of desethylene ciprofloxacin was highly dependent on pH, with the highest concentration measured at pH 10. Radical scavengers t-butanol and parachlorobenzoic acid were added in order to gain mechanistic understanding. Radical species other than hydroxyl radicals were suggested to occur at acidic pH which can explain fast ciprofloxacin ozonation at pH 3.

  3. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction of ciprofloxacin with amino acids in aqueous solution following solvatochromic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Kamal; Mobarrez, Mahsa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    Complexation of a fluoroquinolone derivative (ciprofloxacin), L, and some amino acids has been studied using spectrofluorimetric method. Results indicated that ciprofloxacin have a greater tendency to form a 1:1 complex with aspartic acid and arginine than the other tested molecules. The fluorescence of ciprofloxacin exhibits quenching process while it has been titrated with these amino acids. Formation constant values (Kf) for complex formed between ciprofloxacin and amino acids were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were studied too. Possible reasons for the observed stability sequence were discussed based on the structures proposed for the resulting complexes. Besides the solution studies, solvatochromic properties of the ciprofloxacin are discussed by studying its spectra in a selection of different solvents.

  4. Accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy compared to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While conventionally fractionated radiation therapy alone is an acceptable option for poor prognostic patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC, we hypothesized that accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy will have similar efficacy without increasing toxicity. This is a retrospective analysis of 300 patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC treated between 1993 and 2009. Patients included in the study were medically or surgically inoperable, were free of metastatic disease at initial workup and did not receive concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were categorized into three groups. Group 1 received 45 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (Accelerated Radiotherapy (ACRT)) while group 2 received 60-63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy 1 (STRT1)) and group 3 received > 63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy (STRT2)). There were 119 (39.7%) patients in the ACRT group, 90 (30.0%) in STRT1 and 91 (30.3%) in STRT2. More patients in the ACRT group had KPS ≤ 60 (p < 0.001), more commonly presented with weight loss > 5% (p = 0.002), and had stage 3B disease (p < 0.001). After adjusting for clinical variables, there were no differences in the radiation groups in terms of the patterns of local or distant tumor control or overall survival. Some benefit in relapse free survival was seen in the STRT1 group as compared to ACRT (HR = 0.65, p = 0.011). Acute toxicity profiles in the ACRT were significantly lower for grade ≥ 2 radiation dermatitis (p = 0.002), nausea/vomiting (p = 0.022), and weight loss during treatment (p = 0.020). Despite the limitations of a retrospective analysis, our experience of accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 15 fractions appears to be an acceptable treatment option for poor performance status patients with stage III inoperable tumors. Such a treatment regimen (or higher doses in 15 fractions) should be prospectively evaluated using modern radiation technologies with the addition of sequential high dose chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC

  5. Home therapy with LMWH in deep vein thrombosis: randomized study comparing single and double daily administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellosta, Raffaello; Ferrari, Patrizio; Luzzani, Luca; Carugati, Claudio; Cossu, Luisa; Talarico, Matteo; Sarcina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in terms of the evolution of thrombosis, the incidence of adverse events, and compliance with heparin treatment using 2 types of LMWH available on the market administered in therapeutic doses throughout the period of treatment (Nadroparin) or at therapeutic doses only during the first month of treatment followed by a prophylactic phase at half dose (Parnaparin). A randomized prospective study was carried out on patients under observation with a recent diagnosis of DVT. The objectives of the study were to confirm the effectiveness of therapy with LMWH in terms of prevention of the risk of thromboembolism, of relapse of DVT, and of hemorrhagic complications, and to complete an evaluation of venous recanalization and residual valve competence in the 2 groups of patients. From December 2002 to June 2005, we randomized a total of 91 patients (51 in the Parnaparin group and 40 in the Nadroparin group). Overall, there was 1 case of nonfatal pulmonary embolism (1.1%) at 7 days into therapy with LMWH. There were 3 cases (3.3%) of progression of thrombosis despite therapy with LMWH, 2 cases (5%) in the Nadroparin group, and 1 case (2%) in the Parnaparin group (P = NS), and after suspension of the therapy, there was 1 case of relapse of thrombosis. Three of the 4 thrombotic events occurred in patients with active neoplasia. Moreover, only 1 major hemorrhagic event (1.1%) required blood transfusion. The Doppler ultrasound in the follow-up showed a complete resolution of 56% of the vein thromboses at an average of 6.1 +/- 4.6 (mean +/- SD) months. Valve competence recovered in 65.9% of cases with no significant difference between the 2 heparin groups. Home treatment of sural and femoral-popliteal DVT using LMWH represents a safe and effective method in the prevention of pulmonary embolism and encourages the process of recanalization of the

  6. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against amikacin- and cefotaxime-resistant gram-negative bacilli and methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Simberkoff, M S; Rahal, J J

    1986-01-01

    The MICs and MBCs of ciprofloxacin were determined for clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant aerobic bacteria. Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin of cefotaxime- and amikacin-resistant Serratia marcescens and amikacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were noted. The data suggest that ciprofloxacin susceptibility should be carefully monitored in treating patients with hospital-acquired bacterial infections.

  7. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeremy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Science, University of California– San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  8. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT

  9. A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 2 Levofloxacin-Containing Second-Line Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Liang, Chih-Ming; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Ming-Luen; Wu, Keng-Liang; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chou, Yeh-Pin; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen

    2016-05-01

    Summary of Trial Design.Lengthy exposure to quinolone-containing triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication leads to the development of drug resistance. Sequential therapy with a quinolone and metronidazole -containing regimen appears to be an effective treatment option. This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy of 5-plus 5 days' levofloxacin and metronidazole-containing sequential therapy (EALM) with that of 10-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy (EAL) in second-line H pylori eradication treatment.One hundred and sixty-four patients who had failed the H pylori eradication attempts using the standard triple therapy (proton pump inhibitor bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid × 7 days) were randomly assigned to either an EALM therapy group (n = 82; esomeprazole 40 mg bid and amoxicillin 1 g bid for 5 days, followed by esomeprazole 40 mg bid, levofloxacin 500 mg qd, and metronidazole 500 mg tid, for 5 days) or a 10-day EAL therapy group (n = 82; levofloxacin 500 mg qd, amoxicillin 1 g bid, and esomeprazole 40 mg bid). One patient was lost to follow-up in each group. Follow-up for H pylori status was performed 4 to 8 weeks later.Eradication rates for the EALM and EAL groups were 90.2% (74/82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.7%-96.8%) and 80.5% (66/82, 95% CI = 71.7%-89.2%, P = 0.077) in the intention-to-treat analysis; and 91.4% (74/81, 95% CI = 85.1%-97.6%) and 81.5% (66/81, 95% CI = 72.8%-90.1%, P = 0.067) in the per-protocol analysis. The adverse events for the EALM and EAL groups were 23.5% versus 11.1%, P = 0.038 but were all very mild and were well tolerated except for 1 patient with poor compliance. The compliances were 98.8% and 100%, respectively, between the 2 groups. An antibiotic resistance to levofloxacin was the clinical factor influencing the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy in the EAL group, and dual resistance to levofloxacin and

  10. A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 2 Levofloxacin-Containing Second-Line Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Liang, Chih-Ming; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Ming-Luen; Wu, Keng-Liang; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chou, Yeh-Pin; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Summary of Trial Design. Lengthy exposure to quinolone-containing triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication leads to the development of drug resistance. Sequential therapy with a quinolone and metronidazole -containing regimen appears to be an effective treatment option. This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy of 5-plus 5 days’ levofloxacin and metronidazole-containing sequential therapy (EALM) with that of 10-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy (EAL) in second-line H pylori eradication treatment. One hundred and sixty-four patients who had failed the H pylori eradication attempts using the standard triple therapy (proton pump inhibitor bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid × 7 days) were randomly assigned to either an EALM therapy group (n = 82; esomeprazole 40 mg bid and amoxicillin 1 g bid for 5 days, followed by esomeprazole 40 mg bid, levofloxacin 500 mg qd, and metronidazole 500 mg tid, for 5 days) or a 10-day EAL therapy group (n = 82; levofloxacin 500 mg qd, amoxicillin 1 g bid, and esomeprazole 40 mg bid). One patient was lost to follow-up in each group. Follow-up for H pylori status was performed 4 to 8 weeks later. Eradication rates for the EALM and EAL groups were 90.2% (74/82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.7%–96.8%) and 80.5% (66/82, 95% CI = 71.7%–89.2%, P = 0.077) in the intention-to-treat analysis; and 91.4% (74/81, 95% CI = 85.1%–97.6%) and 81.5% (66/81, 95% CI = 72.8%–90.1%, P = 0.067) in the per-protocol analysis. The adverse events for the EALM and EAL groups were 23.5% versus 11.1%, P = 0.038 but were all very mild and were well tolerated except for 1 patient with poor compliance. The compliances were 98.8% and 100%, respectively, between the 2 groups. An antibiotic resistance to levofloxacin was the clinical factor influencing the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy in the EAL group, and dual resistance

  11. Students of physical therapy. A comparative study of student profiles at a college and university in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitza Davidovitch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the attributes of students of physical therapy in order to compare the profiles of students of physical therapy (PT in two institutions of higher learning in Israel: Ben Gurion University (BGU and the Academic College of Judea and Samaria (ACJS. This study focuses on a department where studies have an occupational/applicative/practical orientation and high status in the higher education system. Findings of this study indicate broad similarities in the profiles of students at both institutions in relation to their age, family status, country of origin, number of siblings, parental education, and financial status of student family of origin. On the other hand, students at both institutions differed in terms of gender composition, students' employment status, the source of payment for tuition, and in their academic attainments prior to admission. Specifically, students of physical therapy at ACJS had lower academic achievements prior to their admission and reported having been rejected by other physical therapy programs. Students at ACJS placed higher importance on factors relating to the quality of instruction including teacher involvement, competitiveness, organization, control, and orientation to the study material. Students at BGU attributed greater importance to teachers' support. Findings support a thesis of a converging system of higher education in Israel, traditionally dominated by national universities and regional colleges, a relatively recent phenomenon.

  12. Comparing the effects of minimal handling protocols on the physiological parameters of preterm infants receiving exogenous surfactant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Cabral

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The practice of minimal handling is recommended for preterm infants (PTIs. However, few studies have investigated the effects of this practice among these infants or the time needed to ensure greater physiological stability, especially after exogenous surfactant treatments. OBJECTIVE: The current study compared the effects of two protocols of minimal handling on the physiological variables of PTIs after surfactant therapy. METHOD : An exploratory prospective observational study was performed with 40 PTIs weighing less than 1,500 g. The infants were divided into two groups and monitored for 72 hours. One group received the standard minimal handling procedure during the first 12 hours after surfactant therapy; the other group (i.e., the modified group received minimal handling within 72 hours after surfactant therapy. Infant heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and the adverse events associated with changes to these variables were monitored every 10 minutes. RESULTS : Significant between-group differences were not found with regard to the occurrence of the adverse events associated with physiological changes (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The practice of minimal handling among very low birth weight infants did not alter their physiological stability when performed either 12 or 72 hours after surfactant therapy.

  13. Susceptibilities of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae to RP 59500, vancomycin, erythromycin, PD 131628, sparfloxacin, temafloxacin, win 57273, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1992-01-01

    The MICs of four new quinolones, sparfloxacin (AT-4140, CI-978), PD 131628 (the active form of the prodrug CI-990), temafloxacin, and Win 57273, compared with those of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were tested against 53 penicillin-susceptible, 35 penicillin intermediate-resistant, and 51 penicillin-resistant pneumococci. Susceptibility to RP 59500, a new streptogramin, was also tested and compared with those to the quinolones, erythromycin, and vancomycin. All MICs were determined by a standar...

  14. A randomized trial comparing bladder volume consistency during fractionated prostate radiation therapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, L.

    2014-01-10

    Organ motion is a contributory factor to the variation in location of the prostate and organs at risk during a course of fractionated prostate radiation therapy (RT). A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed with the primary endpoint to provide evidence-based bladder-filling instructions to achieve a consistent bladder volume (BV) and thus reduce the bladder-related organ motion. The secondary endpoints were to assess the incidence of acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients and patients’ satisfaction with the bladder-filling instructions.

  15. A dosimetric comparative study: Volumetric modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas. The treatment of 10 patients, who had completed IMRT treatment for resected tumors of the nasal cavity, was replanned with the Philips Pinnacle3 Version 9 treatment-planning system. The IMRT plans used a 9-beam technique whereas the VMAT (known as SmartArc) plans used a 3-arc technique. Both types of plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle3 Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. IMRT and VMAT plans' quality was compared by evaluating the maximum, minimum, and mean doses to the target volumes and organs at risk, monitor units (MUs), and the treatment delivery time. Our results indicate that VMAT is capable of greatly reducing treatment delivery time and MUs compared with IMRT. The reduction of treatment delivery time and MUs can decrease the effects of intrafractional uncertainties that can occur because of patient movement during treatment delivery. VMAT's plans further reduce doses to critical structures that are in close proximity to the target volume

  16. A comparison between doxycycline-rifampin and ciprofloxacin-rifampin regimens in the treatment of acute Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Erfanian Taghvaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis, a serious zoonosis, is a widespread disease in many countries, especially the developing ones, with an annual report of 500,000 new cases to the World Health Organization (WHO. Although successful results have been achieved by the combination therapies recommended by the WHO, their relapse rates have been high, and therefore, the most effective agents with least side-effects are still undetermined. Materials and Methods: An observational study has been prospectively carried out from 2007 to 2010 in the Infectious Clinics of Hashemi-nejad and Imam Reza Hospitals, Mashhad, Iran. In this study, among the patients of brucellosis, whose diseases were recently diagnosed, 50 patients, receiving one of the two common authentic regimens of doxycycline plus rifampin for eight weeks or ciprofloxacin plus rifampin for six weeks, were selected. The diagnosis was based on the presence of signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis, including a positive Wright and 2ME tests, with titers equal to or more than 1/160 and 1/40 respectively. Results: The cure rate was the same for the groups (P=0.55. However, the relapse rate was much more for the latter (P= 0.02. Conclusion: Doxycycline plus rifampin was considered better than ciprofloxacin plus rifampin for the treatment of acute brucellosis.

  17. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials Comparing Surgery versus Endovascular Therapy for Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts in Hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhan, G., E-mail: gkuhan@nhs.net; Antoniou, G. A. [Central Manchester University Hospital Foundation Trust, Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit (United Kingdom); Nikam, M.; Mitra, S. [Central Manchester University Hospital Foundation Trust, Department of Renal Medicine (United Kingdom); Farquharson, F. [Central Manchester University Hospital Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Brittenden, J. [University of Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Chalmers, N. [Central Manchester University Hospital Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To carry out a systematic review of randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts. Methods. All randomized trials which compared surgery and endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts were retrieved from 1990 onwards. The following search terms were used: 'haemodialysis,' 'thrombosis,' 'arteriovenous fistula,' 'arteriovenous shunt,' 'end stage renal failure' on Medline and PubMed. The results of the pooled data were analysed by a fixed-effect model. Results. There were no randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for native fistulas and vein grafts. Six randomized studies reporting on 573 occluded grafts were identified. Technical success, need for access line and primary patency at 30 days were similar between the two groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.91-2.14; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.44-1.34; and OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.79-1.68, respectively). There was no significant difference in morbidity at 30 days between groups (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.67-1.86). There were no statistical difference between the two groups for 1 year primary patency (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 0.97-4.45). Primary assisted patency at 1 year was better with surgery (OR 3.03, 95 % CI 1.12-8.18) in a single study. Conclusion. Comparable results to surgery have been achieved with endovascular techniques for occluded prosthetic grafts for dialysis access. Long-term data comparing the two groups were lacking. Further trials designed to encompass variation in methods are warranted in order to obtain the best available evidence particularly for native fistulas.

  18. Intestinal ciprofloxacin efflux: the role of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, I S; Wright, J A; O'Reilly, D A; Sherlock, D J; Coleman, T; Simmons, N L

    2011-12-01

    Intestinal secretory movement of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, may limit its oral bioavailability. Active ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) have been implicated in ciprofloxacin transport. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that BCRP alone mediates intestinal ciprofloxacin secretion. The involvement of ABC transport proteins in ciprofloxacin secretory flux was investigated with the combined use of transfected cell lines [bcrp1/BCRP-Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) and multidrug resistance-related protein 4 (MRP4)-human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293] and human intestinal Caco-2 cells, combined with pharmacological inhibition using 3-(6-isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6, 7,12,12a-octahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), cyclosporine, 3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), and verapamil as ABC-selective inhibitors. In addition, the regional variation in secretory capacity was investigated using male Han Wistar rat intestine mounted in Ussing chambers, and the first indicative measurements of ciprofloxacin transport by ex vivo human jejunum were made. Active, Ko143-sensitive ciprofloxacin secretion was observed in bcrp1-MDCKII cell layers, but in low-passage (BCRP-expressing) Caco-2 cell layers only a 54% fraction was Ko143-sensitive. Ciprofloxacin accumulation was lower in MRP4-HEK293 cells than in the parent line, indicating that ciprofloxacin is also a substrate for this transporter. Ciprofloxacin secretion by Caco-2 cell layers was not inhibited by MK571. Secretory flux showed marked regional variability in the rat intestine, increasing from the duodenum to peak in the ileum. Ciprofloxacin secretion was present in human jejunum and was reduced by Ko143 but showed marked interindividual variability. Ciprofloxacin is a substrate for human and

  19. Assessment of altered binding specificity of bacteriophage for ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongjin; Jo, Ara; Ding, Tian; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Ahn, Juhee

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new effort toward understanding the interaction mechanisms between antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and phages. The antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase activity, bacterial motility, gene expression, and lytic activity were evaluated in ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium (ASST(CIP)) and ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium (ARST(CIP)), which were compared to the wild-type strains (ASST(WT) and ARST(WT)). The MIC values of ampicillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were significantly increased to > 512, 16, 16, and 256 μg/ml, respectively, in the ARST(CIP). The lowest and highest extracellular lactamase activities were observed in ASST(WT) (6.85 μmol/min/ml) and ARST(CIP) (48.83 μmol/min/ml), respectively. The acrA, lpfE, and hilA genes were significantly upregulated by more than tenfold in both ASST(CIP) and ARST(CIP). The induction of multiple antibiotic resistance resulted from the increased efflux pump activity (AcrAB-TolC). The highest phage adsorption rates were more than 95 % for ASST(WT), ASST(CIP), and ARST(WT), while the lowest adsorption rate was 52 % for ARST(CIP) at 15 min of infection. The least lytic activity of phage was 20 % against the ARST(CIP), followed by ASST(CIP) (30 %). The adsorption rate of phage against ARST(CIP) was 52 % at 15 min of infection, which resulted in the decrease in lytic activity (12 %). Understanding the interaction of phage and bacteria is essential for the practical application of phage to control and detect antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results provide useful information for understanding the binding specificity of phages for multiple antibiotic-resistant pathogens. PMID:27000396

  20. Spectroscopic, structure and antimicrobial activity of new Y(III) and Zr(IV) ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.; Zordok, Wael A.; El-Didamony, Akram M.

    2011-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of the new solid complexes [Y(CIP) 2(H 2O) 2]Cl 3·10H 2O and [ZrO(CIP) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O formed in the reaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with YCl 3 and ZrOCl 2·8H 2O in ethanol and methanol, respectively, at room temperature were reported. The isolated complexes have been characterized with elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductance measurements, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods and thermal analyses. The results support the formation of the complexes and indicate that ciprofloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand bound to the metal ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The activation energies, E*; entropies, Δ S*; enthalpies, Δ H*; Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves, using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger methods. The proposed structure of the two complexes was detected by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The ligand as well as their metal complexes was also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and antifungal screening was studied against two species ( Penicillium ( P. rotatum) and Trichoderma ( T. sp.)). This study showed that the metal complexes are more antibacterial as compared to free ligand and no antifungal activity observed for ligand and their complexes.

  1. Comparative clinical study using laser and LED-therapy for orofacial pain relief: dentin hypersensitivity and cervicogenic headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Pizzo, Renata C. A.; Florez, Fernando L. E.; Grecco, Clovis; Speciali, Jose G.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Considering several clinical situations, low intensity laser therapy has been widely applied in pain relief or analgesia mechanism. With the advent of new LED-based (light emitting diode) light sources, the need of further clinical experiments aiming to compare the effectiveness among them is paramount. The LED system therapeutic use can be denominated as LEDT - Light Emitting Diode Therapy. This study proposed two clinical evaluations of pain relief effect: to dentin hypersensitivity and to cervicogenic headache using different sources of lasers (low and high intensity) and light emitting diodes (LEDs), one emitting at the spectral band of red (630+/- 5nm) and the other one at infrared band (880+/- 5nm). Two different clinical studies were performed and presented interesting results. Considering dentin hypersensitivity, red and infrared led were so effective than the control group (high intensity laser system); by the other side, considering cervicogenic headache, control group (infrared laser) was the best treatment in comparison to red and infrared led system.

