WorldWideScience

Sample records for ciprofloxacin

  1. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of ... in the clear front part of the eye). Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic ointment is used to treat conjunctivitis. Ciprofloxacin ...

  2. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using ciprofloxacin injection and call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical help: rash hives itching peeling or blistering of the skin ...

  3. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: rash hives itching tingling swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness Ophthalmic ciprofloxacin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  4. Ciprofloxacin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprofloxacin In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... advice from your health care provider. What is ciprofloxacin? Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a ...

  5. Ciprofloxacin and Dexamethasone Otic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone otic is used to treat outer ear infections in adults and children and acute ( ... middle ear infections in children with ear tubes. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of medications called quinolone ...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, P M; Wilson, R C; Tyler, J W; Duran, S H

    1995-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was investigated in healthy, mature ponies. Ciprofloxacin was administered intravenously to six ponies at a dose of 5 mg per kg body weight. Seven days later, ciprofloxacin was administered orally to each pony at the same dose. Intravenous ciprofloxacin concentration vs. time data best fit a two-compartment open model with first-order elimination from the central compartment. Mean plasma half-life, based on the terminal phase, was 157.89 min (harmonic mean). Total body clearance of ciprofloxacin was 18.12 +/- 3.99 mL/min/kg. Volume of distribution at steady-state was 3.45 +/- 0.72 L/kg. From the pharmacokinetic data and reported minimum inhibitory concentrations for equine gram-negative pathogens, the appropriate dosage of ciprofloxacin was determined to be 5.32 mg per kg body weight at 12 h intervals. Bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin in ponies was 6.8 +/- 5.33%. Owing to the poor bioavailability, a dosage regimen could not be proposed for oral ciprofloxacin administration in horses. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were determined in tissues and body fluids at 1, 2 and 4 h after intravenous administration. At all times, tissue concentrations exceeded plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Highest concentrations were achieved in kidneys and urine. Potentially therapeutic concentrations were obtained in cerebrospinal and joint fluid, but low concentrations were achieved in aqueous humour. PMID:7752310

  7. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25680964

  8. Uptake of ciprofloxacin by macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Easmon, C. S.; Crane, J P

    1985-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was concentrated within mouse peritoneal macrophages to between two and three times extracellular values. Uptake was rapid, occurred equally well with dead cells, and was not affected by lowering the pH or by prior ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus. Intracellular staphylococci were killed by extracellular concentrations of ciprofloxacin as low as 0.5 mg/l.

  9. Compound list: ciprofloxacin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ciprofloxacin CPX 00050 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/ciprofloxacin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/ciprofloxacin...edbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ciprofloxacin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp:...//ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/ciprofloxacin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidne...y.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/ciprofloxacin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  10. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis, Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Smita; Purnapatre, Kedar P.; Kalia, Vandana; Dube, Smita; Nair, Deepti; Deb, Monorama; Aggarwal, Pushpa; Gupta, Sunil; Dilip J. Upadhyay; Rattan, Ashok; RAJ, V. SAMUEL

    2007-01-01

    Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis isolates to ciprofloxacin emerged from an outbreak in Delhi, India. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the meningococcal isolates to ciprofloxacin and further sequencing of DNA gyrase A quinolone-resistance–determining region confirmed the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in the outbreak.

  11. Ciprofloxacin treatment of murine typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, O; Strömberg, A

    1990-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman developed fever, severe headache, myalgia and rash 3 weeks after a visit to Cyprus where she experienced insect bites in her bed. Treatment with ciprofloxacin resulted in a remarkable and rapid effect. Endemic typhus was proved by serology. PMID:2218412

  12. New Synthetic Method of Ciprofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new synthetic method of ciprofloxacin is started with 2,4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone, via oxaly lation, ethoxymethylenation, amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and piperazination. The reaction temperature is moderate and the operation is easily controlled. Additional four new compounds are prepared by the method.

  13. New Synthetic Method of Ciprofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英奇; 戴立言

    2001-01-01

    A new synthetic method of ciprofloxacin is started with 2,4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone, via oxaly-lation, ethoxymethylenation, amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and piperazination. The reaction temperature is moderate and the operation is easily controlled. Additional four new compounds are prepared by the method.

  14. Suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K M; Wilson, M G

    1990-04-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a rare but serious adverse effect of many drugs and usually is diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms of hematuria, proteinuria, eosinophilia, fever, azotemia, and rash. Ciprofloxacin is one drug that has been reported to cause interstitial nephritis. Renal toxicities have been reported in less than one percent of the patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy. Limited documentation of this adverse effect exists in the literature. This article describes a patient with suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis. PMID:2327115

  15. Ciprofloxacin@SiO2: Fluorescent nanobubbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M J Rosemary; V Suryanarayanan; P Ganapati Reddy; Ian Maclaren; S Baskaran; T Pradeep

    2003-10-01

    We report a new nanomaterial in which ciprofloxacin molecules are incorporated inside silica nanobubbles, denoted as ciprofloxacin@SiO2. The material has been characterised using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and emission spectroscopy. The material is stable and the freestanding particles can be precipitated and redispersed in several solvents. Confinement of the molecule is complete as leaching through the shell is minimal. The material behaves like free ciprofloxacin in solution; however, effects of confinement are manifested. Energy transfer reaction between ciprofloxacin@SiO2 and Tb3+ was monitored by emission spectroscopy. The emission intensity decreased with metal ion exposure indicating selective electronic interaction.

  16. Bilateral akillesseneruptur efter behandling med ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with...... ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin....

  17. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Daum, T E; Schaberg, D R; Terpenning, M S; Sottile, W S; Kauffman, C A

    1990-01-01

    We demonstrated the marked emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin among Staphylococcus arueus strains isolated at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center. All S. aureus isolates tested from 1984 to 1985 were susceptible, whereas 55.1% of methicillin-resistant and 2.5% of methicillin-susceptible strains from 1989 had high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  18. Reversible leukopenia related to ciprofloxacin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, P W; Gantz, N M

    1990-05-01

    In general, ciprofloxacin is well tolerated. The most common adverse effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, nervousness, and rash. Reversible leukopenia can be associated with the use of oral ciprofloxacin, as shown by our case. Leukopenia should be watched for as the use of this drug increases. PMID:2188377

  19. Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y; Bulkacz, J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin was assessed against 362 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with that of cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and mezlocillin. Only 31% of the strains tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The other agents were active against most of the strains tested.

  20. Adaptive mutations produce resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Riesenfeld, C; Everett, M.; Piddock, L J; Hall, B G

    1997-01-01

    Mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance continually occurred in nondividing Escherichia coli cells during a 7-day exposure to ciprofloxacin in agar, while no accumulation of rifampin resistance mutations was detected in those cells. We propose that the resistance mutations result from adaptive mutations, which preferentially produce phenotypes that promote growth in nondividing cells.

  1. Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    We report the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan from January to May 2004. All isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins carried bla CMY-2, and all ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates were genetically related.

  2. Ciprofloxacin therapy for Mediterranean spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Raoult, D.; Gallais, H.; De Micco, P; Casanova, P

    1986-01-01

    We report the treatment of five patients with Mediterranean spotted fever with the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin. The treatment was administered intravenously for 2 days and then perorally for 8 days. All five patients were cured. These preliminary data seem to correlate with the in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Rickettsia conorii.

  3. Ciprofloxacin in neonatal Enterobacter cloacae septicaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bannon, M J; Stutchfield, P R; Weindling, A M; Damjanovic, V.

    1989-01-01

    Multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae infection in six premature infants was eradicated with intravenous ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg/day). Bacterial resistance did not develop. Adequate plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were achieved in all treated patients. No clinical evidence of side effects was observed.

  4. Ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are taking antacids containing aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta, Tums, others); didanosine (Videx); calcium, iron, zinc, or vitamin supplements; or sucralfate (Carafate), ...

  5. Safety study of Ciprofloxacin in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Thomas; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Zhao, Wei; Guimiot, Fabien; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Durand, Estelle; Ringot, Maud; Gallego, Jorge; Storme, Thomas; Le Guellec, Chantal; Kassaï, Behrouz; Turner, Mark A; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Matrot, Boris

    2016-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent belonging to the fluoroquinolone family, is prescribed off-label in infants less than one year of age. Ciprofloxacin is included in the European Medicines Agency priority list of off-patent medicinal products requiring evaluation in neonates. This evaluation is undergoing within the TINN (Treat Infections in Neonates) FP7 EU project. As part of the TINN project, the present preclinical study was designed to assess the potential adverse effects of Ciprofloxacin on neurodevelopment, liver and joints in mice. Newborn mice received subcutaneous Ciprofloxacin at 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg/day from 2 to 12 postnatal days. Peak plasma levels of Ciprofloxacin were in the range of levels measured in human neonates. We examined vital functions in vivo, including cardiorespiratory parameters and temperature, psychomotor development, exploratory behavior, arthro-, nephro- and hepato-toxic effects. We found no effect of Ciprofloxacin at 10 and 30 mg/kg/day. In contrast, administration at 100 mg/kg/day delayed weight gain, impaired cardiorespiratory and psychomotor development, caused inflammatory infiltrates in the connective tissues surrounding the knee joint, and moderately increased extramedullary hematopoiesis. The present study pleads for careful watching of cardiorespiratory and motor development in neonates treated with Ciprofloxacin, in addition to the standard surveillance of arthrotoxicity. PMID:26627140

  6. Strukturelle Charakterisierung eines unbekannten Metaboliten von Ciprofloxacin [Structural characterization of an unknown metabolite of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Kees, Frieder K.; Raasch, W.; Grobecker, H. F.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical structure of an unknown metabolite of ciprofloxacin (CAS 85721-33-1) is characterized by means of reversed phase ion pair liquid chromatography, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, partition coefficients as well as chemical and enzymatic hydrolytic degradation. A chemical structure of the unknown metabolite is proposed: N-formyl-desethylen-ciprofloxacin. It can be formed as an intermediate in the oxidative degradation of ciprofloxacin via oxociprofloxacin to desethylen-cipr...

  7. Oral ciprofloxacin for treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguti, A; Trevisanello, C; Lobo, I M; Carvalho, M C; Bortoletto, M L; Silva, M L; Brasil Filho, R; Levi, G C; Mendonça, J S

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen adult patients with chronic osteomyelitis were treated with oral ciprofloxacin, 750 mg twice daily. Treatment ranged from 28 to 254 days. Efficacy was considered to be good, based upon clinical resolution observed in 13 patients (76%). Clinical and microbiological failure was observed in 3 patients (18%), and there was one case of reinfection. Tolerance was very satisfactory, since the adverse reactions were mild and transitory; these occurred in 7 patients (41%), being cutaneous rash in 4 patients and diarrhoea in 3 patients. No patient had to discontinue treatment. Thus, oral ciprofloxacin may be useful option for the prolonged treatment of chronic osteomyelitis, provided that it is always associated with surgical debridement. Due to the probable development of ciprofloxacin resistance in the S. aureus multiresistant strain, already observed in two patients in the present investigation, it is suggested that for the treatment of such infections another drug with antistaphylococcal activity should be associated with the ciprofloxacin. PMID:8354592

  8. Treatment of serious infections with intravenous ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, B E; Neu, H C

    1987-04-27

    Thirty-four patients were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Thirty infections occurring in 28 patients were assessable for the efficacy analysis. The drug dosage was 300 mg every 12 hours in 19 patients and 200 mg intravenously every 12 hours in nine patients. Twelve patients were also given ciprofloxacin orally after initial intravenous therapy. The mean duration of total therapy was 31 days. The overall clinical response rate was 87 percent, and the bacteriologic response rate was 70 percent. Favorable responses were observed in 10 of 12 patients with osteomyelitis/septic arthritis; seven of eight with soft tissue infection; four of four with pneumonitis; one of two with cystic fibrosis; and four of four with urinary tract infections. Resistance to ciprofloxacin developed in three Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Toxicity was minor: phlebitis occurred in six patients, nausea in six, and rash in one. Intravenously administered ciprofloxacin or intravenous ciprofloxacin followed by oral ciprofloxacin is a safe and effective therapy for serious infections. PMID:3555062

  9. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadya Gatha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.

  10. Acute renal failure due to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, M; Lopez, E J; Min, K W

    1990-10-01

    Acute renal failure developed in three patients within a few days of starting ciprofloxacin hydrochloride therapy. An allergic interstitial nephritis was suggested by fever and eosinophiluria in one patient and by erythema multiforme in another. A kidney biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis in one patient. Renal function improved shortly after withdrawal of the drug in all three patients. Literature survey revealed an additional three patients with a similar complication. Allergic manifestations, such as fever or rash, were a feature in most reported cases. In view of this potential complication, renal function should be closely monitored in patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy, especially if other potentially nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed concomitantly. PMID:2222106

  11. Imaging prostatitis with Tc-99m ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Tc-99m ciprofloxacin (Infecton) imaging was developed to discriminate infection from inflammation. It claims to show an area of viable, proliferating bacterial population that is actively using DNA gyrase, which the ciprofloxacin inhibits. The application of this imaging has been reported in patients with infected arthroplasty, soft tissue infection, pelvic inflammatory diseases, etc. Clinical evaluation with conventional urological laboratory tests often provides insufficient data in differentiating chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) from pelvic pain syndrome, which causes inappropriate or inadequate antibiotic therapy without definite evidence of presence or absence of bacterial infection. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic value of the Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging for CBP by comparing the results of the imaging with those from the conventional tests. Materials and Methods: We custom-formulated a Tc-99m ciprofloxacin kit. We used stannous tartrate for a reducing agent in making the kit. SPECT images of the region of interest were obtained at 3 hours after injection of the radiopharmaceutical. For positive control, we imaged 2 patients: acute prostatitis and urethritis. Then the actual study included 20 subjects. We excluded from the study the patients who had received antibiotic therapy within 6 weeks. The conventional tests included CBC, urinalysis, 4-glass tests, microscopic examination of expressed prostatic secretion, bacterial culture, or PCR for chlamydia trachomatis. Kappa statistics were obtained for comparison of the two tests. Results: By conventional tests, there were 10 subjects with CBP and 10 normal subjects. The typical pattern in the Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging indicating CBP was the increased uptake around the prostatic urethra. Five of the 10 subjects with CBP diagnosed by conventional tests showed the increased uptake to be positive cases in the Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging. Of the 10 subjects diagnosed as normal by the

  12. Ciprofloxacin : Use and resistance in Community, Nursing Home and Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    van Hees, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to analyze some aspects of ciprofloxacin use and clinical and (molecular) epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance in different settings, both within hospitals (chapter 3,4 and 6), community and nursing homes (chapter 2 and 5). With its broad spectrum against gram negative organisms and favorable pharmacokinetics, ciprofloxacin use has increased over the last two decades, as did resistance against ciprofloxacin. Chapter 2 describes a nation-...

  13. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Upadya Gatha; Ruxana K

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis....

  14. Ciprofloxacin interactions with imipenem and amikacin against multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Giamarellou, H; Petrikkos, G

    1987-01-01

    In vitro interactions of ciprofloxacin with imipenem and amikacin were evaluated by the killing-curve technique against 26 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to amikacin and resistant or moderately susceptible to ciprofloxacin and imipenem. Imipenem enhanced killing by ciprofloxacin in tests with 11 strains, whereas amikacin enhanced killing in tests with only 4 strains.

  15. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin against Leptospira interrogans serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Shalit, I; Barnea, A; Shahar, A

    1989-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin activity against Leptospira interrogans serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae was studied in vitro and in an animal model. The MBC of ciprofloxacin was 0.6 microgram/ml. Three of three Syrian hamsters died 8 to 9 days after intraperitoneal challenge with 10(6) leptospires. In contrast, five of six animals given ciprofloxacin 3 or 5 days after challenge survived.

  16. Identification of the Efflux Transporter of the Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in Murine Macrophages: Studies with Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Béatrice; Caceres, Nancy E; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, the most widely used totally synthetic antibiotic, is subject to active efflux mediated by a MRP-like transporter in wild-type murine J774 macrophages. To identify the transporter among the seven potential Mrps, we used cells made resistant to ciprofloxacin obtained by long-term exposure to increasing drug concentrations (these cells show less ciprofloxacin accumulation and provide a protected niche for ciprofloxacin-sensitive intracellular Listeria monocytogenes). In the prese...

  17. Automated radiosynthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We transferred the previously published manual synthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin (decay-corrected RCY: 5.5±1.0%) to an automated synthesis module (TRACERlabTM FXFDG, GE Healthcare) and observed a strong decrease in RCY (0.4±0.4%). When replacing the standard 15-mL glassy carbon reactor of the synthesis module with a 3-mL V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor a considerable improvement in RCY was observed. [18F]Ciprofloxacin was obtained in a RCY of 2.7±1.4% (n=23) with a specific activity at EOS of 1.4±0.5 GBq/µmol in a synthesis time of 160 min. - Highlights: • Automated synthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin in a TRACERlabTM FXFDG (GE Healthcare) synthesis module was developed. • Dependence of radiochemical yield on reactor type was observed. • 3-mL V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor gave higher radiochemical yield as compared with standard 15-mL glassy carbon reactor. • V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor might also give higher radiochemical yield for other [18F]radiotracers than [18F]ciprofloxacin

  18. Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharoy, S R

    1994-12-01

    Although serum sickness-like reactions are uncommon, various drugs have recently been implicated to manifest the reaction. The following case report is of a possible serum sickness-like reaction secondary to ciprofloxacin use, a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the US. A 62-y-old female developed polyarthralgias, myalgia and a generalized urticarial rash following 5 d use of ciprofloxacin. On admission to the hospital, patient was placed on cefazolin and gentamicin for suspected bacteremia. However, the regimen was discontinued after 72 h because of worsening clinical condition. Patient was placed on iv methylprednisolone therapy, and within 18 h a significant improvement was noted in her myalgias and rash. Over the next 72 h the steroid therapy was changed to a po regimen and the patient became asymptomatic 5 d after the initiation of steroid therapy. Patient was discharged on day 9 of hospital admission. Though serum sickness-like reactions have been reported with various drugs, only 1 case has been reported implicating ciprofloxacin. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse event secondary to ciprofloxacin use. PMID:7900274

  19. Clinical Efficacy of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The cliniueal efficacy, antibacterial activity and adverse effects of ciprofloxacin (CPLX) and ofloxacin (OFLX) produced in our country were compared in five clinical hospitals in Beijing and Guangzhou in 1992. Two groups, each consisting of 100 cases, were treated with. CPLX and OFLX respectively. The total

  20. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Ya-Siang; Tsai, Yolin; Jean, Jiin-Shuh [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Krukowski, Keith [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin removal by birnessite was accompanied by interlayer cation exchange. ► Layer expansion and FTIR data suggested ciprofloxacin intercalation into birnessite. ► Adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin into birnessite was limited by surface area. ► Birnessite in soil systems may provide host for ciprofloxacin accumulation. -- Abstract: With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl{sub 3} at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation.

  1. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin removal by birnessite was accompanied by interlayer cation exchange. ► Layer expansion and FTIR data suggested ciprofloxacin intercalation into birnessite. ► Adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin into birnessite was limited by surface area. ► Birnessite in soil systems may provide host for ciprofloxacin accumulation. -- Abstract: With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl3 at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation

  2. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW alone; (ii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW; (iii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW. Blood samples (1 mL were collected from the marginal ear vein up to 240 minutes postdose. The plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The maximum concentration and oral bioavailability (AUC0-240 min of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased by 49 % and 32 % when administered concomitantly with attapulgite (p < 0.001. Attapulgite appeared to have no significant effect on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin when administered 2 hours before ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was markedly reduced when administered concomitantly with attapulgite. This drug-drug interaction may decrease clinical efficacy and promote microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin. However, the interaction could be minimized by separating the adminsitration of these drugs at least 2 hours.

  3. Specific and ultrasensitive ciprofloxacin detection by responsive photonic crystal sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong; Wang, Yong [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yu, Li-Ping, E-mail: lipingyu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Sensor was designed by integrating complexes into responsive photonic crystal. • Ternary tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes were chosen for sensing. • Excellent sensing of ciprofloxacin was achieved in aqueous media. - Abstract: A new approach for specific and ultrasensitive measurement of ciprofloxacin has been developed by integrating ternary complexes into responsive photonic crystal (RPC). Tryptophan was first immobilized within the polyacrylamide hydrogel substrates of RPC. The determination of ciprofloxacin was via the existence of zinc(II) ions that function as a ‘bridge’ to form specific tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes step by step, which resulted in a stepwise red-shift of the diffraction wavelength. A maximum wavelength shift from 798 to 870 nm for ciprofloxacin was observed when the RPC film was immersed in 10{sup −4} M ciprofloxacin. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Δλ of diffraction peak and logarithm of ciprofloxacin concentration at pH 5.0 in the range of 10{sup −10} to 10{sup −4} M. And the least detectable concentration in present work is about 5 × 10{sup −11} M. The results demonstrated that the as-designed ternary complexes-based RPC sensor exhibited high sensitivity, satisfactory specificity and excellent recoverability for sensing of ciprofloxacin in aqueous media and were validated by detecting ciprofloxacin in the eye-drop sample.

  4. Specific and ultrasensitive ciprofloxacin detection by responsive photonic crystal sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sensor was designed by integrating complexes into responsive photonic crystal. • Ternary tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes were chosen for sensing. • Excellent sensing of ciprofloxacin was achieved in aqueous media. - Abstract: A new approach for specific and ultrasensitive measurement of ciprofloxacin has been developed by integrating ternary complexes into responsive photonic crystal (RPC). Tryptophan was first immobilized within the polyacrylamide hydrogel substrates of RPC. The determination of ciprofloxacin was via the existence of zinc(II) ions that function as a ‘bridge’ to form specific tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes step by step, which resulted in a stepwise red-shift of the diffraction wavelength. A maximum wavelength shift from 798 to 870 nm for ciprofloxacin was observed when the RPC film was immersed in 10−4 M ciprofloxacin. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Δλ of diffraction peak and logarithm of ciprofloxacin concentration at pH 5.0 in the range of 10−10 to 10−4 M. And the least detectable concentration in present work is about 5 × 10−11 M. The results demonstrated that the as-designed ternary complexes-based RPC sensor exhibited high sensitivity, satisfactory specificity and excellent recoverability for sensing of ciprofloxacin in aqueous media and were validated by detecting ciprofloxacin in the eye-drop sample

  5. Ciprofloxacin induced erythema multiforme: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Narasimhamurthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition that is considered to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers like flavorings and preservatives, such as benzoic acid and cinnamon, immunologic disorders, such as transient selective C4 deficiency of infancy, collagen diseases, vasculitides, sarcoidosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, myeloid metaplasia, and polycythemia, physical or mechanical factors, such as tattooing, radiotherapy, cold, and sunlight, foods, including salmon berries and margarine, malignancy, and hormonal. EM may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. EM minor represents a localized eruption of the skin with minimal or no mucosal involvement. According to a consensus definition, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS was separated from the EM spectrum and added to toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. The two spectra are now divided into the following: (1 EM consisting of erythema minor and major and (2 SJS/TEN. Ciprofloxacin is a second generation fluoroquinolone. Fluoroquinolones are rapidly bactericidal in vitro and are considerably potent against Escherichia coli and various species of Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Campylobacter, and Neisseria. Mainly used in urinary tract infections, prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, gastrointestinal and abdominal infections, respiratory tract infections, bone-joint and soft tissue infections. Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antimicrobial medication used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is on the World Health Organizations list of essential medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Here we report the case of a 39-year-old male patient who presented with EM to the dermatology outpatient department, Adichunchanagiri Hospital and Research Centre. The patient gave a history of taking

  6. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-01-01

    The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after s...

  7. Ciprofloxacin-Induced Tendinopathy of the Gluteal Tendons

    OpenAIRE

    Shimatsu, Kaumakaokalani; Subramaniam, Somasundaram; Sim, Helen; Aronowitz, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy most commonly affects the Achilles tendon; however, involvement of several other tendons has been described. This is a case report of ciprofloxacin-induced tendinopathy of the gluteal tendons with MRI findings. An obese 25-year-old woman with no significant past medical history was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis and was treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Shortly after her first dose of ciprofloxacin, she developed severe left hip pain and decreas...

  8. Effect of ciprofloxacin on mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gollapudi, S V; Prabhala, R H; Thadepalli, H

    1986-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was tested for its inhibitory or stimulatory effects on concanavalin A- and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated proliferation (measured by [3H]thymidine uptake) of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine splenocytes. Ciprofloxacin did not diminish or enhance mononuclear cell proliferation at concentrations of 5 to 125 micrograms/ml. Further, the proliferative response of splenocytes of mice previously treated with ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) was essent...

  9. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S S

    1989-01-01

    The sputum pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections is reviewed. Following intravenous administration, ciprofloxacin penetrates rapidly into bronchial tissue; the elimination half life is between 3 and 4 h and a dose dependency is seen. Following oral intake, the time to reach maximal concentrations is approximately two hours and after a dose of 750 mg the concentration may reach 1.7 mg/l in patients without cystic fibrosis and range from 0.5 to 3.4 mg/l in cystic fibrosis patients. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin increases serum levels and decreases total body clearance of theophylline. In controlled comparative clinical trials, ciprofloxacin has been found to have similar clinical efficacy as amoxycillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, imipenem-cilastatin and ceftazidime for the treatment of a range of lower respiratory tract infections. Ciprofloxacin has been found to be superior in clinical efficacy to cefaclor. Experimental animal models suggest a role for ciprofloxacin in infections caused by Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The clinical and bacteriological efficacy of ciprofloxacin is less pronounced in lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but is comparable to the combination of beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Development of resistance is frequently observed during ciprofloxacin treatment of Ps. aeruginosa. Because of the availability of other oral and effective agents, ciprofloxacin is not recommended for empirical treatment of community acquired lower respiratory infections, but should be reserved for infections caused by multiply resistant organisms. PMID:2667111

  10. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrotul Izzah; Veronica Gratia; Toetik Aryani; Suharjono

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) alone; (ii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW); (iii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW). Blood s...

  11. Unwanted effects of ciprofloxacin in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K

    1993-07-01

    The present study was an attempt to evaluate epidemiological profile of adverse reactions of ciprofloxacin and factors influencing them in Indian population. The study was conducted in indoor patients of All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The patients were in the age group of 21-65 years. Gastrointestinal upsets (nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort), headache, dizziness and skin rash were observed. Route of administration influenced the onset of ADRs. Severity of ADRs was proportional to dose. All reactions were reversible and the incidence of ADRs is lower in Indian population as compared to USA(1) but higher than seen in Japanese (2). PMID:8276503

  12. Persistence mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients undergoing ciprofloxacin therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Diver, J M; Schollaardt, T; Rabin, H R; Thorson, C; Bryan, L E

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of persistence to ciprofloxacin in nine sets of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated during ciprofloxacin therapy of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients were studied. Low to moderate levels of ciprofloxacin resistance developed in each case. Each set of pretherapy ciprofloxacin-susceptible, during-therapy ciprofloxacin-resistant, and posttherapy ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates were shown to be genotypically related by using a radiolabeled epidemiological g...

  13. Ciprofloxacin : Use and resistance in Community, Nursing Home and Hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to analyze some aspects of ciprofloxacin use and clinical and (molecular) epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance in different settings, both within hospitals (chapter 3,4 and 6), community and nursing homes (chapter 2 and 5). With its broad spect

  14. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.; Humphries, Romney M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection.

  15. Kefiran-alginate gel microspheres for oral delivery of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandón, Lina M; Islan, German A; Castro, Guillermo R; Noseda, Miguel D; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic associated with gastric and intestinal side effects after extended oral administration. Alginate is a biopolymer commonly employed in gel synthesis by ionotropic gelation, but unstable in the presence of biological metal-chelating compounds and/or under dried conditions. Kefiran is a microbial biopolymer able to form gels with the advantage of displaying antimicrobial activity. In the present study, kefiran-alginate gel microspheres were developed to encapsulate ciprofloxacin for antimicrobial controlled release and enhanced bactericidal effect against common pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the hybrid gel microspheres showed a spherical structure with a smoother surface compared to alginate gel matrices. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin from kefiran-alginate microspheres was less than 3.0% and 5.0% at pH 1.2 (stomach), and 5.0% and 25.0% at pH 7.4 (intestine) in 3 and 21h, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed the displacement of typical bands of ciprofloxacin and kefiran, suggesting a cooperative interaction by hydrogen bridges between both molecules. Additionally, the thermal analysis of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed a protective effect of the biopolymer against ciprofloxacin degradation at high temperatures. Finally, antimicrobial assays of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhymurium, and Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated the synergic effect between ciprofloxacin and kefiran against the tested microorganisms. PMID:27289312

  16. Influence of N substitution on antimycobacterial activity of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Haemers, A; Leysen, D C; Bollaert, W; ZHANG, M.Q.; Pattyn, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin analogs with various substitutions on the piperazine nitrogen were tested against several mycobacteria. In contrast to what has been found with other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, alkyl analogs such as N-isopropylciprofloxacin were shown to be significantly more active than ciprofloxacin. MICs of 0.125 microgram/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found.

  17. Differentiation of Mycobacterium chelonei from M. fortuitum by ciprofloxacin susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. H.; Yates, M D; Uttley, A H

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum were inhibited by 3.0 mg/l ciprofloxacin but 36 strains of M. chelonei were resistant. The results correlated well with those obtained by the nitratase test. The ciprofloxacin sensitivity test is a useful supplement to the tests used to identify these two species.

  18. Lack of ciprofloxacin ototoxicity after repeated ototopical application.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Claes; Govaerts, P J; Van de Heyning, P H; Peeters, S.

    1991-01-01

    The possible side effects of ototopically applied ciprofloxacin on inner ear function were investigated. The hearing function of pigmented guinea pigs was evaluated by daily frequency-specific evoked response audiometry after repeated application of the drug to both ears. Ciprofloxacin appeared to have no statistically significant effect on the hearing thresholds of the experimental animals.

  19. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance in...... S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  20. High dose intravenous ciprofloxacin in febrile neutropenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P R; Yin, J A; Tooth, J A

    1990-12-01

    We have evaluated the use of high-dose intravenous ciprofloxacin as monotherapy in the empirical therapy of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients during the course of a randomized trial comparing ciprofloxacin with a standard combination regimen. Sixty-four episodes of fever were studied in a high risk population of 42 patients mostly undergoing intensive chemotherapy for leukaemia. Ciprofloxacin achieved clinical responses as follows: completely successful in 39%, partially successful in 20%, and unsuccessful in 41%. Infections were microbiologically documented in 37 (58%), with Gram-positive bacteria (of which 37% were coagulase negative staphylococci and 34% were streptococci) accounting for 81% of all organisms cultured. Responses in documented infections were as follows; completely successful in 32%, partially successful in 27%, and unsuccessful in 41%. One infection-related death occurred 30 h after starting ciprofloxacin, and a further three patients died before the resolution of neutropenia. The early death was caused by fulminant infection with a ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No other ciprofloxacin resistance was seen amongst eight Gram-negative isolates. There was no evidence of emerging ciprofloxacin resistance during the course of the study. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a low incidence of adverse events with skin rash (five cases) and nausea (one case) being reported as possibly or probably related to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that high-dose intravenous ciprofloxacin may be safely employed as monotherapy in the empirical treatment of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients. It has the additional advantages of twice daily administration, the availability of intravenous and oral presentations, and absence of cross-allergy in beta-lactam antibiotic hypersensitive patients. PMID:2292537

  1. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  2. Ciprofloxacin Improves the Stemness of Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayanin Kiratipaiboon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in the expansion method of adult stem cells may augment their use in regenerative therapy. Using human dermal papilla cell line as well as primary dermal papilla cells as model systems, the present study demonstrated that ciprofloxacin treatment could prevent the loss of stemness during culture. Clonogenicity and stem cell markers of dermal papilla cells were shown to gradually decrease in the culture in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with nontoxic concentrations of ciprofloxacin could maintain both stem cell morphology and clonogenicity, as well as all stem cells markers. We found that ciprofloxacin exerted its effect through ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase/glycogen synthase kinase3β dependent mechanism which in turn upregulated β-catenin. Besides, ciprofloxacin was shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DPCs as the transcription factors ZEB1 and Snail were significantly increased. Furthermore, the self-renewal proteins of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, Nanog and Oct-4 were significantly upregulated in the ciprofloxacin-treated cells. The effects of ciprofloxacin in preserving stem cell features were confirmed in the primary dermal papilla cells directly obtained from human hair follicles. Together, these results revealed a novel application of ciprofloxacin for stem cell maintenance and provided the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the stemness in dermal papilla cells.

  3. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin - Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca{sup 2+} as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK{sub a2} (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d{sub 001}) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  4. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca2+ as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pKa2 (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d001) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  5. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Won Sick [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  6. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. Clinical and chemical interactions between iron preparations and ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, M; Hasinoff, B B; McKay, D. W.; Campbell, N R

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of ferrous sulphate (300 mg), ferrous gluconate (600 mg), and a combination tablet of iron (10 mg), magnesium (100 mg), zinc (15 mg), calcium (162 mg), copper (2 mg), and manganese (5 mg) (Centrum Forte) co-administration on ciprofloxacin bioavailability was tested in eight healthy subjects. 2. Peak serum ciprofloxacin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly reduced when ciprofloxacin was administered with 300 mg ferrous sulphate (3.0 vs 2.0 mg l-1, P le...

  8. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungurarat, A.; Ngamprayad, T.; Dangprasert, M.; Phumkem, S.; Jowanaridhi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated by varying factors which affected this compound. The optimum conditions for preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and a lyophilized kit for Tc-99m labelling were studied. The results from biodistribution study showed that the percentages of the injected dose per gram tissues of infected area at 1 and 3 hours after injection were around 0.25-0.56. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was found sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic. Radiochemical purity was greater than 90% with greater than 6 hours of stability.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Rebecca S.; Fish, Douglas N.; Abraham, Edward; Teitelbaum, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were studied in intensive care unit patients during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH; four patients received levofloxacin, and five received ciprofloxacin) or hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; six patients received levofloxacin, and five received ciprofloxacin). Levofloxacin clearance was substantially increased during both CVVH and CVVHDF, while ciprofloxacin clearance was affected less. The results of this ...

  10. Selection of Cross-Resistance following Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates to Ciprofloxacin or Cefepime

    OpenAIRE

    Alyaseen, Samer A.; Piper, Kerryl E.; Mark S. Rouse; James M Steckelberg; Patel, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of ciprofloxacin- and cefepime-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin selected for ciprofloxacin resistance in 26/27 and cefepime nonsusceptibility in 7/27 isolates. Exposure of the isolates to increasing concentrations of cefepime selected for cefepime nonsusceptibility in 20/27 isolates but not for ciprofloxacin resistance.

  11. Ciprofloxacin concentrations and impact of the colon microflora in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Brismar, B; Edlund, C; Malmborg, A S; Nord, C E

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was given perorally in two doses of 750 mg each with a 12-h interval starting 24 h prior to surgery, 400 mg of ciprofloxacin was given intravenously at the induction of anesthesia, and 400 mg of ciprofloxacin was given 12 h later to 21 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The maximum concentrations in serum (mean value +/- standard deviation, 11.1 +/- 7.8 mg/liter) during surgery were reached 30 min after ciprofloxacin was administered. The ciprofloxacin concentratio...

  12. Mucoadhesive controlled release ciprofloxacin nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumba, Sujata S.

    Controlled release of drugs to the lungs is an interesting and evolving field of research. The influence of physicochemical properties of nanoparticles on the controlled release of ciprofloxacin and in-vivo pharmacokinetics following pulmonary administration was evaluated. The physicochemical properties had an effect on encapsulation efficiency and surface charge, but no significant effect on particle size. The in-vitro release profiles of ciprofloxacin in phosphate buffered saline showed small differences over the range of physicochemical properties evaluated. The physicochemical properties of ciprofloxacin nanoparticles resulted in variable and unreliable nebulizer output using a vibrating mesh nebulizer whereas the impact on the aerosol properties of a jet nebulizer was negligible. Addition of mucoadhesive polymers in the nanoparticles had a three-fold increase in apparent half-life in rats by releasing ciprofloxacin over an extended release period on the surfaces of the lungs.

  13. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of '9'9'mTc-Ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated in this research. Factors including pH, injected dose and the purity of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin were determined. The optimal labeling condition of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin was found to be at pH 4.0-5.0. In terms of efficiency, the injected dose per gram of infected area was 0.25-0.56, which lasted for the duration of 1-3 h after injection. The radiochemical purity remained >90% with stability for the duration of 6 h. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the preparation of sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin.

  14. Profile of radiopharmaceutical single vial dried-kit of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (99mTc-ciprofloxacin) is used in nuclear medicine to diagnose infection by imaging method. This radiopharmaceutical is available in the dried-kit which is packed in a single vial and the preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into the dried-kit. The aim of this research was to know the profile of single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceutical of ciprofloxacin. The preparation of the dried-kit using lyophilized method has been carried out. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was determined by double chromatography system using Whatman I/methyl ethyl ketone and ITLC-SG with ethanol - water - ammonia (2:5:1) as a mobile phase. The stability test on 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, in-vitro stability in plasma and the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit were performed by determining their radiochemical purity. Studies on the effect of volume on Na99mTcO4 solution to the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiochemical purity, and sterility test of the dried-kit had also been carried out. The lyophilized process has made the single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceuticals sterile and vacuum. The result showed that 99mTc-ciprofloxacin contained 92.07 ± 1.39% of radiochemical purity, which was stable for 30 minutes either at room temperature (26 ± 1°C ) or at 4 ± 1°C in storage. In-vitro stability test of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in plasma indicated that more than 90% of the radiochemical purity was still stable until 5 hours of storage. Utilization of Na99mTcO4 volume was more than 1.6 mL on the labelling of ciprofloxacin dried-kit gave less than 90 % of radiochemical purity. Studies on the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit showed that the kit remained stable with the radiochemical purity more than 90 % after 17 weeks of storage 4 ± 2°C . (author)

  15. Increased oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin in cystic fibrosis patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensson, B A; Nilsson-Ehle, I; Ljungberg, B; Lindblad, A.; Malmborg, A. S.; Hjelte, L; Strandvik, B

    1992-01-01

    The altered pharmacokinetic properties of, e.g., aminoglycosides in cystic fibrosis patients have to be considered when pulmonary exacerbations are treated. Since reported data on ciprofloxacin, a fluorinated quinolone, are conflicting, we compared intravenous and oral administration in cystic fibrosis patients when treating them for mild symptoms of pulmonary infection. All of the patients were colonized with Pseudomonas species. Ciprofloxacin was administered orally (15 mg/kg of body weight...

  16. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Jianxi [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Huajie [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhou Yanqing [Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Jinye, E-mail: jywang@mail.sioc.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 {mu}m. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  17. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 μm. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  18. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin compared with placebo in bacterial diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, H E; Diridl, G; Stickler, K; Wolf, D

    1987-04-27

    In a double-blind, randomized trial, 85 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice daily or placebo for five days. Seventy-six patients were evaluated, 38 patients in the ciprofloxacin group (16 with Salmonella species, 19 with Campylobacter jejuni, and three with Shigella species) and 38 patients in the placebo group (21 with Salmonella species, 11 with C. jejuni, and six with Shigella species). The duration of fever in patients treated with ciprofloxacin was 1.3 days versus 3.1 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.05). The mean duration of diarrhea in the ciprofloxacin group was 1.5 days versus 2.9 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.001). The corresponding numbers in patients with salmonellosis were 1.9 versus 3.4 days (p less than 0.01). In the ciprofloxacin group, all stool culture results became negative within 48 hours of treatment. Relapse occurred in four patients with salmonellosis within three weeks after the end of treatment. In the placebo group, only four of 38 patients had negative stool culture results during treatment and results were negative in only 13 at one week after the treatment period (p less than 0.001). Modest transient elevation of serum transaminase levels was detected in three patients in the ciprofloxacin group and in two patients in the placebo group. Epigastric pain occurred in one patient, and leukopenia occurred in one patient in the ciprofloxacin group. Gastrointestinal discomfort was recorded in two patients and rash was found in one patient in the placebo group. PMID:3555057

  19. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin scintigraphy in evaluation of orthopedic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of bacterial infection in orthopedic practice is an important issue for appropriate management. Conventional radiography including CT examination has limited role in such a situation. A Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin has been developed to localize bacterial infection in order to differentiate infection from inflammation. Critical evaluation of role of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin scintigraphy in orthopedic practice was done in the present study. 104 patients with suspected infection in orthopedic clinic were taken up for Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin scintigraphy. A dose of 370 MBq of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously. Imaging was performed using Siemens integrated DIACAM camera with low energy all parallel or high-resolution collimators. Multiple spot views at serial time (1 hour, 4 hours and 24 hours) were obtained in 256 x 256 matrix size in ICON computer. Focal area of abnormal radionuclide concentration, which increased with time, was considered to be the pattern suggestive of presence of infection. In cases of equivocal qualitative appearance, quantitation of uptake was ascertained by the count statistics obtained using region of interest program. Final diagnosis of sepsis was based on microbiological examination or evidence of beneficial response to antibiotic therapy. Tc-99 Ciprofloxacin scintigraphy showed most favourable results in peripheral tubercular as well as non-tubercular osteomyelitis, tubercular arthritis and in cases with prosthesis (including vascular stent). It showed limited role in Pott's spine. The best sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin using the defined criteria was 90%, 84% and 88% respectively in cases with non-tubercular osteomyelitis. Serial imaging up to 24 hours was required in ∼ 70% of cases. In ∼ 30% of cases quantification was required to form an opinion. We conclude that Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is a highly useful technique in the management of infection in orthopedic practice. The procedure should

  20. Detection of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in equine hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnett, Mark; Richardson, Dean W; Lees, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Hair analysis to detect drug administration has not been studied extensively in horses. This study aimed to (a) develop an analytical method for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in mane and tail hair, (b) relate measured values to doses, routes of administration, hair colour, and (c) demonstrate long-term detectability. Samples were extracted in trifluoroacetic acid at 70 degrees C. Extracts were cleaned-up by solid-phase extraction and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection. Analyte recoveries were > 87%. Horses were sampled after therapeutic enrofloxacin administration either orally at 7.5 mg/kg daily for 3-13 days or twice daily for 10-14 days (Group 1, n=7) or intravenously at 5.0 mg/kg daily for 12 and 15 days (Group 2, n=2). Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were detected at concentrations up to 452 and 19 ng/mg, respectively, up to 10 months post-treatment. In vitro, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were extensively bound to melanin (> 96%) and in vivo, their uptake was 40-fold greater in black than white hair. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations correlated to enrofloxacin dose (r2=0.777 and r2=0.769). Enrofloxacin:ciprofloxacin ratios were 21:1 and 13:1 following intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Longitudinal analyte distributions correlated to treatment-sampling interval. PMID:15196904

  1. Ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in an adult cystic fibrosis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolland, Julia P; Murphy, Bryan P; Boyle, Julie; Hall, Valerie; McKenna, Kevin E; Elborn, J Stuart

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of phototoxicity as a side effect of ciprofloxacin appears to be increased in patients with cystic fibrosis compared to the general population (approximately 2.4%). We used an interview-based questionnaire to determine the incidence of such phototoxic skin reactions in cystic fibrosis patients. Results from 105 respondents revealed the incidence of ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in the adult cystic fibrosis population in Northern Ireland to be 48.4% with only 66% of the patients recalling being given sun care information beforehand. We concluded that the incidence of phototoxicity is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and that it is important for all to receive good sun care information prior to taking ciprofloxacin given the high risk of developing phototoxic rash. PMID:22971191

  2. Topical vs Combination Ciprofloxacin in the Management of Discharging Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Renukananda, G.S.; U P, Santosh; George, Nitha Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the microbial flora and determine the efficacy of topical ciprofloxacin ear drops in comparison with combination of topical and oral ciprofloxacin as first line management in patients diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media.

  3. Effect of renal function on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisance, K I; Drusano, G. L.; Forrest, A.; Weir, M R; Standiford, H C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of renal function on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was studied in 21 subjects with measured creatinine clearances ranging from 0 to 8.99 liters/h per 1.73 m2. Each subject received ciprofloxacin, 200 mg intravenously and 750 mg orally, separated by at least 1 week. Serial (12 to 15) blood samples were obtained over 24 to 48 h. Concentrations in serum were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Area under the curve was calculated by the trapezoidal rule with extrapol...

  4. Fatal case of ciprofloxacin-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh D. Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a very commonly used antibiotic. Mild to moderate gastrointestinal side effects commonly reported whereas serious reactions such as Steven and ndash;Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are very rare. We report the fatal case of 25 years female who had TEN after ingestion of tablet ciprofloxacin. This case report highlights the need to be critically aware of this rare, but life-threatening side effect of this commonly prescribed antibiotic. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1090-1092

  5. In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudin, J E; Norden, C W; Shinners, E M

    1984-01-01

    For 177 gram-negative isolates, the MICs for ciprofloxacin ranged from 0.02 microgram/ml (Escherichia coli) to 0.31 microgram/ml (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In time-kill curves, ciprofloxacin at 8 X the MIC almost completely killed 10(6) CFU of P. aeruginosa by 24 h. Ciprofloxacin at 4 X the MIC allowed bacterial regrowth by 24 h, with development of partial resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  6. The influence of chronic administration of calcium carbonate on the bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, J; Healy, D P; Stotka, J; Polk, R E

    1993-01-01

    Six healthy male volunteers participated in a two-period, two-treatment study to determine the effect of chronic calcium carbonate administration on ciprofloxacin bioavailability. There was a mean reduction of 40% in Cmax and 43% in AUC when calcium carbonate was administered with ciprofloxacin, compared with ciprofloxacin alone (P < 0.05). There were no changes in either half-life or tmax. It is therefore recommended that patients being treated with ciprofloxacin for serious infections refra...

  7. Genotoxic Evaluation of the Antibacterial Drug, Ciprofloxacin, in Cultured Lymphocytes of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    İkbal, Mevlit; DOĞAN, Hasan; Odabaş, Hatice; PİRİM, İbrahim

    2004-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a quinolone carboxylic acid derivative and is commonly used in medicine. The genotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with urinary tract infection. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE), mitotic index (MI) and replicative index (RI) were measured before and after ciprofloxacin therapy. Our results showed that SCE frequency significantly increased after ciprofloxacin therapy (P < 0.001), but MI and RI decreased (P &...

  8. Prevalence and role of efflux pump activity in ciprofloxacin resistance in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Aathithan, S.; French, G L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the prevalence and role of efflux pump activity and possible drug influx resistance in ciprofloxacin susceptibility amongst 26 distinct clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae of varying ciprofloxacin susceptibilities and known quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) genotypes. Cellular [14C]ciprofloxacin accumulation patterns and the amount of cell-associated [14C]ciprofloxacin of mid-logarithmic phase cells were determined before and after chall...

  9. Enhanced elimination of ciprofloxacin after multiple-dose administration of rifampin to rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Barriere, S L; Kaatz, G W; Seo, S M

    1989-01-01

    The combination of ciprofloxacin and rifampin is potentially useful for the treatment of selected infections. However, rifampin may induce the metabolism of ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was given in single doses to healthy rabbits before and after six daily doses of intramuscular rifampin. Total clearance of ciprofloxacin increased from 0.96 +/- 0.32 (standard deviation) to 1.57 +/- 0.63 liters/h per kg (P less than 0.05). This change in elimination is potentially significant for the outcome ...

  10. The potential of liposome–encapsulated ciprofloxacin as a tularemia therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Karleigh A.; Wong, Jonathan P.; Blanchard, James D.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2014-01-01

    Liposome-encapsulation has been suggested as method to improve the efficacy of ciprofloxacin against the intracellular pathogen, Francisella tularensis. Early work with a prototype formulation, evaluated for use against the F. tularensis live vaccine strain, showed that a single dose of liposomal ciprofloxacin given by the intranasal or inhalational route could provide protection in a mouse model of pneumonic tularemia. Liposomal ciprofloxacin offered better protection than ciprofloxacin give...

  11. Effect of ciprofloxacin on carrier rate of Neisseria meningitidis in army recruits in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Renkonen, O V; Sivonen, A; Visakorpi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in eradicating pharyngeal colonization of Neisseria meningitidis was studied among army recruits in Finland. Ciprofloxacin (250 mg) or placebo was given twice a day for 2 days to 118 meningococcal carriers. Meningococcal carriage was eradicated in 96% of subjects given ciprofloxacin and in 13% of those given placebos.

  12. Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin as a Representative of Veterinary Fluoroquinolones in Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Riddle, Christa; Lemons, Carol L.; Papich, Mark G.; Altier, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Currently in veterinary medicine, ciprofloxacin is often used in susceptibility testing to represent the entire class of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials. Using quality control organisms as well as clinical isolates, we compared the MIC of ciprofloxacin to those of three other fluoroquinolones used in animals and found that ciprofloxacin is not an adequate representative of other members of this class.

  13. Outer membrane alterations in multiresistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa selected by ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Legakis, N. J.; Tzouvelekis, L. S.; Makris, A; Kotsifaki, H

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneous mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa selected by ciprofloxacin were studied for outer membrane alterations. Acquisition of ciprofloxacin resistance was at least partially related to defects in lipopolysaccharide synthesis. When ciprofloxacin resistance was combined with resistance to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, several alterations in outer membrane proteins were noted.

  14. Influence of Renal Failure on Intestinal Clearance of Ciprofloxacin in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dautrey, Sophie; Rabbaa, Lydia; Laouari, Denise; Lacour, Bernard; Carbon, Claude; Farinotti, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Following intravenous doses, ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in control and nephrectomized rats were studied. There were no differences between control and nephrectomized rats for area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or biliary clearance. The intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin was increased in nephrectomized rats. Intestinal elimination seems to compensate partially for the decrease in urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in nephrectomized rats.

  15. Patterns of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Colonization in Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Dommeti, Parimala; WANG, Linda; Flannery, Erika L; Symons, Kathleen; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of colonization with all gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB among nursing home residents with and without indwelling devices. We found that device presence increases the risk of colonization with all GNB and with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB. Colonization with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB increases with decreasing functional status.

  16. Comparative analysis of ciprofloxacin in different pharmaceutical products by high performance liquid chromatograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharmaceutical products with different trade names having ciprofloxacin as an active ingredient were collected from the market. The products were assayed under similar conditions for active ingredient applying HPLC technique. Results obtained from quantification of ciprofloxacin contents of each product were compared with their label claims. Comparative analysis of these products was performed based on the quantity of ciprofloxacin. (author)

  17. Ureolytic Biomineralization Reduces Proteus mirabilis Biofilm Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobao; Lu, Nanxi; Brady, Hannah R; Packman, Aaron I

    2016-05-01

    Ureolytic biomineralization induced by urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis, is responsible for the formation of urinary tract calculi and the encrustation of indwelling urinary catheters. Such microbial biofilms are challenging to eradicate and contribute to the persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, but the mechanisms responsible for this recalcitrance remain obscure. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of wild-type (ure+) and urease-negative (ure-) P. mirabilis biofilms to killing by ciprofloxacin. Ure+ biofilms produced fine biomineral precipitates that were homogeneously distributed within the biofilm biomass in artificial urine, while ure- biofilms did not produce biomineral deposits under identical growth conditions. Following exposure to ciprofloxacin, ure+ biofilms showed greater survival (less killing) than ure- biofilms, indicating that biomineralization protected biofilm-resident cells against the antimicrobial. To evaluate the mechanism responsible for this recalcitrance, we observed and quantified the transport of Cy5-conjugated ciprofloxacin into the biofilm by video confocal microscopy. These observations revealed that the reduced susceptibility of ure+ biofilms resulted from hindered delivery of ciprofloxacin into biomineralized regions of the biofilm. Further, biomineralization enhanced retention of viable cells on the surface following antimicrobial exposure. These findings together show that ureolytic biomineralization induced by P. mirabilis metabolism strongly regulates antimicrobial susceptibility by reducing internal solute transport and increasing biofilm stability. PMID:26953206

  18. Selective ciprofloxacin antibiotic detection by fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Madhuri K; Tayade, Kundan C; Sahoo, Suban K; Mahulikar, Pramod P; Kuwar, Anil S; Chaudhari, Bhushan L

    2016-07-15

    Fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin (PVD) was produced from a soil isolate Pseudomonas monteilii strain MKP 213. The PVD was purified near to homogeneity and applied for the fluorescent chemosensing of various antibiotics in aqueous solution (pH=7.0). Upon addition of ciprofloxacin, PVD showed new UV-vis absorption bands at 252 and 321nm due to an internal charge transfer mechanism. Also, the addition of ciprofloxacin induced a highly selective fluorescence enhancement of PVD with a 13nm blue shift from 458 to 445nm. The combination of a long peptide chain along with the chromophore unit of PVD generates a converging cleft for ciprofloxacin recognition with LOD and LOQ of 7.13μM and 21.6μM, respectively without interference from other studied antibiotics. The association constant (Ka) of PVD with ciprofloxacin was calculated to be as low as 1.40×10(5)M(-1) using Benesi-Hildebrand plot depicting its significance in detection. The pharmaceutical tablet analysis measures the sensing with negligible matrix effect and quantitative recovery. PMID:26971273

  19. Ozonation and advanced oxidation by the peroxone process of ciprofloxacin in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bubble reactor was used for ozonation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Effects of process parameters ozone inlet concentration, ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature, pH and H2O2 concentration were tested. Desethylene ciprofloxacin was identified, based on HPLC-MS analysis, as one of the degradation products. Formation of desethylene ciprofloxacin was highly dependent on pH, with the highest concentration measured at pH 10. Radical scavengers t-butanol and parachlorobenzoic acid were added in order to gain mechanistic understanding. Radical species other than hydroxyl radicals were suggested to occur at acidic pH which can explain fast ciprofloxacin ozonation at pH 3

  20. Sublethal Ciprofloxacin Treatment Leads to Rapid Development of High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance during Long-Term Experimental Evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Wassermann, Tina; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Hengzuang, Wang; Molin, Søren; Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of occurrence and the genetic basis of ciprofloxacin resistance were studied in a long-term evolution experiment (940 generations) in wild-type, reference strain (PAO1) and hypermutable (PAOΔmutS and PAOMY-Mgm) P. aeruginosa populations continuously exposed to sub-MICs (1/4) of ciprofloxacin. A rapid occurrence of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants (MIC of ≥12 μg/ml, representing 100 times the MIC of the original population) were observed in all ciprofloxacin-exposed lineages of PAO...

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Spain: Clonal Diversity and Appearance of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Epidemic Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Alou, Luis; Ramirez, Mario; García-Rey, César; Prieto, José; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiles of 82 pneumococcal isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC) and of 90 co-occurring susceptible isolates indicates a considerable genetic diversity among isolates with RCS and points to a close relation between the two groups. This finding suggests that pneumococci with RCS emerge through independent mutational events.

