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Sample records for cinnamon cinnamomum verum

  1. Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl bark essential oil in cream-filled cakes and pastries

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    M. Vazirian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food poisoning has been always a major concern in health system of every community and cream-filled products are one of the most widespread food poisoning causes in humans. In present study, we examined the preservative effect of the cinnamon oil in cream-filled cakes. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Cinnamon bark essential oil was examined against five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium to investigate its potential for use as a natural preservative in cream-filled baked goods. Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For evaluation of preservative sufficiency of the oil, pathogens were added to cream-filled cakes manually and 1 μL/mL of the essential oil was added to all samples except the blank.  Results: Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and twenty five components were identified where cinnamaldehyde (79.73%, linalool (4.08%, cinnamaldehyde para-methoxy (2.66%, eugenol (2.37% and trans-caryophyllene (2.05% were the major constituents. Cinnamon essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in vitro and the minimum inhibitory concentration values against all tested microorganisms were determined as 0.5 μL/disc except for S. aureus for which, the oil was not effective in tested concentrations. After baking, no observable microorganism was observed in all susceptible microorganisms count in 72h stored samples.  Conclusion: It was concluded that by analysing the sensory quality of the preserved food, cinnamon oil may be considered as a natural preservative in food industry, especially for cream-filled cakes and pastries.

  2. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark essential oil on the halitosis-associated bacterium Solobacterium moorei and in vitro cytotoxicity.

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    LeBel, Geneviève; Haas, Bruno; Adam, Andrée-Ann; Veilleux, Marie-Pier; Lagha, Amel Ben; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Halitosis, also known as bad breath or oral malodour, is a condition affecting a large proportion of the population. Solobacterium moorei is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been specifically associated with halitosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of essential oils, more particularly cinnamon bark oil, on growth, biofilm formation, eradication and killing, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production by S. moorei. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils. Biofilm formation was assessed by a crystal violet staining assay and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm of S. moorei was characterized by enzymatic treatments. Biofilm killing was determined by a luminescence assay monitoring ATP production. H 2 S production was quantified with a colorimetric assay. The biocompatibility of cinnamon oil was investigated using a gingival keratinocyte cell line. Among the ten essential oils tested, cinnamon oil was found to be the most powerful against S. moorei with MIC and MBC values of 0.039% and 0.156%, respectively. The biofilm formed by S. moorei was then characterized. The fact that DNase I and to a lesser extent proteinase K significantly reduced biofilm formation by S. moorei and induced its eradication suggests that the extracellular matrix of S. moorei biofilm may be mainly containing a DNA backbone associated with proteins. At concentrations below the MIC, cinnamon oil reduced S. moorei biofilm formation that resulted from an attenuation of bacterial growth. It was also found that treatment of a pre-formed biofilm of S. moorei with cinnamon oil significantly decreased its viability although it did not cause its eradication. Cinnamon oil had an inhibitory effect on the production of H 2 S by S. moorei. Lastly, it was found that at concentrations effective against S. moorei, no significant loss of viability in gingival keratinocytes occurred after a 1-h exposure. Our study brought

  3. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QWToF-MS

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    The use of cinnamon as a spice and 'avouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as ‘cinnamon’. ‘True cinnamon’ refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other ‘cinnamon’ species, C....

  4. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.

  5. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Turmeric (Curcuma longa and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Powders on Performance, Organs Relative Weight and Some Immune System Parameters in Broiler Chickens

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    Naderi M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks within a completely randomized design were used in this experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of turmeric powder and cinnamon powder on performance and some immune responses of broiler chickens. Dietary treatments were as follow: a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; basal diet + 10 ppm avilamycin; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder; and basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder. During the experiment, feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were measured in the beginning and the end of starter (0-21 d. and grower (22-42 d. periods. On 21 d. of age, two chicks from each replicate were randomly selected and blood samples were taken. Differential enumeration of heterophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were done. Also, antibody titers against IBV, IBD, and NDV vaccines were measured. Addition of 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder increased body weight gain in the starter period and improved feed conversion ratio in the starter and entire periods of the experiment, when compared to the control (P. Also, inclusion of 10 ppm avilamycin into diet improved feed conversion ratio in the grower and entire periods of the experiment, comparing to the control (P. Inclusion of turmeric powder at 2.5 g/Kg or 7.5 g/Kg and cinnamon powder at 7.5 g/Kg declined the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder at the level of 2.5 g/Kg would be a potential alternative for antibiotic growth promoters. Also, reducing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio by turmeric and cinnamon powders, introduce them as potential stress alleviators in broiler chickens.

  6. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamomum verum Methanolic Extract and Essential Oil: A Study on Bio-preservative in Ketchup Sauce

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    Anoosheh Sharifan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural antimicrobial compounds extracted from plants such as cinnamon as preservative to extend the shelf life has gain much attention. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity and bio- preservative potential of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum bark and its oil against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosae and Escherichia coli in ketchup sauce. In order to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of essential oil and methanolic extract from the bark of C. verum, agar dilution method was performed. Then the effective inhibitory concentrations were evaluated on growth of test bacteria in ketchup sauce at 4 °C and room temperature in different storage times (1, 7, 14 and 30 days. In addition, the sensory quality of treated ketchups was assessed. This study showed bacteriostatic effect of the essential oils and methanolic extract on all tested bacteria. The best treatment in ketchup sauce was obtained on days 14 at 4 °C in concentrations of 1500 µg/ml essential oil. In sensory evaluation, the sample containing 1000 µg/ml essential oil had higher score in odor, taste and overall acceptability than other treated samples (P<0.05. This study shows that cinnamon oil is a more potent antimicrobial agent than cinnamon extract and it has the potential to be used as food preservative and is recommended for quality attributes enhancement.

  7. Cinnamomum verum improved the functional properties of bioyogurts made from camel and cow milks

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    A.B. Shori

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cinnamomum verum on the changes in antioxidant activities, proteolysis, total phenolic content and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase of bioyogurts prepared from cow- and camel-milks during 21 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. The result shows that pH of cow-milk bioyogurt (cow-MY decreased more than camel-milk bioyogurt (camel-MY whereas, total titratable acidity increased to similar extent in both types of bioyogurts. The addition of C. verum in both type of bioyogurts enhanced the total phenolic content during the entire storage period. The antioxidant capacity of C. verum-bioyogurts was higher than plain-bioyogurts. Proteolysis was higher in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The inhibition of α-amylase in fresh bioyogurts was stronger in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The reverse was true for α-glucosidase. Conclusively, C. verum can enhance bioyogurt functional properties with potential therapeutic values for the diabetics.

  8. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

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    Alina Georgiana Anghel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization.

  9. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice

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    Marcazzó, J.; Sanchez-Barrera, C.E.; Urbina-Zavala, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. - Highlights: • Samples of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) were studied by TL and PSL methods. • The cinnamon was detected as irradiated at a dose of 500 Gy using PSL. • TL method shows an excellent linear response for doses lesser than 500 Gy. • A proximate chemical analysis was carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber. • The TL and PSL responses can be used for dose control in commercial cinnamon

  10. In vitro biological evaluation of eight different essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi, with emphasis on Cinnamomum verum essential oil.

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    Azeredo, Camila Maria O; Santos, Thalita Gilda; Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales; Soares, Maurilio José

    2014-08-22

    Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against trypanosomatid protozoa. Thus, we analyzed the biological activity of different EOs on Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The following EOs were evaluated on T. cruzi epimastigote forms: Cinnamomum verum, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon nardus, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Eugenia uniflora, Myrocarpus frondosus, and Rosmarinus officinalis. Inhibitory activity against T. cruzi (IC50/24 h) and cytotoxicity against Vero cells (CC50/24 h) were evaluated by the MTT assay. The EO of C. verum was selected for further evaluation against trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, as well as on parasite metacyclogenesis. Constituents of C. verum EO were identified by GC-MS. One-way ANOVA statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad version 5.01. Cinnamomum verum EO was the most effective against T. cruzi epimastigotes (IC50/24 h = 24.13 μg/ml), followed by Myrocarpus frondosus (IC50/24 h = 60.87 μg/ml) and Eugenia uniflora (IC50/24 h = 70 μg/ml). The EOs of C. citriodora, E. globulus, and R. officinalis showed no activity at concentrations up to 300 μg/ml. Incubation of T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with C. verum EO resulted in IC50/24 h values of 5.05 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, trypomastigotes are more susceptible than epimastigotes, with selectivity index (SI) about 4.7-fold higher (9.78 and 2.05, respectively). Analysis of C. verum EO by GC-MS showed mainly (E)-cinnamaldehyde (81.52%) and eugenol (16.68%). C. verum essential oil is effective against T. cruzi (epimastigotes, trypomastigotes and amastigotes) and interferes with the parasite differentiation process in vitro. Thus, it represents a strong candidate for further studies to improve its activity on pathogenic trypanosomatids.

  11. Antifungal mechanism of the combination of Cinnamomum verum and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils with fluconazole against pathogenic Candida strains.

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    Essid, Rym; Hammami, Majdi; Gharbi, Dorra; Karkouch, Ines; Hamouda, Thouraya Ben; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Tabbene, Olfa

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-Candida activity of ten essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate their potential synergism with conventional drugs. The effect on secreted aspartic protease (SAP) activity and the mechanism of action were also explored. The antifungal properties of essential oils were investigated using standard micro-broth dilution assay. Only Cinnamomum verum, Thymus capitatus, Syzygium aromaticum, and Pelargonium graveolens exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic Candida strains. Chemical composition of active essential oils was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synergistic effect was observed with the combinations C. verum/fluconazole and P. graveolens/fluconazole, with FIC value 0.37. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that C. verum EO reduced the quantity of ergosterol to 83%. A total inhibition was observed for the combination C. verum/fluconazole. However, P. graveolens EO may disturb the permeability barrier of the fungal cell wall. An increase of MIC values of P. graveolens EO and the combination with fluconazole was observed with osmoprotectants (sorbitol and PEG6000). Furthermore, the combination with fluconazole may affect ergosterol biosynthesis and disturb fatty acid homeostasis in C. albicans cells as the quantity of ergosterol and oleic acid was reduced to 52.33 and 72%, respectively. The combination of P. graveolens and C. verum EOs with fluconazole inhibited 78.31 and 64.72% SAP activity, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report underlying the mechanism of action and the inhibitory effect of SAP activity of essential oils in synergy with fluconazole. Naturally occurring phytochemicals C. verum and P. graveolens could be effective candidate to enhance the efficacy of fluconazole-based therapy of C. albicans infections.

  12. Chemical composition and acaricide activity of an essential oil from a rare chemotype of Cinnamomum verum Presl on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Monteiro, Ildenice Nogueira; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Costa-Junior, Lívio Martins; da Silva Lima, Aldilene; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Mouchrek Filho, Victor Elias

    2017-04-30

    The Essential Oils (EOs) from the leaves of species Cinnamomum verum J. Presl are used in the pharmaceutical industry for their numerous biological activities. Currently, the main compound of C. verum EO is eugenol which has acaricidal activity; however, a rare chemotype with benzyl benzoate as the main component can be found. Benzyl benzoate is recognized as an acaricide; however, studies of the C. verum EOs benzyl benzoate chemotype on Rhipicephalus microplus were not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricide activity of an EO from a rare chemotype of C. verum, as well as purified benzyl benzoate, against larvae and engorged females of R. microplus resistant to amidines and pyrethroids. The EO was extracted from C. verum leaves and the compounds present were identified using a gas phase chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Efficacy against R. microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. A rare chemotype of C. verum was found to produce EOs with benzyl benzoate (65.4%) as the main compound. The C. verum essential oil was 3.3 times more efficient on the R. microplus larvae than was benzyl benzoate. However, no differences were found on the R. microplus engorged females. This is the first report regarding the acaricidal activity of C. verum with chemotype benzyl benzoate, and this compound showed acaricidal activity on R. microplus larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Active Components in Essential Oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl

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    Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Gamma irradiation is one of the methods utilized to reduce microbial contamination of medicinal herbs. Since irradiation may also affect active compounds of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on active compounds in essential oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl by using GC-MS. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy does not significantly affect active components in essential oils such as alpha-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-copaene, benzaldehyde, linalool, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-0l, alpha-terpineol, benzylacetaldehyde, Z-cinnamaldehyde, E-cinnamaldehyde, and cinnamic acid

  14. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

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    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  15. Effects of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum on growth of bread spoilage fungi

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    Monir Doudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste has been identified as a considerable problem and bread is the most wasted food. This study aimed to evaluate In-vitro anti-fungal activity of cinnamon extract on bread spoilage fungi and to determine its anti-fungal effect in the bread slices. At first, the MIC and MFC values of the extract were determined against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus oryzae. Then, Aspergillus sp was selected to assess antifungal activities of different doses of cinnamon extract in bread slices. Cinnamon extract at a dose of 64 mg/ml completely inhibited all standard and bread isolated fungi. This concentration of extract also inhibited Aspergillus growth on bread slices and delayed colony formation but adversely affected the sensory characteristics of bread. Cinnamon extract at 32 mg/ml not only delayed fungal growth, but also improved bread shelf life and delayed its staling. Moreover, 32mg/ml of extract did not adversely affect bread aroma, flavor and texture. However, sodium acetate inhibited the growth of Aspergillus sp but is not recommended for fungal control because it is considered as chemical. Therefore 32 mg/ml of extract is recommended for increasing the shelf-life of flat bread.

  16. Effects of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum on growth of bread spoilage fungi

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    Monir Doudi; Mahbubeh Setorki; Zahra Rezayatmand

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has been identified as a considerable problem and bread is the most wasted food. This study aimed to evaluate In-vitro anti-fungal activity of cinnamon extract on bread spoilage fungi and to determine its anti-fungal effect in the bread slices. At first, the MIC and MFC values of the extract were determined against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus oryzae. Then, Aspergillus sp was sele...

  17. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) as a potential pharmaceutical agent for type-2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Galappaththy, Priyadarshani; Constantine, Godwin Roger; Jayawardena, Ranil; Weeratunga, Hasitha Dhananjaya; Premakumara, Sirimal; Katulanda, Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have explored the anti-diabetic effects of Cinnamomum cassia extract in vivo and in vitro. However, there are no studies at present exploring the effects of the indigenous species of Sri Lankan cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to evaluate the potential effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract as a pharmaceutical agent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Methods/design The study will be conducted as a...

  18. Evaluación de la capacidad conservante de los aceites esenciales de clavo (syzygium aromaticum) y canela (cinnamomum verum), sobre la levadura (rhodotorula mucilaginosa) en leche chocolatada

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    Castaño Sepúlveda, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Los aceites esenciales (AE) son mezclas homogéneas de sustancias orgánicas provenientes de una misma familia química, terpenos y sus compuestos oxigenados. Tienen la propiedad común de generar diversos aromas agradables y perceptibles al ser humano, algunos presentan propiedades antimicrobianas. El clavo (Syzygium aromaticum) y la canela (Cinnamomum verum) son especias muy utilizadas en gastronomía y medicina natural, evaluados durante las últimas décadas por su uso potencial como co...

  19. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  20. Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazuru, E.R.; Moreira, A.V.B.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Food irradiation to reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms and insects is an ionizing process that induces free radical formation in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other molecular structures in food. Antioxidants generally decrease the level of oxidation in such systems by transferring hydrogen atoms to the free radical structure. In the present paper, the effect of ionizing radiation on natural cinnamon antioxidants is studied. Cinnamon samples were purchased from retailers and irradiated with a 60 Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil) using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy at room temperature. After irradiation 3 kinds of sequential extractions were performed. One was submitted to antioxidant extraction using ethyl ether, the second with ethanol and the last with water. The antioxidant activity was determined by β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Irradiation in the dose range applied did not have any effect on the antioxidant potential of the cinnamon compounds. Further studies will be performed to study the possibility to use cinnamon extracts in preserving food from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation

  1. Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazuru, E.R. E-mail: erkitazu@ipen.br; Moreira, A.V.B.; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmamcini@usp.br; Delincee, H.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Food irradiation to reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms and insects is an ionizing process that induces free radical formation in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other molecular structures in food. Antioxidants generally decrease the level of oxidation in such systems by transferring hydrogen atoms to the free radical structure. In the present paper, the effect of ionizing radiation on natural cinnamon antioxidants is studied. Cinnamon samples were purchased from retailers and irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil) using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy at room temperature. After irradiation 3 kinds of sequential extractions were performed. One was submitted to antioxidant extraction using ethyl ether, the second with ethanol and the last with water. The antioxidant activity was determined by {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Irradiation in the dose range applied did not have any effect on the antioxidant potential of the cinnamon compounds. Further studies will be performed to study the possibility to use cinnamon extracts in preserving food from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  2. Utilization of cinnamon Cinnamomum burmannii leaves and shrimp head in the feed on growth performance of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalmus

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    Suclyadi Dairun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCatfish farming has confronted with the problem of slow growth to reach the fillet size and less tender of fish fillets. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon leaf flour and shrimp head flour in formulated diets on growth of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalamus. Catfish with an initial weight of 207.04 ± 2.70 g/fish reared in 12 cages with a dimension of  2×1×1.5 m3 (L×W×H  and its fish density was 15 fishes for 60 days. Fish were fed with following experimental diets: (1 Control; (2 cinnamon leaf (1% (CL; (3 45% of protein source from shrimp head (SH; (4 CL+SH mix.  The fishes fed twice a day with feeding rate 3.5% of fish biomass. The study found that the use of cinnamon leaf and shrimp head increased the specific growth rate 1.67-1.70%, the feed efficiency 57.55-57.67%, and protein retention 55.61% compared to its control (P<0.05. Triglyceride level, cholesterol, and blood HDL were 416.00-524.05 mg/dL, 139.65-156.68 mg/dL, 73.18-103.70 mg/dL (P>0.05, respectively. HSI value ranged between 0.3-1.9% compared to its control (P<0.05.Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, feed, growth, Pangasianodon hypopthalmus, shrimp head.  ABSTRAKBudidaya ikan patin dihadapkan pada permasalahan pertumbuhan dan kualitas daging yaitu pertumbuhan yang lambat untuk mencapai ukuran fillet serta tekstur daging kurang kompak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh penggunaan tepung daun kayu manis dan tepung kepala udang dalam pakan terhadap pertumbuhan ikan patin Pangasianodon hypopthalmus. Ikan patin dengan bobot 207,04 ± 2,70 g/ekordipelihara selama 60 hari di hapa sebanyak 12 buah (berukuran 2×1×1,5 m3dengan padat tebar 15 ekor/jaring. Ikan diberi pakan perlakuan yang terdiri dari: (1 Kontrol; (2 daun kayu manis 1% (DKM; (3 45% sumber protein dari kepala udang (TKU; dan (4 campuran DKM+TKU. Pemberian pakan sebanyak 2 kali sehari dengan feeding rate 3,5% dari biomassa ikan. Hasil dari penelitian penggunaan daun kayu manis

  3. Assessment of Coumarin Levels in Ground Cinnamon Available in the Czech Retail Market

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    Jana Blahová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2 650 to 7 017 mg · kg−1. The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  4. Effect of hydro-ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of Botrytis cinerea on strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application of three dosages (5, 10 and 15 mL/L and two frequencies (each 6 and 8 days of ethanoic extracts obtained from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of grey mould (Botrytis cinerea on strawberry crop (Fragaria ananassa cv. Albion was evaluated. Experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with factorial arrangement 2 x 3 x 2 + 1, with three replications. Lower incidence and severity percentage in flower and fruit (10.24 and 24.43%, respectively were observed after application of cinnamon extract at 15 mL/L at 6 days interval. Similarly, lower fruit severity (11.86% was observed with the same treatment. In general, reduction in B. cinerea incidence and severity was lower when common horsetail extract was used, compared to cinnamon extracts. According to our results, using of cinnamon hydro-ethanoic extracts could be considered as sustainable alternative for grey mold management in strawberry crops.

  5. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract (cinnamomum burmannii) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Cinnamon bark has been commonly used as spicy and traditional medicine. It contains several antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, and cinnamaldehyde. Several studies have been done to know the antibacterial effect on bacteria such as Streptococcus in vitro. This study aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract against Streptococcus and its application as mouthwash to inhibit the bacteria. The cinnamon bark was macerated followed by extracted in 80% ethanol. Bacterial samples were isolated from dental plaque of patients visiting dental clinic drg. Syahdiana Waty in Medan, North Sumatra. The isolates were identified using Vitek 2 compact. Secondary metabolites were detected using previously described method. Antibacterial assay was done at extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25%. The result showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and glycoside were detected in the extract. Nine bacterial species were identified as Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S. pluranimalium, S. pneumoniae, S. alactolyticus, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, and Spingomonas paucimolis. It showed that the extract of Cinnamon bark significantly inhibited Streptococcus growth, and it was effective as mouthwash.

  7. Cinnamon and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mitra; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family and is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. It contains a lot of manganese, iron, dietary fiber, and calcium. Cinnamon contains derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamate, and numerous other components such as polyphenols and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer effects. Several reports have dealt with the numerous properties of cinnamon in the forms of bark, essential oils, bark powder, and phenolic compounds, and each of these properties can play a key role in human health. Recently, many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, arthritis, and arteriosclerosis, but still we need further investigations to provide additional clinical evidence for this spice against cancer and inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neurological disorders.

  8. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  9. Preservation Effect of Two-Stage Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum Burmanii) Oleoresin Microcapsules On Vacuum-Packed Ground Beef During Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfiana, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules (0%, 0.5% and 1%) on the TPC (Total Plate Count), TBA (thiobarbituric acid), pH, and RGB color (Red, Green, and Blue) of vacuum-packed ground beef during refrigerated storage (at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days). This study showed that the addition of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules affected the quality of vacuum-packed ground beef during 16 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that the TPC value of the vacuum-packed ground beef sample with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules was lower than the value of control sample. The TPC value of the control sample, sample with additional 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were 5.94; 5.46; and 5.16 log CFU/g respectively. The TBA value of vacuum-packed ground beef were 0.055; 0.041; and 0.044 mg malonaldehyde/kg, resepectively on the 16th day of storage. The addition of two-stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules could inhibit the growth of microbia and decrease the oxidation process of vacuum-packed ground beef. Moreover, the change of vacuum-packed ground beef pH and RGB color with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were less than those of the control sample. The addition of 1% microcapsules showed the best effect in preserving the vacuum-packed ground beef.

  10. The Application of Active Paper Incorporated with Oleoresin of Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum burmanii) Distillation Residues on Maintaining Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus costaricensis) Quality during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. S. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon leaf distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The best method to maintain the super red dragon fruits quality was wrapping method.