  2. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Spine Radiosurgery: Superior Treatment Planning and Delivery Compared to Static Beam Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor Zach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS delivers an accurate and efficient high radiation dose to vertebral metastases in 1–5 fractions. We aimed to compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT to static beam intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for spine SRS. Methods and Materials. Ten spine lesions of previously treated SRS patients were planned retrospectively using both IMRT and VMAT with a prescribed dose of 16 Gy to 100% of the planning target volume (PTV. The plans were compared for conformity, homogeneity, treatment delivery time, and safety (spinal cord dose. Results. All evaluated parameters favored the VMAT plan over the IMRT plans. Dmin in the IMRT was significantly lower than in the VMAT plan (7.65 Gy/10.88 Gy, p<0.001, the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC was found to be significantly better for the VMAT plans compared to the IMRT plans (0.77/0.58, resp., p  value<0.01, and an almost 50% reduction in the net treatment time was calculated for the VMAT compared to the IMRT plans (6.73 min/12.96 min, p<0.001. Conclusions. In our report, VMAT provides better conformity, homogeneity, and safety profile. The shorter treatment time is a major advantage and not only provides convenience to the painful patient but also contributes to the precision of this high dose radiation therapy.

  3. Processing-property relationships of polypropylene/ciprofloxacin fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we prepared polypropylene (PP) fibers incorporating an antibiotic, i.e. ciprofloxacin (CFX), by melt spinning. In particular, PP has been compounded with CFX at different concentrations by using a counter-rotating twin screw compounder. The PP/CFX fibers have been spun by using a capillary rheometer operating under a constant extrusion speed. The effect of "online" hot drawing during the melt spinning or of an "offline" cold drawing on the properties of PP/CFX fibers were evaluated. In particular, the influence of the drawing conditions on the mechanical properties and the release kinetics were studied. Moreover, the rheological behavior in non-isothermal elongation flow has been assessed.

  4. Ciprofloxacin in imaging of infective versus sterile inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) was labelled with 99Tcm. The radiolabelled efficiency monitored by ITLC and HPLC was higher than 95%. The 99Tcm-CIP complex analyzed by those systems have shown that inactive and labelled CIP exhibit different chromatographic behavior. This finding together with octanol/saline partition coefficients determination indicated that CIP and 99Tcm-CIP correspond to different chemical structure. Biodistribution studies in inflamed mice shown that 99Tcm-CIP is rapidly distributed after i. v. administration with a predominant renal clearance. The radioactive preparation is able to localize bacterial and sterile inflammations induced by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and turpentine, which suggest that its accumulation is due to increased blood flow together with enhanced vascular permeability as also postulated to other non-specific radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  5. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus in murine macrophages by chloroquine used alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin or azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Somrita Dey, Biswadev BishayiDepartment of Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, University of Calcutta, University Colleges of Science and Technology, Calcutta, IndiaAbstract: This study aimed to determine any alteration in the killing of Staphylococcus aureus in murine peritoneal macrophages when chloroquine (CQ is used alone compared with when it is used in combination with ciprofloxacin (CIP or azithromycin (AZM. The study also aimed to find out the implication of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and cytokine release in the intracellular killing of S. aureus in macrophages. We present here data obtained with a model of S. aureus-infected mouse peritoneal macrophages in which the intracellular growth of the bacteria and the influence of antibiotics was monitored for 30, 60, and 90 minutes in the presence or absence of CQ along with the production of ROS and alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes and cytokines. It was observed that S. aureus-triggered cytokine response was regulated when macrophages were co-cultured with CQ and AZM as compared with CQ stimulation only. It can be suggested that action of AZM in mediating bacterial killing is enhanced by the presence of CQ, indicating enhanced uptake of AZM during early infection that may be essential for bacteria killing by AZM. Reduction of oxidative stress burden on the S. aureus-infected macrophages may pave the way for better killing of internalized S. aureus by CQ plus ciprofloxacin (CIP or CQ plus AZM. Based on these observations, one may speculate that in an inflammatory milieu, CQ loaded with AZM elicits a stronger proinflammatory response by increasing the intracellular uptake of AZM or CIP, thus enabling the immune system to mount a more robust and prolonged response against intracellular pathogens.Keywords: azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, intracellular survival

  6. Impact of ciprofloxacin on theophylline clearance and steady-state concentrations in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J; Jauregui, L; Lettieri, J; Bachmann, K

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a multiple-dose regimen of oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 h for 11 doses) on the clearance and steady-state concentrations of theophylline in trough (predose) serum was evaluated in nine healthy male subjects, each serving as his own control. Theophylline was taken as a sustained release tablet per os in a dose of 200 mg every 12 h for 19 doses. Theophylline concentrations in serum were measured immediately before each theophylline dose. Ciprofloxacin was administered on study day 4 through the first dose of study day 8. Theophylline concentrations in serum were also measured on study days 3, 6, 8, and 10 at the following times after the first dose of each day: 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h. Steady-state theophylline concentrations in trough serum were significantly higher during ciprofloxacin treatment (day 8) than before (day 3) or after (day 10) ciprofloxacin administration (P less than 0.01). Likewise, theophylline clearance was significantly slower (P less than 0.01) during ciprofloxacin treatment (day 8) than before it (day 3) or after it (day 10). The magnitude of ciprofloxacin-induced changes was approximately 30%. These results suggest that a multidose regimen of ciprofloxacin significantly slows the clearance of theophylline and elevates theophylline concentrations in serum. PMID:3348614

  7. A new technique of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin kit preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Development of a simple and reproducible method for preparing a ciprofloxacin kit using a redox polymer, which would meet the requirements for an easy and reliable technique of labelling with 99mTc and diagnostic efficiency in scintigraphic imaging of infections. Material and methods: To prepare the kit, an insoluble redox polymer containing an end α(β)-alanine-N,N'-diacetate group anchored to the dextron matrix was used. The redox polymer synthesised by the authors was incubated at room temperature (10 h) with a solution of ciprofloxacin (1%) in a suspension (5%). The mixture was then filtered and dispensed into sterile vials (0.2 ml each). The kit was labelled with 99mTc for 10 min at room temperature. The radiochemical purity of the ciprofloxacin-99mTc complex was determined by ITLC and paper chromatography in relation to the following factors: pH, total content of ciprofloxacin, volume of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate. Ciprofloxacin biodistribution was evaluated in Wistar rats with Staphylococcus aureus infection in the left inguinal region 24 h after abscess induction. Accumulation of 99mTc activity was determined both using external gamma camera imaging and counting dissected tissues 1 h after administration. Results: Radiochemical purity is >95% for kit-labelling (pH 3.3-3.7). With pH 3.45, labelled ciprofloxacin shows the highest stability and radiochemical purity. The 99mTc-ciprofloxacin complex is stable for at least 8 h. In experimentally induced inflammation, the amount of accumulated 99mTc-ciprofloxacin activity is five times higher than in controls. Conclusion: The developed method of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin kit preparation employs a redox polymer in a new procedure, which enables the preparation of a stable kit with a high 99mTc-labelling efficiency. The labelled kit is suitable for scintigraphic imaging of infection. (orig.)

  8. Proton Arc Reduces Range Uncertainty Effects and Improves Conformality Compared With Photon Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seco, Joao, E-mail: jseco@partners.org [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gu, Guan; Marcelos, Tiago; Kooy, Hanne; Willers, Henning [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To describe, in a setting of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the theoretical dosimetric advantages of proton arc stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in which the beam penumbra of a rotating beam is used to reduce the impact of range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with proton SBRT underwent repeat planning with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (Photon-VMAT) and an in-house-developed arc planning approach for both proton passive scattering (Passive-Arc) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT-Arc). An arc was mimicked with a series of beams placed at 10° increments. Tumor and organ at risk doses were compared in the context of high- and low-dose regions, represented by volumes receiving >50% and <50% of the prescription dose, respectively. Results: In the high-dose region, conformality index values are 2.56, 1.91, 1.31, and 1.74, and homogeneity index values are 1.29, 1.22, 1.52, and 1.18, respectively, for 3 proton passive scattered beams, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT. Therefore, proton arc leads to a 30% reduction in the 95% isodose line volume to 3-beam proton plan, sparing surrounding organs, such as lung and chest wall. For chest wall, V30 is reduced from 21 cm{sup 3} (3 proton beams) to 11.5 cm{sup 3}, 12.9 cm{sup 3}, and 8.63 cm{sup 3} (P=.005) for Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. In the low-dose region, the mean lung dose and V20 of the ipsilateral lung are 5.01 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), 4.38 Gy(RBE), 4.91 Gy(RBE), and 5.99 Gy(RBE) and 9.5%, 7.5%, 9.0%, and 10.0%, respectively, for 3-beam, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy with proton arc and Photon-VMAT generate significantly more conformal high-dose volumes than standard proton SBRT, without loss of coverage of the tumor and with significant sparing of nearby organs, such as chest wall. In addition

  9. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    C. Mucha

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987), was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982). For this study, 60 patients with epico...

  10. Rapid identification of bacterial resistance to Ciprofloxacin using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Costas

    2014-02-01

    Due to its effectiveness and broad coverage, Ciprofloxacin is the fifth most prescribed antibiotic in the US. As current methods of infection diagnosis and antibiotic sensitivity testing (i.e. an antibiogram) are very time consuming, physicians prescribe ciprofloxacin before obtaining antibiogram results. In order to avoid increasing resistance to the antibiotic, a method was developed to provide both a rapid diagnosis and the sensitivity to the antibiotic. Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, an antibiogram was obtained after exposing the bacteria to Ciprofloxacin for just two hours. Spectral analysis revealed clear separation between sensitive and resistant bacteria and could also offer some inside into the mechanisms of resistance.

  11. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin imaging in infectious and sterile inflammation in rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-Ciprofloxacin is a potentially specific agent for bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to find out whether 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin accumulation can differentiate bacterial infectious inflammation from nonbacterial sterile inflammation. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin was synthesized with 99mTc 20 mCi, ciprofloxacine 2 mg, formamidine sulphinic acid 1 mg, and 15 sec heating in microwave. For induction of infectious or sterile inflammation in SD rats, 2 x 108 of S. aureus in 0.2ml (group1, n=9) or 0.2 ml of terpentine oil (group 2, n=10) were injected to thigh muscle. Three days later, 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin images were obtained at 4 hrs after iv injection of 37MBq of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin. Immediately after imaging, rats were sacrificed and dissected to obtain %ID/g of normal organs and inflammatory lesions. For histopathologic evaluation, tissue specimens from the inflammatory lesions were obtained. The induction of infection/inflammation produced marked swelling of thighs in both groups. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin imaging of both groups showed increased uptake, but target to background uptake ratio in group 1 was significantly higher than group 2 (3.70±0.5 vs 2.18±0.3, p99mTc-Ciprofloxacin in liver, slpeen, kidney were 6.1±0.45, 5.1±0.42, 3.42±0.2%ID/g, respectively, and inflammatory lesion in group 1 and group 2 were 0.42±0.09 and 0.24±0.02%ID/g, respectively. Both lesion to normal muscle activity ratio and lesion to blood activity ratio of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin in group 1 were significantly higher than group 2 (5.29±2.3 vs 1.69±0.2, 1.45±0.47 vs 0.93±0.2, p99mTc-Ciprofloxacin uptake is significantly higher in bacterial infectious inflammation than sterile inflammation. However, further studies and cautious clinical application are needed for differentiating infectious from sterile inflammation using 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin imaging, because there is still significant degree of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin accumulation in sterile inflammation

  12. Does an online psychological intervention improve self-efficacy and disability in people also receiving Multimodal Manual Therapy for chronic low back pain compared to Multimodal Manual Therapy alone? Design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Petrozzi, M. John; Leaver, Andrew; Jones, Mairwen K.; Ferreira, Paulo H; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; Mackey, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Various interventions are available for the treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP), including Manual Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the addition of an internet-based CBT program leads to better outcomes in patients who are treated with multimodal manual therapy for chronic LBP. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial comparing a combined intervention, consisting of internet-based CBT utilising MoodGYM plus mu...

  13. Comparative analysis of volumetric-modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for base of tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nithya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the various dosimetric parameters of dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT plans with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plans for base of tongue cases. All plans were done in Monaco planning system for Elekta synergy linear accelerator with 80 MLC. IMRT plans were planned with nine stationary beams, and VMAT plans were done for 360° arc with single arc or dual arc. The dose to the planning target volumes (PTV for 70, 63, and 56 Gy was compared. The dose to 95, 98, and 50% volume of PTV were analyzed. The homogeneity index (HI and the conformity index (CI of the PTV 70 were also analyzed. IMRT and VMAT plan showed similar dose coverage, HI, and CI. Maximum dose and dose to 1-cc volume of spinal cord, planning risk volume (PRV cord, and brain stem were compared. IMRT plan and VMAT plan showed similar results except for the 1 cc of PRV cord that received slightly higher dose in VMAT plan. Mean dose and dose to 50% volume of right and left parotid glands were analyzed. VMAT plan gave better sparing of parotid glands than IMRT. In normal tissue dose analyses VMAT was better than IMRT. The number of monitor units (MU required for delivering the good quality of the plan and the time required to deliver the plan for IMRT and VMAT were compared. The number of MUs for VMAT was higher than that of IMRT plans. However, the delivery time was reduced by a factor of two for VMAT compared with IMRT. VMAT plans yielded good quality of the plan compared with IMRT, resulting in reduced treatment time and improved efficiency for base of tongue cases.

  14. Traditional Therapies Used to Manage Diabetes and Related Complications in Mauritius: A Comparative Ethnoreligious Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi; Mootoosamy, A; Wambugu, S

    2016-01-01

    Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT) for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC). This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n = 95) and traditional healers (n = 5) were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n = 36). Leaves (45.2%) and juice (36%) were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55) and Morinda citrifolia (0.54). The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8). Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites. PMID:27200100

  15. Traditional Therapies Used to Manage Diabetes and Related Complications in Mauritius: A Comparative Ethnoreligious Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC. This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n=95 and traditional healers (n=5 were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n=36. Leaves (45.2% and juice (36% were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55 and Morinda citrifolia (0.54. The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8. Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites.

  16. Traditional Therapies Used to Manage Diabetes and Related Complications in Mauritius: A Comparative Ethnoreligious Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi; Mootoosamy, A.; Wambugu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT) for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC). This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n = 95) and traditional healers (n = 5) were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n = 36). Leaves (45.2%) and juice (36%) were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55) and Morinda citrifolia (0.54). The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8). Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites. PMID:27200100

  17. Comparative accuracy of different techniques in planning radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the results of the analysis of several factors contributing to the accuracy of treatment planning in the radiation therapy of breast cancer. Different techniques (non-radiological vs CT-based) were used for the acquisition of patients' data; different methods (manual vs computerized) were employed for dose calculation. As for geometric parameters describing the external outline and target volume, mean differences were lower than 4%. Switching from a completely manual method to a CT-based one with computerized calculation, a 3.56% mean decrease in the value of reference isodose (p<0.01) was observed, togheter with a 3.87% mean increase in the estimated inhomogeneity (p<0.001). The non-CT-based outline of target volume exhibited geographic missing of inner portions of the target in 8/16 patients. Our results demonstarte that treatment planning procedures can be a significant source of clinically relevant inaccuracy, which may affect treatment outcome and tumor control

  18. Patients’ views about treatment with combination therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis: a comparative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempp Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combinations of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs are increasingly used to control active rheumatoid arthritis (RA; however there is little information about patients’ perspectives, their expectations, concerns and experiences of this intensive treatment. Method We interviewed a quota sample of 18 patients from a single tertiary outpatient clinic, stratified by gender, ethnicity and age, based on the outpatient clinic population. Patients with early RA (2 years received combined conventional DMARDs or DMARDs with biologics. Results Four main themes emerged from the analytical framework: (i patients’ expectations about the combined treatment focuses mainly on physical symptoms; (ii the impact of the treatment on quality of life varied with the new medication in both groups (iii concerns about new interventions concentrated mainly on potential side effects; and (iv combination therapy can be self-managed in close collaboration with clinic staff, but this requires individualised management approaches. These themes resonate with von Korff’s collaborative management of chronic illness model. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study that examined systematically in patients with early and established RA their expectations, impact on quality of life, concerns about side effects and the management of the treatment when taking combined medication with DMARDs or DMARDs and biologics. Patients have generally positive views of combination DMARDs. Within routine practice settings, achieving medication concordance with complex combined DMARD regimens is challenging, and the concerns vary between patients; careful individual assessments are essential to successfully deliver such intensive treatment.

  19. Sublethal Ciprofloxacin Treatment Leads to Rapid Development of High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance during Long-Term Experimental Evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Wassermann, Tina; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of occurrence and the genetic basis of ciprofloxacin resistance were studied in a long-term evolution experiment (940 generations) in wild-type, reference strain (PAO1) and hypermutable (PAOΔmutS and PAOMY-Mgm) P. aeruginosa populations continuously exposed to sub-MICs (1/4) of...... ciprofloxacin. A rapid occurrence of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants (MIC of ≥12 μg/ml, representing 100 times the MIC of the original population) were observed in all ciprofloxacin-exposed lineages of PAOΔmutS and PAOMY-Mgm populations after 100 and 170 generations, respectively, and in one of the PAO1...... lineages after 240 generations. The genetic basis of resistance was mutations in gyrA (C248T and G259T) and gyrB (C1397A). Cross-resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was observed in the bacterial populations that evolved during exposure to sublethal concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Our study shows that...

  20. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, Mathilda L., E-mail: ml.bongers@vumc.nl [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Coupé, Veerle M.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Ruysscher, Dirk [Radiation Oncology University Hospitals Leuven/KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW Research Institute, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW Research Institute, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uyl-de Groot, Cornelia A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT.

  1. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT

  2. Efficacy, safety, and improved tolerability of travoprost BAK-free ophthalmic solution compared with prior prostaglandin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Charles Henry

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available J Charles Henry1, James H Peace2, Jeanette A Stewart3,4, William C Stewart3,41Little Rock Eye Clinic, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Diabetic Eye Medical Clinic, Inglewood, CA, USA; 3PRN Pharmaceutical Research Network, LLC, Dallas,TX, USA; 4Carolina Eye Institute, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USAPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of changing to travoprost BAK-free from prior prostaglandin therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.Design: Prospective, multi-center, historical control study.Methods: Patients treated with latanoprost or bimatoprost who needed alternative therapy due to tolerability issues were enrolled. Patients were surveyed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI to evaluate OSD symptoms prior to changing to travoprost BAK-free dosed once every evening. Patients were re-evaluated 3 months later.Results: In 691 patients, travoprost BAK-free demonstrated improved mean OSDI scores compared to either latanoprost or bimatoprost (p < 0.0001. Patients having any baseline OSD symptoms (n = 235 demonstrated significant improvement after switching to travoprost BAK-free (p < 0.0001. In 70.2% of these patients, symptoms were reduced in severity by at least 1 level. After changing medications to travoprost BAK-free, mean intraocular pressure (IOP was significantly decreased (p < 0.0001. Overall, 72.4% preferred travoprost BAK-free (p < 0.0001, travoprost BAK-free vs prior therapy. Travoprost BAK-free demonstrated less conjunctival hyperemia than either prior therapy (p < 0.0001.Conclusions: Patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog who are changed to travoprost BAK-free have clinically and statistically significant improvement in their OSD symptoms, decreased hyperemia, and equal or better IOP control.Keywords: glaucoma, prostaglandin analog, travoprost, latanoprost, bimatoprost, preservative, benzalkonium chloride

  3. Neuropsychiatric manifestations after mefloquine therapy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria: comparing a retrospective and a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Rønne-Rasmussen, J; Gøtzsche, P C;

    1998-01-01

    Mefloquine has been increasingly used for treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria since its introduction in the late 1970s. In 1987 the first case of toxic encephalopathy was published, and in 1989 the WHO initiated reporting and investigation of neuropsychiatric adverse reactions of mefloquine....... Neuropsychiatric adverse drug reactions are now well documented. We compared an open prospective 3 year study including all patients with P. falciparum treated with mefloquine with an earlier published, retrospective study on a comparable population from our department covering the period up to 1989. In the...