  2. Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

  3. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin in water and soil and its effects on the microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Cristobal, E-mail: cristobal.girardi-lavin@ufz.de [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Greve, Josephine [Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001 8400 (United States); Lamshoeft, Marc [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn-Str. 6, NRW 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Fetzer, Ingo [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Miltner, Anja [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineralisation of toxic pollutants can be higher in soil than in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin affects the microbial communities and activities in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity of ciprofloxacin is reduced in soil due to sorption processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Despite the buffering capacity of soil, ciprofloxacin remains active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin resistance can develop in soils contaminated with this antibiotic. - Abstract: While antibiotics are frequently found in the environment, their biodegradability and ecotoxicological effects are not well understood. Ciprofloxacin inhibits active and growing microorganisms and therefore can represent an important risk for the environment, especially for soil microbial ecology and microbial ecosystem services. We investigated the biodegradation of {sup 14}C-ciprofloxacin in water and soil following OECD tests (301B, 307) to compare its fate in both systems. Ciprofloxacin is recalcitrant to biodegradation and transformation in the aqueous system. However, some mineralisation was observed in soil. The lower bioavailability of ciprofloxacin seems to reduce the compound's toxicity against microorganisms and allows its biodegradation. Moreover, ciprofloxacin strongly inhibits the microbial activities in both systems. Higher inhibition was observed in water than in soil and although its antimicrobial potency is reduced by sorption and aging in soil, ciprofloxacin remains biologically active over time. Therefore sorption does not completely eliminate the effects of this compound.

  4. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin in water and soil and its effects on the microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mineralisation of toxic pollutants can be higher in soil than in water. ► Ciprofloxacin affects the microbial communities and activities in soil. ► Toxicity of ciprofloxacin is reduced in soil due to sorption processes. ► Despite the buffering capacity of soil, ciprofloxacin remains active. ► Ciprofloxacin resistance can develop in soils contaminated with this antibiotic. - Abstract: While antibiotics are frequently found in the environment, their biodegradability and ecotoxicological effects are not well understood. Ciprofloxacin inhibits active and growing microorganisms and therefore can represent an important risk for the environment, especially for soil microbial ecology and microbial ecosystem services. We investigated the biodegradation of 14C-ciprofloxacin in water and soil following OECD tests (301B, 307) to compare its fate in both systems. Ciprofloxacin is recalcitrant to biodegradation and transformation in the aqueous system. However, some mineralisation was observed in soil. The lower bioavailability of ciprofloxacin seems to reduce the compound's toxicity against microorganisms and allows its biodegradation. Moreover, ciprofloxacin strongly inhibits the microbial activities in both systems. Higher inhibition was observed in water than in soil and although its antimicrobial potency is reduced by sorption and aging in soil, ciprofloxacin remains biologically active over time. Therefore sorption does not completely eliminate the effects of this compound.

  5. Fixed drug eruptions to ciprofloxacin - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruptions (FDE are common adverse drug reactions and they recur at the same site with each exposure to a particular drug. Drugs inducing FDE are usually those taken intermittently. Most common drugs causing fixed drug eruptions are antibiotics and analgesics. Here, we report a case of FDE to ciprofloxacin which was used in treatment of upper respiratory tract infection. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 221-222

  6. Ciprofloxacin oxidation by UV-C activated peroxymonosulfate in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi-Ahmed, Moussa; Chiron, Serge, E-mail: Serge.Chiron@msem.univ-montp2.fr

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • UV/PMS more efficient than UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for ciprofloxacin removal in wastewater. • PMS decomposition into sulfate radical was activated by bicarbonate ions. • CIP degradation pathways elucidation support sulfate radical attacks as a main route. • Sulfate radical generation allows for CIP antibacterial activity elimination. -- Abstract: This work aimed at demonstrating the advantages to use sulfate radical anion for eliminating ciprofloxacin residues from treated domestic wastewater by comparing three UV-254 nm based advanced oxidation processes: UV/persulfate (PDS), UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In distilled water, the order of efficiency was UV/PDS > UV/PMS > UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} while in wastewater, the most efficient process was UV/PMS followed by UV/PDS and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mainly because PMS decomposition into sulfate radical anion was activated by bicarbonate ions. CIP was fully degraded in wastewater at pH 7 in 60 min for a [PMS]/[CIP] molar ratio of 20. Nine transformation products were identified by liquid chromatography–high resolution-mass spectrometry allowing for the establishment of degradation pathways in the UV/PMS system. Sulfate radical anion attacks prompted transformations at the piperazinyl ring through a one electron oxidation mechanism as a major pathway while hydroxyl radical attacks were mainly responsible for quinolone moiety transformations as a minor pathway. Sulfate radical anion generation has made UV/PMS a kinetically effective process in removing ciprofloxacin from wastewater with the elimination of ciprofloxacin antibacterial activity.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of ciprofloxacin in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamarik, T A; Wilson, W D; Wiebe, V J; Pusterla, N; Edman, J; Papich, M G

    2010-12-01

    Using a randomized, cross-over study design, ciprofloxacin was administered i.g. to eight adult mares at a dose of 20 mg/kg, and to seven of the eight horses at a dose of 5 mg/kg by bolus i.v. injection. The mean C(0) was 20.5 μg/mL (±8.8) immediately after i.v. administration. The C(max) was 0.6 μg/mL (±0.36) at T(max) 1.46 (±0.66) h after the administration of oral ciprofloxacin. The mean elimination half-life after i.v. administration was 5.8 (±1.6) h, and after oral administration the terminal half-life was 3.6 (±1.7) h. The overall mean systemic availability of the oral dose was 10.5 (±2.8)%. Transient adverse effects of mild to moderate severity included agitation, excitement and muscle fasciculation, followed by lethargy, cutaneous edema and loss of appetite developed in all seven horses after i.v. administration. All seven horses developed mild transient diarrhea at 36-48 after i.v. dosing. All eight horses dosed intragastrically experienced adverse events attributable to ciprofloxacin administration. Adverse events included mild transient diarrhea to severe colitis, endotoxemia and laminitis necessitating euthanasia of three horses on humane grounds. The high incidences of adverse events preclude oral and rapid i.v. push administration of ciprofloxacin. PMID:21062312

  8. DRESS syndrome following ciprofloxacin exposure: An unusual association

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhateeb, Haider; Said, Sarmad; Cooper, Chad J.; Gaur, Sumit; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: DRESS syndrome Symptoms: Fever • rash • facial and body swelling • muscular pain • diarrhea Medication: Ciprofloxacin Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine • Hematology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, potentially life-threatening drug reaction with a mean latency period of 3.9 weeks. It has been described in association with many medicatio...

  9. Ciprofloxacin oxidation by UV-C activated peroxymonosulfate in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • UV/PMS more efficient than UV/H2O2 for ciprofloxacin removal in wastewater. • PMS decomposition into sulfate radical was activated by bicarbonate ions. • CIP degradation pathways elucidation support sulfate radical attacks as a main route. • Sulfate radical generation allows for CIP antibacterial activity elimination. -- Abstract: This work aimed at demonstrating the advantages to use sulfate radical anion for eliminating ciprofloxacin residues from treated domestic wastewater by comparing three UV-254 nm based advanced oxidation processes: UV/persulfate (PDS), UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and UV/H2O2. In distilled water, the order of efficiency was UV/PDS > UV/PMS > UV/H2O2 while in wastewater, the most efficient process was UV/PMS followed by UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 mainly because PMS decomposition into sulfate radical anion was activated by bicarbonate ions. CIP was fully degraded in wastewater at pH 7 in 60 min for a [PMS]/[CIP] molar ratio of 20. Nine transformation products were identified by liquid chromatography–high resolution-mass spectrometry allowing for the establishment of degradation pathways in the UV/PMS system. Sulfate radical anion attacks prompted transformations at the piperazinyl ring through a one electron oxidation mechanism as a major pathway while hydroxyl radical attacks were mainly responsible for quinolone moiety transformations as a minor pathway. Sulfate radical anion generation has made UV/PMS a kinetically effective process in removing ciprofloxacin from wastewater with the elimination of ciprofloxacin antibacterial activity

  10. Alternative methods of synthesizing 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. We synthesized Infecton by modifying the procedure described by Keith Britton's group (Lancet 1996; 347: 233-235) and reported our findings at the ANZSNM meeting last year. Since the methodology was cumbersome, we investigated simpler alternative ways of labelling ciprofloxacin with 99Tcm-pertechnetate for routine imaging. There were several limitations in the previously described method: (1) Need to prepare pure ciprofloxacin which was unstable on storage. (2) Synthetic procedure using formimidine sulphinic acid (FSA) was complicated and required boiling step. (3) The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the product was low (45-50%) requiring purification. (4) Biodistribution studies showed a marked uptake by the liver which could interfere with scan interpretation in this region. The results of our present studies showed that Infecton could be prepared by a simple two-step method: (1) Reduce 99Tcm-pertechnetate with stannous salt (SnCl2 or Sn-tartrate). (2) Mix with Ciproxin IV-100. The RCP of the product was up to 98%, which obviates the need for further purification. Infecton synthesized by the above method showed avid localization in abscesses induced with Staphylococcus aureus in rats. The biodistribution studies showed that Infecton was renally excreted with minimal accumulation in the liver or other organs

  11. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Astal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  12. Correlation between Fecal Concentrations of Ciprofloxacin and Fecal Counts of Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Piglets Treated with Ciprofloxacin: toward New Means To Control the Spread of Resistance? : CIPROFLOXACIN LEVELS AND RESISTANT BACTERIA IN FECES

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Chachaty, Elisabeth; Huy, Clarisse; Cambier, Carole; de Gunzburg, Jean; Mentré, France; Andremont, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    We assessed in a piglet model the relationship between fecal ciprofloxacin concentrations and ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae counts. Twenty-nine piglets were orally treated with placebo or with 1.5 or 15 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight/day from day 1 (D1) to D5. Areas under the curve (AUC) of concentrations increased sharply with dose and correlated positively with AUC of resistant bacteria log counts between D1 and D9. Removing residual colonic quinolones could help to control...

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE OF CIPROFLOXACIN BY USING VARIOUS SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaiah Bonthagarala*, Leela Madhuri Pola and Sreekanth Nama

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research wok is to formulate and evaluate Ciprofloxacin solid dispersions system by using the different techniques. This will increase the solubility of the drug or Ciprofloxacin and give the immediate release of the drug from the formulations. The main objective is to formulate a drug product as immediate release oral solid dosage form of Ciprofloxacin solid dispersion system which is considered to be stable, robust quality and enhanced dissolution rate. To optimize the metho...

  14. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite as carrier material for controlled delivery of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; S. Ramasamy; Ramakrishnan, V.; Kumar, J.

    2011-01-01

    In bone disorders infections are common. The concentration of majority of antibiotics is very low in the bone tissue. A high local dose can be obtained from the ciprofloxacin-loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The present study is aimed at developing the use of hydroxyapatite and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as a carrier for ciprofloxacin drug delivery system. The ciprofloxacin-loaded hydroxyapatite and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite have a good antibacterial activity against Pseudomo...

  15. Pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males [corrected

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, L L; Chan, R K; Nadarajah, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effectiveness of single-dose pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males. SETTING--Department of STD Control, Kelantan Road, Singapore. METHOD--160 male patients with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis were assigned alternately to receive single oral doses of either pefloxacin 800 mg or ciprofloxacin 250 mg. RESULTS--Of the pefloxacin group 98.5% (65/66 patients) and of the ciprofloxacin group 98.6% (74/75 patients) we...

  16. Development and clinical application of the radiopharmaceutical dried-kit of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiopharmaceutical is available in the form of liquid-kit, which is separately packed with its radionuclide. The radiopharmaceuticals in that form has low stability. In order to fulfill the necessity of radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of infection, the modification of the preparation radiopharmaceutical dried-kit of ciprofloxacin using a commercial ciprofloxacin infuse solution by lyophilization method has been carried out. Ciprofloxacin dried-kit consists of 2 mg of ciprofloxacin lactate in the vial A and 2 mg of stannous tartrate in the vial B. The preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into the vial A dissolved in sterile water for injection, followed by addition of Sn-tartrate solution from the vial B at the optimum condition of labeling. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was analyzed by chromatographic method using ITLC-SG as a stationary phase and acetone as a mobile phase. In vitro determination of the biological activity and uptake of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin were performed to microorganism. Meanwhile, the sterility, toxicity and clinical evaluation were also observed. The labelling result of ciprofloxacin dried-kit with 99mTc radionuclide indicated that radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was 96.39 ± 2.01 %. The determination of biological activity to S. aureus and E. coli showed that after labelling the bactericide activity was not change i.e. 83.06 ± 10.95 % and 80.26 ± 8.58 % for S. aureus and E. coli respectively, whereas the maximum uptake were occurred after one hour incubation. Clinical evaluation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin to liver and bone marrow abscess patients showed the radioactivity accumulation around those areas. Clinical application of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin with tomography technique using gamma camera showed that this radiopharmaceutical could be used for infection imaging. (author)

  17. Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Cacchillo, David A.; Walters, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a pathogen associated with aggressive periodontitis, resists phagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It is susceptible to ciprofloxacin, which PMNs actively accumulate. This study tested the hypothesis that ciprofloxacin-loaded PMNs are more effective at killing A. actinomycetemcomitans than control PMNs. Isolated human PMNs were loaded by brief incubation with 0.5 μg of ciprofloxacin/ml. Opsonized bacteria (ATCC 43718) were incubated a...

  18. A Case Study of In Silico Modelling of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride/Metallic Compound Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Stojkovic, Aleksandra; Parojcic, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica; Corrigan, Owen I.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of physiologically based absorption models, there is an increased scientific and regulatory interest in in silico modelling and simulation of drug–drug and drug–food interactions. Clinically significant interactions between ciprofloxacin and metallic compounds are widely documented. In the current study, a previously developed ciprofloxacin-specific in silico absorption model was employed in order to simulate ciprofloxacin/metallic compound interaction observed in vivo. C...

  19. Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid and pH on bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, E M; Echols, R M

    1987-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is active in vitro against most bacteria that cause peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effects of pH (5.5 and 7.4) and medium (dialysis fluid) on the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, vancomycin plus rifampin, and rifampin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and three strains of staphylococci. The bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin was not significantly affected by pH or medium, in contrast to the activity of tobr...

  20. Transepithelial transport of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin by human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavet, M E; West, M.; Simmons, N L

    1997-01-01

    Although fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin are able to gain access to lung tissue and both pleural and bronchial secretions, the characteristics of transport and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin in human epithelial lung tissue remain obscure. We have chosen human airway epithelial (Calu-3) cells, reconstituted as functional epithelial layers grown on permeable filter supports, as a model with which to assess both transepithelial transport and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin. ...

  1. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of concurrent oral ciprofloxacin and rifampin therapy in elderly patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, M H; Toler, S M; Rapp, R P; Muder, R R; Korvick, J A

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to investigate the influence of concomitant drug therapy with ciprofloxacin and rifampin on the individual pharmacokinetic profile of each agent in elderly patients. Twelve nursing home patients (age, 74 +/- 7 years), colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, were randomized to receive 14-day therapy with oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 h) (group A; n = 6) or ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 h) and oral rifampin (300 mg every 12 h) (g...

  2. Effect of generics on price and consumption of ciprofloxacin in primary healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich S; Muller, Arno; Brandt, Christian T;

    2010-01-01

    ciprofloxacin and on ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli urine isolates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective ecological study collecting monthly national data on the number of marketed versions and primary healthcare (PHC) sales of ciprofloxacin during January 1995-December 2005. Data were compared...... with a median price per defined daily dose (DDD) of ciprofloxacin during September 1999-December 2005. Yearly PHC consumption data from seven Danish counties were compared with the antimicrobial resistance profiles of PHC E. coli urine isolates. RESULTS: During 2002, the number of marketed versions...

  3. Detection of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin by solid-phase extraction and UV/Vis spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengwei; Jiang, Jia Qian

    2012-07-01

    A simple and economic solid-phase extraction coupled with UV/Vis spectrophotometric method is described for the analysis of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin. Following solid-phase extraction from model wastewater samples containing standard ibuprofen or ciprofloxacin, elutes were analyzed by a UV/Vis spectrophotometer at 225 nm for ibuprofen and 280 nm for ciprofloxacin. The assay was linear for both compounds with good coefficients of correlation. This method shows good recoveries for both compounds with 101.0 ± 9.8% for ibuprofen and 99.4 ± 11.8% ciprofloxacin.

  4. The radio-labeling of Ciprofloxacin with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even with rapid technological development in the field of diagnostic imaging, the localization of infection continues to pose challenges in day-to-day routine clinical practice. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is a relatively new radiopharmaceutical, which has proven its utility in imaging infection. This paper presents a new method of labeling Ciprofloxacin with Tc-99m using SnCI2.2H20 as reducing agent. The procedure used 2 mg of Ciprofloxacin manufactured by Bayer, 400 μg of SnCI2.2H20 (Sigma Chemical Co.) and 185MBq of Technetium-99m in the form of pertechnetate (Tc-99mO4) in a volume of 300 μl. The labeling was carried out at 100 deg. C for 10 minutes and at ambient temperature for a similar period of time. The solution obtained was filtered using millipore filter of 0.22 μm size. The efficiency of the labeling, verified by ascending chromatography on Whatman No.1 paper was found to be 97.3 % (±1.6), while it was 96.8% (±2.3) using Whatman No.3 paper and 96.6% (± 2.1) using thin-layer chromatography. Chromatography by exclusion chromatography (Bio-Gel P 10) was used for confirmation of the above results. The labeled molecules were eluted first, followed by the molecules of Technetium-99m while the colloids remained attached to the column. The results of the present study are comparable with the results of previous studies reported in literature. (author)

  5. Ciprofloxacin oxidation by UV-C activated peroxymonosulfate in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi-Ahmed, M.; Chiron, Serge

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at demonstrating the advantages to use sulfate radical anion for eliminating ciprofloxacin residues from treated domestic wastewater by comparing three UV-254 nm based advanced oxidation processes: UV/persulfate (PDS), UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and UV/H2O2. In distilled water, the order of efficiency was UV/PDS>UV/PMS>UV/H2O2 while in wastewater, the most efficient process was UV/PMS followed by UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 mainly because PMS decomposition into sulfate radical anion wa...

  6. Synthesis and characterisation of technetium-99m labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Infecton is Tc-99m labelled Ciprofloxacin, which is a synthetic carboxyquinolone derivative with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. Conventional imaging agents such as Tc-99m or In-111 labelled leucocytes are either time-consuming or hazardous due to blood handling. These can be obviated by the use of Infecton which we synthesised by modifying the procedure described by Britton and co-workers (Lancet 1996;..347: 233-235). Bioassay and animal studies have been performed with a view to its use in infection imaging in patients. The first task was to prepare pure ciprofloxacin from its commercially available lactate salt. This was achieved by isoelectric precipitation at pH 8.6 by adding sodium hydroxide to the formulation. The resultant precipitate was washed with 200 mL of water for injection and filtered through a cintered-glass filtering unit. The precipitate was free of lactate and sodium as analysed by Biochem analyser. The UV spectrophotometric analysis showed an absorption peak at 276.3 nm which is close to the theoretical value of 277 nm, thus confirming the purity of the compound. Infecton was synthesised by adding 2 mg of pure ciprofloxacin, 0.4 mg of formimidine sulfinic acid ( non-stannous reducing agent) and 1.0 GBq Tc-99m pertechnetate in a final volume of 1.0 mL saline into a sterile N2-filled Amersham vial and boiling the mixture at 100 deg C for 10 min. The purity of the product was 40-45%. It was passed through a DEAE Sephadex A-25 column and eluted with phosphate buffered saline (0.01M, pH 6.9) with a purity of >96%. The preparation was characterised by bioassay (n=3) by adding Infecton to four different broths of bacterial strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA with resultant binding of 50.4, 45.6, 48.5 and 50.3% respectively. The binding was less than 1.0% when either ciprofloxacin or

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of technetium-99m labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Choong, K.K.L.; Olma, T.R.; Mieczkowski, S. [Westmead and the New Childrens Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicineand Ultrasound and Centre for infectious Diseases and Microbiology laboratory Services

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Infecton is Tc-99m labelled Ciprofloxacin, which is a synthetic carboxyquinolone derivative with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. Conventional imaging agents such as Tc-99m or In-111 labelled leucocytes are either time-consuming or hazardous due to blood handling. These can be obviated by the use of Infecton which we synthesised by modifying the procedure described by Britton and co-workers (Lancet 1996;..347: 233-235). Bioassay and animal studies have been performed with a view to its use in infection imaging in patients. The first task was to prepare pure ciprofloxacin from its commercially available lactate salt. This was achieved by isoelectric precipitation at pH 8.6 by adding sodium hydroxide to the formulation. The resultant precipitate was washed with 200 mL of water for injection and filtered through a cintered-glass filtering unit. The precipitate was free of lactate and sodium as analysed by Biochem analyser. The UV spectrophotometric analysis showed an absorption peak at 276.3 nm which is close to the theoretical value of 277 nm, thus confirming the purity of the compound. Infecton was synthesised by adding 2 mg of pure ciprofloxacin, 0.4 mg of formimidine sulfinic acid ( non-stannous reducing agent) and 1.0 GBq Tc-99m pertechnetate in a final volume of 1.0 mL saline into a sterile N{sub 2}-filled Amersham vial and boiling the mixture at 100 deg C for 10 min. The purity of the product was 40-45%. It was passed through a DEAE Sephadex A-25 column and eluted with phosphate buffered saline (0.01M, pH 6.9) with a purity of >96%. The preparation was characterised by bioassay (n=3) by adding Infecton to four different broths of bacterial strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA with resultant binding of 50.4, 45.6, 48.5 and 50.3% respectively. The binding was less than 1.0% when either ciprofloxacin or

  8. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Amin Harati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has increased in community acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin and hexahydroquino-line derivatives against methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus.Methods: Identification of S. aureus was performed by routine microbiological tests in the Department of Pathobiology in Winter 2012. The susceptibility of S. aureus strains to both methicillin and ciprofloxacin was examined by the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, hexahydroquinoline derivatives and their combination were separately determined by broth microdilution method against methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin decreased in the presence of hexahydroquinolinein derivatives in comparison with ciprofloxacin alone.Conclusion: This study showed that hexahydroquinoline derivatives enhance the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin against methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus. Therefore, these derivatives could be used as inhibitors of antibiotic resistance in combination therapies. This enhancement may be related to the inhibitory effect of hexahydroquinoline derivatives on the expression of antibiotic efflux pump in the bacteria. However, the structural features of a fluoroquinolone that determine whether it is affected by efflux transporters are not fully

  9. Experimental imaging study of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin in detection of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Most of the current imaging agents fox inflammatory and(or) infectious dis- eases are not specific enough. It was studied that using ciprofloxacin(an antibiotics)labeled with 99Tcm for a novel imaging agent detected inflammatory and(or) infectious foci in vivo. Methods: In this investigation, the biological properties were evaluated by pharmacologic experiments. The end points of this study were two. One was to study the biodistribution of 99Tcm labeled ciprofloxacin (an antibiotics)in vivo. The other was to understand the potential role of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin in detecting inflammatory and(or) infectious foci in rabbit models. The biodistribution of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was studied in mice models. Scintigraphy of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was performed in rabbit models. Results: The labeling rate was over 90%. The dissociation of 99Tcm ciprofloxacin was minimal within 8 h at room temperature. After intravenous injection, rapid plasma clearance and renal clearance were observed. Kidney, liver and spleen were the target organs for the accumulation of injected 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin. In the infectious rabbit models (n=3), accumulation of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was found at the infective lesion (left thigh). The dynamic study showed that the optimal acquisition time for 99Tcm ciprofloxacin imaging was at 3 h after injection. Moreover, images could still be positive at 24 h after injection. Notably, little 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin accumulation was observed at the inflammation foci in above rabbit models. Conclusion: 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin could be a potential imaging agent for infectious rather than inflammatory disease in vivo in the future. (authors)

  10. The phenotypic evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations changes in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassermann, Tina; Meinike Jørgensen, Karin; Ivanyshyn, Karolina;

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a widely used antibiotic, in the class of quinolones, for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The immediate response of P. aeruginosa to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin has been investigated previously. However, the long-term phenotypic adaptation, which...

  11. Mutation patterns in gyrA and parC genes of ciprofloxacin resistant isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from India

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, U; Ray, K; Bala, M; Saluja, D

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To analyse mutations in the gyrA and parC genes leading to possible increase in ciprofloxacin resistance (high MIC values for ciprofloxacin) in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Delhi, India.

  12. Susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Germany to Ciprofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, and Tetracycline

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Jutta; Jabbusch, Miriam; Eisenblätter, Martin; Hahn, Helmut; Wendt, Constanze; Ignatius, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate Campylobacter jejuni resistance to antibiotics in Germany, MICs of ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline were determined (using agar dilution) for 144 clinical isolates. The data indicate a considerable ciprofloxacin resistance (45.1%) without a clonal relationship of the strains and a greater in vitro activity of moxifloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin.

  13. Validation of the ultraviolet spectrophotometry method for the quality control of ciprofloxacin chlorhydrate in Ciprecu tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinolones are a group of antimicrobials of high clinical significance. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate is a second-generation antibacterial fluoroquinolone for treatment of several infections and is marketed as eye drops, injections, capsule and tablets. To develop and to validate an ultraviolet spectrophotometric analytical method to be used in the quality control of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate in newly manufactured Ciprecu tablets

  14. Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures treated with ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Soltanian

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that 20 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin was the dilution of choice for mycoplasma elimination followed by 200 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin. Concentrations of 3, 30 and 300 of enrofloxacin, respectively, are appropriate for mycoplasma removal. More detailed works would be needed to verify the authenticity of the proposed simple and affordable way of mycoplasma elimination.

  15. Role of ciprofloxacin in patients with cholestasis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thawee Ratanachu-ek; Pitchaya Prajanphanit; Kawin Leelawat; Suchart Chantawibul; Sukij Panpimanmas; Somboon Subwongcharoen; Jerasak Wannaprasert

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of ciprofloxacin in reducing cholangitis in cholestatic patients with adequate biliary drainage after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial was performed in 48 cholestatic patients at Rajavithi Hospital (Tertiary Referral Center for ERCP: 600 cases per year). All the 48 patients received 200 mg ciprofloxacin intravenous injection for 30 min before starting any procedures, and then were randomly divided in two groups. Twenty-two patients in study group continually received ciprofloxacin until 48 h after ERCP. Causes of biliary obstruction, bacteriology of bile and blood (in cholangitis) and clinical cholangitis were recorded.RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled and divided into continuous ciprofloxacin treatment group (n = 22) and discontinuous ciprofloxacin treatment group (n = 26). During ERCP, stones were found in 22 patients,malignant diseases in 24 patients and other pathologic lesions in 5 patients. One (4.5%) of the 22 patients who received ciprofloxacin and 2 (6.3%) of the 26 patients who discontinued ciprofloxacin after ERCP developed cholangitis (relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.14-3.65;P = 0.88). Bacterobilia was found in 27 (56.3%) out of 48 patients. E. coli and Streptococcus viridans were the most common organisms.CONCLUSION: Continual use of ciprofloxacin in patients with cholestasis after adequate biliary drainage procedures plays no role in reducing cholangitis.

  16. Synergistic antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronqui, Maria Rita; de Aguiar Coletti, Tatiana Maria Starck Fogaça; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Miranda, Elaine Toscano; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of a variety of pathogens resistant to current antibiotics remains the major problem in medical care, especially when bacterial infections are established as biofilms. In this study, we propose the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a monotherapy and associated with antibiotic as an alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PDT mediated by methylene blue (MB) on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in both biofilm and planktonic phases. Several concentrations of MB and light doses were tested. The bactericidal effects of PDT as a monotherapy did not increase with the concentration of photosensitizer, but were light dose-dependent. In addition, bacteria in biofilms were less affected than cells in the planktonic phase. Although not concentration-dependent, the disruption effect of PDT on biofilms was clearly illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also carried out experiments that evaluated the synergistic effect of photodynamic therapy and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The best results were obtained after combination treatment of photodynamic therapy followed by ciprofloxacin on biofilms, which increased bacterial reduction on biofilms, resulting in a 5.4 log reduction for S. aureus biofilm and approximately 7 log for E. coli biofilm. PMID:26971277

  17. Influence of montmorillonite on antimicrobial activity of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guocheng; Pearce, Cody W.; Gleason, Andrea; Liao, Libing; MacWilliams, Maria P.; Li, Zhaohui

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics are used not only to fight infections and inhibit bacterial growth, but also as growth promotants in farm livestock. Farm runoff and other farm-linked waste have led to increased antibiotic levels present in the environment, the impact of which is not completely understood. Soil, more specifically clays, that the antibiotic contacts may alter its effectiveness against bacteria. In this study a swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was preloaded with antibiotics tetracycline and ciprofloxacin at varying concentrations and bioassays were conducted to examine whether the antibiotics still inhibited bacterial growth in the presence of montmorillonite. Escherichia coli was incubated with montmorillonite or antibiotic-adsorbed montmorillonite, and then the number of viable bacteria per mL was determined. The antimicrobial activity of tetracycline was affected in the presence of montmorillonite, as the growth of non-resistant bacteria was still found even when extremely high TC doses were used. Conversely, in the presence of montmorillonite, ciprofloxacin did inhibit E. coli bacterial growth at high concentrations. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in clayey soils depends on the amount of antibiotic substance present, and on the interactions between the antibiotic and the clays in the soil, as well.

  18. A novel and rapid microbiological assay for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports a simple, fast and sensitive microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO HCl) in ophthalmic solutions. The validation method yielded good results and included excellent linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The bioassay is based on the inhibitory effect of CIPRO HCl upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as the test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r¼0.9994, in the range of 14.0-56.0 mg/mL), precise (intraday RSD%¼2.06;interday RSD%¼2.30) and accurate (recovery ¼ 99.7%). The turbidimetric assay was compared to the UV spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for the same drug. The turbidimetric bioassay described on this paper for determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in ophthalmic solution is an alternative to the physicochemical methods disclosed in the literature and can be used in quality control routine.

  19. Evaluation and Characterization of The Radiopharmaceutical Lyophilized-Kit of Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiopharmaceutical is available in the lyophilized-kit which is separately packed in two vials, ciprofloxacin lactate and Sn-tartrate, respectively. Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into ciprofloxacin lactate solution, followed by addition of Sn-tartrate solution. The complement information was needed by user in order to assure the successful preparation and utilization of this radiopharmaceutical. Meanwhile, this investigation was performed to obtained the several physicochemical and biological characters of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin prepared from the radiopharmaceutical lyophilized-kit of ciprofloxacin lactate. The radiochemical purity was determined with instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) using acetone and solution of dichloromethane : methanol : ammonium hydroxide : acetonitrile : (4:4:2:1) as a mobile phases. The plasma binding protein of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was investigated in-vitro by precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid solution, whereas the lipophilicity (P) was obtained by determination of octanol-water partition. Beside that, studies on the effect of volume of Na99mTcO4 solution to radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin has been carried out. From the experiment, it was obtained that 99mTc-ciprofloxacin has 95.85 ± 2.10 % of radiochemical purity, the human plasma binding protein of 58.35 ± 2.05 % and the lipophilicity (P) = 0.024 ± 0.005. The volume more than 2 mL of Na99mTcO4 solution on the labelling of ciprofloxacin gave less than 90 % of radiochemical purity. The labelling efficiency of 44.79 % was obtained after filtration of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin. The stability test on 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin lyophilized-kit were performed by determining their radiochemical purities. The 99mTcciprofloxacin was still able to be used until 4 hours after labelling with radiochemical purity of 91.61 ± 1.60 %. The stability determination showed that the

  20. Penetration of Ciprofloxacin into the Interstitial Space of Inflamed Foot Lesions in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Markus; Brunner, Martin; Hollenstein, Ursula; Joukhadar, Christian; Schmid, Rainer,; Minar, Erich; Ehringer, Herbert; Eichler, Hans Georg

    1999-01-01

    Interstitial ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured by microdialysis in inflamed foot lesions of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients following intravenous administration of 0.2 g of ciprofloxacin. Interstitial ciprofloxacin concentrations were significantly lower than corresponding serum concentrations. There was no significant difference in the penetration of ciprofloxacin into inflamed and unaffected tissue (area under the concentration-time curveinfection/area under the co...

  1. Alteration of GyrA Amino Acid Required for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in China▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yingmei; Guo, Lishuang; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Gu, Jiaao; Xu, Jianfeng; Chen, Xiaobei; Zhao, Yuehui; Ma, Jiayu; Liu, Xinghan; Zhang, Fengmin

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in 111 (48.1%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from China. GyrA alterations were identified in the ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. The results, including previously published data, indicate that the single substitution Ser83→Ile and three types of double mutations at Ser83 and Asp87 were required for ciprofloxacin resistance (P < 0.05).

  2. Reinforcement of the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm by hyperbaric oxygen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Mousavi, Nabi; Sams, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    diffusive supply for aerobic respiration during ciprofloxacin treatment. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that biofilm reoxygenation by HBOT can significantly enhance the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa. Combining ciprofloxacin treatment with HBOT thus clearly has potential...... mechanisms affecting antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms remain unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of several bactericidal antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is enhanced by stimulation of the aerobic respiration of pathogens, and that lack of O2 increases their tolerance. Reoxygenation...... of O2-depleted biofilms may thus improve susceptibility to ciprofloxacin possibly by restoring aerobic respiration. We tested such a strategy using reoxygenation of O2-depleted P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 agarose-embedded biofilms by hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) (100% O2, 2.8bar), enhancing the...

  3. Ciprofloxacin Loaded Bovine Serum Albumin Microspheres: Prepa-ration and Drug Release Characterization In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiFengqian; HuJinhong; LuBin; ZhuQuangang; SunHuajun

    2001-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin loaded microspheres were prepared by spray drying technique, with bovine serum albumin as the natural biodegradable wall materials. The obtained microspheres, using aqueous system, were organic solvent-free. The diameters of the spherical microspheres were in the range of 1-5 1:4. The drug entrapment of microspheres, formulated with different ciprofloxacin/albumin ratios as 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4, were 46.93%, 32.96% and 20.56% (n=3). And the encapsulation efflciencies for ciprofloxacin during spray drying were higher than 90%. Thermal denaturation programs at different temperatures (100-120℃) for different time intervals (3-6-12 h) were further processed to stabilize the spray-dried microspheres. The higher the extent for thermal denaturation, the slower the rate of ciprofloxacin released from microspheres in vitro. So the release rate of ciprofloxacin from microspheres can be controlled by modifing the conditions of thermal denaturation.

  4. Ozonation and advanced oxidation by the peroxone process of ciprofloxacin in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Bavo de [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dewulf, Jo [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jo.dewulf@UGent.be; Demeestere, Kristof; Langenhove, Herman van [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2009-01-30

    A bubble reactor was used for ozonation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Effects of process parameters ozone inlet concentration, ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature, pH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration were tested. Desethylene ciprofloxacin was identified, based on HPLC-MS analysis, as one of the degradation products. Formation of desethylene ciprofloxacin was highly dependent on pH, with the highest concentration measured at pH 10. Radical scavengers t-butanol and parachlorobenzoic acid were added in order to gain mechanistic understanding. Radical species other than hydroxyl radicals were suggested to occur at acidic pH which can explain fast ciprofloxacin ozonation at pH 3.

  5. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction of ciprofloxacin with amino acids in aqueous solution following solvatochromic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Kamal; Mobarrez, Mahsa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    Complexation of a fluoroquinolone derivative (ciprofloxacin), L, and some amino acids has been studied using spectrofluorimetric method. Results indicated that ciprofloxacin have a greater tendency to form a 1:1 complex with aspartic acid and arginine than the other tested molecules. The fluorescence of ciprofloxacin exhibits quenching process while it has been titrated with these amino acids. Formation constant values (Kf) for complex formed between ciprofloxacin and amino acids were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were studied too. Possible reasons for the observed stability sequence were discussed based on the structures proposed for the resulting complexes. Besides the solution studies, solvatochromic properties of the ciprofloxacin are discussed by studying its spectra in a selection of different solvents.

  6. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. ► MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. ► MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. ► MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. ► MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO·) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide–OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on MnOx/MWCNT catalytic ozonation.

  7. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Minghao, E-mail: suiminghao.sui@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing, Sichu; Sheng, Li; Huang, Shuhang; Guo, Hongguang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO{center_dot}) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide-OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on

  8. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against amikacin- and cefotaxime-resistant gram-negative bacilli and methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Simberkoff, M S; Rahal, J J

    1986-01-01

    The MICs and MBCs of ciprofloxacin were determined for clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant aerobic bacteria. Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin of cefotaxime- and amikacin-resistant Serratia marcescens and amikacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were noted. The data suggest that ciprofloxacin susceptibility should be carefully monitored in treating patients with hospital-acquired bacterial infections.

  9. Intestinal ciprofloxacin efflux: the role of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, I S; Wright, J A; O'Reilly, D A; Sherlock, D J; Coleman, T; Simmons, N L

    2011-12-01

    Intestinal secretory movement of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, may limit its oral bioavailability. Active ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) have been implicated in ciprofloxacin transport. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that BCRP alone mediates intestinal ciprofloxacin secretion. The involvement of ABC transport proteins in ciprofloxacin secretory flux was investigated with the combined use of transfected cell lines [bcrp1/BCRP-Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) and multidrug resistance-related protein 4 (MRP4)-human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293] and human intestinal Caco-2 cells, combined with pharmacological inhibition using 3-(6-isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6, 7,12,12a-octahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), cyclosporine, 3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), and verapamil as ABC-selective inhibitors. In addition, the regional variation in secretory capacity was investigated using male Han Wistar rat intestine mounted in Ussing chambers, and the first indicative measurements of ciprofloxacin transport by ex vivo human jejunum were made. Active, Ko143-sensitive ciprofloxacin secretion was observed in bcrp1-MDCKII cell layers, but in low-passage (BCRP-expressing) Caco-2 cell layers only a 54% fraction was Ko143-sensitive. Ciprofloxacin accumulation was lower in MRP4-HEK293 cells than in the parent line, indicating that ciprofloxacin is also a substrate for this transporter. Ciprofloxacin secretion by Caco-2 cell layers was not inhibited by MK571. Secretory flux showed marked regional variability in the rat intestine, increasing from the duodenum to peak in the ileum. Ciprofloxacin secretion was present in human jejunum and was reduced by Ko143 but showed marked interindividual variability. Ciprofloxacin is a substrate for human and

  10. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of ciprofloxacin in a pharmaceutical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Serap Saglik; Demir, Betul

    2010-01-01

    Two kinetic spectrophotometric methods were developed for determination of ciprofloxacin (CIP) in a pharmaceutical preparation. The methods are based on oxidation of CIP with potassium permanganate in alkaline media and measurement of the enhancement in the absorbance of manganate ion at 603 nm by spectrophotometry. The calibration graphs were constructed using the initial rate and fixed time methods. The linearity range for concentrations of CIP was found to be 4.0-20.0 microg/mL. The RSD values for intraday and interday precision were 0.05-0.50 and 0.07-0.63%, respectively. The procedures were applied successfully for determination of CIP in commercial tablets. The results compared well with those from a reference HPLC method. The proposed methods can be recommended for routine analysis of CIP in QC laboratories. PMID:20480897

  11. Processing-property relationships of polypropylene/ciprofloxacin fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we prepared polypropylene (PP) fibers incorporating an antibiotic, i.e. ciprofloxacin (CFX), by melt spinning. In particular, PP has been compounded with CFX at different concentrations by using a counter-rotating twin screw compounder. The PP/CFX fibers have been spun by using a capillary rheometer operating under a constant extrusion speed. The effect of "online" hot drawing during the melt spinning or of an "offline" cold drawing on the properties of PP/CFX fibers were evaluated. In particular, the influence of the drawing conditions on the mechanical properties and the release kinetics were studied. Moreover, the rheological behavior in non-isothermal elongation flow has been assessed.

  12. Ciprofloxacin in imaging of infective versus sterile inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) was labelled with 99Tcm. The radiolabelled efficiency monitored by ITLC and HPLC was higher than 95%. The 99Tcm-CIP complex analyzed by those systems have shown that inactive and labelled CIP exhibit different chromatographic behavior. This finding together with octanol/saline partition coefficients determination indicated that CIP and 99Tcm-CIP correspond to different chemical structure. Biodistribution studies in inflamed mice shown that 99Tcm-CIP is rapidly distributed after i. v. administration with a predominant renal clearance. The radioactive preparation is able to localize bacterial and sterile inflammations induced by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and turpentine, which suggest that its accumulation is due to increased blood flow together with enhanced vascular permeability as also postulated to other non-specific radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  13. Impact of ciprofloxacin on theophylline clearance and steady-state concentrations in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J; Jauregui, L; Lettieri, J; Bachmann, K

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a multiple-dose regimen of oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 h for 11 doses) on the clearance and steady-state concentrations of theophylline in trough (predose) serum was evaluated in nine healthy male subjects, each serving as his own control. Theophylline was taken as a sustained release tablet per os in a dose of 200 mg every 12 h for 19 doses. Theophylline concentrations in serum were measured immediately before each theophylline dose. Ciprofloxacin was administered on study day 4 through the first dose of study day 8. Theophylline concentrations in serum were also measured on study days 3, 6, 8, and 10 at the following times after the first dose of each day: 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h. Steady-state theophylline concentrations in trough serum were significantly higher during ciprofloxacin treatment (day 8) than before (day 3) or after (day 10) ciprofloxacin administration (P less than 0.01). Likewise, theophylline clearance was significantly slower (P less than 0.01) during ciprofloxacin treatment (day 8) than before it (day 3) or after it (day 10). The magnitude of ciprofloxacin-induced changes was approximately 30%. These results suggest that a multidose regimen of ciprofloxacin significantly slows the clearance of theophylline and elevates theophylline concentrations in serum. PMID:3348614

  14. Ciprofloxacin-Induced Antibacterial Activity Is Atteneuated by Pretreatment with Antioxidant Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Khabour, Omar F; Al-Buhairan, Ahlam M

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin works through interfering with replication and transcription of bacterial DNA, which leads to increased oxidative stress, and death of bacterial cells. Drugs with strong antioxidant such as tempol, melatonin and pentoxifylline might interfere with the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin. In the current study, the effect of these drugs on the cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was investigated against several reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains included Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923). The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin with or without treatment of bacterial cells by tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline was assessed using the disc diffusion method and by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All of the tested bacterial strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. When treated with tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline, all bacterial strains showed significantly smaller zones of inhibition and larger MIC values compared ciprofloxacin alone. In correlation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by ciprofloxacin antibacterial action was diminished by treatment of bacterial cells with tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline. In conclusion, results indicate the possible antagonistic properties for agents with antioxidant properties such as tempol, melatonin and pentoxifylline when they are used concurrently with flouroquinolones. This could be related to the ability of these agents to inhibit oxidative stress in bacterial cells. PMID:27005666

  15. Treatment of serious infections with intravenous ciprofloxacin. French Multicenter Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, J

    1989-11-30

    Ninety-four patients, 61 men and 33 women with a mean age of 54 years, were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Eighty-one patients (86 percent) were in serious or fair condition. Pathogens included Enterobacteriaceae (74 patients), Pseudomonas sp. (23 patients), other gram-negative bacilli (five patients), staphylococci (19 patients), other gram-positive cocci (seven patients), and Rickettsia conorii (five patients). Thirty-eight patients were given parenteral therapy (ciprofloxacin at a mean daily dose of 200 mg every 12 hours, mean duration of therapy, nine days). Fifty-six patients were also given ciprofloxacin orally after initial intravenous therapy at a dose of either 500 or 750 mg every 12 hours (mean duration of therapy, 36 days). Another antibiotic was given concomitantly in 25 cases (27 percent). The overall clinical response was 93 percent and the bacteriologic response rate was 84 percent. There was no difference between patients treated by intravenous ciprofloxacin and those treated by intravenous ciprofloxacin followed by oral ciprofloxacin. Favorable responses (resolution of improvement) were observed in 39 of 42 patients (93 percent) with bacteremia, 28 of 30 (93 percent) with urinary tract infection, 10 of 13 (77 percent) with respiratory tract infection, 11 of 12 (92 percent) with bone and joint infection, three of three (100 percent) with skin and soft-tissue infection, nine of nine (100 percent) with intra-abdominal infection, three of three (100 percent) with typhoid fever, and two of two (100 percent) with meningitis. All five patients with R. conorii infections had a response to therapy. The adverse effects were minor and transient. Seven patients experienced clinical adverse effects: pain at the injection site (three patients), rash (two patients), and headache (2 patients). Serum transaminase levels were increased in 11 patients. Intravenously administered ciprofloxacin or intravenous ciprofloxacin followed by oral ciprofloxacin is a

  16. A new technique of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin kit preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Development of a simple and reproducible method for preparing a ciprofloxacin kit using a redox polymer, which would meet the requirements for an easy and reliable technique of labelling with 99mTc and diagnostic efficiency in scintigraphic imaging of infections. Material and methods: To prepare the kit, an insoluble redox polymer containing an end α(β)-alanine-N,N'-diacetate group anchored to the dextron matrix was used. The redox polymer synthesised by the authors was incubated at room temperature (10 h) with a solution of ciprofloxacin (1%) in a suspension (5%). The mixture was then filtered and dispensed into sterile vials (0.2 ml each). The kit was labelled with 99mTc for 10 min at room temperature. The radiochemical purity of the ciprofloxacin-99mTc complex was determined by ITLC and paper chromatography in relation to the following factors: pH, total content of ciprofloxacin, volume of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate. Ciprofloxacin biodistribution was evaluated in Wistar rats with Staphylococcus aureus infection in the left inguinal region 24 h after abscess induction. Accumulation of 99mTc activity was determined both using external gamma camera imaging and counting dissected tissues 1 h after administration. Results: Radiochemical purity is >95% for kit-labelling (pH 3.3-3.7). With pH 3.45, labelled ciprofloxacin shows the highest stability and radiochemical purity. The 99mTc-ciprofloxacin complex is stable for at least 8 h. In experimentally induced inflammation, the amount of accumulated 99mTc-ciprofloxacin activity is five times higher than in controls. Conclusion: The developed method of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin kit preparation employs a redox polymer in a new procedure, which enables the preparation of a stable kit with a high 99mTc-labelling efficiency. The labelled kit is suitable for scintigraphic imaging of infection. (orig.)

  17. Ciprofloxacin and rifampin, alone and in combination, for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, G W; Seo, S M; Barriere, S L; Albrecht, L M; Rybak, M J

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic activities of ciprofloxacin (25 mg/kg every 8 h), rifampin (10 mg/kg every 24 h), ciprofloxacin plus rifampin, and vancomycin (17.5 mg/kg every 6 h) were compared by using the rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Animals infected with one of two test strains (SA1199 or SA487) were randomized into treatment groups and received 6 days of therapy. For SA1199, ciprofloxacin plus rifampin was most effective at reducing vegetation bacterial counts. For SA487, ciproflo...

  18. Theoretical structure and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin: Density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Gao, Hongwei

    2013-02-01

    The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin(1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) have been calculated using the different density functional theory (DFT) methods and various basis sets. This paper examines the comparative performance of different DFT methods at various basis sets in predicting molecular and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin. The calculation results show that SVWN/LANL2DZ level and SVWN/6-31G level offer the highest certainty to predict the structure and vibrational spectra of ciprofloxacin, respectively.

  19. Rapid identification of bacterial resistance to Ciprofloxacin using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Costas

    2014-02-01

    Due to its effectiveness and broad coverage, Ciprofloxacin is the fifth most prescribed antibiotic in the US. As current methods of infection diagnosis and antibiotic sensitivity testing (i.e. an antibiogram) are very time consuming, physicians prescribe ciprofloxacin before obtaining antibiogram results. In order to avoid increasing resistance to the antibiotic, a method was developed to provide both a rapid diagnosis and the sensitivity to the antibiotic. Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, an antibiogram was obtained after exposing the bacteria to Ciprofloxacin for just two hours. Spectral analysis revealed clear separation between sensitive and resistant bacteria and could also offer some inside into the mechanisms of resistance.

  20. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin imaging in infectious and sterile inflammation in rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-Ciprofloxacin is a potentially specific agent for bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to find out whether 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin accumulation can differentiate bacterial infectious inflammation from nonbacterial sterile inflammation. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin was synthesized with 99mTc 20 mCi, ciprofloxacine 2 mg, formamidine sulphinic acid 1 mg, and 15 sec heating in microwave. For induction of infectious or sterile inflammation in SD rats, 2 x 108 of S. aureus in 0.2ml (group1, n=9) or 0.2 ml of terpentine oil (group 2, n=10) were injected to thigh muscle. Three days later, 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin images were obtained at 4 hrs after iv injection of 37MBq of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin. Immediately after imaging, rats were sacrificed and dissected to obtain %ID/g of normal organs and inflammatory lesions. For histopathologic evaluation, tissue specimens from the inflammatory lesions were obtained. The induction of infection/inflammation produced marked swelling of thighs in both groups. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin imaging of both groups showed increased uptake, but target to background uptake ratio in group 1 was significantly higher than group 2 (3.70±0.5 vs 2.18±0.3, p99mTc-Ciprofloxacin in liver, slpeen, kidney were 6.1±0.45, 5.1±0.42, 3.42±0.2%ID/g, respectively, and inflammatory lesion in group 1 and group 2 were 0.42±0.09 and 0.24±0.02%ID/g, respectively. Both lesion to normal muscle activity ratio and lesion to blood activity ratio of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin in group 1 were significantly higher than group 2 (5.29±2.3 vs 1.69±0.2, 1.45±0.47 vs 0.93±0.2, p99mTc-Ciprofloxacin uptake is significantly higher in bacterial infectious inflammation than sterile inflammation. However, further studies and cautious clinical application are needed for differentiating infectious from sterile inflammation using 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin imaging, because there is still significant degree of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin accumulation in sterile inflammation

  1. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković Aleksandra; Tajber Lidia; Paluch Krzysztof J.; Djurić Zorica; Parojčić Jelena; Corrigan Owen I.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution ...

  2. Sublethal Ciprofloxacin Treatment Leads to Rapid Development of High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance during Long-Term Experimental Evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Wassermann, Tina; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of occurrence and the genetic basis of ciprofloxacin resistance were studied in a long-term evolution experiment (940 generations) in wild-type, reference strain (PAO1) and hypermutable (PAOΔmutS and PAOMY-Mgm) P. aeruginosa populations continuously exposed to sub-MICs (1/4) of...... ciprofloxacin. A rapid occurrence of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants (MIC of ≥12 μg/ml, representing 100 times the MIC of the original population) were observed in all ciprofloxacin-exposed lineages of PAOΔmutS and PAOMY-Mgm populations after 100 and 170 generations, respectively, and in one of the PAO1...... lineages after 240 generations. The genetic basis of resistance was mutations in gyrA (C248T and G259T) and gyrB (C1397A). Cross-resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was observed in the bacterial populations that evolved during exposure to sublethal concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Our study shows that...

  3. Comparison of Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin in treating adults\\\\\\' acute non amebiasis dysenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Erahimzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Results: Out of 84 patients, shigella was diagnosed in 41 (48.8%, 18 patients of whom (43.9% had been treated with azitromycin and 23 cases (56.1% had received ciprofloxacin .In 14 samples (16.7% other microbes had grown (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia Coli. Antibiogram of 55 patients showed that 32 (58.2% of them were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and 41 subjects (74.5% to azitromycin .On the third day of treatment the clinical response of the patients was assessed through their probable fever and diarrhea .It was found that 29 cases (93.5% in azitromycin group and 31 patients (88.5% in ciprofloxacin group were a febrile. Thus, no significant difference between the two groups was observed (P=0.6. Conclusion: The present study proved that Azitromycin and Ciprofloxacin have the same efficacy in treating non-amoebic dysentery

  4. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas isolates from the ears and skin of dogs to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildermuth, Brett Everett; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Boord, Mona J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare susceptibilities of ear and skin Pseudomonas spp. isolates to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Specimens were obtained from dogs examined in a veterinary dermatology referral hospital. Susceptibilities of ear isolates to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were 46.9%, 66.7%, and 75.0%, respectively. Susceptibilities of skin isolates to the same drugs were 76.2%, 81.0%, and 80.0%, respectively. Ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than to ciprofloxacin (P=0.021), and ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than were skin isolates (P=0.034). When fluoroquinolone resistance was present, ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than to ciprofloxacin (P<0.001) and marbofloxacin (P=0.014). PMID:17975216

  5. Factors influencing sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge: Experimental assessment and modelling implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang;

    2015-01-01

    to identify whether the assessed factors caused a significant increase of aqueous ciprofloxacin concentration in full-scale bioreactors. Simulation results suggest that a pH increase, rather than a reduction in iron salt dosing, could be responsible for a systematic deterioration of sorption of ciprofloxacin...... and described, particularly for zwitterionic chemicals. Here we present an assessment of the effects of pH and iron salt dosing on the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge using laboratory experiments and full-scale fate modelling. Experimental results were described with Freundlich isotherms...... and showed that non-linear sorption occurred under all the conditions tested. The greatest sorption potential was measured at pH = 7.4, at which ciprofloxacin is speciated mostly as zwitterion. Iron salt dosing increased sorption under aerobic and, to a lesser extent, anoxic conditions, whereas no effect...

  6. Treatment of bone, joint, and soft-tissue infections with oral ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R N; Kennedy, D J; Reilly, P M; Luppen, K L; Weinandt, W J; Bollinger, M R; Aguirre, F; Kodesch, F; Saeed, A M

    1987-02-01

    We treated 52 patients with orally administered ciprofloxacin. In this study of 34 men and 18 women who completed therapy and who could be evaluated, there were 29 patients with nonhematogenous osteomyelitis, 20 patients with skin or soft-tissue infections, and 3 patients with joint infections. During the study, 92 isolates of pathogenic facultative aerobic bacteria, including 37 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 30 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and 21 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, were recovered, and 88 (96%) of the isolates were found to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Of the 29 patients with osteomyelitis, 14 have not experienced relapse after a follow-up of at least 1 year. Overall, 61% of infections were resolved, as judged by both clinical and microbiological criteria, during therapy. One patient developed Streptococcus salivarius sepsis during ciprofloxacin therapy, and one patient developed a rash which required discontinuation of ciprofloxacin. Otherwise, there were no serious reactions or complications. PMID:3566245

  7. Ofloxacin compared with ciprofloxacin in the treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromann-Andersen, B; Sommer, P; Pers, C; Larsen, V; Rasmussen, F

    1988-09-01

    In a double-blind, double-dummy study 61 patients with structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and verified infection were treated for 7 days with ofloxacin 100 mg bd or ciprofloxacin 250 mg bd by mouth. Of 62 isolated strains none was resistant to ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in vitro. Nineteen patients (63%) in both groups were free from infection ten days after therapy. Clinical resolution of symptoms occurred in 83% in the ofloxacin group and 68% in the ciprofloxacin group. Adverse reactions were reported in four patients (6.5%), two with skin rash, one with gastrointestinal disturbance and one with influenza-like symptoms. This study demonstrates that ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are effective in the treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infection. PMID:3182457

  8. The epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci in CAPD patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, M S; Talsania, H; McCann, M.; Cookson, B D; Phillips, I

    1992-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was used as empirical therapy for peritonitis in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 26 months, providing an opportunity to study the epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance amongst coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Swabs were collected from the CAPD patients, staff, and clinic environment before, during and after the time this antibiotic was prescribed. Clinical isolates were also studied, and records kept of patient hospital attendanc...