  11. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppikar, Soumya J; Choudhari, Amit S; Suryavanshi, Snehal A; Kumari, Shweta; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination) to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS. Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cinnamon could be used as a potent chemopreventive drug in cervical cancer

  13. Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Samit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. Methods The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS. Results Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Cinnamon could be used as a

  14. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faixová Zita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03 supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetheroleum of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calendula a.s., Nová L'ubovña, Slovakia. Continuous lighting and water and feed ad libitum were provided throughout the trial. The addition of cinnamon to the diets caused a significantly lower plasma glucose level and the effects of cinnamon on plasma glucose levels tended to be dose-dependent. Dietary intake of 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon reduced serum ALT and plasma potassium levels. Ingestion of cinnamon, however, resulted in no significant changes in circulating calcium, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol and cholesterol levels. It was concluded that cinnamon could be used not only for flavor and taste in food preparation but it had an additional role in glucose metabolism in broiler chickens.

  15. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, Oonagh; McClean, Conor M; Medlow, Paul; Davison, Gareth W; Trinick, Tom R; Duly, Ellie; Shafat, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent...

  16. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  17. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  18. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight of fish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture of fillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, fillet, shrimp head meal, feed formulated, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  19. Improving Indonesian cinnamon (c. burmannii (Nees & t. nees) Blume) value chains for Greater Farmers Incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menggala, S. R.; Damme, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    Genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) regroups some species whose stem bark are harvested, conditioned and traded as cinnamon in an international market. Over the centuries, the species have been domesticated so that now at least six different ones are grown in Southeast Asia countries. One of the species is Cinnamomum burmannii, also known as Korintje Cinnamon, which generates income for most smallholder farmers in Kerinci district, Jambi, Indonesia. Most cinnamon consumed in the world originates from this Korintje Cinnamon products. It is recognized for its unparalleled quality that comes with its sharp and sweet flavor, with a slightly bitter edge. However, international market requirements for product certification and quality standards make it difficult for a farmer to comply. Our research will address issues related to (improvement of) productivity, sustainability and value chains faced by cinnamon producers in Kerinci, to strengthen their product’s value chains. Smallholder farmers are very vulnerable to climate change impacts, and thus empowering the value chains of agricultural products will increase farmers resilience to climate change. The research will analyze the development of agricultural value chains, certification & standards on trade mechanism to help farmers earn a better income and future prospects.

  20. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  1. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis.

  2. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, D.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14. CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a {sup 60}Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  3. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Lee, Sung Haeng; Park, Zee Yong; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Hwang, Ji-Sun; So, Jae-Seon; Lee, Choong-Gu; Sahoo, Anupama; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeon, Won Kyung; Ko, Byoung Seob; Im, Chang-Rok

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8 + T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of diverse cancers

  4. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer  meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii  and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of  208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves,  45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight offish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture offillet fish more compact,  elastic and color of fillet fish white.

  5. Actividad antimicrobiana de Illicium verum Hook. f.

    OpenAIRE

    De, M.; De, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Mir??, M.A.; Anerjee, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Entre las diferentes especies de Illicium, Illicium verum Hook.f., conocido vulgarmente como an??s estrellado, posee potentes propiedades antimicrobianas. Los estudios qu??micos realizados indican que la mayor parte de esta actividad antimicrobiana se debe al anetol [1-metoxi-4-(1-propenil)-benceno] presente en el fruto desecado de esta planta. Ensayos de concentraci??n m??nima inhibitoria (CMI) con el anetol aislado, en comparaci??n con un patr??n de anetol, indicaron que es efec...

  6. KECERNAAN PAKAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN PANGASIUS HYPOPTHALMUS YANG DIBERI TEPUNG DAN EKSTRAK DAUN KAYU MANIS CINNAMOMUM BURMANNII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the digestibility and growth performance of catfish Pangasius hypopthalmus fed on Cinnamomum burmannii leaf powder and extract. Ten catfish with an average body weight of 0.02 ± 11.24 g were stocked into the 40 × 50 × 35 cm aquarium. Fish were fed on the diet contained of 0.1% cinnamon extract, 1% cinnamon powder and without cinnamon leaf. Fish were fed on those diets at satiation with times a day. Fish were cultured for 60 days. The results showed the bacterial total number in the gut of fish fed diet contained 0.1% cinnamon leaf extract was 7.8 x 107 cfu/g, greater than other treatments. Protein digestibility in 0.1% cinnamon extract increase 4.12% and body protein 58.72%. The whole body of fish fed on cinnamon leaf extract contained higher protein and lower fat. There was no different result in the growth of catfish

  7. Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes – A Narrative Review?

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Rebecca B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Saldanha, Leila; Bailey, Regan L.; Merkel, Joyce; Wambogo, Edwina

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) has been suggested to help patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieve better glycemic control although conclusions from meta-analyses are mixed. To evaluate whether the use of cinnamon dietary supplements by adults with T2DM had clinically meaningful effects on glycemic control, as measured by changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a comprehensive PubMed literature search was performed. Eleven RCTs were identified meeting our in...

  8. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Laheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flour in the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of 319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days of maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1% cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of 3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamon capable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared to controls (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality of meat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.

  9. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Laheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flourin the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 daysof maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1%cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamoncapable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared tocontrols (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality ofmeat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.Keywords: cinnamon leaf, meat quality, Pangsianodon hypopthalmus

  10. Natural Borneol Recycling from Cinnamomum camphor chvar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish an efficient method to recycle natural borneol from Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol oil residue. Methods: The fractions and raffinate of the oil residue of Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol were obtained by fractional distillation, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization ...

  11. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  12. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  13. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  14. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  15. Ultrastructural evaluation of the effects of cinnamon on the nervus ischiadicus in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahceci, Selen; Akkus, Murat; Aluclu, Mehmet U; Canoruc, Naime; Bahceci, Mithat; Gokalp, Deniz; Baran, Sedat; Akbalik, Mehmet E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of oral cinnamon supplementation on the nervus ischiadicus at the electron microscopical level in rats. This study was performed between 2004-2006 in Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey in 15 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups; control (C) (n=5), diabetic without cinnamon (D) (n=5), and diabetic with cinnamon (D-C) (n=5). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal alloxan administration. All diabetic rats were treated with human insulin. All rats were fed with standard pellet chow. The D-C group rats were fed with standard pellet chow plus Cinnamomum cassia at the dose of 400mg/kg. All rats were sacrificed after 3 months and we obtained the nervus ischiadicus of all rats. Contrast stained thin sections evaluated by Jeol-TEM-1010 electron microscope, were not statistically different in both groups and photo samples were obtained. Mean blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, and lipid profile were not statistically different in both groups. Marked detachment of myelin lamellae at Schmidt-Lanterman clefts, lysis in cristae mitochondrialis and degenerative changes, severe dispersion of organelles in neurolemma, mesoaxon region, and remarkable edema at the endoneurium were found in diabetic rats. On the contrary, mesoaxon, nucleus, nucleolus and myelin sheet were almost of normal appearance at the ultra-structural level in the D-C group. Cinnamon extracts may have beneficial effects on the development of diabetic neuropathy in alloxan induced diabetic rats. (author)

  16. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarroz, M.O.; Fonseca, A.S.; Rocha, G.S.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m( 99m Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99m Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p 99m Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  17. Antimicrobial properties of star anise (Illicium verum Hook f).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Minakshi; De, Amit Krishna; Sen, Parimal; Banerjee, Arun Baran

    2002-02-01

    Star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) has been shown to possess potent antimicrobial properties. Chemical studies indicate that a major portion of this antimicrobial property is due to anethole present in the dried fruit. Studies with isolated anethole (compared with standard anethole) indicated that it is effective against bacteria, yeast and fungal strains. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Three novel antioxidants from Cinnamomum plants | Cheng | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three novel antioxidants from Cinnamomum plants. K-C Cheng, H-A Chen, P-F Wu, W-L Yang, H-M Wang, C-Y Chen. Abstract. In this study, we identified three novel antioxidants, subamolide C (1), subamolide E (2) and isokotomolide A (3) from the constitutes of Cinnamomum subavenium and Cinnamomum kotoense.

  19. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  1. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleha, Radek; Mosio, Petra; Vydrzalova, Marketa; Jantovska, Alexandra; Bostikova, Vanda; Mazurova, Jaroslava

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five natural substances against 50 clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. The in vitro activity of selected natural compounds, cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene, was investigated against 50 M. hominis isolates cultivated from cervical swabs by the broth dilution method. All showed valuable antimicrobial activity against the tested isolates. Oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (MBC90 = 500 µg/mL) however was found to be the most effective. Carvacrol (MBC90 = 600 µg/mL) and eugenol (MBC90 = 1000 µg/mL) also possessed strong antimycoplasmal activity. The results indicate that cinnamon bark oil, carvacrol and eugenol have strong antimycoplasmal activity and the potential for use as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections.

  3. Genetic diversity in Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, unweighed pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis showed up to 89% genetic variation among these accessions, which is further supported by principle co-ordinate analysis (PCA). Key words: Genetic diversity, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, RAPD markers, DNA polymorphism.

  4. Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... a key species in the evolutionary transition from section Camphora to section Cinnamomum. Our results ... hypotheses. Many differing classification schemes were ... growth environment or growth stage of the plant. Furthermore, PCR ..... while C. subavenium flowers in August and September of each year.

  5. Genetic diversity in Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... The cinnamons of the market are the inner barks ob- ... zeylanicum which is acrid, bitter, sweet and aromatic is reported to ... drinks, tobacco flavors, dental and pharmaceutical prepa- ..... optimizing sampling strategies and for conserving tree ... plants of conservation concern from Deccan Ecoregion of India.

  6. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Amornrat Intorasoot; Piyaorn Chornchoem; Siriwoot Sookkhee; Sorasak Intorasoot

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, E...

  7. Illicium verum: a review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Hu, Wen-Ting; Huang, Bao-Kang; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2011-06-14

    The fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Chinese star anise) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and food industry with the actions of dispelling cold, regulating the flow of Qi and relieving pain. A bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing recognized books including Chinese herbal classic, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched for the available information on I. verum. I. verum is an aromatic evergreen tree of the family Illiciaceae. It is sometimes contaminated with highly toxic Japanese star anise (I. anisatum L.) and poisonous star anise (I. lanceolatum A. C. Smith), which contain several neurotoxic sesquiterpenes. Traditional uses of I. verum are recorded throughout Asia and Northern America, where it has been used for more than 10 types of disorders. Numerous compounds including volatiles, seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids and other constituents have been identified from I. verum. Modern pharmacology studies demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological actions, especially in antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, analgesic, sedative and convulsive activities. In addition, it is the major source of shikimic acid, a primary ingredient in the antiflu drug (Tamiflu). This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of I. verum together with the toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for future research of I. verum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cinnamon, a promising prospect towards Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khan, Fazlullah; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last decades, an exponential increase of efforts concerning the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been practiced. Phytochemicals preparations have a millenary background to combat various pathological conditions. Various cinnamon species and their biologically active ingredients have renewed the interest towards the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD through the inhibition of tau protein aggregation and prevention of the formation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptides into the neurotoxic oligomeric inclusions, both of which are considered to be the AD trademarks. In this review, we presented comprehensive data on the interactions of a number of cinnamon polyphenols (PPs) with oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain. In addition, we discussed the potential association between AD and diabetes mellitus (DM), vis-à-vis the effluence of cinnamon PPs. Further, an upcoming prospect of AD epigenetic pathophysiological conditions and cinnamon has been sighted. Data was retrieved from the scientific databases such as PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine, Scopus and Google Scholar without any time limitation. The extract of cinnamon efficiently inhibits tau accumulations, Aβ aggregation and toxicity in vivo and in vitro models. Indeed, cinnamon possesses neuroprotective effects interfering multiple oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory pathways. Besides, cinnamon modulates endothelial functions and attenuates the vascular cell adhesion molecules. Cinnamon PPs may induce AD epigenetic modifications. Cinnamon and in particular, cinnamaldehyde seem to be effective and safe approaches for treatment and prevention of AD onset and/or progression. However, further molecular and translational research studies as well as prolonged clinical trials are required to establish the therapeutic safety and efficacy in different cinnamon spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cinnamon extract regulates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression in mouse adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Graves, Donald J; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    Cinnamon extracts (CE) are reported to have beneficial effects on people with normal and impaired glucose tolerance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. However, clinical results are controversial. Molecular characterization of CE effects is limited. This study investigated the effects of CE on gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes. Water-soluble CE was prepared from ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate CE effects on the expression of genes coding for adipokines, glucose transporter (GLUT) family, and insulin-signaling components in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CE (100 μg/ml) increased GLUT1 mRNA levels 1.91±0.15, 4.39±0.78, and 6.98±2.18-fold of the control after 2-, 4-, and 16-h treatments, respectively. CE decreased the expression of further genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins including GSK3B, IGF1R, IGF2R, and PIK3R1. This study indicates that CE regulates the expression of multiple genes in adipocytes and this regulation could contribute to the potential health benefits of CE. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, L; Jayawardena, B; Abeywickrama, K

    2002-01-01

    To develop a post-harvest treatment system against post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana using natural products. Colletotrichum musae was isolated and identified as the causative agent responsible for anthracnose peel blemishes while three fungi, namely Lasiodiplodia theobromae, C. musae and Fusarium proliferatum, were identified as causative agents responsible for crown rot. During the liquid bioassay, cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.)] leaf, bark and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.)] oils were tested against the anthracnose and crown rot pathogens. The test oils were fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogens within a range of 0.03-0.11% (v/v). Cinnamon and clove essential oils could be used as antifungal agents to manage post harvest fungal diseases of banana. Cinnamon and clove essential oil could be used as alternative post-harvest treatments on banana. Banana treated with essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers. Benomyl (Benlate), which is currently used to manage fungal pathogens, can cause adverse health effects and could be replaced with volatile essential oils.

  11. Dessication tolerance of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness SeedsTolerância à dessecação de sementes de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Matos Barroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, submitted to different levels of drying, the fruits of dark brown and fully mature were collected and washed by hand, then the seeds were exposed to drying, on paper towel, under laboratory conditions. Treatments consisted of sampling for the determination of water content, germination and vigor tests at the beginning of the experiment and after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds each. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression. Cinnamon seeds are dispersed with high water content (39.43% and viability is compromised when dehydrated, the germination capacity as well as its speed decreases with dehydration, characterizing the recalcitrant behavior of seeds, with water content 34.82% less than both the percentage and the speed of germination are reduced. The seeds of C. zeylanicum tolerate desiccation to 12 hours without significant loss of vigor. Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness submetidas a diferentes níveis de secagem, os frutos de coloração marrom escura e completamente maduros foram coletados e despolpados manualmente, em seguida, as sementes foram expostas para a secagem, sobre papel toalha, em condições de laboratório. Os tratamentos consistiram na amostragem para a determinação do teor de água, testes de germinação e vigor no início do experimento e após 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. As sementes de canela são dispersas com alto teor de água (39,43% e tem a viabilidade comprometida quando desidratadas; a capacidade de germinação bem como a sua

  12. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Kawatra; Rathai Rajagopalan

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant...

  13. Cinnamon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particularly true if you have diabetes. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  14. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  15. Cinnamon in Anticancer Armamentarium: A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Dutta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural bioactive components draw a major attention for their potent anticarcinogenic activity. Cinnamon, one of the traditional spices, most frequently used in almost every household of tropical countries has got enormous efficacy to combat cancer. Cinnamon as a whole and/or its active components exhibited significant antineoplastic activity in different types of cancer. This review has been carried out to elicit the molecular mechanisms of action of cinnamon and its components on oncogenic regulators and related pathways. Web sites of Google Scholar, Medline, and PubMed were searched for articles written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from 2003 to 2017. The anticarcinogenic potential of cinnamon varies with the type of cancer and also depends on the administered active compound individually or in combination with some chemicals or even extract of cinnamon as a whole. Some of its active components exert chemosensitization of well-known anticancer drugs. These outstanding properties of this spice necessitate its incorporation in both pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals to explore possibilities of formulation of novel drug from this spice for treatment and prevention strategy of cancer.

  16. Efeito do Tratamento Crônico com Extrato Aquoso de Cinnamomum zeylanicum em Ratos Induzidos à Obesidade e Hiperglicemia/Chronic Treatment Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in Mice Induced to Obesity and Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Oliveira Vilela dos Reis

    2015-06-01

    canela por período prolongado. Introduction: A diet with poor nutrients, but with high lipid index adding to a sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity. Due to the absence of a single drug for treating this factor, the study with intake of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, is relevant due to its possible efficacy in the studies for the treatment of obesity and hyperglycemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on weight and blood glucose in rats induced to obesity. Methods: 32 male Wistar rats were used. The induction of obesity and hyperglycemia (insulin resistance was made with monosodium glutamate administration subcutaneously at a dose of 4 mg/kg on alternate days from the 2nd to the 14th day of life. In the 8th week, 32 rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8. Group 1 (C - Control: - Tap water administration by gavage (n = 8; Group 2 (D - Drug Treatment - administration of Metformin - concentration: 500 mg/ kg/ day (n = 8; Group 3 (T1 - Treatment Test 1 - aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum administration (120mg / kg by gavage (n = 8; Group 4 (T2 - Treatment Test 2 - aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum administration (240 mg / kg by gavage (n = 8. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were anesthetized with Ketamine (50mg/kg/ Xylazine (25 mg/kg intraperitoneally and underwent intracardiac puncture. The withdrawal of blood was to dose fasting glucose. Results: Treatment Test 1 (T1 (120mg/kg, Treatment Test 2 (T2 (240mg/Kg and the Drug group produced significant difference (p 0.05. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum showed a decrease in blood glucose. Thus, the studies with the use of cinnamon for longer periods should be considered for they are promissing.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde and linalool from the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira in endotoxin-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Shih-Yun; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2018-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira is a Taiwan native plant that belongs to genus Cinnamomum and is also known as pseudocinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon. Its leaf is traditionally used by local people in cooking and as folk therapy. We previously demonstrated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira of linalool chemotype in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on endotoxin-injected mice. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether cinnamaldehyde and linalool the active anti-inflammatory compounds in leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. Before the injection of endotoxin, C57BL/6 mice of the experimental groups were administered cinnamaldehyde (0.45 or 0.9 mg/kg body weight) or linalool (2.6 or 5.2 mg/kg body weight), mice of the positive control group were administered the leaf essential oil (13 mg/kg body weight), and mice of the negative group were administered vehicle (corn oil, 4 mL/kg body weight) by gavage every other day for two weeks. All mice received endotoxin (i.p. 10 mg/mL/kg body weight) the next day after the final administration and were killed 12 h after the injection. Normal control mice were pretreated with vehicle followed by the injection with saline. None of the treatment found to affect body weight or food or water intake of mice before the injection of endotoxin. Cinnamaldehyde and linalool were found significantly reversed endotoxin-induced body weight loss and lymphoid organ enlargement compared with vehicle (P essential oil, which was 0.9 mg/kg and 5.2 mg/kg, respectively, showed similar or slightly less inhibitory activity for most of these inflammatory parameters compared with that of the leaf essential oil. Our data confirmed the potential use of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira as an anti-inflammatory natural product and provide evidence for cinnamaldehyde and linalool as two potent agents for prophylactic use

  18. An investigation of the effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark extracts on oxidative DNA damage and possible cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in transformed/untransformed cell lines from Type 1 diabetic patients, in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferzan Lermioglu Erciyas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM had increased level of oxidative DNA damage and decreased efficacy of DNA repair. These changes were implicated in the increased cancer risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cinnamon bark extracts have diverse biological activities including antidiabetic and anti-tumor properties. Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia is a common used cinnamon species present in commercial cinnamon preparations. We aimed to investigate the effects of cinnamon extracts prepared from C. cassia bark on endogenous and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage, as well as cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in this study. Type 1 diabetic (T1DM lymphocytes (GM02765, GM01838 and fibroblasts (GM01837 were obtained from NIGMS Human Genetic Cell Repository of Coriell Institute, New Jersey, USA. Cytotoxicity analysis were performed by using a tetrazolium salt, 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl 2-(4-nitrophenyl 2H-5-tetrazolio] 1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1. The effects of extracts on endogenous and H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage were studied using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; Comet Assay, a technique allowing DNA damage in a single cell. Apoptotic activities of extracts were investigated by TUNEL and Annexin V/PI assays. using flow cytometry. IC50 and IC20 values of the extracts varied and the effects on endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage were different regarding cell lines and extracts. Although their protective effects at some doses against to H2O2-induced oxidative damage, our results suggested DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of cinnamon bark extracts on Type 1 diabetic cell lines, in vitro.

  19. Radioactivity level of different cinnamon samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czegledi, P; Cieleszky, V [Institut of Nutrition, Budapest (Hungry); Andrasi, A; Zombori, P [Koezponti Fizikai Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1980-06-01

    /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 232/Th were determined in cinnamon samples from China, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. The Chinese sample contained an extremenly high quantity of /sup 90/Sr and its /sup 137/Cs content was also considerably higher than that of the other samples.

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Illicium verum against antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jyh-Ferng; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Yang, Cheng-San; Wang, Shao-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Che; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, human pathogenic microorganisms have developed multiple drug resistance and caused serious nosocomial infections. In this study, we identified four new antimicrobial compounds from the Chinese herbal medicine Illicium verum and assessed their antibacterial efficacies. The supercritical CO₂ and ethanol extracts of Illicium verum showed substantial antibacterial activity against 67 clinical drug-resistant isolates, including 27 Acinetobacter baumannii, 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 20 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The diethyl ether (EE) fraction obtained from partition extraction and supercritical CO₂ extracts revealed an antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 0.15-0.70 mg/mL and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The EE fraction of I. verum showed synergetic effects with some commercial antibiotics. The antimicrobial mechanism was investigated with killing curves and scanning electron microscopy observation. The chemical components of the extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry; (E)-anethole, anisyl acetone, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl aldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates. These extracts from I. verum can be further developed into antibiotic medicines due to their proven antibacterial activity.