  4. Photodynamic therapy of human malignant tumors: a comparative study between photohem and tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litvin, Grigory D.; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating malignant neoplasms of the skin, mammary glands, tongue, oral mucous, lower lip, larynx, lungs, urinary bladder, rectum and other locations has been made. During 1992-1995 543 tumoral foci in 146 patients have been treated with PDT. All patients were previously treated with conventional techniques without effect or they were not treated due to contraindications either because of severe accompanying diseases or because of old age. A part of the patients had PDT because of recurrences or intradermal metastases in 1-2 years after surgical, radial or combined treatment. Two home-made preparations were used as photosensitizers: Photohem (hematoporphyrine derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine). Light sources were: the argon pumped dye laser ('Innova-200,' 'Coherent') and home-made laser devices: copper-vapor laser-pumped dye laser ('Yakhroma-2,' Frjazino), gas-discharge unit 'Xenon' (wavelength 630 nm), gold-vapor laser (wavelength 627.8 nm) for Photohem; while for Photosense sessions we used solid-state laser on ittrium aluminate 'Poljus-1' (wavelength 670 mn). Up to now we have follow-up control data within 2 months and 3 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 92.4% of patients including complete regression of tumors in 62.3% and partial -- in 30.1%. Currently, this new perspective technique of treating malignant neoplasms is successfully being used in Russia; new photosensitizers and light sources for PDT and fluorescent tumour diagnostics are being developed as well.

  5. Nootropic efficacy of Satvavajaya Chikitsaand Ayurvedic drug therapy: A comparative clinical exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ayurveda is known for philosophical basis, and its approach to psychological ailments is quite different from conventional system of management. Satvavajaya Chikitsa (Ayurvedic psychotherapy is a nonpharmacological approach aimed at control of mind and restraining it from unwholesome Artha (objects or stressors. Withdrawal of the mind from unwholesome objects is known as Sattvavajaya Chikitsa or it is a treatment by Self Control. Charaka defines it as a mind controlling therapy in which a stress has been laid on restraining of mind from unwholesome objects. Thus, it includes all the methods of Manonigraha and Astanga Yoga (Yogic techniques too. Indian philosophy portrays Astanga Yoga as a primary tool to control mind; hence it can be used as Satvavajaya Chikitsa. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate efficacy of Satvavajaya Chikitsa and Aushadhiya Medhya Chikitsa for improving Smriti in young healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Totally, 102 physically healthy volunteers between age group 16 and 25 years were divided into two groups. In Group A, Satvavajaya Chikitsa was adopted in form of Yogic procedures such as Asana, Pranayama, Chanting etc., with counseling and placebo. Group B was Shankhapushpi tablets made with whole part of Shankhpushpi plant was used as standard control. The Weschler′s memory scale (WMS was adopted to collect data before and after intervention period of 2 months. Paired and Unpaired t-test were used for analysis the data in Sigmastat Software. Results: Group A (Satvavajaya + placebo with counseling showed statistically highly significant result (P < 0.001 in verbal retention for similar pair, verbal retention for dissimilar pair and visual immediate tests; while Group B (Shankhapushpi tablets showed significant result (P < 0.01 in auditory delayed, visual delayed, auditory recognition and visual recognition tests. Conclusion: Satvavajaya Chikitsa shows better results in immediate recollection in terms of

  6. Nootropic efficacy of Satvavajaya Chikitsa and Ayurvedic drug therapy: A comparative clinical exposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hetal; Sharma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ayurveda is known for philosophical basis, and its approach to psychological ailments is quite different from conventional system of management. Satvavajaya Chikitsa (Ayurvedic psychotherapy) is a nonpharmacological approach aimed at control of mind and restraining it from unwholesome Artha (objects) or stressors. Withdrawal of the mind from unwholesome objects is known as Sattvavajaya Chikitsa or it is a treatment by Self Control. Charaka defines it as a mind controlling therapy in which a stress has been laid on restraining of mind from unwholesome objects. Thus, it includes all the methods of Manonigraha and Astanga Yoga (Yogic techniques) too. Indian philosophy portrays Astanga Yoga as a primary tool to control mind; hence it can be used as Satvavajaya Chikitsa. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate efficacy of Satvavajaya Chikitsa and Aushadhiya Medhya Chikitsa for improving Smriti in young healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Totally, 102 physically healthy volunteers between age group 16 and 25 years were divided into two groups. In Group A, Satvavajaya Chikitsa was adopted in form of Yogic procedures such as Asana, Pranayama, Chanting etc., with counseling and placebo. Group B was Shankhapushpi tablets made with whole part of Shankhpushpi plant was used as standard control. The Weschler's memory scale (WMS) was adopted to collect data before and after intervention period of 2 months. Paired and Unpaired t-test were used for analysis the data in Sigmastat Software. Results: Group A (Satvavajaya + placebo) with counseling showed statistically highly significant result (P < 0.001) in verbal retention for similar pair, verbal retention for dissimilar pair and visual immediate tests; while Group B (Shankhapushpi tablets) showed significant result (P < 0.01) in auditory delayed, visual delayed, auditory recognition and visual recognition tests. Conclusion: Satvavajaya Chikitsa shows better results in immediate recollection in terms of short

  7. Comparative assessment of single-dose and fractionated boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fractionating boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were evaluated in the intracerebral rat 9L gliosarcoma and rat spinal cord models using the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) thermal neutron beam. The amino acid analog p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) was administered prior to each exposure to the thermal neutron beam. The total physical absorbed dose to the tumor during BNCT using BPA was 91% high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Two tumor doses of 5.2 Gy spaced 48 h apart (n = 14) or three tumor doses of 5.2 Gy, each separated by 48 h (n = 10), produced 50 and 60% long-term (>1 year) survivors, respectively. The outcome of neither the two nor the three fractions of radiation was statistically different from that of the corresponding single-fraction group. In the rat spinal cord, the ED50 for radiation myelopathy (as indicated by limb paralysis within 7 months) after exposure to the thermal beam alone was 13.6 ± 0.4 Gy. Dividing the beam-only irradiation into two or four consecutive daily fractions increased the ED50 to 14.7 ± 0.2 Gy and 15.5 ± 0.4 Gy, respectively. Thermal neutron irradiation in the presence of BPA resulted in an ED50 for myelopathy of 13.8 ± 0.6 Gy after a single fraction and 14.9 ± 0.9 Gy after two fractions. An increase in the number of fractions to four resulted in an ED50 of 14.3 ± 0.6 Gy. The total physical absorbed dose to the blood in the vasculature of the spinal cord during BNCT using BPA was 80% high-LET radiation. It was observed that fractionation was of minor significance in the amelioration of damage to the normal central nervous system in the rat after boron neutron capture irradiation. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Comparative skin dose measurement in the treatment of anal canal cancer: Conventional versus conformal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this work was to compare the effect of Conventional and Conformal techniques, used for anal canal cancer treatments, on the skin dose deposition. Skin dose was measured on a Rando phantom using XR-T GAFCHROMIC registered film. A skin surface dose histogram was constructed and a skin dose profile in the sagittal direction of the perineal region was measured, for both techniques. The measured skin dose in the anterior and posterior region of the skin exposed to radiation is from two to ten times higher when using a conventional technique. In the perineal region, an 85% of the prescription isodose line spreads over 25% of the perineum for conformal technique as compared to 65% with conventional techniques. In addition, conformal technique dose profiles confine better the anatomical position of the anal verge than conventional techniques. Results presented in this work confirm clinically observed improvement in the radiation-induced dermatitis when using the conformal technique

  9. Randomised controlled trial comparing oral and intravenous rehydration therapy in children with diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, A; Barnes, G.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effectiveness of oral rehydration in children with moderate dehydration caused by gastroenteritis, and to compare the complications of oral and intravenous treatment. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Emergency department and infectious diseases ward in a large urban teaching hospital. PATIENTS--111 children aged 3-36 months who had been previously healthy, had had diarrhoea for seven days or less, had clinical signs of dehydration, and were not in shoc...

  10. Comparative study of Low-level laser therapy and microcurrent on the healing of skin burns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu Freitas

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated and compared the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT and microcurrent in the burn healing process in Wistar rats. We conducted a randomized controlled study with 30 rats divided into 3 groups (n = 10; control group (CG, laser group (LG and microcurrent group (MG. After thermal damage, 10 applications of 660 nm diode laser were performed in GL and 10 applications of 60 Hz microcurrent (160 μA in MG. The semi-quantitative histological analysis was done using scores (0–3, in sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome. The results indicated a significant improvement in the fibroblasts proliferation, collagen fibers deposition, neoangiogenesis, and cutaneous appendages regeneration in MG and LG. When microcurrent and LLLT were compared, no difference was detected, except the regeneration and formation of new cutaneous appendages, observed in MG. Despite the similar effects, GM showed faster tissue repair with the formation of skin appendages.

  11. Comparison of Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin in treating adults\\\\\\' acute non amebiasis dysenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Erahimzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Results: Out of 84 patients, shigella was diagnosed in 41 (48.8%, 18 patients of whom (43.9% had been treated with azitromycin and 23 cases (56.1% had received ciprofloxacin .In 14 samples (16.7% other microbes had grown (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia Coli. Antibiogram of 55 patients showed that 32 (58.2% of them were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and 41 subjects (74.5% to azitromycin .On the third day of treatment the clinical response of the patients was assessed through their probable fever and diarrhea .It was found that 29 cases (93.5% in azitromycin group and 31 patients (88.5% in ciprofloxacin group were a febrile. Thus, no significant difference between the two groups was observed (P=0.6. Conclusion: The present study proved that Azitromycin and Ciprofloxacin have the same efficacy in treating non-amoebic dysentery

  12. Factors influencing sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge: Experimental assessment and modelling implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang;

    2015-01-01

    to identify whether the assessed factors caused a significant increase of aqueous ciprofloxacin concentration in full-scale bioreactors. Simulation results suggest that a pH increase, rather than a reduction in iron salt dosing, could be responsible for a systematic deterioration of sorption of ciprofloxacin...... and described, particularly for zwitterionic chemicals. Here we present an assessment of the effects of pH and iron salt dosing on the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge using laboratory experiments and full-scale fate modelling. Experimental results were described with Freundlich isotherms...... and showed that non-linear sorption occurred under all the conditions tested. The greatest sorption potential was measured at pH = 7.4, at which ciprofloxacin is speciated mostly as zwitterion. Iron salt dosing increased sorption under aerobic and, to a lesser extent, anoxic conditions, whereas no effect...

  13. Comparative efficacy of combination bronchodilator therapies in COPD: a network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisman EL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eline L Huisman,1 Sarah M Cockle,2 Afisi S Ismaila,3,4 Andreas Karabis,1 Yogesh Suresh Punekar2 1Mapi Group, Real World Strategy and Analytics and Strategic Market Access, Houten, the Netherlands; 2Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK; 3Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Several new fixed-dose combination bronchodilators have been recently launched, and assessing their efficacy relative to each other, and with open dual combinations is desirable. This network meta-analysis (NMA assessed the efficacy of umeclidinium and vilanterol (UMEC/VI with that of available dual bronchodilators in single/separate inhalers. Methods: A systematic literature review identified randomized controlled trials of ≥10 weeks among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (≥40 years, assessing the efficacy of combination bronchodilators in single or separate inhalers. Comparative assessment was conducted on change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ total scores, transitional dyspnea index (TDI focal scores, and rescue medication use at 12 weeks and 24 weeks using an NMA within a Bayesian framework. Results: A systematic literature review identified 77 articles of 26 trials comparing UMEC/VI, indacaterol/glycopyrronium (QVA149, formoterol plus tiotropium (TIO 18 µg, salmeterol plus TIO, or indacaterol plus TIO, with TIO and placebo as common comparators at 12 weeks and approximately 24 weeks. The NMA showed that at 24 weeks, efficacy of UMEC/VI was not significantly different compared with QVA149 on trough FEV1 (14.1 mL [95% credible interval: -14.2, 42.3], SGRQ total score (0.18 [-1.28, 1.63], TDI focal score (-0.30 [-0.73, 0.13], and rescue medication use (0.02 [-0.27, 0.32]; compared with salmeterol plus

  14. Automated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Planning for Stage III Lung Cancer: How Does It Compare With Intensity-Modulated Radio Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans generated by an automated inverse planning system with that of dosimetrist-generated IMRT treatment plans for patients with stage III lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Two groups of 8 patients with stage III lung cancer were randomly selected. For group 1, the dosimetrists spent their best effort in designing IMRT plans to compete with the automated inverse planning system (mdaccAutoPlan); for group 2, the dosimetrists were not in competition and spent their regular effort. Five experienced radiation oncologists independently blind-reviewed and ranked the three plans for each patient: a rank of 1 was the best and 3 was the worst. Dosimetric measures were also performed to quantitatively evaluate the three types of plans. Results: Blind rankings from different oncologists were generally consistent. For group 1, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.6, 2.13, and 2.18, respectively. The auto-VMAT plans in group 1 had 10% higher planning tumor volume (PTV) conformality and 24% lower esophagus V70 (the volume receiving 70 Gy or more) than the manual IMRT plans; they also resulted in more than 20% higher complication-free tumor control probability (P+) than either type of IMRT plans. The auto- and manual IMRT plans in this group yielded generally comparable dosimetric measures. For group 2, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.55, 1.75, and 2.75, respectively. Compared to the manual IMRT plans in this group, the auto-VMAT plans and auto-IMRT plans showed, respectively, 17% and 14% higher PTV dose conformality, 8% and 17% lower mean lung dose, 17% and 26% lower mean heart dose, and 36% and 23% higher P+. Conclusions: mdaccAutoPlan is capable of generating high-quality VMAT and IMRT treatment plans for stage III lung cancer. Manual IMRT plans could achieve quality

  15. Automated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Planning for Stage III Lung Cancer: How Does It Compare With Intensity-Modulated Radio Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Enzhuo M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xia Tingyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing 301 Hospital, Beijing (China); Yuan Zhiyong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Tianjin (China); Liu Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan University Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiaoqiang; Wages, Cody A.; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang Xiaodong, E-mail: xizhang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans generated by an automated inverse planning system with that of dosimetrist-generated IMRT treatment plans for patients with stage III lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Two groups of 8 patients with stage III lung cancer were randomly selected. For group 1, the dosimetrists spent their best effort in designing IMRT plans to compete with the automated inverse planning system (mdaccAutoPlan); for group 2, the dosimetrists were not in competition and spent their regular effort. Five experienced radiation oncologists independently blind-reviewed and ranked the three plans for each patient: a rank of 1 was the best and 3 was the worst. Dosimetric measures were also performed to quantitatively evaluate the three types of plans. Results: Blind rankings from different oncologists were generally consistent. For group 1, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.6, 2.13, and 2.18, respectively. The auto-VMAT plans in group 1 had 10% higher planning tumor volume (PTV) conformality and 24% lower esophagus V70 (the volume receiving 70 Gy or more) than the manual IMRT plans; they also resulted in more than 20% higher complication-free tumor control probability (P+) than either type of IMRT plans. The auto- and manual IMRT plans in this group yielded generally comparable dosimetric measures. For group 2, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.55, 1.75, and 2.75, respectively. Compared to the manual IMRT plans in this group, the auto-VMAT plans and auto-IMRT plans showed, respectively, 17% and 14% higher PTV dose conformality, 8% and 17% lower mean lung dose, 17% and 26% lower mean heart dose, and 36% and 23% higher P+. Conclusions: mdaccAutoPlan is capable of generating high-quality VMAT and IMRT treatment plans for stage III lung cancer. Manual IMRT plans could achieve quality

  16. Effect of directly observed antiretroviral therapy compared to self-administered antiretroviral therapy on adherence and virological outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Becky L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; Kiziah, C Nichole; Richardson, Amy; Hudgens, Michael G; Wohl, David A; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    The effect of directly observed therapy (DOT) versus self-administered therapy (SAT) on antiretroviral (ART) adherence and virological outcomes in prison has never been assessed in a randomized, controlled trial. Prisoners were randomized to receive ART by DOT or SAT. The primary outcome was medication adherence [percent of ART doses measured by the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and pill counts] at the end of 24 weeks. The changes in the plasma viral loads from baseline and proportion of participants virological suppressed (prisoners declined participation. Participants in the DOT arm (n = 20) had higher viral loads than participants in the SAT (n = 23) arm (p = 0.23). Participants, with complete data at 24 weeks, were analyzed as randomized. There were no significant differences in median ART adherence between the DOT (n = 16, 99% MEMS [IQR 93.9, 100], 97.1 % pill count [IQR 95.1, 99.3]) and SAT (n = 21, 98.3 % MEMS [IQR 96.0, 100], 98.5 % pill count [95.8, 100]) arms (p = 0.82 MEMS, p = 0.40 Pill Count) at 24 weeks. Participants in the DOT arm had a greater reduction in viral load of approximately -1 log 10 copies/mL [IQR -1.75, -0.05] compared to -0.05 [IQR -0.45, 0.51] in the SAT arm (p value = 0.02) at 24 weeks. The proportion of participants achieving virological suppression in the DOT vs SAT arms was not statistically different at 24 weeks (53 % vs 32 %, p = 0.21). These findings suggest that DOT ART programs in prison settings may not offer any additional benefit on adherence than SAT programs. PMID:25055766

  17. Comparative Effects of Statin Therapy versus Renin-Angiotensin System Blocking Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Heart Failure Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jumin; Jeong, Myung Ho; Park, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Sim, Doo Sun; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Statins and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers are key drugs for treating patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study was designed to show the association between treatment with statins or RAS blockers and clinical outcomes and the efficacy of two drug combination therapies in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF) who underwent revascularization for an AMI. A total of 804 AMI patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% who undertook percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) were analyzed using the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). They were divided into four groups according to the use of medications [Group I: combination of statin and RAS blocker (n=611), Group II: statin alone (n=112), Group III: RAS blocker alone (n=53), Group IV: neither treatment (n=28)]. The cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) and independent predictors of MACCEs were investigated. Over a median follow-up study of nearly 1 year, MACCEs had occurred in 48 patients (7.9%) in Group I, 16 patients (14.3%) in Group II, 3 patients (5.7%) in Group III, 7 patients (21.4%) in Group IV (p=0.013). Groups using RAS blocker (Group I and III) showed better clinical outcomes compared with the other groups. By multivariate analysis, use of RAS blockers was the most powerful independent predictor of MACCEs in patients with IHF who underwent PCI (odds ratio 0.469, 95% confidence interval 0.285-0.772; p=0.003), but statin therapy was not found to be an independent predictor. The use of RAS blockers, but not statins, was associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with IHF who underwent PCI. PMID:27231678

  18. Targeted Therapies Compared to Dacarbazine for Treatment of BRAFV600E Metastatic Melanoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Shih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Two BRAFV600E targeted therapies, dabrafenib and vemurafenib, have received US approval for treatment of metastatic melanoma in BRAFV600E patients, a mutation that affects ~50% of patients. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of BRAF inhibitors and traditional chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic melanoma. Methods. A Markov model was developed using a societal perspective. Transition probabilities were derived from two Phase III registration trials comparing each BRAF inhibitor against dacarbazine. Costs were obtained from literature, national databases, and Medicare fee schedules. Utilities were obtained from published literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were run to test the impact of uncertainties. Results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of dabrafenib was $149,035/QALY compared to dacarbazine. Vemurafenib was dominated by dabrafenib. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that, at a willingness-to-pay (WTP threshold of ≤$100,000/QALY, dacarbazine was the optimal treatment in ~85% of simulations. At a WTP threshold of ≥$150,000/QALY, dabrafenib was the optimal treatment. Conclusion. Compared with dacarbazine, dabrafenib and vemurafenib were not cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. Dabrafenib is more efficient compared to vemurafenib. With few treatment options, dabrafenib is an option for qualifying patients if the overall cost of dabrafenib is reduced to $30,000–$31,000 or a WTP threshold of ≥$150,000/QALY is considered. More comparative data is needed.

  19. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    OpenAIRE

    Jezdimirović Milanka; Aleksić Nevenka; Radojičić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 %) in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %), which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the me...

  20. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT DRUG INFLUENCE ON A RADIO THERAPY EFFICIENCY AND OXIDATIVE STATUS IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander V. Siprov; I.M. Vashurkina; V.A. Masyagin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is a comparative analysis of the effect of melatonin (Melaxen) and 3-hydroxypyridine (Mexidol) on antitumor and antimetastatic influence of chemoradiotherapy and oxidative status at mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. Material — Experiments have been organized on 95 mice of C57Bl/6 line and of 20–22 g in weight. Cyclophosphan has been abdominally administered two times in a dosage of 60 mg/kg within the interval of 120 hours — 20-30 min before radiotherapy. It has been locate...