  9. The effect of ferrous sulphate on the absorption of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, P; Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ferrous sulphate on the absorption of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was studied in three separate, two-period crossover trials, each involving eight healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast, a single dose of norfloxacin (400 mg), ciprofloxacin (500 mg) or ofloxacin (400 mg) was administered with and without ferrous sulphate (corresponding to 100 mg elemental iron). The absorption of all the fluoroquinolones studied was significantly reduced when they were co-admini...

  10. Liposome Encapsulation of Ciprofloxacin Improves Protection against Highly Virulent Francisella tularensis Strain Schu S4

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Karleigh A.; Armstrong, Stuart J.; Barnes, Kay B.; Davies, Carwyn; Wong, Jonathan P.; Blanchard, James D.; Harding, Sarah V.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2014-01-01

    Liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin for inhalation (CFI) was investigated as a putative postexposure therapeutic for two strains of Francisella tularensis. The efficacies of oral ciprofloxacin and intranasally instilled CFI could not be distinguished in a mouse model of infection with the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), where a single dose of either formulation offered full protection against a lethal challenge. However, mouse studies with the more virulent Schu S4 strain of F. tular...

  11. Therapy of experimental murine brucellosis with streptomycin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, doxycycline, and rifampin.

    OpenAIRE

    Shasha, B; Lang, R.; Rubinstein, E

    1992-01-01

    Mice infected with Brucella melitensis were treated with streptomycin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and rifampin intraperitoneally and with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, doxycycline, and rifampin orally for 14 to 21 days. Doxycycline- and rifampin-treated animals (either route) demonstrated a cure rate significantly better than that of controls. Longer therapy periods were associated with a significantly better outcome. Therapy failure was observed in all mice treated w...

  12. [A severe case of infectious mononucleosis associated with ciprofloxacin and salazopyrin administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftode, Egidia; Leca, Daniela; Luca, V

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of rash probably induced by ciprofloxacin and/or salazopyrin administration in a patient with infectious mononucleosis. A 22 year woman developed a maculopapular and petechial eruption in the 3-rd day of ciprofloxacin (given for a genital tract infection) and the 32-nd day of salazopyrin (for a spondylodiscitis). Subsequently she developed a severe hepatitis, shock, and very severe leucocytosis (88 000/mmc) that occasioned haematological investigations for a lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:20201247

  13. Cellular Accumulation and Activity of Quinolones in Ciprofloxacin-Resistant J774 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Michot, Jean-Michel; Heremans, Marie F.; Caceres, Nancy E; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is the substrate for a multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP)-like multidrug transporter in J774 mouse macrophages, which also modestly affects levofloxacin but only marginally affects garenoxacin and moxifloxacin (J.-M. Michot et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:2429-2437, 2005). Two clones of ciprofloxacin-resistant cells were obtained by a stepwise increase in drug concentration (from 34 to 51 to 68 mg/liter) in the culture fluid. Compared to wild-type cells, ciprofl...

  14. Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...

  15. Ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute-care hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Raviglione, M. C.; Boyle, J. F.; Mariuz, P; Pablos-Mendez, A; Cortes, H; Merlo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of ciprofloxacin as an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection has been paralleled by the emergence of resistant strains. This phenomenon has also been noticed in our hospital. To confirm our observation, methicillin and ciprofloxacin susceptibilities were tested by disk diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. We studied 83 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various sources over a 4-month period...

  16. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Plhalova, Lucie; Chromcova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Skoric, Misa; Marsalek, Petr; Praskova, Eva; Stepanova, Stanislava; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-07-01

    The authors performed a toxicity test with ciprofloxacin in fertilized eggs of common carp according to guideline 210 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The tested concentrations were 1 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) . Accelerated hatching was found in all groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant growth reduction was found only in the group exposed to the highest concentration (3000 μg L(-1) ). Increased numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed on day 6 of the test (after hatching). The highest numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed in the groups of free embryos and larvae exposed to ciprofloxacin concentrations of 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) (20-23% of tested samples). A gradual decrease in glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in all experimental groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant differences (p ciprofloxacin concentrations of 500 μg L(-1) and 3000 μg L(-1) (p ciprofloxacin. The lowest-observed-effect concentration of ciprofloxacin was 1 μg L(-1) . These results suggest that hatching, early ontogeny, occurrence of morphological anomalies, antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation in fish can be affected by ciprofloxacin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1733-1740. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632160

  17. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    F Amin Harati; Amini, M; AR Shahverdi; Pourmand MR; Yousefi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has inc...

  18. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Costa REIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014. All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. Results: A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. Conclusion: The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy.

  19. The effects of intravenous ciprofloxacin on the electrocardiogram of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Parsamehr, Reza

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electrocardiographic effects of single intravenous dose of ciprofloxacin in dogs. Ten adult cross-breed dogs of both sexes were selected as the sample population. Baseline electrocardiographic values were recorded just before drug administration. Then the dogs received intravenous infusion of ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg) over the fifteen minutes. The ECGs recorded at 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ciprofloxacin administration. The ECG measurements of heart rate, PR interval, QRS interval, ST segment, T-wave amplitude and QT interval were taken from lead II. There was a small but significant increase in the longest QT intervals over baseline at T₆₀ (P = 0.041). The mean PR intervals, QTc intervals, JT intervals, ST segment, T-wave amplitude did not differ significantly before and after ciprofloxacin except for JT intervals at T₆₀ (P = 0.041). At this measurement point, there was an increased QT interval value of 0.02 second or 9.51% in comparison to the baseline. In Conclusions, Only minor QT intervals changes were observed after ciprofloxacin injection. Despite the occurrence of ECG changes following intravenous ciprofloxacin administration neither dangerous rhythm disturbances nor serious ECG changes were seen in this study. PMID:19728129

  20. Effect of Amniotic Membrane Combined with Ciprofloxacin in Curing the Primary Stages of Pseudomonal Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often resulted in severe corneal ulcers and perforation, which leads to losses of vision. Human amniotic membrane (HAM forms the inner wall of the membranous sac which surrounds and protects the embryo during gestation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the amniotic membrane's healing in rabbits with pseudomonas keratitis.Methods: In total 14 rabbits divided in 2 groups of: 1 as Control and 2 as experimental amniotic membrane combined with ciprofloxacin. A 0.05 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was injected into rabbit’s corneal stroma, with no interference in control group. In the second group, the amniotic membrane in pieces of 1.5 × 1.5 cm transplanted to the entire corneal surface by eight interrupted 10.0 nylon sutures. In the first day ciprofloxacin drop was injected to the second group every 30 minutes and through second to seventh days every 2 hours. The results of perforation in cornea and the amount of infiltration were registered.Results: The results showed that amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT + ciprofloxacin group had 0% perforation and the control group 85.6%. Average infiltrations were 5 mm in AMT + ciprofloxacin groups and 23.75 mm in control.Conclusion: The use of amniotic membrane with ciprofloxacin was effective in prevention of cornea perforation and controlling the process of pseudomonal keratitis remission. The improvement of inflammation rapidly happened in ciprofloxacin + AMT group.

  1. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin on surface-modified carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabineiro, S A C; Thavorn-Amornsri, T; Pereira, M F R; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-10-01

    The adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin (CPX) was determined on three types of carbon-based materials: activated carbon (commercial sample), carbon nanotubes (commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and carbon xerogel (prepared by the resorcinol/formaldehyde approach at pH 6.0). These materials were used as received/prepared and functionalised through oxidation with nitric acid. The oxidised materials were then heat treated under inert atmosphere (N2) at different temperatures (between 350 and 900°C). The obtained samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -196 °C, determination of the point of zero charge and by temperature programmed desorption. High adsorption capacities ranging from approximately 60 to 300 mgCPxgC(-1) were obtained (for oxidised carbon xerogel, and oxidised thermally treated activated carbon Norit ROX 8.0, respectively). In general, it was found that the nitric acid treatment of samples has a detrimental effect in adsorption capacity, whereas thermal treatments, especially at 900 °C after oxidation, enhance adsorption performance. This is due to the positive effect of the surface basicity. The kinetic curves obtained were fitted using 1st or 2nd order models, and the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherms obtained. The 2nd order and the Langmuir models, respectively, were shown to present the best fittings. PMID:21733541

  2. Ciprofloxacin encapsulation into giant unilamellar vesicles: membrane binding and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszás, Nóra; Bozó, Tamás; Budai, Marianna; Gróf, Pál

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating some respects of binding and interaction between water-soluble drugs and liposomal carrier systems depending on their size and lamellarity. As model substance, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPFX) was incorporated into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to study their CPFX encapsulation/binding capacity. To characterize molecular interactions of various CPFX microspecies with lipid bilayer, zeta potential and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements were performed. The increase of the zeta potential at pH 5.4 but no change at pH 7.2 was interpreted in terms of the CPFX microspecies' distribution at the two pH values. EPR observations showed an increased fluidity because of CPFX binding to GUVs. We worked out and applied a three-compartment dialysis model to separately determine the rate of drug diffusion through the liposomal membrane. Equilibrium dialysis showed (a) different permeation of CPFX through the membranes of GUVs and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), with characteristic half-lives of 54.4 and 18.1 h, respectively; and (b) increased retention of CPFX in case of GUVs with released amounts of 70% compared with about 97% in case of MLVs. Our results may provide further details for efficient design of liposomal formulations incorporating water-soluble drugs. PMID:23233199

  3. Spectroscopic investigation on protein damage by ciprofloxacin under ultrasonic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Dong-Jing; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bing-Mi; Kong, Yu-Mei; He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Jun; Xu, Shu-Kun

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, sonodynamic activities of many drugs have attracted more and more attention of researchers. The correlative study will promote the development of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) in anti-tumor treatment. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a protein model to investigate the intensifying effects of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) ultrasonically induced protein damage by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, the conformation of BSA is changed upon the addition of CPFX and metal ions under ultrasound (US) so that the damaging site of BSA is considered. Various influencing factors, such as US irradiation time, metal ions, solution temperature and ionic strength, on the ultrasonically induced BSA damage are discussed. It was showed that CPFX could enhance ultrasonically induced BSA damage. The damage degree of BSA was aggravated with the increasing of US irradiation time, solution temperature, ionic strength as well as the addition of metal ions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in reaction system were detected by oxidation-extraction photometry (OEP). Experimental results also showed that US could activate CPFX to produce ROS, which were mainly determined as superoxide radical anion ( rad O 2-) and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH).

  4. Preparation of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin kit and its biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciprofloxacin (CPF) made in China is labelled with 99Tcm and the factors which affects the labelling efficiency are determined. Accordingly, a new CPF cold kit is developed and the biodistribution of 99Tcm-CPF in infected animal is evaluated. Under the optimal conditions of pH 3.0-3.5, CPF contents above 4 mg, SnCl2·2H2O contents over 100 μg, 10 minutes after injection of 99TcmO4-, the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-CPF is above 95% and remained >95% at 6 h after preparation at room temperature. The kit is stored at 0-8 degree C or -18 degree C in refrigerator, the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-CPF keeps up with over 95% after 3 months. Mice with infectious lesions injected with 99Tcm-CPF show a mean abscess-to-muscle ratio of 4.30 ±0.31 at 4 h post injection. (authors)

  5. Development of an Heterologous Immunoassay for Ciprofloxacin Residue in Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinqing, Jiang; Haitang, Zhang; Zhixing, An; Zhiyong, Xu; Xuefeng, Yang; Huaguo, Huang; Ziliang, Wang

    A heterologous immunoassay has been developed for the determination of Ciprofloxacin (CPFX) residues in milk. For this reason, carbodiimide active ester method was employed to synthesize the artificial antigen of CPFX-BSA, and mixed anhydride reaction was used to prepare the coating antigen of CPFX-OVA to pursue the heterologous sensitivity. Based on the square matrix titration, an icELISA method was developed for the quantitative detection of CPFX in cattle milk. The dynamic range was from 0.036 to 92.5 ng/mL, with LOD and IC50 value of 0.019 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Except for a high cross-reactivity (89.7%) to Enrofloxacin, negligible cross-reactivity to the other compounds was observed. After optimization, 0.03 mol/L of HCl, or 10% of methanol was used in the assay buffer. 20-fold dilution in cattle milk gave an inhibition curve almost the same as that in PBS buffer. The regression equation for this assay was y = 0.9036 x + 1.4574, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9844. The results suggest the veracity of the heterologous immunoassay for detecting CPFX residue in milk.

  6. 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin imaging in detecting the secondary infection of severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin and explore its feasibility in early detection of secondary infectious foci of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: Ciprofloxacin was labeled with 99Tcm. The labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin were calculated and its biodistribution in normal pigs was measured.The recruited baby pigs were divided into three groups:normal control group (6), non-infected group (6) and infected group (16). 370-400 MBq of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin was injected into each pig intravenously.SPECT scanning was performed at 0.5, 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 h after administration. The differences of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin uptake among groups were calculated and the tracer activity ratio of lesion-to-background was recorded at each time point. The diagnostic value of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT imaging for the detection of secondary infection of SAP was assessed using histopathological results as the gold standard. Variance analysis and least significant difference test were used to analyze the data. Results: Both the labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin were over 90% within 6 h. Organs with rich blood supply, such as kidney, liver and spleen were the target organs for the accumulation of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin; while no significant uptake was found in gastrointestinal tract or normal pancreas tissue of SAP. Rapid plasma clearance and renal excretion were observed. In the infected group, the lesion was visualized at 1 h after administration. The highest radioactivity ratio of lesion-to-background (3.36 ± 0.33) was at 3 h after administration, which was significantly higher than that of the other time point (F =99.570, P 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin imaging were 88.2% (15/17), 83.3% (5/6), 93.8% (15/16), 71.4% (5/7), 0.715 and 0.667 respectively. Conclusions: The biodistribution of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin is suitable for imaging infectious focus of SAP. The optimal imaging time for the detection of

  7. A case of ciprofloxacin-induced acute polymorphic psychosis with a distinct deficit of the executive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Dr. Oliver; Alm, Dr. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old female patient who developed an acute polymorphic psychosis after treatment with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The patient showed a distinct neuropsychological deficit of the executive function. Comparing the psychopharmacological features of ketamine and ciprofloxacine we hypothesize that ciprofloxacine leads to psychosis similar to a ketamine induced psychosis. Our case report is unique not only because fluorquinolone induced psychosis has a very low ...

  8. Differential Effects of Linezolid and Ciprofloxacin on Toxin Production by Bacillus anthracis in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic System

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Arnold; VanScoy, Brian D.; Heine, Henry S.; Liu, Weiguo; Abshire, Terry; Holman, Kari; Kulawy, Robert; Brown, David L.; Drusano, George L.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax. Ciprofloxacin is a gold standard for the treatment of anthrax. Previously, using the non-toxin-producing ΔSterne strain of B. anthracis, we demonstrated that linezolid was equivalent to ciprofloxacin for reducing the total (vegetative and spore) bacterial population. With ciprofloxacin therapy, the total population consisted of spores. With linezolid therapy, the population consisted primarily of vegetative bacteria. Linezolid is a protein synthesis inhibito...

  9. In vivo interaction between ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and the pulp of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sv, Nwafor; Co, Esimone; Ca, Amadi; Cs, Nworu

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of quinolone antibiotics is seriously impaired by polyvalent cations due to the formation of unabsorbable complexes. M. paradisiaca Linn. (Musaceae), an important staple food in most parts of the world, has been demonstrated to contain many polyvalent cations. The aim of the work was to study the influence of concurrent administration of M. paradisiaca and ciprofloxacin HCI on the pharmacokinetic profiles of ciprofloxacin. The study was carried out in two phases in five healthy male rabbits. Phase one involved oral administration of ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg) to rabbits, withdrawing blood from the marginal ear vein at 1, 2, 4, and 24 h intervals and checking the serum ciprofloxacin concentration. After a one-week drug "wash-out" period, the second phase started with concurrent oral administration of M. paradisiaca (800 mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg). Blood was again withdrawn and analyzed for serum ciprofloxacin content. Antimicrobial activity of the serum was also assessed and expressed as reciprocal serum inhibitory titer. Co-administration of both agents resulted in significant (Phour. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were also decreased: area under the curve (81.53%), peak serum concentration (94.37%), elimination rate constant (42.35%); while increase in half-life (81.08%) and clearance rate (69.64%) were noted. Antimicrobial study showed that the antimicrobial potency against E. coli was also decreased by such concurrent administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters and antimicrobial activities of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased when it was given concurrently with pulp of unripe plantain. Complex formation between the drug and the polyvalent cations present in plantain, leading to decrease in absorption and hence bioavailability, may be responsible for the observed antagonistic interactions. PMID:14743965

  10. Musculoskeletal infection imaging using 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin: preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Clinically available infection imaging techniques employing labelled leukocytes (WBC) and gallium citrate are sensitive for inflammation but often lack specificity for infection. 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), a labelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, is potentially more specific for infection. We present the CIPRO findings from 13 pts (8 M; 5 F; mean age 58 years) referred with possible current musculoskeletal sepsis. WBC were performed in 10 pts and temporally preceded CIPRO in 7. The average time between scans was 3 days. Eleven of the 13 pts had a prior history of documented infection secondary to trauma or joint surgery. All received antibiotics at some stage prior to CIPRO with 10 on antibiotics at the time of the scan. Final diagnosis of infection (diagnosed in 7 pts) was based on microbiological results from swabs and surgical specimens (7 pts) or the clinical course over the subsequent months (6 pts). CIPRO correctly identified 10/13 pts (77%) as having infection or no infection compared to 6/10 (60%) using WBC (P = N.S.). CIPRO and WBC were concordant in 7/10 pts. Discordant results were due to 1 false-positive CIPRO, 2 false-positive WBC. Scan accuracy in both groups may be affected by the inclusion of a patient with an equivocal diagnosis of infection; and the timing of the scans. Our preliminary observations are: (1) CIPRO is a promising diagnostic agent for musculoskeletal sepsis deserving further evaluation. (2) CIPRO appears at least as accurate as WBC but with significant preparation advantages. (3) Optimal CIPRO scanning time yet to be determined but should be at least 3-4 h post-injection to lessen blood pool effect

  11. Formulation and evaluation of taste-masked ciprofloxacin bioadhesive dental films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Ibrahim Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum anti-infective agent of the fluoroquinolons. It has activity against periodontal pathogens. Saccharin is one of the most widely used artificial sweetening agents. The complex of ciprofloxacin saccharinate was prepared to improve organoleptic properties of ciprofloxacin and it was characterized using fourier transform infrared analysis, differential scanning calorimetric, photomicrographs, solubility determination of the complex and ultraviolet-scanning in different media as well as determination of the actual drug content. Eight formulations of ciprofloxacin saccharinate bioadhesive dental films were prepared using chitosan, carbopol 934, and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC. The prepared films were evaluated for their physic-mechanical properties including film thickness, weight uniformity, and tensile strength, folding endurance, surface pH, and percentage elongation. In addition, mucoadhesive performance of films, drug content and in vitro release of ciprofloxacin from different films were determined. The best formulations were selected and were subjected to stability study at 40΀C and 75% relative humidity for 3 months and microbiological test. Results revealed that the use of mixture of carbopol and HPMC with chitosan improved physical and chemical properties of the prepared films. Microbiological results showed that, F 7 had the highest inhibition zone which may be due to the presence of high concentration of carbopol 934 that leads to high mucoadhesive time.

  12. Activity of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin on biofilms produced in vitro by Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; WANG Ying; LIU You-ning

    2009-01-01

    Background It is recognized that Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients with otitis media forms biofilms both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that biofilm formation in vivo might play an important role in the pathogenesis and chronicity of otitis media, but the effect of antibiotics on biofilm has not been well studied. We investigated the impact of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin on bacterial biofilms formed by Haemophilus influenzae in vitro in this study.Methods Eleven strains of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from sputum specimens collected from patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Formation of bacterial biofilm was examined by crystal violet assay and a scanning electron microscope. Alterations of biofilms were measured under varying concentrations of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin.Results Striking differences were observed among strains with regard to the ability to form biofilm. Typical membrane-like structure formed by bacterial cells and extracellular matrix was detected. Initial biofilm synthesis was inhibited by azithromycin and ciprofloxacin at concentrations higher than two-fold minimal inhibitory concentration.Disruption of mature biofilms could be achieved at relatively higher concentration, and ciprofloxacin displayed more powerful activity.Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Sufficient dosage might control early formation of biofilms. Ciprofloxacin exerts better effects on breakdown of biofilm than azithromycin at conventional concentration in clinics.

  13. Urinary Tract Physiological Conditions Promote Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Low-Level-Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Manuel; Costas, Coloma; Aznar, Javier; Pascual, Álvaro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli isolates carrying chromosomally encoded low-level-quinolone-resistant (LLQR) determinants are frequently found in urinary tract infections (UTIs). LLQR mutations are considered the first step in the evolutionary pathway producing high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Therefore, their evolution and dissemination might influence the outcome of fluoroquinolone treatments of UTI. Previous studies support the notion that low urine pH decreases susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (CIP) in E. coli However, the effect of the urinary tract physiological parameters on the activity of ciprofloxacin against LLQR E. coli strains has received little attention. We have studied the activity of ciprofloxacin under physiological urinary tract conditions against a set of well-characterized isogenic E. coli derivatives carrying the most prevalent chromosomal mutations (ΔmarR, gyrA-S83L, gyrA-D87N, and parC-S80R and some combinations). The results presented here demonstrate that all the LLQR strains studied became resistant to ciprofloxacin (according to CLSI guidelines) under physiological conditions whereas the control strain lacking LLQR mutations did not. Moreover, the survival of some LLQR E. coli variants increased up to 100-fold after challenge with a high concentration of ciprofloxacin under UTI conditions compared to the results seen with Mueller-Hinton broth. These selective conditions could explain the high prevalence of LLQR mutations in E. coli Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that recommended methods for MIC determination produce poor estimations of CIP activity against LLQR E. coli in UTIs. PMID:27139482

  14. Predicting the ciprofloxacin-theophylline interaction from single plasma theophylline measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K A; Schwartz, J I; Jauregui, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ciprofloxacin treatment on theophylline clearance was evaluated with a theophylline multiple dose, multiple sample protocol and with a single dose, single sample protocol. The object was to determine whether a single dose, single sample protocol for estimating theophylline clearance could be used as a screening strategy for evaluating host factor influences on theophylline clearance. Ciprofloxacin (750 mg per os) was administered every 12 h for nine doses in the multidose study and every 12 h for seven doses in the single dose protocol. Subjects were sixteen healthy, non-smoking young adult males. The oral clearance of theophylline at steady state, (CL/F)ss, decreased from a mean (+/- s.d.) value of 0.035 (+/- 0.008) 1 h-1 kg-1 to 0.024 (+/- 0.004) 1 h-1 kg-1 during ciprofloxacin treatment. Single sample estimates of theophylline clearance, CL/F, similarly decreased from 0.040 (+/- 0.014) 1 h-1 kg-1 to 0.018 (+/- 0.008) 1 h-1 kg-1. Mean theophylline clearances were significantly different when comparing control with ciprofloxacin treatment means (P less than 0.01), but were not different when comparing single sample vs multiple sample clearances for a given treatment (i.e. control or ciprofloxacin). It is concluded that a single dose, single sample strategy may be used in screening for host-factor influences on theophylline clearance. PMID:3207556

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Levels in GCF and Plasma of Chronic Periodontitis Patients: Quasi Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denthumdas, Sunil Kumar; Wadgave, Umesh; Pharne, Pooja Mohan; Patil, Sandeep Jambukumar; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Deshpande, Pavan; Koppikar, Rajesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For any antimicrobial approach to be successful in periodontal therapy, it is important that the antimicrobial agent targets the sub-gingival biofilm by attaining sufficient concentration at the sub-gingival site. Aim The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the concentrations of ciprofloxacin present in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) and plasma after its systemic administration. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects, in the age group of 30-60 years satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were chosen from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad and consent was obtained. Subjects were put on oral ciprofloxacin therapy (Baycip, Bayer Corporation) of 500mg twice daily doses for five days to establish steady state tissue levels of the agent. GCF and serum samples were collected at the 72nd hour after the first dose of ciprofloxacin and were compared using unpaired t test. Results The mean gingival index value of the subjects was 1.8 ± 0.59 and the mean probing depth of the subjects taken in the study was 5.724 ± 0.47mm. The results of this study showed that ciprofloxacin concentrations were significantly higher (pperiodontal sites via GCF. This property of ciprofloxacin may be useful for eradication of periodontal pathogens, thus improving the outcome of periodontal therapy. PMID:27504410

  16. A Validated Method for the Quantitation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomendra Bhongade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative method using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS was developed and validated for the estimation of ciprofloxacin in its tablet dosage forms. The solid-state samples were prepared by dilution in dry potassium bromide and were analyzed by FTIR spectrophotometer with DRIFT sampling technique. A linear relationship for the carbonyl peak area centered around 1709 cm−1 was observed in the range of 0.3–1.5% w/w with good correlation coefficient of 0.998. The percent recovery of ciprofloxacin in three marketed tablet dosage forms was in the range of 98.76 ± 0.27. The present reported method is precise, reproducible, and eco-friendly. DRIFTS may have a potential as an alternative method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ciprofloxacin in bulk drugs and tablet dosage forms.

  17. Modelling the fate of ciprofloxacin in activated sludge systems - The relevance of the sorption process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang;

    H conditions, rather than reduced salt dosing, can be responsible for the decrease of ciprofloxacin sorption in the full-scale WWTP. The most accurate predictions were obtained for Freundlich parameter values of K=0.01 (μg(1-1/n) L1/n mg-1) and 1/n=1.33. A pH increase was therefore estimated to cause reduced....... In a previous study [1], a daily systematic reduction of ciprofloxacin removal in a full-scale WWTP (Bekkelaget, Norway) was associated to deteriorated sorption. Therefore, in this study we further investigated the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge at laboratory- and full-scale. Targeted batch...... experiments were performed to estimate sorption model parameters using Freundlich isotherms under specific pH and iron salt dosing (used for chemical phosphorus removal) conditions. We used the previously tested activated sludge framework model for xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X) to assess the fate...

  18. Reversible Encephalopathy and Delirium in patients with chronic renalfailure who had received Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe four patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) who developedsignificant neurotoxicity after receiving short-term ciprofloxacin. Three ofthem had developed encephalopathy with myoclonic jerks and one patient haddelirium. All patients had advanced chronic renal failure (mean estimatedcreatinine clearance 16+-6 ml/min), although they were not yet on renalreplacement therapy). The mean received dose of ciprofloxacin was 2150+-1300mg and symptoms started to appear after the first 24 hours of drug intake.Investigations ruled out other possible causes of these neurologicalpresentations and withdrawal of ciprofloxacin was followed by completeresolution, after a mean of 8.5+- 4 days. Advanced renal failure in allpatients and underlying neurologic disease in two patients may havepredisposed them to the neurotoxicity. The report of these cases should helpto draw the attention of clinicians to the potential occurrence of theseadverse effects in patients with CRF. (author)

  19. Synthesis of fluorine-18-labeled ciprofloxacin for PET studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-quinoline- 3-carboxylic acid), a widely-prescribed antibiotic, was labeled with fluorine-18 with the aim to perform positron emission tomography studies in humans for pharmacokinetic measurements. Due to a lack of chemical activation of ciprofloxacin for a direct nucleophilic exchange reaction a novel two-step synthetic approach, which employed an activated 6-fluoro-7-chloro substituted precursor molecule, was developed. The radiosynthesis yielded, starting from 52.5 ± 11.3 GBq of [18F]fluoride, 1.3 ± 0.6 GBq (n = 13) [18F]ciprofloxacin ready for intravenous administration in about 130 min synthesis time. A series of analytical tests was performed in order to prove the identity of the radiolabeled compound and its suitability for human applications

  20. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin therapy for gram-negative bacillary osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, M T; Ingerman, M J; Kaufman, D H; Weiner, P; Santoro, J; Korzeniowski, O M; Boscia, J; Topiel, M; Bush, L M; Kaye, D

    1987-04-27

    The efficacy and toxicity of ciprofloxacin, an orally administered fluoroquinolone, were evaluated in 24 infections in 23 patients with osteomyelitis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and the results of bone biopsy and culture of bone or deep soft tissue. The aerobic gram-negative bacilli were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15 isolates), Serratia marcescens (five isolates), Escherichia coli (three isolates), Enterobacter species (three isolates), Proteus mirabilis (one isolate), Pseudomonas fluorescens (one isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one isolate). Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were 1.56 micrograms/ml or less for all but one isolate. Nine infections were polymicrobial, involving aerobic gram-positive cocci or anaerobes in addition to aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Additional antibiotics to which the aerobic gram-negative bacilli were resistant were given when the additional organisms were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Patients received 750 mg of ciprofloxacin twice daily for a mean of 62 days. Peak serum levels of ciprofloxacin were at least threefold higher than the MBCs in 20 of 24 patients. Twenty of 22 infections in which a full course of therapy was completed were without evidence of active disease at one to 17 months posttreatment. A sternotomy wound infection relapsed after eight weeks of therapy with a newly resistant S. marcescens strain, and an infection of a compound fracture relapsed two months posttreatment with a still sensitive P. aeruginosa strain. Toxicity was minimal in most patients: eosinophilia (six patients), nausea (eight patients), mild elevation in transaminase levels (three patients), pruritus (one patient), diarrhea (two patients), thrush (two patients), rash (two patients), and mild leukopenia (one patient). Two additional patients had severe side effects (vertigo in one and acute renal failure in another) that required discontinuation of ciprofloxacin therapy. Overall

  1. Intravenous/oral ciprofloxacin therapy versus intravenous ceftazidime therapy for selected bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaut, P L; Carron, W C; Ching, W T; Meyer, R D

    1989-11-30

    The efficacy and toxicity of sequential intravenous and oral ciprofloxacin therapy was compared with intravenously administered ceftazidime in a prospective, randomized, controlled, non-blinded trial. Thirty-two patients (16 patients receiving ciprofloxacin and 16 patients receiving ceftazidime) with 38 infections caused by susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteric gram-negative rods, Salmonella group B, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Xanthomonas maltophilia at various sites were evaluable for determination of efficacy. Length of therapy varied from seven to 25 days. Concomitant antimicrobials included intravenously administered beta-lactams for gram-positive organisms, intravenous/oral metronidazole and clindamycin for anaerobes, and intravenous/local amphotericin B for Candida albicans. Intravenous administration of 200 mg ciprofloxacin every 12 hours to 11 patients produced peak serum levels between 1.15 and 3.12 micrograms/ml; trough levels ranged between 0.08 and 0.86 micrograms/ml. Overall response rates were similar for patients receiving ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. Emergence of resistance was similar in both groups--one Enterobacter cloacae and two P. aeruginosa became resistant after ciprofloxacin therapy and two P. aeruginosa became resistant after ceftazidime therapy. The frequency of superinfection with a variety of organisms was also similar in both groups. Adverse events related to ciprofloxacin included transient pruritus at the infusion site and generalized rash leading to drug discontinuation (one patient each), and with ceftazidime adverse effects included pain at the site of infusion and the development of allergic interstitial nephritis (one patient each). Overall, intravenous/oral ciprofloxin therapy appears to be as safe and effective as intravenous ceftazidime therapy in the treatment of a variety of infections due to susceptible aerobic gram-negative organisms. PMID:2686417

  2. Development and evaluation of a single vial cold kit for infection imaging: Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled antibiotics have been used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. They are used as specific infection-imaging agents because of their affinity to bind with bacteria. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is the most widely used infection-imaging agent. The aim of the present work is to increase the shelf life of an in house developed single vial kit for the preparation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Different methods were used to make the Ciprofloxacin kits. Kits were stored at a temperature of 4 deg. C under nitrogen atmosphere and evaluated for stability by serially estimating the labeling efficiency using instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) following reconstitution with Tc99m pertechnetate at regular intervals of time up to 90 days after their preparation. The data were subjected to Sigmaplotsoftware version 8.0 for shelf-life analysis. The kits were further evaluated for a number of standard quality control parameters. Kits containing sodium chloride-Ciprofloxacin pellets were found to have a shelf life of 7 months and constantly maintaining a labeling efficiency of 95% Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Biodistribution studies in balb/c mice showed significant levels in kidney, liver and intestine. Blood clearance studies showed a slow and biphasic clearance in rabbits. Gamma camera imaging of the rabbits bearing S.aureus infectious lesion confirmed the utility and specificity of the reconstituted kit in imaging infection. The final kit, which was recommended for clinical use was found to be stable for nine months with all its characteristics remaining unchanged from those of the freshly prepared Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin during the entire period of observation. (author)

  3. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Methods for Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Girouard, Yves; Ringuette, Louise; Tsimiklis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Disk diffusion was a reliable, easy, and inexpensive method for testing the susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin (215 susceptible and 45 resistant isolates) and to ciprofloxacin (154 susceptible, two intermediate, and 124 resistant isolates) using, respectively, an erythromycin disk and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid disks.

  4. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in Central Greece: mechanisms of resistance and molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavroidi Angeliki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolates, that are also resistant to other classes of antibiotics, is a significant challenge to antibiotic treatment and infection control policies. In Central Greece a significant increase of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli has occurred during 2011, indicating the need for further analysis. Methods A total of 106 ciprofloxacin-resistant out of 505 E. coli isolates consecutively collected during an eight months period in a tertiary Greek hospital of Central Greece were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were assessed, whereas selected isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing and β-lactamase content. Results Sequence analysis of the quinolone-resistance determining region of the gyrA and parC genes has revealed that 63% of the ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli harbored a distinct amino acid substitution pattern (GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V, while 34% and 3% carried the patterns GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I and GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84G respectively. The aac (6’-1b-cr plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant was also detected; none of the isolates was found to carry the qnrA, qnrB and qnrS. Genotyping of a subset of 35 selected ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli by multilocus sequence typing has revealed the presence of nine sequence types; ST131 and ST410 were the most prevalent and were exclusively correlated with hospital and health care associated infections, while strains belonging to STs 393, 361 and 162 were associated with community acquired infections. The GyrA:S83L + D87N; ParC:S80I + E84V substitution pattern was found exclusively among ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates produced CTX-M-type enzymes; eight the CTX-M-15 and one the CTX-M-3 variant. CTX-M-1 like and KPC-2 enzymes were detected

  5. An Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients undergoing Continuous Veno-venous Haemodiafiltration

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spooner, Almath M

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and the adequacy of 400 mg every 12 hours in critically ill Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) with particular reference to the effect of achieved flow rates on drug clearance. Methods This was an open prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit and research unit of a university teaching hospital. The study population was seven critically ill patients with sepsis requiring CVVHDF. Blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected and assayed for ciprofloxacin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the model independent pharmacokinetic parameters; total body clearance (TBC), half-life (t1\\/2) and volume of distribution (Vd). CVVHDF was performed at prescribed dialysate rates of 1 or 2 L\\/hr and ultrafiltration rate of 2 L\\/hr. The blood flow rate was 200 ml\\/min, achieved using a Gambro blood pump and Hospal AN69HF haemofilter. Results Seventeen profiles were obtained. CVVHDF resulted in a median ciprofloxacin t1\\/2 of 13.8 (range 5.15-39.4) hr, median TBC of 9.90 (range 3.10-13.2) L\\/hr, a median Vdss of 125 (range 79.5-554) L, a CVVHDF clearance of 2.47+\\/-0.29 L\\/hr and a clearance of creatinine (Clcr) of 2.66+\\/-0.25 L\\/hr. Thus CVVHDF, at an average flow rate of ~3.5 L\\/hr, was responsible for removing 26% of ciprofloxacin cleared. At the dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, the median estimated Cpmax\\/MIC and AUC0-24\\/MIC ratios were 10.3 and 161 respectively (for a MIC of 0.5 mg\\/L) and exceed the proposed criteria of >10 for Cpmax\\/MIC and > 100 for AUC0-24\\/MIC. There was a suggestion towards increased ciprofloxacin clearance by CVVHDF with increasing effluent flow rate. Conclusions Given the growing microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin our results suggest that a dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, may be necessary to achieve the desired pharmacokinetic

  6. Release of Ciprofloxacin-HCl and Dexamethasone Phosphate by Hyaluronic Acid Containing Silicone Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndon Jones; Elizabeth Joyce; Heather Sheardown; Miriam Heynen; Andrea Weeks; Alex Hui; Darrene Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the covalent incorporation of hyaluronic acid (HA) into conventional hydrogel and hydrogels containing silicone as models for contact lens materials on the uptake and release of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin and the anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone phosphate. A 3 mg/mL ciprofloxacin solution (0.3% w/v) and a 1 mg/mL dexamethasone phosphate solution (0.1%) was prepared in borate buffered saline. Three hydrogel mater...

  7. Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration

  8. Synthesis of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by different methods and its biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here the synthesis of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by four different methods and its biodistribution. All of the methods gave high radiochemical yields of ≥90% and high stability of ≥90% at 6 h after preparation. However HPLC analysis, bacterial binding assay, and in vivo distribution for the four 99mTc-ciprofloxacins showed different results. Among these methods, the use of formamidine sulfinic acid with microwave heating (Method A) was fast and easy, and gave more desirable biological properties than the other methods

  9. A randomized trial of high-dose ciprofloxacin versus azlocillin and netilmicin in the empirical therapy of febrile neutropenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P R; Liu Yin, J A; Tooth, J A

    1992-08-01

    A prospective, randomized trial comparing monotherapy with high-dose ciprofloxacin versus a standard combination regimen of azlocillin and netilmicin in the empirical treatment of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients was performed. One hundred and forty-six patient episodes were randomized, but ten (seven ciprofloxacin and three azlocillin/netilmicin) were considered unevaluable for efficacy, and three episodes were withdrawn due to incorrect randomization or non-neutropenia. Of the remaining 133 episodes, infections resolved without modification of therapy in 25/66 (38%) versus 28/67 (42%) of ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin treated groups respectively (P = 0.72). Considering all randomized episodes, therapy was modified in 46/73 (63%) episodes with ciprofloxacin and 39/70 (56%) with azlocillin/netilmicin (P = 0.40). Of 73 patient episodes randomized to ciprofloxacin, 25 (34%) received oral follow-on therapy after a median of three days of intravenous therapy. Infections were microbiologically documented in 31/73 (42%) ciprofloxacin and 32/70 (46%) azlocillin/netilmicin, of which 8/27 (30%) and 14/31 (45%) of evaluable episodes resolved without modification of therapy respectively (P = 0.28). Gram-positive organisms accounted for 78% of all organisms cultured with 36% coagulase-negative staphylococci. Bacteriological eradication was recorded in 18/24 (75%) and 26/29 (90%) evaluable patient episodes treated with ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin respectively (P = 0.27). Superinfections were seen in 14% of episodes in both groups, and subsequent infections in 12% ciprofloxacin and 14% azlocillin/netilmicin treated patients. Two patients (one ciprofloxacin and one azlocillin/netilmicin) died within 48 h of randomization, and a further 13 patients (four ciprofloxacin and nine azlocillin/netilmicin) died before resolution of neutropenia. Adverse events were recorded in 9% and 15% of ciprofloxacin and azlocillin/netilmicin treated patients respectively

  10. In vitro pharmacodynamics of piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin alone and in combination against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt, J M; Nix, D E; Stratton, C W; Schentag, J J

    1995-01-01

    The time-kill curve methodology was used to determine the pharmacodynamics of piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and the combinations piperacillin-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam. Kill curve studies were performed for piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam at concentrations of 0.25 to 50 times the MICs for 13 strains of bacteria: four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, three Enterobacter cloacae, three Klebsiella pneumoniae, and three Staphyloc...

  11. Formation of hydroxyl radicals contributes to the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ø.; Briales, Alejandra; Brochmann, Rikke Prejh;

    2014-01-01

    induction of cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals (OH˙) during antibiotic treatment of planktonically grown cells may contribute to action of the commonly used antibiotic ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa biofilms. For this purpose, WT PAO1, a catalase deficient ΔkatA and a ciprofloxacin resistant mutant of PAO1 (gyr......A), were grown as biofilms in microtiter plates and treated with ciprofloxacin. Formation of OH˙ and total amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and viability was estimated. Formation of OH˙ and total ROS in PAO1 biofilms treated with ciprofloxacin was shown but higher levels were measured...... in ΔkatA biofilms, and no ROS production was seen in the gyrA biofilms. Treatment with ciprofloxacin decreased the viability of PAO1 and ΔkatA biofilms but not of gyrA biofilms. Addition of thiourea, a OH˙ scavenger, decreased the OH˙ levels and killing of PAO1 biofilm. Our study shows that OH˙ is...

  12. Generierung und genotypische Untersuchung eines Ciprofloxacin-resistenten Bacillus cereus Stammes und Entwicklung von real-time-PCR-Schnelltests zum Nachweis von Resistenzen gegen Ciprofloxacin in Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, Anika

    2014-01-01

    Die gebräuchliche Therapie gegen Milzbrand besteht aus der Gabe von Antibiotika. Als Therapie der Wahl gilt hierbei das Fluorochinolon Ciprofloxacin. Resistenzen gegen dieses Antibiotikum wurden bei B. anthracis in vivo noch nicht, in vitro jedoch im Rahmen mehrerer Studien beschrieben. Es existieren herkömmliche Resistenztests, wie der Gradientendiffusions- oder der Mikrodilutionstest, welche bei einer Milzbranderkrankung genutzt werden können. Diese nehmen jedoch aufgrund der kulturellen An...

  13. Bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin in Greece: results from the National Electronic Surveillance System. Greek Network for the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Vatopoulos, A. C.; Kalapothaki, V.; Legakis, N. J.

    1999-01-01

    According to 1997 susceptibility data from the National Electronic System for the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance, Greece has high rates of ciprofloxacin resistance. For most species, the frequency of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (from highest to lowest, by patient setting) was as follows: intensive care unit > surgical > medical > outpatient. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were multidrug resistant.

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE OF CIPROFLOXACIN BY USING VARIOUS SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaiah Bonthagarala*, Leela Madhuri Pola and Sreekanth Nama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research wok is to formulate and evaluate Ciprofloxacin solid dispersions system by using the different techniques. This will increase the solubility of the drug or Ciprofloxacin and give the immediate release of the drug from the formulations. The main objective is to formulate a drug product as immediate release oral solid dosage form of Ciprofloxacin solid dispersion system which is considered to be stable, robust quality and enhanced dissolution rate. To optimize the method of manufacture by formulate the Ciprofloxacin solid dispersion system by various techniques like Physical mixing, Co-grinding, Kneading and solvent evaporation techniques. The disintegrating agent used in the present study is Crosscarmellose sodium. Among the four different techniques used for preparation of solid dispersions solvent evaporation technique has shown the increase in dissolution rate that is the Trail-5 was found to have a faster solubility and dissolution property which was prepared by using Crosscarmellose sodium as a disintegrant in the ratio of 1:1.

  15. Effect of drying and loading methods on the release behavior of ciprofloxacin from starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aimin; Li, Dong; Liu, Hongzhi; Adhikari, Benu; Wang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Drug loading into and release from starch nanoparticles (StNPs), one kind of novel biological macromolecule, were investigated. Two drying methods (spray and vacuum freeze drying) and drug loading methods (coating and adsorption) were used for evaluation. 40% (w/w) of ciprofloxacin was loaded using coating method while only 7% for adsorption method. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting point temperature (Tmp) of ciprofloxacin loaded starch nanoparticles varied from 40°C to 55°C and 125°C to 175°C. Particles using adsorption method had lower loading rate of ciprofloxacin, higher Tg, Tmp and release rate compared to using coating method. Tg and Tmp were not affected by these two drying methods. Release rate of ciprofloxacin was higher from freeze dried particles than from spray dried particles using coating method. For adsorption method, drying methods had not effect on the release rate. A double decay exponential model was able to fit the release data suitably well with coefficient of determination (R(2))>0.97. PMID:26893049

  16. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  17. Randomized double-blind evaluation of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for Mediterranean spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiol, F.; Pallares, R.; Carratala, J; Bolao, F; Ariza, J.; Rufi, G; Viladrich, P F

    1989-01-01

    A study of 43 patients with Mediterranean spotted fever showed that a 2-day course of ciprofloxacin or a 2-day course of doxycycline may be an effective mode of therapy. All patients in both arms of the study were cured; however, doxycycline produced a more rapid defervescence.

  18. Mechanisms of Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli Isolates from Canadian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Baudry-Simner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR determinants play a role in the increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones among Escherichia coli isolates in Canadian hospitals, and to determine the mechanisms of reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in a recent collection of 190 clinical E coli isolates.

  19. Comparative in vitro activities of ofloxacin, difloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other selected antimicrobial agents against Brucella melitensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Y.; Dizon, M; Kiel, F W

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro activities of three quinolones (ofloxacin, difloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) were compared with those of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline, and rifampin against 47 Brucella melitensis strains. Ofloxacin was the most active of the test antimicrobial agents. It inhibited 90% of B. melitensis strains at a concentration of 0.02 micrograms/ml.

  20. Modeling the influence of non-adherence on antibiotic efficacy: application to ciprofloxacin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lánský, Petr; Šanda, Pavel; Weiss, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2007), s. 438-447. ISSN 0946-1965 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR7795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : nonadherance * ciprofloxacin * stochastic model Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.281, year: 2007

  1. Ciprofloxacin and probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle add-on treatment in active ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been used to maintain and induce clinical remission in UC. Our aim was to test the effect of Ciprofloxacin and/or orally administered EcN as add-on to...

  2. Luminescence screening of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in swine liver after dispersive liquid - liquid microextraction cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid luminescence method was developed to screen residues of enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), in swine liver. Target analytes were extracted in acetonitrile-2.5% trifluoroacetic acid-NaCl, cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and finally de...

  3. International Spread of an Epidemic Population of Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky ST198 Resistant to Ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hello, Simon; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Doublet, Benoit;

    2011-01-01

    National Salmonella surveillance systems from France, England and Wales, Denmark, and the United States identified the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky displaying high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. A total of 489 human cases were ident...

  4. Targeted next-generation sequencing for the detection of ciprofloxacin resistance markers using molecular inversion probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Christopher P.; Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is an epidemic of increasing magnitude requiring rapid identification and profiling for appropriate and timely therapeutic measures and containment strategies. In this context, ciprofloxacin is part of the first-line of countermeasures against numerous high consequence bacteria. Significant resistance can occur via single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and deletions within ciprofloxacin targeted genes. Ideally, use of ciprofloxacin would be prefaced with AR determination to avoid overuse or misuse of the antibiotic. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a panel of 44 single-stranded molecular inversion probes (MIPs) coupled to next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the detection of genetic variants known to confer ciprofloxacin resistance in Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. Sequencing results demonstrate MIPs capture and amplify targeted regions of interest at significant levels of coverage. Depending on the genetic variant, limits of detection (LOD) for high-throughput pooled sequencing ranged from approximately 300–1800 input genome copies. LODs increased 10-fold in the presence of contaminating human genome DNA. In addition, we show that MIPs can be used as an enrichment step with high resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR which is a sensitive assay with a rapid time-to-answer. Overall, this technology is a multiplexable upfront enrichment applicable with multiple downstream molecular assays for the detection of targeted genetic regions. PMID:27174456

  5. Targeted next-generation sequencing for the detection of ciprofloxacin resistance markers using molecular inversion probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Christopher P; Koehler, Jeffrey W; Minogue, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is an epidemic of increasing magnitude requiring rapid identification and profiling for appropriate and timely therapeutic measures and containment strategies. In this context, ciprofloxacin is part of the first-line of countermeasures against numerous high consequence bacteria. Significant resistance can occur via single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and deletions within ciprofloxacin targeted genes. Ideally, use of ciprofloxacin would be prefaced with AR determination to avoid overuse or misuse of the antibiotic. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a panel of 44 single-stranded molecular inversion probes (MIPs) coupled to next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the detection of genetic variants known to confer ciprofloxacin resistance in Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. Sequencing results demonstrate MIPs capture and amplify targeted regions of interest at significant levels of coverage. Depending on the genetic variant, limits of detection (LOD) for high-throughput pooled sequencing ranged from approximately 300-1800 input genome copies. LODs increased 10-fold in the presence of contaminating human genome DNA. In addition, we show that MIPs can be used as an enrichment step with high resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR which is a sensitive assay with a rapid time-to-answer. Overall, this technology is a multiplexable upfront enrichment applicable with multiple downstream molecular assays for the detection of targeted genetic regions. PMID:27174456

  6. Effect of induced pyrexia on the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, M Irfan; Arshed, M Javed

    2009-12-01

    Ciprofloxacin was administered intravenously @5 mg/kg body weight to six healthy dogs. After a washout period of two weeks, fever was induced by injecting Escherichia (E) coli endotoxin. Ciprofloxacin was administered again. Blood samples were collected at various time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin with HPLC. The kinetic analysis revealed the volume of distribution in healthy vs. febrile dogs as 2.12 +/- 0.32 vs. 1.79 +/- 0.43 L/Kg, respectively. The elimination half life was 2.23 +/- 0.78 and 2.07 +/- 0.74 hours in healthy and febrile dogs, respectively. Similarly, dogs under healthy and febrile conditions showed comparable total plasma clearance of 0.66 +/- 0.06 and 0.60 +/- 0.07 L/Kg/h, respectively. All these and other investigated kinetic parameters were statistically non significant. This study concludes that the pharmacokinetic behavior of ciprofloxacin is similar under healthy and febrile conditions. Thus, the kinetic studies of fluoroquinolones conducted in normal/healthy animals may be used to depict the pharmacokinetic parameters in diseased animals. PMID:19728130

  7. Efficacy of amikacin and ciprofloxacin against clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Tuberculosis was a leading cause of death at the turn of the 20 century and continues to be one of the medical scourges of mankind. Before the availability of antimicrobial drugs the cornerstone of treatment was rest in the open air in sanatoria. The major breakthrough in treatment of tuberculosis came with the discovery of Streptomycin. Later, INH, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Rifampicin were added to the arsenal. Objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against two second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi. All routine clinical samples received for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the Department of Microbiology, AFIP, Rawalpindi were processed by modified Petroff's technique and inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and Bactec 460 Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture system. After identification of M. tuberculosis sensitivity was performed against first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Then susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates against Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin was performed on LJ medium. H37Rv was used as control strain. Results: Results were interpreted using resistance ratio method. Out of 100 M. tuberculosis isolates, 98% were sensitive to Amikacin and 97% to Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin are very effective second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against tuberculosis isolates in our set-up. (author)

  8. Radiolabeling of Ciprofloxacin with Technetium-99 m, quality control and biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled antibiotics are used for the specific diagnosis of infection by exploiting their specific binding properties to the bacterial components, thereby making it possible to differentiate infection from sterile lesions. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin is the most widely used infection imaging agent which belongs to quinolones group and has a vast antimicrobial action against bacteria's. Ciprofloxacin binds to bacterial DNA Gyrase and inhibits its conventional synthesis. Ciprofloxacin labeled with 99mTc specifically binds to various bacteria. Thus, it potentially constitutes a specific marker allowing discrimination between septic and aseptic diseases. In this paper, we describe the labeling of ciprofloxacin with the most widely used imaging radionuclide, 99mTc. The quality control procedure using thin layer chromatography and the stability of labeled compound and also the effect of different parameters such as p H and stannous chloride amount on the radiolabeling yield were investigated. The maximum radiochemical yield was 90±3%. The stability of the radiolabeled antibiotic in the presence of human serum was about 84.2% and 79.6%, respectively after 1 h and 4 h. 75% of the activity binds to the plasma proteins and the ratio of infected muscle to non-infected muscle is 3.2 and 1.8, 1 h and 4 hours post injection.

  9. Acetic and Acrylic Acid Molecular Imprinted Model Silicone Hydrogel Materials for Ciprofloxacin-HCl Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses, as an alternative drug delivery vehicle for the eye compared to eye drops, are desirable due to potential advantages in dosing regimen, bioavailability and patient tolerance/compliance. The challenge has been to engineer and develop these materials to sustain drug delivery to the eye for a long period of time. In this study, model silicone hydrogel materials were created using a molecular imprinting strategy to deliver the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Acetic and acrylic acid were used as the functional monomers, to interact with the ciprofloxacin template to efficiently create recognition cavities within the final polymerized material. Synthesized materials were loaded with 9.06 mM, 0.10 mM and 0.025 mM solutions of ciprofloxacin, and the release of ciprofloxacin into an artificial tear solution was monitored over time. The materials were shown to release for periods varying from 3 to 14 days, dependent on the loading solution, functional monomer concentration and functional monomer:template ratio, with materials with greater monomer:template ratio (8:1 and 16:1 imprinted tending to release for longer periods of time. Materials with a lower monomer:template ratio (4:1 imprinted tended to release comparatively greater amounts of ciprofloxacin into solution, but the release was somewhat shorter. The total amount of drug released from the imprinted materials was sufficient to reach levels relevant to inhibit the growth of common ocular isolates of bacteria. This work is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of molecular imprinting in model silicone hydrogel-type materials.

  10. Doxycycline plus streptomycin versus ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin in spinal brucellosis [ISRCTN31053647

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumerkan Bulent

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment regimen and duration of the therapy is still controversial in spinal brucellosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, adverse drug reactions, complications and cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin versus doxycycline plus streptomycin in the treatment of spinal brucellosis. Methods The patients diagnosed as spinal brucellosis between January 2002 to December 2004 were enrolled into the study. Patients were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups (doxycycline plus streptomycin vs. ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin consecutively. For the cost analysis of the two regimens, only the cost of antibiotic therapy was analysed for each patient. Results During the study period, 31 patients with spinal brucellosis were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups. Fifteen patients were included in doxycycline plus streptomycin group and 16 patients were included in ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group. Forty-two levels of spinal column were involved in 31 patients. The most common affected site was lumbar spine (n = 32, 76% and involvement level was not different in two groups. Despite the disadvantages (older age, more prevalent operation and abscess formation before the therapy of the patients in the ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group, the duration of the therapy (median 12 weeks in both groups and clinical response were not different from the doxycycline plus streptomycin. The cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin therapy was 1.2 fold higher than the cost of doxycycline plus streptomycin therapy. Conclusion Classical regimen (doxycycline plus streptomycin, with the appropriate duration (at least 12 weeks, is still the first line antibiotics and alternative therapies should be considered when adverse drug reactions were observed.