  1. Effect of sodium alginate coating incorporated with nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and rosemary essential oils on microbial quality of chicken meat and fate of Listeria monocytogenes during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tabaraei, Alijan; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behnampour, Nasser

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to preserve the microbial quality of chicken meat fillets during storage time by using sodium alginate active coating solutions incorporated with different natural antimicrobials including nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and rosemary essential oils (EOs) which were added individually and in combination. The samples were stored in refrigeration condition for 15days and were analyzed for total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, lactic acid bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp. count, psychrotrophic count, and yeast and mold count, as well as fate of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that values of tested microbial indicators in all samples increased during storage. Antimicrobial agents, when used in combination, had stronger effect in preserving the microbial quality of chicken meat samples rather than their individual use and the strongest effect was observed in samples coated with alginate solution containing both cinnamon and rosemary EOs (CEO+REO). However, all treatments significantly inhibited microbial growth when compared to the control (Ppreservatives is recommended in meat products especially in chicken meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Streptozotocin- Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) Rats. ... Methods: The animals were divided into three groups (n = 6). of normal rats; streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg of the aqueous ...

  3. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Ho Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool (土肉桂 tǔ ròu guì is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT, a light–dark test (LDT and an elevated plus maze test (EPT. After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, S-(+-linalool (500 mg/kg, R-(−-linalool (500 mg/kg, and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders.

  4. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hy...

  5. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Paul Crawford, MD Clinical Investigation...Title: “Cinnamon Bark, Water-Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled...as initial treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized, controlled trial. IRB #: FWH20110004H Principal Investigator (PI) Rank / Civ

  6. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of ...

  7. Antibacterial and antidermatophyte activities of some essential Oils from spices

    OpenAIRE

    El Kady, I. A. [اسماعيل عبد الرزاق القاضي; El-Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed; Eman Mostafa M.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of ten essential oil from different spices against the growth of various isolates of bacteria representing Gram-positive (seven isolates) and Gram-negative (four isolates) were studied. Eight antibacterial agents were included for comparative purposes. Results show that essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl (Syn. C. zylanicum Blume) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamum White and Maton) were highly active against both Gram-negative an...

  8. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in maleWistar rats ...

  9. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 4

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available THE OLDEST SCIENTIFIC NAME FOR THE CINNAMON TREECinnamomum zeylanicum BL, 1826, has been currently considered tobe the proper name for the common cinnamon tree. This name was alreadyin use during the pre-Linnean period (cf. Kostermans, Bibliogr. Laur. 364.1964.The oldest valid name, however, is Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl,1825, This is not a pharmaceutical name, as is evident from the referencescited by Presl and by the treatment of other species. For complete refe-rences cf. Kostermans, Bibl. Laur. 360, 1964.

  11. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  12. A new species of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) from the Bladen Nature Reserve, southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Steven W; Stott, Gail L

    2017-01-01

    A new species in the Lauraceae, Cinnamomum bladenense S.W. Brewer & G.L. Stott, is described from the Bladen Nature Reserve in southern Belize. The new species is similar to Cinnamomum brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm., from which it differs by its much smaller, narrowly-campanulate flowers, its inner tepals glabrous abaxially, its shorter petioles, its minutely sericeous younger twigs, and its abaxial leaf surfaces not glaucous and with prominent secondary venation. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, and photographs of the species as well as a key to and notes on the Cinnamomum of Belize are provided.

  13. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evoked Pressure Pain Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Analgesic Response to Verum and Sham Acupuncture in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Noah A; Tsodikov, Alex; Mist, Scott D; Cina, Stephen; Napadow, Vitaly; Harris, Richard E

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition with few effective treatments. Many fibromyalgia patients seek acupuncture for analgesia; however, its efficacy is limited and not fully understood. This may be due to heterogeneous pathologies among participants in acupuncture clinical trials. We hypothesized that pressure pain tenderness would differentially classify treatment response to verum and sham acupuncture in fibromyalgia patients. Baseline pressure pain sensitivity at the thumbnail at baseline was used in linear mixed models as a modifier of differential treatment response to sham versus verum acupuncture. Similarly, needle-induced sensation was also analyzed to determine its differential effect of treatment on clinical pain. A cohort of 114 fibromyalgia patients received baseline pressure pain testing and were randomized to either verum (N = 59) or sham (N = 55) acupuncture. Participants received treatments from once a week to three times a week, increasing in three-week blocks for a total of 18 treatments. Clinical pain was measured on a 101-point visual analog scale, and needle sensation was measured by questionnaire throughout the trial. Participants who had higher pain pressure thresholds had greater reduction in clinical pain following verum acupuncture while participants who had lower pain pressure thresholds showed better analgesic response to sham acupuncture. Moreover, patients with lower pressure pain thresholds had exacerbated clinical pain following verum acupuncture. Similar relationships were observed for sensitivity to acupuncture needling. These findings suggest that acupuncture efficacy in fibromyalgia may be underestimated and a more personalized treatment for fibromyalgia may also be possible. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on fungi contaminating powdered cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Bazza, Z.E.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty fungal organisms were isolated from ten samples of powdered cinnamon. These fungal cultures, identified as aspergillus and penicillium sp., Were screened for aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2 production. One isolate could produce aflatoxin B 1 and identified as aspergillus flavus. The D 1 0 value for this strain of aspergillus flavus was 0.35 kGy in aqueous suspension. The dose level of 4 kGy was found to be sufficient for decontamination of fungi present on one batch of powdered cinnamon investigated. This dose is within the accepted irradiation dose mentioned by the joint FAO/IAEA/WHO expert committee on irradiated foods

  16. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar quimicamente e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e gengibre (Zingiber officinale. A obtenção do óleo essencial foi realizada utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação por meio do aparelho de Clevenger modificado e a identificação e quantificação dos constituintes pelas análises em CG/EM e CG-DIC. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada por meio da técnica difusão cavidade em ágar, utilizando os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Salmonella Cholerasuis ATCC 6539 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoléico e o método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH. Nas análises cromatográficas, os constituintes majoritários encontrados no óleo essencial de C. nardus foram citronelal (47,12%, geraniol (18,56% e citronelol (11,07%, no óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foram identificados (E- cinamaldeído (77,72%, acetato de (E-cinamila (5,99% e o monoterpenóide 1,8-cineol (4,66% e, para Z. officinale os majoritários foram geranial (25,06%, neral (16,47%, 1,8-cineol (10,98%, geraniol (8,51%, acetato de geranila (4,19% e o canfeno (4,30%. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana tanto para bactérias Gram-negativas como para bactérias Gram-positivas, sendo que o óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foi o mais eficiente. A atividade antioxidante foi evidenciada pelo teste β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, respectivamente, para C. nardus, seguido de Z. officinale e C. zeylanicum, e pelo teste do DPPH foi observada apenas para C. nardus.The aims of this study were to chemically characterize and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and ginger

  17. Andrea. Hermínio Martins, il principio vichiano del verum factum e l’era ciberscientifica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzola, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hermínio Martins, Vico’s verum-factum principle and the cyber-scientific age. In the context of technological civilization agribusiness techniques, biotechnology, ICT, AI programs, robotics and nanotechnology bring into question the humanistic character of scientific knowledge. Vico’s verum-factum principle seems inadequate to describe the serendipity and the irreversible side effects of engineering and industrial technology. First technoscience, then cyberscience, transform the human epistemic adventure in a risk and uncertainty factor for the survival of the species. The knowledge-power equivalence adds artificial vulnerability to natural vulnerability. The progress of technological innovation takes on characteristics of autonomy, incomprehensibility and uncontrollability which are dismissing man from the status of master of its own historical destiny.

  18. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora and its comparison with related Lauraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihui Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum camphora, a member of the Lauraceae family, is a valuable aromatic and timber tree that is indigenous to the south of China and Japan. All parts of Cinnamomum camphora have secretory cells containing different volatile chemical compounds that are utilized as herbal medicines and essential oils. Here, we reported the complete sequencing of the chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora using illumina technology. The chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora is 152,570 bp in length and characterized by a relatively conserved quadripartite structure containing a large single copy region of 93,705 bp, a small single copy region of 19,093 bp and two inverted repeat (IR regions of 19,886 bp. Overall, the genome contained 123 coding regions, of which 15 were repeated in the IR regions. An analysis of chloroplast sequence divergence revealed that the small single copy region was highly variable among the different genera in the Lauraceae family. A total of 40 repeat structures and 83 simple sequence repeats were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that Calycanthus is most closely related to Lauraceae, both being members of Laurales, which forms a sister group to Magnoliids. The complete sequence of the chloroplast of Cinnamomum camphora will aid in in-depth taxonomical studies of the Lauraceae family in the future. The genetic sequence information will also have valuable applications for chloroplast genetic engineering.

  19. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat and fish, the most perishable foods need to be preserved preferably with natural preservatives. In our study, we have proven that spices like garlic and cinnamon that are used as regular ingredients in cooking can act as preservative due to their rich antibacterial and antioxidant profile. The minimum inhibitory ...

  20. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madhumita

    The antibacterial activity of gum arabic coating with ... Key words: Gum acacia coating, garlic, cinnamon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, meat, ... cinnamaldehyde and eugenol inhibit production of an ... antioxidant activity because these two properties are ... temperatures .... activity of these spices but no report on its application.

  1. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de alho e casca de canela contra fungos do grupo Aspergillus flavus Evaluation of essential oils from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum zeilanicum and their toxicity against fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson de C. Viegas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da propriedade inibitória de óleos essenciais vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos e da importância das espécies do grupo Aspergillus flavus, que apresentam potencial para síntese de aflatoxina, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro a toxicidade de óleos essenciais vegetais contra fungos do grupo A. flavus, isolados a partir da cultura do amendoim. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a toxicidade de oito óleos essenciais vegetais no desenvolvimento micelial de dois isolados do grupo A. flavus, em comparação ao fungicida sintético benomyl. Em seguida, foi avaliada a toxicidade dos óleos de casca de canela (Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. e de bulbilho de alho (Allium sativum L. contra 37 isolados do grupo A. flavus, durante 12 meses. A maior inibição do desenvolvimento micelial de A. flavus foi obtida com o emprego dos óleos essenciais de casca de canela e de bulbilho de alho, e o efeito inibitório variou com o isolado testado.Considering the inhibitory property of essential plant oils on the mycelial development of fungi, and the importance of Aspergillus flavus-like fungi which may produce aflatoxins, this research was designed to evaluate the toxicity of essential oils against fungi belonging to the group A. flavus isolated from peanut crops. The toxicity of eight essential oils against two isolates of A. Flavuslike fungi was evaluated in comparison to the synthetic fungicide benomyl. The toxicity of Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. and Allium sativum L. essential oils was also evaluated against 37 fungal isolates for a period of 12 months. The highest inhibition of the mycelial development of A. flavus was obtained with cinnamon and garlic essential oils. The inhibitory effect on growth was variable according to the fungal isolate.

  2. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  3. Assessment of antimycotoxigenic and antioxidant activity of star anise (Illicium verum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soher E. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists have focused on the identification and the application of natural products for inactivation of mycotoxins. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties are probably the most promising method for the prevention of potentially toxigenic fungi. Thus the aim of this work is to characterise star anise (Illicium verum and to assess its antioxidant and antifungal and antimycotoxigenic properties using different methods. Results revealed that the major components of star anise essential oil identified by GC/MS were trans-anethole (82.7%, carryophyllene (4.8% and limonene (2.3%. Total phenolics of ethanol and methanol extracts recorded 112.4 and 96.3 mg GAE/g DW respectively, whereas higher total flavonoid content was recorded for the ethanol extract than the methanol extract. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity (55.6 mg/mL than the extracts using DPPH-scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Results revealed growth reduction of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides by 83.2%, 72.8% and 65.11%, respectively when using 100 ppm of the star anise essential oil, where a complete inhibition was achieved at 200 ppm for A. flavus and A. parasiticus respectively. Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 production were inhibited completely at 100 and 200 ppm respectively. It could be concluded that star anise extracts could be considered an important substance that should be explored for the discovery and development of newer and safer food supplements as well as drug products.

  4. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cinnamomum cambodianum H. Lec.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Sothy, N.; Lo, V.N.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential oil of the wood of Cinnamomum cambodianum H. Lec. has been analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Twenty-seven components have been identified of which the major ones were found to be a-terpineol (33.4%), linalool (22.4%) and terpinen-4-ol (13.3%)

  5. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Khien, P.V.; Chien, Ho Trung; Leclercq, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera of Vietnamese origin has been analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. Seventeen components have been identified, of which the major one was found to be linalool (91.1%)

  6. Leaf and stem bark oils of Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baruah, A.; Nath, S.C.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The leaf and stem bark oils of Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees, growing wild in northeast India, were investigated by GC and GC/MS. FOrty-six and twenty-nine components were identified, representing 96.20;11 and 94.4% of the oils, respectively. Geranial (27.8%), geraniol (23.2%) and neral (17.6%) were

  7. Constituents of the essential oils of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Moi, La Dinh; Hung, N.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the root bark and wood of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees growing wild in Vietnam were investigated by a combination of GC and GC/MS. More than 30 compounds in the root bark oil, and about 20 components in the wood oil have been identified.

  8. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  9. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1–25 µg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25 µg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions. PMID:22980902

  10. Effect of cinnamon powder addition to a Portuguese custard tart (Pastel de Nata) on healthy adults' postprandial glycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Moncada, Margarida Maria; Bernardo, Ma; Silva, M.L.; Jorge, A.; Pereira, P.; Brito, J.; Singh, Jaipaul; Mesquita, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cinnamon is a spice used over the years in cooking to impart aromatic, flavor and taste properties to food and beverages. Moreover, cinnamon has been used for its medicinal properties due to its potential phenolic content, which can protect against cardio-metabolic diseases. Previous studies reported an improvement of postprandial glycemia after addition of cinnamon powder to a high-sugar meal. The study aims at investigating the effect of adding cinnamon powder to a...

  11. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study...

  12. Effect of radiation processing on the antioxidant activity of Sage and Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niley, H. F. G.; Farag, M. D. H.

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of radiation processing on dried sage leaves and cinnamon barks samples were carried out at dose level of 25 kGy. Total phenolic content was determined in the extracts of these herbs alongside the antioxidant properties of their methanoic extracts were assessed using reducing power assay and by DPPH radical test within an extract concentration range 2.5 to 40 mg/ml of methanol. The result showed the total phenolic compounds were increased by 11.18% and 10.19% for irradiated sage and cinnamon, respectively. The values of EC 50 estimated from the results of reducing power assay and DPPH radical test showed the sage extracts had higher antioxidant activity tham cinnamon extracts. In summary, gamma- irradiation of dried sage leaves and cinnamon barks was found to be significantly increase the antioxidant properties of dried sage leaves and cinnamon barks but also enhanced the antioxidant properties, to some extent. (Author)

  13. Quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 and cinnamon ethanol extract

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    Yu Jin Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing antifungal-active lactic acid bacteria (ALH, Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 isolated from kimchi and cinnamon ethanol extract. The starter was used for culture inoculation (1.0 % commercial starter culture YF-L812 and ALH. Results The antifungal activity of cinnamon extracts was observed in treatments with either cinnamon ethanol extracts or cinnamon methanol extracts. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon extract during fermentation at 40 °C were as follows. The pH was 4.6 after only 6 h of fermentation. Titratable acidity values were maintained at 0.8 % in all treatment groups. Viable cell counts were maintained at 4 × 109 CFU/mL in all groups except for 1.00 % cinnamon treatment. Sensory evaluations of fermented milk sample made with ALH and 0.05 % cinnamon ethanol extract were the highest. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon ethanol extract during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were as follows. In fermented milk containing ALH and cinnamon ethanol extracts, the changes in pH and titratable acidity were moderate and smaller compared with those of the control. Viable cell counts were maintained within a proper range of 108 CFU/mL. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the overgrowth of fermentation strains or post acidification during storage can be effectively delayed, thereby maintaining the storage quality of yogurt products in a stable way, using cinnamon ethanol extract, which exhibits excellent antifungal and antibacterial activity, in combination with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Cinnamon on the Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation, and Pain, and Mechanisms Underlying These Effects – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Jia, Liu-Nan; Honma, Natsumi; Hosono, Takashi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon is one of the most important herbal drugs and has been widely used in Asia for more than 4000 years. As a folk medicine, cinnamon has been traditionally applied to the treatment of inflammatory disorders and gastric diseases. After chemical profiling of cinnamon's components, their biological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertension, antilipemic, antidiabetes, gastroprotective and immunomodulatory were reported by many investigators. As a result, current studies have been performed mostly focusing on the bioactivity of cinnamon toward the recently generalized metabolic syndrome involving diabetes. In this review article, we provide an overview of the recent literature describing cinnamon's potential for preventing the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24716111

  15. SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND IMMUNOMODULATORY POTENTIAL OF A MEDICINAL PLANT, CINNAMOMUM TAMALA

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jeyasree* and P. Dasarathan

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala is found in tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas and in some other places. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Antimicrobial activity of this plant extract was investigated by Kirby-Bayer methodology against four pathogenic organisms: K. Pneumonae,E. coli, S. aureus, and P.aeroginosa. The plant Butanol extract showed inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms and it has enhanced immunomodulatory activity also....

  16. Controversies surrounding the clinical potential of cinnamon for the management of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, H; Ververis, K; Karagiannis, T C

    2012-06-01

    Obesity levels have increased significantly in the past five decades and are predicted to continue rising, resulting in important health implications. In particular, this has translated to an increase in the occurrence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2D). To alleviate associated problems, certain nutraceuticals have been considered as potential adjuncts or alternatives to conventional prescription drugs. Cinnamon, a commonly consumed spice originating from South East Asia, is currently being investigated as a potential preventative supplement and treatment for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2D. Extensive in vitro evidence has shown that cinnamon may improve insulin resistance by preventing and reversing impairments in insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. In adipose tissue, it has been shown that cinnamon increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors including, PPARγ. This is comparable to the action of commonly used thiazolinediones, which are PPAR agonists. Studies have also shown that cinnamon has potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, numerous human clinical trials with cinnamon have been conducted with varying findings. While some studies have showed no beneficial effect, others have indicated improvements in cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and postprandial glucose levels with cinnamon. However, the only measurement consistently improved by cinnamon consumption is fasting glucose levels. While it is still premature to suggest the use of cinnamon supplementation based on the evidence, further investigation into mechanisms of action is warranted. Apart from further characterization of genetic and epigenetic changes in model systems, systematic large-scale clinical trials are required. In this study, we discuss the mechanisms of action of cinnamon in the context of T2D and we highlight some of the associated controversies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Efeito do Tratamento Crônico com Extrato Aquoso de Cinnamomum zeylanicum em Ratos Induzidos à Obesidade e Hiperglicemia/Chronic Treatment Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in Mice Induced to Obesity and Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Oliveira Vilela dos Reis; Júlia Gonçalves Tourino; Gislene Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Uma dieta escassa em nutrientes, porém com elevado índice de lipídios somando-se a vida sedentária induz a obesidade. A partir disso, a administração do extrato aquoso de Cinnamomum zeylanicum, torna-se relevante, tendo em vista estudos sobre sua possível eficácia para o tratamento de obesidade e hiperglicemia. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento crônico com extrato aquoso de Cinnamomum zeylanicum sobre o peso e a glicemia, em ratos induzidos à obe...

  18. Antioxidant capacity of cinnamon extract for palm oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad Zia; Saima, Hafiza; Yasmin, Adeela; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Imran, Muhammad; Afzaal, Muhammad

    2018-05-16

    Spices and their bioactive components are more promising attractions for their inclusion in diet-based regimes to improve human health. These are sources of natural antioxidants and play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. The aim of the current study was to explore the antioxidant potential of cinnamon; a widely used spice throughout the world. The current research was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of cinnamon extract. For the purpose, cinnamon sticks were procured from local super market, while palm oil was obtained from local oil industry. The resultant extract was analyzed for its antioxidant activity through total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay), and total antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test. The shelf life of palm oil was checked by adding cinnamon extract in oil at different levels i.e. , 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, to compare the antioxidant potential of the extract whereas, T o acted as control and T BHA @ 0.1% was used as synthetic antioxidant in the oil samples. The oil samples were analyzed for rancidity check during storage (after every seven days for a storage period of four weeks). The results indicated that total phenolic contents (TPC); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of cinnamon extract were as 355.01 ± 8.34 gallic acid equivalent per gram (mg GAE/g), 90.18 ± 2.12 (%) and 132.82 ± 3.12 (μmol/g), respectively. The oxidative parameters for treatments i.e., T o , T BHA , T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 were recorded as peroxide value (2.61 ± 0.07, 2.42 ± 0.08, 2.57 ± 0.05, 2.56 ± 0.03, 2.54 ± 0.02, 2.54 ± 0.01, 2.46 ± 0.06 meq/kg, respectively), free fatty acids (0.601 ± 0.05, 0.522 ± 0.02, 0.580 ± 0.07, 0.572 ± 0.03, 0.56 ± 00.07, 0.552 ± 0.03, 0.536 ± 0.05%, respectively), TBA

  19. Cinnamon Oil and Chitosan Coating on Orthopaedic Implant Surface for Prevention of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Magetsari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available S. Epidermidis is among the most frequently isolated microorganisms found in -infection related to implanted devices and the formation of biofilm will be more resistantcompared to the planktonic form. This study was carried out determine the effect of coating on stainless steel orthopaedic implants surfaces with cinnamon oil and chitosan as bioadhesive to prevent biofilms formation of S. Epidermidis.The rod shaped stainless steel 316 L orthopaedic implant with 5 mm diameters was coated 2 times using a mixture of cinnamon oil and chitosan 3% and 2% respectively with serial concentration of cinnamon from 0.125% to 2%. The coated implants were then put into tubes that contained bacterial suspension and incubated. Subsequently, the implants were washed with PBS solution followed by MTT soulution and isopropanol acid solution that related to biofilm formation. The results were expressed in numbers which represents the absorbance level at ELISA readings on 575 nm (A575 wavelength.The stainless steel implant coated with chitosan and cinnamon oil 2% and 1% has lower absorbance level compared with the absorbance level of S.Epidermidis biofilm only. This study showed that mixture of cinnamon oil and chitosan coated on the surface of stainless steel orthopaedic implant has an effect against S.Epidermidis biofilm formation with minimum cinnamon oil concentration of 1%.

  20. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ping Chen; Kai Yang; Chun Xue You; Ning Lei; Rui Qi Sun; Zhu Feng Geng; Ping Ma; Qian Cai; Shu Shan Du; Zhi Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%), linalool (22.92%), cineo...

  1. DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araujo, Angela Regina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Silva, Marcelo Rogerio da

    2004-01-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactive iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-Δ 8' -3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time. (author)

  2. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  3. Comparison of antioxidant potential of volatile oils of syzygium aromaticum and Illicium verum relative to conventionally used standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.; Abbasi, M.A.; Umar, M.I.; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Shahzadi, T.; Khan, K.M.; Ahmad, V.U.