  1. The effect of ferrous sulphate on the absorption of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, P; Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ferrous sulphate on the absorption of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was studied in three separate, two-period crossover trials, each involving eight healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast, a single dose of norfloxacin (400 mg), ciprofloxacin (500 mg) or ofloxacin (400 mg) was administered with and without ferrous sulphate (corresponding to 100 mg elemental iron). The absorption of all the fluoroquinolones studied was significantly reduced when they were co-admini...

  2. Liposome Encapsulation of Ciprofloxacin Improves Protection against Highly Virulent Francisella tularensis Strain Schu S4

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Karleigh A.; Armstrong, Stuart J.; Barnes, Kay B.; Davies, Carwyn; Wong, Jonathan P.; Blanchard, James D.; Harding, Sarah V.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2014-01-01

    Liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin for inhalation (CFI) was investigated as a putative postexposure therapeutic for two strains of Francisella tularensis. The efficacies of oral ciprofloxacin and intranasally instilled CFI could not be distinguished in a mouse model of infection with the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), where a single dose of either formulation offered full protection against a lethal challenge. However, mouse studies with the more virulent Schu S4 strain of F. tular...

  3. [A severe case of infectious mononucleosis associated with ciprofloxacin and salazopyrin administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftode, Egidia; Leca, Daniela; Luca, V

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of rash probably induced by ciprofloxacin and/or salazopyrin administration in a patient with infectious mononucleosis. A 22 year woman developed a maculopapular and petechial eruption in the 3-rd day of ciprofloxacin (given for a genital tract infection) and the 32-nd day of salazopyrin (for a spondylodiscitis). Subsequently she developed a severe hepatitis, shock, and very severe leucocytosis (88 000/mmc) that occasioned haematological investigations for a lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:20201247

  4. Ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute-care hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Raviglione, M. C.; Boyle, J. F.; Mariuz, P; Pablos-Mendez, A; Cortes, H; Merlo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of ciprofloxacin as an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection has been paralleled by the emergence of resistant strains. This phenomenon has also been noticed in our hospital. To confirm our observation, methicillin and ciprofloxacin susceptibilities were tested by disk diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. We studied 83 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various sources over a 4-month period...

  5. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Plhalova, Lucie; Chromcova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Skoric, Misa; Marsalek, Petr; Praskova, Eva; Stepanova, Stanislava; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-07-01

    The authors performed a toxicity test with ciprofloxacin in fertilized eggs of common carp according to guideline 210 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The tested concentrations were 1 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) . Accelerated hatching was found in all groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant growth reduction was found only in the group exposed to the highest concentration (3000 μg L(-1) ). Increased numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed on day 6 of the test (after hatching). The highest numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed in the groups of free embryos and larvae exposed to ciprofloxacin concentrations of 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) (20-23% of tested samples). A gradual decrease in glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in all experimental groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant differences (p ciprofloxacin concentrations of 500 μg L(-1) and 3000 μg L(-1) (p ciprofloxacin. The lowest-observed-effect concentration of ciprofloxacin was 1 μg L(-1) . These results suggest that hatching, early ontogeny, occurrence of morphological anomalies, antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation in fish can be affected by ciprofloxacin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1733-1740. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632160

  6. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    F Amin Harati; Amini, M; AR Shahverdi; Pourmand MR; Yousefi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has inc...

  7. Study on the supramolecular systems of ciprofloxacin with cyclodextrins%环丙沙星与环糊精超分子体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红芬; 侯晓峰; 梁蕾

    2012-01-01

    利用荧光光谱法研究了环丙沙星与母体β-环糊精(β-CD)及其2种修饰衍生物羟丙基-β-环糊精(Hp-β-CD)、甲基-β-环糊精(Me-β-CD)形成的超分子体系,同时测定了3种超分子体系的猝灭常数和热力学参数.结果表明:环丙沙星与3种环糊精之间常温下均形成稳定的包合物;环丙沙星与3种环糊精包结过程中△G<0和△H<0,这说明环丙沙星与3种环糊精的包结能够自发进行而形成超分子体系,且反应为放热过程.通过对3种环糊精与环丙沙星的热力学数包结能力进行了比较,初步探讨了作用机理和影响包结能力大小的可能因素.%The supramolecular systems of ciprofloxacin with β-CD, Me-β-CD and Hp-β-CD have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy respectively, and the binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters of ciprofloxacin with three above mentioned CDs were all determined by fluorescence spectroscopy at different temperatures. The experimental result showed the interaction between ciprofloxacin and three CDs occurred and new supramolecular systems were formed. Inclusion ability between ciprofloxacin and three CDs was compared. The AG and ΔH of the three supramolecular systems all reduced, the supramolecular systems of ciprofloxacin with three CDs formed spontaneously. The inclusion ability of modified Me-β-CD and Hp-β-CD with ciprofloxacin is stronger than that of native β-CD.

  8. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

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    Ana Carolina Costa REIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014. All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. Results: A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. Conclusion: The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy.

  9. The effects of intravenous ciprofloxacin on the electrocardiogram of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Parsamehr, Reza

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electrocardiographic effects of single intravenous dose of ciprofloxacin in dogs. Ten adult cross-breed dogs of both sexes were selected as the sample population. Baseline electrocardiographic values were recorded just before drug administration. Then the dogs received intravenous infusion of ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg) over the fifteen minutes. The ECGs recorded at 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ciprofloxacin administration. The ECG measurements of heart rate, PR interval, QRS interval, ST segment, T-wave amplitude and QT interval were taken from lead II. There was a small but significant increase in the longest QT intervals over baseline at T₆₀ (P = 0.041). The mean PR intervals, QTc intervals, JT intervals, ST segment, T-wave amplitude did not differ significantly before and after ciprofloxacin except for JT intervals at T₆₀ (P = 0.041). At this measurement point, there was an increased QT interval value of 0.02 second or 9.51% in comparison to the baseline. In Conclusions, Only minor QT intervals changes were observed after ciprofloxacin injection. Despite the occurrence of ECG changes following intravenous ciprofloxacin administration neither dangerous rhythm disturbances nor serious ECG changes were seen in this study. PMID:19728129

  10. Effect of Amniotic Membrane Combined with Ciprofloxacin in Curing the Primary Stages of Pseudomonal Keratitis

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    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often resulted in severe corneal ulcers and perforation, which leads to losses of vision. Human amniotic membrane (HAM forms the inner wall of the membranous sac which surrounds and protects the embryo during gestation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the amniotic membrane's healing in rabbits with pseudomonas keratitis.Methods: In total 14 rabbits divided in 2 groups of: 1 as Control and 2 as experimental amniotic membrane combined with ciprofloxacin. A 0.05 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was injected into rabbit’s corneal stroma, with no interference in control group. In the second group, the amniotic membrane in pieces of 1.5 × 1.5 cm transplanted to the entire corneal surface by eight interrupted 10.0 nylon sutures. In the first day ciprofloxacin drop was injected to the second group every 30 minutes and through second to seventh days every 2 hours. The results of perforation in cornea and the amount of infiltration were registered.Results: The results showed that amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT + ciprofloxacin group had 0% perforation and the control group 85.6%. Average infiltrations were 5 mm in AMT + ciprofloxacin groups and 23.75 mm in control.Conclusion: The use of amniotic membrane with ciprofloxacin was effective in prevention of cornea perforation and controlling the process of pseudomonal keratitis remission. The improvement of inflammation rapidly happened in ciprofloxacin + AMT group.

  11. Therapeutic songwriting in music therapy, Part II: Comparing the literature with practice across diverse clinical populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Felicity; Wigram, Tony; Stott, Dave;

    2009-01-01

    . Responses to a 21-question on-line survey were obtained from 419 professional music therapists practicing in 29 countries which focused on approaches to songwriting within their practice with a single clinical population. Results suggest that in general, the literature provides good representation for what...... is occurring in clinical practice. Generally, songs were composed with individual clients in single sessions, with lyrics created prior to the music. Clinicians had a significant role in creating the music with improvised and pre-determined musical structures being equally employed.  Chi-square or...... comparable  Exact tests (Fisher-Freeman-Halton) were applied to the data and significant associations were found according to clinical populations particularly with respect the number of sessions required to complete a song, approaches to composing lyrics and music, the context with which songwriting was...

  12. Non-randomized clinical study comparing chemotherapy plus radiotherapy with radiotherapy alone in neoadjuvant therapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoadjuvant therapy plays an important role for organ preservation and survival rate in the treatment of oral cancer. We clinically compared the effect of neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy in patients with oral cancer. We retrospectively examined 47 patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant therapy followed by curative surgery in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department of Ehime University Hospital. We divided them into two groups: radiotherapy alone (24 cases) and chemoradiotherapy (23 cases). The patients in the radiotherapy group underwent irradiation of 32.6±5.0 Gy (mean ±SD). The patients in the chemoradiotherapy group received a low-dose fraction of cisplatin (8 mg/mm2/day, 5 days a week; total dose: 139.4±67.1 mg) and 5-fluorouracil (300 mg/mm2/day, 5 days a week; total dose: 5,900±1,839.8 mg) combined with simultaneous irradiation of 31.0±3.2 Gy. None of the 24 patients had a complete response to radiotherapy alone and 12 (50%) had a partial response. Six (26%) of the 23 patients had a complete response to chemoradiotherapy and 12 (52%) had a partial response. The primary control rate (82.6%) to chemoradiotherapy was higher than that (67.5%) to radiotherapy alone although no significant difference was found. The 5-year survival rate was 64.3% in the radiotherapy group and 62.8% in the chemoradiotherapy group. The findings of the present study suggest that while the combination of radiation and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil in neoadjuvant therapy for oral cancer may not bring a significant benefit to improve survival rate, the primary local control rate is improved in comparison with radiotherapy alone. (author)

  13. A Comparative Study of Retinal Function in Rabbits after Panretinal Selective Retina Therapy versus Conventional Panretinal Photocoagulation

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    Young Gun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluates functional changes in electroretinographic findings after selective retina therapy (SRT compared to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP in rabbits. Methods. The right eyes of 12 Chinchilla rabbits received 200 laser treatment spots. The right eyes of six rabbits received SRT (SRT group, whereas the other six animals were treated using PRP on the right eye (PRP group. The eyes were investigated using full-field ERG 1 hour and 3 weeks after treatment. Histologic exam to assess the tissue response of lasers was performed on 3 weeks. Results. No significant changes in the mean ROD or CR b-wave amplitudes of the SRT lesions were evident, compared to baseline, 1 h after laser treatment (p=0.372 and 0.278, resp.. In addition, the OPs and 30 Hz flickers of the SRT lesions were not significantly altered (p=0.17 and 0.243, resp.. At 3 weeks, similar results were found. Comparing the two groups, the ROD b-wave amplitude was reduced in the PRP and SRT groups to 60.04±4.2% and 92.32±6.43% of baseline (p<0.001. Histologically, there was no visible photoreceptor alterations on week 3. Conclusions. SRT in rabbit eyes induced less functional loss than PRP in both rod-mediated retinal function and cone-mediated retinal function. In addition, SRT irradiated eyes had no functional loss compared to its control.

  14. Comparative study between the effects of isolated manual therapy techniques and those associated with low level laser therapy on pain in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction

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    Juliana Cristina Frare

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to evaluate the pain condition in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction after applying manual therapy techniques and those associated with this low level laser therapy. Methods: The study involved 20 patients with temporomandibular dysfunction, divided randomly into two groups: G1 (n = 10, formed by 7 women and 3 men, average age 28.2 years (± 7, treated with manual therapy techniques and G2 (n = 10, formed by 8 women and 2 men, with average age 24.01 (± 6.04, treated with the combination of manual therapy techniques and low level laser therapy. The patients were treated three times a week for four consecutive weeks. The memorandum of manual therapy techniques based on Chaintow,Makofsky and Bienfaint was used. For low level laser therapy GaAs laser (904 nm, 6 J/cm2, 0.38 mW/cm2 was used, applied at 4pre-auricular points. To analyze the pain level, the visual analog pain scale was used. For data analysis the Student’s-t and Wilcoxon tests were used, both with significance level of 5% (p <0.05.Results: There was significant reduction (p <0.05 in the level of pain in both groups treated, but in G2 the significance was higher.Conclusion: Manual therapy techniques, either alone or associated with low level laser therapy showed satisfactory results for pain control in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction.

  15. INCITE: A randomised trial comparing constraint induced movement therapy and bimanual training in children with congenital hemiplegia

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    Gilmore Rose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP accounting for 1 in 1300 live births. These children have limitations in capacity to use the impaired upper limb and bimanual coordination deficits which impact on daily activities and participation in home, school and community life. There are currently two diverse intensive therapy approaches. Traditional therapy has adopted a bimanual approach (BIM training and recently, constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT has emerged as a promising unimanual approach. Uncertainty remains about the efficacy of these interventions and characteristics of best responders. This study aims to compare the efficacy of CIMT to BIM training to improve outcomes across the ICF for school children with congenital hemiplegia. Methods/Design A matched pairs randomised comparison design will be used with children matched by age, gender, side of hemiplegia and level of upper limb function. Based on power calculations a sample size of 52 children (26 matched pairs will be recruited. Children will be randomised within pairs to receive either CIMT or BIM training. Both interventions will use an intensive activity based day camp model, with groups receiving the same dosage of intervention delivered in the same environment (total 60 hours over 10 days. A novel circus theme will be used to enhance motivation. Groups will be compared at baseline, then at 3, 26 and 52 weeks following intervention. Severity of congenital hemiplegia will be classified according to brain structure (MRI and white matter fibre tracking, cortical excitability using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS, functional use of the hand in everyday tasks (Manual Ability Classification System and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Outcomes will address neurovascular changes (functional MRI, functional connectivity, and brain (reorganisation (TMS, body structure and function (range of motion, spasticity

  16. A comparative analysis of multichannel Data Acquisition Systems for quality assurance in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a comparative study performed by the Centre of Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) on three multichannel Data Acquisition Systems (DAQ) based on different analogue front-ends to suit a wide range of radiotherapy applications. The three front-ends are: a charge-to-frequency converter developed by INFN Torino, an electrometer and a charge-to-digital converter (both commercial devices from Texas Instruments). For the first two (named DAQ A and B), the CMRP has designed the read-out systems whilst the third one (DAQ C) comes with its own evaluation board. For the purpose of the characterization DAQ A and DAQ B have been equipped with 128 channels while DAQ C has 256 channels. In terms of performances, the DAQs show good linearity over all the dynamic range. Each one has a different range of sensitivity ranging from less than 1 pC up to 13 nC, which makes the three front-ends complementary and suitable for use with different radiation detectors for different radiotherapy applications, or in a mixed solution which can house different front-ends

  17. An Analysis of Plan Robustness for Esophageal Tumors: Comparing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plans and Spot Scanning Proton Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Samantha; Partridge, Mike; Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Anthony J.; Hurt, Chris; Crosby, Thomas; Hawkins, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Planning studies to compare x-ray and proton techniques and to select the most suitable technique for each patient have been hampered by the nonequivalence of several aspects of treatment planning and delivery. A fair comparison should compare similarly advanced delivery techniques from current clinical practice and also assess the robustness of each technique. The present study therefore compared volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and single-field optimization (SFO) spot scanning proton therapy plans created using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for dose escalation in midesophageal cancer and analyzed the effect of setup and range uncertainties on these plans. Methods and Materials For 21 patients, SIB plans with a physical dose prescription of 2 Gy or 2.5 Gy/fraction in 25 fractions to planning target volume (PTV)50Gy or PTV62.5Gy (primary tumor with 0.5 cm margins) were created and evaluated for robustness to random setup errors and proton range errors. Dose–volume metrics were compared for the optimal and uncertainty plans, with P<.05 (Wilcoxon) considered significant. Results SFO reduced the mean lung dose by 51.4% (range 35.1%-76.1%) and the mean heart dose by 40.9% (range 15.0%-57.4%) compared with VMAT. Proton plan robustness to a 3.5% range error was acceptable. For all patients, the clinical target volume D98 was 95.0% to 100.4% of the prescribed dose and gross tumor volume (GTV) D98 was 98.8% to 101%. Setup error robustness was patient anatomy dependent, and the potential minimum dose per fraction was always lower with SFO than with VMAT. The clinical target volume D98 was lower by 0.6% to 7.8% of the prescribed dose, and the GTV D98 was lower by 0.3% to 2.2% of the prescribed GTV dose. Conclusions The SFO plans achieved significant sparing of normal tissue compared with the VMAT plans for midesophageal cancer. The target dose coverage in the SIB proton plans was less robust to random setup errors and might be unacceptable for

  18. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin on surface-modified carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabineiro, S A C; Thavorn-Amornsri, T; Pereira, M F R; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-10-01

    The adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin (CPX) was determined on three types of carbon-based materials: activated carbon (commercial sample), carbon nanotubes (commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and carbon xerogel (prepared by the resorcinol/formaldehyde approach at pH 6.0). These materials were used as received/prepared and functionalised through oxidation with nitric acid. The oxidised materials were then heat treated under inert atmosphere (N2) at different temperatures (between 350 and 900°C). The obtained samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -196 °C, determination of the point of zero charge and by temperature programmed desorption. High adsorption capacities ranging from approximately 60 to 300 mgCPxgC(-1) were obtained (for oxidised carbon xerogel, and oxidised thermally treated activated carbon Norit ROX 8.0, respectively). In general, it was found that the nitric acid treatment of samples has a detrimental effect in adsorption capacity, whereas thermal treatments, especially at 900 °C after oxidation, enhance adsorption performance. This is due to the positive effect of the surface basicity. The kinetic curves obtained were fitted using 1st or 2nd order models, and the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherms obtained. The 2nd order and the Langmuir models, respectively, were shown to present the best fittings. PMID:21733541

  19. Preparation of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin kit and its biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciprofloxacin (CPF) made in China is labelled with 99Tcm and the factors which affects the labelling efficiency are determined. Accordingly, a new CPF cold kit is developed and the biodistribution of 99Tcm-CPF in infected animal is evaluated. Under the optimal conditions of pH 3.0-3.5, CPF contents above 4 mg, SnCl2·2H2O contents over 100 μg, 10 minutes after injection of 99TcmO4-, the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-CPF is above 95% and remained >95% at 6 h after preparation at room temperature. The kit is stored at 0-8 degree C or -18 degree C in refrigerator, the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-CPF keeps up with over 95% after 3 months. Mice with infectious lesions injected with 99Tcm-CPF show a mean abscess-to-muscle ratio of 4.30 ±0.31 at 4 h post injection. (authors)

  20. Development of an Heterologous Immunoassay for Ciprofloxacin Residue in Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinqing, Jiang; Haitang, Zhang; Zhixing, An; Zhiyong, Xu; Xuefeng, Yang; Huaguo, Huang; Ziliang, Wang

    A heterologous immunoassay has been developed for the determination of Ciprofloxacin (CPFX) residues in milk. For this reason, carbodiimide active ester method was employed to synthesize the artificial antigen of CPFX-BSA, and mixed anhydride reaction was used to prepare the coating antigen of CPFX-OVA to pursue the heterologous sensitivity. Based on the square matrix titration, an icELISA method was developed for the quantitative detection of CPFX in cattle milk. The dynamic range was from 0.036 to 92.5 ng/mL, with LOD and IC50 value of 0.019 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Except for a high cross-reactivity (89.7%) to Enrofloxacin, negligible cross-reactivity to the other compounds was observed. After optimization, 0.03 mol/L of HCl, or 10% of methanol was used in the assay buffer. 20-fold dilution in cattle milk gave an inhibition curve almost the same as that in PBS buffer. The regression equation for this assay was y = 0.9036 x + 1.4574, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9844. The results suggest the veracity of the heterologous immunoassay for detecting CPFX residue in milk.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF LOCAL STEROID INJECTION AND EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCKWAVE THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF PLANTAR FASCITIS

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    Rajan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plantar fasciitis is a common condition causing misery to lot of patients. The etiology and treatment of plantar fasciitis are poorly understood. The results from such treatments vary considerably, and there is no consensus of opinion on the best method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a controlled trial in our institute to compare the results of local steroid injections & the use of Extra-corporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT for managing plantar fasciitis. 200 patients with 240 painful heels were evaluated. All patients with moderate to severe heel pain who had already taken ten days of unsatisfactory treatment with oral NSAIDS were divided in two main groups. Group A of 100 patients received 1000 impulses of shock waves in three sessions at weekly interval. In Group B of 100 patients up to three local injections of 40 mg methyl prednisone mixed with 1 ml. of 2% lignocaine were given at biweekly interval. Pain assessment was done using VAS scale and the results were evaluated at six weeks, three months and six months after the completion of the therapy. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant difference between two groups of patients being treated. The group B patients had significantly greater improvement in pain scale and early return to daily activities