  11. Efficacy of intravenous ciprofloxacin in patients with febrile neutropenia refractory to initial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Shirahashi, Akihiko; Koga, Shin; Suzushima, Hitoshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Okamura, Seiichi; Kawano, Fumio; Tamura, Kazuo

    2006-08-01

    We previously reported that monotherapy with carbapenem or cefepime exhibited efficacy equivalent to cefepime plus an aminoglycoside as initial therapy for febrile neutropenia (FN), achieving an adequate response in two-thirds of the patients. However, only one-third of the remaining poor responders to monotherapy became afebrile after an aminoglycoside was added to the initial carbapenem or cefepime. The present study was designed to evaluate the benefit of intravenous ciprofloxacin for neutropenic patients with fever who were refractory to initial therapy given for the first 3 days. Patients with FN--as defined by an axillary temperature >or=37.5 degrees C and a neutrophil count ciprofloxacin 600 mg/day. They were otherwise managed according to the Japanese guidelines for FN. An adequate response was defined as a decline of temperature to ciprofloxacin treatment. Thirty-one patients with FN (seventeen male and fourteen female; mean age 53.1 +/- 14.8 years) were entered in the study. The initial antibiotics were cefepime (2 - 4 g/day) in twenty and carbapenem (1 - 2 g/day) in eleven. Three patients were excluded from analysis, leaving 28 patients for evaluation of efficacy. The response rate was 16/31 patients (51.6%),with four patients judged non-assessable due to adverse effects, protocol violation or early change to other agents. Adverse events occurred in seventeen patients, but all were mild and reversible. Only three patients had adverse events (skin rash, hepatic dysfunction and elevation of alkaline phosphatase in one patient, respectively) considered related to ciprofloxacin. These findings indicate that addition of intravenous ciprofloxacin is effective against FN refractory to initial antibiotic therapy and has acceptable toxicity. PMID:16966275

  12. Contribution of AcrAB efflux pump to ciprofloxacin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakzad, Iraj

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been recently increased among bacterial strains isolated from outpatients. Multidrug-resistant is one of the major organisms isolated from burn patients and the AcrAB efflux pump is the principal pump contributing to the intrinsic resistance in against multiple antimicrobial agents including ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. Fifty-two isolated from burn patients in Shahid Motahari hospital and confirmed by conventional biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to CLSI 2011 guidelines, to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolates. A gene was detected among ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates by PCR assay. MICs to ciprofloxacin were measured with and without carbonyl cyanide . Forty out of the 52 isolated from burn patients in Shahid Motahari hospital were resistant to ciprofloxacin according to breakpoint of CLSI guideline. PCR assay for A gene demonstrated that all ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates harbored A gene coding the membrane fusion protein AcrA and is a part of AcrAB efflux system. Among these isolates, 19 strains (47.5% showed 2 to 32 fold reduction in MICs after using CCCP as an efflux pump inhibitor. The other 21 strains (52.5% showed no disparity in MICs before and after using CCCP. In conclusion, the AcrAB efflux system is one of the principal mechanisms contribute in ciprofloxacin resistance among isolates but there are some other mechanisms interfere with ciprofloxacin resistance such as mutation in target proteins of DNA gyrase of topoisomerase IV enzymes.

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin for the imaging of bacterial infections with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Brunner, Martin; Zeitlinger, Markus; Mueller, Ulrich; Lackner, Edith; Joukhadar, Christian; Mueller, Markus [Medical University Vienna, Division of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria); Ziegler, Sophie; Minar, Erich [Medical University Vienna, Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine II, Vienna (Austria); Dobrozemsky, Georg [Medical University Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt [Medical University Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-02-01

    The suitability of the{sup 18}F-labelled fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin ([{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin) for imaging of bacterial infections with positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, suspensions of various E. colistrains were incubated with different concentrations of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin (0.01-5.0 {mu}g/ml) and radioactivity retention was measured in a gamma counter. For the in vivo experiments, 725 {+-} 9 MBq [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously into four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections of the lower extremities and time-radioactivity curves were recorded in infected and uninfected tissue for 5 h after tracer injection. Binding of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin to bacterial cells was rapid, non-saturable and readily reversible. Moreover, bacterial binding of the agent was similar in ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates. These findings suggest that non-specific binding rather than specific binding to bacterial type II topoisomerase enzymes is the predominant mechanism of bacterial retention of the radiotracer. PET studies in the four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections demonstrated locally increased radioactivity uptake in infected tissue, with peak ratios between infected and uninfected tissue ranging from 1.8 to 5.5. Radioactivity was not retained in infected tissue and appeared to wash out with a similar elimination half-life as in uninfected tissue, suggesting that the kinetics of [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin in infected tissue are governed by increased blood flow and vascular permeability due to local infection rather than by a binding process. Taken together, our results indicate that [{sup 18}F]ciprofloxacin is not suited as a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent for PET. (orig.)

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [18F]ciprofloxacin for the imaging of bacterial infections with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of the18F-labelled fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin ([18F]ciprofloxacin) for imaging of bacterial infections with positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, suspensions of various E. colistrains were incubated with different concentrations of [18F]ciprofloxacin (0.01-5.0 μg/ml) and radioactivity retention was measured in a gamma counter. For the in vivo experiments, 725 ± 9 MBq [18F]ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously into four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections of the lower extremities and time-radioactivity curves were recorded in infected and uninfected tissue for 5 h after tracer injection. Binding of [18F]ciprofloxacin to bacterial cells was rapid, non-saturable and readily reversible. Moreover, bacterial binding of the agent was similar in ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates. These findings suggest that non-specific binding rather than specific binding to bacterial type II topoisomerase enzymes is the predominant mechanism of bacterial retention of the radiotracer. PET studies in the four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections demonstrated locally increased radioactivity uptake in infected tissue, with peak ratios between infected and uninfected tissue ranging from 1.8 to 5.5. Radioactivity was not retained in infected tissue and appeared to wash out with a similar elimination half-life as in uninfected tissue, suggesting that the kinetics of [18F]ciprofloxacin in infected tissue are governed by increased blood flow and vascular permeability due to local infection rather than by a binding process. Taken together, our results indicate that [18F]ciprofloxacin is not suited as a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent for PET. (orig.)

  15. S ciprofloksacinom povzročena holestatska okvara jeter: a case report: Ciprofloxacin-induced cholestatic liver injury: prikaz primera:

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlan-Marolt, Vera; Hafner, Matjaž; Kikec, Zdenko; Vujasinović, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drug-induced liver injury has been described for a large number ofdrugs. It is a common cause of drug withdrawal from the market. Ciprofloxacin is a commonly prescribed fluoroquinolone antibiotic and is a rare cause of hepatotoxicity. To our best knowledge this is the first case of ciprofloxacin-induced cholestatic liver injury in Slovenia. Case report: A 19year old man has been treated with ciprofloxacin at a daily dose of 500 mg twice a day due to a mild respiratory infection. A...

  16. Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activities of Tc-99m infecton and ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was little evidence that Tc-99m labeled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) located inside of bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of infecton could be an indirect evidence of its location. We compared in vitro antimicrobial ativities of infecton and ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Infecton and ciprofloxacin against three standard strains of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were measured using modified broth macrodilution techniques and pour plate methods, respectively. Data were expressed as mean ±SE (range). MICs of infecton and ciprofloxacin were 1.12 ±0.20 (0.8 ∼ 1.6) μg/ml and 0.36±0.04 (0.2∼0.4) μg/ml for S. aureus, 0.03±0.005 (0.025 ∼0.05) μg/ml and 0.011±0.001 (0.006∼0.012) μg/ml for E. coli, and 0.96±0.16 (0.8 ∼1.6) μg/ml and 0.56±0.098(0.4 ∼0.8) μg/ml for P. aeruginosa, respectively. MBCs of Infecton and ciprofloxacin were 2.56±0.39 (1.6∼3.2 )μg/ml and 0.88 ±0.2 (0.4 ∼1.6) μg/ml for S, aureus, 0.04±0.06(0.025∼0.05) μg/ml and 0.02 ±0.01(0.025∼0.05) μg/ml for E. Coli, and 2.24±0.39 (1.6 ∼ 3.2) μg/ml and 1.44 ±0.16 (0.8 ∼1.6)μg/ml for P. aeruginosa, respectively. Although both MICs and MBCs of infecton were higher than those of ciprofloxacin, all three standard bacterial strains were sensitive to infecton. It could be an indirect evidence that Tc-99m infecton be a specific imaging agent for bacterial infecton

  17. Non-Monotonic Survival of Staphylococcus aureus with Respect to Ciprofloxacin Concentration Arises from Prophage-Dependent Killing of Persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Sandvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen with a propensity to cause chronic, non-healing wounds. Bacterial persisters have been implicated in the recalcitrance of S. aureus infections, and this motivated us to examine the persistence of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Upon treatment of exponential phase S. aureus with ciprofloxacin, we observed that survival was a non-monotonic function of ciprofloxacin concentration. Maximal killing occurred at 1 µg/mL ciprofloxacin, which corresponded to survival that was up to ~40-fold lower than that obtained with concentrations ≥ 5 µg/mL. Investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the non-monotonic response was associated with prophage induction, which facilitated killing of S. aureus persisters. Elimination of prophage induction with tetracycline was found to prevent cell lysis and persister killing. We anticipate that these findings may be useful for the design of quinolone treatments.

  18. Additive effects of ciprofloxacin on the in-vitro activity of chloroquine against a clinical isolate of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzim, O J; Adegbolagun, O M; Osho, O; Anumudu, C I

    2006-10-01

    As chloroquine and ciprofloxacin each possess substantial inhibitory activity against the schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, it seems possible that a combination of the two drugs may be clinically useful. The effects on the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum of combined treatment with chloroquine and ciprofloxacin were therefore evaluated in vitro, using the World Health Organization's standardized micro test. When used alone, the median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of chloroquine against the schizonts in the assay mixtures was found to be 7.75 microg/ml, whereas the corresponding value for ciprofloxacin was markedly lower, at 3.35 microg/ml. When they were used together, however, there was marked and statistically significant mutual enhancement of schizont inhibition by the two drugs, indicating that a chloroquine-ciprofloxacin combination may be useful clinically, in the treatment and management of P. falciparum malaria. PMID:16989683

  19. Ciprofloxacin non-susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes due to mutations in parC gene and its homology analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the resistant mechanism of Streptococcus pyogenes to ciprofloxacin and its homology.Methods Forty-eight isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were collected from patients diagnosed with scarflet fever

  20. Evaluation of the Influence of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in the Development of an Old World Screwworm Fly, Chrysomya putoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Filho, Renato Geraldo da Silva; Valéria M. Aguiar-Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chlo...

  1. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin against experimental infections with Listeria monocytogenes in hydrocortisone-treated mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogtrop, M.L.; Mattie, H; Sekh, B R; Van Strijen, E; van Furth, R

    1992-01-01

    The efficacies of ciprofloxacin and ampicillin against Listeria monocytogenes in an immunosuppressed mouse model of listeriosis were compared. Immunosuppression was achieved by administration of 2.5 mg of hydrocortisone acetate daily. Both ciprofloxacin and ampicillin were effective in reducing the number of viable L. monocytogenes cells in the liver and spleen. After treatment with 100 mg of ampicillin per kg of body weight every 6 h for 3 days, virtually no L. monocytogenes could be recover...

  2. In vitro ciprofloxacin resistance patterns of gram positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few decades the ever-increasing level of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has been a cause of worldwide concern. Fluoroquinolones, particularly ciprofloxacin has been used indiscriminately for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. The increased use of ciprofloxacin has led to a progressive loss of bacterial susceptibility to this antibiotic. Therefore it is necessary to have update knowledge of resistance pattern of bacteria to this antibiotic so that alternate appropriate antibiotics can be used for ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial infections. Objective: To evaluate the trends of ciprofloxacin resistance pattern in commonly isolated gram positive bacteria over time in a Saudi Arabian teaching hospital. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out for ciprofloxacin susceptibility patterns of 5534 isolates of gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratories at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 to August 2005. Results: Increase in ciprofloxacin resistance rates with some fluctuations, among these isolates, were observed. For Staphylococcus aureus, it varied from 4.62, 1.83, 7.01 and 3.98%, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 97.92, 97.75, 87.01 and 88.26%, Streptococcus pyogenes 5.35, 4.47, 14.44 and 3.53% during the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively. Cirprofloxacin resistance during the years 2002, 2004 and 2005 for other isolates was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 30.23, 23.02 and 26.47%; enterococcus group D, 43.05, 20.68 and 57.03% and non-enterococcus group D, 62.96, 76.92 and 87.50% respectively. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin resistance in gram positive bacterial clinical isolates particularly Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enterococcus group D, and non-enterococcus group D, has greatly increased and ciprofloxacin no more remains

  3. Ciprofloxacin Is Actively Transported across Bronchial Lung Epithelial Cells Using a Calu-3 Air Interface Cell Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a well-established broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic that penetrates well into the lung tissues; still, the mechanisms of its transepithelial transport are unknown. The contributions of specific transporters, including multidrug efflux transporters, organic cation transporters, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide transporters, to the uptake of ciprofloxacin were investigated in vitro using an air interface bronchial epithelial model. Our results demonstrate tha...

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin-Nitroxide Conjugates as Anti-Biofilm Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Verderosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As bacterial biofilms are often refractory to conventional antimicrobials, the need for alternative and/or novel strategies for the treatment of biofilm related infections has become of paramount importance. Herein, we report the synthesis of novel hybrid molecules comprised of two different hindered nitroxides linked to the piperazinyl secondary amine of ciprofloxacin via a tertiary amine linker achieved utilising reductive amination. The corresponding methoxyamine derivatives were prepared alongside their radical-containing counterparts as controls. Subsequent biological evaluation of the hybrid compounds on preformed P. aeruginosa flow cell biofilms divulged significant dispersal and eradication abilities for ciprofloxacin-nitroxide hybrid compound 10 (up to 95% eradication of mature biofilms at 40 μM. Importantly, these hybrids represent the first dual-action antimicrobial-nitroxide agents, which harness the dispersal properties of the nitroxide moiety to circumvent the well-known resistance of biofilms to treatment with antimicrobial agents.

  5. Determination of Ciprofloxacin in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using HPLC Method with UV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, R; Pereira, Jessica; Firme, Juliete; Lemos, Mariana; Lemos, Mayara

    2014-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate and rapid reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was validated for the determination of the content of ciprofloxacin in three pharmaceuticals forms: generic, similar and compounded. The results of the validation showed that the method was highly efficient for quantification of ciprofloxacin in the matrices evaluated. The recovery rates were between 97.4 to 104.3 %, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 5 % for repeatability, and lower than 5.15 % for intermediate precision. The limits of detection, quantification and practical, were 0.11, 0.35 and 1.56 μg/ml, respectively. All compounded samples were approved with in the quality control; however, one generic and one similar sample presented above allowed level. PMID:25593388

  6. Determination of ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations using HPLC Method with UV Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scherer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate and rapid reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was validated for the determination of the content of ciprofloxacin in three pharmaceuticals forms: generic, similar and compounded. The results of the validation showed that the method was highly efficient for quantification of ciprofloxacin in the matrices evaluated. The recovery rates were between 97.4 to 104.3 %, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 5 % for repeatability, and lower than 5.15 % for intermediate precision. The limits of detection, quantification and practical, were 0.11, 0.35 and 1.56 μg/ml, respectively. All compounded samples were approved with in the quality control; however, one generic and one similar sample presented above allowed level.

  7. Ternary cyclodextrin polyurethanes containing phosphate groups: Synthesis and complexation of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mirna Pereira; Andrade, George Ricardo Santana; de Araujo, Marcia Valeria Gaspar; Kubota, Tatiana; Gimenez, Iara F

    2016-10-20

    Synthesis of ternary polyurethanes (PUs) from hexamethylenediisocyanate, β-cyclodextrin and β-glycerophosphate (acid and calcium salt) was studies varying synthesis parameters such as monomer proportion, heating method (reflux and microwave), and catalyst amount. Favorable conditions were provided by microwave irradiation and use of β-glycerophosphoric acid although the results suggest that it is possible to obtain ternary PUs with the calcium salt. FTIR data indicated the existence of secondary urea linkages. After characterization of ternary PUs by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD and thermal analysis, as well as evidences that the cyclodextrin cavities remained active toward inclusion of guest molecules, the possibility of inclusion of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin was evaluated. Absence of ciprofloxacin melting peak in DSC curves indicated that it is molecularly dispersed within the polymer, possibly included in the cyclodextrin. In vitro release experiments suggested additional non-inclusion interactions, showing also that the use of dialysis membranes may mask the actual release profile. PMID:27474600

  8. The comparative activity of pefloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin and 13 other antimicrobial agents against enteropathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Roebben, E; Nyssen, H J; Nulens, E; Leger, J; De Schepper, N

    1986-01-01

    In this study, we compared the activity of pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin against 269 enteropathogenic strains (Campylobacter jejuni, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia enterocolitica) with that of rosoxacin, flumequin, nifuroxazide, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, amikacin, netilmicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole. Pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin were always among the most active compounds. Furthermore, resistant strains or strains with elevated MIC values were not found. The MIC90 value for these three compounds was less than or equal to 0.25 mg/l, except for C. jejuni where it was 0.3 mg/l and 1.4 mg/l for pefloxacin and enoxacin, respectively. PMID:3546145

  9. Ciprofloxacin eye drops-induced subtherapeutic serum phenytoin levels resulting in breakthrough seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malladi, Srinivasa Sastry; Liew, Emily Kai Suen; Ng, Xiao Ting; Tan, Rita Kheng Siew

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of temporal lobe epilepsy-induced psychotic episodes was initially admitted to a general hospital where she was started on a course of oral antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia, and ciprofloxacin eye drops to treat nasolacrimal duct obstruction. After one week, the patient was discharged back to a nursing home with these medications. However, she was admitted to our psychiatric ward two days later due to a relapse of psychosis. Another six days later, she developed breakthrough seizures associated with subtherapeutic serum phenytoin levels. Having explored all possible causes of reduced serum phenytoin levels, ciprofloxacin eye drops was discontinued in the patient, resulting in gradual return of phenytoin levels to the therapeutic range, with no further seizures observed in the patient. PMID:25091892

  10. In vitro microbiological evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol-based ocular inserts of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramaniam J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble inserts of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride using high and low molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol alone and in various combinations were fabricated by a casting technique. The in vitro drug release from the prepared inserts was studied using a continuous flow-through model, developed in our laboratory. The antimicrobial efficacies of the prepared inserts against common ocular pathogens, viz., Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, were evaluated using a modified in vitro microbiological model. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride release from the inserts followed matrix diffusion kinetics showing an anomalous release mechanism (erosion-controlled based on the calculated release exponent (n values. Drug release increased with an increase in the proportion of high molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol in the inserts. The in vitro microbiological model demonstrated the effectiveness of the inserts against the two microorganisms. Further, the results of the in vitro release studies correlated well with that of the antimicrobial studies.

  11. Development and in vitro characterization of ciprofloxacin loaded polymeric films for wound dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere Innocent Okoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Wound treatment is always encumbered with diverse challenges, including inadequacy of dressings. This study was undertaken to fabricate and characterize an antibiotic film useable as a wound dressing. Materials and Methods: Gelatin, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC, and their blends (at 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 were loaded with ciprofloxacin at drug: polymer ratios of 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 and fabricated into films using the solvent casting method. In vitro characterization of the films was conducted using standard protocols for wound dressing films. Results: The products displayed uniformity of weight and thickness; sorption capacity was 16–24 times their weights of fluid, with significant differences (P < 0.05, blend of polymers conferred much better sorption capability. Their surface pH lied between 6.33 and 6.74; bending endurance was excellent; photomicroscopy revealed uniform distribution of ciprofloxacin crystals; Fourier transform infrared analysis and differential scanning calorimetry showed that ciprofloxacin interactions with infrared and thermal energies were overshadowed by the polymers. The content uniformity of the formulations was within official limits while the in vitro drug release and antibacterial activities revealed that polymer blends at 1:1 or 1:2 (Na-CMC: gelatin stood out as the most promising combination for the formulation of ciprofloxacin wound dressing films. Conclusion: Combination of Na-CMC and gelatin in the fabrication of wound dressing film is an attractive choice judging from the outcome of this study. The antibacterial activities and sorption capacities of the drug loaded films are strong indicators to their in vivo functionalities as wound dressing.

  12. Effect of bioadhesion on initial in vitro buoyancy of effervescent floating matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCL

    OpenAIRE

    Jeetendra Singh Negi; Abhinav Trivedi; Praveen Khanduri; Vandana Negi; Nikhil Kasliwal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of bioadhesion on the initial in vitro buoyancy behaviour of effervescent matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIPRO). Tablets were prepared by direct compression using HPMC K4M and Carbopol 971P as hydrophilic-controlled release polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) as gas-generating agent, polyplasdone XL, Explotab and Ac-Di-Sol as swelling agents. Tablets were evaluated for normal and modified initial in vitro floating behavior, floatin...

  13. Data on glycerol/tartaric acid-based copolymer containing ciprofloxacin for wound healing applications

    OpenAIRE

    E: GIGLIO; Bonifacio, M.A.; Cometa, S.; Vona, D.; Mattioli-Belmonte, M.; Dicarlo, M.; Ceci, E.; Fino, V.; Cicco, S.R.; Farinola, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to our recently published research paper “Exploiting a new glycerol-based copolymer as a route to wound healing: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility assessment", De Giglio et al. (Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 136 (2015) 600–611) [1]. The latter described a new copolymer derived from glycerol and tartaric acid (PGT). Herein, an investigation about the PGT-ciprofloxacin (CIP) interactions by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT...

  14. Determination of Ciprofloxacin by Flow Injection Analysis Based on Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ciprofloxacin (CPLX) was reported. The proposed method is based on luminescence produced by KMnO4-Na2S2O4-Tb3+-CPLX chemiluminescence (CL) system. The effects of some critical experimental conditions were discussed and the optimization of working condithe recoveries of real sample analyses were in the range from 110 ± 4 to 104 ± 4.

  15. Active efflux of ciprofloxacin from J774 macrophages through an MRP-like transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Michot, Jean-Michel; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation and efflux kinetics of ciprofloxacin have been examined by using murine J774 macrophages. Accumulation (at equilibrium) was increased (three- to fourfold) (i) when cells were incubated with high extracellular drug concentrations (typically 200 mg/liter) as opposed to clinically meaningful concentrations (10 mg/liter or lower), (ii) during ATP- depletion and at acid pH, and (iii) during coincubation with probenecid, gemfibrozil and the preferential multidrug resistance-related...

  16. Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashree Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934 suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg′s angle (2q of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.

  17. The Ciprofloxacin Impact on Biofilm Formation by Proteus Mirabilis and P. Vulgaris Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiecinska-Pirog, Joanna; Skowron, Krzysztof; Bartczak, Wojciech; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Background Proteus spp. bacilli belong to opportunistic human pathogens, which are primarily responsible for urinary tract and wound infections. An important virulence factor is their ability to form biofilms that greatly reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics in the site of infection. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the value of the minimum concentration of ciprofloxacin that eradicates a biofilm of Proteus spp. strains. Materials and Methods A biofilm formation of 20 stra...

  18. Evidence of Active Efflux in Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and to Ethidium Bromide by Mycoplasma hominis

    OpenAIRE

    Raherison, S.; Gonzalez, P.; Renaudin, H.; Charron, A; Bébéar, C.; Bébéar, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    The uptake of fluoroquinolones was characterized for the fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain PG21 of Mycoplasma hominis. Accumulation of fluoroquinolones appeared to occur by passive diffusion. Addition of arginine as the energizer significantly reduced the uptake of fluoroquinolones, suggesting the presence of an energy-dependent efflux process. Reserpine and orthovanadate, two multidrug pump inhibitors, increased significantly the ciprofloxacin (CIP) uptake. In contrast, such a strong effect...

  19. Effects of enzyme supplementation on oral absorption of ciprofloxacin in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, G.; Cooper, P J; Buchanan, N.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of pancreatic enzyme supplementation on the absorption of an oral dose of 250 mg of ciprofloxacin was studied in six patients with cystic fibrosis in a crossover design. The time to achieve maximum serum concentration was slightly reduced upon coadministration of pancreatic enzymes. There were no significant differences in peak concentration, elimination half-life, and area under the concentration-time curve.

  20. Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures treated with ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Soltanian; Shiva Irani; Sarvenaz Hashemi; Seyed Hamid Reza Mozhgani; Mehdi Ajorloo; Yoosef Cheraghi; Alireza Gholami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures is considered as a major economic, research and production problem. In this study, mycoplasma-infected Vero cell lines were treated by various dilutions of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in a timely manner. Removal of mycoplasma contamination from infected cell cultures was evaluated and demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Methods: This study was done from October 2013 to May 2014, in Human Rabies Vaccine Laboratory,...

  1. Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected orthopedic prostheses with ceftazidime-ciprofloxacin antibiotic combination.

    OpenAIRE

    Brouqui, P; Rousseau, M C; Stein, A.; Drancourt, M; D. Raoult

    1995-01-01

    Indwelling device infections are associated with considerable morbidity and extremely high cost. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent gram-negative etiologic agent associated with infections of indwelling catheters and foreign body implants. It is generally agreed that eradication of infection in the presence of a foreign body requires removal of the foreign body. Using a combination of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin, we cured nine of nine patients with P. aeruginosa-infected osteosynth...

  2. Treatment of bone, joint, and soft-tissue infections with oral ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, R N; Kennedy, D J; Reilly, P M; Luppen, K L; Weinandt, W J; Bollinger, M R; Aguirre, F.; Kodesch, F; Saeed, A M

    1987-01-01

    We treated 52 patients with orally administered ciprofloxacin. In this study of 34 men and 18 women who completed therapy and who could be evaluated, there were 29 patients with nonhematogenous osteomyelitis, 20 patients with skin or soft-tissue infections, and 3 patients with joint infections. During the study, 92 isolates of pathogenic facultative aerobic bacteria, including 37 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 30 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and 21 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate...

  3. Application of Neem Gum for Aqueous Film Coating of Ciprofloxacin Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    A P Kulkarni; Y R Shaikh; MH GR Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Summary. At present the pharmaceutical industry and academia are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. In previous study, neem gum (NG), obtained from Azadirachata indica plant revealed satisfactory film forming ability. The present study evaluates the application potential of neem gum, as an aqueous film coating material, using ciprofloxacin hydrchloride (drug) as a model drug. Initial study of physical mixture indicated absence of ...

  4. Influence of induced ciprofloxacin resistance on efflux pump activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qin ZHONG; Shun ZHANG; Hong PAN; Ting CAI

    2013-01-01

    The efflux pump (EP) is one of the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae.However,there are few reports on the effect of the abuse of antibiotic use on the activity of EPs.To determine whether the use of low efficacy antibiotics has any effect on the activity of EPs and induces drug resistance in K.pneumoniae,we investigated the effect of ciprofloxacin on the activity of EPs in K.pneumoniae strains.Methods:Sixteen susceptible K.pneumoniae strains were isolated from patients and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin were measured in the absence and presence of the pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP).The strains were then induced with a gradient of ciprofloxacin until the MICs of the strains showed no further increase,to obtain induced resistant strains.The EP activities of the strains before and after induction were compared using EP inhibition and ethidium bromide (EtBr) accumulation assays.Results:The MIC values of the strains were 16-256 times higher after induction than before induction.In the presence of CCCP,the MIC values of 50% of the induced strains were 2-4-fold lower than that in the absence of this inhibitor.The EtBr accumulation assay showed that the fluorescence of EtBr in the induced cells was lower than that in the cells before induction.Conclusions:EPs are widespread in susceptible and drug-resistant K.pneumoniae strains.Induction with ciprofloxacin may increase the activity of EPs in K.pneumoniae.The EtBr accumulation assay is more sensitive than the EP inhibition assay in evaluating the activity of EPs in K.pneumoniae.

  5. In vitro analysis and data comparison of market brands of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the evaluation of three different groups of 12 brands of locally manufactured Quinolone tablets available in the market i.e. ciprofloxacin HCl, ofloxacin and levofloxacin hemihydrate, it was found that composition of active ingredients were within the range of pharmacoepial limits but their disintegration time and rate of dissolution were different, some being very close to the lower pharmacoepial limit. One product was substandard having high disintegration time and very low rate of dissolution. (author)

  6. Ciprofloxacin residue and antibiotic-resistant biofilm bacteria in hospital effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Jérôme; Bricheux, Geneviève; Togola, Anne; Bonnet, Jean Louis; Donnadieu-Bernard, Florence; Nakusi, Laurence; Forestier, Christiane; Traore, Ousmane

    2016-07-01

    Discharge of antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria in hospital effluents is supposed to have strong impacts on the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment. This study aimed to characterize the effluents of the Gabriel Montpied teaching hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France, by simultaneously measuring the concentration of ciprofloxacin and of biological indicators resistant to this molecule in biofilms formed in the hospital effluent and by comparing these data to ciprofloxacin consumption and resistant bacterial isolates of the hospital. Determination of the measured environmental concentration of ciprofloxacin by spot sampling and polar organic chemical integrative (POCIS) sampling over 2 weeks, and comparison with predicted environmental concentrations produced a hazard quotient >1, indicating a potential ecotoxicological risk. A negative impact was also observed with whole hospital effluent samples using the Tetrahymena pyriformis biological model. During the same period, biofilms were formed within the hospital effluent, and analysis of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates indicated that Gamma-Proteobacteria were numerous, predominantly Aeromonadaceae (69.56%) and Enterobacteriaceae (22.61%). Among the 115 isolates collected, plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone-resistant genes were detected, with mostly aac(6')-lb-cr and qnrS. In addition, 60% of the isolates were resistant to up to six antibiotics, including molecules mostly used in the hospital (aminosides and third-generation cephalosporins). In parallel, 1247 bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients and resistant to at least one of the fluoroquinolones were collected. Only 5 of the 14 species identified in the effluent biofilm were also found in the clinical isolates, but PFGE typing of the Gram-negative isolates found in both compartments showed there was no clonality among the strains. Altogether, these data confirm the role of hospital loads as sources of pollution for wastewater

  7. DNA Gyrase Is the Target for the Quinolone Drug Ciprofloxacin in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Roberts, Katherine M.; Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Wall, Melisa K.; Leroux, Julie; Mylne, Joshua S.; Maxwell, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains four genes that were originally annotated as potentially encoding DNA gyrase: ATGYRA, ATGYRB1, ATGYRB2, and ATGYRB3. Although we subsequently showed that ATGYRB3 does not encode a gyrase subunit, the other three genes potentially encode subunits of a plant gyrase. We also showed evidence for the existence of supercoiling activity in A. thaliana and that the plant is sensitive to quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics, compounds that target DNA gyrase in bacteria. However, it was not possible at that time to show whether the A. thaliana genes encoded an active gyrase enzyme, nor whether that enzyme is indeed the target for the quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics. Here we show that an A. thaliana mutant resistant to the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin has a point mutation in ATGYRA. Moreover we show that, as in bacteria, the quinolone-sensitive (wild-type) allele is dominant to the resistant gene. Further we have heterologously expressed ATGYRA and ATGYRB2 in a baculovirus expression system and shown supercoiling activity of the partially purified enzyme. Expression/purification of the quinolone-resistant A. thaliana gyrase yields active enzyme that is resistant to ciprofloxacin. Taken together these experiments now show unequivocally that A. thaliana encodes an organelle-targeted DNA gyrase that is the target of the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin; this has important consequences for plant physiology and the development of herbicides. PMID:26663076

  8. Ciprofloxacin conjugated zinc oxide nanoparticle: A camouflage towards multidrug resistant bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasun Patra; Shouvik Mitra; Nitai Debnath; Panchanan Pramanik; Arunava Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Gradual development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is producing severe global threat. Newer strategies are now being employed in order to control the microbial infections and to reduce the mortality as well as infection rates. Herein we describe successful synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (ZNP) under microwave assisted condition followed by functionalization with ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic, using EDC/NHS chemistry. Successful conjugation of ciprofloxacin was confirmed by FTIR spectra. Ciprofloxacin-conjugated ZnO nanoparticles (ZN-CIP) exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella sp. ZNP were small in size with particle size distribution 18–20 nm as obtained from transmission electron microscope (TEM). Surface topology was obtained from atomic force microscopic (AFM) image and x-ray diffraction confirmed that ZNP possessed hexagonal crystal structure. A concentration of 10 g/mL of ZN-CIP was a benchmark concentration. During evaluation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, similar concentration of antibiotic was incapable of producing antibacterial activity.

  9. DETERMINATION OF SOLUBILITY AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND CIPROFLOXACIN ANTIBIOTICS IN DIFFERENT SOLVENTS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chandra Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, we have described to establish a comparison between the solubility of the hydrochloride and non-hydrochlorideforms of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in relevant solvents. For that purpose the solubility ofciprofloxacin and tetracycline were measured in water, methanol, propanol,and acetone, in the temperature range between 293.20 and 323.20 K for ciprofloxacin and between 288.20and 303.20 K for tetracycline. The solubility of the hydrochloride form in water is about 2 orders of magnitude higherthan those of the respective base forms. In acetone, we see the opposite effect. For methanol and propanolthe influence of the hydrochloride group of the antibiotic on the solubility in the alcohol is much smaller thanfor water and acetone. The experimental data was correlated with good results using two different activitycoefficient models, NRTL and UNIQUAC, with UNIQUAC giving better results, particularly for ciprofloxacin.The performance of COSMO-RS model to describe the studied systems was also evaluated.The dependence of these properties with temperature are shown. Theresults are interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interaction

  10. Ruggedness testing of an HPLC method for the determination of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREDRAG SIBINOVIC

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of optimization of an HPLC method for the determinations of ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin impurity C was investigated according to the British Pharmacopoeia, using ruggedness testing. Four factors were selected to be tested in this ruggedness test (temperature of the column, volume of acetonitrile in the mobile phase, volume of the aqueous phase in the mobile phase and pH of the aqueous phase in the mobile phase. Seven responses were determined in each design experiment: retention times, peak heights, peak widths, number of theoretical plates, peak areas, peak areas RSD (% and selectivity. A three-level design was used. The optimal conditions for the chromatographic procedure determined as the result of ruggedness testing were: pH of the aqueous phase in the mobile phase 3.0, column temperature 42 ºC and the acetonitrile to aqueous ratio in the mobile phase 14 : 86 (v/v. The HPLC method using the optimal conditions was tested for selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantitation and limit of detection. The applicability of the suggested method was, as well, tested on the stability of ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets and infusion solution, products of Zdravlje-Pharmaco, Serbia under stress stability data.

  11. Ciprofloxacin-99mTc: labeling and biodistribution in infection diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeling and biodistribution studies with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin were done using as radio marker Tc-99m. The aims were to optimize the labeling procedures as well as to analyze its efficacy in the diagnosis of infection sites, healthy and experimentally infected animals were employed to this purpose. On basis of optimized parameters a freeze-dried could be formulated containing 2 mg ciprofloxacin, 30 μg SnCl2HO and 5 mg ascorbic acid. This preparation could be easily activated by the addiction of Na99mTc)4 a maximum value of 3700 MBq after a reaction time of 10 minutes only. Yield of the labeling technique higher than 95%, radiochemical stability reached 6 hours after preparation, and shelf life till 2 months was demonstrated. Biodistribution investigations revealed high renal excretion, low concentration in liver and soft tissues, along with affinity for the bacterial focus 1.7-2.4 times higher than for normal tissues. This protocol demonstrated the potential of ciprofloxacin-99mTcs a diagnostic agent for infections process. (author)

  12. Short-term prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin in extended 16-core prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caretta Chambó

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the safety, efficacy and possible complications of 16-core transrectal prostate biopsies using two doses of ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis of infectious complications. Materials and Methods Sixteen-core prostate biopsies were performed on a number of patients with different signs of potential prostate cancer. Complications were assessed both during the procedure and one week later. After the procedure, urine samples were collected for culture. The rate of post-biopsy complications, hospital visits and hospitalizations were also analyzed. Ciprofloxacin (500 mg was administered two hours before, and eight hours after the procedure. Results The overall rate of post-biopsy complications was 87.32%, being 5.4% of those considered major complications due to hemorrhage, or to urinary retention. Eight patients required hospital treatment post-biopsy. Fever occurred in just one patient (0.29%. There was no incidence of orchitis, epididymitis, prostatitis, septicemia, hospitalization, or death. The urine culture showed positive results in five patients (2.15%. Conclusion One-day prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin proved to be safe and effective in the prevention of infectious complications following 16-core prostate biopsies.

  13. Dependence of transformation product formation on pH during photolytic and photocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Alaa; Thoröe-Boveleth, Sven; Schmidt, Torsten C; Tuerk, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with five pH dependent species in aqueous medium, which makes its degradation behavior difficult to predict. For the identification of transformation products and prediction of degradation mechanisms, a new experimental concept making use of isotopically labeled compounds together with high resolution mass spectrometry was successfully established. The utilization of deuterated ciprofloxacin (CIP-d8) facilitated the prediction of three different degradation pathways and the corresponding degradation products, four of which were identified for the first time. Moreover, two molecular structures of previously reported transformation products were revised according to the mass spectra and product ion spectra of the deuterated transformation products. Altogether, 18 transformation products have been identified during the photolytic and photocatalytic reactions at different pH values (3, 5, 7 and 9). In this work the influence of pH on both reaction kinetics and degradation mechanism was investigated for direct ultraviolet photolysis (UV-C irradiation) and photocatalysis (TiO2/UV-C). It could be shown that the removal rates strongly depended on pH with highest removal rates at pH 9. A comparison with those at pH 3 clearly indicated that under acidic conditions ciprofloxacin cannot be easily excited by UV irradiation. We could confirm that the first reaction step for both oxidative treatment processes is mainly defluorination, followed by degradation at the piperazine ring of CIP. PMID:27054664

  14. Preparation, degradation and in vitro release of ciprofloxacin-eluting ureteral stents for potential antibacterial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Xiao, Yan; Xu, Heng; Lei, Kun; Lang, Meidong

    2016-09-01

    Drug-eluting stents with biodegradable polymers as reservoirs have shown great potential in the application of interventional therapy due to their capability of local drug delivery. Herein, poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) with three different compositions as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate (CIP) was coated on ureteral stents by the dipping method. To simulate a body environment, degradation behavior of PLCL as both the bulk film and the stent coating was evaluated in artificial urine (AU, pH6.20) respectively at 37°C for 120days by tracing their weight/Mn loss, water absorption and surface morphologies. Furthermore, the release profile of the eluting drug CIP on each stent exhibited a three-stage pattern, which was greatly affected by the degradation behavior of PLCL except for the burst stage. Interestingly, the degradation results on both macroscopic and molecular level indicated that the release mechanism at stage I was mainly controlled by chain scission instead of the weight loss or morphological changes of the coatings. While for stage II, the release profile was dominated by erosion resulting from the hydrolysis reaction autocatalyzed by acidic degradation residues. In addition, ciprofloxacin-loaded coatings displayed a significant bacterial resistance against E. coli and S. aureus without obvious cytotoxicity to Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Our results suggested that PLCL copolymers with tunable degradation rate as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate could be used as a promising long-term antibacterial coating for ureteral stents. PMID:27207042

  15. Toxic effects of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole exposure to the antioxidant system in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested antioxidant responses of the green microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed to different concentrations of the three antibiotics erythromycin (ETM), ciprofloxacin (CPF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ). Measurements included the level of lipid peroxidation, the total antioxidative capacity and three major antioxidant mechanisms: the ascorbate–glutathione cycle, the xanthophyll cycle and the enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Three antibiotics significantly affect the antioxidant system of P. subcapitata, but in different ways the alga was more tolerant to CPF and SMZ exposures than to ETM exposure. ETM caused reductions in AsA and GSH biosynthesis, ascorbate–glutathione cycle, xanthophylls cycle and antioxidant enzyme activities. The toxicity of CPF seems to be mainly overcome via induction of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle and CAT, SOD and GPX activities, while the toxicity of SMZ on the photosynthetic apparatus is predominantly reduced by the xanthophyll cycle and GST activity. - Highlights: ► Antibiotics may affect the antioxidant system of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. ► Erythromycin decreased AsA, GSH biosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. ► Ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole were lower toxic than erythromycin. - Antibiotics (Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole) cause the change of antioxidant system and lead to oxidative stress to a green microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

  16. Thermal Behaviour of Some New Polyoxometalate Complexes of Ciprofloxacin with Keggin-type Heteropoly Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dun-jia; FANG Zheng-dong; HAN De-yan

    2005-01-01

    Four polyoxometalate complexes, (CPFX·HCl)3H4SiW12O40, (CPFX·HCl)3H3PW12O40, (CPFX·HCl)3H3PMo12O40 and (CPFX·HCl)4H4SiMo12O40, were prepared from ciprofloxacin hydrochloride(CPFX·HCl) reacting with HnXM12O40·nH2O(X=P,Si; M=W,Mo) in an aqueous solution, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrometry and TG-DTA. The IR spectrum confirms the presence of Keggin-type anions of heteropoly acids and the characteristic functional groups of ciprofloxacin. The TG/DTA curves show that their thermal decomposition is a multi-step process including simultaneous collapse of the Keggin-type structure. At first, these compounds had a mass loss of water molecules, then several other mass losses occurred due to the decomposition of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and its fragments with the degradation of Keggin anions. The end product of decomposition is the mixture of WO3(or MoO3) and SiO2(or P2O5), identified by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The possible thermal decomposition mechanisms of these complexes are proposed. This study exemplified that the thermal stability of the complexes containing tungsten is much better than that of the complexes containing molybdenum.

  17. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-KanRyu; Seong-MinLee; Do-WhanSeong; Jun-KyuSuh; SungeunKim; WonsickChoe; YeonsookMoon; Soo-HwanPai

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the value of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in the differential diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Methods: The study included 4 normal subjects as the negative controls, 2 patients with acute prostatitis or cystourethritis as the positive controls and 59 patients diagnosed as chronic bacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome by traditional laboratory tests. In every subject, the single photon emission computer-ized tomography images were obtained 3 h after intravenous injection of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. The results of the imaging were compared with those of laboratory tests. Results: On the images, negative uptake was observed in all normal subjects, while strong hot uptake, in the whole prostate of acute prostatitis patients and in the whole urethra of acute cystourethritis patients. In 13 (68 %) of 19 patients categorized as chronic bacterial prostatitis by standard laboratory tests, hot uptake with less intensity than that of acute prostatitis was observed in the prostate area around the prostatic urethra. Negative uptake in the prostate was observed in 6 of 19 patients (32 %) categorized as chronic bacterial prostatitis. Interestingly, hot uptake in the prostate was exhibited in 28 (70 %) of the 40 patients categorized as chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Conclusion: Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging is helpful in the differential diagnosis of prostatitis syndrome. (Asian J Androl 2003 Sep; 5:179-183 )

  18. Melamine modified P25 with heating method and enhanced the photocatalytic activity on degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqin; Li, Jinze; Ma, Changchang; Guan, Qingfeng; Lu, Ziyang; Huo, Pengwei; Yan, Yongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), as one photocatalyst which possess the suitable band gap, is better for modified TiO2 and enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this work, the g-C3N4/TiO2 were successfully prepared via directly calcined the mixture of melamine and P25. The as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic performances of g-C3N4/TiO2 composites were investigated by degradation of ciprofloxacin. The results showed that the g-C3N4 and P25 were successfully composited, and the bond of C-N was well formed, the calcined temperature for as-prepared photocatalysts and the ratio of melamine and P25 were important to the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin. When the mixture of melamine and P25 with 1:2, and calcined temperature at 600 °C, the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin could reach 95% in 60 min. The enhanced photocatalytic performances could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. Finally, the possible transferred processes of photoelectrons and photoholes were proposed.

  19. Effect of Ciprofloxacin on the Immune Response of Growing Piglets to Streptococcosis suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Liu-ting; YUAN Zong-hui

    2003-01-01

    24 seven-week-old hybrid healthy pigs (weighted 25.5?.4 kg ) from a source were randomly allotted to four groups (six each): the blank group, the negative group, the positive group and the test group. Pigs in the negative group and the test group were developed into a typical subacute Streptococcosis suis by inoculating subcutaneously 0.45 billion of pure living Streptococcus suis (type C55126) per kilogram body weight. Pigs in the positive group and the test group were intravenously injected ciprofloxacin (5 mg kg1 of BW) for 8 consecutive days (twice daily). Pigs in the blank group and positive group were inoculated with a placebo (0.85% NaCl). Some immunity parameters were tested on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after inoculation. Total leukocytes were counted with microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The effect on the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction of neutrophil was used to determine its phagocytic ability. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by using the mitogens PHA. The total serum IgG concentration was measured by radial single immunodiffusion. A 50% hemolytic test was used to investigate the complement activity in serum. Whereas, a phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test was used to investigate in vivo immunity. We got the following results: Ciprofloxacin can retard the clinical signs of an increase of leukocyte counts, a large percent of lymphocytes and a relative percentage decrease of neutrophis. Ciprofloxacin could promote nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction by neutrophil. Though there was no obvious difference (P>0.05) between the test group and the negative group, the interaction of both Streptococcosis suis and ciprofloxacin was significantly different(P0.05) between the test group and the blank group. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PHA was increased in diseased animals after receiving the treatment with ciprofloxacin. Owing to the difference of interaction (P<0.01, on day 21, 28 after

  20. Clinical studies and antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride medicated dental gels for periodontal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the effective treatment of periodontitis, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (HCl medicated dental gels are prepared with different hydrophilic polymers (MC, HPMC, HPC, and HEC in different concentrations of propylene glycol. The formulations are subjected to various physicochemical studies like pH, spreadability, extrudability, viscosity, drug content, in vitro drug release, and rheological and stability studies. During the rheological studies plots of shear rate versus viscosity showed that all the gels were non-Newtonian and exhibited pseudoplastic behavior. in vitro drug release studies were carried out in the diffusion cell using a pH 7.2 phosphate buffer as a receptor medium. Formulations exhibited an extended release of the drug for over a period of 6 hours and the release depended on the type of polymer and concentrations of propylene glycol used. Stability studies showed no significant variations ( P > 0.05 in pH, spreadability, viscosity, extrudability, and drug content. An in vitro release study concluded that hydrocolloid based ciprofloxacin hydrochloride medicated dental gels appear to be probably extend the release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. Optimal formulations were selected for in vivo or clinical studies. The clinical evaluation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride gels was carried out to determine the efficacy in the treatment of periodontitis. Six groups, each containing five patients, were used in the study. All the patients were evaluated for plaque index (PI and gingival index (GI, probing depth (PD, and bleeding on probing (BOP. In all these studies, two groups were treated with formulations alone and another two groups were treated with formulations along with scaling and root planning. One group was treated with scaling and root planning only, whereas, the last group was treated as control (No treatment. All the groups showed a similar baseline PI. However, the PI values decreased remarkably in the groups treated with

  1. Oral ciprofloxacin in the treatment of serious soft tissue and bone infections. Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, D E; Cumbo, T J; Kuritzky, P; DeVito, J M; Schentag, J J

    1987-04-27

    Forty-eight patients were enrolled in a clinical study of oral ciprofloxacin for the treatment of soft tissue or bone infections. Patients received 500 to 750 mg of ciprofloxacin every 12 hours. In the predominantly older population studied, there were 13 patients with osteomyelitis, 24 diabetic patients with soft tissue infection and probable osteomyelitis, and 11 patients with other soft tissue infections. Infecting pathogens included Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 25 patients, Serratia species in nine patients, Staphylococcus aureus in 13 patients, and other aerobic gram-negative rods in 21 patients. Clinical response (defined as resolution or improvement) was noted in 84 percent of patients with non-diabetic osteomyelitis, in 79 percent of patients with diabetic infections, and in 91 percent of patients with soft tissue infections. Microbiologic outcome was very favorable in 75 percent of cases, and Pseudomonas responded as well as any other pathogen. Pharmacokinetic properties of ciprofloxacin were evaluated in 12 patients, and the data were analyzed using both compartmental and non-compartmental analyses. Mean values for compartmental rate constants (hours-1) were as follows: absorption rate constant = 1.15; intercompartmental rate constants, k12 = 0.48, and k21 = 0.58; elimination rate constant = 0.46; distribution rate constant = 1.31; and terminal elimination rate constant = 0.19. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state/bioavailability was 196 liters and total body clearance/bioavailability was 45.9 liters/hour. The mean time to peak concentration was 1.3 hours. The mean peak concentration as determined by compartmental fitting (2.4 micrograms/ml) underestimated the observed peak (3.2 micrograms/ml) by 24.8 percent. Clearance of ciprofloxacin was similar regardless of the method used to fit the data, whereas the volume of distribution was significantly different when the two analysis techniques were compared. Ciprofloxacin was well tolerated, with

  2. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  3. Safety and efficacy of levofloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Chao Zhang; Feng-Shuo Jin; Dong-Ming Liu; Zhou-Jun Shen; Ying-Hao Sun; Ying-Lu Guo

    2012-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone that is usually used to treat chronic bacterial prostatitis.We investigated the safety and efficacy of levofloxacin compared with ciprofloxacin for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in Chinese patients.This was a multicenter,open-label,randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.Four hundred and seventy-one patients with clinical symptoms/signs were enrolled into the study,and 408 patients were microbiologically confirmed chronic bacterial prostatitis,who were randomized to either oral levofloxacin (500 mg q.d.) or ciprofloxacin (500 mg b.i.d.) for 4 weeks.Bacterial clearance rate,clinical symptoms/signs,adverse reactions and disease recurrence were assessed.The clinical symptoms and signs (including dysuria,perineal discomfort or pain) and bacteria cultures in 209 patients treated with levofloxacin and 199 patients treated with ciprofloxacin were similar.The most common bacteria were Escherichia coliand Staphylococcus aureus.One to four weeks after the end of 4 weeks treatment,the bacterial clearance rate (86.06% vs.60.03%; P<O.05) and the clinical efficacy (including clinical cure and clinical improvement(93.30% vs.71.86%; P<O.05)) were significantly higher in the levofioxacin-treated group than in the ciprofloxacin-treated group.The microbiological recurrence rate was significantly lower in the levofloxacin-treated group than in the ciprofloxacin-treated group (4.00% vs.19.25%; P<O.05).Rates of adverse events and treatment-related adverse events were slightly lower in the levofloxacin-treated group than in ciprofloxacin-treated group.Levofloxacin showed some advantages over ciprofloxacin in terms of clinical efficacy and disease recurrence,with a low rate of adverse events,for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in Chinese patients.

  4. The evaluation of susceptibility of clinical and environmental Nontuberculosis mycobacterium isolated from Isfahan to Ciprofloxacin by Agar dilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Radaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic which is active against mycobacteria and functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones may evolve rapidly, even during a course of treatment. Nowadays, mycobacteria exhibit resistance worldwide and usage of the fluoroquinolones, particularly in nontuberculous mycobacteria disease, has complicated the related treatments. Materials and methods: A total of 39 clinical and environmental isolates of NTM from microbial collections of Isfahan Microbiology Department and Tuberculosis center were obtained. The isolates were investigated by primary conventional methods consisting of colony characteristics, pigmentation, growth temperature, rate of growth and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. The susceptibility of isolates to the concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 µg/ml of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method according to the CLSI guideline.Results: Thirty nine isolates were identified by phenotypic tests. The frequency of isolates was as follow: M. fortuitum; 25 cases, M. gordonae; 10 cases, M. smegmatis; 1 case, M.‏conceptionense; 1 case and M. abscessus; 2 cases. All isolates except Mycobacterium abscessus were sensitive to all three concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 µg/ml ciprofloxacin.Discussion and conclusion: Due to the sensitivity of environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates (except M. abscessus and clinical isolates including M. fortuitum and M.‏gordonae to ciprofloxacin, this antibiotic could be regarded as the original drug in the treatment of these infections.

  5. Efficacy of Rifaximin Compared with Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, You Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jang, Byung-Ik; Park, Young-Sook; Lee, Kang-Moon; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Ciprofloxacin has been widely prescribed for acute infectious diarrhea. However, the resistance to this drug is increasing. Rifaximin is a novel but poorly absorbed rifamycin derivative. This study evaluated and compared the efficacies of rifaximin and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. Methods We performed a randomized controlled multicenter study in Korea. Patients with acute diarrhea were enrolled and randomized to receive rifaximin or ciprofloxacin for 3 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time to last unformed stool (TLUS). Secondary endpoints were enteric wellness (reduction of at least 50% in the number of unformed stools during 24-hour postenrollment intervals), general wellness (subjective feeling of improvement), and proportion of patients with treatment failure. Results Intent-to-treat analysis (n=143) showed no significant difference between the rifaximin and ciprofloxacin groups in the mean TLUS (36.1 hours vs 43.6 hours, p=0.163), enteric wellness (49% vs 57%, p=0.428), general wellness (67% vs 78%, p=0.189), or treatment failure rate (9% vs 12%, p=0.841). The adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions These results suggest that rifaximin is as safe and effective as ciprofloxacin in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. PMID:20981213

  6. (68) Ga-labeled Ciprofloxacin Conjugates as Radiotracers for Targeting Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Drishty; Arjun, Chanda; Krishnamohan, Repaka; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    With an aim of developing a bacteria-specific molecular imaging agent, ciprofloxacin has been modified with a propylamine spacer and linked to two common bifunctional chelators, p-SCN-Bz-DOTA and p-SCN-Bz-NOTA. The two ciprofloxacin conjugates, CP-PA-SCN-Bz-DOTA (1) and CP-PA-SCN-Bz-NOTA (2), were radiolabeled with (68) Ga in >90% radiochemical yield and were moderately stable in vitro for 4 h. The efficacy of (68) Ga-1 and (68) Ga-2 has been investigated in vitro in Staphylococcus aureus cells where bacterial binding of the radiotracers (0.9-1.0% for (68) Ga-1 and 1.6-2.3% for (68) Ga-2) could not be blocked in the presence of excess amount of unlabeled ciprofloxacin. However, uptake of radiotracers in live bacterial cells was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that in non-viable bacterial cells. Bacterial infection targeting efficacy of (68) Ga-1 and (68) Ga-2 was tested in vivo in rats where the infected muscle-to-inflamed muscle ((68) Ga-1: 2 ± 0.2, (68) Ga-2: 3 ± 0.5) and infected muscle-to-normal muscle ratios ((68) Ga-1: 3 ± 0.4, (68) Ga-2: 6.6 ± 0.8) were found to improve at 120 min p.i. Fast blood clearance and renal excretion was observed for both the radiotracers. The two (68) Ga-labeled infection targeting radiotracers could discriminate between bacterial infection and inflammation in vivo and are worthy of further detailed investigation as infection imaging agents at the clinical level. PMID:26647765

  7. Rheological behavior and stability of ciprofloxacin suspension: Impact of structural vehicles and flocculating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and is used against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of structural vehicles and other formulating factors on physical stability and rheological behavior of ciprofloxacin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride were added. After choosing suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (NaCMC, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC and Veegum were evaluated. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, the degree of flocculation and the ease of redispersion of the suspensions and growth of crystals were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations containing were also studied to find out their rheological behavior. According to the results, suspension containing glycerin (0.2% w/v and sodium chloride (0.05% w/v as wetting agent and flocculating agent, respectively, were the most stable formulations regarding their F and N. Microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in ciprofloxacin suspension in formulation without excipients and the minimum amount of crystal growth was seen in suspension containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v. Rheological studies showed that almost all of the formulations had psuedoplastic behavior with different degree of thixotropy. The formulation containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v was the most stable formulation. It may be concluded that by altering the amount ratios of formulation factors, the best rheological behavior and the most proper thixotropy may be achieved.