    2011-01-01

    The volatile oils of Syzygium aromaticum Linn. (cloves) and Illicium verum Hook. (star anise) were extracted by steam distillation. The antioxidant potential of these oils was evaluated by four methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay and ferric thiocyanate assay and total phenolics were also determined. The results revealed that scavenging potential of clove volatile oil was more than star anise volatile oil. The IC/sub 50/ of the clove volatile oil was 4.56 +- 1.07 mu g/mL while that of star anise was found to be 120 +- 1.80 mu mL relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), having IC/sub 50/ of 12.1 +- 0.92 mu g/mL. Total antioxidant activity of clove volatile oil was also higher than star anise volatile oil. The FRAP values of clove and star anise volatile oils were 2830 +- 2.14 and 388 +- 1.32 mu g of trolox equivalents (TE) respectively. The total phenolic contents of clove and star anise volatile oils were 934.34 +- 1.6 and 85.36 +- 0.28 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of volatile oil respectively. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by clove volatile oil was found to be 66.63% +- 0.41 while that of star anise was 43.24% +- 0.48. (author)

  4. Biosynthesis of silver fine particles and particles decorated with nanoparticles using the extract of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Chávez, V H G; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Núñez, Nuria O; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2015-04-15

    Given the upsurge of new technologies based on nanomaterials, the development of sustainable methods to obtain functional nanostructures has become an imperative task. In this matter, several recent researches have shown that the biodegradable natural antioxidants of several plant extracts can be used simultaneously as reducing and stabilizing agents in the wet chemical synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, opening new opportunities to design greener synthesis. However, the challenge of these new techniques is to produce stable colloidal nanoparticles with controlled particle uniformity, size, shape and aggregation state, in similar manner than the well-established synthetic methods. In the present work, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate and extracts of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds at room temperature in a facile one-step procedure. The resulting products were colloidal suspensions of two populations of silver nanoparticles, one of them with particle sizes of few nanometers and the other with particles of tens of nm. Strikingly, the variation of the AgNO3/extract weight ratio in the reaction medium yielded to the variation of the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles: high AgNO3/extract concentration ratios yielded to randomly dispersed particles, whereas for lower AgNO3/extract ratios, the biggest particles appeared coated with the finest nanoparticles. This biosynthesized colloidal system, with controlled particle aggregation states, presents plasmonic and SERS properties with potential applications in molecular sensors and nanophotonic devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Observation of antiarrhythmic effects of Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li on experimental arrhythmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Y; Qiu, D; Xie, C; Chen, K

    1998-08-01

    To investigate the effects of Cinnamomum migao on experimental arrhythmia. Arrhythmic models of mice, rabbits, guinea pigs and rats were built using chloroform(Chl), adrenalin(Adr), strophanthin-K (Spt-K) and barium chloride (BaCl2). The affected animals were divided randomly into three groups: control group, Cinnamomum migao (CV-3) group and mexiletine (MXL) group, so as to observe and compare the antiarrhythmic effects. CV-3 could reduce the incidence of ventricular fibrillation caused by ch1 in mice and the ventricular tachycardia induced by Adr in rabbits, delay the onset time of this arrhythmia, increase the arrhythmic doses of Spt-K in guinea pigs, reduce the incidence of some arrhythmia caused by BaCl2 in rats and slow down their heart rate. CV-3 has obvious antiarrhythmic effects on experimental arrhythmia. The mechanism of these effects is probably related to the arrest of the intraflow of Na+, Ca2+ in the cardiac cells and the depression of their cardiac autoarrhythmicity and conductivity.

  6. Chemical compositions of Cinnamomum tamala oil from two different regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was made to investigate the chemical composition of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO which was taken from two different regions. The plant leaves were collected from two different regions of India (Southern India and Northern India. Methods: The chemical composition of the hydro distilled essential oil of Cinnamomum tamala were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results: The GCMS analysis of the oil collected from northern region (Chandigarh Botanical garden, Chandigarh showed 20 constituents of which methyl eugenol (46.65%, eugenol (26.70%, trans-cinnamyl acetate (12.48% and Beta-Caryophyllene (6.26% were found the major components. The GC-MS analysis of the oil collected from southern area showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde (44.898%, Tans-cinnamyl acetate (25.327% and Ascabin (1 5.249% were found the major components. Conclusions: The oil is used in various preparations in pharmaceutical industries so it should be used after the verifications of quality of the oil. The difference observed in the amount and type of constituents may be due to the geographical origin of the plant.

  7. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.

  8. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-09-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.

  9. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-01-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices

  10. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  11. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  12. Effects of Cinnamon Extract on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Diabetic Rats’ Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Rafati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: In pregnant women, maternal diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, so glucose increases in the mother's blood and the blood of the fetus therefore causing many complications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cinnamon on morphometric histologic changes on fetal cerebellum of diabetic rats at days 18 and 20. Methods: In this study, 32 healthy female Wistar rats were prepared and randomly divided into four groups, normal control, diabetic, healthy subjects treated with cinnamon and cinnamon extract-treated diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were subjected by intraperitoneal of streptozotocin. All groups were charged with natural mating and they received a dose of 60 mg/ kg of cinnamon at the first day off pregnancy. After formation of the nervous system, in the eighteenth and twentieth day of pregnancy, the mother of the four mice were anesthetized and the fetus was removed for sampling. The histological slides were prepared and various parameters were studied in the cerebellum. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. Results: The thickness of gray matter, and the gray matter white cells in the cerebellum of diabetic rats compared to other groups tested at days of18 and 20 and embryonic cells in the white matter of the cerebellum at day 18 was significantly decreased (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of cinnamon extract reduces mothers’ blood sugar levels therefore preventing the complications of diabetes on the fetal cerebellum. Key words: cinnamon extract, Diabetes, cerebellum, Rat.

  13. Cinnamon users with prediabetes have a better fasting working memory: a cross-sectional function study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fang, Wen-Hui; Liu, Hsiao-Yu; Xiu, Lili; Andrews, Zane B

    2016-04-01

    Working memory (WM) is impaired in prediabetes. We hypothesized that culinary herbs and spices may decrease insulin resistance (IR) and improve WM in prediabetes. Healthy people aged ≥60 years with prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dL) (47 men and 46 women) whose food and culinary herb intakes were established with a food frequency questionnaire had body composition assessed and fasting glucose and insulin measured. Working memory and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed on the same occasion. The contributions to associations between WM and diet, body fat, and IR were estimated by linear regression. Compared with nonusers, cinnamon users had significantly less frequent physical activity (2.9 vs. 4.4 times per week) and more often used fresh ginger (93.3% vs. 64.1%) and ginger in cooking (60.0% vs. 32.1%). Cinnamon users also had a better WM (2.9 vs. 2.5, P < .001). Cinnamon had a significant effect (users were 0.446 higher), but not ginger or curry usage, in predicting WM. For sociodemographic variables, only education (years) was significant in predicting WM (β = 0.065). Other significant determinants of WM were total fat mass (kilograms) (β = -0.024) and MMSE (β = 0.075). After adjustment for age and sex, cinnamon use, education, and MMSE remained significant individual predictors. In the final model, in which all variables listed were adjusted simultaneously, cinnamon users still had a significantly higher WM than nonusers. Cinnamon usage is associated with a better WM, not accounted for by dietary quality or IR, in untreated prediabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Kaempferol glycosides from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum and their nitric oxide production inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, ethanolic extract of twigs from Cinnamomum osmophloeum led to isolate nine kaempferol glycosides including two new kaempferol triglycosides that were characterized as kaempferol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were assigned by the application of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and other techniques. Among these nine compounds, kaempferol 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (9) revealed inhibitory effect against LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC(50) value of 41.2 μM. It also slightly reduced PGE(2) accumulation by 26% at the concentration of 50 μM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiale; Li Qingbiao; Sun Daohua; Lu Yinghua; Su Yuanbo; Yang Xin; Wang Huixuan; Wang Yuanpeng; Shao Wenyao; He Ning; Hong Jinqing; Chen Cuixue

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles

  16. Review article: cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet as a primary treatment for orofacial granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H E; Escudier, M P; Patel, P; Challacombe, S J; Sanderson, J D; Lomer, M C E

    2011-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments used in orofacial granulomatosis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and relevant studies from January 1933 to January 2010 were identified using the electronic database search engines; AGRIS 1991-2008, AMED 1985-2008, British Nursing and Index archive 1985-2008, EMBASE 1980-2008, evidence based medicine review databases (e.g. Cochrane DSR), International Pharmaceutical and Medline 1950-2008. Common sensitivities identified, predominantly through patch testing, were to benzoic acid (36%) food additives (33%), perfumes and flavourings (28%), cinnamaldehyde (27%), cinnamon (17%), benzoates (17%) and chocolate (11%). The cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet has been shown to provide benefit in 54-78% of patients with 23% requiring no adjunctive therapies. A negative or positive patch test result to cinnamaldehyde, and benzoates did not predict dietary outcome. The most concentrated source of benzoate exposure is from food preservatives. Use of liquid enteral formulas can offer a further dietary therapy, particularly in children with orofacial granulomatosis. Management of orofacial granulomatosis is challenging but cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets appear to have a definite role to play. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  18. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Arash; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Hajhosseini, Laleh; Golzar, Farhad Sadeghpour; Ainehchi, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the

  20. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  1. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kamal A; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M

    2009-10-05

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130-190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy.

  2. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (Pblood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (Pglucose response in normal weight and obese adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro Protoscolicidal Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Essential Oil and Its Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Mahmoudvand, Hormoz; Oliaee, Razieh Tavakoli; Kareshk, Amir Tavakoli; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the scolicidal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil against the protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its toxicity in the mice model. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analyses were used to identify the constituents of essential oil. Protoscoleces were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil (6.25-100 µL/mL) in each test tube for 5-30 min. The viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). Forty-eight male NMRI mice were also used to determine the toxicity of C. zeylanicum essential oil (0.5-4 mL/kg). The main components were found to be cinnamaldehyde (91.8%), ρ metoxicinamate (1.57%), and α pinene (1.25%). Findings indicate that C. zeylanicum essential oil with the concentrations of 100 and 50 µL/mL killed 100% of protoscoleces after 5 min of exposure. Also, the lower concentrations of C. zeylanicum essential oil motivated a late protoscolicidal effect. The LD 50 value of intraperitoneal injection of C. zeylanicum essential oil was 2.07 mL/kg body weight after 48 h, and the maximum nonfatal dose was 1.52 mL/kg body weight. The results also showed that there was no significant toxicity following oral administration of C. zeylanicum essential oil for 2 weeks. The results exhibited the favorable scolicidal activity of C. zeylanicum , which could be applied as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery. We evaluated the efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil against hydatid cyst protoscolecesThe viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining)Forty-eight male NMRI mice were also used to determine the toxicity of C. zeylanicum essential oilC. zeylanicum with potent scolicidal activity could be applied as a natural scolicidal agent in surgery. Abbreviations used: GC/MS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis; CE: Cystic echinococcosis; LD50: Lethal dose 50%; I.p: Intraperitoneally.

  4. PERSONLIGHEDENS PRØVERUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, hvordan det aktuelle fænomen religiøs individualisme kan fortolkes på baggrund af Emile Durkheims kollektive psykologi. I den forbindelse fokuseres der på, hvorledes der i forbindelse med personlig udvikling for ledere opbygges et forestillet rum omkring deltagerne, hvor...

  5. The anti-translocation and anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamon oil in mice with TNBS induced colitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujňáková, D.; Juhás, Štefan; Faix, Š.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2013), s. 1000-1003 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bacterial translocation * E. coli * colitis * cinnamon oil Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  6. [Cinnamon rolls are not associated with admission for toxic or alcoholic hepatitis in a Danish liver referral centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr Ønbæk, Henning; Borre, Mette

    2014-12-08

    Cinnamon contains cumarin, which may be toxic to the liver. EU-regulations standardardize the amount of cinnamon in pastry including cinnamon rolls. The aim of the study was to investigate if cinnamon intake from pastry was associated with toxic or alcoholic hepatitis. We registered 58 patients with toxic hepatitis, 38 (66%) women and 20 (34%) men with a median age of 51 (range: 32-80) and 53 (range: 18-78) years, respectively. A total of 22 patients had primarily cholestasis and 36 had hepatitis biochemically. The duration of toxic liver disease from admission to normalization of liver enzymes was similar in the two groups (3.5 ± 3.5 vs 3.6 ± 3.5 months). Toxic hepatitis was most often caused by drugs e.g. NSAID (n = 15; 26%), antibiotics (n = 9; 16%), alternative medicine (n = 7; 12%) and Antabuse (n = 5; 9%). We registered eight patients admitted with severe alcoholic hepatitis, five men and three women, median age of 60 (range: 34-67) years. Alcoholic hepatitis was associated with high alcohol intake. None of the patients with toxic or alcoholic hepatitis reported of excessive intake of cinnamon rolls and there was no evidence of cinnamon added to alcohol of alternative medicine products. Intake of cinnamon from cinnamon rolls is not associated with admission for toxic or alcoholic hepatitis. However, for the diagnosis of toxic liver diseases including alcohol it is very important to have patient information regarding any new drugs, alternative medicine and alcohol intake. Further, other causes of liver diseases should be excluded. not relevant. not relevant.

  7. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Shokri; Hamed Fathi; Majid Jafari Sabet; Nafiseh Nasri Nasrabadi; Ramin Ataee

    2015-01-01

    Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (ST...

  8. Application of Cinnamon oil Nanoemulsion to Control Foodborne Bacteria such as Listeria Sp. and Salmonella Sp. On Melons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sumit Kumar

    Listeria and Salmonella related recalls and outbreaks are of major concern to the melon industry. Cinnamon oil has shown its usefulness in food treatment due to strong antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. However, its applications are limited due to poor solubility of cinnamon oil in water. Utilization of Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion may offer effective antimicrobial washing treatment to melon industry. The purpose of this study was to test the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion on melons against major food borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Different formulations of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion were made by ultrasonication using Tween 80 as an emulsifier. Nanoemulsion exhibiting the smallest oil droplets was applied. Oil droplets were characterized for particle size by dynamic light scattering. Microbroth dilution assay was performed on three strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to find out the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion. Honeydew and cantaloupe were artificially inoculated with the strains mentioned above followed by treatment in nanoemulsion (control, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) for one minute. Samples were dried and enumerated after one hour of treatment on selective media (PALCAM and XLD agar). The average diameter of nanoemulsion was 9.63+/-0.3nm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion for both Listeria and Salmonella strains was 0.078% v/v and 0.039% v/v, respectively and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 0.078125% v/v for both. Compared to the water control, 0.5% nanoemulsion showed up to 7.7 and 5.5 log CFU/gm reductions in L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. The data suggests that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion can be used as an effective natural microbial control agent for melons. Keywords: Nanoemulsion, ultrasonication, antimicrobial.

  9. Prime and boost aerosol exposure via fog machine or shisha smoke followed by cinnamon hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis to spiced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Leitner, Erich; Buchleitner, Stefan; Vogelsang, Harald; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon aldehyde (alias cinnamaldehyde) is widely used in food, textile or cosmetic industry. It is mostly associated with contact allergy, but immediate type allergies have been reported. The present study was triggered by a case of anaphylactic events to cinnamon in food and upon skin prick test. We investigated a possible correlation of exposure to a disco fog machine and/or shisha consumption with immediate type hypersensitivity to cinnamon aldehyde in the patient and healthy volunteers. In both fog machines and shisha pipes heating of glycerol-based fluids before evaporation renders chemical transversion to malodorous acrolein. Therefore, both methods are frequently operated with aroma additives. Cinnamon aldehyde and derivatives could be detected by gas chromatography in sampled fog flavored with cola fragrance. The patient as well as healthy (mostly female) volunteers were skin prick tested using cinnamon aldehyde diluted in 0.9 % NaCl, Vaseline® or fog fluid. Persons with a history of exposure to disco fog or shisha (n = 10, mean 32.8 years) reacted with a significantly larger wheal and flare reaction in the skin test (p = 0.0115, p = 0.0146, or p = 0.098) than the non-exposed (n = 8, mean 37.3 years). Both groups were gender matched, but differed in the mean age by 4.5 years. This reaction was specific as compared to skin reactivity to cinnamon alcohol, with only a trend to higher reactivity in exposed persons (ns). From our data we conclude that hapten fragrances such as cinnamon aldehyde may during heating in glycerol fluids associate to complete antigens and via inspiration lead to specific immediate type hypersensitivity. In some cases the hypersensitivity may be unmasked by spiced food containing cinnamon aldehyde or related chemicals, and lead to severe adverse reactions.

  10. Formulation of vitamin D encapsulated cinnamon oil nanoemulsion: Its potential anti-cancerous activity in human alveolar carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Nikita; Patel, Pal; Kansara, Krupa; Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2018-06-01

    Cinnamon oil is used for medicinal purpose since ancient time because of its antioxidant activity. Oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) of cinnamon oil was formulated using cinnamon oil, nonionic surfactant Tween 80 and water by ultrasonication technique. Phase diagram was constructed to investigate the influence of oil, water and surfactant concentration. Vitamin D encapsulated cinnamon oil NE was fabricated by wash out method followed by ultrasonication in similar fashion. The hydrodynamic size of cinnamon oil NE and vitamin D encapsulated cinnamon oil NE was observed as 40.52 and 48.96 nm in complete DMEM F12 media respectively. We focused on the cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of NEs in A549 cells in concentration dependent manner. We observed that both NEs induce DNA damage along with corresponding increase in micronucleus frequency that is evident from the comet and CBMN assay. Both the NEs arrested the cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase, showed increased expression of Bax, capase-3 and caspase-9 and decrease expression of BcL2 proteins along with significant (p oil as carrier for lipophilic nutraceutical like vitamin D. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radical unique to gamma-irradiated allspice and cinnamon and its utiliy for detection of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, S. [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Sugiki, A.; Kawamura, Y.; Murayama, M.; Saito, Y.

    1993-04-15

    Gamma-Irradiation at a practical dose level of allspice and cinnamon generates a principal signal (signal I, g-value: 2.0048 approx 2.0050) and a minor signal (signal II) at 30 G lower field from signal I in the electron spin resonance spectrum. Signal I, which was not increased in red pepper by photo-exposure, was increased in allspice and cinnamon by gamma-irradiation, heating and even photo-exposure. Signal II was generated only by gamma-irradiation, was little influenced by humidity and was stable for a long time. The ESR method with signal II was applicable to detection of allspice and cinnamon irradiated at 5 kGy or more for up to 6 months after irradiation, as well as allspice irradiated at 10 kGy or more and cinnamon at 5 kGy or more for up to a year. However, signal intensities of signal II differed to some extent between allspice and cinnamon, and even between varieties of cinnamon. Signals I and II were both enhanced after extraction with methanol. Since the rate of increase in signal I was obviously distinct from that of signal II, the radicals corresponding to these signals were presumed to be located at different positions of the matrix of the spice. The methanolic extracts did not yield a major component common to the spices giving signal II.

  12. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Gang Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan’s endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract’s free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done.

  13. Responses of Soil Organic Carbon to Long-Term Understory Removal in Subtropical Cinnamomum camphora Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study on a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the subtropics of China, by removing understory gradually and then comparing this treatment with a control (undisturbed. This study analyzed the content and storage soil organic carbon (SOC in a soil depth of 0–60 cm. The results showed that SOC content was lower in understory removal (UR treatment, with a decrease range from 5% to 34%, and a decline of 10.16 g·kg−1 and 8.58 g·kg−1 was noticed in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm layers, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05. Carbon storage was reduced in UR, ranging from 2% to 43%, with a particular drastic decline of 15.39 t·hm−2 and 11.58 t·hm−2 in 0–10 cm (P<0.01 and 10–20 cm (P<0.01 layers, respectively. Content of SOC had an extremely significant (P<0.01 correlation with soil nutrients in the two stands, and the correlation coefficients of CK were higher than those of UR. Our data showed that the presence of understory favored the accumulation of soil organic carbon to a large extent. Therefore, long-term practice of understory removal weakens the function of forest ecosystem as a carbon sink.

  14. Toxicity Study of Antidiabetics Functional Drink of Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGA SAFITHRI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii formulations is known to be a new diabetes functional drink. Thus, its toxicological profile needs to be studied. At present, the formulation was evaluated for the repeated dose toxicity study. The Sprague dawley albino rats were treated with P. crocatum and C. burmannii formulations (0, 630, 1260, and 1890 mg/kg and administered orally for a period of 28 days in albino rats. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical biochemistry as well as histology were studied. There were no significant differences in the body weight, organ weights and feeding habits between control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups. There were no significant changes that occurred in the blood chemistry analysis including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, SGPT, and SGOT in experimental animals. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The formulation of P. crocatum and C. burmannii was found safe in repeated dose toxicity studies.

  15. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%, linalool (22.92%, cineole (11.26%, and 3,7,11-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-6,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (4.50%. Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of D-camphor and linalool. D-camphor and linalool showed strong fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 2.36 and 18.04 mg/L air, resp. and contact toxicity (LD50 = 13.44 and 12.74 μg/adult, resp. against L. serricorne. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. camphora and its active compounds had the potential to be developed as natural fumigants and insecticides for control of L. serricorne.

  16. Essential oil alloaromadendrene from mixed-type Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves prolongs the lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chan-Wei; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2014-07-02

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. The present study investigates phytochemical characteristics, antioxidant activities, and longevity of the essential oils from the leaves of the mixed-type C. osmophloeum tree. We demonstrate that the essential oils from leaves of mixed-type C. osmophloeum exerted in vivo antioxidant activities on Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, minor (alloaromadendrene, 5.0%) but not major chemical components from the leaves of mixed-type C. osmophloeum have a key role against juglone-induced oxidative stress in C. elegans. Additionally, alloaromadendrene not only acts protective against oxidative stress but also prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans. Moreover, mechanistic studies show that DAF-16 is required for alloaromadendrene-mediated oxidative stress resistance and longevity in C. elegans. The results in the present study indicate that the leaves of mixed-type C. osmophloeum and essential oil alloaromadendrene have the potential for use as a source for antioxidants or treatments to delay aging.

  17. Effect of Fermentation on Compositional Changes of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, AD; Huang, TC; Kusnadi, J.