  2. A prospective randomized controlled multicenter trial comparing antibiotic therapy with appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial

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    Paajanen Hannu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the standard treatment of acute appendicitis (AA consists of an early appendectomy, there has recently been both an interest and an increase in the use of antibiotic therapy as the primary treatment for uncomplicated AA. However, the use of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated AA is still controversial. Methods/design The APPAC trial is a randomized prospective controlled, open label, non-inferiority multicenter trial designed to compare antibiotic therapy (ertapenem with emergency appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated AA. The primary endpoint of the study is the success of the randomized treatment. In the antibiotic treatment arm successful treatment is defined as being discharged from the hospital without the need for surgical intervention and no recurrent appendicitis during a minimum follow-up of one-year (treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy in the operative treatment arm is defined as successful appendectomy evaluated to be 100%. Secondary endpoints are post-intervention complications, overall morbidity and mortality, the length of hospital stay and sick leave, treatment costs and pain scores (VAS, visual analoque scale. A maximum of 610 adult patients (aged 18–60 years with a CT scan confirmed uncomplicated AA will be enrolled from six hospitals and randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1:1 ratio either to undergo emergency appendectomy or to receive ertapenem (1 g per day for three days continued by oral levofloxacin (500 mg per day plus metronidazole (1.5 g per day for seven days. Follow-up by a telephone interview will be at 1 week, 2 months and 1, 3, 5 and 10 years; the primary and secondary endpoints of the trial will be evaluated at each time point. Discussion The APPAC trial aims to provide level I evidence to support the hypothesis that approximately 75–85% of patients with uncomplicated AA can be treated with effective antibiotic therapy avoiding unnecessary

  3. Photochemical behavior of antibiotics impacted by complexation effects of concomitant metals: a case for ciprofloxacin and Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Yifei; Xie, Hongbin

    2015-07-01

    Many water bodies, especially those adjacent to aquaculture and livestock breeding areas, are contaminated by both antibiotics and transition metals. However, the effects of the interaction between antibiotics and transition metals on the environmental behavior and the ecotoxicology of antibiotics are largely unknown. We hypothesized that antibiotics may coordinately bind with metal ions, and this complexation may affect the environmental photochemical behavior of antibiotics. We took ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Cu(ii) as a case, and employed simulated sunlight experiments and density functional theory calculations to investigate the underlying reaction mechanisms. The results showed that monovalent cationic ciprofloxacin (H2CIP(+)) that is predominant in the normal pH range (6-9) of surface waters can chelate with hydrated Cu(ii) to form [Cu(H2CIP)(H2O)4](3+). Compared with H2CIP(+), [Cu(H2CIP)(H2O)4](3+) has different molecular orbitals, and atomic charge distribution. As a result, [Cu(H2CIP)(H2O)4](3+) showed dissimilar light absorption properties, slower direct photolytic rates, lower (1)O2 generation ability and weaker reactivity towards (1)O2. Due to the Cu(ii) complexation, the apparent photodegradation of H2CIP(+) was inhibited, and the photolytic pathways and product distribution were altered. This study implies that for an accurate ecological risk assessment of antibiotics under transition metal co-contamination conditions, the effects of metal complexation should be considered. PMID:26114263

  4. 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin imaging in detecting the secondary infection of severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin and explore its feasibility in early detection of secondary infectious foci of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: Ciprofloxacin was labeled with 99Tcm. The labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin were calculated and its biodistribution in normal pigs was measured.The recruited baby pigs were divided into three groups:normal control group (6), non-infected group (6) and infected group (16). 370-400 MBq of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was injected into each pig intravenously.SPECT scanning was performed at 0.5, 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 h after administration. The differences of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin uptake among groups were calculated and the tracer activity ratio of lesion-to-background was recorded at each time point. The diagnostic value of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT imaging for the detection of secondary infection of SAP was assessed using histopathological results as the gold standard. Variance analysis and least significant difference test were used to analyze the data. Results: Both the labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin were over 90% within 6 h. Organs with rich blood supply, such as kidney, liver and spleen were the target organs for the accumulation of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin; while no significant uptake was found in gastrointestinal tract or normal pancreas tissue of SAP. Rapid plasma clearance and renal excretion were observed. In the infected group, the lesion was visualized at 1 h after administration. The highest radioactivity ratio of lesion-to-background (3.36 ± 0.33) was at 3 h after administration, which was significantly higher than that of the other time point (F =99.570, P 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin imaging were 88.2% (15/17), 83.3% (5/6), 93.8% (15/16), 71.4% (5/7), 0.715 and 0.667 respectively. Conclusions: The biodistribution of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin is suitable for imaging infectious focus of SAP. The optimal imaging time for the detection of

  5. Zero-order controlled release of ciprofloxacin-HCl from a reservoir-based, bioresorbable and elastomeric device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Irene S; Lee, Heejin; Engelmayr, George C; Macaya, Daniel; Bettinger, Christopher J; Cima, Michael J

    2010-09-15

    A reservoir-based device constructed of a completely biodegradable elastomer can enable several new implantation and insertion options for localized drug therapy, particularly in the case of urological therapies. We performed an in vitro performance evaluation of an implantable, bio-resorbable device that supplies short-term controlled release of ciprofloxacin-HCl (CIP). The proposed device functions through a combination of osmosis and diffusion mechanisms to release CIP for short-term therapies of a few weeks duration. Poly(glycerol-co-sebacic acid) (PGS) was cast in a tubular geometry with solid drug powder packed into its core and a micro-machined release orifice drilled through its wall. Drug release experiments were performed to determine the effective release rate from a single orifice and the range of orifice sizes in which controlled zero-order release was the main form of drug expulsion from the device. It is demonstrated that PGS is sufficiently permeable to water to allow the design of an elementary osmotic pump for drug delivery. Indeed, PGS's water permeability is several orders of magnitude larger than commonly used cellulose acetate for elementary osmotic pumps. PMID:20566343

  6. Analysis of the membrane proteome of ciprofloxacin-resistant macrophages by stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC.

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    Nancy E Caceres

    Full Text Available Overexpression of multidrug transporters is a well-established mechanism of resistance to chemotherapy, but other changes may be co-selected upon exposure to drugs that contribute to resistance. Using a model of J774 macrophages made resistant to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin and comparing it with the wild-type parent cell line, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis using the stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture technology coupled with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-FT-MS/MS on 2 samples enriched in membrane proteins (fractions F1 and F2 collected from discontinuous sucrose gradient. Nine hundred proteins were identified with at least 3 unique peptides in these 2 pooled fractions among which 61 (F1 and 69 (F2 showed a significantly modified abundance among the 2 cell lines. The multidrug resistance associated protein Abcc4, known as the ciprofloxacin efflux transporter in these cells, was the most upregulated, together with Dnajc3, a protein encoded by a gene located downstream of Abcc4. The other modulated proteins are involved in transport functions, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization, immune response, signal transduction, and metabolism. This indicates that the antibiotic ciprofloxacin is able to trigger a pleiotropic adaptative response in macrophages that includes the overexpression of its efflux transporter.

  7. In vivo interaction between ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and the pulp of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sv, Nwafor; Co, Esimone; Ca, Amadi; Cs, Nworu

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of quinolone antibiotics is seriously impaired by polyvalent cations due to the formation of unabsorbable complexes. M. paradisiaca Linn. (Musaceae), an important staple food in most parts of the world, has been demonstrated to contain many polyvalent cations. The aim of the work was to study the influence of concurrent administration of M. paradisiaca and ciprofloxacin HCI on the pharmacokinetic profiles of ciprofloxacin. The study was carried out in two phases in five healthy male rabbits. Phase one involved oral administration of ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg) to rabbits, withdrawing blood from the marginal ear vein at 1, 2, 4, and 24 h intervals and checking the serum ciprofloxacin concentration. After a one-week drug "wash-out" period, the second phase started with concurrent oral administration of M. paradisiaca (800 mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg). Blood was again withdrawn and analyzed for serum ciprofloxacin content. Antimicrobial activity of the serum was also assessed and expressed as reciprocal serum inhibitory titer. Co-administration of both agents resulted in significant (Phour. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were also decreased: area under the curve (81.53%), peak serum concentration (94.37%), elimination rate constant (42.35%); while increase in half-life (81.08%) and clearance rate (69.64%) were noted. Antimicrobial study showed that the antimicrobial potency against E. coli was also decreased by such concurrent administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters and antimicrobial activities of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased when it was given concurrently with pulp of unripe plantain. Complex formation between the drug and the polyvalent cations present in plantain, leading to decrease in absorption and hence bioavailability, may be responsible for the observed antagonistic interactions. PMID:14743965

  8. Probiotic supplementation does not improve eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection compared to placebo based on standard therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Sang, Jianzhong; He, Haijian; Wan, Xingyong; Lin, Yiming; Li, Lan; Li, Youming; Yu, Chaohui

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis included eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the aim of determining whether probiotic supplementation can improve H. pylori eradication rates. PUBMED, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Ovid databases were searched. We included RCTs that investigated the effect of combining probiotics, with or without a placebo, with standard therapy. A total of 21 RCTs that reported standard therapy plus probiotics were included. Compared to the placebo group, the probiotics group was 1.21(OR 1.21, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.69) and 1.28 (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.86) times more likely to achieve eradication of H. pylori infection in intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis and per protocol (PP) analysis, respectively. Probiotics with triple therapy plus a 14-day course of treatment did not improve the eradication of H. pylori infection (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.39) compared to the placebo. Moreover, the placebo plus standard therapy did not improve eradication rates compared to standard therapy alone (P = 0.816). However, probiotics did improve the adverse effects of diarrhea and nausea. These pooled data suggest that the use of probiotics plus standard therapy does not improve the eradication rate of H. pylori infection compared to the placebo. PMID:26997149

  9. Comparative study between the effects of isolated manual therapy techniques and those associated with low level laser therapy on pain in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Cristina Frare; Tarcila Nascimento Correa de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to evaluate the pain condition in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction after applying manual therapy techniques and those associated with this low level laser therapy. Methods: The study involved 20 patients with temporomandibular dysfunction, divided randomly into two groups: G1 (n = 10), formed by 7 women and 3 men, average age 28.2 years (± 7), treated with manual therapy techniques and G2 (n = 10), formed by 8 women and 2 men, with average age 24.01 (± ...

  10. Does electron and proton therapy reduce the risk of radiation induced cancer after spinal irradiation for childhood medulloblastoma? A comparative treatment planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangkui Mu; Zackrisson, Bjoern [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Bjoerk-Eriksson, Thomas; Johansson, Lennart; Karlsson, Mikael [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [DKFZ-Heidelberg, (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics; Johansson, Karl-Axel [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiation Physics; Gagliardi, Giovanna [Radiumhemmet, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Hospital Physics

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this treatment planning comparison study was to explore different spinal irradiation techniques with respect to the risk of late side-effects, particularly radiation-induced cancer. The radiotherapy techniques compared were conventional photon therapy, intensity modulated x-ray therapy (IMXT), conventional electron therapy, intensity/energy modulated electron therapy (IMET) and proton therapy (IMPT). CT images for radiotherapy use from five children, median age 8 and diagnosed with medulloblastoma, were selected for this study. Target volumes and organs at risk were defined in 3-D. Treatment plans using conventional photon therapy, IMXT, conventional electron therapy, IMET and IMPT were set up. The probability of normal tissue complication (NTCP) and the risk of cancer induction were calculated using models with parameters-sets taken from published data for the general population; dose data were taken from dose volume histograms (DVH). Similar dose distributions in the targets were achieved with all techniques but the absorbed doses in the organs-at-risk varied significantly between the different techniques. The NTCP models based on available data predicted very low probabilities for side-effects in all cases. However, the effective mean doses outside the target volumes, and thus the predicted risk of cancer induction, varied significantly between the techniques. The highest lifetime risk of secondary cancers was estimated for IMXT (30%). The lowest risk was found with IMPT (4%). The risks associated with conventional photon therapy, electron therapy and IMET were 20%, 21% and 15%, respectively. This model study shows that spinal irradiation of young children with photon and electron techniques results in a substantial risk of radiation-induced secondary cancers. Multiple beam IMXT seems to be associated with a particularly high risk of secondary cancer induction. To minimise this risk, IMPT should be the treatment of choice. If proton therapy is not

  11. A comparative study of influential factors correlating with early and late hypothyroidism after 131Ⅰtherapy for Graves' disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ren-fei; TAN Jian; ZHANG Gui-zhi; MENG Zhao-wei; ZHENG Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background 131Ⅰ therapy is recognized as the simplest, safest, least expensive, and most effective treatment, and accepted by more and more patients. However its curative effect is influenced by many factors, therefore there are some difficulties for doctors to establish individual treatment strategy. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of early and late hypothyroidism after 131Ⅰ treatment for Graves' disease (GD) and to compare their correlation, to observe and analyze the influential factors and to understand the predictabilities of them.Methods Five hundred GD patients (144 males, 356 females; age (41.2±12.3) years) received 131Ⅰ treatment for the first time. The therapeutic procedure was carried out as the following: undergoing 131Ⅰ uptake test to obtain maximum of thyroid uptake value and effective half-life (EHL) time; estimating the thyroid's weight by ultrasonography; determination of thyroid hormones and correlative antibodies; pre-therapy physical examination; thyroid imaging; calculating 131Ⅰtherapeutic dosage; per os uptake of the determined 131Ⅰ dosage; follow-up appraisal of curative effect. The observing parameters included age, gender, thyroid weight, GD duration, condition of onset, state of disease, course of treatment, EHL time, maximum of thyroid uptake value, 131Ⅰ dosage and titer of correlative antibodies. We sorted out the data and used both univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate them statistically.Results The incidence rates of early and late hypothyroidism were 33.2% and 6.6% respectively after 131Ⅰ treatment and approximately 22.2% cases of late hypothyroidism developed from early hypothyroidism. The influential factors of early hypothyroidism included course of GD, the highest thyroid uptake ratio of 131Ⅰ, EHL time and thyroid microsome antibody (TMAb), etc. A multivariate analysis on late hypothyroidism showed that female patients, with recurrence after anti-thyroid drug treatment and

  12. Comparative study on the efficacy of tamoxifen and letrozole in the adjuvant hormonal therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy of tamoxifen and letrozole in the adjuvant hormonal therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer.Methods:A total of 60 patients with postmenopausal breast cancer who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2012 to May, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given letrozole, while the patients in the control group were given tamoxifen. The change of serum VEGF level before and after treatment, the mass shrinking degree after treatment, and the change of tumor grading in the two groups were observed. The clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were compared.Results:After treatment, the serum VEGF level in the observation group [(145.79±41.28) pg/mL] was significantly lower than that in the control group [(214.62±53.51) pg/mL]. The mass shrinking degree in the observation group (56.89±15.43) was significantly greater than that in the control group (45.17±11.16). In the tumor grading, 46.67% (14/30) at stage I in the observation group was significantly greater than that in the control group [13.33% (4/30)], 13.33% (4/30) at stage III significantly less than that in the control group [36.67% (11/30)] . The total response rate in the observation group [90.00% (27/30)] was significantly higher than that in the control group [66.66% (20/30)]. Conclusions:In the neoadjuvant endocrine therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer, letrozole has a better effect than tamoxifen, and can significantly reduce the tumor grading; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  13. A comparative study between the efficacy of tramadol, celecoxib and ibuprofen in pain control after root canal therapy of tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh A. Saberi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal therapy of teeth can relief the endodontic pain, but post-endodontic pain and discomfort are its undesirable effects. There are many studies on various drugs for alleviation of post-endodontic pain. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol, celecoxib and ibuprofen in vital teeth.Materials & Method: In this double blind randomized clinical trial study, 104 patients with vital first mandibular molar tooth were selected. The patients were divided in to four groups, tramadol (A, celecoxib (B, ibuprofen (C and placebo (D. The similar capsules were filled with50mg tramadol HCL, 100mg celecoxib, 400mg ibuprofen and starch . Each patient received randomly one capsule one hour before treatment. If the pain persists, the patient received one tablet of 325 mg acetaminophen every 6 hours. The groups were controlled for 3 days. The data were collected one hour before and 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after treatment. Results were analyzed using kruskal-wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.Results: The results showed that after 12 (p=0.039 and 24(p=0.024 hours of treatment, tramadol was better in pain relief in comparison with other groups and there was one difference between tramadol and ibuprofen after treatment after 12 hours (p=0.013. But there was no significant deference between drug groups at 6, 48 and 72 hour after treatment.Conclusion: Tramadol prescription in comparison with celecoxib, ibuprofen and placebo has greater analgesic effect after root canal therapy in vital teeth. In addition tramadol may be a good medicine for post-endodontic pain control

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided versus Surrogate-Based Motion Tracking in Liver Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.paganelli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Seregni, Matteo; Fattori, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: This study applied automatic feature detection on cine–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver images in order to provide a prospective comparison between MRI-guided and surrogate-based tracking methods for motion-compensated liver radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In a population of 30 subjects (5 volunteers plus 25 patients), 2 oblique sagittal slices were acquired across the liver at high temporal resolution. An algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was used to extract and track multiple features throughout the image sequence. The position of abdominal markers was also measured directly from the image series, and the internal motion of each feature was quantified through multiparametric analysis. Surrogate-based tumor tracking with a state-of-the-art external/internal correlation model was simulated. The geometrical tracking error was measured, and its correlation with external motion parameters was also investigated. Finally, the potential gain in tracking accuracy relying on MRI guidance was quantified as a function of the maximum allowed tracking error. Results: An average of 45 features was extracted for each subject across the whole liver. The multi-parametric motion analysis reported relevant inter- and intrasubject variability, highlighting the value of patient-specific and spatially-distributed measurements. Surrogate-based tracking errors (relative to the motion amplitude) were were in the range 7% to 23% (1.02-3.57mm) and were significantly influenced by external motion parameters. The gain of MRI guidance compared to surrogate-based motion tracking was larger than 30% in 50% of the subjects when considering a 1.5-mm tracking error tolerance. Conclusions: Automatic feature detection applied to cine-MRI allows detailed liver motion description to be obtained. Such information was used to quantify the performance of surrogate-based tracking methods and to provide a prospective comparison with respect to MRI

  15. Comparative study of Nigella Sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Eyad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: A large number of diseases are ascribed to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, particularly chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Successful treatment of H. pylori infection with antimicrobial agents can lead to regression of H. pylori-associated disorders. Antibiotic resistance against H. pylori is increasing, and it is necessary to find new effective agents. Nigella sativa seed (NS, a commonly used herb, possesses in vitro anti-helicobacter activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NS in eradication of H. pylori infection in non-ulcer dyspeptic patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 88 adult patients attending King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from 2007 to 2008, with dyspeptic symptoms and found positive for H. pylori infection by histopathology and urease test. Patients were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving i triple therapy (TT comprising of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, omeprazole [n= 23], ii 1 g NS + 40 mg omeprazole (OM [n= 21], iii 2 g NS + OM [n= 21] or iv 3 g NS + OM [n= 23]. Negative H. pylori stool antigen test four weeks after end of treatment was considered as eradication. Results: H. pylori eradication was 82.6, 47.6, 66.7 and 47.8% with TT, 1 g NS, 2 g NS and 3 g NS, respectively. Eradication rates with 2 g NS and TT were statistically not different from each other, whereas H. pylori eradication with other doses was significantly less than that with TT (P < 0.05. Dyspepsia symptoms improved in all groups to a similar extent. Conclusions: N. sativa seeds possess clinically useful anti-H. pylori activity, comparable to triple therapy. Further clinical studies combining N. sativa with antibiotics are suggested.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided versus Surrogate-Based Motion Tracking in Liver Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study applied automatic feature detection on cine–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver images in order to provide a prospective comparison between MRI-guided and surrogate-based tracking methods for motion-compensated liver radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In a population of 30 subjects (5 volunteers plus 25 patients), 2 oblique sagittal slices were acquired across the liver at high temporal resolution. An algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was used to extract and track multiple features throughout the image sequence. The position of abdominal markers was also measured directly from the image series, and the internal motion of each feature was quantified through multiparametric analysis. Surrogate-based tumor tracking with a state-of-the-art external/internal correlation model was simulated. The geometrical tracking error was measured, and its correlation with external motion parameters was also investigated. Finally, the potential gain in tracking accuracy relying on MRI guidance was quantified as a function of the maximum allowed tracking error. Results: An average of 45 features was extracted for each subject across the whole liver. The multi-parametric motion analysis reported relevant inter- and intrasubject variability, highlighting the value of patient-specific and spatially-distributed measurements. Surrogate-based tracking errors (relative to the motion amplitude) were were in the range 7% to 23% (1.02-3.57mm) and were significantly influenced by external motion parameters. The gain of MRI guidance compared to surrogate-based motion tracking was larger than 30% in 50% of the subjects when considering a 1.5-mm tracking error tolerance. Conclusions: Automatic feature detection applied to cine-MRI allows detailed liver motion description to be obtained. Such information was used to quantify the performance of surrogate-based tracking methods and to provide a prospective comparison with respect to MRI

  17. Comparative assessment of two Artemisinin based combination Therapies in the treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria among University students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonta Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In line with the recommendation of artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT by WHO in the effective treatment of uncomplicated malaria, African nations including Nigeria changed their malaria treatment policy to combination therapies. To date, about 15 African nations adopted artesunate /amodiaquine (AA as their first line agent while Nigeria adopted artemether /lumefantrine (AL. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the treatment outcome among patients treated with AA to those treated with AL for acute uncomplicated malaria. Method: The study was conducted at Nnamdi Azikiwe University campuses using quantitative methods. Two hundered and ninety six patients were randomly allocated to one of two treatment group- AA and AL with 148 patients per group. All the patients were educated about the drugs and adherence. Adherence and treatment outcomes including parasite clearance and the drugs’ effects on biochemical parameters among others were assessed by follow up visits on third, seventh, fourteenth and twenty eighth-day post treatment. Data were analysed using Cox Regression model on SPSS 17.0. Result: Both drugs were well adhered to and tolerated. One case of Steven Johnson-like reaction was observed with AL. Fever resolution and parasite clearance was similar in both groups with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR by day 28 for AL and AA being 70.3% and 85.1% respectively. Conclusion: Our findings is in favour of higher efficacy of AA with respect to their ACPR. More controlled studies will be needed to ascertain the adoption of AL as first line drug in malaria treatment in Nigeria.