  8. Release of Ciprofloxacin-HCl and Dexamethasone Phosphate by Hyaluronic Acid Containing Silicone Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon Jones

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the covalent incorporation of hyaluronic acid (HA into conventional hydrogel and hydrogels containing silicone as models for contact lens materials on the uptake and release of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin and the anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone phosphate. A 3 mg/mL ciprofloxacin solution (0.3% w/v and a 1 mg/mL dexamethasone phosphate solution (0.1% was prepared in borate buffered saline. Three hydrogel material samples (pHEMA; pHEMA TRIS; DMAA TRIS were prepared with and without the covalent incorporation of HA of molecular weight (MW 35 or 132 kDa. Hydrogel discs were punched from a sheet of material with a uniform diameter of 5 mm. Uptake kinetics were evaluated at room temperature by soaking the discs for 24 h. Release kinetics were evaluated by placing the drug-loaded discs in saline at 34 °C in a shaking water bath. At various time points over 6–7 days, aliquots of the release medium were assayed for drug amounts. The majority of the materials tested released sufficient drug to be clinically relevant in an ophthalmic application, reaching desired concentrations for antibiotic or anti-inflammatory activity in solution. Overall, the silicone-based hydrogels (pHEMA TRIS and DMAA TRIS, released lower amounts of drug than the conventional pHEMA material (p < 0.001. Materials with HA MW132 released more ciprofloxacin compared to materials with HA MW35 and lenses without HA (p < 0.02. Some HA-based materials were still releasing the drug after 6 days.

  9. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ciprofloxacin: Investigation of the protonation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► IRMPD spectroscopy of protonated ciprofloxacin electrosprayed from methanol solution. ► Quantum chemical calculations to identify the possible isomers differing in the protonation site. ► Bands are assigned to the isomer protonated. ► Bands are assigned to the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group. - Abstract: The vibrational spectrum of isolated protonated ciprofloxacin was recorded in the range 1100–2000 cm−1 by means of infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The spectrum was obtained by electrospraying a methanol solution of ciprofloxacin in a Paul ion trap, coupled to the tunable IR radiation of a free electron laser. This spectroscopic study has been complemented by quantum chemical calculations at the DFT and MP2 levels of theory to identify the possible structures present under our experimental conditions. Several low-energy isomers with protonation occurring at the piperazinyl amino group and at the carbonyl group are predicted in the energy range 0–84 kJ mol−1. A good agreement between the measured IRMPD spectrum and the calculated absorption spectrum is observed for the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group. This isomer is calculated at MP2 level of theory to lie about 76 kJ/mol above the most stable isomer which is protonated at the quinone carbonyl group. This discrepancy can be rationalized by assuming that the protonation at the piperazinyl amino group, typical of the zwitterionic form that is found in protic solvents, is retained in the ESI process. The vibrational bands observed in the IRMPD spectrum are assigned to normal modes of the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group, with deviations of less than 20 cm−1 between measured and calculated frequencies.

  10. Melamine modified P25 with heating method and enhanced the photocatalytic activity on degradation of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We demonstrated the as-prepared photocatalyst of g-C3N4-TiO2 with the commercial TiO2 (P25) composited melamine under ball milling and calcined. • The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. • The possible photocatalytic mechanism of g-C3N4/P25 under visible light irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), as one photocatalyst which possess the suitable band gap, is better for modified TiO2 and enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this work, the g-C3N4/TiO2 were successfully prepared via directly calcined the mixture of melamine and P25. The as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic performances of g-C3N4/TiO2 composites were investigated by degradation of ciprofloxacin. The results showed that the g-C3N4 and P25 were successfully composited, and the bond of C–N was well formed, the calcined temperature for as-prepared photocatalysts and the ratio of melamine and P25 were important to the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin. When the mixture of melamine and P25 with 1:2, and calcined temperature at 600 °C, the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin could reach 95% in 60 min. The enhanced photocatalytic performances could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. Finally, the possible transferred processes of photoelectrons and photoholes were proposed

  11. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ciprofloxacin: Investigation of the protonation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodo, E. [Dip. Di Chimica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , p.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciavardini, A. [Dip. di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , p.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Giardini, A.; Paladini, A. [CNR - IMIP, Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Piccirillo, S., E-mail: picciril@uniroma2.it [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Rondino, F. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, (UTT-MAT), Via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Universite Paris Sud 11, UMR 8000, Orsay (France)

    2012-04-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRMPD spectroscopy of protonated ciprofloxacin electrosprayed from methanol solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations to identify the possible isomers differing in the protonation site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bands are assigned to the isomer protonated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bands are assigned to the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group. - Abstract: The vibrational spectrum of isolated protonated ciprofloxacin was recorded in the range 1100-2000 cm{sup -1} by means of infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The spectrum was obtained by electrospraying a methanol solution of ciprofloxacin in a Paul ion trap, coupled to the tunable IR radiation of a free electron laser. This spectroscopic study has been complemented by quantum chemical calculations at the DFT and MP2 levels of theory to identify the possible structures present under our experimental conditions. Several low-energy isomers with protonation occurring at the piperazinyl amino group and at the carbonyl group are predicted in the energy range 0-84 kJ mol{sup -1}. A good agreement between the measured IRMPD spectrum and the calculated absorption spectrum is observed for the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group. This isomer is calculated at MP2 level of theory to lie about 76 kJ/mol above the most stable isomer which is protonated at the quinone carbonyl group. This discrepancy can be rationalized by assuming that the protonation at the piperazinyl amino group, typical of the zwitterionic form that is found in protic solvents, is retained in the ESI process. The vibrational bands observed in the IRMPD spectrum are assigned to normal modes of the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group, with deviations of less than 20 cm{sup -1} between measured and calculated frequencies.

  12. Effects of Berberine and Hwangryunhaedok-Tang on Oral Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Youn-Hwan Hwang; Won-Kyung Cho; Doorye Jang; Jeong-Ho Ha; Kiyoun Jung; Hyo-In Yun; Jin Yeul Ma

    2012-01-01

    Hwangryunhaedok-Tang (HR) and berberine-containing single herbs are used to treat bacterial infection and inflammatory diseases in eastern Asia. The combination of berberine-containing herbal medicines and ciprofloxacin can be an excellent antibacterial chemotherapy against multidrug resistance bacteria. To evaluate the pretreatment effect of berberine and HR, vehicle, berberine (25 and 50 mg/kg/day), and HR (1.4 g/kg/day) were daily administered to rats for five consecutive days. On day 6, c...

  13. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED-RELEASE FLOATING TABLETS OF CIPROFLOXACIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgal Vinod kumar; Kheri Rajat; Saraogi G.K.; Singhai A. K; Sharma Dharmendra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sustained-release floating system that is able to float over an extended period of time. Ciprofloxacin was used as a model drug. The system consisted of a 3 mm drug-containing gas-generating core, prepared by direct compression, and coated with a flexible polymeric membrane. Eudragit RL30D and ATEC were used as a film former and a plasticizer, respectively. The coating level was fixed at 20% (w/w). The floating lag time decreased as the proportion of effe...

  14. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  15. Antitubercular and fluorescence studies of copper(II) complexes with quinolone family member, ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharadi, G. J.

    2011-09-01

    Four new mixed-ligand complexes of Cu(II) with ciprofloxacin (Cip) and uninegative bidentate ligands have been synthesized and characterized. The structure of mixed-ligand complexes was investigated using spectroscopic method, physicochemical and elemental analyses. The fluorescence spectra of complexes show red shift, which may be due to the chelation by the ligands to the metal ion. It enhances ligand ability to accept electrons and decreases the electron transition energy. Antimycobacterial screening of ligand and its copper compound against Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows clear enhancement in the antitubercular activity upon copper complexation.

  16. Separation of seven fluoroquinolones by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography and application to ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin determination in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shoulian; Lin, Jiesheng; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2007-09-01

    A simple, reliable microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method is developed for the simultaneous separation of seven fluoroquinolones (FQs). The best separation is achieved in a carrier electrolyte containing 1% (v/v) heptane, 100 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 10% (v/v) 1-butanol, and 8 mmol/L phosphate-sodium tetraborate buffer at pH 7.30. The proposed method was directly applied to the determination of ciprofloxacin (CPF) and lomefloxacin (LMF) in urine samples of subjects administered either with CPF or LMF. PMID:17658537

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ciprofloxacin compounds with cadmium(II) and mercury(II) chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five new compounds of ciprofloxacin (CfH = C17H18FN3O3) with cadmium(II) and mercury(II) chlorides were synthesized. The compounds prepared, viz., (CfH2)2MCl4·2H2O, (CfH3)MCl4 (M=Cd, Hg) and (CfH3)CdCl4·H2O, were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, pH-metric titration, UV spectroscopy, and thermal analysis

  18. Vanishing bile duct and Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with ciprofloxacin treated with tacrolimus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokhan Okan; Serpil Yaylaci; Onder Peker; Sabahattin Kaymakoglu; Murat Saruc

    2008-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease. Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is a rare cause of progressive cholestasis. Both syndromes are mostly related with drugs. We report a case of a patient withciprofloxacin-induced SJS and acute onset of VBDS,and reviewed the related literature. It is the first case of ciprofloxacin-induced VBDS successfully treatedwith tacrolimus. This case reminds physicians of the importance of drug reactions, their severity, techniques for diagnosis and methods of management.

  19. Studies on the Mechanism of Primary Nucleation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJingkang; LIUYong; 等

    2002-01-01

    A general expression for the ralationship between induction period and supersaturation was developed based on polynuclear approach.Different mechanism of primary nucleation in solution can be illustrated by the expression.The results of induction period determined by laser scatering method shows that the crystallization of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate in water/ethanol or aqueous solution is by the mechanism of primary nucleation followed by one-dimensional diffusion growth,and then one-dimensional continuous or “birth and spread” growth on crystal face. The growth mechanism on the crystal face is affected by temperature and solvent.

  20. If you can't stand the rash, get out of the kitchen: an unusual adverse reaction to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, A; Bush, A

    1999-12-01

    Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic, is used to treat a wide variety of infections including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Photosensitivity is a well-known complication of treatment with this group of antibiotics, and it is more common in patients with CF. We report on a case of photosensitivity induced by indoor fluorescent strip-lighting (spectral range, 295-760 nm) in a 12-year-old girl with CF treated with ciprofloxacin. This type of lighting emits UVA rays (320-400 nm) which cause skin damage in the presence of sensitizing agents. Patients taking ciprofloxacin are usually advised to protect their skin from direct sunlight. We suggest that more attention should be paid to indoor sources of UV light. PMID:10587421

  1. Mathematical model for the growth of P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains in sub-MIC concentration of Ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Madsen, Henrik;

    . aeruginosa lung infection. Intensive antibiotic treatment has improved the survival and clinical condition of CF patients, but development of resistance to antibiotics makes these infections difficult to treat efficiently. Ciprofloxacin is commonly used in the early and aggressive treatment. A hypothesis is......M-mutY mutants) when growing under sub-MIC Ciprofloxacin concentration (0.1 μg/ml), in order to describe the growth pattern under the presence of antibiotic. Data available for the modelling process is bioscreen measurements of the bacterial content as a function of time for each bacteria strain growing in LB...... media with and without the presence of Ciprofloxacin. The growth of the bacteria strains is modelled with a continuous-discrete time stochastic state space model consisting of a continuous time state equation expressed as a system of stochastic differential equations and a discrete time measurement...

  2. The Inhibitory Effect of Ciprofloxacin on the β-Glucuronidase-mediated Deconjugation of the Irinotecan Metabolite SN-38-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodawara, Takaaki; Higashi, Takashi; Negoro, Yutaka; Kamitani, Yukio; Igarashi, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kyohei; Tsukamoto, Hitoshi; Yano, Ryoichi; Masada, Mikio; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    The enterohepatic recycling of a drug consists of its biliary excretion and intestinal reabsorption, which is sometimes accompanied by hepatic conjugation and intestinal deconjugation reactions. β-Glucuronidase, an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme, can break the bond between a biliary excreted drug and glucuronic acid. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin can reduce the enterohepatic recycling of glucuronide-conjugated drugs. In this study, we established an in vitro system to evaluate the β-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation of the irinotecan metabolite SN-38-G to its active SN-38 form and the effect of ciprofloxacin thereon. SN-38 formation increased in a time-dependent manner from 5 to 30 min. in the presence of β-glucuronidase. Ciprofloxacin and phenolphthalein-β-d-glucuronide (PhePG), a typical β-glucuronidase substrate, significantly decreased SN-38-G deconjugation and, hence SN-38 formation. Similarly, the antibiotics enoxacin and gatifloxacin significantly inhibited the conversion of SN-38-G to SN-38, which was not observed for levofloxacin, streptomycin, ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Ciprofloxacin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the β-glucuronidase-mediated conversion of SN-38-G to SN-38 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 83.8 μM. PhePG and ciprofloxacin afforded the inhibition in a competitive and non-competitive manner, respectively. These findings suggest that the reduction in the serum SN-38 concentration following co-administration of ciprofloxacin during irinotecan treatment is due, at least partly, to the decreased enterohepatic circulation of SN-38 through the non-competitive inhibition of intestinal β-glucuronidase-mediated SN-38-G deconjugation. PMID:26518357

  3. Synthesis of ciprofloxacin-conjugated poly (L-lactic acid polymer for nanofiber fabrication and antibacterial evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwe SP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sharad P Parwe, Priti N Chaudhari, Kavita K Mohite, Balaji S Selukar, Smita S Nande, Baijayantimala Garnaik Polymer Science and Engineering Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India Abstract: Ciprofloxacin was conjugated with polylactide (PLA via the secondary amine group of the piperazine ring using PLA and 7-(4-(2-Chloroacetyl piperazin-1-yl-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Zinc prolinate, a biocompatible catalyst was synthesized, characterized, and used in ring opening polymerization of L-lactide. Five different kinds of OH-terminated poly(L-lactide (two-, three-, four-, six-arm, star-shaped homopolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactide in the presence of dodecanol, glycerol, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol as initiator and zinc prolinate as a catalyst. The structures of the polymers and conjugates were thoroughly characterized by means of gel permeation chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PLA (molecular weight =100,000 and ciprofloxacin conjugated PLA were used for fabrication of nonwoven nanofiber mat (diameter ranges; 150–400 nm having pore size (62–102 nm using electrospinning. The microbiological assessment shows that the release of ciprofloxacin possesses antimicrobial activity. The drug-release behavior of the mat was studied to reveal potential application as a drug delivery system. The result shows that the ciprofloxacin release rates of the PLA conjugate nonwoven nanofiber mat could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ciprofloxacin system, based on nonwoven nanofiber mat, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems. Keywords: zinc prolinate, ciprofloxacin conjugated polylactides, CP-PLA, electrospinning, nonwoven nanofibers, drug release, antibacterial activity, MDR

  4. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests. PMID:24670353

  5. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO42(Cl2(ciprofloxacin2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  6. Intraventricular ciprofloxacin usage in treatment of multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Karaaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms appear as important nosocomial pathogens which treatment is quite difficult. As sufficient drug levels could not be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid during intravenous antibiotic therapy for central nervous system infections and due to multidrug-resistance treatment alternatives are limited. In this study, four cases of central nervous system infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms who were successfully treated with removal of the devices and intraventricular ciprofloxacin are presented. In conclusion, intraventricular ciprofloxacin can be used for treatment of central nervous system infections if the causative microorganism is sensitive to the drug and no other alternative therapy is available.

  7. In vitro–in vivo studies of the quantitative effect of calcium, multivitamins and milk on single dose ciprofloxacin bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishakhi Dey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin, commonly used in India as an anti-microbial for prolonged use in chronic and non-specific indications, may affect the bioavailability of the drug. The drug prescribed is commonly taken with multivitamins, calcium and milk. A simple and reliable analytical methodology obtaining a correlation with in vivo urinary excretion studies using UV and HPLC and in vitro dissolution studies (IVIVC has shown a significant increase in elimination rate of ciprofloxacin co-administered with multivitamins, calcium and milk. Appreciable IVIVC results proved that dissolution studies could serve as an alternative to in vivo bioavailability and also support bio-waivers.

  8. In vitro-in vivo studies of the quantitative effect of calcium, multivitamins and milk on single dose ciprofloxacin bioavailability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baishakhi Dey; Prakash Katakam; Fathi H. Assaleh; Babu Rao Chandu; Shanta Kumari Adiki; Analava Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, commonly used in India as an anti-microbial for prolonged use in chronic and non-specific indications, may affect the bioavailability of the drug. The drug prescribed is commonly taken with multivitamins, calcium and milk. A simple and reliable analytical methodology obtaining a correlation with in vivo urinary excretion studies using UV and HPLC and in vitro dissolution studies (IVIVC) has shown a significant increase in elimination rate of ciprofloxacin co-administered with multivitamins, calcium and milk. Appreciable IVIVC results proved that dissolution studies could serve as an alternative to in vivo bioavailability and also support bio-waivers.

  9. Zero order and signal processing spectrophotometric techniques applied for resolving interference of metronidazole with ciprofloxacin in their pharmaceutical dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of metronidazole as interference. The methods under study are area under the curve, simultaneous equation in addition to smart signal processing techniques of manipulating ratio spectra namely Savitsky-Golay filters and continuous wavelet transform. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can therefore be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories.

  10. Magnetically stimulated ciprofloxacin release from polymeric microspheres entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirivisoot S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirinrath Sirivisoot,1 Benjamin S Harrison2 1Biological Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: To extend the external control capability of drug release, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs encapsulated into polymeric microspheres were used as magnetic media to stimulate drug release using an alternating magnetic field. Chemically synthesized iron oxide NPs, maghemite or hematite, and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin were encapsulated together within polycaprolactone microspheres. The polycaprolactone microspheres entrapping ciprofloxacin and magnetic NPs could be triggered for immediate drug release by magnetic stimulation at a maximum value of 40%. Moreover, the microspheres were cytocompatible with fibroblasts in vitro with a cell viability percentage of more than 100% relative to a nontreated control after 24 hours of culture. Macrophage cell cultures showed no signs of increased inflammatory responses after in vitro incubation for 56 hours. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus with the magnetic microspheres under an alternating (isolating magnetic field increased bacterial inhibition further after 2 days and 5 days in a broth inhibition assay. The findings of the present study indicate that iron oxide NPs, maghemite and hematite, can be used as media for stimulation by an external magnetic energy to activate immediate drug release. Keywords: antibacterial, maghemite, hematite, Staphylococcus aureus

  11. Incidence, epidemiology and evolution of reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop; Erdenechemeg, L.; Soon Song, Kyung; Hun Shin, Kwang

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the decrease of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, determine the size of the recently reported new beta-lactamase plasmid and explain the high prevalence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). METHODS: Gonococci were isolated from prostitutes in Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by NCCLS disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Plasmid was isolated by an alkaline lysis method. Patterns of Nhel-digested genomic DNA were compared after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin for 50% of the isolates rose from 0.015 mg/L in 1993 to 0.12 mg/L in 1996. The proportion of PPNG remained at 70% or over during the 5-year period. The size of a novel beta-lactamase plasmid, first reported in 1994, was determined to be approximately 3.2 MDa, and 48% of the PPNG isolates contained it. Twelve of 50 isolates had the same PFGE pattern and nine others another pattern. CONCLUSION: The rapid decrease of fluoroquinolone-susceptible gonococci suggests that in the near future the drug may become less useful for gonorrhea treatment. The new 3.2-MDa plasmid may have been introduced as a result of the recent increase in overseas travel. The PFGE pattern suggests that high prevalence of PPNG may be due to dissemination of a few resistant clones among the high-risk groups. PMID:11864261

  12. Self-assembly of ciprofloxacin and a tripeptide into an antimicrobial nanostructured hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesan, Silvia; Qu, Yue; Waddington, Lynne J; Easton, Christopher D; Glattauer, Veronica; Lithgow, Trevor J; McLean, Keith M; Forsythe, John S; Hartley, Patrick G

    2013-05-01

    This work reports the self-assembly of a sparingly soluble antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) and a hydrophobic tripeptide ((D)Leu-Phe-Phe) into supramolecular nanostructures that yield a macroscopic hydrogel at physiological pH. Drug incorporation results in modified morphology and rheological properties of the self-assembled hydrogel. These changes can be correlated with intermolecular interactions between the drug and the peptide, as confirmed by spectroscopic analysis (fluorescence, circular dichroism, IR). The drug appears bound within the hydrogel by non-covalent interactions, and retains its activity over a prolonged release timescale. Antimicrobial activity of the ciprofloxacin-peptide self-assembled hydrogel was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and a clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Interestingly, the peptide hydrogel alone exhibited a mild anti-bacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. While toxic to bacteria, no major cytotoxicity was seen in haemolysis assays of human red blood cells or in mouse fibroblast cell cultures. This new approach of drug incorporation into the nanostructure of a simple tripeptide hydrogel by self-assembly may have important applications for cost-effective wound dressings and novel antimicrobial formulations. PMID:23422591

  13. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  14. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED-RELEASE FLOATING TABLETS OF CIPROFLOXACIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudgal Vinod kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a sustained-release floating system that is able to float over an extended period of time. Ciprofloxacin was used as a model drug. The system consisted of a 3 mm drug-containing gas-generating core, prepared by direct compression, and coated with a flexible polymeric membrane. Eudragit RL30D and ATEC were used as a film former and a plasticizer, respectively. The coating level was fixed at 20% (w/w. The floating lag time decreased as the proportion of effervescent agents increased. The optimized coated floating tablets could float within 20 min and remained buoyant for more than 13 h. In addition, a sustained release of ciprofloxacin for more than 20 h was observed. The time to flotation could be controlled by the composition (type of filler, concentration of effervescent agents and hardness of the tablet core and the composition (type of polymer and plasticizer and thickness of the coating.

  15. Quinolone therapy of Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis following irradiation: Comparison of pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I.; Elliott, T.B.; Ledney, G.D. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to whole-body irradiation is associated with fatal gram-negative sepsis. The effect of oral therapy with three quinolones, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, for orally acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection was tested in B6D2F1 mice exposed to 8.0 Gy whole-body irradiation from bilaterally positioned 60Co sources. A dose of 10(8) organisms was given orally 2 days after irradiation, and therapy was started 1 day later. Quinolones reduced colonization of the ileum with K. pneumoniae: 16 of 28 (57%) untreated mice harbored the organisms, compared to only 12 of 90 (13%) mice treated with quinolones (P less than 0.005). K. pneumoniae was isolated from the livers of 6 of 28 untreated mice, compared to only 1 of 90 treated mice (P less than 0.001). Only 5 of 20 (25%) untreated mice survived for at least 30 days compared with 17 of 20 (85%) mice treated with ofloxacin, 15 of 20 (75%) mice treated with pefloxacin, and 14 of 20 (70%) treated with ciprofloxacin (P less than 0.05). These data illustrate the efficacy of quinolones for oral therapy of orally acquired K. pneumoniae infection in irradiated hosts.

  16. An indirect atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHMOUD MOHAMED ISSA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive indirect atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS method has been developed for the determination of very low concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium. The method is based on the oxidation of these drugs with iron(III. The excess of iron(III was extracted into diethyl ether and then the iron(II in the aqueous layer was aspirated into an air–acetylene flame and determined by AAS. The linear concentration ranges were 25–400, 50–500 and 60–600 ng ml-1 for ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium, respectively. The results were statistically compared with the official method using t- and f-test at p < 0.05. There were insignificant interferences from most of the excipients present. The intra- and inter-day assay coefficients of variation were less than 6.1 % and the recoveries ranged from 95 to 103 %. The method was applied for the analysis of these drug substances in their commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Robust Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Urease Inhibitory Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Qayum, Mughal; Khan, Ajmal; Farooq, Umar; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ali, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip) has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold) nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH₄ as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl) solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip) has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL). MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains. PMID:27023506

  18. Robust Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Urease Inhibitory Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nisar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH4 as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL. MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers for recognition of ciprofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengyan LIU; Lei LIU; Li ZHANG; Ning JIANG; Zhanli LIU; Yun WANG

    2008-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), with special molecule recognition properties of ciprofloxacin (CIP), was prepared by thermal polymerization in which ciprofloxacin acted as template molecule, α-methacrylic acid (MAA) acted as functional monomer and trimethy-lolpropane trimethylacrylate (TRIM) acted as crosslin-ker. The optimized ratio was determined to be n(CIP): n (MMA):n(TRIM) = 1:6:16 by investigation of the effects of different concentrations of functional monomer and the crosslinker on the MIP's recognition properties. Equilibrium binding experiment was used to investigate the adsorption dynamics, the binding ability to template molecule and the substrate selectivity. Scatchard analysis was used to study the MIP's binding characteristic to tem-plate molecule. The results indicated that MIP has higher adsorption ability and selectivity. The equilibrium distri-bution coefficient KD was 41.64 and the separation factor α was 1.62. Scatchard analysis showed that two different kinds of binding sites were produced in the polymer matrix and their dissociation constants were calculated to be Kd1= 5.249×10-5 mol·L-1, Kd2=2.237×10-3mol·L-1.

  20. Effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on humoral immune response elicited by bovine albumin encapsulated in niosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MADANJitender; KAUSHIKDinesh; SARDANASatish; MISHRADn

    2007-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on anti-BSA antibody production triggered by bovine albumin encapsulated in non-ionic surfactant vesicle, niosomes. Reverse phase evaporation method was adopted to entrap the antigen in colloidal carrier composed of Span 80 and Span 85 followed by simultaneous characterization for particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The protein content was determined by Bradford method using UV Visible Spectrophotometer at 595 nm. Humoral immune response was measured in terms of systemic IgG antibody titre by ELISA method. Experimental data indicated that 7∶3 molar ratio of Span 80 and cholesterol based niosomal formulation possessed maximum (39.8±2.9)% of soluble protein.Ciprofloxacin markedly (P<0.05) decreased the antibody titre. In contrast, chloramphenicol did not reduce the antibody titre significantly in comparison to control group (P>0.05). It is necessary to explore the effect of a vaccine antigen when a candidate is medicated with a therapeutic agent, which might help in programming a new drug management and vaccination programme.

  1. Scintillography utility with ciprofloxacin-Tc99m in the diagnosis of infection focus; our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our goal is to evaluate the performance of the Ciprofloxacin-Tc99m Scintigraphy in the detection of infection sites in bones, joints and soft tissues. Material and Methods: We analyze 60 exams of Ciprofloxacin-Tc99m from 8-12-2001 to 16-04-2004 in our institution. 10 patients were discarded owing to lack of clinical data or bacteriologic confirmation. The 50 patients evaluated were divided in: 32 hips, 7 knees, 2 femur, 1 leg, 3 feet, 3 spines, and 2 soft tissues. We used a planar gamma camera (technicare omega 500) and a SPECT gamma camera (elscint spx-2) All the percentages concerning sensibility and specificity were obtained including only those patients with absolute confirmation. Results: From the 50 patients, 30 were diagnosed as positives for infection; 27 corresponding to true positives and 3 to false positives (2 knees and 1 foot), sensibility 84.4%; 20 were diagnosed negatives for infection, 15 corresponding to true negatives and 5 to false negatives (4 hips and 1 spine); specificity 83%. All the exams were evaluated separately by two specialists in Nuclear Medicine; and then discussed until reaching a consensus. Conclusions: Our study shows a good sensibility for diagnosing a great variety of bacterial infectious processes. We achieved a fast localization of the infection site in order to determine the surgical option or the drainage of the abscess; and also in the clinical aspect of the treatment, monitoring the response and the lapse of the antibiotic therapy. (author)

  2. Development of Stable Freeze Dried Kits of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin for Infection Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-labeled antibiotics are being employed for the particular diagnosis of infections utilizing their specific binding properties to the bacterial components. Stable freeze dried kits of ciprofloxacin is developed through simple stirring at room temperature and labeled with 99mTc after incubation at 35 degree C. Kits produced through this method showed high stability both at room temperature and in serum at 37 degree C. The radiochemical purity of the complex was 99.6% when 1.0 mg ciprofloxacin in the presence of 100.0 micro gram SnCl2, 2.0 mg gentistic acid, 3.0 mg penicillamine and 20.0 mg d-mannitol was labeled by 10-20 mCi sodium pertechnetate. Serum protein binding, lipophilicity, in-vitro binding with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli as well as in-vivo biodistribution in infected rabbits were also investigated. Biodistribution results exhibited that radio ligand had good affinity in the infected site in rabbit. The uptake for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli induced infections as target to non-target ratio (T/NT) 5.425 +-0.17, 5.397+-0.15 and 4.890+- 0.13 at 1 hr post injection respectively. (author)

  3. Quinolone therapy of Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis following irradiation: Comparison of pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to whole-body irradiation is associated with fatal gram-negative sepsis. The effect of oral therapy with three quinolones, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, for orally acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection was tested in B6D2F1 mice exposed to 8.0 Gy whole-body irradiation from bilaterally positioned 60Co sources. A dose of 10(8) organisms was given orally 2 days after irradiation, and therapy was started 1 day later. Quinolones reduced colonization of the ileum with K. pneumoniae: 16 of 28 (57%) untreated mice harbored the organisms, compared to only 12 of 90 (13%) mice treated with quinolones (P less than 0.005). K. pneumoniae was isolated from the livers of 6 of 28 untreated mice, compared to only 1 of 90 treated mice (P less than 0.001). Only 5 of 20 (25%) untreated mice survived for at least 30 days compared with 17 of 20 (85%) mice treated with ofloxacin, 15 of 20 (75%) mice treated with pefloxacin, and 14 of 20 (70%) treated with ciprofloxacin (P less than 0.05). These data illustrate the efficacy of quinolones for oral therapy of orally acquired K. pneumoniae infection in irradiated hosts

  4. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ciprofloxacin: Investigation of the protonation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, E.; Ciavardini, A.; Giardini, A.; Paladini, A.; Piccirillo, S.; Rondino, F.; Scuderi, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vibrational spectrum of isolated protonated ciprofloxacin was recorded in the range 1100-2000 cm-1 by means of infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The spectrum was obtained by electrospraying a methanol solution of ciprofloxacin in a Paul ion trap, coupled to the tunable IR radiation of a free electron laser. This spectroscopic study has been complemented by quantum chemical calculations at the DFT and MP2 levels of theory to identify the possible structures present under our experimental conditions. Several low-energy isomers with protonation occurring at the piperazinyl amino group and at the carbonyl group are predicted in the energy range 0-84 kJ mol-1. A good agreement between the measured IRMPD spectrum and the calculated absorption spectrum is observed for the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group. This isomer is calculated at MP2 level of theory to lie about 76 kJ/mol above the most stable isomer which is protonated at the quinone carbonyl group. This discrepancy can be rationalized by assuming that the protonation at the piperazinyl amino group, typical of the zwitterionic form that is found in protic solvents, is retained in the ESI process. The vibrational bands observed in the IRMPD spectrum are assigned to normal modes of the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group, with deviations of less than 20 cm-1 between measured and calculated frequencies.

  5. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if it becomes available.See the FDA Drug Safety Communication (see http://1.usa.gov/1TdvrCk) for a ... BACKGROUND: The safety issues described in the Drug Safety Communication were also discussed at an FDA Advisory Committee ( ...

  6. Melamine modified P25 with heating method and enhanced the photocatalytic activity on degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqin [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Jinze; Ma, Changchang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Guan, Qingfeng [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Ziyang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huo, Pengwei, E-mail: huopw1@163.com [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Yongsheng [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • We demonstrated the as-prepared photocatalyst of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} with the commercial TiO{sub 2} (P25) composited melamine under ball milling and calcined. • The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. • The possible photocatalytic mechanism of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25 under visible light irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), as one photocatalyst which possess the suitable band gap, is better for modified TiO{sub 2} and enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this work, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} were successfully prepared via directly calcined the mixture of melamine and P25. The as-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic performances of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites were investigated by degradation of ciprofloxacin. The results showed that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and P25 were successfully composited, and the bond of C–N was well formed, the calcined temperature for as-prepared photocatalysts and the ratio of melamine and P25 were important to the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin. When the mixture of melamine and P25 with 1:2, and calcined temperature at 600 °C, the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin could reach 95% in 60 min. The enhanced photocatalytic performances could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. Finally, the possible transferred processes of photoelectrons and photoholes were proposed.

  7. SELECTIVE ORAL ANTIMICROBIAL PROPHYLAXIS FOR THE PREVENTION OF INFECTION IN ACUTE-LEUKEMIA - CIPROFLOXACIN VERSUS COTRIMOXAZOLE PLUS COLISTIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DONNELLY, JP; MASCHMEYER, G; DAENEN, S

    1992-01-01

    230 leukaemic patients were entered into a randomised, prospective, multicentre trial of either ciprofloxacin (1 g/day) or co-trimoxazole (1920 mg/day) plus colistin (800 mg/day) for the prevention of infection during granulocytopenia. Bacteraemia due to resistant gram-negative rods occurred only in

  8. Comparison of Infection and Urosepsis Rates of Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone Prophylaxis before Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective and Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Demirtas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the choice and administration duration of ideal antibiotic prophylaxis before percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL operation, a treatment modality for nephrolithiasis. The study included 90 patients who had no internal problem, yet had a negative urine culture and underwent a PNL operation. We compared infection rates between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone groups and their subgroups. The results showed no statistical difference between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone groups in terms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS (CIPP=0.306, CTX P=0.334. As a result of this study no statistical difference was observed between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone in terms of SIRS. It seems, however, reasonable to choose ceftriaxone, considering antibiotic sensitivity of microorganisms and detection of three cases accepted as urosepsis in the ciprofloxacin group. As there is no difference between short, and long-term prophylactic use of these antibiotics, preference of short-term prophylaxis for patients with no risk of infection will be important to avoid inappropriate antibiotic usage.

  9. Analysis of gyrA and parC mutations in enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2004-01-01

    The quinolone resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC in four species of enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were sequenced. The nucleotide sequence variations of parC could be related to the different enterococcal species. Mutations in...

  10. Increasing spectrum in antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh: resistance to azithromycin and ceftriaxone and decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Shoma, Shereen; Rashid, Harunur; El Arifeen, Shams; Baqui, A H; Siddique, A K; Nair, G B; Sack, D A

    2007-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh, during 2001-2002, was studied and compared with that of 1991-1992 to identify the changes in resistance patterns and trends. A significant increase in resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (from 52% to 72%, p or =3 anti-Shigella drugs (multidrug-resistant [MDR]) compared to 52% of 369 strains (p or =32 microg/mL) and had 10-fold higher MIC90 (0.25 microg/mL) to ciprofloxacin than that of nalidixic acid-susceptible strains exhibiting decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, which were detected as ciprofloxacin-susceptible and nalidixic acid-resistant by the disc-diffusion method. These strains were frequently associated with MDR traits. High modal MICs were observed to azithromycin (MIC 6 microg/mL) and nalidixic acid (MIC 128 micdrog/mL) and low to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.023 microg/mL). Conjugative R-plasmids-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was responsible for resistance to ceftriaxone/cefixime. The growing antimicrobial resistance of Shigella is worrying and mandates monitoring of resistance. Pivmecillinam or ciprofloxacin might be considered for treating shigellosis with caution. PMID:17985817

  11. Attempt to develop live attenuated bacterial vaccines by selecting resistance to gossypol, proflavine hemisulfate, novobiocin, or ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an attempt to develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, four chemicals (gossypol, proflavine hemisulfate, novobiocin, and ciprofloxacin) were used to modify the following four genera of bacteria through chemical-resistance strategy: (1) Aeromonas hydrophila (9 isolates); (2) Edwards...

  12. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for Campylobacter with quality control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, P. F.; Bodeis, S. M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2004-01-01

    -control (QC) strain. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined for two incubation time/temperature combinations: 36degreesC for 48 hr and 42degreesC for 24 hr. Quality-control ranges were determined for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem. For all...

  13. Emerging nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from patients having acute diarrhoeal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are one of the key etiological agents of diarrhoeal disease. The appearence of multiple drung resistance along with resistance to quinolones in this bacterium poses a serious therapeutic problem. We determined the prevalence of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhodial Salmonella isolated from faecal samples of patients with acute diarroheal disease attending the outpatient and inpatient department of a hospital in Saudi Arabia during the years 1999 to 2002. Non-typhodial Salmonella were isolated from faecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disc diffusion test. MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacinwere determined by the agar dilution method. During the study period , 524 strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella were isolated. Strains belonging to serogroup C1were the commonest (41.4%) followed by serogroups B and D (15.6% and 14.5%, respectively). Resistance to ampicillin was observed in 22.9% and to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole in 18.5%of the strains. Nalidixic acid resistance was encounterd in 9.9% and ciprofloxacin esistance in 2.3% of the strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid significantly increased from 0.1% in 1999 to 5.51% in 2002 ( p=0.0007)and ciprofloxacin resistance increased significantly from 0.1% in 1999 to 0.9% in 2002( p=0.0001). MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were determined among 29 nalidixic acid-resistant strains of non-typhoidal salmonella isolated during 2002. The MIC was >256 ug /ml to nalidixic acid and 8 to 16 ug/ml to ciprofloxacin. The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance encountered among non-tyophoidal Salmonella necessiate the judicious use of these drugs in humans. Moreover, these findings support the concern that the use of quinolones in animal feed may lead to an increasein resistance and should should be restricted. (author)

  14. Data on glycerol/tartaric acid-based copolymer containing ciprofloxacin for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, E; Bonifacio, M A; Cometa, S; Vona, D; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Dicarlo, M; Ceci, E; Fino, V; Cicco, S R; Farinola, G M

    2016-06-01

    This data article is related to our recently published research paper "Exploiting a new glycerol-based copolymer as a route to wound healing: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility assessment", De Giglio et al. (Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 136 (2015) 600-611) [1]. The latter described a new copolymer derived from glycerol and tartaric acid (PGT). Herein, an investigation about the PGT-ciprofloxacin (CIP) interactions by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) acquired in Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) mode and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was reported. Moreover, CIP release experiments on CIP-PGT patches were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at different pH values. PMID:27158646

  15. Data on glycerol/tartaric acid-based copolymer containing ciprofloxacin for wound healing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Giglio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to our recently published research paper “Exploiting a new glycerol-based copolymer as a route to wound healing: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility assessment", De Giglio et al. (Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 136 (2015 600–611 [1]. The latter described a new copolymer derived from glycerol and tartaric acid (PGT. Herein, an investigation about the PGT-ciprofloxacin (CIP interactions by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR acquired in Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR mode and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was reported. Moreover, CIP release experiments on CIP-PGT patches were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC at different pH values.

  16. Side Effects of Ciprofloxacin%环丙沙星的不良反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝志坚

    2001-01-01

    A review with 30 references is given on side effects of ciprofloxacin including toxity to gastro-intestinal system,central nerve system, hemal system,endocrine system and skeletal-muscle system,the allergic reaction,photosenstivity rection,the drug fever,the hepatic and the renal dysfunction etc.%综述了环丙沙星引起胃肠反应、中枢神经系统反应、血液系统的反应、肝肾功能损害、变态反应、内分泌系统反应、药物热、光敏反应、关节肌肉组织反应及其它等。

  17. Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected orthopedic prostheses with ceftazidime-ciprofloxacin antibiotic combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouqui, P; Rousseau, M C; Stein, A; Drancourt, M; Raoult, D

    1995-11-01

    Indwelling device infections are associated with considerable morbidity and extremely high cost. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent gram-negative etiologic agent associated with infections of indwelling catheters and foreign body implants. It is generally agreed that eradication of infection in the presence of a foreign body requires removal of the foreign body. Using a combination of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin, we cured nine of nine patients with P. aeruginosa-infected osteosynthetic material and four of five patients with hip and knee prostheses without removing the foreign material. Follow-up was for a mean of 21 months (range, 6 to 60 months). Some patients experienced minor side effects (arthralgia in one patient and rash in another patient). We conclude that this combination is effective and safe and should be useful in the treatment of P. aeruginosa-infected orthopedic implants. PMID:8585720

  18. Water-enhanced Removal of Ciprofloxacin from Water by Porous Graphene Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Mingxuan; Yu, Fei; Zheng, Jie

    2015-09-01

    An environmentally benign and efficient hydrothermal reduction method was applied for the preparation of three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene hydrogel (GH) adsorbents. The physicochemical properties of GH granules were systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. GH granules showed an excellent adsorption capacity (235.6 mg/g) for ciprofloxacin via combined adsorption interaction mechanisms (e.g. π-π EDA interaction, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interaction). Moreover, reducing the size of the hydrogels can significantly accelerate the adsorption process and enhance the removal efficiency of pollutants from aqueous solution. Water (more than 99 wt%) within hydrogels played a key role in enhancing adsorption performance. The GO hydrogels exhibited an excellent adaptability to environmental factors. These findings demonstrate that GH granules are promising adsorbents for the removal of antibiotic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  19. Sequential injection analysis system with spectrophotometric detection for determination of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rufino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a sequential injection analysis (SIA system for the spectrophotometric determination of norfloxacin (NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP in pharmaceutical formulations. The methodology was based on the reaction of these drugs with p-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde in micellar medium, producing orange colored products (λmax = 495 nm. Beer´s law was obeyed in the concentration range from 2.75x10-5 to 3.44x10-4 mol L-1 and 3.26x10-5 to 3.54x10-4 mol L-1 for NOR and CIP, respectively and sampling rate was 25 h-1. Commercial samples were analyzed and results obtained through the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained using the reference procedure for a 95% confidence level.

  20. Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protim Sarker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics exert several effects on host cells including regulation of immune components. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, e.g., cathelicidins and defensins display multiple functions in innate immunity. In colonic mucosa, cathelicidins are induced by butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotics on butyrate-induced expression of cathelicidins and beta-defensins in colon epithelial cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin and clindamycin reduce butyrate-induced transcription of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. Suppression of LL-37 peptide/protein by ciprofloxacin was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ciprofloxacin suppresses the rabbit cathelicidin CAP-18 in rectal epithelia of healthy and butyrate-treated Shigella-infected rabbits. Ciprofloxacin also down-regulated butyrate-induced transcription of the human beta-defensin-3 in HT-29 cells. Microarray analysis of HT-29 cells revealed upregulation by butyrate with subsequent down-regulation by ciprofloxacin of additional genes encoding immune factors. Dephosphorylation of histone H3, an epigenetic event provided a possible mechanism of the suppressive effect of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, LL-37 peptide inhibited Clostridium difficile growth in vitro. In conclusion, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin exert immunomodulatory function by down-regulating AMPs and other immune components in colonic epithelial cells. Suppression of AMPs may contribute to the overgrowth of C. difficile, causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

  1. Comparison of biological behavior of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) and 99Tcm-HIgG in rabbit models of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin(Infecton) and 99Tcm-HIgG are both radiopharmaceuticals for inflammation and infectious disease imaging. It was reported that 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton)was able to distinguish inflammation from infection, while 99Tcm-HIgG was a nonspecific agent. The study was designed to compare the in vivo characteristics between 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin(Infecton) and 99Tcm-HIgC in rabbit model of inflammation. Methods: Eight rabbits were grouped as inflammation model (the first group), infection mod- el (the second group), concomitant inflammation and infection model (the third group), and control (the fourth group) groups. A total of 185 MBq (0.5 ml) 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) was administered intravenously to each rabbit, a serious dynamic images were acquired till 24 h post-injection. Repeated examination with 99Tcm-HIgG was carried out 2 d later. Results: 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) scan was negative in the inflammation models and controls, and was positive in the infection models. In the third group 99Tcm- ciprofloxacin (Infecton) showed infection focus in the left thigh but negative uptake at inflammation focus in the right thigh. 99Tcm-HIgG scan were positive in all models. The optimal image time for 99Tcm-ciproftoxacin (Infecton) was 3 h after administration, but positive image could still be observed 24 h later. Conclusion 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) appears to specifically accumulate in the infective lesion. (authors)

  2. Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Allison, David Post [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhoea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

  3. The effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin concentrations on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Trevino-Dopatka, Sonia [ORNL; Maggart, Michael J [ORNL; Boisen, Nadia [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Nataro, James [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Allison, David P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

  4. Susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria isolated from cats and dogs, to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govendir, M; Hansen, T; Kimble, B; Norris, J M; Baral, R M; Wigney, D I; Gottlieb, S; Malik, R

    2011-01-10

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) cause infections in cats and dogs which require prolonged antibacterial medication for resolution. In Australia, pathogens from the Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis clusters are responsible for most of the RGM infections in cats and dogs. As fluoroquinolones are often recommended for treating such infections, 14 M. fortuitum isolates, 51 isolates from the M. smegmatis cluster and 2 M. mageritense isolates, collected from feline and canine patients, underwent susceptibility testing to the second generation fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin and the newer generation fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Using microbroth dilution, the MIC(90) of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and moxifloxacin that inhibited growth of M. fortuitum isolates were 0.500, 0.250 and 0.063 μg/mL respectively. For the M. smegmatis cluster isolates the corresponding MIC(90) was 0.500, 0.250 and 0.125 μg/mL respectively. E-test results showed similar trends but MICs were lower than those determined by microbroth dilution. Additionally, moxifloxacin was administered to 10 clinically normal cats (50mg per cat, once daily for 4 days). The plasma moxifloxacin concentration 2h after the last dose was determined by liquid chromatography as 2.2 ± 0.6 μg/mL. The plasma concentration at 2h:MIC(90) ratios for moxifloxacin for M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis cluster was 34.9 and 17.6 respectively which exceeded the recommended threshold of 10, indicating that moxifloxacin has good theoretical efficacy for treatment of those M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis infections in cats and dogs that have become refractory to other antibacterial drug classes. PMID:20619975

  5. Tolerance of ciprofloxacin at injection site, systemic safety and effect on electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, S B; Bergan, T; Johannesson, G; Thorsteinsson, H S; Rohwedder, R

    1987-01-01

    The safety of ciprofloxacin, given via 30- and 60-min intravenous infusions at a dose of 300 mg every 12 h for 4 days, was studied in 12 healthy subjects (6 females, 6 males). Local effects of the drug were assessed by frequent examination at the infusion site while systemic safety was determined by haematological and biochemical tests and by careful microscopic examination of the urine for drug crystals and by electroencephalographic studies performed in all subjects before and after dosing. At the site of infusion erythema, itching and a burning sensation developed 10-15 min after onset of infusion in some subjects. These symptoms were slight and did not necessitate termination of the infusions. The rash disappeared in some instances during the infusion and in others within minutes after the end of infusion. The changes usually disappeared, even during the infusion. The incidence of the adverse reactions was not related to the duration of the infusion (30 or 60 min), but was less (frequency and extent) when the anticubital vein was used for infusion rather than when smaller more peripheral veins were employed. Thrombophlebitis occurred after 1 of 96 administrations, and was followed by a return to normal. The electroencephalograms remained normal in all instances. One subject experienced mild nausea of a few hours duration. Only 1 volunteer showed crystalluria; the two such specimens from this subject had the most alkaline pH of all urine samples collected in this study. The probability of crystalluria upon intravenous administration appears not to be higher than after oral administration of ciprofloxacin. PMID:3428012

  6. The use of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) scintigraphy in detection of cervical lymphadenitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cervical lymphadenitis maybe caused by bacterial infection or non- bacterial inflammation. 99mTc-labeled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) has been developed for detecting infection foci. 99mTc- Infecton will be accumulated in the DNA gyrase of living bacteria. The aim of this study is to determine sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy in detecting cervical lymphadenitis in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Material and Method: The subjects were twenty-three patients, six men and seventeen women with cervical lymphadenopathy, age ranging from 15-68 years (mean 34.2+10.9) referred to our department, during the period of February-April 2001. All patients underwent histopathologic examination by open biopsy. Imagings were obtained at 1 and 4 hours after iv injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) 99mTc-Infecton, 700 kcount/image, AP/oblique position. ROIs were drawn over suspected lymph node(s) and surrounding soft tissue as background. Image interpretation was made based on target to background (T/B) ratio. Positive imaging if T/B ratio (cut of point)>/= 1.2 Results: Positive imagings were observed in 16 and negative in 7 subjects. The results of histopathologic examination were infection (tuberculous lymphadenitis/chronic non-specific infection) in 17 subjects and non-infection/tumor metastases in 6 subjects. One of 16 subjects with positive imaging had histopathologic examination of tumor metastases. Two of 7 subjects with negative imagings had histopathologic results of tuberculous infection and one them had been treated with antibiotic (amoxicillin). Based on scintigraphy results, it was found; true positive in 15 subjects, false positive in 1 subject, true negative in 5 subjects and false negative in 2 subject. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive value were 93%, 71%, 88%, 83% respectively. Conclusion: Infecton scintigraphy is specific diagnostic tool for infection and it can be used in detecting

  7. Assessment of altered binding specificity of bacteriophage for ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongjin; Jo, Ara; Ding, Tian; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Ahn, Juhee

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new effort toward understanding the interaction mechanisms between antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and phages. The antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase activity, bacterial motility, gene expression, and lytic activity were evaluated in ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium (ASST(CIP)) and ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-resistant S. Typhimurium (ARST(CIP)), which were compared to the wild-type strains (ASST(WT) and ARST(WT)). The MIC values of ampicillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were significantly increased to > 512, 16, 16, and 256 μg/ml, respectively, in the ARST(CIP). The lowest and highest extracellular lactamase activities were observed in ASST(WT) (6.85 μmol/min/ml) and ARST(CIP) (48.83 μmol/min/ml), respectively. The acrA, lpfE, and hilA genes were significantly upregulated by more than tenfold in both ASST(CIP) and ARST(CIP). The induction of multiple antibiotic resistance resulted from the increased efflux pump activity (AcrAB-TolC). The highest phage adsorption rates were more than 95 % for ASST(WT), ASST(CIP), and ARST(WT), while the lowest adsorption rate was 52 % for ARST(CIP) at 15 min of infection. The least lytic activity of phage was 20 % against the ARST(CIP), followed by ASST(CIP) (30 %). The adsorption rate of phage against ARST(CIP) was 52 % at 15 min of infection, which resulted in the decrease in lytic activity (12 %). Understanding the interaction of phage and bacteria is essential for the practical application of phage to control and detect antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results provide useful information for understanding the binding specificity of phages for multiple antibiotic-resistant pathogens. PMID:27000396

  8. Spectroscopic, structure and antimicrobial activity of new Y(III) and Zr(IV) ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.; Zordok, Wael A.; El-Didamony, Akram M.

    2011-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of the new solid complexes [Y(CIP) 2(H 2O) 2]Cl 3·10H 2O and [ZrO(CIP) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O formed in the reaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with YCl 3 and ZrOCl 2·8H 2O in ethanol and methanol, respectively, at room temperature were reported. The isolated complexes have been characterized with elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductance measurements, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods and thermal analyses. The results support the formation of the complexes and indicate that ciprofloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand bound to the metal ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The activation energies, E*; entropies, Δ S*; enthalpies, Δ H*; Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves, using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger methods. The proposed structure of the two complexes was detected by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The ligand as well as their metal complexes was also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and antifungal screening was studied against two species ( Penicillium ( P. rotatum) and Trichoderma ( T. sp.)). This study showed that the metal complexes are more antibacterial as compared to free ligand and no antifungal activity observed for ligand and their complexes.

  9. In vitro activities of 11 fluoroquinolones against 816 non-typhoidal strains of Salmonella enterica isolated from Finnish patients with special reference to reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siitonen Anja

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has increased during recent years in many countries, threatening the value of this antimicrobial group in the treatment of severe salmonella infections. Methods We analyzed the in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin and 10 additional fluoroquinolones against 816 Salmonella strains collected from Finnish patients between 1995 and 2003. Special attention was focused on the efficacy of newer fluoroquinolones against the Salmonella strains with reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Results The isolates represented 119 different serotypes. Of all 816 Salmonella strains, 3 (0.4% were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml, 232 (28.4% showed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.125 – 2 μg/ml, and 581 (71.2% were ciprofloxacin-susceptible. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of ciprofloxacin for these strains were 0.032 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively, being lower than those of the other fluoroquinolone compounds presently on market in Finland (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. For two newer quinolones, clinafloxacin and sitafloxacin, the MIC50 and MIC90 values were lowest, both 0.016 and 0.064 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, clinafloxacin and sitafloxacin exhibited the lowest MIC50 and MIC90 values, 0.064 and 0.125 μg/ml, against the 235 Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility and strains fully resistant to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Among the registered fluoroquinolones in Finland, ciprofloxacin still appears to be the most effective drug for the treatment salmonella infections. Among the newer preparations, both clinafloxacin and sitafloxacin are promising based on in vitro studies, especially for strains showing reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Their efficacy, however, has not been demonstrated in clinical investigations.

  10. Cooperation between prokaryotic (Lde) and eukaryotic (MRP) efflux transporters in J774 macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes: studies with ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismond, Ann; Tulkens, Paul M; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Courvalin, Patrice; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2008-09-01

    Antibiotic efflux is observed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, modulating accumulation and resistance. The present study examines whether eukaryotic and prokaryotic fluoroquinolone transporters can cooperate in the context of an intracellular infection. We have used (i) J774 macrophages (comparing a ciprofloxacin-resistant cell line overexpressing an MRP-like transporter with wild-type cells with basal expression), (ii) Listeria monocytogenes (comparing a clinical isolate [CLIP21369] displaying ciprofloxacin resistance associated with overexpression of the Lde efflux system with a wild-type strain [EGD]), (iii) ciprofloxacin (substrate of both Lde and MRP) and moxifloxacin (nonsubstrate), and (iv) probenecid and reserpine (preferential inhibitors of MRP and Lde, respectively). The ciprofloxacin MICs for EGD were unaffected by reserpine, while those for CLIP21369 were decreased approximately fourfold (and made similar to those of EGD). Neither probenecid nor reserpine affected the moxifloxacin MICs against EGD or CLIP21369. In dose-response studies (0.01x to 100x MIC) in broth, reserpine fully restored the susceptibility of CLIP21369 to ciprofloxacin (no effect on EGD) but did not influence the activity of moxifloxacin. In studies with intracellular bacteria, reserpine, probenecid, and their combination increased the activity of ciprofloxacin in wild-type and ciprofloxacin-resistant macrophages in parallel with an increase in ciprofloxacin accumulation in macrophages for EGD and an increase in accumulation and decrease in MIC (in broth) for CLIP21369. Moxifloxacin accumulation and intracellular activity were consistently not affected by the inhibitors. A bacterial efflux pump may thus actively cooperate with a eukaryotic efflux transporter to reduce the activity of a common substrate (ciprofloxacin) toward an intracellular bacterial target. PMID:18573933

  11. Preparation of ciprofloxacin-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles and their antibacterial effects against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif, Sepideh; Kazempour, Zarah Bahri; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza;

    2011-01-01

    carbonyl group in ciprofloxacin is actively involved in forming chemical - rather than physical - bonds with zinc oxide nanoparticles. Also the antibacterial activity of free zinc oxide nanoparticles and ciprofloxacin-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles have been evaluated against different clinical isolates...... pure ciprofloxacin) considerably enhanced the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (4 to 32 fold increase). The result is of particular value, since it demonstrates that, by using biocompatible zinc oxide...... nanoparticles in combination therapy, lower amounts of antibiotics may be needed...