    2017-04-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is known as “indigenous cinnamon” with the chemical constituents of its leave’s essential oil are similar to the famous C. cassia inner bark oil. Its oil has long been used as a medicinal plant. Fermentation is one of the processes in tea production, which could change the compound’s composition. This research aims to study the compositional changes of C. osmophloeum leaves during fermentation compared to unfermented leaves and commercial tea leaves. The main bioactive secondary metabolites in C. osmophloeum leaves extract are two flavonol glycosides. Both of this glycosides changed into aglycone during fermentation. By using HPLC and LC-MS analysis the major components and their derivative were identified. The retention time of kaempferol aglycone was 35.21 minute and the concentration showed increased from 0.46 to 46.8 µg. mL-1 after fermentation. There are 3 major groups lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented C. osmophloeum Kaneh leaves, Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which it plays the key role during the compositional changes of glycosides into aglycone.

  18. Cinnamon Oil and Chitosan Coating on Orthopaedic Implant Surface for Prevention of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    R Magetsari; P Dewo; BK Saputro; Z Lanodiyu

    2014-01-01

    S. Epidermidis is among the most frequently isolated microorganisms found in -infection related to implanted devices and the formation of biofilm will be more resistantcompared to the planktonic form. This study was carried out determine the effect of coating on stainless steel orthopaedic implants surfaces with cinnamon oil and chitosan as bioadhesive to prevent biofilms formation of S. Epidermidis.The rod shaped stainless steel 316 L orthopaedic implant with 5 mm diameters was coated 2 t...

  19. Creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrate or cinnamon extract provides no added benefit to anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Hashim; Yorgason, Nick J; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-09-01

    The insulin response following carbohydrate ingestion enhances creatine transport into muscle. Cinnamon extract is promoted to have insulin-like effects, therefore this study examined if creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrates or cinnamon extract improved anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. Active young males (n = 25; 23.7 ± 2.5 y) were stratified into 3 groups: (1) creatine only (CRE); (2) creatine+ 70 g carbohydrate (CHO); or (3) creatine+ 500 mg cinnamon extract (CIN), based on anaerobic capacity (peak power·kg(-1)) and muscular strength at baseline. Three weeks of supplementation consisted of a 5 d loading phase (20 g/d) and a 16 d maintenance phase (5 g/d). Pre- and post-supplementation measures included a 30-s Wingate and a 30-s maximal running test (on a self-propelled treadmill) for anaerobic capacity. Muscular strength was measured as the one-repetition maximum 1-RM for chest, back, quadriceps, hamstrings, and leg press. Additional sets of the number of repetitions performed at 60% 1-RM until fatigue measured muscular endurance. All three groups significantly improved Wingate relative peak power (CRE: 15.4% P = .004; CHO: 14.6% P = .004; CIN: 15.7%, P = .003), and muscular strength for chest (CRE: 6.6% P creatine ingestion lead to similar changes in anaerobic power, strength, and endurance.

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extracts of guarana, boldo, rosemary and cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Bonilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this investigation, the ethanolic extracts of two less known plants, little reported in the literature (guarana and boldo leaves were studied in comparison with the ethanolic extracts of two well studied plants (cinnamon and rosemary, regarding their colour, GC-MS profile, phenolic content and their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The rosemary (59.20 ± 0.28 and guarana (56.63 ± 0.54 extracts showed the highest values for luminosity (L* and the UV-Vis absorption increased when L* decreased. GC-MS identified a limited number of compounds in the cinnamon and guarana extracts. The cinnamon extract showed the highest value for the total phenolic content (172 mg GA/g extract as compared to the other extracts. The highest antioxidant capacity was observed for the boldo leaves extract in the TEAC (6.66 ± 0.17 mM assay and for the rosemary extract in the DPPH (0.80 ± 0.14 mg/L test. In addition, all the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the S. aureus strain, indicating that all the extracts studied could be used by food industries to develop new active food packaging materials.

  1. Inhibitory effects of cinnamon and clove essential oils on mold growth on baked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jian; Xu, Xiaomiao; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of cinnamon and clove essential oils against mold growth on green bean cake and finger citron crisp cake, and also examined the effects of these two essential oils and their application methods on the shelf life of the baked products in normal and vacuum packages by accelerated storage test. The results showed that the MIC of cinnamon and clove essential oils against molds were 0.21-0.83 and 0.21-1.67μL/mL, respectively and the MLC were 0.42-0.83 and 0.83-1.67μL/mL, respectively. In normal package cinnamon and clove essential oils could prolong the shelf life of green bean cake 9-10 and 3-4days, respectively and could prolong the shelf life of finger citron crisp cake 5-6 and 2-3days, respectively. And in vacuum package they were 15-16, 8-9, 10-12 and 7-9days, respectively in turn. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans. Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct.

  3. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ting-Yu; Tung, Judia Chen; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC-MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were alpha-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), beta-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity assay, crude essential oil and its dominant compound (citral) presented the significant NO production inhibitory activity, IC(50) of crude essential oil and citral were 18.68 and 13.18microg/mL, respectively. Moreover, based on the results obtained from the protein expression assay, the expression of IKK, iNOS, and nuclear NF-kappaB was decreased and IkappaBalpha was increased in dose-dependent manners, it proved that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral was blocked via the NF-kappaB pathway, but it could not efficiently suppress the activity on COX-2. In addition, citral exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity in the assay of croton oil-induced mice ear edema, when the dosage was 0.1 and 0.3mg per ear, the inflammation would reduce to 22% and 83%, respectively. The results presented that the fruit essential oil of C. insularimontanum and/or citral may have a great potential to develop the anti-inflammatory medicine in the future.

  4. Cinnamon Use in Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert W.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Baker, William L.; Coleman, Craig I.; Phung, Olivia J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Cinnamon has been studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for its glycemic-lowering effects, but studies have been small and show conflicting results. A prior meta-analysis did not show significant results, but several RCTs have been published since then. We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating cinnamon’s effect on glycemia and lipid levels. METHODS MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched through February 2012. Included RCTs evaluated cinnamon compared with control in patients with type 2 diabetes and reported at least one of the following: glycated hemoglobin (A1c), fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides. Weighted mean differences (with 95% confidence intervals) for endpoints were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS In a meta-analysis of 10 RCTs (n = 543 patients), cinnamon doses of 120 mg/d to 6 g/d for 4 to 18 weeks reduced levels of fasting plasma glucose (−24.59 mg/dL; 95% CI, −40.52 to −8.67 mg/dL), total cholesterol (−15.60 mg/dL; 95% CI, −29.76 to −1.44 mg/dL), LDL-C (−9.42 mg/dL; 95% CI, −17.21 to −1.63 mg/dL), and triglycerides (−29.59 mg/dL; 95% CI, −48.27 to −10.91 mg/dL). Cinnamon also increased levels of HDL-C (1.66 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.24 mg/dL). No significant effect on hemoglobin A1c levels (−0.16%; 95%, CI −0.39% to 0.02%) was seen. High degrees of heterogeneity were present for all analyses except HDL-C (I2 ranging from 66.5% to 94.72%). CONCLUSIONS The consumption of cinnamon is associated with a statistically significant decrease in levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels, and an increase in HDL-C levels; however, no significant effect on hemoglobin A1c was found. The high degree of heterogeneity may limit the ability to apply these results

  5. Hypo glycemic and Hypolipidaemic Effect of cinnamon Extract in Diabetic and irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of cinnamon against radiation and/or streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats. In the experiment, a total of 36 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups each of six rats: group 1, normal untreated rats; group 2, animals received only cinnamon (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days; group 3, animals exposed to 4 Gy whole body gamma radiation as a single shot dose; group 4, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5; group 5, rats were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg), followed by irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy; and group 6, rats were given orally cinnamon (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days then injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin followed by irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. Blood samples were collected from all groups for the determination of serum fasting blood sugar (FBG), glycidate hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma insulin, serum C-peptide, serum total cholesterol (TC), Serum triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In diabetic and irradiated groups there was a highly significant increase in the percentage of (HbA1c) and concentration of FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C and a significant decrease in the level of HDL-C, plasma insulin and C-peptide compared to those of control group. Treatment of the diabetic irradiated rats with cinnamon caused a significant decrease in the percentage of HbA1c and concentration of FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C and significant increase in the level of HDL-C, plasma insulin and C-peptide compared to the diabetic irradiated rats. On the basis of these results, one could conclude that cinnamon exhibit hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic properties and could be considered a promising agent for diabetes

  6. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Shokri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (STZ. The experiment was performed on 50 Wistar rats.  A total of 50 rats were divided into 10 groups of 5 and STZ was injected at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days intraperitoneally. After diabetes induction, three groups received, 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of green tea extract,  three groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of cinnamon extract  and three final groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of  cinnamon  and green tea in combination by gavages daily for 6 weeks. After each period of treatments, blood glucose and the weight of animals were determined. At the end of the sixth week, blood glucose and weight loss were improved in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner and the dose of 200 mg/kg extract cinnamon with green tea had the most appropriate synergic effect.

  7. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris, 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms. PMID:28546803

  8. Effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Taavoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  9. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale , 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum , while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  10. Essential oil composition of Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch-Ham.) sweet : a secondary muga (Antheraea assama W/w) food plant from Assam, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Ahmed, R.Z.; Barthel, A.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch-Ham.) Sweet (formerly known as C. obtusi folium Roxb. ex Nees) is a secondary host plant for the muga silk worm (Antheraea assama Wlw). The leaves of this plant were collected from the Jorhat and Sibsagar districts in Assam, India, and hydrodistilled to extract the

  11. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC 50 and LC 95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC 50 and LC 95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  12. Effects of Essential Oils from Thyme, Cinnamon and Clove on Mycelial Growth of Colletotrichum acutatum

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    Nataša Duduk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the volatile phase of thyme, cinnamon and clove essential oils onColletotrichum acutatum were investigated. Mycelial disc was placed in the center of thePetri dish (V=66 ml containing PDA. Different volumes of either non- or ethanol-dilutedessential oils were placed on the inner side of the dish cover to obtain final concentrationsof 153, 107, 76, 46, 15, 14, 12, 11, 7.6, 3.82, 1.53, 0.153 and 0.0153 μl/L of air. The dishes were sealed with Parafilm and incubated in up-side-down position. After 7 days of incubation,mycelial growth was recorded by measuring the colony diameter. If no mycelial growthwas recorded, the disc was transferred to a new PDA plate in order to evaluate whetherthe activity was either fungistatic or fungicidal. Mean growth values were obtained andthen converted to inhibition percentage of mycelial growth compared with the controltreatment. All the tested essential oils inhibited mycelial growth of C. acutatum in the dosedependent manner. Mycelial growth was totally inhibited by thyme oil in the concentrationof 76 μl/L of air. The same results were obtained by cinnamon and clove oil in the concentrationof 107 μl/L of air. Thyme and cinnamon oil had fungicidal effect in concentrationsof 107 and 153 μl/L respectively. The results obtained provide evidence on the antifungalin vitro effect of the tested essential oils as potential means for the control of C. acutatum.

  13. Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Song, Ah Young; Han, Jaejoon; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

    2014-10-01

    Insect-resistant laminate films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol was incorporated with a printing ink and the ink mixture was applied to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film as an ink coating. The coated LDPE surface was laminated with a polypropylene film. The laminate film impeded the invasion of moth larvae and repelled the larvae. The periods of time during which cinnamaldehyde level in the film remained above a minimum repelling concentration, predicted from the concentration profile, were 21, 21, and 10 d for cookies, chocolate, and caramel, respectively. Coating with microencapsulated ink did not alter the tensile or barrier properties of the laminate film. Microencapsulation effectively prevented volatilization of CO. The laminate film can be produced by modern film manufacturing lines and applied to protect food from Indian meal moth damage. The LDPE-PP laminate film developed using microencapsulated cinnamon oil was effective to protect the model foods from the invasion of Indian meal moth larvae. The microencapsulated ink coating did not significantly change the tensile and barrier properties of the LDPE-PP laminate film, implying that replacement of the uncoated with coated laminate would not be an issue with current packaging equipment. The films showed the potential to be produced in commercial film production lines that usually involve high temperatures because of the improved thermal stability of cinnamon oil due to microencapsulation. The microencapsulated system may be extended to other food-packaging films for which the same ink-printing platform is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Bark Extracts of Ceylon Cinnamon Possess Antilipidemic Activities and Bind Bile Acids In Vitro

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    Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol (95% and dichloromethane : methanol (1 : 1 bark extracts of authenticated Ceylon cinnamon were investigated for range of antilipidemic activities (ALA: HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities and bile acids binding in vitro. Individual compounds in bark extracts were also evaluated. Bark extracts showed ALA in all the assays studied. The IC50 (μg/mL values ranged within 153.07±8.38–277.13±32.18, 297.57±11.78–301.09±4.05, 30.61±0.79–34.05±0.41, and 231.96±9.22–478.89±9.27, respectively, for HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities. The bile acids binding (3 mg/mL for taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate, and chenodeoxycholate ranged within 19.74±0.31–20.22±0.31, 21.97±2.21–26.97±1.61, and 16.11±1.42–19.11±1.52%, respectively. The observed ALA were moderate compared to the reference drugs studied. Individual compounds in bark extracts ranged within 2.14±0.28–101.91±3.61 and 0.42±0.03–49.12±1.89 mg/g of extract. Cinnamaldehyde and gallic acid were the highest and the lowest among the tested compounds. The ethanol extract had highest quantity of individual compounds and ALA investigated. Properties observed indicate usefulness of Ceylon cinnamon bark in managing hyperlipidemia and obesity worldwide. Further, this study provides scientific evidence for the traditional claim that Ceylon cinnamon has antilipidemic activities.

  15. Lipid Oxidation, Color Changes, and Microbiological Quality of Frozen Beef Burgers Incorporated with Shirazi Thyme, Cinnamon, and Rosemary Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hashemi Gahruie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oxidative stability of beef burgers incorporated with Shirazi thyme, cinnamon, and rosemary extracts was compared with that of BHT-incorporated and antioxidant-free samples. The chemical composition, TBARS, metmyoglobin, pH, color, and microbial and sensory characteristics were evaluated during storage at −18°C for 2 months. The results indicated that Shirazi thyme and cinnamon extracts did not change the colorimetric properties significantly (P BHT > Shirazi thyme > rosemary > control. Finally, the results showed that these plant extracts can be utilized as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants in formulation of burgers.

  16. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group ...

  17. Insect-resistant food packaging film development using cinnamon oil and microencapsulation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Han, Jaejoon; Na, Ja Hyun; Chang, Pahn-Sik; Chung, Myung Sub; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

    2013-02-01

    Insect-resistant films containing a microencapsulated insect-repelling agent were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). Cinnamon oil (CO), an insect repelling agent, was encapsulated with gum arabic, whey protein isolate (WPI)/maltodextrin (MD), or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). A low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was coated with an ink or a polypropylene (PP) solution that incorporated the microcapsules. The encapsulation efficiency values obtained with gum arabic, WPI/MD, and PVA were 90.4%, 94.6%, and 80.7%, respectively. The films containing a microcapsule emulsion of PVA and CO or incorporating a microcapsule powder of WPI/MD and CO were the most effective (P packaging for food products. The insect-repelling effect of cinnamon oil incorporated into LDPE films was more effective with microencapsulation. The system developed in this research with LDPE film may also be extended to other food-packaging films where the same coating platform can be used. This platform is interchangeable and easy to use for the delivery of insect-repelling agents. The films can protect a wide variety of food products from invasion by the Indian meal moth. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Use of Essential Oils of Cinnamon, Lavender and Peppermint for Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Campiglia

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical compounds for weed control has been often responsible of damage to both the environment and the human health. To challenge these problems, in the last years research has increased its effort to find out alternative farming strategies. A feasible alternative could be the identification of natural substances with allelopathic effects for the realization of natural herbicides. Some research has already highlighted the possibility of using essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, for weed control. The advantage in the utilization of such natural compounds is the quickly breaking down process into the environment and so the possible application in sustainable agriculture like organic farming. Objective of this research was the evaluation of the inhibition effect exerted by the essential oils of cinnamon, peppermint and lavender on seeds germination of some of the most common weeds species of the Mediterranean environment (pigweed, wild mustard and ryegrass. The results have highlighted a control in the weeds germination. Among the essential oils tested, cinnamon oil has exerted the highest inhibition effect compared with lavender and peppermint ones. The dicotyledonous species have been more susceptible compared with the monocotyledonous, even if it has been recorded only for redroot pigweed a dose able to inhibit totally the seed germination.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena from Cinnamon Oil Waste West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etika, S. B.; Nasra, E.; Rilaztika, I.

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis and characterization of compound C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena (CCCR) of cinnamon oil waste have been done. This study was aimed to synthesis and characterize C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena from cinnamaldehyde violated cinnamon oil waste. C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena was synthesized by electrophilic substitution reaction of cinnamaldehyde isolated by the acid and resorcinol at 77oC temperature for 2 hour. The data analysis spectrum UV-VIS and FT-IR showed that the compound isolated cinnamaldehyde same as pure cinnamaldehyde compound. The characterization of C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena in the form of reddish-colored solids with melting point 3580C by using UV-VIS showed the presence of double bond, FT-IR showed the absorption at the wave number 3323,94 cm-1 indicating the ‑OH group, the wave number 1610,94 cm-1 showed the vibration C=C, the strong region absorption of 1500,86 cm-1 indicating the presence of an aromatic ring, the at 1442,88 cm-1 wave number indicating the presence of CH3.

  20. Optical and structure characterization of cinnamon nanoparticles synthesized by pulse laser ablation in liquid (PLAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel Salim, Ali; Bidin, Noriah; Bakhtiar, Hazri; Krishna Ghoshal, Sib; Azawi, Mohammed Al; Krishnan, Ganesan

    2018-05-01

    Organic nanoparticles development is under exploration due to its beneficial applications in nanobiomedical and research interests. PLAL technique of Q-switched 1064-Nd: YAG (10 ns pulse duration, repetition rate 1 Hz and laser energy 20-100 mJ) has inherent advantages and rapid growth of nanoparticles when compared to conventional methods because of the controlled fabricated nanoparticles, stability, and purity. Cinnamon sticks as a target are immersed in 5 ml ethanol medium and irradiated by a laser beam for the growth process. The morphology, optical characteristic, and bonding structure of cinnamon nanoparticles (CNPs) are determined and evaluated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Spherical, homogenous and high crystallinity CNPs was revealed within the particle size range of 2 - 28 nm. The absorption band was found in the ultraviolent region around 259 nm and 319 nm. The present of FTIR spectra confirmed that the nanoparticles were covered by plant secondary metabolites. The experimental findings revealed that the synthesize CNPs in ethanol has a potential for nanomedicine applications.

  1. Antimicrobial activity and composition of the volatiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees. and Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng. from Uttarakhand (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manindra Mohan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the composition of Cinnamomum tamala and Murraya koenigii essential oils and their antimicrobial activities against nine microbial strains. Methods: Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of two spice trees and were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils were also tested for their antimicrobial activity using broth micro dilution method. Results: Cinnamaldehyde (37.85% and cis-linalool oxide (29.99% were the main components characterized in the oil of C. tamala, whereas α -pinene (39.93%, sabinene (13.31% and trans-caryophyllene (9.02% detected as the major constituents in M. koenigii oil. C. tamala oil exhibited significant antifungal activity and satisfactory antibacterial activity, while lesser antimicrobial activity was observed in M. koenigii oil. Conclusions: The present study suggested that C. tamala oil was more effective against bacterial and fungal strains as compared with M. koenghii oil.

  2. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEbrahim Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats, that were randomly divided into 4 groups including non diabetic control, diabetic control and two experimental groups receiving doses 60mg/kg of cinnamon extract for 3 and 6 weeks. At the end, by phlebotomizing of rats' heart, blood glucose and insulin were measured and using HOMA score insulin resistance was measured. To be normal data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and data analyzed by SPSS-20 software and ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that in the group receiving the cinnamon extract, glycemic and insulin indexes were significantly adjusted. Conclusion: Cinnamon is probably due to have flavonoid and antioxidant compounds with antioxidant by increasing glucose uptake via the different body cells and due to reduction of oxidative stress level led to adjust glycemic and insulin indexes of blood

  3. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

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    Shirin Parvazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using 1HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and 1HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p<0.001. The metabolites were identified as succinic acid, glutathione, L-aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and 2-methylbutyryl glycine. The main metabolic cycles detected were alanine and aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets.

  4. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3"+, CD8"+, and CD4"+ T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4"+ T cells was delayed more than that of CD8"+ T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  5. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  6. Repeated systemic administration of the cinnamon essential oil possesses anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reyhaneh; Pazgoohan, Nasim; Seresht, Hasan Rezaei; Amin, Bahareh

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the putative antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of the cinnamon essential oil when administered acute (for 3 doses) and sub-acute (for 14 days) to mice. In an acute experimental study, forced swim test (FST) was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like behavior of animals treated with the intraperitoneal (IP) essential oil of cinnamon in triple doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg). In a sub-acute study (14 days in 24-hr intervals) antidepressant-like effects of essential oil (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with the same route were assessed in FST and tail suspension test (TST). Anti-anxiety and motor activities were evaluated using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open field tests, respectively. Determination of different constituents within the sample oil was via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Repetitive administration of cinnamon essential oil (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg) during 14 days significantly decreased the time of immobility in both FST and TST as compared to the control group. Mice treated with oil at the dose of 2 mg/kg spent a longer time and had more entries into the open arms of EPM as compared with the vehicle-treated ones. According to GC-MS analysis, 46 chemical compounds were identified in the studied cinnamon essential oil with the main constituent being trans-cinnamaldehyde (87.32%). Cinnamon essential oil might be used as an adjunctive therapy in improving symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders. However, dose-response effects need further evaluation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde might be responsible for the beneficial effect observed.

  7. Insulin resistance improvement by cinnamon powder in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heydari, Mojtaba; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Jahromi, Bahia Namavar

    2018-02-01

    Our aim is to assess the effect of cinnamon powder capsules on insulin resistance, anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles, and androgens of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Out of 80 women that were diagnosed as PCOS by Rotterdam Criteria, 66 were enrolled in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. All of the PCOS women were taking medroxy progesterone acetate 10 mg/day for the last 10 days of their menstrual cycles. The cases were randomly allocated to 2 groups. The women in the first group were treated by cinnamon powder capsules 1.5 g/day in 3 divided doses for 12 weeks and the second group by similar placebo capsules. Anthropometric measurements, fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, blood glucose 2 hr after taking 75 g oral glucose, HbA1c, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, triglyceride, and cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total) before and after the intervention were evaluated and compared as outcome measures. Fasting insulin (p = .024) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (p = .014) were reduced after 12 weeks in the cinnamon group compared with the placebo. There was also a significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein in cinnamon group (p = .004) as compared with baseline that caused significant difference with placebo (p = .049). However, changes in other outcome measurements did not lead to statistically significant difference with placebo. The present results suggest that complementary supplementation of cinnamon significantly reduced fasting insulin and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Amornrat Intorasoot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim:\tTo investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn., ginger (Zingiber officinale, plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., lime (Citrus aurantifolia, kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn., tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC., clove (Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and thirty clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii. Methods:\tAgar diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were employed for determination of bactericidal activity of water distillated medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia was used as positive control in this study. Results:\tThe results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 218-222

  9. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), plai ( Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ), kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil ( Ocimum gratissimum ), lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum ) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR- A. baumannii ). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil ( Melaleuca alternifolia ) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus , E. coli , P. aeruginosa , and A. baumannii . Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa . In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR- A. baumannii with MBC 90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR- A. baumannii infections.