  18. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  19. Comparative study of efficacy of excimer light therapy vs intralesional triamcinolone vs topical 5% minoxidil: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia Areota is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves hair follicles, and sometimes nails, caused by T-cell mediated autoimmune mechanism. Current treatment modalities includes corticosteroids (oral, topical or intralesional, Minoxidil, Contact sensitizers like DNCB, DPCP and SADBE, Immunosuppressants like Methotrexate or Azathioprine, DMARDs like Sulfasalazine, and Phototherapy. Materials and methods: After taking consent, 40 patients treated with excimer light, 46 patients treated with triamcinolone injection intralesionally and 14 patients treated with topical minoxidil 5% were compared by their photographs taken prior to treatments, at 2 months and 6 months follow up. Results: Among the excimer group, 21/32 (61.76% with single patch and 1/6 (16.67% with multiple patches achieved >50% hair regrowth. Among Triamcinolone group, 23/30 (76.67% with single patch and 10/16 (62.5% with multiple patches achieved >50% hair regrowth. Among the Minoxidil group, 4/12 (33.33% with single patch and none .i.e 0/2 with multiple patches achieved >50% regrowth. Conclusion: After comparing the efficacy of Excimer light therapy, intralesional triamcinolone and 5% Minoxidil, it was concluded that intralesional triamcinolone seems to be the most efficacious. Multiple patches were more resistant than single patch. Scalp response much better than beard.

  20. In vivo and in vitro chondrotoxicity of ciprofloxacin in juvenile rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Neng-neng CHENG; Bin-yan CHEN; Yong-ming WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between chondrotoxicity and toxicokinetics of ciprofloxacin (CPFX). METHODS: Rats, 4-week old, were treated with CPFX 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg ig once daily on seven consecutive days. The knee joint cartilage was examined histopathologically. The concentration of CPFX in venous blood and knee joint cartilage samples were determined by a microbioassay using Escherichia coli 44102. The effects of CPFX on proliferation of chondrocytes and secretion of soluble proteoglycans were determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMB) assay, respectively. RESULTS:Cartilage was severely lesioned after treatment with CPFX 800 or 1200 mg/kg for 7 d, such as matrix swelling and loss of chondrocytes. The thickness of cartilage was significantly decreased compared with the control group. The maximum serum concentration (Cmax), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞), and concenmg.h.L-1, and 20.3±3.5 μg.g-1 after oral administration of CPFX 800 or 1200 mg/kg on d 1, respectively. The data on d 6 were similar with that on d 1. CPFX inhibited proliferation of chondrocytes and the secretion of soluble proteoglycans. CONCLUSION: CPFX concentrations in serum and cartilage could provide a better basis for risk assessment.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of taste-masked ciprofloxacin bioadhesive dental films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Ibrahim Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum anti-infective agent of the fluoroquinolons. It has activity against periodontal pathogens. Saccharin is one of the most widely used artificial sweetening agents. The complex of ciprofloxacin saccharinate was prepared to improve organoleptic properties of ciprofloxacin and it was characterized using fourier transform infrared analysis, differential scanning calorimetric, photomicrographs, solubility determination of the complex and ultraviolet-scanning in different media as well as determination of the actual drug content. Eight formulations of ciprofloxacin saccharinate bioadhesive dental films were prepared using chitosan, carbopol 934, and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC. The prepared films were evaluated for their physic-mechanical properties including film thickness, weight uniformity, and tensile strength, folding endurance, surface pH, and percentage elongation. In addition, mucoadhesive performance of films, drug content and in vitro release of ciprofloxacin from different films were determined. The best formulations were selected and were subjected to stability study at 40΀C and 75% relative humidity for 3 months and microbiological test. Results revealed that the use of mixture of carbopol and HPMC with chitosan improved physical and chemical properties of the prepared films. Microbiological results showed that, F 7 had the highest inhibition zone which may be due to the presence of high concentration of carbopol 934 that leads to high mucoadhesive time.

  2. Activity of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin on biofilms produced in vitro by Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; WANG Ying; LIU You-ning

    2009-01-01

    Background It is recognized that Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients with otitis media forms biofilms both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that biofilm formation in vivo might play an important role in the pathogenesis and chronicity of otitis media, but the effect of antibiotics on biofilm has not been well studied. We investigated the impact of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin on bacterial biofilms formed by Haemophilus influenzae in vitro in this study.Methods Eleven strains of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from sputum specimens collected from patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Formation of bacterial biofilm was examined by crystal violet assay and a scanning electron microscope. Alterations of biofilms were measured under varying concentrations of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin.Results Striking differences were observed among strains with regard to the ability to form biofilm. Typical membrane-like structure formed by bacterial cells and extracellular matrix was detected. Initial biofilm synthesis was inhibited by azithromycin and ciprofloxacin at concentrations higher than two-fold minimal inhibitory concentration.Disruption of mature biofilms could be achieved at relatively higher concentration, and ciprofloxacin displayed more powerful activity.Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Sufficient dosage might control early formation of biofilms. Ciprofloxacin exerts better effects on breakdown of biofilm than azithromycin at conventional concentration in clinics.

  3. Fluoroquinolone-macrolide combination therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis: retrospective analysis of pathogen eradication rates, inflammatory findings and sexual dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vittorio Magri; Emanuele Montanari; Vi(s)nja (S)kerk; Alemka Markoti(c); Emanuela Marras; Antonella Restelli; Kurt G Naber; Gianpaolo Perletti

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the safety and efficacy of fluoroquinolone-macrolide combination therapy in category Ⅱ chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP).The aim of this study is to retrospectively compare the microbiological and clinical findings of two treatment schemes for CBP based on the combination of azithromycin (500 mg,thrice-weekly) with a once-daily 500-or 750-mg dose of ciprofloxacin (Cipro-500 or Cipro-750 cohort,respectively).Combined administration of azithromycin (1500 mg week-1) with ciprofloxacin at the rate of 750 mg day-1 for 4 weeks rather than at 500 mg day-1 for 6 weeks increased the eradication rates from 62.35% to 77.32% and the total bacteriological success from 71.76% to 85.57%.A significant decrease in pain and voiding signs/symptoms and a significant reduction in inflammatory leukocyte counts and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were sustained throughout an 18-month follow-up period in both groups.Ejaculatory pain,haemospermia and premature ejaculation were significantly attenuated on microbiological eradication in both groups,but the latter subsided more promptly in the Cipro-750 cohort.In total,59 Cipro-750 patients showed mild-to-severn erectile dysfunction (ED) at baseline,while 22 patients had no ED on microbiological eradication and throughout the follow-up period.In conclusion fluoroquinolone-macrolide therapy resulted in pathogen eradication and CBP symptom attenuation,including pain,voiding disturbances and sexual dysfunction.A once-daily 750-mg dose of ciprofloxacin for 4 weeks showed enhanced eradication rates and lower inflammatory white blood cell counts compared to the 500-mg dose for 6 weeks.Our results are open to further prospective validation.

  4. A STUDY OF COMPARATIVE EFFEICIENCY OF ORAL MINI PULSE THERAPY VERSUS ORAL ACITRET IN IN GENARALISED LICHEN PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that effects skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails. There are several drugs both topical and systemic for the treatment of lichen planus. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Present study was done to compare the efficacy between oral mini pulse therapy with betamethasone and with acetretin in the management of generalised lichen planus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on patients who were clinically diagnosed as generalised lichen plan us, attending the outpatient department of dermatology, venereology and leprosy, King George hospital, affiliated to Andhra medical college, Vis h akhapatnam from November 2011 to December 2012. A total of 60 patients were included in study and divided into two equal groups. Group1 patients were treated with 0.1 mg/kg of oral betamethasone given on 2 consecutive days in a week till 8 weeks and tapered. Group 2 patients were treated with 0.5 mg/kg of acetretin for 8 weeks and tapered. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All pa tients of age group in between 11 - 60 years , of either sex, suffering f rom lichen planus of duration > 3 months, and women in group 2 who were in reproductive age group on two methods of contraception were included. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Pregnant and lactating women, in Group 1: patients suffering from diabetes, hypertension, peptic ulcer disease, renal, hepatic, heart disease or tuberculosis, in Group 2: patients with abnormal lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension, renal, liver or heart disease were excluded. RESULTS: out of 60 patients enrolled in study, 2 patients from group 1 and 5 patients from group 2 were dropped from study and results were concluded. Majority of patients were in age group of 31 - 60 (78.3% with male to female ratio of 2.1:1.Group 1 patient s at the end of 8 weeks response was seen in 92.8%, with relapse rate of 15.38% after 6 months of follow up. Group 2 patients at end of 8 weeks response was seen in 72 % with relapse

  5. A Validated Method for the Quantitation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomendra Bhongade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative method using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS was developed and validated for the estimation of ciprofloxacin in its tablet dosage forms. The solid-state samples were prepared by dilution in dry potassium bromide and were analyzed by FTIR spectrophotometer with DRIFT sampling technique. A linear relationship for the carbonyl peak area centered around 1709 cm−1 was observed in the range of 0.3–1.5% w/w with good correlation coefficient of 0.998. The percent recovery of ciprofloxacin in three marketed tablet dosage forms was in the range of 98.76 ± 0.27. The present reported method is precise, reproducible, and eco-friendly. DRIFTS may have a potential as an alternative method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ciprofloxacin in bulk drugs and tablet dosage forms.

  6. Modelling the fate of ciprofloxacin in activated sludge systems - The relevance of the sorption process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang;

    H conditions, rather than reduced salt dosing, can be responsible for the decrease of ciprofloxacin sorption in the full-scale WWTP. The most accurate predictions were obtained for Freundlich parameter values of K=0.01 (μg(1-1/n) L1/n mg-1) and 1/n=1.33. A pH increase was therefore estimated to cause reduced....... In a previous study [1], a daily systematic reduction of ciprofloxacin removal in a full-scale WWTP (Bekkelaget, Norway) was associated to deteriorated sorption. Therefore, in this study we further investigated the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge at laboratory- and full-scale. Targeted batch...... experiments were performed to estimate sorption model parameters using Freundlich isotherms under specific pH and iron salt dosing (used for chemical phosphorus removal) conditions. We used the previously tested activated sludge framework model for xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X) to assess the fate...

  7. Synthesis of fluorine-18-labeled ciprofloxacin for PET studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-quinoline- 3-carboxylic acid), a widely-prescribed antibiotic, was labeled with fluorine-18 with the aim to perform positron emission tomography studies in humans for pharmacokinetic measurements. Due to a lack of chemical activation of ciprofloxacin for a direct nucleophilic exchange reaction a novel two-step synthetic approach, which employed an activated 6-fluoro-7-chloro substituted precursor molecule, was developed. The radiosynthesis yielded, starting from 52.5 ± 11.3 GBq of [18F]fluoride, 1.3 ± 0.6 GBq (n = 13) [18F]ciprofloxacin ready for intravenous administration in about 130 min synthesis time. A series of analytical tests was performed in order to prove the identity of the radiolabeled compound and its suitability for human applications

  8. Oral rehydration therapy: a community trial comparing the acceptability of homemade sucrose and cereal-based solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. M.; Karim, F.; Rohde, J. E.; Ahmed, J.; Abed, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    Sugar-based oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea is promoted in many countries of the world. One programme in Bangladesh has instructed more than 13 million mothers in the preparation of a sugar-salt solution in the home; despite very high rates of correct mixing and knowledge, subsequent application was found in only some 20% of all diarrhoea episodes. Since rice is far more available in rural homes (95%) than any type of sugar (30%) and rice gruel is a widely accepted food during illness, a field trial was conducted in three areas (total population, 68,345) to compare the acceptability and use of rice-based ORT with that of sugar-based ORT. Although the mothers unanimously agreed that the rice-based solutions "stopped" the diarrhoea more quickly, they used the sugar-based solutions twice as often (in 40% of severe watery episodes) as the rice-based solutions (in 18%), because the rice-ORT was much more time-consuming and difficult to prepare. The observed reduced utilization of home-made rice-ORT makes it a poor substitute for sugar-ORT at the community level in rural Bangladesh. PMID:1860151

  9. A comparative study between the imaging system and the optical tracking system in proton therapy at CNAO

    CERN Document Server

    Desplanques, Maxime; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Riboldi, Marco; Fattori, Giovanni; Donno, Andrea; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The synergy between in-room imaging and optical tracking, in co-operation with highly accurate robotic patient handling represents a concept for patient-set-up which has been implemented at CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica). In-room imaging is based on a double oblique X-ray projection system; optical tracking consists of the detection of the position of spherical markers placed directly on the patient’s skin or on the immobilization devices. These markers are used as external fiducials during patient positioning and dose delivery. This study reports the results of a comparative analysis between in-room imaging and optical tracking data for patient positioning within the framework of high-precision particle therapy. Differences between the optical tracking system (OTS) and the imaging system (IS) were on average within the expected localization accuracy. On the first 633 fractions for head and neck (H&N) set-up procedures, the corrections applied by the IS, after patient positioning usin...

  10. Treatment planning study comparing proton therapy, RapidArc and intensity modulated radiation therapy for a synchronous bilateral lung cancer case

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Rana; Shyam Pokharel; Yuanshui Zheng; Li Zhao; Dina Risalvato; Carlos Vargas; Nancy Cersonsky

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to perform a treatment planning study on a synchronous bilateral non-small cell lung cancer case using three treatment modalities: uniform scanning proton therapy, RapidArc, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: The maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained from the 4 dimensional-computed tomography (4DCT) scans were used for delineation of tumor volumes in the left and right lungs. The average 4D-CT was used for the tre...

  11. Development and evaluation of a single vial cold kit for infection imaging: Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled antibiotics have been used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. They are used as specific infection-imaging agents because of their affinity to bind with bacteria. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is the most widely used infection-imaging agent. The aim of the present work is to increase the shelf life of an in house developed single vial kit for the preparation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Different methods were used to make the Ciprofloxacin kits. Kits were stored at a temperature of 4 deg. C under nitrogen atmosphere and evaluated for stability by serially estimating the labeling efficiency using instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) following reconstitution with Tc99m pertechnetate at regular intervals of time up to 90 days after their preparation. The data were subjected to Sigmaplotsoftware version 8.0 for shelf-life analysis. The kits were further evaluated for a number of standard quality control parameters. Kits containing sodium chloride-Ciprofloxacin pellets were found to have a shelf life of 7 months and constantly maintaining a labeling efficiency of 95% Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Biodistribution studies in balb/c mice showed significant levels in kidney, liver and intestine. Blood clearance studies showed a slow and biphasic clearance in rabbits. Gamma camera imaging of the rabbits bearing S.aureus infectious lesion confirmed the utility and specificity of the reconstituted kit in imaging infection. The final kit, which was recommended for clinical use was found to be stable for nine months with all its characteristics remaining unchanged from those of the freshly prepared Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin during the entire period of observation. (author)

  12. Comparing four volumetric modulated arc therapy beam arrangements for the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared four different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) beam arrangements for the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer examining plan quality and the impact on a radiotherapy department's resources. Twenty prostate cases were retrospectively planned using four VMAT beam arrangements (1) a partial arc (PA), (2) one arc (1A), (3) one arc plus a partial arc (1A + PA) and (4) two arcs (2A). The quality of the dose distributions generated were compared by examining the overall plan quality, the homogeneity and conformity to the planning target volume (PTV), the number of monitor units and the dose delivered to the organs at risk. Departmental resources were considered by recording the planning time and beam delivery time. Each technique produced a plan of similar quality that was considered adequate for treatment; though some differences were noted. The 1A, 1A + PA and 2A plans demonstrated a better conformity to the PTV which correlated to improved sparing of the rectum in the 60–70 Gy range for the 1A + PA and 2A techniques. The time needed to generate the plans was different for each technique ranging from 13.1 min for 1A + PA to 17.8 min for 1A. The PA beam delivery time was fastest with a mean time of 0.9 min. Beam-on times then increased with an increase in the number of arcs up to an average of 2.2 min for the 2A technique. Which VMAT technique is best suited for clinical implementation for the treatment of prostate cancer may be dictated by the individual patient and the availability of departmental resources

  13. SU-E-J-248: Comparative Study of Two Image Registration for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy in Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is one of the major treatment of esophageal cancer. Gray value registration and bone registration are two kinds of image registration, the purpose of this work is to compare which one is more suitable for esophageal cancer patients. Methods: Twenty three esophageal patients were treated by Elekta Synergy, CBCT images were acquired and automatically registered to planning kilovoltage CT scans according to gray value or bone registration. The setup errors were measured in the X, Y and Z axis, respectively. Two kinds of setup errors were analysed by matching T test statistical method. Results: Four hundred and five groups of CBCT images were available and the systematic and random setup errors (cm) in X, Y, Z directions were 0.35, 0.63, 0.29 and 0.31, 0.53, 0.21 with gray value registration, while 0.37, 0.64, 0.26 and 0.32, 0.55, 0.20 with bone registration, respectively. Compared with bone registration and gray value registration, the setup errors in X and Z axis have significant differences. In Y axis, both measurement comparison results of T value is 0.256 (P value > 0.05); In X axis, the T value is 5.287(P value < 0.05); In Z axis, the T value is −5.138 (P value < 0.05). Conclusion: Gray value registration is recommended in image-guided radiotherapy for esophageal cancer and the other thoracic tumors. Manual registration could be applied when it is necessary. Bone registration is more suitable for the head tumor and pelvic tumor department where composed of redundant interconnected and immobile bone tissue

  14. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Bladder/Prostate Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Dosimetry Compared to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In this study, we report the clinical outcomes of 7 children with bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated with proton radiation and compare proton treatment plans with matched intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, with an emphasis on dose savings to reproductive and skeletal structures. Methods and Materials: Follow-up consisted of scheduled clinic appointments at our institution or direct communication with the treating physicians for referred patients. Each proton radiotherapy plan used for treatment was directly compared to an IMRT plan generated for the study. Clinical target volumes and normal tissue volumes were held constant to facilitate dosimetric comparisons. Each plan was optimized for target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: Seven male patients were treated with proton radiotherapy for bladder/prostate RMS at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Median age at treatment was 30 months (11–70 months). Median follow-up was 27 months (10–90 months). Four patients underwent a gross total resection prior to radiation, and all patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Radiation doses ranged from 36 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) to 50.4 CGE. Five of 7 patients were without evidence of disease and with intact bladders at study completion. Target volume dosimetry was equivalent between the two modalities for all 7 patients. Proton radiotherapy led to a significant decrease in mean organ dose to the bladder (25.1 CGE vs. 33.2 Gy; p = 0.03), testes (0.0 CGE vs. 0.6 Gy; p = 0.016), femoral heads (1.6 CGE vs. 10.6 Gy; p = 0.016), growth plates (21.7 CGE vs. 32.4 Gy; p = 0.016), and pelvic bones (8.8 CGE vs. 13.5 Gy; p = 0.016) compared to IMRT. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of significant dose savings to normal structures with proton radiotherapy compared to IMRT and is well tolerated in this patient population. The long-term impact of these reduced doses can be tested in future studies