  12. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E;

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta...

  13. Effects of subinhibitory ciprofloxacin concentrations on the abundance of qnrS and composition of bacterial communities from water supply reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Elisabet; Huerta, Belinda; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Balcázar, Jose Luis; Marcé, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    We used a short-term microcosm approach to investigate the influence of two different subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin (0.01 and 0.1 μg/ml) on both the abundance of a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant (qnrS) and the structure and composition of bacterial communities from impaired and pristine water supply reservoirs. The results showed that the abundance of the qnrS gene increases in water samples exposed to both subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, especially in water samples from La Llosa del Cavall, which represents the pristine system. Subinhibitory ciprofloxacin concentrations also induced changes in bacterial community composition as indicated by the relative abundances of each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) across treatments. Therefore, our findings may be of significant importance because subinhibitory ciprofloxacin concentrations may promote antibiotic resistance and affect bacterial community composition in environmental settings. PMID:27459158

  14. Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes among Ciprofloxacin-Nonsusceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Blood Cultures in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:To analyze the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR determinants in ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Korea.

  15. A multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in Vietnamese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Vinh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial with two parallel arms at two hospitals in southern Vietnam. The study was designed as a superiority trial and children with dysentery meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Participants received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day in a single daily dose for 3 days or ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure; secondary outcome measures were time to the cessation of individual symptoms. Four hundred and ninety four patients were randomized to receive either gatifloxacin (n=249 or ciprofloxacin (n=245, of which 107 had a positive Shigella stool culture. We could not demonstrate superiority of gatifloxacin and observed similar clinical failure rate in both groups (gatifloxacin; 12.0% and ciprofloxacin; 11.0%, p=0.72. The median (inter-quartile range time from illness onset to cessation of all symptoms was 95 (66-126 hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 93 (68-120 hours for the ciprofloxacin recipients (Hazard Ratio [95%CI]=0.98 [0.82-1.17], p=0.83. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in Vietnam, where nalidixic acid resistant Shigellae are highly prevalent, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin are similarly effective for the treatment of acute shigellosis.

  16. A novel validated stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for estimation of degradation behavior of ciprofloxacin and tinidazole in solid oral dosage

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupendrasinh K Vaghela; Surendra Singh Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of current investigation was to study the degradation behavior of Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole. The study was performed as per International Conference on Harmonization recommended stress condition. A novel stability-indicating reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the determination of Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole purity in the presence of its impurities and forced degradation products. This method is also capable to separate placebo peaks as well in pharmaceuti...

  17. Randomized double blind trial of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis during induction treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the WK-ALL protocol in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjajanto PH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pudjo H Widjajanto,1 Sumadiono Sumadiono,1 Jacqueline Cloos,2,3 Ignatius Purwanto,1 Sutaryo Sutaryo,1 Anjo JP Veerman1,21Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Dr Sardjito Hospital, Medical Faculty, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; 2Pediatric Oncology/Hematology Division, Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsObjectives: Toxic death is a big problem in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, especially in low-income countries. Studies of ciprofloxacin as single agent prophylaxis vary widely in success rate. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to test the effects of ciprofloxacin monotherapy as prophylaxis for sepsis and death in induction treatment of the Indonesian childhood ALL protocol.Methods: Patients were randomized to the ciprofloxacin arm (n = 58 and to the placebo arm (n = 52. Oral ciprofloxacin monotherapy or oral placebo was administered twice a day. All events during induction were recorded: toxic death, abandonment, resistant disease, and complete remission rate.Results: Of 110 patients enrolled in this study, 79 (71.8% achieved CR. In comparison to the placebo arm, the ciprofloxacin arm had lower nadir of absolute neutrophil count during induction with median of 62 (range: 5–884 versus 270 (range: 14–25,480 × 109 cells/L (P > 0.01, greater risks for experiencing fever (50.0% versus 32.7%, P = 0.07, clinical sepsis (50.0% versus 38.5%, P = 0.22, and death (18.9% versus 5.8%, P = 0.05.Conclusion: In our setting, a reduced intensity protocol in a low-income situation, the data warn against using ciprofloxacin prophylaxis during induction treatment. A lower nadir of neutrophil count and higher mortality were found in the ciprofloxacin group.Keywords: ciprofloxacin, prophylaxis, childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, randomized trial, low-income country

  18. EPR examination of free radical properties of DOPA-melanin complexes with ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and sparfloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberok, Artur; Buszman, Ewa; Zdybel, Magdalena; Pilawa, Barbara; Wrześniok, Dorota

    2010-09-01

    Paramagnetic complexes of DOPA-melanin with ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and sparfloxacin were studied by EPR spectroscopy. The aim of this work was to determine free radical concentration and properties of these complexes. Free radical concentrations in the studied complexes were ˜10 19-10 20 spin/g. Relatively lower and similar (5.1-6.6 × 10 19 spin/g) free radical concentrations characterized DOPA-melanin complexes with ciprofloxacin, and lomefloxacin. Higher concentrations (0.8-1.2 × 10 20 spin/g) were obtained for complexes of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin. Effect of the drug concentration on free radicals in melanin was observed. Strong dipolar spin-spin interactions and slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in all of the samples.

  19. Thermodynamics of the complexation of ciprofloxacin with calcium and magnesium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The thermodynamics of the reactions of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with Ca(ClO4)2 and Mg(ClO4)2 were investigated by conductometric titration. → The reactions of CIP with each ion produce two ionic complexes with the formulas M(CIP)2+ and M(CIP)22+. → The change in enthalpy and entropy were negative which indicate that the complexation is driven by the enthalpy change. - Abstract: The thermodynamics of the reactions of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) and magnesium perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2) have been investigated in water-methanol solvent using conductometric titration. The reactions of CIP with each ion produce two ionic complexes with the general formulas M(CIP)2+ and M(CIP)22+. The stability constants K1 and K2 at 25 oC for the complexes formed from the reaction with Ca(ClO4)2 were 8.84 x 104 and 3.62 x 104, respectively. For the reaction with Mg(ClO4)2K1 and K2 were 1.72 x 105 and 2.50 x 103, respectively. The enthalpy (ΔH1, ΔH2, ΔH12) and entropy (ΔS1, ΔS2, ΔS12) of complexation reactions were determined from the temperature dependence of the complexation constants. The reactions of CIP with both ions are accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS12 = -468.12 and -478.89 J/K mol for complexation with Ca(ClO4)2 and Mg(ClO4)2, respectively) and enthalpy (ΔH12 = -193.09 and -192.01 kJ/mol for complexation with Ca(ClO4)2 and Mg(ClO4)2, respectively), which indicate that the reactions are driven by the enthalpy change.

  20. Thermodynamics of the complexation of ciprofloxacin with calcium and magnesium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Jamil, E-mail: malkawi@just.edu.jo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid (Jordan); Taha, Ziyad A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid (Jordan)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} The thermodynamics of the reactions of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} were investigated by conductometric titration. {yields} The reactions of CIP with each ion produce two ionic complexes with the formulas M(CIP){sup 2+} and M(CIP){sub 2}{sup 2+}. {yields} The change in enthalpy and entropy were negative which indicate that the complexation is driven by the enthalpy change. - Abstract: The thermodynamics of the reactions of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and magnesium perchlorate (Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}) have been investigated in water-methanol solvent using conductometric titration. The reactions of CIP with each ion produce two ionic complexes with the general formulas M(CIP){sup 2+} and M(CIP){sub 2}{sup 2+}. The stability constants K{sub 1} and K{sub 2} at 25 {sup o}C for the complexes formed from the reaction with Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} were 8.84 x 10{sup 4} and 3.62 x 10{sup 4}, respectively. For the reaction with Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}K{sub 1} and K{sub 2} were 1.72 x 10{sup 5} and 2.50 x 10{sup 3}, respectively. The enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub 1}, {Delta}H{sub 2}, {Delta}H{sub 12}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sub 1}, {Delta}S{sub 2}, {Delta}S{sub 12}) of complexation reactions were determined from the temperature dependence of the complexation constants. The reactions of CIP with both ions are accompanied by a decrease in entropy ({Delta}S{sub 12} = -468.12 and -478.89 J/K mol for complexation with Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, respectively) and enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub 12} = -193.09 and -192.01 kJ/mol for complexation with Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, respectively), which indicate that the reactions are driven by the enthalpy change.

  1. Role of Nutrient Limitation and Stationary-Phase Existence in Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Resistance to Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Jeff N.; Zahller, Jeff; Roe, Frank; Stewart, Philip S.

    2003-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae resisted killing during prolonged exposure to ampicillin or ciprofloxacin even though these agents have been shown to penetrate bacterial aggregates. Bacteria dispersed from biofilms into medium quickly regained most of their susceptibility. Experiments with free-floating bacteria showed that stationary-phase bacteria were protected from killing by either antibiotic, especially when the test was performed in medium lacking carbon and nitrogen sources. ...

  2. Assessing the concentrations and risks of toxicity from the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin in European rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrew C.; Keller, Virginie; Dumont, Egon; Sumpter, John P.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential concentrations of four antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SUF), trimethoprim (TRI) and erythromycin (ERY) throughout the rivers of Europe. This involved reviewing national consumption rates together with assessing excretion and sewage treatment removal rates. From this information, it was possible to construct best, expected and worst case scenarios for the discharge of these antibiotics into rivers. Consumption data showed surprising variat...

  3. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd. Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Background Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Results Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analys...

  4. Prevalence and Subtypes of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Poultry Flocks before, during, and after Treatment with Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Tom J. Humphrey; Jørgensen, Frieda; Frost, Jennifer A.; Wadda, Haddy; Domingue, Gil; Elviss, Nicola C.; Griggs, Deborah J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler chicken flocks were treated with either difloxacin or enrofloxacin for a clinically relevant infection, as instructed by a veterinarian. Campylobacters were isolated from individual fecal samples and from samples associated with the broiler environment before, during, and after treatment. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and/or C. coli strains were detected pretreatment in four flocks, but they constituted a very small proportion of the campylobacters prese...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Oxozirconium(IV), Dioxomolybdenum(VI) and Dioxotungsten(VI) with Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Khallow, Khalaf I.; Amaal Y. R. Al-Assaf

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of quinolone drugs, ciprofloxacin (CIPH) and norfloxacin (NORH), with zirconyl chloride octahydrate, sodium molybdate dihydrate and sodium tungstate dihydrate was investigated. Elemental analysis, FTIR spectral, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and UV Visible spectroscopy measurements have been used to characterize the isolated complexes. The results support the formation of two types of complexes of formula [ZrO(H2O)L2]3H2O and [MO2L2] where L = CIP and NOR; M...

  6. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, a promising agent for the diagnosis of bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports on the biodistribution and dosimetry of technetium-99m ciprofloxacin, a radio-ligand developed for the visualisation of bacterial infection. Whole body scans were performed up to 24 h after intravenous injection of 370 MBq 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in three male and three female volunteers. Blood samples were taken at various times up to 24 h after injection. Urine was also collected up to 24 h after injection, allowing calculation of renal clearance and interpretation of whole body clearance. Time-activity curves were generated for the thyroid, heart, liver and whole body by fitting the organ-specific geometric mean counts, obtained from regions of interest. The MIRD formulation was applied to calculate the absorbed radiation doses for various organs. The images showed rapid, predominantly urinary excretion of 99mTc ciprofloxacin, with low to absent brain, lung and bone marrow uptake and low liver uptake and excretion. Accordingly, imaging conditions are excellent for both the thoracic and the abdominal region, even at early time points (60 min) post injection. In none of the volunteers was the gallbladder visualised. Approximately 60% of the injected activity was recovered in urine by 24 h post injection. The highest absorbed doses were received by the urinary bladder wall, the thyroid, the upper large intestine, the lower large intestine and the uterus. The estimated mean effective dose for the adult subject, taking into account the weight factors of the ICRP60 publication, was 0.0083 mSv/MBq. The amount of 99mTc ciprofloxacin required for adequate planar and tomographic imaging results in an acceptable effective dose to the patient. (orig.)

  7. Antimicrobial action of zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, F; Jalal, R

    2016-09-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a serious concern amongst hospitalised patients worldwide and its resistance to antibiotics has emerged as a threat to public health in recent years. Metal oxide nanoparticles were found to be effective for overcoming bacterial resistance owing to their antibacterial activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and the conventional antibiotics ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime as well as their mechanisms of action against resistant A. baumannii. ZnO-NPs were prepared by the solvothermal method and were characterised by various methods. Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were used to determine the antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime antibiotics in the absence and presence of a subinhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs. The mechanism of action of ZnO-NPs alone and in combination with these antibiotics was assessed by flow cytometry, DNA extraction, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the antibacterial activities of both antibiotics increased in the presence of a subinhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs. Combination of ZnO-NPs with antibiotics increased the uptake of antibiotics and changed the bacterial cells from rod to cocci forms. Bacterial filamentation was also observed and exhibited no DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that ZnO-NPs potentiate the antimicrobial action of ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. A mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon. PMID:27530853

  8. Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Study Theophylline Metabolism and Its Interactions With Ciprofloxacin and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, A; Ng, D M; Wong, S E; Lightstone, F C

    2016-02-01

    Theophylline is a commonly used bronchodilator. However, due to its narrow therapeutic range, moderate elevation of serum concentration can result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs occur because of interhuman pharmacokinetic variability and interactions with coprescribed medicines. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of theophylline, caffeine, and ciprofloxacin metabolisms to: examine theophylline pharmacokinetic variability, and predict population-level outcomes of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A simulation-based equation for personalized dosing of theophylline was derived. Simulations of DDI show that calculated personalized doses are safe even after cotreatment with large doses of strong inhibitors. Simulations of adult populations indicate that the elderly are most susceptible to ADRs stemming from theophylline-ciprofloxacin and theophylline-caffeine interactions. Females, especially Asians, due to their smaller average size, are more susceptible to DDI-induced ADRs following typical dosing practices. Our simulations also show that the higher adipose and lower muscle fractions in females significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of theophylline or ciprofloxacin. PMID:26933518

  9. Comparison of Ciprofloxacin-Based Triple Therapy with Conventional Triple Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Mehri; Fallahi, Gholamhosein; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh; Mahdi Marashi, Sayed; Shoaran, Maryam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a prevalent disease among Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ciprofloxacin and furazolidone on eradicating helicobacter pylori in Iranian children in combination with amoxicillin and omeprazole. In this cohort study, helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by gastroscopy, rapid urease test or pathologic assessments. A total of 66 children were randomly enrolled; based on the random number table, and were divided into two groups; first, a combination regimen consisting of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole; second, a three-medication regimen consisting of amoxicillin, furazolidone, and omeprazole. The effect of both medical regimens on the successful eradication of helicobacter pylori infection was assessed and compared. Chi-square test was used for evaluating the association between quantitative variables. All comparisons were made at the significance of Peradication of the helicobacter pylori infection was reported 87.9% (29/33) in the first group (CAO) and 60.6% (20.33) in the second group (FAO) (P=0.011). It appears that a major advantage of our proposed regimen over others is a lack of wide use of fluoroquinolones for treating children's diseases. Given FDA's recommendation about the possibility of prescribing ciprofloxacin for infected patients with multidrug resistance, we can use the regimen proposed in this study in patients with resistance to standard treatments. PMID:27306347

  10. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  11. Value of scintigraphy with Cuban 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in the detection of infected hip prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 patients with suspicion of infectious process that were referred to 'Frank Pais' International Scientific Orthopedic Complex from January 1st, 2003 to December 31st, 2004, aimed at determining the efficacy of the Cuban 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in the evaluation of bacterial infections of the hip prostheses. Bone scintigraphies with 99mTc-methylendiphosphonate and 99mTc-ciprofloxacin were performed at 1, 4 and 24 hours after the injection. The culture/biopsy was used to confirm the criteria. On the visual analysis of the patients, sensitivity was obtained in 100 %, specificity in 75 %, diagnostic accuracy in 93.3 %, positive predictive value in 91.6 %, and negative predictive value in 100 %. The injured/healthy ratio showed significant differences between the patients with and without infection at the diverse hours of acquisition, with a level of significance of a = 0.05. The effectiveness of the Cuban formulation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in the evaluation of bacterial infections of the hip prostheses was proved

  12. Determination of ciprofloxacin in Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Tablets by near- infrared method%近红外光谱法测定盐酸环丙沙星片中环丙沙星

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 刘海玲; 曹晓云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develope near-infrared (NIR) method and chemometrics method for the rapid and nondestructive determination of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Tablets.Methods The diffuse reflectance NIR spectra of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Tablets from different pharmaceutical factories were measured intactly by a fiber optic probe; The pretreatment method of quantitative models was the second derivative; The wavelength rang of 6 101.9 - 4 555.2 cm-1 was selected, the calibration model was developed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm.Results For the quantitative model, 93 batches of samples were used as calibration set, and 177 batches of samples as validation set. The content range of ciprofloxacin was 54.20% - 82.54%, the correlation coefficient of cross validation was 0.986 3, the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 1.06, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.92.Conclusion The method is simple, rapid, and can be applied to rapid quantitative analyses of ciprofloxacin in Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Tablets.%目的:利用近红外光谱(NIR)分析技术和化学计量学方法对盐酸环丙沙星片进行无损、快速定量分析。方法以不同生产企业生产的盐酸环丙沙星片为分析对象,用光纤探头测定其近红外漫反射光谱;定量模型的预处理方法为二阶导数,波长范围为6101.9~4555.2 cm-1,采用偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立分析模型。结果定量分析模型由93批样品经内部交叉验证建立,177批样品进行外部验证,环丙沙星质量分数范围为54.20%~82.54%,相关系数为0.9863,交叉验证均方差(RMSECV)为1.06,外部验证均方差(RMSEP)为0.92。结论该方法快速、简便具有一定的专属性,可用于盐酸环丙沙星片中环丙沙星的快速定量分析。

  13. Ciprofloxacin-modified electrosynthesized hydrogel coatings to prevent titanium-implant-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, E; Cometa, S; Ricci, M A; Cafagna, D; Savino, A M; Sabbatini, L; Orciani, M; Ceci, E; Novello, L; Tantillo, G M; Mattioli-Belmonte, M

    2011-02-01

    New promising and versatile materials for the development of in situ sustained release systems consisting of thin films of either poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) or a copolymer based on poly(ethylene-glycol diacrylate) and acrylic acid were investigated. These polymers were electrosynthesized directly on titanium substrates and loaded with ciprofloxacin (CIP) either during or after the synthesis step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to check the CIP entrapment efficiency as well as its surface availability in the hydrogel films, while high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to assess the release property of the films and to quantify the amount of CIP released by the coatings. These systems were then tested to evaluate the in vitro inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth. Moreover, a model equation is proposed which can easily correlate the diameter of the inhibition haloes with the amount of antibiotic released. Finally, MG63 human osteoblast-like cells were employed to assess the biocompatibility of CIP-modified hydrogel coatings. PMID:20659594

  14. Ciprofloxacin adsorption from aqueous solution onto chemically prepared carbon from date palm leaflets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El-Said Ibrahim El-Shafey; Haider Al-Lawati; Asmaa Soliman Al-Sumri

    2012-01-01

    A chemically prepared carbon was synthesized from date palm leaflets via sulphuric acid carbonization at 160℃.Adsorption of ciprofloxacin (CIP) from aqueous solution was investigated in terms of time,pH,concentration,temperature and adsorbent status (wet and dry).The equilibrium time was found to be 48 hr.The adsorption rate was enhanced by raising the temperature for both adsorbents,with adsorption data fitting a pseudo second-order model well.The activation energy,Ea,was found to be 17 kJ/mol,indicating a diffusion-controlled,physical adsorption process.The maximum adsorption was found at initial pH 6.The wet adsorbent showed faster removal with higher uptake than the dry adsorbent,with increased performance as temperature increased (25-45℃ ).The equilibrium data were found to fit the Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model.The thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic.The adsorption mechanism is mainly related to cation exchange and hydrogen bonding.

  15. Adjuvant effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin active fraction on antivirulent property of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadekeetil, Anitha; Alexandar, V; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) act as antivirulent agents since quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in regulating pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, application of single QSI may not be effective as pathogen is vulnerable to successful mutations. In such conditions, combination of QSIs can be exploited as there can be synergistic or adjuvant action. In the present study, we evaluated the antivirulence efficacy of combination of Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidin active fraction (PAF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) at their sub-MICs using standard methods followed by analysis of their mode of action on QS using TLC and molecular docking. There was significant improvement in action of CIP when it was combined with PAF in reducing the QS controlled virulence factors (p < 0.05), motilities and biofilm of P. aeruginosa. TLC profiles of QS signals [(Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)] indicated that CIP in combination with PAF, besides showing inhibitory action on production of AHLs, also modulated production and inactivation of PQS. Docking scores also supported the observation. We therefore hypothesize that PAF-CIP combination, having improved anti-virulence property; can be exploited as a potent drug pairing against P. aeruginosa. PMID:26620081

  16. Fluorescent labelling of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and its application for residues analysis in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutthiwanasan, Brompoj; Phechkrajang, Chutima; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Sensitivity enhancement for residue analysis of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in surface water was performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (LC-FD). Labelling of both drugs were studied with fluorescent probes (e.g. Nile blue perchlorate (NBP) and 4- (N,N-Dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-(N-chloroformylmethyl-N-methylamino)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-COCl). Factors affecting the derivatization (e.g. stoichiometric ratios, reaction time and base catalysts) were optimized. The derivatization was achieved in 15min using a stoichiometric ratio between the substrate and DBD-COCl of 1:3, whereas NBP gave unsatisfactory results. Separation of the derivatives by LC was achieved (resolution (RS) > 1.8) on a C8 column using a mobile phase consisting of 50mM formic acid and acetonitrile (ACN) (68:32% v/v) in 20min. The method was linear (r(2) > 0.99) in a range of 200-2,000µg/L, precise (%RSD fluoroquinolone molecularly imprinted polymer in conjunction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbents demonstrated an efficient procedure for sample pre-concentration and clean-up for water sample resulting in the improved percent recovery. Applications of the proposed method was shown in surface water samples in Thailand. PMID:27474281

  17. Optimization and modelling using the response surface methodology (RSM) for ciprofloxacin removal by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barışçı, Sibel; Turkay, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effects of different operating conditions on the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by the electrocoagulation (EC) with pure iron electrodes. Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization of the EC process and to evaluate the effects and interactions of process variables such as applied current density, process time, initial CIP concentration and pH on the removal of CIP by the EC process. The optimum conditions for maximum CIP removal (86.6%) were found as pH = 4; Co = 5 mg.L(1-); Id = 4.325 mA.cm(2-); tprocess = 10 min. The model adequacy and the validity of the optimization step were confirmed with additional experiments which were performed under the proposed optimum conditions. The predicted CIP removal as 86.6% was achieved at each experiment by using the optimum conditions. These results specify that the RSM is a useful tool for optimizing the operational conditions for CIP removal by the EC process. PMID:27054740

  18. Long-Term Sustained Ciprofloxacin Release from PMMA and Hydrophilic Polymer Blended Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Špela; Sinha-Ray, Sumit; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Kristl, Julijana; Yarin, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Nanofibers represent an attractive novel drug delivery system for prolonged and controlled release. However, sustained release of hydrophilic drugs, like ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP), from polymeric nanofibers is not an easy task. The present study investigates the effect of different hydrophobic polymers (PCL and PMMA) alone in monolithic nanofibers or with hydrophilic polymers (PVA, PEO, and chitosan) in blended nanofibers aiming to achieve sustained CIP release. CIP release from PCL nanofibers was 46% and from PMMA just 1.5% over 40 day period. Thus, PMMA holds great promise for modification of CIP release from blended nanofibers. PMMA blends with 10% PEO, PVA, or chitosan were used to electrospin nanofibers from solution in the mixture of acetic and formic acid. These nanofibers exhibited different drug-release profiles: PEO containing nanofiber mats demonstrated high burst effect, chitosan containing mats revealed very slow gradual release, and PVA containing mats yielded smaller burst effect with favorable sustained release. We have also shown that gradual sustain release of antibiotic like CIP can be additionally tuned over 18 days with various blend ratios of PMMA with PVA or chitosan reaching almost 100%. A mathematical model in agreement with the experimental observation revealed that the sustained CIP release from the blended nanofibers corresponded to the two-stage desorption process. PMID:26635214

  19. Concomitant Effect of Ciprofloxacin and Echinacea Counteracting Severity of Radiation Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has investigated the influence of therapeutic treatment with ciprofloxacin CPX (300 mg/Kg body wt) and/ or echinacea (250 mg/Kg body wt) in drinking water on changes induced by fractionated whole body gamma irradiation 12 Gy (2 Gy/week for 6 weeks) in female rats. Irradiation induced significant decrease in total number of bone marrow (BM) cells, percentage of viable marrow cells, WBCs, RBCs, Hb and Hct %, K+ concentration and GSH content while it elevated MDA, N+ and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) compared to the control. CPX alone elevated BM total no and viable cells % and significantly reduced blood parameters and GSH, elevated MDA and AOPP compared to the control. CPX with irradiation significantly elevated BM total number and viable cells % and WBCs, while it reduced N? conc. compared to the irradiated group, normalized K conc. and aggravated irradiation effect on GSH, MDA and AOPP. Echinacea administration alone significantly elevated BM total count and viable cells % above the control. Whereas its administration with irradiation significantly elevated BM and WBCs above the irradiated group, ameliorated blood parameters, normalized K+ and reduced N+ conc., MDA and AOPP compared to the irradiated group. CPX and echinacea treatment accompanied by irradiation ameliorated the blood parameters, normalized K and ameliorated the GSH and AOPP which may suggest potential role in radiation therapy

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin drug in water using ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the synthesis of nanostructure ZnO semiconductor with ∼2.1 nm diameter using a chemical precipitation method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence techniques. The absorption spectra exhibit a sharp absorption edge at ∼334 nm corresponding to band gap of ∼3.7 eV. The fluorescence spectra displayed a near-band-edge ultraviolet excitonic emission at ∼410 nm and a green emission peak at ∼525 nm, due to a transition of a photo-generated electron from the conduction band to a deeply trapped hole. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles has been investigated for the degradation of ciprofloxacin drug under UV light irradiation in aqueous solutions of different pH values. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation process is effective at pH 7 and 10, but it is rather slow at pH 4. Higher degradation efficiency (∼50%) of the drug was observed at pH 10 after 60 min. Photodegradation of the drug follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  1. Interaction study of ciprofloxacin with human telomeric DNA by spectroscopy and molecular docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Bu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jia; Xu, Chongzheng; Wang, Xianlong; Yang, Xiaodi

    2013-04-01

    The interaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with human telomeric DNA was studied in vitro using multi-spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. The hypochromic effect with a red shift in ultraviolet (UV) absorption indicated the occurrence of the interaction between CIP and DNA. The fluorescence quenching of CIP was observed with the addition of DNA and was proved to be the static quenching. The binding constant was found to be 9.62 × 104 L mol-1. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) result further confirmed the formation of 1:1 non-covalent complex between DNA and CIP. Combined with the UV melting results, circular dichroism (CD) results confirmed the existence of groove binding mode, as well as conformational changes of DNA. Molecular docking studies illustrated the visual display of the CIP binding to the GC region in the minor groove of DNA. Specific hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were demonstrated as main acting forces between CIP and guanine bases of DNA.

  2. In vivo and in vitro chondrotoxicity of ciprofloxacin in juvenile rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Neng-neng CHENG; Bin-yan CHEN; Yong-ming WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between chondrotoxicity and toxicokinetics of ciprofloxacin (CPFX). METHODS: Rats, 4-week old, were treated with CPFX 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg ig once daily on seven consecutive days. The knee joint cartilage was examined histopathologically. The concentration of CPFX in venous blood and knee joint cartilage samples were determined by a microbioassay using Escherichia coli 44102. The effects of CPFX on proliferation of chondrocytes and secretion of soluble proteoglycans were determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMB) assay, respectively. RESULTS:Cartilage was severely lesioned after treatment with CPFX 800 or 1200 mg/kg for 7 d, such as matrix swelling and loss of chondrocytes. The thickness of cartilage was significantly decreased compared with the control group. The maximum serum concentration (Cmax), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞), and concenmg.h.L-1, and 20.3±3.5 μg.g-1 after oral administration of CPFX 800 or 1200 mg/kg on d 1, respectively. The data on d 6 were similar with that on d 1. CPFX inhibited proliferation of chondrocytes and the secretion of soluble proteoglycans. CONCLUSION: CPFX concentrations in serum and cartilage could provide a better basis for risk assessment.

  3. Ciprofloxacin nano-niosomes for targeting intracellular infections: an in vitro evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to propose non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) for the treatment of intracellular infections, a remote loading method (active drug encapsulation) followed by sonication was used to prepare nano-niosome formulations containing ciprofloxacin (CPFX). Size analysis, size distribution and zeta potentials of niosomes were evaluated and then their antimicrobial activity, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, intracellular distribution, and antibacterial activity against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus infection of murine macrophage-like, J774, cells were investigated in comparison to free drug. Our findings reveal that size and composition of the niosome formula can influence their in vitro biological properties. Vesicles in the 300–600 nm size range were phagocytosed to a greater degree by macrophages in comparison to other size vesicles. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CPFX-loaded niosomes were two to eightfold lower than MICs of free CPFX. In addition, niosome encapsulation of CPFX provided high intracellular antimicrobial activities while free CPFX is ineffective for eradicating intracellular forms of S. aureus. Encapsulation of CPFX in niosomes generally decreased its in vitro cytotoxicity. Our results show that niosomes are suitable drug delivery systems with good efficacy and safety properties to be proposed for drug targeting against intracellular infections.

  4. Novel Lanthanide Complexes of Ciprofloxacin: Synthesis, Characterization, Crystal Structure and in vitro Antibacterial Activity Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Jia-Bin; YANG,Pin; GAO,Fei; HAN,Gao-Yi; YU,Kai-Bei

    2001-01-01

    Novel lanthanide coordinatlon compounds with ciprofloxacin (CPFX), including eleven complexes Ln(CPFX)2Cl(H2O)n (Ln= Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu,Gd,To,Dy,Ho,Er,Tm, Yb; n =7,8, 9) and crystalline [Ce(CPFX)2(H2O)4]Cl· (H2O)3.25(C2H5- OH)0.25, were synthesized. The crystal is of triclinic space group Pi with a= 1.3865(2) nm, b = 1.3899(3) nm, c = 1.6505(2) nm, α= 92.73(1)°, β= 114.39(1)°, γ= 115.55 (1)°, Z = 2 and R = 0.0449.FT-IR, electronic spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to show that the lan thanide ion, which displays an eight-coordinate structure, is chelated by 3-carboxyl and 4-keto oxygen donors of CPFX and two six- membered chelate rings are formed. Test of in vitro antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus indicated that the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ligand can be improved by complexation with Ce(Ⅲ).

  5. Experimental studies on imaging of infected site with 99mTc-Iabeled ciprofloxacin in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; JIANG Ning-yi; ZHU Lin

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacterial infection can pose a substantial diagnostic dilemma.99mTc-labeled ciprofloxacin (CPF) was developed as a biologically active radiopharmaceutical to diagnose infection.In the present research,we studied the biodistribution and imaging properties of infection tracer 99mTc-CPF in a mouse model of infection.Methods CPF was labeled with 99mTc and the radiochemical purity and labeling rate were measured.A mouse model of infection was established.We then determined the biodistribution of 99mTC-CPF and conducted the whole body scintigraphy of the animal model.Results 99mTc-Ciprotech was stable for at least 6 hours at room temperature.The labeling rate of CPF by 99mTc was over 90%.Clearance of radioactivity mainly occurred in the liver and kidney,and the clearance from blood was rapid.Both biodistribution and imaging results showed higher uptake of 99mTc-CPF at sites of infection.The infectious tissue/normal tissue ratio peak was 4.30 at 4 hours after injection.Conclusions 99mTc-CPF is a sensitive radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphy of infectious lesions and it is easy to prepare.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin drug in water using ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kemary, Maged, E-mail: elkemary@yahoo.co [Photo- and Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt); El-Shamy, Hany; El-Mehasseb, Ibrahim [Photo- and Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    We report the synthesis of nanostructure ZnO semiconductor with {approx}2.1 nm diameter using a chemical precipitation method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence techniques. The absorption spectra exhibit a sharp absorption edge at {approx}334 nm corresponding to band gap of {approx}3.7 eV. The fluorescence spectra displayed a near-band-edge ultraviolet excitonic emission at {approx}410 nm and a green emission peak at {approx}525 nm, due to a transition of a photo-generated electron from the conduction band to a deeply trapped hole. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles has been investigated for the degradation of ciprofloxacin drug under UV light irradiation in aqueous solutions of different pH values. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation process is effective at pH 7 and 10, but it is rather slow at pH 4. Higher degradation efficiency ({approx}50%) of the drug was observed at pH 10 after 60 min. Photodegradation of the drug follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  7. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin produces superoxide in Escherichia coli even in the absence of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Studies of most fluoroquinolones have reported that they cause phototoxicity, that involves reactions forming both singlet oxygen and superoxide anion (O2$-), upon exposure to sunligth or UV irradiation. In this study we examined the formation light-independent of O2$- in Escherichia coli mediated by the fluoro quinolone ciprofloxacin. We employed a semiquantitative method as indicator of intracelullar levels of O2$- in vivo, on the basis of the inactivation of aconitase by O2$- . Several enzymes, including aconitase and 6P-gluconate dehydratase, contain [4Fe-4S] centers prone to O2$- oxidation. The results indicated that a fraction (∼30%), was inactivated with a very low dose of antibiotic in the absence of illumination. In this condition, the level of O2$- increased almost four times and up to ten fold, under UV irradiation. We could also demonstrate activation of the response to O2$- mediated by the soxRS regulon and dose-dependent increases in superoxide dismutase activity. We detected O2$- production with the tetrazolium dye XTT, upon UV irradiation, but failed to detect it in the absence of light, probably because this method is less sensitive than enzyme inactivation. Oxidative stress is a side-effect of these drugs and can induce cytotoxic reactions in cells. (author)

  8. Ciprofloxacin nano-niosomes for targeting intracellular infections: an in vitro evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Vajihe; Abedi, Daryoush [Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pardakhty, Abbas [Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Pharmaceutics Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat, E-mail: sadeghi@pharm.mui.ac.ir [Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In order to propose non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) for the treatment of intracellular infections, a remote loading method (active drug encapsulation) followed by sonication was used to prepare nano-niosome formulations containing ciprofloxacin (CPFX). Size analysis, size distribution and zeta potentials of niosomes were evaluated and then their antimicrobial activity, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, intracellular distribution, and antibacterial activity against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus infection of murine macrophage-like, J774, cells were investigated in comparison to free drug. Our findings reveal that size and composition of the niosome formula can influence their in vitro biological properties. Vesicles in the 300-600 nm size range were phagocytosed to a greater degree by macrophages in comparison to other size vesicles. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CPFX-loaded niosomes were two to eightfold lower than MICs of free CPFX. In addition, niosome encapsulation of CPFX provided high intracellular antimicrobial activities while free CPFX is ineffective for eradicating intracellular forms of S. aureus. Encapsulation of CPFX in niosomes generally decreased its in vitro cytotoxicity. Our results show that niosomes are suitable drug delivery systems with good efficacy and safety properties to be proposed for drug targeting against intracellular infections.

  9. Single vial preparation of 99mtc ciprofloxacin for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim: To ascertain the usefulness of single vial formulation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Diagnobact) in detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Introductions: Tuberculosis is one of the major health concerns not only in developing countries but also in the developed nations. Imaging with radiolabelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, being more specific for infection, has the advantage over other nuclear medicine techniques. We are using Diagnobact to detect sites of infection. Methods: 12 patients (age-23 ±11 years, M:F-8:4) of tuberculosis, confirmed by culture/PCR underwent Diagnobact scan. Scanning was done at 1 hour, 4 hour and 24 hours after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of Diagnobact. Rising lesion to background ratio was taken as the criteria for labeling a Diagnobact scan to be positive.Results: Of the 12 patients, two had tibial tuberculous osteomyelitis (TBOM), two vertebral TBOM, one elbow TBOM, four hip joint TBOM, two shaft of femur TBOM and one patient had soft tissue tuberculosis of gluteal region. Diagnobact scan was positive in 10 patients while two patients with vertebral TBOM were negative. Conclusion: Diagnobact, like Infecton, is also useful for the detection of extra pulmonary tuberculosis but for vertebral TBOM. However, more patients need to be studied to reach at statistically significant conclusion. (author)

  10. Theoretical Researches on the Self-assembly System of Ciprofloxacin Imprinted Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jia-Ni; LIU Jun-Bo; TANG Shan-Shan; JIN Rui-Fa

    2013-01-01

    A molecular modeling approach was used to elucidate template-monomer interaction and the effect of solvent on the recognition of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs).Ciprofloxacin (CIP) was taken as the template molecule.The methacrylic acid (MAA),4-vinyl pyridine (4-Vpy),acrylamide (AAM),and 2-(trifluoromethyl) acrylic acid (TFMAA) were taken as the functional monomers,respectively.Density functional theory (DFT) at the LC-WPBE/6-31g(d,p) level has been adopted to investigate the geometry optimization.The NBO charge and the binding energies of CIP with the monomers were carried out.The molecular imprinting mechanism of CIP and the monomers as well as the influence of solvent was also discussed.Results indicate that CIP and the monomers are matchable in steric structure and chemical groups lead to ordered compounds.The interaction between CIP and TFMAA is the strongest,and when the ratio of CIP-TFMAA is 1∶6,the polymer has the lowest energy in toluene.The computational approach has been applied to provide details of interactions between CIP and the monomers.This research will hopefully shed light on the future study of CIP-MIPs.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and tissue behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in turbot Scophthalmus maximus at two water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junping; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Liu, Ping; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus, an important aquaculture species in China, currently suffers from epizootic diseases because of high density aquaculture. Enrofloxacin has been used to treat various systemic bacterial fish infections. However, studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turbot are limited. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, were investigated in the turbot following intravenous and oral administration at 10 mg enrofloxacin/kg body weight, at 16°C and 10°C water temperatures. The concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the main tissues (plasma, muscle, liver and kidney) were detected by HPLC. The results show that the plasma concentration-time data for enrofloxacin were best described as a two-compartment open model after intravenous and oral administration. Three pharmacokinetic equations were established between the concentrations and temperatures. The kinetic profile of enrofloxacin was temperature dependent. The absorption half-life of enrofloxacin was 1.99 h and 2.17 h after oral administration, whereas the elimination half-life of the drug was 98.63 h and 136.59 h at 16°C and 10°C, respectively. The peak concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma and tissues was higher at 16°C than that at 10°C, and the peak plasma concentration time in the liver was the shortest at both temperatures among those of other tissues. The plasma C max /MIC ratio varied between 11.08 and 5 540.00 at 16°C; and between 7.92 and 3 960.00 at 10°C. The AUC/MIC ratio was 467.82-280 690.00 at 16°C, and 359.48-215 690.00 at 10°C. These ratios indicate that it is possible to obtain therapeutic efficacy. Very low levels of ciprofloxacin were detected. The AUC ratios of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in plasma suggest that plasma ciprofloxacin might play a minor role in enrofloxacin treatment for turbot.

  12. A comparison of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, azithromycin and cefixime examined by observational cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, L V; Pearce, G L; Mann, R D

    1996-04-01

    1. The safety in everyday clinical usage of three 4-quinolone antibiotics, (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin), was compared with similar data for azithromycin and cefixime, each agent being examined by Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM) during the early post-marketing period. 2. In PEM the exposure data are derived from general practitioner prescriptions confidentially provided by the Prescription Pricing Authority. Outcome data are provided by questionnaires (green forms) on which the prescribing medical practitioner records event data. When necessary, further information is obtained from a number of sources which include follow-up of all pregnancies and the patients' life-time medical record. 3. The main outcome measures were demographic information, including the patient's date of birth and sex; the indication for prescribing the drug being monitored; the reason for stopping treatment; the start and stop dates of treatment and the events recorded during and after treatment. 4. The final cohort for each of the five antibiotics exceeded 11000 patients. The only event significantly related to the use of all five antibiotics was nausea/vomiting. This was also the most frequent adverse event causing treatment to be discontinued with norfloxacin, ofloxacin and azithromycin (relevant information was not requested in the studies of ciprofloxacin and cefixime). Vaginal candidiasis was significantly more frequently associated with the use of the three 4-quinolones than with azithromycin and cefixime but it was frequently delayed until the week or two after the cessation of therapy. Within each event, as recorded in these studies, the highest event rates (the number of events per 1000 patients) in the week following the start of therapy were: 9.2 for diarrhoea with cefixime; 4.9 for nausea/vomiting with ofloxacin; 2.4 for rash with azithromycin; 2.2 for abdominal pain with norfloxacin; 1.5 for headache/migraine with ofloxacin; 1.4 for malaise/lassitude with

  13. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Martins-Duarte

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite's DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13-25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment. Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition--with the appearance of 'tethered' parasites--malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results

  14. Preparation and characterization of acetylated starch nanoparticles as drug carrier: Ciprofloxacin as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi Najafi, Seyed Heydar; Baghaie, Maryam; Ashori, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize in-vitro the potential of acetylated corn starch (ACS) particles as a matrix for the delivery of ciprofloxacin (CFx). ACS was successfully synthesized and optimized by the reaction of native corn starch using acetic anhydride and acetic acid with low and high degrees of substitution (DS). The nanoprecipitation method was applied for the formation of the ACS-based nanoparticles, by the dropwise addition of water to acetone solution of ACS under stirring. The effects of acetylation and nanoprecipitation on the morphology and granular structure of ACS samples were examined by the FT-IR, XRD, DSL and SEM techniques. The efficiency of CFx loading was also evaluated via encapsulation efficiency (EE) in ACS nanoparticles. The average degree of acetyl substitution per glucose residue of corn starch was 0.33, 2.00, and 2.66. The nanoparticles size of the ACS and ACS-loaded with CFx were measured and analyzed relative to the solvent:non-solvent ratio. Based on the results, ACS nanoparticles with DS of 2.00 and water:acetone of 3:1 had 312nm diameter. Increasing DS in starch acetate led to increase in the EE from 67.7 to 89.1% and with increasing ratio of water/acetone from 1:1 to 3:1, the EE raised from 48.5 to 89.1%. X-ray diffraction indicated that A-type pattern of native starch was completely transformed into the V-type pattern of acetylated starch. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the different sizes of pores formed on the acetylated starch granules were utterly converted into the uniform-sized spherical nanoparticles after the nanoprecipitation. PMID:26893054

  15. Selective Electrochemical Detection of Ciprofloxacin with a Porous Nafion/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composite Film Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Pralay; Chaplin, Brian P

    2016-01-27

    This study focuses on the development of electrochemical sensors for the detection of Ciprofloxacin (CFX) in natural waters and wastewater effluents. The sensors are prepared by depositing a layer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in a porous Nafion film on to a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode substrate. The porous-Nafion-MWCNT/BDD electrode enhanced detection of CFX due to selective adsorption, which was accomplished by a combination of electrostatic attraction at -SO3(-) sites in the porous Nafion film and the formation of charge assisted hydrogen bonding between CFX and -COOH MWCNT surface functional groups. By contrast, the bare BDD electrode did not show any activity for CFX oxidation. The sensors were selective for CFX detection in the presence of other antibiotics (i.e., amoxicillin) and other nontarget water constituents (i.e., Cl(-), Ca(2+), humic acid, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, salicylic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid). A limit of detection of 5 nM (S/N = 5.04 ± 0.26) in a 0.1 M KH2PO4 supporting electrolyte (pH = 4.5) was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry. The linear dynamic ranges with respect to CFX concentration were 0.005-0.05 μM and 0.05-10 μM, and the sensitivities were 41 ± 5.2 μA μM(-1) and 2.1 ± 0.22 μA μM(-1), respectively. Sensor fouling was observed at high concentrations of some organic compounds such as 1 mM 4-aminobenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. However, a short cathodic treatment fully restores sensor response. The results indicate that these sensors have application in detecting CFX in natural waters and wastewater effluents. PMID:26711553

  16. Accumulation of ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacinin fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏培元; 冯萍; 钟利; 吕晓菊; 雷秉钧

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of outer membrane protein (Omp) F-deficiency and active efflux in the accumulation of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin (CPLX) and lomefloxacin (LMLX) in resistant E. coli strains. Methods Fluoroquinolone accumulation in bacteria and the effect of active efflux were measured by a fluorescence method. The outer membrane proteins of the bacteria were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). E. coli strains in this study included control strains JF701 and JF703 that are OmpC- or OmpF-deficient mutants of E. coli K-12, respectively, and the fluoroquinolone susceptible strain the fluoroquinolone susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (Ecs) and its in vitroselected resistant strains R2 and R256, and the clinical resistant isolates R5 and R6. Results The steady-state accumulation concentration of each drug in Ecs appeared to be the same as in JF701, while in the OmpF- deficient strain JF703, it was 1/5 CPLX or 1/2 LMLX lower than that in JF701, but JF703 was still susceptible to fluoroquinolones. On the other hand, compared with susceptible strains, a 2- to 10-fold decrease in the accumulation of each drug was found in the resistant strains except R2, in which the accumulation was slightly higher than in JF703. After the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), accumulation of each drug increased, especially in resistant strains, indicating that the function of the active efflux (pump) system in these bacteria had been enhanced dramatically. Furthermore, both OmpF and OmpC in Ecs, OmpF-deficiency in R2 and R256 and OmpC-deficiency in R5 and R6 were observed.Conclusion The decreased accumulation of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones in E. coli involved OmpF-deficiency and active efflux (pump), and the latter may be an important factor.

  17. Development of poly(vinyl alcohol) porous scaffold with high strength and well ciprofloxacin release efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-Hua; Wei, Dai-Xu; Ye, Hai-Mu; Zhang, Xiaocan; Meng, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Qiong

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophilic porous polymer scaffolds have shown great application in drug controlled release, while their mechanical properties and release efficiency still need further improvement. In the current study, the porous scaffolds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) prepared by quenching in liquid nitrogen and freeze drying method from different original concentration aqueous solutions were fabricated. Among different PVA scaffolds, the scaffold stemming from 18wt.% PVA aqueous solution exhibited the best mechanical properties, 10.5 and 1.54MPa tensile strengths for the dry and hydrogel states respectively. The inner morphology of such PVA scaffold was unidirectional honeycomb-like structure with average microchannel section of 0.5μm, and the scaffold showed porosity of 71% and rather low ciprofloxacin (Cip) release efficiency of 54.5%. Then poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was incorporated to enhance the Cip release efficiency. The release efficiency reached 89.3% after introducing 10wt.% PEG, and the mechanical properties of scaffold decreased slightly. Various characterization methods demonstrated that, adding PEG could help to enlarge the microchannel, create extra holes on the channel walls, weaken the interaction between PVA chains and Cip, and miniaturize the crystal size of Cip. All these effects benefit the dissolution and diffusion of Cip from scaffold, increasing its release capability. Moreover, based on biocompatible material composition, PVA/PEG scaffold is a non-cytotoxicity and have been verified that it can promote cell growth. And PVA/PEG scaffolds loaded with Cip can completely inhibit the growth of microorganism because of Cip sustaining release. The PVA scaffold would have a good potential application in tissue engineering, demanding high strength and well drug release capability. PMID:27287128

  18. Cytotoxic effect of ciprofloxacin in primary culture of rat astrocytes and protection by Vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible cytotoxic and oxidative stress inducing effects of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) on primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The cultured cells were incubated with various concentrations of CPFX (0.5-300 mg/l), and cytotoxicity was determined by neutral red (NR) and MTT assays. Survival profile of cells was biphasic in NR assay: CPFX did not cause any alteration at any concentration for 7 h, whereas ≤50 mg/l concentrations induced significant cell proliferation in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. However, cell proliferation gradually decreased at higher concentrations, and 200 and 300 mg/l of CPFX exposure was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) cytotoxic at all time periods. With MTT assay, no alteration was noted for incubation period of 7 h, as observed with NR assay. But, cell viability decreased with ∼≥50 mg/l CPFX exposure in all other time periods. Cell proliferation was only seen in 24 h of incubation with 0.5 and 5 mg/l CPFX. Vitamin E pretreatment of cell cultures were found to be providing complete protection against cytotoxicity of 300 mg/l CPFX in 96 h incubation when measured with both NR and MTT assays. The SOD pretreatment was partially protective with NR assay, but no protection was noted when measured with MTT. A significant enhancement of lipid peroxidation was observed with the cytotoxic concentration of the drug, but total glutathione content and catalase activity of cells did not change. The data obtained in this study suggest that, in accordance with our previous results with fibroblast cells, CPFX-induced cytotoxicity is related to oxidative stress. And the biphasic effect of CPFX possibly resulted from the complex dose-dependent relationships between reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation, and cell viability

  19. Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a London sexually transmitted infection clinic not fully sensitive to quinolones: are isolates imported and how effective is ciprofloxacin as a first-line therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, D; Martin, I; Ison, C

    2000-12-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae not fully sensitive to ciprofloxacin from a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in London and where the isolates were acquired from. Data of antibiotic sensitivities of N. gonorrhoeae from 292 patients were reviewed over a 6-month period at St Mary's Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) Clinic, London. Isolates which exhibited reduced susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 0.03-0.12 mg/l) and high level resistance (MIC>0.12 mg/l) to ciprofloxacin represented 10% and 1.3% of the total respectively. All patients infected with a high level resistant isolate to ciprofloxacin had had a recent sexual partner from abroad but 18 of the 28 patients infected with a reduced susceptibility isolate denied recent travel. None of the 20 patients with a non-sensitive isolate who re-attended for post treatment cultures had persistant gonococcal infection. From this study we concluded that although N. gonorrhoeae resistant to ciprofloxacin was rare and probably always acquired abroad, isolates exhibiting reduced susceptibility were more common and were mainly as a result of infection from the UK. A stat dose of ciprofloxacin 500 mg and doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for one week was effective treatment. PMID:11138910

  20. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin in acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media: A randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To compare the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media (AECSOM. Materials and Methods : Adult patients diagnosed with AECSOM were screened and patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive either cefpodoxime 200 mg twice daily or ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily orally for 7 days. The primary outcome of this randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial (Registration Number - CTRI/2011/10/002079 was clinical success rate at day 14 visit and the secondary outcome was incidence of adverse events (AEs. Forty-six patients were enrolled: 23 in the cefpodoxime group and 23 in the ciprofloxacin group. Results : The clinical success rates were 95.6% in the cefpodoxime group versus 90.9% in the ciprofloxacin group. These rates are comparable, but no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Few mild and self-limiting AEs were observed and the tolerability of both the drugs was also good. Conclusion : The results of this randomized, open-labeled phase IV clinical trial showed that a 7-day course of cefpodoxime is therapeutically comparable to ciprofloxacin in terms of both clinical effectiveness and safety for the treatment of patients with AECSOM.