  10. Manipulation of Probiotics Fermentation of Yogurt by Cinnamon and Licorice: Effects on Yogurt Formation and Inhibition of Helicobacter Pylori Growth in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    S. Behrad; M.Y. Yusof; K. L. Goh; A.S. Baba

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria especially Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium exert suppressive effect on Helicobacter pylori. Cinnamon and licorice have been traditionally used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of herbs on yogurt fermentation, the level of probiotic bacteria in yogurt during 28 days storage and the effect of herbal yogurt on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Cinnamon or licorice was mixed with milk and the mixture was ferme...

  11. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group 2 was a positive control, and Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were orally given CAE in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg and GAE in the same doses, respectively for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected for serum biochemical analyses. Kidneys were dissected out to assay activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Results: CAE and GAE significantly reduced body weight and body fat mass; normalized serum levels of liver enzymes; improved lipid profile; decreased blood glucose and leptin and increased insulin serum levels in obese diabetic rats. Both extracts also increased activity of kidney antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: CAE and GAE exhibit anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic and anti-oxidant effects in obese diabetic rats. These results confirm the previous reports on both extracts. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects are fully discussed and clarified. Our results affirm the traditional use of cinnamon and ginger for treating patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. The obese diabetic rat model used in this study is a novel animal model used in pharmacology researches. PMID:26401364

  12. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties of ground cinnamon, ginger, fennel and fenugreek, and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel was investigated. Ground ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek were obtained from a Dutch trade company. Ginger originated from China, cinnamon was produced in Indonesia and fennel and fenugreek were produced in India. The samples were ground by the trade companies and divided in three parts. One part was fumigated by the trade companies at ambient temperatures during eight hours with ethylene oxide (EO) at a concentration of 1500/m 3 . The second part was gamma irradiated at room temperature in aluminium/polyethylene bags at the 40 KCi cobalt-60 research source of the pilot plant for food irradiation in Wageningen. The untreated, fumigated and irradiated samples were stored in gas-impermeable packages. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 KGy dose, for fennel, 6-10 KGy and for fenugreek 6-8 KGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercial established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil content of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Irradiation of ginger with a dose of 5 KGy resulted in a slight decrease of 14% while fumigated ginger showed no significant loss in volatile oil content. Between the untreated irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found

  13. The effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on heart function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-12-01

    Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (Ptraining and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (Ptraining significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (Ptraining improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  14. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadjeu Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg. For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%, total cholesterol (32.1% and LDL-cholesterol (75.3% while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4% with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group. Conclusion MECZ

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the bioactive components of essential oils from Pakistani spices against Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was the phytochemical characterization of four indigenous essential oils obtained from spices and their antibacterial activities against the multidrug resistant clinical and soil isolates prevalent in Pakistan, and ATCC reference strains. Methods Chemical composition of essential oils from four Pakistani spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), cardamom (Amomum subulatum) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) were analyzed on GC/MS. Their antibacterial activities were investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Thin-Layer Chromatography-Bioautographic (TLC-Bioautographic) assays against pathogenic strains Salmonella typhi (D1 Vi-positive), Salmonella typhi (G7 Vi-negative), Salmonella paratyphi A, Escherichia coli (SS1), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 14580). The data were statistically analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) method to find out significant relationship of essential oils biological activities at p essential oils, oil from the bark of C. verum showed best antibacterial activities against all selected bacterial strains in the MIC assay, especially with 2.9 mg/ml concentration against S. typhi G7 Vi-negative and P. fluorescens strains. TLC-bioautography confirmed the presence of biologically active anti-microbial components in all tested essential oils. P. fluorescens was found susceptible to C. verum essential oil while E. coli SS1 and S. aureus were resistant to C. verum and A. subulatum essential oils, respectively, as determined in bioautography assay. The GC/MS analysis revealed that essential oils of C. cyminum, C. verum, A. subulatum, and S. aromaticum contain 17.2% cuminaldehyde, 4.3% t-cinnamaldehyde, 5.2% eucalyptol and 0.73% eugenol, respectively. Conclusions Most of the essential oils included in this study possessed good antibacterial activities against selected multi

  16. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    SEbrahim Hosseini; STaereh Shojaei; SAli Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats,...

  17. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  18. Assessment of antibacterial effect of cinnamon on growth of porphyromons gingivalis from chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amoian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims : Antibiotics are commonly used for controlling the growth of porphyromons gingivalis (P.g which is one of the most important etiologic factors in the periodontal diseases. Different side effects of synthetics and chemical drugs such as increasing the drug resistancy in the human pathogens have led to study on the herbal antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of cinnamon on the growth of porphyromons gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, samples were provided from patients having pockets. After culturing the microorganism and diagnosis of P.g by gram staining and biochemical tests, cinnamon in different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1500 mg/ml with oil solvent were prepared and placed by disks in the cultures medium. Positive controls were amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamycin . Oil was negative control. Then the plates were incubated for 24 hours in 37 0 C and then non-growth halos by disk diffusion method, MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration were determined. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA test.   Results: The results showed that the cinnamon at the concentration of MIC=750 mg/ml had the inhibitory effects of bacteria and at the concentration of MIC=1500 mg/ml had killing effect. However, this antibacterial effect compared with commonly used antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, was much weaker (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Cinnamon showed an antimicrobial effect on porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets.

  19. Synthesis of ACNT on quartz substrate with catalytic decomposition reaction from Cinnamomum camphora by using FC-CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, Praswasti P. D. K.; Silaen, Toni Partogi Johannes

    2017-05-01

    Camphor is a renewable carbon source that can be used as raw material for synthesizing Carbon Nanotube (CNT). Camphor is a substance that can be found on the Cinnamomum camphora tree. In this research, the method used to synthesize Aligned Carbon Nanotube (ACNT) from camphor is Floating Catalyst Chemical Vapor Deposition (FC-CVD) with Ferrocene as catalyst at temperature of 800°C, hydrogen gas as the co-reactant and argon gas as carrier gas. This method is the most popular method of synthesizing ACNT which oriented and have a high density. Camphor decomposes into benzene, toluene, and xylene at a temperature of 800°C. By using GC-FID for characterization test, the results showed decomposition at a temperature of 800°C camphor dominated by benzene with a concentration of 92.422 to 97.656%. The research was conducted by varying the flow rate of carrier gas such as argon at 40, 55, 70, 85 and 100 mL / min at a temperature of 800°C for 60 minutes of reaction time. Argon carrier gas flow rate of 70 mL / min producing CNT with the highest yield, but this is not followed by best quality of CNT. CNT with best quality is obtained at a flow rate of argon carrier gas at 55 mL / min based on test results characterization by using SEM, EDX, Mapping, and RAMAN Spectroscopy. This research have not obtained CNT with aligned structured.

  20. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  1. Elevated UV-B radiation increased the decomposition of Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca leaf litter in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xinzhang Z.; Zhang, Huiling L.; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shuquan Q. [Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). The Nurturing Station for the State Key Lab. of Subtropical Silviculture; Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems; Chang, Scott X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Peng, Changhui H. [Quebec Univ., Montreal (Canada). Inst. of Environment Sciences

    2012-03-15

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earth's surface has been increasing due to ozone depletion and can profoundly influence litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The role of UV-B radiation in litter decomposition in humid environments is poorly understood; we thus investigated the effect of UV-B radiation on litter decomposition and nitrogen (N) release in a humid subtropical ecosystem in China. We conducted a field-based experiment using the litterbag method to study litter decomposition and N release under ambient and elevated (31% above ambient) UV-B radiation, using the leaf litter of two common tree species, Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca, native to subtropical China. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly increased the decomposition rate of C. camphora and C. glauca leaf litter by 16.7% and 27.8%, respectively, and increased the N release from the decomposing litter of C. glauca but not C. camphora. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly accelerated the decomposition of litter of two native tree species and the N release from the decomposition litter of C. glauca in humid subtropical China, which has implications for soil carbon flux and forest productivity. (orig.)

  2. The Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activity of Cress Seed and Cinnamon on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Qusti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the stimulation of pancreas of rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes using 20% (w/w garden cress seed (Lepidium sativum and cinnamon methanol extracts. The positive control diabetic group showed a significant increase in fasting blood sugar, lipid peroxide, interleukin-6, carboxymethyl lysine, serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, immunoglobulins, and urine albumin and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, sodium ions, potassium ions, and urine creatinine. Severe histopathological changes in the kidney and pancreas tissues in hyperglycemic rats were also shown in the positive control diabetic group. Meanwhile, the groups that were treated with 20% garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar and all elevated abovementioned biochemical parameters and an increase in the lowered ones restoring them nearly to the normal levels of G1. Kidney and pancreas tissues were also ameliorated and restored nearly to the normal status. Both garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts succeeded in controlling hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes and ameliorated the biochemical and histopathological changes because of their antioxidant activity acquired by their possession of phenolic phytochemicals.

  3. Effects of Cinnamon Consumption on Glycemic Indicators, Advanced Glycation End Products, and Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Talaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of a daily intake of three grams of cinnamon over eight weeks on glycemic indicators, advanced glycation end products, and antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial study, 44 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 57 ± 8 years, were randomly assigned to take either a three g/day cinnamon supplement (n = 22 or a placebo (n = 22 for eight weeks. We measured the fasting blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobinbA1c, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, carboxymethyl lysine, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde levels at the beginning and the end of the study. Thirty-nine patients (20 in the intervention group and 19 in the control group completed the study. After an eight-week intervention, changes in the level of fasting blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobinbA1c, HOMA-IR, carboxymethyl lysine, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were not significant in either group, nor were any significant differences between groups observed in these glycemic and inflammatory indicators at the end of the intervention. Our study revealed that cinnamon supplementation had no significant effects on glycemic and inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mohammadi, Farhad; Shidfar, Farzad; Sormaghi, Mohammadhossein Salehi; Heidari, Iraj; Golestan, Banafshe; Amiri, Fatemehsadat

    2012-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Traditional herbs and spices can be used to control blood glucose concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the daily intake of three grams cinnamon over eight weeks on glycemic status, lipid profiles and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 44 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to take either a three g/day cinnamon supplement (n=22) or a placebo (n=22) for eight weeks. Weight, height, body fat mass and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and after intervention. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL C, HDL C, Apo lipoprotein A I and B were measured at baseline and endpoint. From 44 subjects participated in this study 37 completed the study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity between groups. In the treatment group, the levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride, weight, BMI and body fat mass decreased significantly compared to baseline, but not in placebo group. No significant differences were observed in glycemic status indicators, lipid profile and anthropometric indicators between the groups at the end of intervention. These data suggest that cinnamon may have a moderate effect in improving glycemic status indicators.

  5. Excessive application of pig manure increases the risk of P loss in calcic cinnamon soil in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanju; Zhang, Haipeng; Qian, Xiaoqing; Duan, Jiannan; Wang, Gailan

    2017-12-31

    Soil phosphorus (P) is a critical factor affecting crop yields and water environmental quality. To investigate the degree of loss risk and forms of soil P in calcic cinnamon soil, the P fraction activities in soils were analysed using chemical methods, combined with an in situ field experiment. Seven treatments were set in this study, including control (unfertilized), no P fertilizer (No-P), mineral P fertilizer (Min-P), low (L-Man) and high (H-Man) quantities of pig manure, Min-P+L-Man, and Min-P+H-Man. The results showed that manure fertilizer could not only significantly increase maize yield but could also enhance the accumulation of soil P in organic and inorganic forms. After 23years of repeated fertilization, the soil Olsen-P contents respectively showed 64.7-, 43.7- and 31.9-fold increases in the Min-P+H-Man, Min-P+L-Man and H-Man treatments, while the soil Olsen-P in Min-P treatment only increased 23.7-fold. The soil Olsen-P thresholds ranged from 22.59 to 32.48mgkg -1 in calcic cinnamon soil to maintain a higher maize yield as well as a lower risk of P loss. Therefore, long-term excessive manure application could obviously raise the content of soil Olsen-P and increase the risk of P loss in calcic cinnamon soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation; Estudo dos compostos bioativos em especiarias (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e Myristica fragans Houtt) processadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2014-07-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation {sup 60}Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the

  7. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation 60 Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds

  8. Effect of cinnamon powder addition during conching on the flavor of dark chocolate mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albak, F; Tekin, A R

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, refined dark chocolate mix was conched with the addition of finely powdered cinnamon in a laboratory-style conching machine to evaluate its aroma profile both analytically and sensorially. The analytical determinations were carried out by a combination of solid phase micro extraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) and-olfactometry(O), while the sensory evaluation was made with trained panelists. The optimum conditions for the SPME were found to be CAR/PDMS as the fiber, 60 °C as the temperature, and 60 min as the time. SPME analyses were carried out at 60 °C for 60 min with toluene as an internal standard. 26 compounds were monitored before and after conching. The unconched sample had a significantly higher fruity odor value than the conched sample. This new product was highly acceptable according to the overall inclination test. However some of textural properties, such as coarseness, and hardness were below the general preference.

  9. Physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and oil release of fish gelatin films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiulin Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with various concentrations of cinnamon essential oil (CEO were prepared and characterized. The results showed that tensile strength (TS, elongation at break (EAB, and water content (WC of the gelatin based film decreased with the increasing concentrations of CEO, but water vapor permeability (WVP increased. Addition of CEO improved light barrier property of the film. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed that the heterogeneous surface and porous formation appeared in gelatin-CEO films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR-ATR spectra indicated the interactions existed between gelatin and CEO. The gelatin-CEO films exhibited good inhibitory effects against the tested microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Paecilomyces varioti and their antifungal activity seemed to be more effective than the resistance to bacterial growth. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst effect of CEO release and that subsequently slowed down at 40 °C, but the initial burst release was not obvious at 4 °C. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of CEO as a natural antimicrobial agent into gelatin film has potential for developing as active food packaging.

  10. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market.

  11. Effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on chemically-induced carcinoma of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

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    Samah K. Ezzat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application. Group VI hamsters were handled as group III and additionally received DMBA for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of ACE supplementation. Hamsters of each group were euthanized according to the experimental schedule. The buccal pouches were and prepared for H&E stain, PAS reagent, CD3 and PDGF immunohistochemical reactivity. All groups showed dysplastic changes with varying degrees except groups I and III. Deep invasive carcinomas were recorded in 90% of the samples of group II, 60% of group IV, 50% of group V and 40% of group VI. From the previous results, it can be concluded that ACE has the potentiality preventing oral cancer initiation better than inhibiting oral cancer progression.

  12. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan Films Incorporated with Cinnamon Oil

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    Marco A. López-Mata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan films (CF with cinnamon bark oil (CO incorporated at 0% (control, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v were prepared by an emulsion method. The films were characterized based on their physical properties (solubility, water vapor permeability, optical property, and microstructure and antioxidant properties (DPPH, ABTS, and its protective effects on human erythrocytes. The results showed that the incorporation of 0.5 and 1.0% of CO into the CF significantly decreased its solubility to 22% of the control (p<0.05. The water vapor permeability of the CF-CO was significantly reduced to 40% with low concentrations of CO (0.25% incorporated into the CF. In general, the films presented a yellow coloration and an increase in transparency with the incorporation of CO into the CF. It was also observed that the incorporation of CO increased the antioxidant activity between 6.0-fold and 14.5-fold compared to the control, and the protective capacity against erythrocyte hemolysis increased by as much as 80%.

  13. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2014-05-27

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p=0.409). E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid.

  14. Atividade antifúngica de Cimentos de Ionômero de Vidro puros e associados à Cinnamomum zeylanicum

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    Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Considerando a importância da atividade antimicrobiana dos materiais restauradores odontológicos, objetivou-se verificar a atividade antifúngica in vitro de Cimentos de Ionômero de Vidro (CIV puros, associados a nistatina e ao óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela sobre Candida albicans (ATCC 289065. Foram avaliados Vitro Fil®, Maxxion R® e Vitro Cem®. A inibição do crescimento fúngico foi dada pela medição do diâmetro dos halos de inibição nos testes de difusão em meio de cultura sólido. Os CIV foram manipulados de acordo com as orientações dos fabricantes e inseridos em poços, confeccionados no meio de cultura, com 6 mm de diâmetro com o auxílio do sistema Centrix (DFL®. Quando preparadas as associações, as substâncias sintética e natural foram adicionadas ao Cimento de Ionômero de Vidro no momento da manipulação. As placas de Petri foram armazenadas em estufa a 37ºC, sob condições ideais de CO2, durante 48h e posteriormente foi feita a leitura dos resultados com auxílio de um paquímetro. O estudo foi realizado em triplicata e os dados foram analisados a partir do teste de Friedman, seguido de pós-teste de Dunns. Frente a cepa de Candida albicans, houve inibição do crescimento fúngico na maioria das associações, exceto quando o Vitro Fil® foi associado a emulsão do óleo essencial da canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum.  /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso

  15. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

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    Sharma Bechan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  16. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical, sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel as well as on the sensory properties of fenugreek were investigated. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 kGy dose, for fennel 6-10 kGy and for fenugreek 6-8 kGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercially established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil contents of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Between the untreated, irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  17. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  18. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cari; Fadli, U. Mahfudli; Prasada, A. Bayu; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber , Cinnamomum , Curcuma , and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO 2 ), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm 2 . Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm 2 . Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm 2 . Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm 2 . Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye. (paper)

  19. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, Valentina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D' Inca, Renata [Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Santon, Alessandro; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola [Department of Biology, University of Padua, via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh{sup 8}dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week. (orig.)

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano, tomilho e canela frente a sorovares de Salmonella enterica de origem avícola Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, thyme and cinnamon against Salmonella enterica sorovars from avian source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janio Morais Santurio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano (Origanum vulgare, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris e canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum frente a 60 amostras de Salmonella enterica distribuídas entre 20 sorovares, todos isolados de carcaças de aves. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado, utilizando-se a técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de orégano evidenciou forte atividade antibacteriana (CIM média = 529mig ml-1 e CBM média= 661mig ml-1, seguido do tomilho (CIM média=961mig ml-1 e CBM média= 1074mig ml-1, com atividade moderada, enquanto que a menor atividade foi observada com o óleo essencial de canela (CIM média= 1335mig ml-1 e CBM média = 1979mig ml-1. Apesar deste claro padrão de atividade, os sorovares de Salmonella enterica evidenciaram significativas variações de suscetibilidade, embora nenhuma, em particular, pudesse ser classificada como totalmente sensível ou resistente aos três óleos essenciais avaliados. Assim, no momento em que os antibacterianos utilizados como promotores de crescimento estão sendo substituídos. E os óleos essenciais de temperos e condimentos se constituem numa alternativa importante, os resultados aqui apresentados sinalizam dois pontos: os óleos essenciais de orégano e tomilho são efetivos contra Salmonella, mas as variações de suscetibilidade entre os sorovares deverão também ser consideradas.Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamom (Cinnamomum zeylanicum were tested for their inhibitory activity against sixty Salmonella sp. isolates. These microorganisms were distributed in 20 serovars, all of them isolated from broiler chickens. Based on microdilution technique, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was obtained for oregano

  1. Using Apple (Malus domestica, Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima and Cinnamon (Cinnamom vertum to Obtain an Innovative Jam-Like Food Product

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    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The apple, the pumpkin and the cinnamon are raw materials that could be innovatively combined to produce a new sugar-preserved product following an original recipe. It can be considered in accordance with the European quality of jam-type varieties. It is a hybrid product, a component of “the European gastronomy” with old Bavarian roots and Romanian raw material. An adapted technological scheme and a recipe based on the TSS of the raw material and of the finished product were used. The quality indicators were determined using analytical methods. The PCA with the results provided by the panelists were used for the study of the aromatic profile. An identification of flavors, such as apple and cinnamon, is reported, which contributes to the specificity of the sensory profile of the jam. The new product has: TSS = 63.6 oBrix, TA = 0.2%, VA = 0.105 %. These values fall within the range of values for other jam and experimental jam assortments. The proportion of solids is 34%, which is far too low compared to the 45% minimum accepted limit. Taking into account that there is no “surface lifting” flaw, it is recommended to accept the value for the new assortment.

  2. Synergistic Effect of the Lactoperoxidase System and Cinnamon Essential Oil on Total Flora and Salmonella Growth Inhibition in Raw Milk

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    Chiraz Abbes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its antibacterial and antipathogenic effects, the heat treatment of milk induces undesirable changes that can be noted in the overall properties of ultrahigh temperature (UHT milk, such as changes in nutritional and organoleptic properties. Our goal is to find new nonthermal antibacterial technologies for the preservation of raw milk (RM. This study investigates the possible synergistic effect of using a combination of the lactoperoxidase system (LS and 3 μg mL−1 of cinnamon essential oil (cinnamon EO to inactivate the total flora of milk and Salmonella Hadar (S. Hadar. The LS was activated with 30 mg L−1 sodium percarbonate and 14 mg L−1 of sodium thiocyanate. Using this approach, we obtained a synergistic effect with a complete inhibition of the activity of the total flora of the milk and S. Hadar after 12 hours at 25°C. In addition, the attainment of synergy was defined when the inhibitory effect of the two compounds together was greater than the effect observed by each compound added alone. Moreover, the monitoring of the synergistic effect at 4°C for 5 days showed complete inhibition of total flora for 3 days and for S. Hadar it was up to 5 days. To summarize, the current study clearly identified a new inhibitory combination that may be used in food-based applications.

  3. Effects of Cinnamon, Cardamom, Saffron, and Ginger Consumption on Markers of Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Abbasi, Behnoud

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be caused by elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia. The phytochemicals in several herbal medicines are reported to effectively improve diabetes and to ameliorate diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger as supplementary remedies in T2D. This randomized controlled, clinical trial included 204 T2D patients. The participants were randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 glasses of black tea and either 3 g cardamom, or cinnamon, or ginger, or 1 g saffron and one control group which consumed only 3 tea glasses without any herbal medicine for 8 weeks. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures were evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and saffron consumption had significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels (p < 0.05) compared with controls. However, the herbal products did not have significant effects on measures of glycemic control, anthropometry, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In within-group comparisons only, cinnamon intake significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS). The herbal remedies examined had significantly beneficial effects on cholesterol, but not on measures of glycemic control, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Based on the contradictory results reported in the literature, the effects of herbal medicine in diabetic patients should undergo further detailed investigation.