  15. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Methods for Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Girouard, Yves; Ringuette, Louise; Tsimiklis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Disk diffusion was a reliable, easy, and inexpensive method for testing the susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin (215 susceptible and 45 resistant isolates) and to ciprofloxacin (154 susceptible, two intermediate, and 124 resistant isolates) using, respectively, an erythromycin disk and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid disks.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Management of Stage 2 hypertension by Combined therapy with Losartan, Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most effective and accurate treatment of hypertensive patients reduces cardiovascular events and improves the quality of life. Objective: This study compared the efficacy and safety of combined (combination therapy with an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB a calcium-channel blocker (CCB (Losartan / Amloidipine 50/10mg vs maximal combination doses of ARB with hydrochlorothiazide (Losartan /HCTZ 100/25 mg and maximal combination doses of CCB with HCTZ (Amlodipine /HCTZ 10/25 mg in the management of stage 2 hypertension. Methods: This randomized clinical trial (RTC comprised 478 hypertensive patients with mean age 50.5±5.21 years, and took place between January 2010 and December 2011 in Vasei Hospital clinic in Sabzevar. Antihypertensive drugs were washed out after 5 days of discontinuation of drugs and the patients with mean blood pressure in sitting position ≥ 160 and <200 mmHg in systole and ≥ 100 and <110 mmHg in diastole were randomized into three groups: Losartan / Amlodipine 50/10 mg (n =164 , Losartan / HCTZ 100/25 mg (n =155 and Amlodipine / HCTZ 10/25 mg (n =159. The end point was reaching the blood pressure below 140/90 within 56 days of treatment in each group. Results: There was a significant difference in systolic blood pressure reductions between treatment groups (P<0.001 and also there was a significant difference between groups in reducing diastolic blood pressure (P<0.01. The highest systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction respectively was found in Amlodipine/losartane and losartane/HTCZ group. The ANCOVA analysis revealed that only treatment regimen had a significant effect (P=0.01 and other factor including Age, Gender, Diabetes Mellitus, Smoking and High serum cholesterol didn’t have significant effect on blood pressure reduction. Conclusion: ARB/CCB combination therapy reduced blood pressure more effectively than the maximal doses of ARB or CCB with HCTZ in stage 2 hypertensive patients within

  17. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in Central Greece: mechanisms of resistance and molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavroidi Angeliki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolates, that are also resistant to other classes of antibiotics, is a significant challenge to antibiotic treatment and infection control policies. In Central Greece a significant increase of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli has occurred during 2011, indicating the need for further analysis. Methods A total of 106 ciprofloxacin-resistant out of 505 E. coli isolates consecutively collected during an eight months period in a tertiary Greek hospital of Central Greece were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were assessed, whereas selected isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing and β-lactamase content. Results Sequence analysis of the quinolone-resistance determining region of the gyrA and parC genes has revealed that 63% of the ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli harbored a distinct amino acid substitution pattern (GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V, while 34% and 3% carried the patterns GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I and GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84G respectively. The aac (6’-1b-cr plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant was also detected; none of the isolates was found to carry the qnrA, qnrB and qnrS. Genotyping of a subset of 35 selected ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli by multilocus sequence typing has revealed the presence of nine sequence types; ST131 and ST410 were the most prevalent and were exclusively correlated with hospital and health care associated infections, while strains belonging to STs 393, 361 and 162 were associated with community acquired infections. The GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V substitution pattern was found exclusively among ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates produced CTX-M-type enzymes; eight the CTX-M-15 and one the CTX-M-3 variant. CTX-M-1 like and KPC-2 enzymes were detected

  18. An Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients undergoing Continuous Veno-venous Haemodiafiltration

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spooner, Almath M

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and the adequacy of 400 mg every 12 hours in critically ill Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) with particular reference to the effect of achieved flow rates on drug clearance. Methods This was an open prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit and research unit of a university teaching hospital. The study population was seven critically ill patients with sepsis requiring CVVHDF. Blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected and assayed for ciprofloxacin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the model independent pharmacokinetic parameters; total body clearance (TBC), half-life (t1\\/2) and volume of distribution (Vd). CVVHDF was performed at prescribed dialysate rates of 1 or 2 L\\/hr and ultrafiltration rate of 2 L\\/hr. The blood flow rate was 200 ml\\/min, achieved using a Gambro blood pump and Hospal AN69HF haemofilter. Results Seventeen profiles were obtained. CVVHDF resulted in a median ciprofloxacin t1\\/2 of 13.8 (range 5.15-39.4) hr, median TBC of 9.90 (range 3.10-13.2) L\\/hr, a median Vdss of 125 (range 79.5-554) L, a CVVHDF clearance of 2.47+\\/-0.29 L\\/hr and a clearance of creatinine (Clcr) of 2.66+\\/-0.25 L\\/hr. Thus CVVHDF, at an average flow rate of ~3.5 L\\/hr, was responsible for removing 26% of ciprofloxacin cleared. At the dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, the median estimated Cpmax\\/MIC and AUC0-24\\/MIC ratios were 10.3 and 161 respectively (for a MIC of 0.5 mg\\/L) and exceed the proposed criteria of >10 for Cpmax\\/MIC and > 100 for AUC0-24\\/MIC. There was a suggestion towards increased ciprofloxacin clearance by CVVHDF with increasing effluent flow rate. Conclusions Given the growing microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin our results suggest that a dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, may be necessary to achieve the desired pharmacokinetic

  19. Release of Ciprofloxacin-HCl and Dexamethasone Phosphate by Hyaluronic Acid Containing Silicone Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndon Jones; Elizabeth Joyce; Heather Sheardown; Miriam Heynen; Andrea Weeks; Alex Hui; Darrene Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the covalent incorporation of hyaluronic acid (HA) into conventional hydrogel and hydrogels containing silicone as models for contact lens materials on the uptake and release of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin and the anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone phosphate. A 3 mg/mL ciprofloxacin solution (0.3% w/v) and a 1 mg/mL dexamethasone phosphate solution (0.1%) was prepared in borate buffered saline. Three hydrogel mater...

  20. Synthesis of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by different methods and its biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here the synthesis of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by four different methods and its biodistribution. All of the methods gave high radiochemical yields of ≥90% and high stability of ≥90% at 6 h after preparation. However HPLC analysis, bacterial binding assay, and in vivo distribution for the four 99mTc-ciprofloxacins showed different results. Among these methods, the use of formamidine sulfinic acid with microwave heating (Method A) was fast and easy, and gave more desirable biological properties than the other methods

  1. A comparative study between the effectiveness of chemoendocrine therapy and chemoendocrine therapy combined with radiation for the treatment of advanced and/or recurrent breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The members of the Surgical and Radiation Oncology Group for Breast Cancers have conducted a controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of chemoendocrine therapy alone or combined with radiotherapy for advanced and/or recurrent breast cancers. The subjects were divided into two groups, based on the therapeutic regimen: Group A, 18 lesions, received an alternating TAM/MPA plus 5-FU chemotherapy, and Group B, 15 lesions, received this same chemoendocrine therapy combined with radiation (45 to 60 Gy for 4 to 6 weeks). In Group A, 4 out of 18 lesions (22.2%) responsed to the treatment, whereas in Group B, 10 out of 15 (66.7%) responded to the treatment (p=0.0265). Further, in Group A, only 2 lesions (11.1%) achieved a complete remission (CR), whereas in Group B, 9 lesions (60%) achieved a CR (p=0.0094). The incidence of leukopenia, however, was higher in Group B, but this did not affect the continuance of therapy. It was thus concluded that the combined therapy was more effective and contributed to the improvement of a greater number of the advanced and/or recurrent breast cancer cases. (author)

  2. Accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy compared to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Arya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While conventionally fractionated radiation therapy alone is an acceptable option for poor prognostic patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC, we hypothesized that accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy will have similar efficacy without increasing toxicity. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 300 patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC treated between 1993 and 2009. Patients included in the study were medically or surgically inoperable, were free of metastatic disease at initial workup and did not receive concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were categorized into three groups. Group 1 received 45 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (Accelerated Radiotherapy (ACRT while group 2 received 60-63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy 1 (STRT1 and group 3 received > 63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy (STRT2. Results There were 119 (39.7% patients in the ACRT group, 90 (30.0% in STRT1 and 91 (30.3% in STRT2. More patients in the ACRT group had KPS ≤ 60 (p 5% (p = 0.002, and had stage 3B disease (p Conclusions Despite the limitations of a retrospective analysis, our experience of accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 15 fractions appears to be an acceptable treatment option for poor performance status patients with stage III inoperable tumors. Such a treatment regimen (or higher doses in 15 fractions should be prospectively evaluated using modern radiation technologies with the addition of sequential high dose chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC.

  3. Comparative adequacy of surgery and radiation therapy in 175 T2 glottic carcinomas: 116 cases treated with surgery and 59 with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results were analyzed of 175 patients with glottic squamous cell carcinomas who were treated with curative purposes (1970-1986). Overall 10-year local control rates were 74% for the surgical series and 69% for the cases treated by radiation therapy. After salvage therapy 10-year survival rates were 83% and 76% respectively. The analysis of the results showed no statistically significant difference. In the group treated by radical surgery 80% local control was observed, versus 66% in the cases treated with conservative surgery. 10-year survival rate was higher in the latter group (89% versus 81%) because of better results of salvage therapy: 7 of 10 recurrences were salvaged with the second treatment. Several prognostic factors were evaluated-i.e., T extent, anterior commissure involvement, subglottic invasion, vocal cord mobility impairment, and ventricular involvement. Anterior commissure involvement was the main factor affecting out-come in the surgical series: in the presence of this factor, 64% 10-year local control was observed versus 85% in the patients without commissure involvement. This factor proved more important in the patients treated with conservative surgery (10-year control: 42 versus 88%) than in those undergoing radical surgery (78% versus 85%). Anterior commissure involvement and the number of involved subsites were found to worsen prognosis in the serial treated by radiation therapy: cases with anterior commissure involvement had 59% 10-year local control versus 83%. The cases with a deeper spread had 60% local control versus 75%. Vocal cord mobility impairment was a less important prognosis factor in both series. Our results suggest radiation therapy as a valuable method in a treatment of the small T2 laryngeal cancers which are not suitable for conservative surgery

  4. In vitro pharmacodynamics of piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin alone and in combination against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt, J M; Nix, D E; Stratton, C W; Schentag, J J

    1995-01-01

    The time-kill curve methodology was used to determine the pharmacodynamics of piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and the combinations piperacillin-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam. Kill curve studies were performed for piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam at concentrations of 0.25 to 50 times the MICs for 13 strains of bacteria: four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, three Enterobacter cloacae, three Klebsiella pneumoniae, and three Staphyloc...

  5. Formation of hydroxyl radicals contributes to the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ø.; Briales, Alejandra; Brochmann, Rikke Prejh;

    2014-01-01

    induction of cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals (OH˙) during antibiotic treatment of planktonically grown cells may contribute to action of the commonly used antibiotic ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa biofilms. For this purpose, WT PAO1, a catalase deficient ΔkatA and a ciprofloxacin resistant mutant of PAO1 (gyr......A), were grown as biofilms in microtiter plates and treated with ciprofloxacin. Formation of OH˙ and total amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and viability was estimated. Formation of OH˙ and total ROS in PAO1 biofilms treated with ciprofloxacin was shown but higher levels were measured...... in ΔkatA biofilms, and no ROS production was seen in the gyrA biofilms. Treatment with ciprofloxacin decreased the viability of PAO1 and ΔkatA biofilms but not of gyrA biofilms. Addition of thiourea, a OH˙ scavenger, decreased the OH˙ levels and killing of PAO1 biofilm. Our study shows that OH˙ is...

  6. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism.HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P insulin sensitivity compared with men (P < 0.01), and lower plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine (P < 0.01 for all), and lower C3 and C5 acylcarnitines (P < 0.01 for all), in multivariable regression models after adjusting for DEXA fat mass index, age, race, CD4+ count, smoking, and ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status.HIV-infected women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects

  7. HIV-infected individuals who delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy: Comparing clinic- and peer-recruited cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya eGwadz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy (ART when it is medically indicated (40-45%, largely African Americans and Latinos/Hispanics. This study explores the feasibility of locating PLHA who are not on ART (PLHA-NOA through clinics and peer referral; compares the two cohorts on multi-level barriers to ART; and examines readiness to initiate/reinitiate ART, a predictor of treatment outcomes. We recruited adult HIV-infected African American and Latino/Hispanic PLHA-NOA through HIV hospital clinics and peer referral in 2012-13. Participants engaged in structured one-hour assessments with reliable/valid measures on barriers to ART. We found recruitment through peers (63.2%, 60/95 was more feasible than in clinics (36.8%, 35/90. Participants were 48.0 years old and had lived with HIV for 14.7 years on average, and 56.8% had taken ART previously. Most (61.1% were male and African American (76.8%, and 23.2% were Latino/Hispanic. Peer-recruited participants were older, had lived with HIV longer, were less engaged in HIV care, and were more likely to have taken ART previously. The cohorts differed in reasons for discontinuing ART. Levels of ART knowledge were comparable between cohorts (68.5% correct, and there were no differences in attitudes toward ART (e.g., mistrust, which were in the neutral range. In bivariate linear regression, readiness for ART was negatively associated with physician mistrust (B=-10.4, and positively associated with self-efficacy (B=5.5, positive outcome expectancies (B=6.3, beliefs about personal necessity of ART (B=17.5, and positive internal norms (B=7.9. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of engaging this vulnerable population through peer referral. Peer-recruited PLHA evidence particularly high rates of risk factors compared those in clinics. Interventions to support ART initiation and continuation are sorely needed for both subgroups.

  8. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Martins-Duarte

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite's DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13-25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment. Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition--with the appearance of 'tethered' parasites--malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results

  9. Bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin in Greece: results from the National Electronic Surveillance System. Greek Network for the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Vatopoulos, A. C.; Kalapothaki, V.; Legakis, N. J.

    1999-01-01

    According to 1997 susceptibility data from the National Electronic System for the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance, Greece has high rates of ciprofloxacin resistance. For most species, the frequency of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (from highest to lowest, by patient setting) was as follows: intensive care unit > surgical > medical > outpatient. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were multidrug resistant.

  10. A comparative study between the imaging system and the optical tracking system in proton therapy at CNAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synergy between in-room imaging and optical tracking, in co-operation with highly accurate robotic patient handling represents a concept for patient-set-up which has been implemented at CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica). In-room imaging is based on a double oblique X-ray projection system; optical tracking consists of the detection of the position of spherical markers placed directly on the patient's skin or on the immobilization devices. These markers are used as external fiducials during patient positioning and dose delivery. This study reports the results of a comparative analysis between in-room imaging and optical tracking data for patient positioning within the framework of high-precision particle therapy. Differences between the optical tracking system (OTS) and the imaging system (IS) were on average within the expected localization accuracy. On the first 633 fractions for head and neck (H and N) set-up procedures, the corrections applied by the IS, after patient positioning using the OTS only, were for the mostly sub-millimetric regarding the translations (0.4±1.1 mm) and sub-gradual regarding the rotations (0.0deg±0.8deg). On the first 236 fractions for pelvis localizations the amplitude of the corrections applied by the IS after preliminary optical set-up correction were moderately higher and more dispersed (translations: 1.3±2.9 mm, rotations 0.1±0.9deg). Although the indication of the OTS cannot replace information provided by in-room imaging devices and 2D-3D image registration, the reported data show that OTS preliminary correction might greatly support image-based patient set-up refinement and also provide a secondary, independent verification system for patient positioning. (author)

  11. Clamp ablation of the testes compared to bilateral orchiectomy as androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AD Zarrabi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Burdizzo clamp ablation of the testes (CAT may provide an incisionless, cost-effective form of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT in men with adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ACP who find bilateral orchiectomy (BO unacceptable or can not afford medical ADT. The aim of this study was to compare CAT with BO as primary ADT in men with ACP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Written, informed consent was obtained from men with locally advanced or metastatic ACP. Patients were prospectively randomized to BO (n = 9 or CAT (n = 10 under local anaesthesia, and were evaluated 3 and 7 days, 6 weeks and 3 months post-procedure. The protocol was approved by the local institutional ethics committee. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's, Mann-Whitney's and Fisher's tests. RESULTS: Mean duration of the procedure was significantly longer for BO than CAT (16.9 vs. 10.9 minutes. Mean pain scores during and after the procedure did not differ significantly. Serum testosterone decreased significantly on days 3 and 7 after CAT, but increased at 6 weeks, and was significantly higher than after BO. Serum luteinizing hormone increased significantly from day 3 after BO and from day 7 after CAT. Serum prostate specific antigen decreased significantly after BO, but not after CAT. Minor complications were more common after BO (89% than CAT (40%. In the 9 men who did not achieve castrate levels of testosterone after CAT, BO was performed. CONCLUSIONS: CAT was quicker to perform and had a lower complication rate, but was not as effective as BO in achieving castrate serum testosterone levels.

  12. Human Monoclonal Anti-Protective Antigen Antibody Completely Protects Rabbits and Is Synergistic with Ciprofloxacin in Protecting Mice and Guinea Pigs against Inhalation Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Johnny W.; Comer, Jason E.; Noffsinger, David M.; Wenglikowski, Autumn; Walberg, Kristin G.; Chatuev, Bagram M.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Kang, Angray S.; Scholz, Wolfgang W.; Sircar, Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Prevention of inhalation anthrax requires early and extended antibiotic therapy, and therefore, alternative treatment strategies are needed. We investigated whether a human monoclonal antibody (AVP-21D9) to protective antigen (PA) would protect mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits against anthrax. Control animals challenged with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores by the intranasal route died within 3 to 7 days. AVP-21D9 alone provided minimal protection against anthrax in the murine model, but its efficacy was notably better in guinea pigs. When Swiss-Webster mice, challenged with five 50% lethal doses (LD50s) of anthrax spores, were given a single 16.7-mg/kg of body weight AVP-21D9 antibody dose combined with ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day for 6 days) 24 h after challenge, 100% of the mice were protected for more than 30 days, while ciprofloxacin or AVP-21D9 alone showed minimal protection. Similarly, when AVP-21D9 antibody (10 to 50 mg/kg) was combined with a low, nonprotective dose of ciprofloxacin (3.7 mg/kg/day) and administered to guinea pigs for 6 days, synergistic protection against anthrax was observed. In contrast, a single dose of AVP-21D9 antibody (1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) but not 0.2 mg/kg alone completely protected rabbits against challenge with 100 LD50s of B. anthracis Ames spores, and 100% of the rabbits survived rechallenge. Further, administration of AVP-21D9 (10 mg/kg) to rabbits at 0, 6, and 12 h after challenge with anthrax spores resulted in 100% survival; however, delay of antibody treatment by 24 and 48 h reduced survival to 80% and 60%, respectively. Serological analysis of sera from various surviving animals 30 days postprimary infection showed development of a species-specific PA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titer that correlated with protection against reinfection. Taken together, the effectiveness of human anti-PA antibody alone or in combination with low ciprofloxacin levels may provide the basis for an improved strategy for

  13. Comparative analysis of the results of various physical therapy techniques in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev М.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to evaluate the effectiveness of the techniques of dynamic simultaneous transcranial magnetic therapy and resonance, and electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic therapy and dynamic laser stimulation, magnetic simpatokorrektsii in the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia. Techniques. We observed 184 patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma who received different physical therapy techniques. Results. Patients treated with transcranial magnetic therapy and electrical stimulation or laser stimulation, in addition to improving visual function and improve the bioelectrical activity of the visual cortex, more pronounced than in other groups also observed the activation of the intraocular blood fow. Application of magnetic simpatokorrektsii allows for improvement of basic functional, electrophysiological and hemodynamic performance by reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and reduce the vasopressor effect. Conclusion. Transcranial magnetic therapy in combination with electrical stimulation or laser stimulation is effective in the treatment of patients with POAG. In patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with chronic cerebral ischemia technique of magnetic sim-patokorrektsii compared with traditional methods of vasoactive therapy is more effective, which is manifested not only increase the visual functions, but also a decrease in cognitive impairment.