  1. Plasma and ear tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in dogs with chronic end-stage otitis externa after intravenous administration of enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lynette K; Papich, Mark G; Kwochka, Kenneth W; Hillier, Andrew; Smeak, Daniel D; Lehman, Amy M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin following intravenous administration of enrofloxacin in the plasma and ear tissue of dogs with chronic end-stage otitis undergoing a total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy. The goals were to determine the relationship between the dose of enrofloxacin and the concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and determine appropriate doses of enrofloxacin for treatment of chronic otitis externa and media. Thirty dogs were randomized to an enrofloxacin-treatment group (5, 10, 15 or 20 mg kg(-1)) or control group (no enrofloxacin). After surgical removal, ear tissue samples (skin, vertical ear canal, horizontal ear canal, middle ear) and a blood sample were collected. Concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the plasma and ear tissue were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Repeated measures models were applied to log-transformed data to assess dosing trends and Pearson correlations were calculated to assess concentration associations. Ear tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were significantly (P ciprofloxacin concentrations, respectively. For bacteria with an minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.12-0.15 or less, 0.19-0.24, 0.31-0.39 and 0.51-0.64 microg mL(-1), enrofloxacin should be dosed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg(-1), respectively. Treatment with enrofloxacin would not be recommended for a bacterial organism intermediate or resistant in susceptibility to enrofloxacin since appropriate levels of enrofloxacin would not be attained. PMID:19152587

  2. Evaluation of the influence of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in the development of an Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya putoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 + 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neolarvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α= 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chisquared test (χ(2)). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the postembryonic period. PMID:25373150

  3. Clonal relationship between human and avian ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in North-Eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabou, A; Lezzar, N; Ouchenane, Z; Khemissi, S; Satta, D; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P; Pantel, A

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine rates, patterns, and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and to assess connections between chicken commensal, human commensal, and pathogenic ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates. All E. coli isolates collected from chickens, their farmers, and patients in the Constantine region (North-east Algeria) were analyzed for bla and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene contents, phylogroups, Rep-PCR profiles, and multilocus sequence types. A high prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones (51.4 % to ciprofloxacin) was recorded in avian isolates. Of these, 22.2 % carried the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene, whereas lower resistance levels to these antibiotics were recorded in chicken farmers' isolates. None of the commensal isolates harbored the qnr, qepA, or oqxAB genes. One human pathogenic isolate was ertapenem-resistant and harbored the bla OXA-48 gene, 84 showed an extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype, with bla CTX-M-15 gene prevalent in 87.2 % of them. Seventy isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, with aac(6')-Ib-cr present in 72.8 %, qnrB in 5.7 %, and qnrS in 10 %. Three Rep-PCR profiles were common to chicken commensal and human pathogenic isolates (phylogroups D and B1; ST21, ST48, and ST471 respectively); one was found in both chicken and chicken-farmer commensal strains (D; ST108), while another profile was identified in a chicken-farmer commensal strain and a human pathogenic one (B1; ST19). These findings suggest clonal and epidemiologic links between chicken and human ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates and the important role that poultry may play in the epidemiology of human E. coli infections in the Constantine region. PMID:26634353

  4. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus in murine macrophages by chloroquine used alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin or azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Somrita Dey, Biswadev BishayiDepartment of Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, University of Calcutta, University Colleges of Science and Technology, Calcutta, IndiaAbstract: This study aimed to determine any alteration in the killing of Staphylococcus aureus in murine peritoneal macrophages when chloroquine (CQ is used alone compared with when it is used in combination with ciprofloxacin (CIP or azithromycin (AZM. The study also aimed to find out the implication of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and cytokine release in the intracellular killing of S. aureus in macrophages. We present here data obtained with a model of S. aureus-infected mouse peritoneal macrophages in which the intracellular growth of the bacteria and the influence of antibiotics was monitored for 30, 60, and 90 minutes in the presence or absence of CQ along with the production of ROS and alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes and cytokines. It was observed that S. aureus-triggered cytokine response was regulated when macrophages were co-cultured with CQ and AZM as compared with CQ stimulation only. It can be suggested that action of AZM in mediating bacterial killing is enhanced by the presence of CQ, indicating enhanced uptake of AZM during early infection that may be essential for bacteria killing by AZM. Reduction of oxidative stress burden on the S. aureus-infected macrophages may pave the way for better killing of internalized S. aureus by CQ plus ciprofloxacin (CIP or CQ plus AZM. Based on these observations, one may speculate that in an inflammatory milieu, CQ loaded with AZM elicits a stronger proinflammatory response by increasing the intracellular uptake of AZM or CIP, thus enabling the immune system to mount a more robust and prolonged response against intracellular pathogens.Keywords: azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, intracellular survival

  5. Enhanced Adsorption and Removal of Ciprofloxacin on Regenerable Long TiO2 Nanotube/Graphene Oxide Hydrogel Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the adsorption performance and regeneration ability of adsorbent, a simple method was designed to synthesize long TiO2 nanotube/reduced graphene oxide (rGO-TON hydrogel, which has good adsorption and regeneration capacity toward ciprofloxacin. rGO-TON hydrogel could form 3D structure, which makes the separation and regeneration of adsorbent easy. For comparison, commercial P25 particle is used to prepare composite hydrogel with rGO; the results showed that TiO2 nanotube supports the graphene sheets better than P25 particles, which would reduce the agglomeration of graphene sheets. rGO-TON have larger specific surface area (138.2 m2/g than rGO-P25 (79.4 m2/g. In this paper, ciprofloxacin was chosen as target pollutants, the rGO-TON obtain excellent adsorption capacity, and the maximum adsorption capacities of rGO-TON for ciprofloxacin calculated from Langmuir model are 178.6 mg/g (R2=0.9929, 181.8 mg/g (R2=0.9954, and 108.7 mg/g (R2=0.9964 for graphene oxide (GO, GO-TON, and GO-P25, respectively. In regeneration, the adsorption capacity of rGO-TON and rGO-P25 has little reduced after 5 cycles, while the adsorption capacity of rGO decreases to below 100 mg/g. Results of this work are of great significance for environmental applications of regenerable long TiO2 nanotube/graphene oxide hydrogel as a promising adsorbent nanomaterial for antibiotic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in turbot Scophthalmus maximus at two water temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Junping; LI Jian; ZHAO Fazhen; LIU Ping; CHANG Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus,an important aquaculture species in China,currently suffers from epizootic diseases because of high density aquaculture.Enrofloxacin has been used to treat various systemic bacterial fish infections.However,studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turbot are limited.In this study,the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin,were investigated in the turbot following intravenous and oral administration at 10 mg enrofloxacin/kg body weight,at 16℃ and 10℃ water temperatures.The concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the main tissues (plasma,muscle,liver and kidney) were detected by HPLC.The results show that the plasma concentration-time data for enrofloxacin were best described as a two-compartment open model after intravenous and oral administration.Three pharmacokinetic equations were established between the concentrations and temperatures.The kinetic profile of enrofloxacin was temperature dependent.The absorption half-life of enrofloxacin was 1.99 h and 2.17 h after oral administration,whereas the elimination half-life of the drug was 98.63 h and 136.59 h at 16℃ and 10℃,respectively.The peak concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma and tissues was higher at 16℃ than that at 10℃,and the peak plasma concentration time in the liver was the shortest at both temperatures among those of other tissues.The plasma Cmas/MIC ratio varied between 11.08 and 5 540.00 at 16℃; and between 7.92 and 3 960.00 at 10℃.The AUC/MIC ratio was 467.82-280 690.00 at 16C,and 359.48-215 690.00 at 10℃.These ratios indicate that it is possible to obtain therapeutic efficacy.Very low levels of ciprofloxacin were detected.The AUC ratios of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in plasma suggest that plasma ciprofloxacin might play a minor role in enrofloxacin treatment for turbot.

  7. Influence of Types and Charges of Exchangeable Cations on Ciprofloxacin Sorption by Montmorillonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qingfeng; LI Zhaohui; HONG Hanlie

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most important soil components,montmorillonite plays a vital role in transport and retention of organic pollutants in soils.Ciprofloxacin (CIP),an antibiotic of fluoroquiolones,has been frequently detected in water and soil environments due to its wide use in human and veterinary medicine.In this study,the adsorption of CIP onto different homoionic montmorillonite such as Na-,Ca- and Al-MMT was investigated,and the influence of types and charges of exchangeable cations in the interlayer of montmorillonite on CIP adsorption was evaluated.The results showed that different homoionic montmorillonite exhibited different sorption capacity of CIP.At pH 3,the sorption capacity of CIP decreased in the order Na-MMT > Ca-MMT > Al-MMT,following the lyotropic series.When solution pH increased to 11,the sorption capacity of CIP followed the order Ca-MMT > Al-MMT > Na-MMT.Accompanying CIP adsorption on Ca-MMT,a certain amount of Ca2+ was released into solution.Compared to pH 3,the lower Ca concentration in solution at pH 11 indicated that the adsorption of CIP on Ca-MMT at strong alkaline pH was no longer via cation exchange,and surface complexation or cation bridging might contribute to CIP adsorption.The adsorption of CIP on Na-and Ca-MMT at pH 3 and 11 resulted in the expansion of d-spacing,indicative of intercalation of CIP into the interlayer space of the montmorillonite.However,a decrease of d-spacing was observed when CIP adsorbed on Al-MMT at pH 11,which might be attributed to the dissolution of Al-CIP complex formed between CIP and Al3+ in the interlayer of montmorillonite.The results suggest that the types and charges of exchangeable cations in the interlayer of montmorillonite play an important role in CIP adsorption on montmorillonite.

  8. Application of Neem Gum for Aqueous Film Coating of Ciprofloxacin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Kulkarni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. At present the pharmaceutical industry and academia are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. In previous study, neem gum (NG, obtained from Azadirachata indica plant revealed satisfactory film forming ability. The present study evaluates the application potential of neem gum, as an aqueous film coating material, using ciprofloxacin hydrchloride (drug as a model drug. Initial study of physical mixture indicated absence of chemical interaction in between drug and NG. Aqueous coating solution of NG was optimized and consisted of neem gum (13.34%w/w, triethyl citrate (1.25%w/w, talc (0.25%w/w and titanium dioxide (0.17%w/w. The coating parameters such as pan revolutions (rpm, inlet air pressure, inlet temperature, and pan load were optimized. The uncoated and coated tablets were evaluated for hardness, disintegration time, dissolution, drug content. The coated tablets were subjected to accelerated stability conditions for 1 month and the results were compared with marketed drug tablet. Any coating defects, except surface roughness, were absent in case of NG coated tablets. NG coated tablets depicted satisfactory mechanical strength. Dissolution study of NG coated tablets depicted 90% of drug release in 10 minutes and 100% of drug release at 30minutes. Accelerated storage conditions didn’t affect the tablet hardness and % drug release. The coating process efficiency, coating uniformity and loss on drying confirmed that the coating solution was optimum and coating parameters were robust. Industrial relevance. A paradigm shift, from organic solvent-based to water-based film coating of pharmaceutical dosage forms, apparent in pharmaceutical industries, is due to Government regulation, high cost of the organic solvents, safety issues associated with the use of organic solvents. Currently, the commercially available edible coatings utilize synthetic cellulosic polymers namely

  9. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Munk Petersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. RESULTS: After successful colonization with the IBD associated E. coli strains in mice the introduction of E. coli Nissle did not result in eradication of either IBD associated strains or an E. coli from a healthy control, instead, co-colonization at high levels were obtained. Treatment of mice, precolonized with IBD associated E. coli, with ciprofloxacin for three days alone apparently resulted in effective eradication of tested E. coli. However, treatment of precolonized mice with a combination of ciprofloxacin for 3 days followed by E. coli Nissle surprisingly allowed one IBD associated E. coli to re-colonize the mouse intestine, but at a level 3 logs under E. coli Nissle. A prolonged treatment with ciprofloxacin for 7 days did not change this outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In the mouse model E. coli Nissle can not be used alone to eradicate IBD associated E. coli; rather, 3 days of ciprofloxacin are apparently efficient in eradicating these strains, but surprisingly, after ciprofloxacin treatment (3 or 7 days, the introduction of E. coli Nissle may support re-colonization with IBD associated E. coli.

  10. Impact of low-level fluoroquinolone resistance genes qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on ciprofloxacin treatment of isogenic Escherichia coli strains in a murine urinary tract infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Cattoir, Vincent; Jensen, Klaus S;

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on the ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI).......To study the impact of qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on the ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI)....

  11. Induction of Fibronectin Adhesins in Quinolone-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Subinhibitory Levels of Ciprofloxacin or by Sigma B Transcription Factor Activity Is Mediated by Two Separate Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongmei; Renzoni, Adriana; Estoppey, Tristan; Bisognano, Carmelo; Francois, Patrice; Kelley, William L; Lew, Daniel P.; Schrenzel, Jacques; Vaudaux, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported on the involvement of a RecA-LexA-dependent pathway in the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) by fluoroquinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The potential additional contribution of the transcription factor sigma B (SigB) to the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of FnBPs was studied in isogenic mutants of fluoroquinolone-resistant strain RA1 (a topoisomerase IV gyrase double mutant of S. aureus NCTC strain 8325), which exh...

  12. Performance and Verification of a Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting the gyrA Gene for Prediction of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemarajata, P; Yang, S; Soge, O O; Humphries, R M; Klausner, J D

    2016-03-01

    In the United States, 19.2% of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates are resistant to ciprofloxacin. We evaluated a real-time PCR assay to predict ciprofloxacin susceptibility using residual DNA from the Roche Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay. The results of the assay were 100% concordant with agar dilution susceptibility test results for 100 clinical isolates. Among 76 clinical urine and swab specimens positive for N. gonorrhoeae by the Cobas assay, 71% could be genotyped. The test took 1.5 h to perform, allowing the physician to receive results in time to make informed clinical decisions. PMID:26739156

  13. A Multi-Center Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Gatifloxacin versus Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Shigellosis in Vietnamese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Ha; Anh, Vo Thi Cuc; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Campbell, James I.; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Minh, Pham Van; Thuy, Cao Thu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Phuong, Le Thi; Loan, Ha Thi; Chinh, Mai Thu; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Mong, Bui Li; Bay, Phan Van Be; Day, Jeremy N.; Dolecek, Christiane; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Diep, To Song; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Baker, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial with two parallel arms at two hospitals in southern Vietnam. The study was designed as a superiority trial and children with dysentery meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Participants received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day) in a single daily dose for 3 days or ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day) in two divided doses for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure; secondary outcome measures were time to the cessation of individual symptoms. Four hundred and ninety four patients were randomized to receive either gatifloxacin (n  =  249) or ciprofloxacin (n  =  245), of which 107 had a positive Shigella stool culture. We could not demonstrate superiority of gatifloxacin and observed similar clinical failure rate in both groups (gatifloxacin; 12.0% and ciprofloxacin; 11.0%, p  =  0.72). The median (inter-quartile range) time from illness onset to cessation of all symptoms was 95 (66–126) hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 93 (68–120) hours for the ciprofloxacin recipients (Hazard Ratio [95%CI]  =  0.98 [0.82–1.17], p  =  0.83). Conclusions We conclude that in Vietnam, where nalidixic acid resistant Shigellae are highly prevalent, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin are similarly effective for the

  14. Participation of S. Typhimurium cysJIH Operon in the H2S-mediated Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Presence of Sulfate as Sulfur Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Álvarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available H2S production has been proposed as a mechanism to explain bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In this work, we present evidence for the role of the cysJIH operon in resistance to ciprofloxacin mediated by H2S production with different sulfate as the only sulfur source. We found that the products of the cysJIH operon are involved in ciprofloxacin resistance by increasing both, the levels of H2S and reduced thiols apparently counteracting antimicrobial-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS. This protective effect was observed only when bacteria were cultured in the presence of sulfate, but not with cysteine, as the sole sulfur source.

  15. Stability-indicating methods for the analysis of ciprofloxacin in the presence of its acid induced degradation product: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of its acidic degradation product. The methods under study are ratio derivative, ratio difference, mean centering and dual wavelength. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories.

  16. Prevalence and Subtypes of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Poultry Flocks before, during, and after Treatment with Fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom J.; Jørgensen, Frieda; Frost, Jennifer A.; Wadda, Haddy; Domingue, Gil; Elviss, Nicola C.; Griggs, Deborah J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler chicken flocks were treated with either difloxacin or enrofloxacin for a clinically relevant infection, as instructed by a veterinarian. Campylobacters were isolated from individual fecal samples and from samples associated with the broiler environment before, during, and after treatment. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and/or C. coli strains were detected pretreatment in four flocks, but they constituted a very small proportion of the campylobacters present. When the broilers were treated with a fluoroquinolone, a rapid increase in the proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacters was observed. During treatment nearly 100% of campylobacters were resistant, and in some flocks a high proportion of resistant strains persisted for up to 4 weeks after treatment. Prior to treatment a variety of campylobacter subtypes were present. During and after treatment considerable changes in both species and subtype prevalence were observed, but no single fluoroquinolone-resistant clone became dominant. Instead, resistant C. coli strains or a mixture of resistant C. coli and C. jejuni strains became dominant, whereas susceptible C. jejuni strains had usually been dominant prior to treatment. The resistant subtypes which emerged and became dominant were not always the same as those detected pretreatment. The persistence of resistant strains for up to 4 weeks posttreatment has important implications for any strategy designed to avoid the introduction of such strains into the food chain. PMID:15673753

  17. Hyperbranched polyethyleneimine induced cross-linking of polyamide-imide nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes for effective removal of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi Peng; Hatton, T Alan; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2011-05-01

    This study aims to develop a positively charged nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membrane for effective removal of ciprofloxacin from water. A novel NF membrane was fabricated by hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI) induced cross-linking on a polyamide-imide hollow fiber support. The spongy-like, fully porous membrane support provides minimal transport resistance and sufficient mechanical strengths for water permeation under high pressures. It is found that the PEI modification significantly influences NF performance through the mechanisms of size exclusion, charge repulsion, and solute-membrane affinity. Specifically, after PEI induced cross-linking, the membrane pore size is significantly reduced. The membrane surface becomes more hydrophilic and positively charged. As a result of these synergic effects, the rejection of ciprofloxacin is substantially enhanced. Furthermore, experimental results show that the molecular weight of PEI has tremendous effect on NF performance of the as-modified membrane. The NF membrane modified by a high molecular weight PEI_60K exhibits the highest rejection, the lowest fouling tendency, and keeps a constant flux over the whole pH range. This study may have great potential for developing high-performance antifouling NF hollow fiber membranes for various industrial applications. PMID:21456576

  18. Photochemical behavior of antibiotics impacted by complexation effects of concomitant metals: a case for ciprofloxacin and Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Yifei; Xie, Hongbin

    2015-07-01

    Many water bodies, especially those adjacent to aquaculture and livestock breeding areas, are contaminated by both antibiotics and transition metals. However, the effects of the interaction between antibiotics and transition metals on the environmental behavior and the ecotoxicology of antibiotics are largely unknown. We hypothesized that antibiotics may coordinately bind with metal ions, and this complexation may affect the environmental photochemical behavior of antibiotics. We took ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Cu(ii) as a case, and employed simulated sunlight experiments and density functional theory calculations to investigate the underlying reaction mechanisms. The results showed that monovalent cationic ciprofloxacin (H2CIP(+)) that is predominant in the normal pH range (6-9) of surface waters can chelate with hydrated Cu(ii) to form [Cu(H2CIP)(H2O)4](3+). Compared with H2CIP(+), [Cu(H2CIP)(H2O)4](3+) has different molecular orbitals, and atomic charge distribution. As a result, [Cu(H2CIP)(H2O)4](3+) showed dissimilar light absorption properties, slower direct photolytic rates, lower (1)O2 generation ability and weaker reactivity towards (1)O2. Due to the Cu(ii) complexation, the apparent photodegradation of H2CIP(+) was inhibited, and the photolytic pathways and product distribution were altered. This study implies that for an accurate ecological risk assessment of antibiotics under transition metal co-contamination conditions, the effects of metal complexation should be considered. PMID:26114263

  19. Effects of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the bacterial community structure and degradation of pyrene in marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological consequences of antibiotics in the aquatic environment have been an issue of concern over the past years due to the potential risk for negative effects on indigenous microorganisms. Microorganisms provide important ecosystem services, such as nutrient recycling, organic matter mineralization and degradation of pollutants. In this study, effects of exposure to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the bacterial diversity and pollutant degradation in natural marine sediments were studied using molecular methods (T-RFLP) in combination with radiorespirometry. In a microcosm experiment, sediment spiked with 14C-labelled pyrene was exposed to five concentrations of ciprofloxacin (0, 20, 200, 1000 and 2000 μg L-1) in a single dose to the overlying water. The production of 14CO2 (i.e. complete mineralization of pyrene) was measured during 11 weeks. Sediment samples for bacterial community structure analysis were taken after 7 weeks. Results showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of pyrene mineralization measured as the total 14CO2 production. The nominal EC50 was calculated to 560 μg L-1, corresponding to 0.4 μg/kg d.w. sediment. The lowest effect concentration on the bacterial community structure was 200 μg L-1, which corresponds to 0.1 μg/kg d.w. sediment. Our results show that antibiotic pollution can be a potential threat to both bacterial diversity and an essential ecosystem service they perform in marine sediment

  20. A comparison between doxycycline-rifampin and ciprofloxacin-rifampin regimens in the treatment of acute Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Erfanian Taghvaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis, a serious zoonosis, is a widespread disease in many countries, especially the developing ones, with an annual report of 500,000 new cases to the World Health Organization (WHO. Although successful results have been achieved by the combination therapies recommended by the WHO, their relapse rates have been high, and therefore, the most effective agents with least side-effects are still undetermined. Materials and Methods: An observational study has been prospectively carried out from 2007 to 2010 in the Infectious Clinics of Hashemi-nejad and Imam Reza Hospitals, Mashhad, Iran. In this study, among the patients of brucellosis, whose diseases were recently diagnosed, 50 patients, receiving one of the two common authentic regimens of doxycycline plus rifampin for eight weeks or ciprofloxacin plus rifampin for six weeks, were selected. The diagnosis was based on the presence of signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis, including a positive Wright and 2ME tests, with titers equal to or more than 1/160 and 1/40 respectively. Results: The cure rate was the same for the groups (P=0.55. However, the relapse rate was much more for the latter (P= 0.02. Conclusion: Doxycycline plus rifampin was considered better than ciprofloxacin plus rifampin for the treatment of acute brucellosis.

  1. Evaluation of the Influence of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in the Development of an Old World Screwworm Fly, Chrysomya putoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Filho, Renato Geraldo da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/ replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neo-larvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α = 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chi-squared test (χ2). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the post-embryonic period. PMID:25373150

  2. Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility in Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi infections in ill-returned travellers: the impact on clinical outcome and future treatment options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassing, R.J.; Goessens, W.H.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Mouton, J.W.; Verbon, A.; Genderen, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A, B or C limits treatment options. We studied the impact of DCS isolates on the fate of travellers returning with enteric fever and possible alternative treatment options. We eva

  3. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis In Vitro and in an Experimental Model of Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chacon-Moreno, Brenda Edith; Welsh, Oliverio; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; de la Luz Salazar-Cavazos, Maria; Garza-Lozano, Hector Gerardo; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis was evaluated by applying 25 mg of each drug/kg subcutaneously every 8 h in BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. A statistically significant difference was observed only with moxifloxacin. A moxifloxacin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was as active as when each compound was used alone.

  4. Comparative Activity of Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Assessed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations and Time-Kill Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Antoine; Schramm, Frédéric; Kleinberg, Magali; Jehl, François

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to three fluoroquinolones. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were examined by E-test® for a total of 40 K. pneumoniae strains, 40 S. maltophilia strains and 40 P. aeruginosa strains. Then, the bactericidal activity of these fluoroquinolones was investigated on five strains of each bacterial species by means of time-kill curves. For K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, the distance of the measured MIC from the clinical break-point is a good indicator of the bactericidal activity for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin as obtained in our experiments. The lower the MIC, the better the bactericidal activity in term of CFU Log decreases. If MIC of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against the considered bacteria are far from clinical breakpoint, these two antibiotics are equivalent. According to our MIC50 and modal MIC, the breakpoints of both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin seem to be somewhat high and data suggest reducing them. On S. maltophilia, none of the tested antibiotics showed a satisfactory activity. PMID:27257956

  5. The Assessment of Proteus mirabilis Susceptibility to Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin and the Impact of These Antibiotics at Subinhibitory Concentrations on Proteus mirabilis Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rods of the Proteus genus are commonly isolated from patients, especially from the urinary tracts of the catheterised patients. The infections associated with biomaterials are crucial therapeutic obstacles, due to the bactericidal resistance of the biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of P. mirabilis planktonic forms to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime, the ability to form biofilm, and the impact of chosen sub-MIC concentrations of these antibiotics on biofilm at different stages of its formation. The research included 50 P. mirabilis strains isolated from wounds and the urinary tracts from patients of the University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz. The assessment of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime was conducted using micromethods. The impact of sub-MIC concentrations of the chosen antibiotics on the biofilm was measured using the TTC method. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was confirmed for 20 strains (40.0% while to ceftazidime for 32 (64.0% of the tested P. mirabilis strains. All of the tested strains formed biofilm: 24.0% weakly, 26.0% moderately, and 50.0% strongly. It was determined that ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime caused eradication of the biofilm. Moreover, the connection between origin of the strains, biofilm maturity level, and resistance to antibiotics was proved.

  6. An imaging analysis of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) uptake in S. aureus infected thighs of rabbits on ciprofloxacin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 99mTc-UBI (29-41) was evaluated at sites of bacterial infections in rabbits before and after treatment with ciprofloxacin. Staphylococcus aureus susceptible to ciprofloxacin was used to induce a focal infection in each rabbit of group 1 (G1), group 2 (G2), and group 3 (G3) with 2 x 104, 2 x 106, and 2 x 108 colony forming units (CFU), respectively. After 24 h, images of infected thighs (target: T) and contralateral thighs (nontarget: NT) were acquired. Animals then received ciprofloxacin intramuscularly for 5 days followed by imaging on the third and fifth days. The control group 4 (G4) was imaged at days 1, 3, and 5 under the same acquisition parameters. Group 5 (G5) was employed to study biodistribution of the peptide. Increases in (T/NT) ratios in G1, G2, and G3 were observed from 5 min onwards with maximum values at 60 min. G3 revealed the highest accumulation of the peptide. Growth of the same strain of S. aureus on blood agar medium was visualized after fine needle aspiration. After ciprofloxacin treatment, the images for G1-G3 resulted in significantly decreased (P 99m Tc-UBI (29-41) accumulation directly correlates with the number of viable bacteria. This infection localization agent can be utilized for monitoring efficacy and duration of antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  7. A novel validated stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for estimation of degradation behavior of ciprofloxacin and tinidazole in solid oral dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendrasinh K Vaghela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of current investigation was to study the degradation behavior of Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole. The study was performed as per International Conference on Harmonization recommended stress condition. A novel stability-indicating reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the determination of Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole purity in the presence of its impurities and forced degradation products. This method is also capable to separate placebo peaks as well in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The solid oral dosage form was subjected to the stress conditions such as oxidative, acid, base hydrolysis, heat and photolytic degradation. Materials and Methods: The method was developed using Waters symmetry shield, Reverse Phase (RP C18, 250mm x 4.6mm, 5΅ as a stationary phase. The mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A and B. 10mM phosphate buffer, adjusted pH 3.0 with phosphoric acid was used as a buffer. Buffer pH 3.0 was used as solvent A and buffer pH 3.0: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 20: 80 v/v were used as solvent B. The eluted compounds were monitored 278 nm (Ciprofloxacin, 317 nm (Tinidazole. The run time was 50 minute. Results: In the precision study the % RSD for the result of Ciprofloxacin, Tinidazole and its impurities was below 10%. The method was linear with the correlation coefficient greater than 0.997. The percentage recoveries were calculated and observed from 93.0% to 106.7%.The peak purity of Ciprofloxacin, Tinidazole peak had not shown any flag, thus proved the stability-indicating power of the method. Conclusion: The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness.

  8. Presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants and mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase in Salmonella enterica isolates with resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Monique Ribeiro Tiba; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Soares, Flávia Barrosa; da Silveira, Wanderley Dias; Fernandes, Sueli Aparecida

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of resistance to nalidixic acid are usually associated with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella serotypes. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms associated with resistance to fluoroquinolone and the clonal relatedness of Salmonella strains isolated from human and nonhuman origins, in a 5-year period in São Paulo, Brazil. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Salmonella isolates was performed. PCR and DNA sequencing were accomplished to identify mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the topoisomerase genes and to determine the fluoroquinolone determinants. The strains presented MIC to ciprofloxacin ranging from 0.125 to 8.0 mg/L (all nonsusceptible). From these, 16 strains (17.5%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥1 mg/L) and belonging to serotypes Typhimurium, I. 4,5,12:i:-, Enteritidis, and Heidelberg. Amplification and DNA sequencing of topoisomerases genes identified multiple amino acid substitutions in GyrA and ParC. No mutations were identified in GyrB, and 1 amino acid substitution was identified in ParE. Among the 16 Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin, 8 S. I. 4,5,12:i:- presenting mutations in gyrA and parE genes were grouped into the same pulsotype. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants: qnrB, aac(6')-lb-cr, and oqxA/B were detected among 13 strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to report Salmonella isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin in Brazil. Indeed, this is the first detection of PMQR determinants in Salmonella strains from Sao Paulo State. These findings alert for the potential spread of quinolone resistance of Salmonella strains, particularly in S. I. 4,5,12:i:-, a prevalent serotype implicated in human disease and foodborne outbreaks. PMID:26971183

  9. Characterization and ciprofloxacin adsorption properties of activated carbons prepared from biomass wastes by H3PO4 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Li, Hong; Li, Guangci; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Xuebing

    2016-10-01

    As biomass wastes, Arundo donax Linn and pomelo peel were used as precursors for activated carbons (ALAC and PPAC) preparation by phosphoric acid activation. The pore structure and surface acidic functional groups of both carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiment, NH3-temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A batch of experiments was carried out to investigate the adsorption performances of ciprofloxacin under different conditions. Results showed that PPAC exhibited larger surface area (1252m(2)/g) and larger portion of mesoporous, while ALAC was typical of microporous materials. Results from NH3-TPD suggested that ALAC was characteristic of more acidic functional group than PPAC. The maximum monolayer adsorption capability was 244mg/g for ALAC and 400mg/L for PPAC. Kinetics studies showed intra-particle diffusion was not the unique rate-controlling step. Boundary layer resistance existed between adsorbent and adsorbate. PMID:27034157

  10. Antimicrobial activity and synergism of Sami-Hyanglyun-Hwan with ciprofloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jang-Gi; Choi; Ji-Young; Choi; Su-Hyun; Mun; Ok-Hwa; Kang; Preeti; Bharaj; Dong-Won; Shin; Myong-Soo; Chong; Dong-Yeul; Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity of SHHextracted with either water or ethanol against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and combinatory antimicrobial effect with ciprofloxacin(CIP) by time kill assay and checkerboard dilution test. Methods: The antibacterial activity determined by broth dilution method indicated that the antibacterial activity of Sami-Hyanglyun-Hwan(SHH) water extract(SHHW) and SHH ethanol extract(SHHE) ranged from 250 to 2000 μg/m L and 125 to 1000 μg/m L against MRSA, respectively. Results: In the checkerboard method, the combinations of SHHE with CIP had a partial synergistic or synergistic effect against MRSA. The time-kill curves showed that a combined SHHE and CIP treatment reduced the bacterial counts dramatically after 24 h. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the therapeutic ability of SHHE against MRSA infections.

  11. IR, 1H NMR, mass, XRD and TGA/DTA investigations on the ciprofloxacin/iodine charge-transfer complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Hawary, W. F.; Moussa, Mohamed A. A.

    2011-05-01

    The charge-transfer complex (CTC) of ciprofloxacin drug (CIP) as a donor with iodine (I 2) as a sigma acceptor has been studied spectrophotometrically in CHCl 3. At maximum absorption bands, the stoichiometry of CIP:iodine system was found to be 1:1 ratio according to molar ratio method. The essential spectroscopic data like formation constant ( KCT), molar extinction coefficient ( ɛCT), standard free energy (Δ G°), oscillator strength ( f), transition dipole moment ( μ), resonance energy ( RN) and ionization potential ( ID) were estimated. The spectroscopic techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, mass and UV-vis spectra and elemental analyses (CHN) as well as TG-DTG and DTA investigations were used to characterize the chelating behavior of CIP/iodine charge-transfer complex. The iodine CT interaction was associated with a presence of intermolecular hydrogen bond. The X-ray investigation was carried out to investigate the iodine doping in the synthetic CT complex.

  12. Alginate/chitosan based bi-layer composite membrane as potential sustained-release wound dressing containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Dong, Yang; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran; Li, Sanming

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this research were to develop and evaluate a novel ciprofloxacin hydrochloride loaded bi-layer composite membrane based on alginate and chitosan. In vitro antimicrobial activity, drug permeation study, morphology, cytotoxicity, primary skin irritation and in vivo pharmacodynamics were investigated. Results showed that the membranes could inhibit the growth of microorganisms for longer than 7 days. And there was no significant decrease in the metabolic activity of the Hacat fibroblasts cells were treated with the membranes. No edema and erythema were observed after administration of membranes on the rabbit skin after 14 days. Moreover, the results of pharmacodynamics showed that the membranes were more effective in improving the wound healing process. In conclusion, a novel bi-layer composite membrane was developed and results suggested that it could be exploited as sustained-release wound dressings.

  13. In vitro killing of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin in combination with its active metabolite ciprofloxacin using clinically relevant drug concentrations in the dog and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, J M; Borsos, S; Blondeau, L D; Blondeau, B J

    2012-03-23

    Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent used to treat infections in companion animals. Enrofloxacin's antimicrobial spectrum includes Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria and demonstrates concentration-dependent bacteriocidal activity. In dogs and cats, enrofloxacin is partially metabolized to ciprofloxacin and both active agents circulate simultaneously in treated animals at ratios of approximately 60-70% enrofloxacin to 30-40% ciprofloxacin. We were interested in determining the killing of companion animal isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin combined using clinically relevant drug concentrations and ratios. For E. coli isolates exposed to 2.1 and 4.1μg/ml of enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin at 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 ratios, a 1.7-2.5log(10) reduction (94-99% kill) was seen following 20min of drug exposure; 0.89-1.7log(10) (92-99% kill) of S. pseudintermedius following 180min of drug exposure; 0.85-3.4log(10) (98-99% kill) of P. aeruginosa following 15min of drug exposure. Killing of S. pseudintermedius was enhanced in the presence of enrofloxacin whereas killing of P. aeruginosa was enhanced in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Antagonism was not seen when enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were used in kill assays. The unique feature of partial metabolism of enrofloxacin to ciprofloxacin expands the spectrum of enhanced killing of common companion animal pathogens. PMID:21925810

  14. Presence of qnr gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to ciprofloxacin isolated from pediatric patients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chuanqing

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae results mainly from mutations in type II DNA topoisomerase genes and/or changes in the expression of outer membrane and efflux pumps. Several recent studies have indicated that plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms also play a significant role in fluoroquinolone resistance, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In China, the presence of the qnr gene in the clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae has been reported, but this transmissible quinolone resistance gene has not been detected in strains isolated singly from pediatric patients. Because quinolones associated with a variety of adverse side effects on children, they are not authorized for pediatric use. This study therefore aimed to investigate the presence of the qnr gene in clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae from pediatric patients in China. Methods A total 213 of non-repetitive clinical isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin from E. coli and K. pneumoniae were collected from hospitalized patients at five children's hospital in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chongqing. The isolates were screened for the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes of qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS by PCR. Transferability was examined by conjugation with the sodium azide-resistant E. coli J53. All qnr-positive were analyzed for clonality by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR. Results The study found that 19 ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were positive for the qnr gene, and most of the qnr positive strains were ESBL producers. Conjugation experiments showed that quinolone resitance could be transferred to recipients. Apart from this, different DNA banding patterns were obtained by ERIC-PCR from positive strains, which means that most of them were not clonally related. Conclusion This report on transferable fluoroquinolone resistance due to the qnr gene among E. coli and K

  15. The worldwide spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C-S; Izumiya, H; Kawamura, M; Liao, Y-S; Su, Y-S; Wu, H-H; Chen, W-C; Lo, Y-C

    2016-04-01

    Ciprofloxacin-resistant shigellosis outbreaks among men who have sex with men (MSM) have not been reported in Asia. During 3 March to 6 May 2015, the Notifiable Disease Surveillance System detected nine non-imported Shigella sonnei infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected Taiwanese MSM. We conducted a molecular epidemiological investigation using a 1 : 5 matched case-control study and laboratory characterizations for the isolates. Of the nine patients, four reported engagement in oral-anal sex before illness onset. Shigellosis was associated with a syphilis report within 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.6; 95% CI 1.05-70.3) and no HIV outpatient follow-up within 12 months (aOR 22.3; 95% CI 2.5-201). Shigella sonnei isolates from the nine patients were all ciprofloxacin-resistant and the resistance was associated with S83L and D87G mutations in gyrA and S80I mutation in parC. The nine outbreak isolates were discriminated into two closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes and seven 8-locus multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA8) types that suggest multiple sources of infections for the outbreak and possible under-recognition of infection among Taiwanese MSM. The outbreak isolates were characterized to be variants of the intercontinentally transmitted SS18.1 clone, which falls into the globally prevalent phylogenetic sub-lineage IIIb. Inter-database pattern similarity searching indicated that the two PFGE genotypes had emerged in the USA and Japan. The epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak suggest roles of risky sexual behaviours or networks in S. sonnei transmission. We urge enhanced surveillance and risk-reduction interventions regionally against the interplay of HIV and shigellosis among MSM. PMID:26806133

  16. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin in clinically selected patients suspected for peripherial osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis and fever of unknown origin: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Retrospective evaluation of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin (infecton) scintigraphy consecutively performed in a series of patients clinically suspected for peripheral osteomyelitis (OM), spondylodiscitis (SD) and fever of unknown origin (FUO). Methods: A total of 20 patients clinically suspected for OM (n = 12), SD (n = 3) and FUO (n = 5) were included in our retrospective analysis. The additional criterion was a positive 3-phase bone scan for OM, or a 2-phase bone scan in case of SD. Planar whole body scans and static acquisitions were performed 1 and 4 h after application of 370 MBq Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. In 10 patients with suspected OM, additional immunoscintigraphy using Tc-99m labelled monoclonal antibodies (Mab BW 250/183) was performed and the correlation of infecton to bloodpool and antigranulocyte scintigraphy was analysed. Results: OM: Bacterial infection was confirmed in 8 of 15 lesions. Infecton demonstrated true positive (TP) results in 7 of 8, true negative (TN) results in 2 of 7, false positive (FP) results in 5 of 7 patients and one false negative (FN) result. A strong correlation could be demonstrated between T/NT ratios of infecton and bloodpool Tc-99m medronate imaging (r = 0.84, 0.88) and between infecton and BW 250/183 (r = 0.92, 0.90). Using a threshold of 2.0 for T/NT ratio, only TP results could be observed whereas a T/NT in the range of 1.0-2.0 could not discriminate between septic and aseptic inflammation. Concordant results with Mab BW 250/183 could only be observed in 5 of 10 patients (4 TP, 1 TN) by showing 4 FP and 1 FN lesions with IF. Conclusion: Non-specific uptake of infecton can be observed in a variety of clinical situations with moderate uptake, by showing a strong correlation with blood-pool imaging. Nevertheless, intense uptake may be specific for septic inflammation. (orig.)

  17. Effects of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the bacterial community structure and degradation of pyrene in marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Johan [Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: johan@ecology.su.se; Hedman, Jenny E.; Agestrand, Cecilia [Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-11-21

    The ecological consequences of antibiotics in the aquatic environment have been an issue of concern over the past years due to the potential risk for negative effects on indigenous microorganisms. Microorganisms provide important ecosystem services, such as nutrient recycling, organic matter mineralization and degradation of pollutants. In this study, effects of exposure to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the bacterial diversity and pollutant degradation in natural marine sediments were studied using molecular methods (T-RFLP) in combination with radiorespirometry. In a microcosm experiment, sediment spiked with {sup 14}C-labelled pyrene was exposed to five concentrations of ciprofloxacin (0, 20, 200, 1000 and 2000 {mu}g L{sup -1}) in a single dose to the overlying water. The production of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} (i.e. complete mineralization of pyrene) was measured during 11 weeks. Sediment samples for bacterial community structure analysis were taken after 7 weeks. Results showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of pyrene mineralization measured as the total {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production. The nominal EC{sub 50} was calculated to 560 {mu}g L{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.4 {mu}g/kg d.w. sediment. The lowest effect concentration on the bacterial community structure was 200 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which corresponds to 0.1 {mu}g/kg d.w. sediment. Our results show that antibiotic pollution can be a potential threat to both bacterial diversity and an essential ecosystem service they perform in marine sediment.

  18. 不溶性腐殖酸对环丙沙星吸附的研究%Study on adsorption of ciprofloxacin to insoluble humic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武庭瑄; 陈慧

    2012-01-01

    制备了两类不溶性腐殖酸(IHA),采用批平衡吸附试验方法探讨了水体中环丙沙星在IHA上的吸附特性.结果表明,两类IHA对环丙沙星的吸附行为均可用Freudlich等温方程描述,但钙型IHA对环丙沙星的吸附能力远强于铝型IHA.同时考察了IHA投加量、吸附时间、离子强度以及pH值对吸附的影响.在pH=5.5,环丙沙星质量浓度为15 mg/L时,钙型IHA对环丙沙星的吸附率可达95.3%,比铝型IHA吸附率高2.13倍;吸附进行24h后基本达到平衡;随着溶液中离子强度的增加,环丙沙星在钙型IHA表面的吸附量逐渐减小,吸附以阳离子交换作用为主;在pH=5.0~9.0的范围内,钙型IHA对环丙沙星的吸附系数逐渐减小,但并非呈线性下降关系.%The present paper has investigated the removal of ciprofloxacin from the aqueous solutions via its adsorption to insoluble humic acid (IHA) at different pH values and ionic strength. As is known, insoluble humic acid enjoys an excellent adsorptive ability, which can be cultivated by heating the highly soluble humic acid at 330 ℃ and then treated with 2 mol/L CaCl2 solution or 2 mol/L A1C13. Batch equilibrium experiments were used to reveal ciprofloxacin adsorption on two insoluble humic acids. The results show that the adsorption of isotherms can be well defined by using the Freundlich model and ciprofloxacin, for it tends to be adsorbed more strongly on the insoluble humic acid of calcium type than on the acid of aluminum type. At the same time, we have also investigated the effects of adding volume, time, pH value and ionic strength on the adsorptive behavior of ciprofloxacin. It can thus be said that the adsorptive capacity tends to decrease in a nonlinear relation with the increase of the ionic strength and pH value. The greatest removal efficiency of ciprofloxacin by insoluble humic acid of calcium type turns out to be as high as 95.3% in aqueous solutions at pH = 5.5, 2.13 times as high as that done

  19. Study on the supramolecular systems of ciprofloxacin with cyclodextrins%环丙沙星与环糊精超分子体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红芬; 侯晓峰; 梁蕾

    2012-01-01

    利用荧光光谱法研究了环丙沙星与母体β-环糊精(β-CD)及其2种修饰衍生物羟丙基-β-环糊精(Hp-β-CD)、甲基-β-环糊精(Me-β-CD)形成的超分子体系,同时测定了3种超分子体系的猝灭常数和热力学参数.结果表明:环丙沙星与3种环糊精之间常温下均形成稳定的包合物;环丙沙星与3种环糊精包结过程中△G<0和△H<0,这说明环丙沙星与3种环糊精的包结能够自发进行而形成超分子体系,且反应为放热过程.通过对3种环糊精与环丙沙星的热力学数包结能力进行了比较,初步探讨了作用机理和影响包结能力大小的可能因素.%The supramolecular systems of ciprofloxacin with β-CD, Me-β-CD and Hp-β-CD have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy respectively, and the binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters of ciprofloxacin with three above mentioned CDs were all determined by fluorescence spectroscopy at different temperatures. The experimental result showed the interaction between ciprofloxacin and three CDs occurred and new supramolecular systems were formed. Inclusion ability between ciprofloxacin and three CDs was compared. The AG and ΔH of the three supramolecular systems all reduced, the supramolecular systems of ciprofloxacin with three CDs formed spontaneously. The inclusion ability of modified Me-β-CD and Hp-β-CD with ciprofloxacin is stronger than that of native β-CD.

  20. Radiation cross-linked carboxymethyl sago pulp hydrogels loaded with ciprofloxacin: Influence of irradiation on gel fraction, entrapped drug and in vitro release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP) with 0.4 DS, viscosity 184 dl/g and molecular weight 76,000 g/mol was synthesized from sago waste. 10 and 20% w/v solutions of CMSP were irradiated at 10–30 kGy to form hydrogels and were characterized by % gel fraction (GF). Irradiation of 20% CMSP using 25 kGy has produced stable hydrogels with the highest % GF and hence loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl. Drug-loaded hydrogels were produced by irradiating the mixture of drug and 20% CMSP solution at 25 kGy. After irradiation, the hydrogels were cut into circular discs with a diameter of 6±1 mm and evaluated for physicochemical properties as well as drug release kinetics. The ciprofloxacin loading in the disc was 14.7%±1 w/w with an entrapment efficiency of 73.5% w/w. The low standard deviation of drug-loaded discs indicated uniform thickness (1.5±0.3 mm). The unloaded discs were thinner (1±0.4 mm) and more brittle than the drug-loaded discs. FESEM, FT-IR, XRD, DSC and TGA analysis revealed the absence of polymer–drug interaction and transformation of crystalline to amorphous form of ciprofloxacin in the discs. The disc sustained the drug release in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 over 36 h in a first-order manner. The mechanism of the drug release was found to be swelling controlled diffusion and matrix erosion. The anti-bacterial effect of ciprofloxacin was retained after irradiation and CMSP disc could be a promising device for ocular drug delivery. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP) with ciprofloxacin is irradiated to form hydrogels. • 20% CMSP at 25 kGy has produced stable hydrogels with the highest gel fraction. • Crystalline ciprofloxacin converted as amorphous during hydrogel formation. • Hydrogel in disc form sustained the drug release drug up to 36 h. • Irradiation cross-linked polymeric chain of CMSP resulted in controlled swelling

  1. Comparative Activities of Clinafloxacin, Grepafloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, and Trovafloxacin and Nonquinolones Linozelid, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, Gentamicin, and Vancomycin against Clinical Isolates of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Mark E.; Visser, Maarten R.; Klootwijk, Miriam; Heisig, Peter; Verhoef, Jan; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    1999-01-01

    The activities of eight fluoroquinolones and linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin (Synercid), gentamicin, and vancomycin were tested against 96 ciprofloxacin-susceptible and 205 ciprofloxacin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Overall, clinafloxacin, followed by moxifloxacin and trovafloxacin, was the most active quinolone tested. For all isolates, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin showed activities that were at least comparable to vancomycin, with no cross-resistance to any other...

  2. Determination of the etiological organism during acute exacerbations of COPD and efficacy of azithromycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor. Turkish Thoracic Society COPD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umut, S; Tutluoglu, B; Aydin Tosun, G; Müsellim, B; Erk, M; Yildirim, N; Vahapoglu, H; Yilmaz, N; Arseven, O; Türker, H; Erelel, M; Ilvan, A; Göylüsün, V; Yilmaz Kuyucu, T; Koşar, F; Soysal, F; Gür, A; Unutmaz, S; Oztürk, S; Akman, M

    1999-06-01

    Acute exacerbations, most of which are due to lower respiratory tract infections, cause great morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most of these are due to lower respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the causative organism and the effects of azithromycin, ampicillin sulbactam (sultamicillin), ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate therapy in COPD. One hundred and six patients with COPD in acute exacerbation were randomized into four groups for empiric antibiotic treatment following lung function tests and sputum examination. The most common strains isolated from sputum were Haemophilus influenzae (30.8%), Streptoccocus pneumoniae (12%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (7.7%). Azithromycin, sultamicillin, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate were found to be effective in treating COPD exacerbations. PMID:10435684

  3. Simultaneous separation/enrichment and detection of trace ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacin in food samples using thermosensitive smart polymers aqueous two-phase flotation system combined with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Chen, Bo; Yu, Miao; Han, Juan; Wang, Yun; Tan, Zhenjiang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-11-01

    Smart polymer aqueous two phase flotation system (SPATPF) is a new separation and enrichment technology that integrated the advantages of the three technologies, i.e., aqueous two phase system, smart polymer and flotation sublation. Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide copolymer (EOPO)-(NH4)2SO4 SPATPF is a pretreatment technique, and it is coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography to analyze the trace ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacin in real food samples. The optimized conditions of experiment were determined in the multi-factor experiment by using response surface methodology. The flotation efficiency of lomefloxacin and ciprofloxacin was 94.50% and 98.23% under the optimized conditions. The recycling experimentsshowed that the smart polymer EOPO could use repeatedly, which will reduce the cost in the future application. PMID:27211613

  4. Comparison of efficacy and tolerance of intravenously and orally administered ciprofloxacin in cystic fibrosis patients with acute exacerbations of lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandvik, B; Hjelte, L; Lindblad, A; Ljungberg, B; Malmborg, A S; Nilsson-Ehle, I

    1989-01-01

    Twenty patients (17-27 yr) with cystic fibrosis were given ciprofloxacin at 30 pulmonary infectious exacerbations. All patients were chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twenty-five courses were completed, 13 orally (15 mg/kg b.i.d.) and 12 intravenously (4-6 mg/kg b.i.d.). Clinical efficacy was excellent or good in 85-90% of the courses and growth of P. aeruginosa was markedly reduced in 33-46%. Body weight and clinical score improved significantly. White blood cell count decreased and pulmonary function was improved. Reversible adverse effects, mainly rash and urticaria, appeared at seven occasions, five severe enough to cause interruption of treatment. Clinical efficacy and tolerance were better with oral than intravenous administration at the dosages used in this study. Excellent bioavailability provides additional basis for oral treatment with ciprofloxacin in cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:2756354

  5. 环丙沙星在潮土中的吸附特性%Adsorption Characteristics of Ciprofloxacin in Ustic Cambosols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔皓; 王淑平

    2012-01-01

    为了探明环丙沙星在潮土中的吸附特性,采用静态吸附试验,研究了环丙沙星在潮土中的吸附动力学、等温吸附特性以及pH值对其吸附过程的影响.结果表明,环丙沙星在潮土中的吸附过程可分为快速吸附和慢速平衡2个阶段.整个吸附过程符合二级反应动力学方程,吸附常数为1.138×10-3~2.849×10-2kg.(min.mg)-1.环丙沙星的吸附等温线能够较好地符合Freundlich方程和Langmuir方程,其中Freundlich方程的拟合效果更佳,吸附容量(lgKf)为2.725.研究发现,在pH值为4~9条件下,环丙沙星的吸附参数对数值lgKd呈随pH的增加先增加后降低的趋势,当pH值为5时,潮土对环丙沙星的吸附效果最好,lgKd为3.11,强酸性和碱性条件均不利于潮土对环丙沙星的吸附.由此推断阳离子吸附可能是潮土对环丙沙星吸附的重要机制之一.%In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of ciprofloxacin in ustic cambosols,static adsorption experiments were used to investigate dynamic and isothermal adsorption characteristics of ciprofloxacin in ustic cambosols,influence of pH on the adsorption process.Results showed that the absorption process of ciprofloxacin can be divided into two stages: fast adsorption and slow balance.The adsorption processes followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics,with adsorption rate of 1.138×10-3-2.849×10-2 kg·(min·mg)-1.Adsorption isotherms of ciprofloxacin in ustic cambosols were well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir equation,Freundlich equation is more applicable than Langmuir equation,with the adsorption capacity(lgKf) of 2.725.Moreover,at the tested pH interval of 4-9,lgKdvalues of ciprofloxacin increased and then decreased with the increase of pH in ustic cambosols;the maximum adsorption of ciprofloxacin in ustic cambosols can be obtained when the pH value was 5 with lgKd value was 3.11;strong acid or alkali conditions were unfavorable to ciprofloxacin

  6. POPULATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF ENROFLOXACIN AND ITS METABOLITE CIPROFLOXACIN IN THE GREEN SEA URCHIN (STRONGYLOCENTROTUS DROEBACHIENSIS) FOLLOWING INTRACOELOMIC AND IMMERSION ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brianne E; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A; Lahner, Lesanna L; Haulena, Martin; Rosenberg, Justin F; Papich, Mark G

    2016-03-01

    Sea urchin mass mortality events have been attributed to both infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Bacteria, including Vibrio spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp., have been isolated during specific mortality events. Aquarium collection sea urchins are also subject to bacterial infections and could benefit from antimicrobial treatment, but pharmacokinetic studies have been lacking for this invertebrate group until recently. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) after intracoelomic injection and medicated bath immersion administration. The utility of a population pharmacokinetic method using nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NLME) was also evaluated. Thirty sea urchins were assigned to either the injection or immersion group. Twelve study animals and three untreated controls were utilized for each administration method: enrofloxacin 10 mg/kg intracoelomic injection or a 6-hr enrofloxacin 10 mg/L immersion. Each animal was sampled four times from 0 to 120 hr. Water samples were collected during immersion treatment and posttreatment time points in both groups. Hemolymph and water sample drug concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using an NLME population pharmacokinetic method. Enrofloxacin concentrations were fit to a two-compartment model with first-order input for the intracoelomic injection group. The enrofloxacin elimination half-life (t½), peak hemolymph concentration (CMAX), and area under the curve (AUC) were 38.82 hr, 90.92 μg/ml, and 1,199 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Enrofloxacin was modeled to a one-compartment model with first-order input for the immersion treatment. The enrofloxacin t½, CMAX, and AUC were 33.46 hr, 0.48 μg/ml, and 32.88 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Ciprofloxacin was detected in trace concentrations in all hemolymph samples, indicating

  7. The Study of Synergistic Effects of n.butanolic Cyclamen coum Extract and Ciprofloxacin on inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahya abdi ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm are the major causes of death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Some studies revealed that biofilms are resistant to several antibiotics because of their impermeable structures. In order to re-sensitize bacteria to different antibiotics, biofilm formation should be inhibited. In this research, evaluation of antibiofilm activity of n-butanolic Cyclamen coum extract as a medici­nal plant from Myrsinaceae family, in combination with ciprofloxacin was carried out.   Materials and method s: The biofilm formation ability by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and one clinically isolated P. aeruginosa (PA214 was confirmed by microtiter plate method. Extraction of the tubers of Cyclamen coum was done by fractionation method . The antibiofilm and antibacterial properties of n-butanolic C. coum extract (which includes saponin compounds alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin by using microdilution and crystal violet methods were examined. The cytotoxicity effect of the n-butanolic extract on HT-29 cells was assayed by MTT (3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide test.   Results : The biofilm formation ability by P. aeruginosa strains was quantitatively confirmed. Saponin content of the n-butanolic C.coum extract was 156 µg/mL. The extract revealed antibacterial activity against the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa strains. The combination of n-butanolic C.coum extract and ciprofloxacin significantly inhibited P.aeruginosa biofilm formation (ΣFBIC = 0.5. The n-butanolic C.coum extract showed insignificant cytotoxic effect against HT-29 human cancer cell line after 48 hours and 72 hours incubation .   Discussion and conclusion : It can be concluded that n-butanolic C.coum extract in combination with ciprofloxacin significantly revealed antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilm however, further clinical investigations are required.

  8. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated E. coli with Ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2011-01-01

    Background E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intesti...

  9. Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, and Ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Evaluation of In Vitro and Pharmacodynamic Indices That Best Predict In Vivo Efficacy▿

    OpenAIRE

    Shandil, Radha K.; Jayaram, Ramesh; Kaur, Parvinder; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Suresh, B. L.; Mahesh, B. N.; Jayashree, R.; Nandi, Vrinda; Bharath, Sowmya; V. Balasubramanian

    2006-01-01

    Members of the fluoroquinolone class are being actively evaluated for inclusion in tuberculosis chemotherapy regimens, and we sought to determine the best in vitro and pharmacodynamic predictors of in vivo efficacy in mice. MICs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were 0.1 mg/liter (sparfloxacin [SPX]) and 0.5 mg/liter (moxifloxacin [MXF], ciprofloxacin [CIP], and ofloxacin [OFX]). The unbound fraction in the presence of murine serum was concentration dependent for MXF, OFX, SPX, and CIP. In...

  10. The Assessment of Proteus mirabilis Susceptibility to Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin and the Impact of These Antibiotics at Subinhibitory Concentrations on Proteus mirabilis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg; Krzysztof Skowron; Katarzyna Zniszczol; Eugenia Gospodarek

    2013-01-01

    Rods of the Proteus genus are commonly isolated from patients, especially from the urinary tracts of the catheterised patients. The infections associated with biomaterials are crucial therapeutic obstacles, due to the bactericidal resistance of the biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of P. mirabilis planktonic forms to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime, the ability to form biofilm, and the impact of chosen sub-MIC concentrations of these antibiotics on biofilm at diffe...

  11. Worldwide Experience with the Use of Doripenem against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Analysis of Six Phase 3 Clinical Studies▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniga, Koné; Flamm, Robert; Tong, Shin-Yir; Lee, Michael; Friedland, Ian; Redman, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide increase in fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae pathogens has led to doripenem and other carbapenems assuming a greater role in the treatment of serious infections. We analyzed data from 6 phase 3 multinational doripenem clinical trials on ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates consisting of all genera (CIPRE) and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates consisting of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., an...

  12. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi;

    2011-01-01

    E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA......) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine....

  13. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated E. coli with Ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Munk Petersen; Susanne Schjørring; Sarah Choi Gerstrøm; Karen Angeliki Krogfelt

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intest...

  14. A Multi-Center Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Gatifloxacin versus Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Shigellosis in Vietnamese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ha Vinh; Vo Thi Cuc Anh; Nguyen Duc Anh; Campbell, James I.; Nguyen Van Minh Hoang; Tran Vu Thieu Nga; Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu; Pham Van Minh; Cao Thu Thuy; Pham Thanh Duy; Le Thi Phuong; Ha Thi Loan; Mai Thu Chinh; Nguyen Thi Thu Thao; Nguyen Thi Hong Tham

    2011-01-01

    Background The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ci...