  4. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  5. The Effect of Four-Week Period of Aerobic Exercise with Cinnamon Consumption on Lipoprotein Indicates and Blood sugar in Diabetic Female Patients (Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dastani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cinnamon as an herbal medicine has the ability to reduce blood glucose and lipoproteins in diabetic patients. Based on the positive effects of exercise on diabetic patients, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Four weeks Period aerobic exercise alongside using cinnamon on lipoprotein parameters and blood glucose in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty diabetic women were voluntarily selected and were randomly divided into three groups: 1 aerobic exercise group; 2 aerobic exercise alongside using cinnamon; and 3 control group. Aerobic exercise took four weeks with 60 percent of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Blood glucose, the fat percentage and HDL, and the ratio of LDL to HDL in the first group significantly decreased and in the second group increased (P<0.05. Also the first group showed a significant reduction in triglyceride. The only significant change observed in the control group was a significant increase in the level of LDL. Comparing the first and second group, it was observed that in the second group the level of total cholesterol decreased and the ratio of LDL to HDL increased (P<0.05. Conclusion: Using cinnamon alongside aerobic exercise is likely to be beneficial in regulating the concentration of blood glucose and lipids in diabetic patients.

  6. Effect of oral cinnamon intervention on metabolic profile and body composition of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double -blind control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta Jain, Sonal; Puri, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani

    2017-06-12

    Nutritional modulation remains central to the management of metabolic syndrome. Intervention with cinnamon in individuals with metabolic syndrome remains sparsely researched. We investigated the effect of oral cinnamon consumption on body composition and metabolic parameters of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 16-week double blind randomized control trial, 116 individuals with metabolic syndrome were randomized to two dietary intervention groups, cinnamon [6 capsules (3 g) daily] or wheat flour [6 capsules (2.5 g) daily]. Body composition, blood pressure and metabolic parameters were assessed. Significantly greater decrease [difference between means, (95% CI)] in fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) [0.3 (0.2, 0.5) p = 0.001], glycosylated haemoglobin (mmol/mol) [2.6 (0.4, 4.9) p = 0.023], waist circumference (cm) [4.8 (1.9, 7.7) p = 0.002] and body mass index (kg/m2 ) [1.3 (0.9, 1.5) p = 0.001] was observed in the cinnamon group compared to placebo group. Other parameters which showed significantly greater improvement were: waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Prevalence of defined metabolic syndrome was significantly reduced in the intervention group (34.5%) vs. the placebo group (5.2%). A single supplement intervention with 3 g cinnamon for 16 weeks resulted in significant improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of Asian Indians in north India. The clinical trial was retrospectively registered (after the recruitment of the participants) in ClinicalTrial.gov under the identification number: NCT02455778 on 25th May 2015.

  7. Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils and Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Zataria Multiflora, Salvia Officinalis, Rosmarinus Officinalis, Mentha Pulegium and Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Changizi Ashtiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants are regarded as natural food preservatives and health promoting drugs. Considering their antioxidant activity, most of them can prevent oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate free radicals scavenging activity of essential oils and different fractions of methanol extracts from cinnamon, pennyroyal, black cumin, sage, rosemary and azkand. Methods: Antioxidant property of essential oils and different fractions of these medicinal plants was studied by determining their DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. Results: There were significant differences among the free radical scavenging activity of studied essential oils and different fractions. Ethyl acetate fractions were identified as the most active fractions than other ones and even synthetic antioxidant (BHT, IC50 value of 239.5μg/ml with the highest activity in Mentha pulegium (47.2 μg/ml μg/ml. Among others, n-hexane fraction of rosemary (969 μg/ml, dichloromethane fraction of rosemary (205.46 μg/ml and zatar (344 μg/ml and aqueous fractions of cinnamon (117.6 μg/ml and sage (321.3 μg/ml exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Regarding considerable activity of studied extracts, they have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants in relevant industries.

  8. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding...... with and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. RESULTS: The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were...... cinnamon (P = 0.0082 and P = 0.0138, respectively, after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of 3 g cinnamon reduced postprandial serum insulin and increased GLP-1 concentrations without significantly affecting blood glucose, GIP, the ghrelin concentration, satiety, or GER in healthy subjects...

  9. Effects of Cinnamon extract on biochemical enzymes, TNF-α and NF-κB gene expression levels in liver of broiler chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli

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    Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli is a common disease in poultry industry. The use of antibiotics to treat diseases is facing serious criticism and concerns. The medicinal plants may be effective alternatives because of their multiplex activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon extract on the levels of liver enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB gene expressions in liver of broiler chickens infected with E. coli. Ninety Ross-308 broilers were divided into healthy or E. coli-infected groups, receiving normal or cinnamon extract (in concentrations of 100 or 200mg/kg of food supplemented diets. E. coli suspension (108cfu was injected subcutaneously after 12 days cinnamon administration. Seventy-two hours after E. coli injection, the blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis of liver enzymes in serum (spectrophotometrically, and liver tissue samples were obtained for detection of gene expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α and NF-κB, using real-time PCR. Infection with E. coli significantly increased the levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions as well as some liver enzymes including creatine-kinase (CK, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine-transferase (ALT and aspartate-transferase (AST as compared with control group (P<0.05. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in broilers diet (in both concentrations significantly reduced the tissue levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions and enzymes CK and ALT in serum of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli in comparison with E. coli group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The levels of LDH and AST were significantly decreased only by 200mg/kg cinnamon extract in infected broilers. The level of alkaline-phosphatase (ALP was not affected in any groups. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in diets of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli could significantly reduce the gene expression levels of pro

  10. Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotland, T Ø; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husøy, T

    2012-03-01

    Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Illicium verum Extract and Trans-Anethole Attenuate Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation via Enhancement of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells and Inhibition of Th2 Cytokines in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Illicium verum is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The study investigates the effects of IVE and its component, trans-anethole (AET, on airway inflammation in ovalbumin- (OVA- induced asthmatic mice. Asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by systemic sensitization to OVA, followed by intratracheal, intraperitoneal, and aerosol allergen challenges. IVE and AET were orally administered for four weeks. We investigated the effects of treatment on airway hyperresponsiveness, IgE production, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage, Th1/Th2 cytokine production in splenocytes, forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 expression, and lung histology. IVE and AET ameliorated OVA-driven airway hyperresponsiveness (p<0.01, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration (p<0.05, mucus hypersecretion (p<0.01, and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and CCR3 production (p<0.05, as well as IgE levels (p<0.01. IVE and AET increased Foxp3 expression in lungs (p<0.05. IVE and AET reduced IL-4 and increased IFN-γ production in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures (p<0.05. Histological studies showed that IVE and AET inhibited eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltration in lungs (p<0.01. These results indicate that IVE and AET exert antiasthmatic effects through upregulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and inhibition of Th2 cytokines, suggesting that IVE may be a potential therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation.

  12. Cinnamon from the selection of traditional applications to its novel effects on the inhibition of angiogenesis in cancer cells and prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and a series of functions such as antioxidant, anticholesterol, antidiabetes, antibacterial, antifungal, nematicidal, acaracidal, and repellent activities

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use search engines such as PubMed and Scifinder to locate scholarly articles and reports pertaining to Cinnamon (?? r?u gu?), its novel effects, preparation, analysis, and use in the prevention and treatment of serious illnesses, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer?s disease, and cancer. Cinnamon has been used traditionally in food preparations and as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments and their symptoms. Cinnamon is known to h...

  13. Effect Of Using Ginger And / Or Cinnamon, As An Irradiated Supplement, On Lipid Profiles And Antioxidant Activities Of Dietary-Induced Hypercholesterolemia In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.; Osman, N.N.; Yonies, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Combating hypercholesterolemia is one of the modern nutrition directions. Towards this goal, hypercholesterolemia diet (HCD) containing cholesterol (1% w/w) and sodium cholate (0.2% w/w) was investigated on male Wister rats. Ginger and/or cinnamon (1% w/w) irradiated with 10 KGy were added to the HCD as a decontaminated supplement to evaluate the efficacy of these spices in reducing hypercholesterolemia. Their effects on serum and hepatic lipid, atherogenic index, blood and liver lipid peroxidation and antioxidant properties were determined. It was found that, the use of either ginger or cinnamon or both reduced TG, TC and LDL-C and increased HDL-C. Also, these spices suppressed lipid peroxidation via enhancement of antioxidant activities. The mixture of the two spices was more effective on the studied parameters in HCD fed rats. Thus, it could be concluded that intake of ginger and cinnamon may minimize the risk of atherosclerosis associated with a high cholesterol diet. These overall results support the future use of these spices and that continuous spices intake may be recommended in human

  14. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  15. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI, C. zeylanicum (GII, and nystatin (GIII for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α=5%. For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P<0.0001, with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  16. Subamolide B Isolated from Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum subavenium Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial and CHOP-Dependent Cell Death Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subamolide B is a butanolide isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments including carcinomatous swelling. We herein reported for the first time that subamolide B potently induced cytotoxicity against diverse human skin cancer cell lines while sparing nonmalignant cells. Mechanistic studies on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cell line SCC12 highlighted the involvement of apoptosis in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by the activation of caspases-8, -9, -4, and -3, the increase in annexin V-positive population, and the partial restoration of cell viability by cotreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Additionally, subamolide B evoked cell death pathways mediated by FasL/Fas, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, as supported by subamolide B-induced FasL upregulation, BCL-2 suppression/cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and UPR activation/CHOP upregulation, respectively. Noteworthy, ectopic expression of c-FLIPL or dominant-negative mutant of FADD failed to impair subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, whereas BCL-2 overexpression or CHOP depletion greatly rescued subamolide B-stimulated cells. Collectively, these results underscored the central role of mitochondrial and CHOP-mediated cell death pathways in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity. Our findings further implicate the potential of subamolide B for cutaneous SCC therapy or as a lead compound for developing novel chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  18. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  19. Safety profile assessment and efficacy of chemically characterized Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil against storage fungi, insect, aflatoxin secretion and as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Shilpee; Singh, S C; Dubey, N K

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the efficacy of Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil (EO) as insecticidal, antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant agent so as to recommend its application as plant based preservatives for food commodities. The study reports the chemical characterization of C. glaucescens oil and its 100% insecticidal activity against insect pest Callosobruchus chinensis on 12 h exposure and 98.74% oviposition deterrency at 0.15 μl/ml. The EO significantly inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus LHP-10 at 4.5 and 3.5 μl/ml respectively. EO also showed appreciable antioxidant activity (IC(50) value=15.1 μl/ml), non phytotoxic nature on chickpea seed germination and in vivo potential as fumigant in food system providing 71.07% protection of chickpea samples from fungal contamination and 100% antifeedant activity against the insect invasion. The EO exhibited non-mammalian toxicity showing high LD(50) (3971.34 μl/kg) during oral toxicity on mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of cinnamon essential oil microemulsion and its vapor phase for controlling postharvest gray mold of pears (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Zhao, Ruipeng; Yu, Ling; Zhang, Yunbin; He, Yan; Yao, Jie

    2014-03-30

    Essential oil of cinnamon (CM) is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides. Thus this work aimed to investigate the possible effects of CM microemulsions on decay developments and qualitative properties of pears. The decay incidence of samples treated with 500 µg L⁻¹ microemulsion was significantly reduced by 18.7% in comparison to that of 500 µg L⁻¹ non-microemulsion after 4 days' storage at 20 °C. In the vapor phase, the CM microemulsion with the lowest concentration had the best control for decay incidence and lesion diameter. The interval between inoculations also influenced decay development. Pears treated with Botrytis cinerea and immediately followed by CM microemulsion showed the lowest decay incidence. Moreover, in the natural decay experiment, the percentage of rotted pears was 3.8% in the CM microemulsion treatment and 5.8% in the control. CM microemulsion delayed the loss of ascorbic acid, yet it had no significant influence on pear qualities such as firmness and color. CM microemulsion may be an alternative way to control the gray mold of pears without a negative influence on its qualities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Kai; Yusoff, Khatijah; Mai, Chun-Wai; Lim, Wei-Meng; Yap, Wai-Sum; Lim, Swee-Hua Erin; Lai, Kok-Song

    2017-11-04

    Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.

  2. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time. PMID:26495315

  3. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Kai Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.

  4. Orally administrated cinnamon extract reduces β-amyloid oligomerization and corrects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Frydman-Marom

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence indicates that accumulation of soluble oligomeric assemblies of β-amyloid polypeptide (Aβ play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Specifically, 56 kDa oligomeric species were shown to be correlated with impaired cognitive function in AD model mice. Several reports have documented the inhibition of Aβ plaque formation by compounds from natural sources. Yet, evidence for the ability of common edible elements to modulate Aβ oligomerization remains an unmet challenge. Here we identify a natural substance, based on cinnamon extract (CEppt, which markedly inhibits the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers and prevents the toxicity of Aβ on neuronal PC12 cells. When administered to an AD fly model, CEppt rectified their reduced longevity, fully recovered their locomotion defects and totally abolished tetrameric species of Aβ in their brain. Furthermore, oral administration of CEppt to an aggressive AD transgenic mice model led to marked decrease in 56 kDa Aβ oligomers, reduction of plaques and improvement in cognitive behavior. Our results present a novel prophylactic approach for inhibition of toxic oligomeric Aβ species formation in AD through the utilization of a compound that is currently in use in human diet.

  5. Cinnamon from the selection of traditional applications to its novel effects on the inhibition of angiogenesis in cancer cells and prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and a series of functions such as antioxidant, anticholesterol, antidiabetes, antibacterial, antifungal, nematicidal, acaracidal, and repellent activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafie Hamidpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to use search engines such as PubMed and Scifinder to locate scholarly articles and reports pertaining to Cinnamon (肉桂 ròu guì, its novel effects, preparation, analysis, and use in the prevention and treatment of serious illnesses, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. Cinnamon has been used traditionally in food preparations and as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments and their symptoms. Cinnamon is known to have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and other therapeutic properties. New studies reaffirm the importance of cinnamon as a spice but also suggest that it may be a natural remedy to treat serious diseases such as type 2 diabetes, chronic digestion problems, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of cinnamon.

  6. Uji Mekanik Plastik Biodegradable dari Pati Sagu dan Grafting Poly(Nipam-Kitosan dengan Penambahan Minyak Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum burmannii Sebagai Antioksidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Safitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonbiodegradable plastic is packaging that can be decomposed by microorganisms so that a viable alternative to replace conventional plastic packaging that cause problems for the environment. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the mechanical test and others consisting of three variables and each variable consists of three  level of concentration. The first variable was additional grafting of Poly (Nipam - chytosan consisting of 5%, 7% and 9%. The second variable was additional glycerols which were 15%, 30%, 45%. The third variable was concentrations of cinnamon oil which were 10%, 15% and 20%. This research produced a thin sheet of plastic, transparant, and elastic and it had a slightly yellowish translucent color. The tensile strength value was about 1.34-2.57MPa, 36.22-66.30% of elongation value, and 22.22% -58.82% of water absorption. Antioxidant test was performed by wrapping an apple with biodegradable plastics containing cinnamon oil. It could inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The apples changed significantly on day 8. In biodegradability test, this plastic was decomposed after buried for 56 days in the soil.ABSTRAKPlastik biodegradable adalah kemasan yang dapat diurai oleh mikroorganisme sehingga menjadi alternatif untuk menggantikan plastik kemasan konvensional yang menimbulkan permasalahan bagi lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh terhadap uji mekanisnya dan lain-lain yang terdiri atas tiga variabel dan masing-masing variabel terdiri dari tiga taraf kosentrasi. Variabel pertama adalah variasi penambahan grafting Poly(NIPAM-kitosan yang terdiri dari kosentrasi 5%, 7% dan 9%.  Variabel kedua adalah variasi penambahan gliserol yang terdiri dari kosentrasi 15%, 30%, 45% dan variabel ketiga adalah variasi penambahan minyak kayu manis yang terdiri dari kosentrasi 10%, 15% dan 20%. Penelitian ini menghasilkan plastik berupa lembaran tipis, transparan, dan elastis serta memiliki warna bening sedikit

  7. [Edge effects of forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantations on the decomposition of leaf litter recalcitrant components of Cinnamomum camphora and Toona ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dan Ju; Li, Xun; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Ming Jin; Yang, Wan Qin; Zhang, Jian

    2016-04-22

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the dynamics of recalcitrant components during foliar litter decomposition under edge effects of forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantations in the low hilly land, Sichuan basin. A field litterbag experiment was conducted in seven forest gaps with different sizes (100, 225, 400, 625, 900, 1225, 1600 m 2 ) which were generated by thinning P. massoniana plantations. The degradation rate of four recalcitrant components, i.e., condensed tannins, total phenol, lignin and cellulose in foliar litter of two native species (Cinnamomum camphora and Toona ciliata) at the gap edge and under the closed canopy were measured. The results showed that the degradation rate of recalcitrant components in T. ciliata litter except for cellulose at the gap edge were significantly higher than that under the closed canopy. For C. camphora litter, only the degradation of lignin at the gap edge was higher than that under the closed canopy. After one-year decomposition, four recalcitrant components in two types of foliar litter exhibited an increment of degradation rate, and the degradation rate of condensed tannin was the fastest, followed by total phenol and cellulose, but the lignin degradation rate was the slowest. With the increase of gap size, except for cellulose, the degradation rate ofthe other three recalcitrant components of the T. ciliata at the edge of medium sized gaps (400 and 625 m 2 ) were significantly higher than at the edge of other gaps. However, lignin in the C. camphora litter at the 625 m 2 gap edge showed the greatest degradation rate. Both temperature and litter initial content were significantly correlated with litter recalcitrant component degradation. Our results suggested that medium sized gaps (400-625 m 2 ) had a more significant edge effect on the degradation of litter recalcitrant components in the two native species in P. massoniana plantations, however, the effect also depended on species.

  8. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Suresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%. CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results CTO (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased reduced glutathione (GSH. Conclusion Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity.

  9. Evaluation of natural antimicrobial substances in the conservation of sinuana oatmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenis Ibeth Pastrana-Puche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of globalization of indigenous foods is to contribute to the expansion of exports and the spread of different food cultures, but in the global market, competition is strong and requires products to be different, to remain competitive. Currently, society demands natural products with less chemical additives, so that food producers have found it necessary to try to completely remove the use of chemical antimicrobial products and adopt natural alternatives for the maintenance or extension of the lifetime of their products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lifetime of Sinuana oatmeal, a native drink of the Department of Córdoba (Colombia, spiked with cloves (Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum at three different concentrations (0.073, 0.146 and 0.219 % v/v, packaged in plastic bottles (PET and 500 mL glass and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. An analysis of variance and a Tukey comparison test (p≤0.05 was performed using the SAS statistical package, version 8 for Windows, licensed to University of Córdoba. Oats with the highest concentration of spices (0.219 % v/v achieved greater storage time

  10. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  11. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  12. A comparative study of histopathological effects of aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey with sulfadiazine on skin burn wound healing in rats infected with Pseudomonas aeuroginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Valilou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen, is the most common infective agent of burn wounds. The aim of this study was to compare the histopathological effect of a mixture of aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey with silver sulfadiazine on the healing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected second grade skin burn wounds in rats. To this end, 60 male rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (15 rats in each group. After inducing anesthesia, second grade burn wound with the diameter of 12 mm was created in the dorsal region of rats. Then, 1.5×108 cfu/ml P. aeruginosa PA01was equally bestrewed on the wound of all rats. Every 12 hours, silver sulfadiazine (group 1, honey (group 2 and aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey (group 3 were applied to the wounds and group 4 was kept as control. On days 7, 14, and 21, five rats were selected from each group at each time point and after inducing anesthesia and measuring the diameter of the wound by coliseum, microbial and histopathological samples were taken from the wounds. Microbial studies showed that in all groups except the control group, the growth of the microbe was stopped. Histopathological observations regarding wound healing and diameter showed that there was a significant difference between treatment groups and the control group on days 7, 14 and 21 (p

  13. Monitoring atmospheric nitrogen pollution in Guiyang (SW China) by contrasting use of Cinnamomum Camphora leaves, branch bark and bark as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Xiao, Huayun; Guan, Hui; Long, Chaojun

    2018-02-01

    Moss (as a reference material) and camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaf, branch bark and bark samples were systematically collected across an urban-rural gradient in Guiyang (SW China) to determine the efficacy of using these bio-indicators to evaluate nitrogen (N) pollution. The tissue N concentrations (0.13%-2.70%) and δ 15 N values (-7.5‰ to +9.3‰) of all of these bio-indicators exhibited large spatial variations, as they recorded higher values in urban areas that quickly decreased with distance from the city center; moreover, both soil N concentrations and soil δ 15 N values were found no significant differences within each 6 km from the urban to the rural area. This not only suggests that the different N uptake strategies and variety of N responses of these bio-indicators can be reflected by their different susceptibilities to variations in N deposition but also reveals that they are able to indicate that urban N deposition is mostly from traffic and industry (NO x -N), whereas rural N deposition is mainly from agriculture (NH x -N). Compared to previously collected urban moss and camphor leaf samples, the significantly increased δ 15 N values in current urban moss and camphor leaf samples further indicate a greater contribution of NO x -N than NH x -N to urban N deposition. The feasibility of using the N concentrations and δ 15 N values of branch bark and bark as biomarkers of N deposition thus was further confirmed through the comparative use of these bio-indicators. It can be concluded that vascular plant leaves, branch bark and bark can be used as useful biomonitoring tools for evaluating atmospheric N pollution. For further study, quantitative criteria for the practical use of these bio-indicators in response to N deposition should be developed and the differences in the δ 15 N values of different plant parts should also be considered, particularly in urban environments that are severely disrupted by atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2017

  14. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-11-05

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC 50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N -acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  15. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the rowth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species Efeito do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas

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    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 µL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 µL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 µL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume é uma planta conhecida por apresentar ampla variedade de propriedades medicinais. Portanto, este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a interferência do óleo essencial C. zeylanicum sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas. O óleo essencial testado apresentou potente efeito antifúngico demonstrado pela visualização de grandes zonas de inibição de crescimento de todas as linhagens testadas. Os valores de CIM50 e de CIM90 foram 40 e 80 µL/mL, respectivamente. Nas concentrações de 80, 40 e 20 µL/mL o óleo demonstrou um potente efeito fumigante, inibindo o crescimento micelial radial de A. niger, A. flavus e A. fumigatus ao longo de 14 dias de exposição. A 80 e 40 µL/mL o óleo essencial promoveu inibição de 100% da germinação de esporos, das três espécies de Aspergillus citadas

  16. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume leaves on some food-related bacteria Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial das folhas de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre bactérias de interesse em alimentos

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    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, has long been known for having many biological properties. This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves using GC-MS and to assess its inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on MIC and MBC determination and kill-time study. Eugenol (73.27% was the most prevalent compound in the essential oil followed by trans-β-cariophyllene (5.38%, linalool (3.31%, and alcohol cinamic acetate (2.53%. The results showed an interesting antibacterial activity of the oil with MIC ranging from 1.25 to 10 µL.mL-1. MBC values were in the range of 20 - 80 µL.mL-1. A concentration of 10 and 40 µL.mL-1 of the essential oil caused a fast and steady decrease in viable cell count (2 to 5 log cycles of all assayed strains along 24 hours. A concentration of 40 µL.mL-1 of the oil provided a total elimination of the initial inocula of S. aureus after 2 hours. These results show the possibility of regarding the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves as alternative sources of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food conservation systems.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, é uma espécie vegetal reconhecida, a longo tempo, como possuidora de muitas propriedades biológicas. Este estudo objetivou identificar os constituintes do óleo essencial das folhas de C. zeylanicum, utilizando CG-EM, e avaliar seu efeito inibitório sobre Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa através da determinação da CIM e CBM, bem como através da análise do tempo de morte bacteriana. Eugenol (73,27% foi o composto mais prevalente no óleo essencial, seguido por trans-β-cariofileno (5,38%, linalol (3,31% e álcool acetato cinâmico (2,53%. Os resultados mostraram uma interessante atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial com CIM, variando de 1,25 a 10 µL.mL-1. Os valores de

  17. Phytotherapy for children's nocturnal enuresis | Ahmadipour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results have shown that Zingiber officinale, Valeriana officinalis, Alcea rosea, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum, Ribes uva-crispa, Cornus mas, Juglans regia, Vitis vinifera, Sinapis spp., Olea europaea, and Prunus cerasus are a number of important plants that are effective on nocturnal enuresis in traditional ...