  14. The effect of music therapy compared with general recreational activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A. C.; Zuidersma, M.; Boersma, F.; de Jonge, P.; Zuidema, S. U.; Slaets, J. P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of music therapy with general recreational day activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia, residing in nursing home facilities. Methods In a randomised controlled design, residents with dementia (n=94) were allocated to either music the

  15. Treatment of myogenic temporomandibular disorder: a prospective randomized clinical trial, comparing a mechanical stretching device (TheraBite®) with standard physical therapy exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kraaijenga; L. van der Molen; H. van Tinteren; F. Hilgers; L. Smeele

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To compare in a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) the application of the TheraBite® (TB) Jaw Motion Rehabilitation System with a standard physical therapy (PT) exercise regimen for the treatment of myogenic temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Methodology: Myogenic TMD patients were rand

  16. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results: The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98% of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81% were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10% were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which

  17. Moxifloxacin Compared With Ciprofloxacin/Amoxicillin in Treating Fever and Neutropenia in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neutropenia; Precancerous Condition; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  18. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy is associated with comparable outcomes to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, David M.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Roshan ePrabhu; Ruth eO'Regan; Amelia eZelnak; Carolina eFasola; Donna eMister; Torres, Mylin A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We compared outcomes in post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NAHT) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).Methods: We retrospectively identified post-menopausal women who received either NAHT or NACT for non-metastatic, non-inflammatory, ER+, Her2neu negative breast cancer from 2004 to 2011. We compared long-term rates of locoregional relapse free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS), ...

  19. Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy is Associated with Comparable Outcomes to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Post-Menopausal Women with Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, David M.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Prabhu, Roshan; O’Regan, Ruth; Zelnak, Amelia; Fasola, Carolina; Mister, Donna; Torres, Mylin A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We compared outcomes in post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NAHT) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Methods: We retrospectively identified post-menopausal women who received either NAHT or NACT for non-metastatic, non-inflammatory, ER+, Her2neu negative breast cancer from 2004 to 2011. We compared long-term rates of locoregional relapse free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS),...

  20. ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE OF CIPROFLOXACIN BY USING VARIOUS SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaiah Bonthagarala*, Leela Madhuri Pola and Sreekanth Nama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research wok is to formulate and evaluate Ciprofloxacin solid dispersions system by using the different techniques. This will increase the solubility of the drug or Ciprofloxacin and give the immediate release of the drug from the formulations. The main objective is to formulate a drug product as immediate release oral solid dosage form of Ciprofloxacin solid dispersion system which is considered to be stable, robust quality and enhanced dissolution rate. To optimize the method of manufacture by formulate the Ciprofloxacin solid dispersion system by various techniques like Physical mixing, Co-grinding, Kneading and solvent evaporation techniques. The disintegrating agent used in the present study is Crosscarmellose sodium. Among the four different techniques used for preparation of solid dispersions solvent evaporation technique has shown the increase in dissolution rate that is the Trail-5 was found to have a faster solubility and dissolution property which was prepared by using Crosscarmellose sodium as a disintegrant in the ratio of 1:1.

  1. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  2. Mechanisms of Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli Isolates from Canadian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Baudry-Simner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR determinants play a role in the increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones among Escherichia coli isolates in Canadian hospitals, and to determine the mechanisms of reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in a recent collection of 190 clinical E coli isolates.

  3. Modeling the influence of non-adherence on antibiotic efficacy: application to ciprofloxacin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lánský, Petr; Šanda, Pavel; Weiss, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2007), s. 438-447. ISSN 0946-1965 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR7795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : nonadherance * ciprofloxacin * stochastic model Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.281, year: 2007

  4. Ciprofloxacin and probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle add-on treatment in active ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been used to maintain and induce clinical remission in UC. Our aim was to test the effect of Ciprofloxacin and/or orally administered EcN as add-on to...

  5. Luminescence screening of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in swine liver after dispersive liquid - liquid microextraction cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid luminescence method was developed to screen residues of enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), in swine liver. Target analytes were extracted in acetonitrile-2.5% trifluoroacetic acid-NaCl, cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and finally de...

  6. International Spread of an Epidemic Population of Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky ST198 Resistant to Ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hello, Simon; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Doublet, Benoit;

    2011-01-01

    National Salmonella surveillance systems from France, England and Wales, Denmark, and the United States identified the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky displaying high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. A total of 489 human cases were ident...

  7. Targeted next-generation sequencing for the detection of ciprofloxacin resistance markers using molecular inversion probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Christopher P.; Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is an epidemic of increasing magnitude requiring rapid identification and profiling for appropriate and timely therapeutic measures and containment strategies. In this context, ciprofloxacin is part of the first-line of countermeasures against numerous high consequence bacteria. Significant resistance can occur via single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and deletions within ciprofloxacin targeted genes. Ideally, use of ciprofloxacin would be prefaced with AR determination to avoid overuse or misuse of the antibiotic. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a panel of 44 single-stranded molecular inversion probes (MIPs) coupled to next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the detection of genetic variants known to confer ciprofloxacin resistance in Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. Sequencing results demonstrate MIPs capture and amplify targeted regions of interest at significant levels of coverage. Depending on the genetic variant, limits of detection (LOD) for high-throughput pooled sequencing ranged from approximately 300–1800 input genome copies. LODs increased 10-fold in the presence of contaminating human genome DNA. In addition, we show that MIPs can be used as an enrichment step with high resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR which is a sensitive assay with a rapid time-to-answer. Overall, this technology is a multiplexable upfront enrichment applicable with multiple downstream molecular assays for the detection of targeted genetic regions. PMID:27174456

  8. Targeted next-generation sequencing for the detection of ciprofloxacin resistance markers using molecular inversion probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Christopher P; Koehler, Jeffrey W; Minogue, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is an epidemic of increasing magnitude requiring rapid identification and profiling for appropriate and timely therapeutic measures and containment strategies. In this context, ciprofloxacin is part of the first-line of countermeasures against numerous high consequence bacteria. Significant resistance can occur via single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and deletions within ciprofloxacin targeted genes. Ideally, use of ciprofloxacin would be prefaced with AR determination to avoid overuse or misuse of the antibiotic. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a panel of 44 single-stranded molecular inversion probes (MIPs) coupled to next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the detection of genetic variants known to confer ciprofloxacin resistance in Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. Sequencing results demonstrate MIPs capture and amplify targeted regions of interest at significant levels of coverage. Depending on the genetic variant, limits of detection (LOD) for high-throughput pooled sequencing ranged from approximately 300-1800 input genome copies. LODs increased 10-fold in the presence of contaminating human genome DNA. In addition, we show that MIPs can be used as an enrichment step with high resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR which is a sensitive assay with a rapid time-to-answer. Overall, this technology is a multiplexable upfront enrichment applicable with multiple downstream molecular assays for the detection of targeted genetic regions. PMID:27174456

  9. Efficacy of amikacin and ciprofloxacin against clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Tuberculosis was a leading cause of death at the turn of the 20 century and continues to be one of the medical scourges of mankind. Before the availability of antimicrobial drugs the cornerstone of treatment was rest in the open air in sanatoria. The major breakthrough in treatment of tuberculosis came with the discovery of Streptomycin. Later, INH, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Rifampicin were added to the arsenal. Objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against two second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi. All routine clinical samples received for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the Department of Microbiology, AFIP, Rawalpindi were processed by modified Petroff's technique and inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and Bactec 460 Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture system. After identification of M. tuberculosis sensitivity was performed against first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Then susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates against Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin was performed on LJ medium. H37Rv was used as control strain. Results: Results were interpreted using resistance ratio method. Out of 100 M. tuberculosis isolates, 98% were sensitive to Amikacin and 97% to Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin are very effective second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against tuberculosis isolates in our set-up. (author)

  10. Radiolabeling of Ciprofloxacin with Technetium-99 m, quality control and biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled antibiotics are used for the specific diagnosis of infection by exploiting their specific binding properties to the bacterial components, thereby making it possible to differentiate infection from sterile lesions. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin is the most widely used infection imaging agent which belongs to quinolones group and has a vast antimicrobial action against bacteria's. Ciprofloxacin binds to bacterial DNA Gyrase and inhibits its conventional synthesis. Ciprofloxacin labeled with 99mTc specifically binds to various bacteria. Thus, it potentially constitutes a specific marker allowing discrimination between septic and aseptic diseases. In this paper, we describe the labeling of ciprofloxacin with the most widely used imaging radionuclide, 99mTc. The quality control procedure using thin layer chromatography and the stability of labeled compound and also the effect of different parameters such as p H and stannous chloride amount on the radiolabeling yield were investigated. The maximum radiochemical yield was 90±3%. The stability of the radiolabeled antibiotic in the presence of human serum was about 84.2% and 79.6%, respectively after 1 h and 4 h. 75% of the activity binds to the plasma proteins and the ratio of infected muscle to non-infected muscle is 3.2 and 1.8, 1 h and 4 hours post injection.

  11. Comparative Outcome Analysis of Penicillin-Based Versus Fluoroquinolone-Based Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2016-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common but potentially life-threatening condition, but limited information exists on the effectiveness of fluoroquinolones compared to β-lactams in outpatient settings. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and outcomes of penicillins versus respiratory fluoroquinolones for CAP at outpatient clinics.This was a claim-based retrospective cohort study. Patients aged 20 years or older with at least 1 new pneumonia treatment episode were included, and the index penicillin or respiratory fluoroquinolone therapies for a pneumonia episode were at least 5 days in duration. The 2 groups were matched by propensity scores. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the rates of hospitalizations/emergence service visits and 30-day mortality. A logistic model was used to compare the likelihood of treatment failure between the 2 groups.After propensity score matching, 2622 matched pairs were included in the final model. The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.77-0.99), but no differences were found in hospitalization/emergence service (ES) visits (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.92-1.74) and 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.30-1.62) between the 2 groups.The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy for CAP on an outpatient clinic basis. However, this effect may be marginal. Further investigation into the comparative effectiveness of these 2 treatment options is warranted. PMID:26871827

  12. Accumulation of ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacinin fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏培元; 冯萍; 钟利; 吕晓菊; 雷秉钧

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of outer membrane protein (Omp) F-deficiency and active efflux in the accumulation of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin (CPLX) and lomefloxacin (LMLX) in resistant E. coli strains. Methods Fluoroquinolone accumulation in bacteria and the effect of active efflux were measured by a fluorescence method. The outer membrane proteins of the bacteria were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). E. coli strains in this study included control strains JF701 and JF703 that are OmpC- or OmpF-deficient mutants of E. coli K-12, respectively, and the fluoroquinolone susceptible strain the fluoroquinolone susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (Ecs) and its in vitroselected resistant strains R2 and R256, and the clinical resistant isolates R5 and R6. Results The steady-state accumulation concentration of each drug in Ecs appeared to be the same as in JF701, while in the OmpF- deficient strain JF703, it was 1/5 CPLX or 1/2 LMLX lower than that in JF701, but JF703 was still susceptible to fluoroquinolones. On the other hand, compared with susceptible strains, a 2- to 10-fold decrease in the accumulation of each drug was found in the resistant strains except R2, in which the accumulation was slightly higher than in JF703. After the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), accumulation of each drug increased, especially in resistant strains, indicating that the function of the active efflux (pump) system in these bacteria had been enhanced dramatically. Furthermore, both OmpF and OmpC in Ecs, OmpF-deficiency in R2 and R256 and OmpC-deficiency in R5 and R6 were observed.Conclusion The decreased accumulation of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones in E. coli involved OmpF-deficiency and active efflux (pump), and the latter may be an important factor.

  13. A Comparative Study On The Action Potential Simulation (APS Therapy And The Routine Physiotherapy Protocol In Knee Osteoarthritisin Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rahimi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause for which the elderly people refere to physiotherapy outpatient clinics. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Action Potential Stimulation (APS Therapy and the routine physiotherapy (PT protocol on relieving pain and swelling as well as the duration of the relief period in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: 69 patients (62 females & 7 males with knee osteoarthritis were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups including APS Therapy (n=37, mean age: 55±13 years old and the routine PT protocol (n=32, mean age: 61±14 years old groups. A 10-session treatment period was carried out for each group; and their pain and swelling were measured at the first, fifth and tenth sessions and also one-month after the last session (follow up. The swelling was measured using measuring the circumference of the knee on the patella, 5 Cm above and 5 Cm below the patella. The routine PT protocol consisted of hot pack, ultrasound, TENS and exercise; and the APS therapy protocol included hot pack, APS Therapy and the same exercise. During the follow up, 50 out of 61 subjects were called on the phone and any pain changes were recorded.Results: In terms of swelling, the results showed significant reduction just on the patella only in the APS Therapy group (P<0.05. Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS indicated a significant pain reduction in both groups. However, the APS Therapy group showed significantly pain reduction at the end of sessions five, ten and the follow up session (P<0.05. It was also revealed that while routine PT subjects showed no significant pain changes between the tenth and the follow up session, a gradual pain reduction was seen in the APS therapy group during this period (P<0.05. A gradual dosage reduction was recorded only in the APS therapy group, indicating a slight correlation with pain reduction (r=0.4.Conclusion: The

  14. Contribution of AcrAB efflux pump to ciprofloxacin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakzad, Iraj

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been recently increased among bacterial strains isolated from outpatients. Multidrug-resistant is one of the major organisms isolated from burn patients and the AcrAB efflux pump is the principal pump contributing to the intrinsic resistance in against multiple antimicrobial agents including ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. Fifty-two isolated from burn patients in Shahid Motahari hospital and confirmed by conventional biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to CLSI 2011 guidelines, to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolates. A gene was detected among ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates by PCR assay. MICs to ciprofloxacin were measured with and without carbonyl cyanide . Forty out of the 52 isolated from burn patients in Shahid Motahari hospital were resistant to ciprofloxacin according to breakpoint of CLSI guideline. PCR assay for A gene demonstrated that all ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates harbored A gene coding the membrane fusion protein AcrA and is a part of AcrAB efflux system. Among these isolates, 19 strains (47.5% showed 2 to 32 fold reduction in MICs after using CCCP as an efflux pump inhibitor. The other 21 strains (52.5% showed no disparity in MICs before and after using CCCP. In conclusion, the AcrAB efflux system is one of the principal mechanisms contribute in ciprofloxacin resistance among isolates but there are some other mechanisms interfere with ciprofloxacin resistance such as mutation in target proteins of DNA gyrase of topoisomerase IV enzymes.

  15. Induction of Fibronectin Adhesins in Quinolone-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Subinhibitory Levels of Ciprofloxacin or by Sigma B Transcription Factor Activity Is Mediated by Two Separate Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Renzoni, Adriana; Estoppey, Tristan; Bisognano, Carmelo; Francois, Patrice; Kelley, William L.; Lew, Daniel P.; Schrenzel, Jacques; Vaudaux, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported on the involvement of a RecA-LexA-dependent pathway in the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) by fluoroquinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The potential additional contribution of the transcription factor sigma B (SigB) to the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of FnBPs was studied in isogenic mutants of fluoroquinolone-resistant strain RA1 (a topoisomerase IV gyrase double mutant of S. aureus NCTC strain 8325), which exhibited widely different levels of SigB activity, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of their respective sigB and SigB-dependent asp23 transcript levels. These mutants were Tn551 insertion sigB strain TE1 and rsbU+ complemented strain TE2, which exhibited a wild-type SigB operon. Levels of FnBP surface display and fibronectin-mediated adhesion were lower in sigB mutant TE1 or higher in the rsbU+-restored strain TE2 compared to their sigB+ but rsbU parent, strain RA1, exhibiting low levels of SigB activity. Steady-state fnbA and fnbB transcripts levels were similar in strains TE1 and RA1 but increased by 4- and 12-fold, respectively, in strain TE2 compared to those in strain RA1. In contrast, fibronectin-mediated adhesion of strains TE1, RA1, and TE2 was similarly enhanced by growth in the presence of one-eighth the MIC of ciprofloxacin, which led to a significantly higher increase in their fnbB transcript levels compared to the increase in their fnbA transcript levels. Increased SigB levels led to a significant reduction in agr RNAIII; in contrast, it led to a slight increase in sarA transcript levels. In conclusion, upregulation of FnBPs by increased SigB levels and ciprofloxacin exposure in fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus occurs via independent pathways whose concerted actions may significantly promote bacterial adhesion and colonization. PMID:15728884

  16. Ten-year results comparing mastectomy to excision and radiation therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10-year results of 300 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) without microinvasion are reported; 167 treated with mastectomy and 133 treated with excision and radiation therapy. There was a significant difference in disease-free survival at 10 years, in favour of those treated with mastectomy, 98% versus 81% (P = 0.0004). Multivariate analysis confirmed nuclear grade as the only significant predictor of local recurrence (P = 0.02) or invasive local recurrence (P = 0.03) in patients with DCIS treated with excision and radiation therapy. There was no difference in breast cancer-specific survival or overall survival between the two treatment groups. (author)

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin for the imaging of bacterial infections with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Brunner, Martin; Zeitlinger, Markus; Mueller, Ulrich; Lackner, Edith; Joukhadar, Christian; Mueller, Markus [Medical University Vienna, Division of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria); Ziegler, Sophie; Minar, Erich [Medical University Vienna, Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine II, Vienna (Austria); Dobrozemsky, Georg [Medical University Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt [Medical University Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-02-01

    The suitability of the{sup 18}F-labelled fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin ([{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin) for imaging of bacterial infections with positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, suspensions of various E. colistrains were incubated with different concentrations of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin (0.01-5.0 {mu}g/ml) and radioactivity retention was measured in a gamma counter. For the in vivo experiments, 725 {+-} 9 MBq [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously into four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections of the lower extremities and time-radioactivity curves were recorded in infected and uninfected tissue for 5 h after tracer injection. Binding of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin to bacterial cells was rapid, non-saturable and readily reversible. Moreover, bacterial binding of the agent was similar in ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates. These findings suggest that non-specific binding rather than specific binding to bacterial type II topoisomerase enzymes is the predominant mechanism of bacterial retention of the radiotracer. PET studies in the four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections demonstrated locally increased radioactivity uptake in infected tissue, with peak ratios between infected and uninfected tissue ranging from 1.8 to 5.5. Radioactivity was not retained in infected tissue and appeared to wash out with a similar elimination half-life as in uninfected tissue, suggesting that the kinetics of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin in infected tissue are governed by increased blood flow and vascular permeability due to local infection rather than by a binding process. Taken together, our results indicate that [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin is not suited as a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent for PET. (orig.)

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [18F]ciprofloxacin for the imaging of bacterial infections with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of the18F-labelled fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin ([18F]ciprofloxacin) for imaging of bacterial infections with positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, suspensions of various E. colistrains were incubated with different concentrations of [18F]ciprofloxacin (0.01-5.0 μg/ml) and radioactivity retention was measured in a gamma counter. For the in vivo experiments, 725 ± 9 MBq [18F]ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously into four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections of the lower extremities and time-radioactivity curves were recorded in infected and uninfected tissue for 5 h after tracer injection. Binding of [18F]ciprofloxacin to bacterial cells was rapid, non-saturable and readily reversible. Moreover, bacterial binding of the agent was similar in ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates. These findings suggest that non-specific binding rather than specific binding to bacterial type II topoisomerase enzymes is the predominant mechanism of bacterial retention of the radiotracer. PET studies in the four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections demonstrated locally increased radioactivity uptake in infected tissue, with peak ratios between infected and uninfected tissue ranging from 1.8 to 5.5. Radioactivity was not retained in infected tissue and appeared to wash out with a similar elimination half-life as in uninfected tissue, suggesting that the kinetics of [18F]ciprofloxacin in infected tissue are governed by increased blood flow and vascular permeability due to local infection rather than by a binding process. Taken together, our results indicate that [18F]ciprofloxacin is not suited as a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent for PET. (orig.)

  19. S ciprofloksacinom povzročena holestatska okvara jeter: a case report: Ciprofloxacin-induced cholestatic liver injury: prikaz primera:

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlan-Marolt, Vera; Hafner, Matjaž; Kikec, Zdenko; Vujasinović, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drug-induced liver injury has been described for a large number ofdrugs. It is a common cause of drug withdrawal from the market. Ciprofloxacin is a commonly prescribed fluoroquinolone antibiotic and is a rare cause of hepatotoxicity. To our best knowledge this is the first case of ciprofloxacin-induced cholestatic liver injury in Slovenia. Case report: A 19year old man has been treated with ciprofloxacin at a daily dose of 500 mg twice a day due to a mild respiratory infection. A...

  20. Marital Status and Satisfaction Five Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Baucom, Brian; Yi, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To follow distressed married couples for 5 years after their participation in a randomized clinical trial. Method: A total of 134 chronically and seriously distressed married couples were randomly assigned to approximately 8 months of either traditional behavioral couple therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or integrative…