  15. Susceptibilities of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae to RP 59500, vancomycin, erythromycin, PD 131628, sparfloxacin, temafloxacin, win 57273, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1992-01-01

    The MICs of four new quinolones, sparfloxacin (AT-4140, CI-978), PD 131628 (the active form of the prodrug CI-990), temafloxacin, and Win 57273, compared with those of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were tested against 53 penicillin-susceptible, 35 penicillin intermediate-resistant, and 51 penicillin-resistant pneumococci. Susceptibility to RP 59500, a new streptogramin, was also tested and compared with those to the quinolones, erythromycin, and vancomycin. All MICs were determined by a standar...

  16. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin in experimental aortic valve endocarditis caused by a multiply beta-lactam-resistant variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stably derepressed for beta-lactamase production.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, A S; Lindsay, P.; Yih, J; Hirano, L; Lee, D.; Blomquist, I K

    1986-01-01

    The emergence of multi-beta-lactam resistance is a limiting factor in treating invasive Pseudomonas infections with newer cephalosporins. The in vivo efficacy of ciprofloxacin, a new carboxy-quinolone, was evaluated in experimental aortic valve endocarditis caused by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is stably derepressed for beta-lactamase production and is resistant to ceftazidime and multiple other beta-lactam agents. A total of 51 catheterized rabbits with aortic catheters in place...

  17. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin planar and tomographic imaging for the diagnosis of infection in the postoperative spine: experience in 48 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-invasive assessment of postoperative spinal infections can pose a substantial diagnostic challenge, especially in the presence of orthopaedic devices. Whereas white blood cell scanning is of limited use in the spine, the low normal bone marrow uptake of technetium-99m ciprofloxacin combined with its claimed bacterial specificity makes it theoretically an ideal candidate for the evaluation of postoperative spinal infections. This study aimed to evaluate 99mTc-ciprofloxacin planar and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in relation to microbiological and clinical diagnosis in the postoperative spine. Planar imaging was performed at 1, 3 and 24 h and SPET was performed at 3 h post injection of 370 MBq 99mTc-ciprofloxacin. Images were scored by two independent certified nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to the final diagnosis. Within the 48 patients, there were 13 deep infections. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy at visual scoring were respectively 54%, 71% and 67% (1 h), 62%, 77% and 73% (3 h), 42%, 91% and 77% (24 h) for planar imaging and 100%, 74% and 81% for SPET. When recently operated patients (99mTc-ciprofloxacin SPET is sensitive in evaluating infections in the postoperative spine. Sensitivity is much higher for SPET than for planar imaging. However, the results presented prove that its specificity is limited, especially in recently operated patients. Taking this limitation into account, we advise planar and SPET imaging at 3 h post injection and an interval of at least 6 months after surgery to minimise the likelihood of false positives. (orig.)

  18. Preparation and Quality Control of Ciprofloxacin Lactate Ear Gel%乳酸环丙沙星耳用凝胶的制备及含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡筱梅; 李荫桂; 瞿京红

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare ciprofloxacin lactate ear gel and to control the quality of the gel. Methods: The carbopol and CMC-Na were selected for the preparation of this gel. Ciprofloxacin lactate was determinate by HPCE. Results: Ciprofloxacin lactate was successfully separated within 20 minutes, the linear response range was 0.05 ~ 1.06 mg/mL, r=0.9998. The average recovery rate was 96. 9% . Conclusions: The preparation technique of ciprofloxacin lactate ear gel is reasonable, simple, the quality can be controlled and the quality control method is accurate and fast.%目的:制备乳酸环丙沙星耳用凝胶并建立其质量控制方法.方法:采用卡波姆940及CMC-Na为凝胶基质制备乳酸环丙沙星耳用凝胶,采用毛细管电泳法测定乳酸环丙沙星含量.结果:在一定条件下,乳酸环丙沙星与氢化可的松在20 min内能很好分离,线性范围为0.05~ 1.06 mg/mL,r=0.9998,平均加样回收率为96.9%.结论:该制剂工艺合理,简单可行,质量可控,能满足临床用药需求.

  19. An imaging analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-UBI (29-41) uptake in S. aureus infected thighs of rabbits on ciprofloxacin treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Muhammad S. [Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM), P.O. Box-2019, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad E.; Irfanullah, Javaid; Afzal, Muhammad S.; Khan, Muhammad A.; Nadeem, Muhammad A.; Imran, Muhammad B. [Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM), P.O. Box-2019, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Khan, Bashar; Jehangir, Mustansar [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-06-15

    The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-UBI (29-41) was evaluated at sites of bacterial infections in rabbits before and after treatment with ciprofloxacin. Staphylococcus aureus susceptible to ciprofloxacin was used to induce a focal infection in each rabbit of group 1 (G1), group 2 (G2), and group 3 (G3) with 2 x 10{sup 4}, 2 x 10{sup 6}, and 2 x 10{sup 8} colony forming units (CFU), respectively. After 24 h, images of infected thighs (target: T) and contralateral thighs (nontarget: NT) were acquired. Animals then received ciprofloxacin intramuscularly for 5 days followed by imaging on the third and fifth days. The control group 4 (G4) was imaged at days 1, 3, and 5 under the same acquisition parameters. Group 5 (G5) was employed to study biodistribution of the peptide. Increases in (T/NT) ratios in G1, G2, and G3 were observed from 5 min onwards with maximum values at 60 min. G3 revealed the highest accumulation of the peptide. Growth of the same strain of S. aureus on blood agar medium was visualized after fine needle aspiration. After ciprofloxacin treatment, the images for G1-G3 resulted in significantly decreased (P < 0.05) T/NT values on the third and fifth days that correlated with reduction in number of viable bacteria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in left to right thigh ratios in the control group (G4) was observed. Biodistribution of the peptide showed rapid removal of tracer from circulation through the kidneys. {sup 99m} Tc-UBI (29-41) accumulation directly correlates with the number of viable bacteria. This infection localization agent can be utilized for monitoring efficacy and duration of antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  20. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Bangalore, India: emergence of the ST217 clone and high rate of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, C.; El-Zeenni, N.; Chakrakodi, B.; Nagaraj, S.; Arakere, G.; Etienne, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and the circulating clones in Bangalore, India. Susceptibility testing was performed for all cases of SA infections in a tertiary-care hospital. Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) encoding genes were detected, and sequence type and spa type were determined. Out of the 92 collected strains, 52.2% were methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA), isolated from community-acquired (CA) infections in 60.4% and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in 39.6%. S. aureus isolates were also highly resistant to erythromycin (54.3%) and ciprofloxacin (70.6%) in methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) and MRSA, as well as in CA and HA infections. MRSA were found to be significantly more resistant to gentamicin (p <0.001), cotrimoxazole (p <0.001) and ciprofloxacin (p 0.001) than MSSA, but no significant difference was observed between CA- and HA-SA. ST217 appeared as a new emerging and prevalent clone, but ST772 remained the predominant clone, all being PVL-positive isolates. Our study points out the high prevalence of MRSA, even in the community, and the worrying increase of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin among CA-MSSA. Emergence of clone ST217 is reported for the first time in India. PMID:26110062

  1. Analysis of the membrane proteome of ciprofloxacin-resistant macrophages by stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Caceres

    Full Text Available Overexpression of multidrug transporters is a well-established mechanism of resistance to chemotherapy, but other changes may be co-selected upon exposure to drugs that contribute to resistance. Using a model of J774 macrophages made resistant to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin and comparing it with the wild-type parent cell line, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis using the stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture technology coupled with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-FT-MS/MS on 2 samples enriched in membrane proteins (fractions F1 and F2 collected from discontinuous sucrose gradient. Nine hundred proteins were identified with at least 3 unique peptides in these 2 pooled fractions among which 61 (F1 and 69 (F2 showed a significantly modified abundance among the 2 cell lines. The multidrug resistance associated protein Abcc4, known as the ciprofloxacin efflux transporter in these cells, was the most upregulated, together with Dnajc3, a protein encoded by a gene located downstream of Abcc4. The other modulated proteins are involved in transport functions, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization, immune response, signal transduction, and metabolism. This indicates that the antibiotic ciprofloxacin is able to trigger a pleiotropic adaptative response in macrophages that includes the overexpression of its efflux transporter.

  2. Preliminary investigation of the possibility for implementation of modified pharmacopoeial HPLC methods for quality control of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin in medicinal products used in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Piponski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of veterinary medicine products containing two different frequently used antibiotics metronidazole and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, was considered and performed, using modified pharmacopoeial HPLC methods. Three different HPLC systems were used: Varian ProStar, Perkin Elmer Series and UPLC Shimadzu Prominence XR. The chromatographic columns used were LiChropher RP Select B 75 mm x 4 mm with 5 μm particles and Discovery C18 100 mm x 4,6 mm with 5 μm particles. Chromatographic methods used for both analytes were compendial, with minor modifications made for experimental purposes. Minor modifications of the pharmacopoeia prescribed chromatographic conditions, in both cases, led to better chromatographic parameters, good resolution and shorter analysis times. Optimized methods can be used for: determination of metronidazole in gel formulation, for its simultaneous quantification with preservatives present in the formulation and even for identification and quantification of its specified impurity, 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole; determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in film coated tablets and eye drops and identification and quantification of its specified impurities. These slightly modified and optimized pharmacopoeial methods for quality control of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin dosage forms used in veterinary medicine can be successfully applied in laboratories for quality control of veterinary medicines.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-Encapsulated Cockle Shells Calcium Carbonate (Aragonite) Nanoparticles and Its Biocompatability in Macrophage J774A.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Tijani; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar; Rukayadi, Yaya; Mohd Hezmee, Mohd Noor; Jaji, Alhaji Zubair; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Hammadi, Nahidah Ibrahim; Mahmood, Saffanah Khuder

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanoparticle delivery systems to enhance intracellular penetration of antibiotics and their retention time is becoming popular. The challenge, however, is that the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems at the cellular level must be established prior to biomedical applications. Ciprofloxacin-cockle shells-derived calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles (C-CSCCAN) were developed and characterized. Antibacterial activity was determined using a modified disc diffusion protocol on Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Biocompatibilittes with macrophage were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Transcriptional regulation of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) was determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). C-CSCCAN were spherical in shape, with particle sizes ranging from 11.93 to 22.12 nm. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC) were 99.5% and 5.9%, respectively, with negative ζ potential. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed strong crystallizations and purity in the formulations. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was 18.6 ± 0.5 mm, which was better than ciprofloxacin alone (11.7 ± 0.9 mm). Study of biocompatability established the cytocompatability of the delivery system without upregulation of IL-1β. The results indicated that ciprofloxacin-nanoparticles enhanced the antibacterial efficacy of the antibiotic, and could act as a suitable delivery system against intracellular infections. PMID:27213349

  4. Hybrid hard- and soft-modeling of spectrophotometric data for monitoring of ciprofloxacin and its main photodegradation products at different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuc, Mariela; Garrido, Mariano; Caro, Yamile S.; Teglia, Carla M.; Goicoechea, Héctor C.; Fernández Band, Beatriz S.

    2013-04-01

    A simple and fast on line spectrophotometric method combined with a hybrid hard-soft modeling multivariate curve resolution (HS-MCR) was proposed for the monitoring of photodegradation reaction of ciprofloxacin under UV radiation. The studied conditions attempt to emulate the effect of sunlight on these antibiotics that could be eventually present in the environment. The continuous flow system made it possible to study the ciprofloxacin degradation at different pH values almost at real time, avoiding errors that could arise from typical batch monitoring of the reaction. On the base of a concentration profiles obtained by previous pure soft-modeling approach, reaction pathways have been proposed for the parent compound and its photoproducts at different pH values. These kinetic models were used as a constraint in the HS-MCR analysis. The kinetic profiles and the corresponding pure response profile (UV-Vis spectra) of ciprofloxacin and its main degradation products were recovered after the application of HS-MCR analysis to the spectra recorded throughout the reaction. The observed behavior showed a good agreement with the photodegradation studies reported in the bibliography. Accordingly, the photodegradation reaction was studied by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-Vis diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The spectra recorded during the chromatographic analysis present a good correlation with the ones recovered by UV-Vis/HS-MCR method.

  5. Ciprofloxacin Enhances Stress Erythropoiesis in Spleen and Increases Survival after Whole-Body Irradiation Combined with Skin-Wound Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Risaku; Burns, True M.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2014-01-01

    Severe hematopoietic loss is one of the major therapeutic targets after radiation-combined injury (CI), a kind of injury resulting from radiation exposure combined with other traumas. In this study, we tested the use of ciprofloxacin (CIP) as a treatment, because of recently reported immunomodulatory effects against CI that may improve hematopoiesis. The CIP regimen was a daily, oral dose for 3 weeks, with the first dose 2 h after CI. CIP treatment improved 30-day survival in mice at 80% compared to 35% for untreated controls. Study of early changes in hematological parameters identified CI-induced progressive anemia by 10 days that CIP significantly ameliorated. CI induced erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA in kidney and protein in kidney and serum; CIP stimulated EPO mRNA expression. In spleens of CI mice, CIP induced bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in macrophages with EPO receptors. Splenocytes from CIP-treated CI mice formed CD71+ colony-forming unit-erythroid significantly better than those from controls. Thus, CIP-mediated BMP4-dependent stress erythropoiesis may play a role in improving survival after CI. PMID:24587369

  6. A compositional shift in the soil microbiome induced by tetracycline, sulfamonomethoxine and ciprofloxacin entering a plant-soil system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Jin, Danfeng; Freitag, Thomas E; Sun, Wanchun; Yu, Qiaogang; Fu, Jianrong; Ma, Junwei

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotics entering the soil likely disturb the complex regulatory network of the soil microbiome, which is closely associated with soil quality and ecological function. This study investigated the effects of tetracycline (TC), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and their combination (AM) on the bacterial community in a soil-microbe-plant system and identified the main bacterial responders. Antibiotic effects on the soil microbiome depended on antibiotic type and exposure time. TC resulted in an acute but more rapidly declining effect on soil microbiome while CIP and SMM led to a delayed antibiotic effect. The soil exposed to AM presented a highly similar bacterial structure to that exposed to TC rather than to SMM and CIP. TC, SMM and CIP had their own predominantly impacted taxonomic groups that include both resistance and sensitive bacteria. The antibiotic sensitive responders predominantly distributed within the phylum Proteobacteria. The potential bacteria resistant to each antibiotic exhibited phyla preference to some extent, particularly those resistant to TC. CIP and SMM resistance in soil was increased with exposure time while TC resistance gave the opposite result. Overall, the work extended the understanding of antibiotic effects on soil microbiome after introduced into the soil during greenhouse vegetable cultivation. PMID:26952272

  7. Zero-order controlled release of ciprofloxacin-HCl from a reservoir-based, bioresorbable and elastomeric device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Irene S; Lee, Heejin; Engelmayr, George C; Macaya, Daniel; Bettinger, Christopher J; Cima, Michael J

    2010-09-15

    A reservoir-based device constructed of a completely biodegradable elastomer can enable several new implantation and insertion options for localized drug therapy, particularly in the case of urological therapies. We performed an in vitro performance evaluation of an implantable, bio-resorbable device that supplies short-term controlled release of ciprofloxacin-HCl (CIP). The proposed device functions through a combination of osmosis and diffusion mechanisms to release CIP for short-term therapies of a few weeks duration. Poly(glycerol-co-sebacic acid) (PGS) was cast in a tubular geometry with solid drug powder packed into its core and a micro-machined release orifice drilled through its wall. Drug release experiments were performed to determine the effective release rate from a single orifice and the range of orifice sizes in which controlled zero-order release was the main form of drug expulsion from the device. It is demonstrated that PGS is sufficiently permeable to water to allow the design of an elementary osmotic pump for drug delivery. Indeed, PGS's water permeability is several orders of magnitude larger than commonly used cellulose acetate for elementary osmotic pumps. PMID:20566343

  8. Ciprofloxacin-intercalated Zinc Layered Hydroxides Hybrid Material: Synthesis and in Vitro Release Profiles of an Antibiotic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intriguing anion exchange properties of layered hydroxides salts, combined with its high layer charge density have provided strong motivations for the potential use of the inorganic layered host material in drug delivery applications. Ciprofloxacin (CFX), a wide spectrum antibiotic has been anion exchanged with nitrate of zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), which belongs to the LHS family, resulted in the expansion of the basal spacing from 9.92 Amstrom of ZHN to 21.5 Angstrom of ZCFX, the obtained hybrid material. Other characterizations, such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), CHNS analysis and TGA/ DTG have further corroborated this finding. Electron microscopy study reveals the plate-like structure of the nano hybrid material. The in vitro release of CFX was performed in phosphate saline buffer at pH 7.4 and it behaves in a slow and sustained release profile over a period of 72 hours. This study suggests that ZHN, which demonstrates a controlled release behavior, could be a potential host material in the drug delivery applications. (author)

  9. Insights into aquatic toxicities of the antibiotics oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the presence of metal: Complexation versus mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-contamination of ligand-like antibiotics (e.g., tetracyclines and quinolones) and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and thus the complexation between them is involved in environmental risks of antibiotics. To understand toxicological significance of the complex, effects of metal coordination on antibiotics' toxicity were investigated. The complexation of two antibiotics, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin, with three heavy metals, copper, zinc, and cadmium, was verified by spectroscopic techniques. The antibiotics bound metals via multiple coordination sites and rendered a mixture of various complexation speciations. Toxicity analysis indicated that metal coordination did modify the toxicity of the antibiotics and that antibiotic, metal, and their complex acted primarily as concentration addition. Comparison of EC50 values revealed that the complex commonly was highest toxic and predominately correlated in toxicity to the mixture. Finally, environmental scenario analysis demonstrated that ignoring complexation would improperly classify environmental risks of the antibiotics. - Highlights: ► The complex of antibiotic with metal is a mixture of various complexation modes. ► Antibiotic and metal act as various combined interactions when their complexation is ignored. ► Antibiotic, metal, and their complex act as concentration addition interaction. ► Complex commonly is the highest toxicant. ► Neglecting complexation renders improper classification of risks for antibiotics. - Antibiotic, heavy metal and their complex act primarily as concentration addition interaction and the complex commonly is highest toxic.

  10. Preparation of heteropolyacid/TiO2/fly-ash-cenosphere photocatalyst for the degradation of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Huo, Pengwei; Lu, Ziyang; Gao, Xun; Liu, Xiaolin; Shi, Weidong; Yan, Yongsheng

    2012-07-01

    The TiO2/fly-ash cenosphere photocatalysts modified with heteropolyacid were synthesized by sol-gel followed solvothermal method at 40 °C. Their chemical composition and optical absorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that heteropolyacid modification could facilitate the absorption edge of TiO2/fly-ash cenosphere photocatalyst to shift the visible light region. Heteropolyoxanion could be loaded on the titanium dioxide surface, by which could hinder the recombination rate of excited electron holes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres modified with heteropolyacid was observed for the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) under visible light irradiation. The result from degradation of CPFX suggested that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres modified with silicotungstic acid was superior. The synergistic effects of heteropolyacid in modified TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres photocatalyst particles were responsible for improving visible light photocatalytic activity. Besides, the novel photocatalyst was easy to recycle during post treatment because the fly-ash cenosphere was adopted for carrier.

  11. Preparation of Ag2O/Ag2CO3/MWNTs composite photocatalysts for enhancement of ciprofloxacin degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqin; Li, Jinze; Huo, Pengwei; Yan, Yongsheng; Guan, Qingfeng

    2016-03-01

    The Ag2O/Ag2CO3/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNTs) composite photocatalysts were prepared by calcination of the obtained precipitate. The structures and morphology of as-prepared composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag2O/Ag2CO3/MWNTs composite photocatalysts exhibit higher degradation rate of ciprofloxacin (CIP) than the pure Ag2CO3, Ag2O/Ag2CO3 and Ag2CO3/MWNTs under visible light irradiation. The amount of loaded Ag2CO3 onto MWNTs and calcined time for Ag2CO3/MWNTs were systematically investigated, and the optimal amount of loaded Ag2CO3 and calcined time of Ag2CO3/MWNTs are 150 wt% and 10 min, respectively. The highest photocatalytic degradation rate of CIP could reach 76% under optimal conditions. The active species trapping experiments were also analyzed, the results show that the holes are main contributor for the degradation processes of CIP, furthermore the electrons, rad O2- and rad OH are also crucially influenced the photocatalytic degradation processes of CIP. The possible photocatalytic processes of CIP with Ag2O/Ag2CO3/MWNTs composite photocatalyst are also proposed.

  12. Ambroxol inhibits mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and contributes to the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlei; Yu, Jialin; He, Yu; Wang, Zhengli; Li, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Because it forms biofilms, which protect against host immune attack and increase resistance to conventional antibiotics, mucoid P. aeruginosa is nearly impossible to eradicate. Moreover, mucoid conversion of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to poor outcomes. This conversion is mainly due to mucA gene mutation, which is thought to be induced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the reactive oxygen species they release. Ambroxol, a mucolytic agent with antioxidant characteristics, is used clinically, and this compound has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-biofilm properties. In this study, we found that ambroxol inhibits the H2 O2 -mediated conversion of P. aeruginosa from a non-mucoid to a mucoid phenotype, an effect that is due to its antioxidant property against H2 O2 . Furthermore, the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms was increased in vitro when used in combination with ambroxol. PMID:27102839

  13. Spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amount of coenzyme II using ciprofloxacin-terbium complex as a fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of trace amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Using terbium ion (Tb3+)-ciprofloxacin (CIP) complex as a fluorescent probe, in the buffer solution of pH=9.00, NADP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Tb3+-CIP complex at λ=545nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of NADP. Optimum conditions for the determination of NADP were also investigated. The dynamic range for the determination of NADP is 4.9x10-7-3.7x10-6molL-1 with detection limit of 1.3x10-7molL-1. This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of NADP in synthetic water samples. Moreover, the enhancement mechanisms of the fluorescence intensity in the Tb3+-CIP system and the Tb3+-CIP-NADP system have been also discussed

  14. Study on the enhanced fluorescent spectrum of ciprofloxacin + Al(III) + La(III) + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide system and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Leilei; Li, Guirong; Li, Haipeng

    2010-05-01

    The fluorescence of ciprofloxacin (CIP) in HAc-NaAc buffer solution and the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) enhanced visibly with adding Al(III) and La(III). This enhanced fluorescence spectra were studied, and a new co-luminescence system of CIP + Al(III) + La(III) + CTMAB was discovered. There was a linear relationship between the enhanced fluorescence intensity and the concentration of CIP in the range of 0.50-80.2 μg l -1 under the optimized condition. A novel enhanced fluorescence method for the determination of trace CIP was established by using this co-luminescence system. The detection limit of the proposed method was 0.17 μg l -1 for CIP. This method is simple, rapid and sensitive. The CIP in milk samples were analyzed by the proposed method with satisfactory results. The relative standard deviation and the recovery were in ranges of 3.21-4.34% and 97.1-100.1%, respectively. The mechanism of the co-luminescence reaction and the reasons for fluorescence enhancement has been discussed.

  15. Preparation of heteropolyacid/TiO2/fly-ash-cenosphere photocatalyst for the degradation of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TiO2/fly-ash cenosphere photocatalysts modified with heteropolyacid were synthesized by sol-gel followed solvothermal method at 40 °C. Their chemical composition and optical absorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that heteropolyacid modification could facilitate the absorption edge of TiO2/fly-ash cenosphere photocatalyst to shift the visible light region. Heteropolyoxanion could be loaded on the titanium dioxide surface, by which could hinder the recombination rate of excited electron holes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres modified with heteropolyacid was observed for the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) under visible light irradiation. The result from degradation of CPFX suggested that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres modified with silicotungstic acid was superior. The synergistic effects of heteropolyacid in modified TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres photocatalyst particles were responsible for improving visible light photocatalytic activity. Besides, the novel photocatalyst was easy to recycle during post treatment because the fly-ash cenosphere was adopted for carrier.

  16. Assessing the concentrations and risks of toxicity from the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin in European rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Andrew C., E-mail: ajo@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Keller, Virginie; Dumont, Egon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Sumpter, John P. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential concentrations of four antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SUF), trimethoprim (TRI) and erythromycin (ERY) throughout the rivers of Europe. This involved reviewing national consumption rates together with assessing excretion and sewage treatment removal rates. From this information, it was possible to construct best, expected and worst case scenarios for the discharge of these antibiotics into rivers. Consumption data showed surprising variations, up to 200-fold in the popularity of different antibiotics across different European nations. Using the water resources model GWAVA which has a spatial resolution of approximately 6 × 9 km, river water concentrations throughout Europe were predicted based on 31-year climate data. The modelled antibiotic concentrations were within the range of measurements reported previously in European effluents and rivers. With the expected scenario, the predicted annual-average antibiotic concentrations ranged between 0 and 10 ng/L for 90% by length of surface waters. In the worst case scenario concentrations could reach between 0.1 and 1 μg/L at the most exposed locations. As both predicted and observed sewage effluent concentrations were below reported effect levels for the most sensitive aquatic wildlife, no direct toxicity in rivers is expected. Predicted river concentrations for CIP and ERY were closest to effect levels in wildlife, followed by SUF which was 2–3 orders of magnitude lower. TRI appeared to be of the least concern with around 6 orders of magnitude difference between predicted and effect levels. However, mixture toxicity may elevate this risk and antibiotic levels of 0.1–1 μg/L in hotspots may contribute to local environmental antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. - Highlights: • Antibiotic consumption varied up to 200-fold between European nations. • Antibiotic concentrations predicted to be 10 ng/L or less for most European rivers. • These antibiotic

  17. Long-Term Carriage of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates in High-Risk Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Miriam D; Luo, Ting; McNamara, Sara; Lansing, Bonnie; Koo, Evonne; Mody, Lona; Foxman, Betsy

    2016-04-01

    BACKGROUND Rates of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms are surpassing those of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in nursing homes (NHs). OBJECTIVE To characterize the incidence and duration of carriage of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (CipREc) in NHs and identify those in the O25b-ST131 lineage. METHODS We collected 227 CipREc isolates obtained by routine and regular surveillance of high-risk NH residents with indwelling devices. Repetitive element palindromic (REP)-polymerase chain reaction assay and multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification for O25b-ST131 E. coli detection were performed using (GTG)5-primers and O25pabBspe and trpA2 primer pairs, respectively. RESULTS We found a high period prevalence of CipREc colonization (21.5%), high rates of recolonization with the same strain following clearing (0.46 recolonizations/ person/ year), and an acquisition incidence of 1.05 cases/1,000 person-days. Almost three-quarters of colonized residents carried strains in the O25b-ST131 E. coli lineage. Compared with isolates not in the lineage, O25b-ST131 isolates were carried significantly longer (10 vs 3 months). We identified 18 different REP-types; 2 occurred in 55% of the residents colonized with CipREc, and in more than 1 NH. Duration of CipREc carriage varied by REP-type and averaged 6 months. CONCLUSION CipREc occurred frequently in NH residents and is carried for long durations, and reacquisition following clearance is common Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01062841. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):440-447. PMID:26782632

  18. Spectrophotometric and chemometric methods for determination of imipenem, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, paracetamol and cilastatin sodium in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, A. M.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and chemometric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Imipenem (IMP), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX), paracetamol (PAR) and cilastatin sodium (CIL) in human urine. These methods include a new derivative ratio method, namely extended derivative ratio (EDR), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS) methods. A novel EDR method was developed for the determination of these drugs, where each component in the mixture was determined by using a mixture of the other four components as divisor. Peak amplitudes were recorded at 293.0 nm, 284.0 nm, 276.0 nm, 257.0 nm and 221.0 nm within linear concentration ranges 3.00-45.00, 1.00-15.00, 4.00-40.00, 1.50-25.00 and 4.00-50.00 μg mL- 1 for IMP, CIPRO, DEX, PAR and CIL, respectively. PCR and PLS-2 models were established for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in the range of 3.00-15.00, 1.00-13.00, 4.00-12.00, 1.50-9.50, and 4.00-12.00 μg mL- 1 for IMP, CIPRO, DEX, PAR and CIL, respectively, by using eighteen mixtures as calibration set and seven mixtures as validation set. The suggested methods were validated according to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were accurate, precise and reproducible. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the published methods and there was no significant difference.

  19. Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

    2013-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 μg/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 μg/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 μg/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 μg/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P SP. Total aerobic bacterial count was 0.00 in extender containing CP compared with 0.07 × 10(4) cfu/mL with SP. To assess the in vivo fertility rate, semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ≤ 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen. PMID:23746693

  20. Effect of bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism on concentrations in milk of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J A; García-Mateos, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Álvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2016-07-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is involved in the secretion of several drugs into milk. The bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism increases the secretion into milk of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin in Holstein cows. Danofloxacin and enrofloxacin are the fluoroquinolones most widely used in veterinary medicine. Both enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) reach milk at relatively high concentrations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism on in vitro transport as well as on concentrations in plasma and in milk of ENRO and CIPRO. Experiments using cells overexpressing bovine ABCG2 showed the effects of ABCG2 on the transport of CIPRO, demonstrating more efficient in vitro transport of this antimicrobial by the S581 variant as compared with the Y581 variant. Animal studies administering 2.5mg/kg of ENRO subcutaneously to Y/Y 581 and Y/S 581 cows revealed that concentrations in plasma of ENRO and CIPRO were significantly lower in Y/S animals. Regardless of the genotype, the antimicrobial profile in milk after the administration of ENRO was predominantly of CIPRO. With respect to the genotype effects on the amounts of drugs present in milk, AUC0-24 values were more than 1.2 times higher in Y/S cows for ENRO and 2.2 times for CIPRO, indicating a greater capacity of Y581S to transfer these drugs into milk. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of this polymorphism as a factor affecting the concentrations in plasma and in milk of drugs of importance in veterinary medicine. PMID:27157572

  1. Assessing the concentrations and risks of toxicity from the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin in European rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the potential concentrations of four antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SUF), trimethoprim (TRI) and erythromycin (ERY) throughout the rivers of Europe. This involved reviewing national consumption rates together with assessing excretion and sewage treatment removal rates. From this information, it was possible to construct best, expected and worst case scenarios for the discharge of these antibiotics into rivers. Consumption data showed surprising variations, up to 200-fold in the popularity of different antibiotics across different European nations. Using the water resources model GWAVA which has a spatial resolution of approximately 6 × 9 km, river water concentrations throughout Europe were predicted based on 31-year climate data. The modelled antibiotic concentrations were within the range of measurements reported previously in European effluents and rivers. With the expected scenario, the predicted annual-average antibiotic concentrations ranged between 0 and 10 ng/L for 90% by length of surface waters. In the worst case scenario concentrations could reach between 0.1 and 1 μg/L at the most exposed locations. As both predicted and observed sewage effluent concentrations were below reported effect levels for the most sensitive aquatic wildlife, no direct toxicity in rivers is expected. Predicted river concentrations for CIP and ERY were closest to effect levels in wildlife, followed by SUF which was 2–3 orders of magnitude lower. TRI appeared to be of the least concern with around 6 orders of magnitude difference between predicted and effect levels. However, mixture toxicity may elevate this risk and antibiotic levels of 0.1–1 μg/L in hotspots may contribute to local environmental antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. - Highlights: • Antibiotic consumption varied up to 200-fold between European nations. • Antibiotic concentrations predicted to be 10 ng/L or less for most European rivers. • These antibiotic

  2. Effects of pH and ionic strength on sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Li, Hui; Ma, Lena Q.

    2011-09-01

    Many antibiotics regarded as emerging contaminants have been frequently detected in soils and groundwater; however, their transport behaviors in soils remain largely unknown. This study examined the transport of two antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), in saturated porous media. Laboratory columns packed with quartz sand was used to test the effects of solution pH and ionic strength (IS) on their retention and transport. The results showed that these two antibiotics behaved differently in the saturated sand columns. In general, SMZ manifested a much higher mobility than CIP for all experimental conditions tested. Almost all SMZ transported through the columns within one pore volume in deionized water (i.e., pH = 5.6, IS = 0), but no CIP was detected in the effluents under the same condition after extended column flushing. Perturbations in solution pH (5.6 and 9.5) and IS (0 and 0.1 M) showed no effect on SMZ transport in the saturated columns. When pH increased to 9.5, however, ~ 93% of CIP was eluted from the sand columns. Increase of IS from 0 to 0.1 M also slightly changed the distribution of adsorbed CIP within the sand column at pH 5.6, but still no CIP was detected in the effluents. A mathematical model based on advection-dispersion equation coupled with equilibrium and kinetic reactions successfully simulated the transport of the antibiotics in water-saturated porous media with R2 = 0.99.

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CLEANING PROCEDURE OF MIXING EQUIPMENT USED FOR MANUFACTURING CIPROFLOXACIN HCL AND TINIDAZOLE TABLET BY USING UV SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansari Sneha K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and economical methods were developed for the estimation of Ciprofloxacin HCl and tinidazole in two components tablet dosage form. First method is based on the simultaneous equation and second method is based on Q-analysis (absorbance ratio method. Ciprofloxacin HCl has absorbance maxima at 279.0 nm and tinidazole has absorbance maxima at 317 nm in Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile (80:20 solvent. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1-13 μg/ml for Ciprofloxacin HCl and 1.2-15.6 µg/ml for tinidazole. In the first method, the concentrations of the drugs were determined by using simultaneous equations and in second method, the concentration of the drugs were determined by using ratio of absorbance at isoabsorptive point and at the λ-max of one of the drug. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. This paper presents a useful UV spectroscopic method for validating equipment cleaning procedures and verifying cleaning in a pharmaceutical plant. The study summarizes the initial steps that should be taken into account and focuses particularly on the solutions to some of the most critical considerations (e.g., detection and quantification limits, recovery. Cleaning procedure validation offers low detection capability and rapid sample analysis time. The accurate recovery values with method precision less than 2% RSD of precision, UV method is applicable for determining residual of powder mixer on pharmaceutical equipment surfaces and will be useful for cleaning validation.

  4. Insertion sequence disruption of adeR and ciprofloxacin resistance caused by efflux pumps and gyrA and parC mutations in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, B S; Amyes, S G B

    2013-02-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for a wide range of infections in immunocompromised patients. This study examined the role of insertional inactivation of the adeR gene and its effect on adeABC gene expression along with characterisation of the gyrA and parC mutations involved in ciprofloxacin resistance in three A. baumannii clinical isolates and their derivatives. Primers designed for the detection of adeSRABC detected the presence of ISAba16, which disrupted the adeR gene in strain Ab12M, and ISAba1, which disrupted the same gene in strains Ab18 and Ab209. A second copy of ISAba1 was detected upstream of the adeA gene in Ab209 leading to AdeABC pump expression. AdeIJK pump expression was seen in all of the isolates but was not as significant as AdeABC expression. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin were ≥256 mg/L for all of the isolates and a decrease of ≥8-fold was seen following addition of the efflux pump inhibitor 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine. Fluorometric analysis also demonstrated active efflux, with upregulation of adeIJK and some genes of the adeABC operon in some strains. Sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA and parC genes revealed a Ser83→Leu change in the gyrA gene and a novel change of Ser80→Trp in the parC gene of Ab12, Ab12M and Ab209; in Ab18 there was a Ser80→Leu change in parC. This study shows the multifactorial contribution of different mechanisms in A. baumannii leading to ciprofloxacin resistance. PMID:23217848

  5. Emergence and Diversity of Salmonella enterica Serovar Indiana Isolates with Concurrent Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime from Patients and Food-Producing Animals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Zhao, Jiayong; Gan, Xin; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xiuli; Cui, Shenghui; Xia, Shengli; Hu, Yujie; Yan, Shaofei; Wang, Jiahui; Li, Fengqin; Fanning, Séamus; Xu, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a major global foodborne infection, and strains that are resistant to a great variety of antibiotics have become a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum β-lactams in nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) from patients and food-producing animals in China. In total, 133 and 21 NTS isolates from animals and humans, respectively, exhibiting concurrent resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were cultured independently from 2009 to ∼2013. All of the isolates were identified, serotyped, and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Importantly, the isolates with concurrent resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime all were confirmed as S. enterica serovar Indiana. The presence of fluoroquinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was established by PCR and DNA sequencing. The occurrence and diversity of different genes conferring fluoroquinolone resistance [qepA, oqxAB, and aac(6')-Ib-cr] with mutations in topoisomerase-encoding genes (gyrA and parC) and several ESBLs (including CTX-M-65, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-14/CTX-M-15) were noteworthy. Genes located on mobile genetic elements were identified by conjugation and transformation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, used to determine the genetic relationships between these isolates, generated 91 pulsotypes from 133 chicken isolates and 17 pulsotypes from the 21 clinical isolates that showed considerable diversity. Analysis of the pulsotypes obtained with the isolates showed some clones appeared to have existed for several years and had been disseminating between humans and food-producing animals. This study highlights the emergence of ciprofloxacin- and cefotaxime-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana, posing a threat to public health. PMID:27001808

  6. Use of Modeling and Simulation Tools for Understanding the Impact of Formulation on the Absorption of a Low Solubility Compound: Ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marilyn; Mistry, Bipin; Lukacova, Viera; Polli, Jim; Hoag, Stephen; Dowling, Thomas; Kona, Ravikanth; Fahmy, Raafat

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the utility of mechanistic absorption models to describe the in vivo performance of a low solubility/low permeability compound in normal healthy subjects. Sixteen healthy human volunteers received three oral formulations and an intravenous infusion in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were estimated by HPLC. In vitro ciprofloxacin release from the oral tablets was tested under a variety of conditions. A mechanistic model was used to explore in vivo dissolution and intestinal absorption. Although dissolution rate influenced the location of drug release, absorption challenges appeared to be associated with permeability limitations in the lower small intestine and colon. The apparent relationship between drug solubilization within the upper small intestinal and formulation overall bioavailability suggested the presence of an intestinal absorption window in many individuals. Failure to absorb drug within this window appeared to be linked with the likelihood of in vivo drug precipitation. Challenges encountered during this modeling exercise included large intersubject variability in product in vivo dissolution and the apparent limitations in ciprofloxacin absorption. Although transporter activity was not included as a model parameter, this evaluation demonstrated how identifying the location of drug absorption across several formulations provided an opportunity to identify factors to consider when formulating similar low solubility/low permeability compounds. The use of mechanistic models was invaluable for our understanding of in vivo product performance and for the assessment of individual profiles rather than means. The latter was essential for understanding the potential challenges that may be encountered when introducing a formulation into a patient population. PMID:27116024

  7. Preliminary results of imaging orthopaedic infection with Tc-99m ciprofloxacin using a newly developed and easy to use simple labelling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to detect infective foci in patients with various orthopaedic problems using a newly developed and easy to use Tc-99m ciprofloxacin kit. A total number of 27 patients with clinical suspicion of orthopaedic infection were investigated. The newly developed kit (single vial with freeze-dried product) was reconstituted with Tc-99m pertechnetate (555 MBq in 3 ml), incubated for 20-30 min, and injected intravenously slowly over a period of 60 seconds. Static images of the whole body as well as piece-meal images of sites corresponding to abnormal radiotracer concentration were obtained in both anterior and posterior projections at 1 and 4 hrs after injection. In all the patients with negative or equivocal findings on planar scintigraphy, SPECT studies were obtained (60 positions, 6 degrees) at 4 hrs post injection. Whenever necessary, additional static scans were acquired at 24hrs. The results were viewed and interpreted by three independent observers. The results were correlated with clinical findings, ultrasonography, radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and results of laboratory analyses. Final diagnosis in all cases was determined by surgical or microbiological confirmation of infection. The results revealed 15 true positive studies and 9 true negative studies. In two instances the results were false positive, while in one the result was false negative. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin scintigraphy in the detection of bacterial infection was 94%, 82%, 89%, 88% and 90% respectively. The results of this preliminary study has clearly demonstrated that Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin prepared on the basis of the new kit formulation developed in our centre is highly promising in the detection and assessment of orthopaedic infections. (author)

  8. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Mabrouk; Yahya Essop Choonara; Pradeep Kumar; Lisa Claire du Toit; Viness Pillay

    2016-01-01

    A new composite poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (PCL:PAA 1:5) scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si) (2–12 μm) were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel) system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX) was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffr...

  9. Human Monoclonal Anti-Protective Antigen Antibody Completely Protects Rabbits and Is Synergistic with Ciprofloxacin in Protecting Mice and Guinea Pigs against Inhalation Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Johnny W.; Comer, Jason E.; Noffsinger, David M.; Wenglikowski, Autumn; Walberg, Kristin G.; Chatuev, Bagram M.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Kang, Angray S.; Scholz, Wolfgang W.; Sircar, Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Prevention of inhalation anthrax requires early and extended antibiotic therapy, and therefore, alternative treatment strategies are needed. We investigated whether a human monoclonal antibody (AVP-21D9) to protective antigen (PA) would protect mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits against anthrax. Control animals challenged with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores by the intranasal route died within 3 to 7 days. AVP-21D9 alone provided minimal protection against anthrax in the murine model, but its efficacy was notably better in guinea pigs. When Swiss-Webster mice, challenged with five 50% lethal doses (LD50s) of anthrax spores, were given a single 16.7-mg/kg of body weight AVP-21D9 antibody dose combined with ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day for 6 days) 24 h after challenge, 100% of the mice were protected for more than 30 days, while ciprofloxacin or AVP-21D9 alone showed minimal protection. Similarly, when AVP-21D9 antibody (10 to 50 mg/kg) was combined with a low, nonprotective dose of ciprofloxacin (3.7 mg/kg/day) and administered to guinea pigs for 6 days, synergistic protection against anthrax was observed. In contrast, a single dose of AVP-21D9 antibody (1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) but not 0.2 mg/kg alone completely protected rabbits against challenge with 100 LD50s of B. anthracis Ames spores, and 100% of the rabbits survived rechallenge. Further, administration of AVP-21D9 (10 mg/kg) to rabbits at 0, 6, and 12 h after challenge with anthrax spores resulted in 100% survival; however, delay of antibody treatment by 24 and 48 h reduced survival to 80% and 60%, respectively. Serological analysis of sera from various surviving animals 30 days postprimary infection showed development of a species-specific PA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titer that correlated with protection against reinfection. Taken together, the effectiveness of human anti-PA antibody alone or in combination with low ciprofloxacin levels may provide the basis for an improved strategy for

  10. EFFICACY OF COMBINATION OF NITROFURANTOIN WITH GENTAMICIN, AND CIPROFLOXACIN AGAINST RESISTANT E. COLI ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: IN VITRO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    ABDULKAREEM H.ABD; MARWAH HASAN ABD; FATMA ABDULHAMZA OBED

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study to determined in vitro effects of various combinations of three antimicrobials (nitrofurantoin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin) against twenty five E. coli isolates and the role of plasmidDNA in antimicrobial resistance. Method: Seventy five E. coli isolates were collected from urine of patients with urinary tract infections in AL-Kadhimia and AL-Yarmook teaching hospitals in Baghdad for a period between 22/11/2012 to 15/3/2013, from these samples twenty five isolates w...

  11. Postantibiotic Effect and Postantibiotic Sub-MIC Effect of Levofloxacin Compared to Those of Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin against 20 Pneumococci

    OpenAIRE

    Spangler, Sheila K.; Lin, Gengrong; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respec...

  12. Postantibiotic effect and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect of levofloxacin compared to those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, S K; Lin, G; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1998-05-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respectively, for quinolones and 1 to 8, 1 to 8, and 1 to 6, respectively, for macrolides. PMID:9593160

  13. Induction of Fibronectin Adhesins in Quinolone-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Subinhibitory Levels of Ciprofloxacin or by Sigma B Transcription Factor Activity Is Mediated by Two Separate Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Renzoni, Adriana; Estoppey, Tristan; Bisognano, Carmelo; Francois, Patrice; Kelley, William L.; Lew, Daniel P.; Schrenzel, Jacques; Vaudaux, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported on the involvement of a RecA-LexA-dependent pathway in the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) by fluoroquinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The potential additional contribution of the transcription factor sigma B (SigB) to the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of FnBPs was studied in isogenic mutants of fluoroquinolone-resistant strain RA1 (a topoisomerase IV gyrase double mutant of S. aureus NCTC strain 8325), which exhibited widely different levels of SigB activity, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of their respective sigB and SigB-dependent asp23 transcript levels. These mutants were Tn551 insertion sigB strain TE1 and rsbU+ complemented strain TE2, which exhibited a wild-type SigB operon. Levels of FnBP surface display and fibronectin-mediated adhesion were lower in sigB mutant TE1 or higher in the rsbU+-restored strain TE2 compared to their sigB+ but rsbU parent, strain RA1, exhibiting low levels of SigB activity. Steady-state fnbA and fnbB transcripts levels were similar in strains TE1 and RA1 but increased by 4- and 12-fold, respectively, in strain TE2 compared to those in strain RA1. In contrast, fibronectin-mediated adhesion of strains TE1, RA1, and TE2 was similarly enhanced by growth in the presence of one-eighth the MIC of ciprofloxacin, which led to a significantly higher increase in their fnbB transcript levels compared to the increase in their fnbA transcript levels. Increased SigB levels led to a significant reduction in agr RNAIII; in contrast, it led to a slight increase in sarA transcript levels. In conclusion, upregulation of FnBPs by increased SigB levels and ciprofloxacin exposure in fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus occurs via independent pathways whose concerted actions may significantly promote bacterial adhesion and colonization. PMID:15728884

  14. Effect of MMX® mesalamine coadministration on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin XR, metronidazole, and sulfamethoxazole: results from four randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available David Pierce,1 Mary Corcoran,2 Patrick Martin,2 Karen Barrett,1 Susi Inglis,1 Peter Preston,2 Thomas N Thompson,3 Sandra K Willsie3 1Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 2Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3PRA International, Lenexa, KS, USA Background: MMX® mesalamine is a once daily oral 5-aminosalicylic acid formulation, effective in induction and maintenance of ulcerative colitis remission. Patients on long-term mesalamine maintenance may occasionally require concomitant antibiotic treatment for unrelated infections. Aim: To evaluate the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions between MMX mesalamine and amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin extended release (XR, metronidazole, or sulfamethoxazole in four open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover studies. Methods: In all four studies, healthy adults received placebo once daily or MMX mesalamine 4.8 g once daily on days 1–4 in one of two treatment sequences. In studies 1 and 2, subjects also received a single dose of amoxicillin 500 mg (N=62 or ciprofloxacin XR 500 mg (N=30 on day 4. In studies 3 and 4, subjects received metronidazole 750 mg twice daily on days 1–3 and once on day 4 (N=30; or sulfamethoxazole 800 mg/trimethoprim 160 mg twice daily on days 1–3 and once on day 4 (N=44. Results: MMX mesalamine had no significant effects on systemic exposure to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, or metronidazole; the 90% confidence intervals (CIs around the geometric mean ratios (antibiotic + MMX mesalamine: antibiotic + placebo for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC fell within the predefined equivalence range (0.80–1.25. Sulfamethoxazole exposure increased by a statistically significant amount when coadministered with MMX mesalamine; however, increased exposure (by 12% in Cmax at steady state; by 15% in AUC at steady state was not considered clinically significant, as the 90% CIs for each point estimate fell entirely within the predefined

  15. Use of stannous fluoride (II) like reducer agent for 99mTc-labelling ciprofloxacin. Animal pharmacokinetic and biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is based on 99mTc-labelling of ciprofloxacin using stannous fluoride (SnF2) like a reducer agent and to evaluate the biological activity, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical obtained. Stannous (II) chloride (SnCl2), formamidine sulfinic acid (FSA) as an alternative to stannous chloride and redox polymers were used like reducers agents of pertechnetate but SnF2 is an advantageous agent due it high stability. Five to sixty micrograms (μg) of SnF2 and 2 milligrams (mg) of ciprofloxacin lactate were mixed in a vacuum vial in 1 milliliter (ml) of NaCl 0.9%. Freshly eluted sodium pertechnetate solution, 370 megabecquerel (MBq), were added and incubated for 10 minutes (min) into boiling water. After purification through sephadex G50 column, UV-visible spectrum was made to the fraction of larger activity. Quality control and in-vitro stability study of labelled up to 6 h (h) using tin layer chromatography (TLC-SG) and Watman 3 was carrier out. Six male wistar rats were divided into two groups to made abscess model: Three were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and the others with Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536). After 18-20 h, 666-740 MBq/ kilograms (MBq/kg) of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin were administered. Planar scintigraphic images were acquired at 1, 2, 4 and 18 h using a gamma camera. Abscess to counter-lateral thigh (A/C) ratio of activity was calculated. Pharmacokinetic study in blood, serum and plasma was performed in 30 wistar rats males, separated in 10 groups. They took samples of blood at different times intervals up to 24 h after injection of 666-740 MBq/Kg of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin. A model of two compartments was assumed. The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters were volume apparent of distribution (Vd) and half time of clearing of the distribution and elimination phase's of the blood depuration curve. Organ biodistribution study was carried out in 24 male healthy wistar rats divided into 8 groups. The animals

  16. Determination of Trace Ciprofloxacin Using Yttrium Ion as Fluorescent Prob%以钇离子为荧光探针测定痕量环丙沙星

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗延虹

    2012-01-01

    Experiments indicated that Y3 + could form complex with ciprofloxacin to remarkablely enhance characteristic fluorescence of ciprofloxacin . Thus a new method for the determination of ciprofloxacin was put forward. The fluorescence in-tensity was measured with excitation and emission wavelengths of 274 nm,429 run,respectively. The result showed that fluores-cence intensity of the system presented a linear relationship with the concentration of ciprofloxacin in the range of 1. 23 × 10-8 mol· dm-3~1.23 ×10-6 mol · dm-3, the detection limit ( S/N = 3)was 5. 00×10-10 mol ·dm-3. The method has been applied to the determinations of CIP in various samples with satisfactory results.%实验发现环丙沙星能与稀土钇离子形成二元配合物,使环丙沙星特征荧光显著增强.研究环丙沙星与钇离子的络合发光反应,建立了一种以钇离子为荧光探针分析痕量环丙沙星含量的新方法,在最大激发和发射波长为274 nm和429 nm处测定荧光强度,环丙沙星浓度在1.23×10-8mol·dm-3 ~1.23×10-6mol·dm-3范围内与体系的荧光强度具有良好的线性关系,检出限为5.00×10-10 mol·dm-3(S/N=3).该法用于盐酸环丙沙星药片、鸡饲料以及鸡蛋中环丙沙星含量的检测,结果令人满意.

  17. Interactions of ciprofloxacin (CIP), titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and natural organic matter (NOM) in aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Elke; Crouzet, Catherine; Michel, Caroline; Togola, Anne

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate interactions of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) and natural organic matter (NOM) in aqueous suspensions. The mean hydrodynamic diameter of particles of TiO2 NP and NOM in the suspensions ranged from 113 to 255nm. During batch experiments the radioactivity resulting from (14)CIP was determined in the filtrate (filter pore size 100nm) by scintillation measurements. Up to 72h, no significant sorption of NOM to TiO2 NP was observed at a TiO2 NP concentration of 5mg/L. When the concentration of TiO2 NP was increased to 500mg/L, a small amount of NOM of 9.5%±0.6% was sorbed at 72h. The low sorption affinity of NOM on TiO2 NP surfaces could be explained by the negative charge of both components in alkaline media or by the low hydrophobicity of the NOM contents. At a TiO2 NP concentration of 5mgL(-1), the sorption of CIP on TiO2 NP was insignificant (TiO2 NP/CIP ratio: 10). When the TiO2 NP/CIP ratio was increased to 1000, a significant amount of 53.6%±7.2% of CIP was sorbed on TiO2 NP under equilibrium conditions at 64h. In alkaline media, CIP is present mainly as zwitterions which have an affinity to sorb on negatively charged TiO2 NP surfaces. The sorption of CIP on TiO2 NP in the range of TiO2 NP concentrations currently estimated for municipal wastewater treatment plants is estimated to be rather low. The Freundlich sorption coefficients (KF) in the presence of NOM of 2167L(n)mgmg(-n)kg(-1) was about 10 times lower than in the absence of NOM. This is an indication that the particle fraction of NOM<100nm could play a role as a carrier for ionic organic micro-pollutants as CIP. PMID:26765511

  18. Antituberculosis agents. VI. Activity of a new ciprofloxacin derivative against Mycobacterium avium and some drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroumadi, A; Soltani, F; Moshafi, M H

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro antimycobacterial activity of a new quinolone derivative, 1a containing 2-(2-furyl)-2-oxoethyl group at N-4 position of piperazine ring of Ciprofloxacin was tested for efficacy in vitro in TB-infected macrophage model (EC90 = 3.25 micrograms/ml and EC99 > 12.5 micrograms/ml). The MIC values of 1a were determined against M. tuberculosis strains resistant to Isoniazid (MIC = 1.56 micrograms/ml), Rifampin (MIC = 1.56 micrograms/ml), Ethambutol (MIC = 0.78 microgram/ml), Kanamycin (MIC = 0.78 microgram/ml) and Ciprofloxacin (MIC > 25 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, the MIC and selectivity index (SI) of 1a were evaluated against M. avium. Also, in this study the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1a was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MBC = 6.25 micrograms/ml) and strain resistant to Rifampim (MBC = 25 micrograms/ml) and Isoniazid (MBC = 25 micrograms/ml). PMID:12481384

  19. Analytical characteristics and application of novel chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient drug delivery system for ciprofloxacin. Enhanced drug release kinetics by low-frequency ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminia, Samira; Shamsipur, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-09-10

    A pH-responsive drug carrier based on chitosan coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CS-Fe3O4) for prolonged antibiotic release in a controlled manner is reported. As an antibiotic drug model, ciprofloxacin was loaded onto the nanocarrier via H-bonding interactions. The nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The particle size of CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to lie in the range of 30-80nm. The analytical characteristics of the designed system were thoroughly investigated. The in vitro drug loading at pH 4.8 and release kinetics at pH 7.4 studies revealed that the drug delivery system can take 99% of ciprofloxacin load and quantitatively release the drug over a sustained period of 5 days. The release kinetics study indicated that the system follows a zero order kinetics via a diffusion-controlled mechanism. These results indicated that CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for use as controlled antibiotic delivery systems through oral administration by avoiding the drug release in the highly acidic gastric fluid region of the stomach. Furthermore, the ability of low-frequency ultrasound in fast release of the encapsulated drug in less than 60min from the CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a controlled manner was confirmed. PMID:27497305

  20. In vitro production of biofilm in a flow cell system in a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and determination of efficiency of ciprofloxacin against them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soham Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms develop biofilm on various medical devices. The process is particularly relevant in public health since biofilm associated organisms are much more resistant to antibiotics and have a potential to cause infections in patients with indwelling medical devices. Materials and Methods: To determine the efficiency of an antibiotic against the biofilm it is inappropriate to use traditional technique of determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC on the free floating laboratory phenotype. Thus we have induced formation of biofilm in two strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which showed heavy growth of biofilm in screening by Tube method in a flow cell system and determined their antibiotic susceptibility against ciprofloxacin by agar dilution method in the range (0.25 mg/ml to 8 mg/ml. The MIC value of ciprofloxacin for the biofilm produced organism was compared with its free form and a standard strain as control on the same plates. Observations: Both the biofilm produced strains showed a higher resistance (MIC > 8 mg/ml than its free form, which were 2 μg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. Thus biofilm can pose a threat in the patient treatment.