  18. Efeito dos óleos essenciais de Syzygium aromaticum e Cinnamomum zeylanicume e seus compostos majoritários na produçao de biofilme em cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, isolados de leite de vacas com mastite subclínica

    OpenAIRE

    Budri, Paulo Eduardo [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Bovine Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland of cows causing economic losses in dairy cattle and Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated in this kind of disease. The production of biofilms by S. aureus is an important virulence factor and spreed of this microorganism, involving the adhesion of bacteria on solid surfaces. In this work we tested the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (OESA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (OECZ) and their major compound...

  19. Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  20. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Making of the Hero in the Land of the Cinnamon Tree: Gonzalo Pizarro in the Royal Commentaries of Garcilaso Inca

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    Carmela Zanelli Velásquez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior to his rebellion against the Spanish Crown in 1544, Gonzalo Pizarro (Francisco’s younger brother accomplished the Conquest of Charcas (present-day northwestern Bolivia, survived the siege of Cuzco by Manco Inca and attempted the failed exploration of the mythical «Land of the Cinnamon Tree», located somewhere in the Amazonian basin, according to Garcilaso’s historical account. During this doomed expedition, Pizarro endured treason, lost companions and was defeated by the forces of an aggressive environment. However, he ma­naged to emerge as the legendary political and military leader that rebelled against the first Viceroy of Peru, Blasco Nuñez Vela in 1546. Nuñez Vela would be defeated in battlefield and later executed. Gonzalo Pizarro’s pretension of becoming king of Peru by virtue of a political alliance with the surviving Incas would be seen in Garcilaso’s account as a proof of Pizarro’s heroic stature, albeit a tragic one.

  2. The effect of edible coating based on Arabic gum, sodium caseinate and essential oil of cinnamon and lemon grass on guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Sanchita Biswas; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2018-04-15

    The effect of five coating formulations viz.: (A) 5% Arabic gum (AG)+1% sodium caseinate (SC)+1% cinnamon oil (CE); (B) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE; (C) 5% AG + 1% SC + 1% lemongrass oil (LG); (D) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% LG; and (E) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE + 2% LG on guava during 35 days storage at 4-7 °C was investigated. Thereafter samples were allowed to ripen for five days at 25 ± 2 °C. The quality of guava was analyzed at an interval of 7, 21, 35 and 40 days. The coating applications resulted in lower activity of PPO & POD, higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, higher retention of ascorbic acid, phenol & flavonoid content, exhibited slower rise of reducing and total sugar in guava pulp. Samples in treatment B and D were the best formulations for extending shelf-life of guava up to 40 days versus seven days of uncoated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes.

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    Richard A Anderson

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN improves peripheral insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated mRNA expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr diet to induce insulin resistance, with or without CN, for 12 weeks. There was a decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with the HF/HFr diet that was reversed by CN. The CN fed rats were more active in a Y maze test than rats fed the control and HF/HFr diets. The HF/HFr diet fed rats showed greater anxiety in an elevated plus maze test that was lessened by feeding CN. The HF/HFr diet also led to a down regulation of the mRNA coding for GLUT1 and GLUT3 that was reversed by CN in the hippocampus and cortex. There were increases in Insr, Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex due to the HF/HFr diet that were not reversed by CN. Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity was also associated with increased glycogen synthase in both hippocampus and cortex in the control and HF/HFr diet animals fed CN. The HF/HFr diet induced increases in mRNA associated with Alzheimers including PTEN, Tau and amyloid precursor protein (App were also alleviated by CN. In conclusion, these data suggest that the negative effects of a HF/HFr diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes were alleviated by CN suggesting that neuroprotective effects of CN are associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain.

  4. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  5. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  6. Investigation of Lipid Metabolism by a New Structured Lipid with Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols from Cinnamomum camphora Seed Oil in Healthy C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Shen, Jin-Rong; Xiong, Chao-Yue; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2018-02-28

    In the present study, a new structured lipid with medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCTs) was synthesized from camellia oil (CO) and Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) by enzymatic interesterification. Meanwhile, the antiobesity effects of structured lipid were investigated through observing the changes of enzymes related to lipid mobilization in healthy C57BL/6J mice. Results showed that after synthesis, the major triacylgeride (TAG) species of intesterificated product changed to LaCC/CLaC (12.6 ± 0.46%), LaCO/LCL (21.7 ± 0.76%), CCO/LaCL (14.2 ± 0.55%), COO/OCO (10.8 ± 0.43%), and OOO (18.6 ± 0.64%). Through second-stage molecular distillation, the purity of interesterified product (MLCT) achieved 95.6%. Later, male C57BL/6J mice were applied to study whether the new structured lipid with MLCT has the efficacy of preventing the formation of obesity or not. After feeding with different diets for 6 weeks, MLCTs could reduce body weight and fat deposition in adipose tissue, lower plasma triacylglycerols (TG) (0.89 ± 0.16 mmol/L), plasma total cholesterol (TC) (4.03 ± 0.08 mmol/L), and hepatic lipids (382 ± 34.2 mg/mice) by 28.8%, 16.0%, and 30.5%, respectively, when compared to the control 2 group. This was also accompanied by increasing fecal lipids (113%) and the level of enzymes including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) related to lipid mobilization in MLCT group. From the results, it can be concluded that MLCT reduced body fat deposition probably by modulating enzymes related to lipid mobilization in C57BL/6J mice.

  7. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Nargesh Khatun; Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-07-31

    The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents had low to moderate familiarity with consumption of medicinal herbs. However, about half of the respondents (47.5%) showed a high level of acceptance of medicinal herbs. Herbs like spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Damask rose (Rosa × damascena Herrm.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] had the highest consumption rate among the majority (over 75%) of citizens of Rasht. The highest rate of perceived usefulness of medicinal herbs was related to their perceived role in healing diseases. The variable of importance of use of medicinal herbs had the strongest direct effect and the variables of perceived usefulness and attitude towards use had the second and third strongest direct effect on the acceptance of medicinal herbs' use at p acceptance of medicinal herbs and may serve as a benchmark for future research and evaluation concerning the use of medicinal herbs over time. For plant producers, more effective and targeted crop development should be encouraged, whereas for retailers better marketing and delivery strategies should be sought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Cinnamon-Derived Procyanidin Compound Displays Anti-HIV-1 Activity by Blocking Heparan Sulfate- and Co-Receptor- Binding Sites on gp120 and Reverses T Cell Exhaustion via Impeding Tim-3 and PD-1 Upregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette Janine Connell

    Full Text Available Amongst the many strategies aiming at inhibiting HIV-1 infection, blocking viral entry has been recently recognized as a very promising approach. Using diverse in vitro models and a broad range of HIV-1 primary patient isolates, we report here that IND02, a type A procyanidin polyphenol extracted from cinnamon, that features trimeric and pentameric forms displays an anti-HIV-1 activity against CXCR4 and CCR5 viruses with 1-7 μM ED50 for the trimer. Competition experiments, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, revealed that IND02 inhibited envelope binding to CD4 and heparan sulphate (HS as well as to an antibody (mAb 17b directed against the gp120 co-receptor binding site with an IC50 in the low μM range. IND02 has thus the remarkable property of simultaneously blocking gp120 binding to its major host cell surface counterparts. Additionally, the IND02-trimer impeded up-regulation of the inhibitory receptors Tim-3 and PD-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, thereby demonstrating its beneficial effect by limiting T cell exhaustion. Among naturally derived products significantly inhibiting HIV-1, the IND02-trimer is the first component demonstrating an entry inhibition property through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein. These data suggest that cinnamon, a widely consumed spice, could represent a novel and promising candidate for a cost-effective, natural entry inhibitor for HIV-1 which can also down-modulate T cell exhaustion markers Tim-3 and PD-1.

  9. Determination of Volatile Compounds of Illicium verum Hook. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02.1 mass spectral library in MSD ChemStation. Relative content of each compound in essential oil was calculated by peak area normalization method. These compounds accounted for more than 90 % in total star anise aroma molecules, including trans-anethole (75.76 %), p- anisaldehyde (8.65 %), estragole (4.70 %),.

  10. Komponen kimia daun Cinnamomum macrophyllum Miq Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Agusta

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis on the chemical constituents of Cinnnamomum macrophyllum Miq leaves from Halmahera island using combination techniques GCMS was conducted. Total numbers of the constituents which can be detected were 59 consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol derivates, alkanes, oxygenated hydrocarbon, alcohols, aldehydes, caboxilix acid and alkaloid aong with eight unidentified compounds (1-8. Leaves of C. macrophyllum contained bioactive compound such as limonene, isoeugenol, methyleugenon, safrole, vitamin E, furfuraldehyde, 2-furan-carboxaldehyde and 7-methyl xanthine.

  11. Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts prevents ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shu-Ying Liu

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... reported to reduce fructose-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver. However, the ... of obesity-related peptide hormones is another contributor to diabetes mellitus ..... This work was supported by Department of Science and.

  12. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  13. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Bahreynian, Maryam; Hariri, Mitra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Herbal medicines with high amounts of phytochemicals have been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and anthropometric measures. This study aimed to determine the effect of herbal treatment on BP, endothelial function and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This clinical trial included 204 T2DM patients randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 g cinnamon, 3 g cardamom, 1 g saffron or 3 g ginger with three glasses of black tea, and one control group consuming only three glasses of tea without any herbals, for 8 weeks. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), systolic and diastolic BP and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between various medicinal plants in terms of influencing BP, serum soluble (s)ICAM-1 concentrations and anthropometric measures. However, in within-group comparison saffron and ginger intakes significantly reduced sICAM-1 concentrations (340.9 ± 14.4 vs 339.69 ± 14.4 ng/ml, p = 0.01, and 391.78 ± 16.0 vs 390.97 ± 15.8 ng/ml, p = 0.009, respectively) and ginger intake affected systolic BP (143.06 ± 0.2 vs 142.07 ± 0.2 mmHg, p = 0.02). Although administration of these herbal medicines as supplementary remedies could affect BP and sICAM-1 concentrations, there was no significant difference between the plants in terms of influencing anthropometric measures, BP and endothelial function.

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1% in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  15. In vitro antibacterial effects of five volatile oil extracts against intramacrophage Brucella abortus 544.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

    2012-06-01

    Brucellaabortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×10(5) cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  16. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  17. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  18. Evaluación de la acción antiséptica de un jabón líquido utilizando algunos aceites esenciales como agente activo

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Fortich, María del Rosario; Matiz Melo, Germán Eduardo; León Méndez, Glicerio; López Olivares, Darley; Pájaro, Nerlis Paola

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Se evaluó la acción antiséptica de un jabón líquido utilizando como activo aceites esenciales de Eugenia caryophyllata T. (clavo de olor) y Cinnamomum verum J. (canela). Se formularon y elaboraron jabones líquidos usando como activo aceites esenciales a concentraciones de 1,5% y 2%, posteriormente se evaluaron parámetros fisicoquímicos, sensoriales, así como también microbiológicos sobre cepas bacterianas de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Se encontró q...

  19. The Effects of on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley N. Hoehn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P -value of 3.915 × 10 -10 . The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Cinnamomum cassia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, 2Key. Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (North), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing University of ... and house dust mites [9-13]. Moreover, the essential oil of C. cassia also exhibits strong repellency and ...

  1. Evaluation of the wound healing activity of Cinnamomum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Mohammad Reza Farahpour1*, Amir Amniattalab2 and Hadi Hajizadeh3. 1Department of Veterinary Surgery, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran. 2Department of Veterinary Pathology, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran. 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad ...

  2. Protective Effect of Cinnamomum tamala Extract on Gentamicin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Gentamicin-treated animals showed significant renal damage as indicated by rise in blood ... mg/dl), urinary proteins (3.86 ± 0.32 mg/dl) and decrease in creatinine ... been used in folk medicine as brain tonic and ... also been reported with high phenolic contents ... maintained on the same diet and 12 h light/dark.

  3. Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil and ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICC

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... concentration values (MIC) of the essential oil ranged from 0.8 to 20.2 μg/ml. The MIC of ethanolic ... of valuable products that can be used in the treatment of .... cell purification Kit with automatic DNA extraction machine.

  4. KOEFISIEN TRANSFER MASSA PADA PROES EKSTRAKSI KAYU MANIS (CINNAMOMUM BURMANNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleh Setia Budi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman kayu manis mengandung minyak atsiri yang mempunyai banyak manfaat seperti bahan antiseptis, pewangi/peningkatan cita rasa untuk menyegarkan bau sabun, deterjen, lotion, parfum, dan cream. Pengambilan minyak atsiri kayu manis pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara ekstraksi dengan pelarut n-heksana teknis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konstanta kesetimbangan ekstraksi kulit kayu manis serta mempelajari pengaruh diameter pengaduk dan kecepatan putar pengaduk terhadap nilai koefisien transfer massa dan juga nilai difusivitas efektifnya. Setiap 40 gram kayu manis yang telah dihaluskan dan diayak dengan ukuran tertentu diekstraksi dengan 200 ml n-heksana teknis pada labu leher tiga dengan pengaduk magnetik selama 150 menit pada suhu 55°C. Setiap 25 menit diambil cuplikan untuk dianalisa kadar minyaknya dengan cara penimbangan. Data-data konsentrasi solut dalam solven dari penelitian diolah lebih lanjut untuk mendapatkan nilai Kc dan De dengan menyelesaikan persamaan diferensial parsial menggunakan metode Finite Difference Approximation cara implisit dan optimasi 2 peubah menggunakan minimasi Hooke-Jeeves. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah harga Kc naik sebanding  dengan kenaikan  kecepatan  putar pengaduk dan diameter pengaduk, sedangkan harga De yang diperoleh relatif tetap, sehingga dapat diperoleh hubungan persamaan kelompok tak berdimensi Sh =  4,8136 x 10-3 .Re 0,6716  dengan kesalahan relatif rara-rata 2,620%.

  5. Insecticidal activity of essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XC Liu, J Cheng, NN Zhao, ZL Liu ... Methods: Steam distillation of C. cassis twigs was carried out using a Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils. ... Conclusion: The findings suggest that the essential oil of C. cassis and its constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde, possess potentials for development ...

  6. Time and Space in W.A. Mozart's Ave Verum Corpus (1791)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    A discussion and interpretation of Mozart's famous motet contextualised through historical considerations of music, theology and aesthetics inspired by K.E. Løgstrup's notion of the fictive space of a melody.......A discussion and interpretation of Mozart's famous motet contextualised through historical considerations of music, theology and aesthetics inspired by K.E. Løgstrup's notion of the fictive space of a melody....

  7. In vitro and in vivo Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Some Indigenous Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheeha Naveed, Iftikhar Hussain, M Shahid Mahmood and Masood Akhtar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of some indigenous essential oils (EOs extracted by hydrodistillation from spices such as Cuminum cyminum, Amomum subulatum, Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans by performing the disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC in-vitro, and in vivo antibacterial effect of EOs was studied in rabbits infected with S. aureus and treatment was done at infected site immediately with EOs. Among all treated groups, C. verum EO treated group showed significant decrease in viable bacterial counts at infected site after 24h and 48h of infection to 7.4×106 and 7.6×105 cfu, respectively, from 4.3×107 cfu before treatment. C. verum EO was found to be the most effective against S. aureus and C. albicans, showing zone of inhibition diameters 34±2.0mm and 50.3±8.6mm, respectively. The EOs, applied at different concentrations, showed variable inhibitory effects to all the microorganisms tested and more effective than control, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of the present study screened out the antibacterial and antifungal potential of the EOs, however further dose dependent studies, both in-vitro and in-vivo are required to find out their maximum safe levels against bacteria and fungi.

  8. Pemanfaatan Limbah Ranting Kayu Manis (Cinnamomun Burmanii untuk Penciptaan Seni Kerajinan dengan Teknik Laminasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Eskak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLimbah ranting kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii merupakan sisa kayu yang tidak ikut dikupas untuk diambil kulitnya sebagai bahan rempah-rempah. Limbah ranting ini jumlahnya cukup banyak pada saat panen kulit kayu manis. Pada saat ini limbah tersebut hanya dibuang ataupun dibakar. Penciptaan seni ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatan limbah ranting kayu manis tersebut menjadi aneka produk seni kerajinan. Metode yang digunakan yaitu eksplorasi, perancangan, dan perwujudan karya. Hasilnya berupa prototip produk kerajinan dengan teknik laminasi yaitu berupa: tatakan saji (tatakan gelas, mangkuk, dan piring, pigura foto, dan aneka wadah. Metode dan prototip produknya dapat dijadikan model untuk pemberdayaan industri kreatif masyarakat daerah penghasil kayu manis. Dari penciptaan seni ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa limbah ranting kayu manis bisa ditingkatkan kemanfaatan dan nilai ekonomisnya menjadi lebih tinggi dengan mengreasikannya menjadi aneka produk seni kerajinan dengan aplikasi teknik laminasi. Teknik laminasi dipilih untuk mengolah limbah ranting yang berukuran kecil agar dapat menjadi aneka produk dengan ukuran variatif yang lebih besar. Keunggulan kerajinan limbah ranting kayu manis ini adalah memiliki aroma harum alami kayu manis yang khas. Kata kunci: limbah ranting, kayu manis, seni kerajinan, teknik laminasiABSTRACTWaste of cinnamon twig (Cinnamomum burmanii is the rest of the wood unpeeled for its pelt as a spice. These twigswaste are quite a lot at the time of harvesting cinnamon bark. At this time the waste is simply dumped or burned as trash. The creation of art aims to utilize waste into cinnamon twig art craft products. The method used is the exploration, design, and realization of the work. The result is a prototype craft products with lamination techniques those are: food placemat (coasters, bowls, and plates, picture frames, and various containers. Method and prototype products can be used as a model for community empowerment

  9. Fibras solúveis e insolúveis de verduras, tubérculos e canela para uso em nutrição clínica Soluble and insoluble fibres of vegetables, tubers and cinnamon for use in enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma Maria de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietas enterais com alimentos convencionais são usadas para obter individualização e menor custo. No entanto, para melhorar o teor de fibras alimentares, o valor nutritivo e a confiabilidade, mais estudos são necessários. A proposta desse estudo foi estudar fontes de fibra alimentar de abóbora, agrião, canela em pó, couve-flor, inhame e tomate, para uso em nutrição enteral ou suplemento nutricional oral. Esses alimentos foram escolhidos por conter fibras alimentares e outros elementos considerados funcionais (isotiocianatos, indóis, licopeno, carotenoides, clorofila. Foram formuladas preparações com os alimentos em solução de água e adicionadas a uma formulação enteral domiciliar. Foram determinadas fibras solúvel e insolúvel, a composição centesimal dos alimentos e a atividade de água das formulações. Os alimentos foram acrescentados à formulação enteral domiciliar em quantidades de 100 g/2000 kcal/2 L e à água 150 g/2000kcal/2 L. Essas quantidades equivalem a duas porções diárias de cada alimento. A maior quantidade de fibra alimentar (base úmida foi de canela (50,11%, sendo o teor dos outros alimentos: abóbora 1,76%; agrião 0,85%; couve-flor 1,51%; inhame 1,56%; e tomate 1,00%. Os valores de atividades de água ficaram entre 0,988 e 0,999, indicando que as dietas são suscetíveis à contaminação microbiana, sendo mais seguro consumir essas dietas imediatamente após o preparo.Enteral diets containing conventional foods are used to reduce costs and obtain individualization. However, more studies are required to improve their dietary fibre content, the nutritive value, and reliability. This study proposed to study the dietary fibres of different vegetables and spices such as pumpkin, watercress, powdered cinnamon, cauliflower, yam, and tomato for use in enteral nutrition or in oral nutritional supplements. These foods were chosen since they contain dietary fibres and other elements considered to be

  10. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  11. rights reserved Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    oxidative stress by polyunsaturated fatty acids in the composition of renal ... laboratory animals (National Institute of Health. Guide for the Care .... encouragement throughout the period of this work. ... Journal of America College of. Nutrition ...

  12. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sfeir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection.

  15. Formulation of oleozon with Phaleria macrocarpa and Cinnamomum burmanii extract for diabetic wound treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsabila, N.; Moulydia, F.; Bismo, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the effect of ozonation on coconut oil and mixture of coconut oil and olive oil was studied. The properties of ozonated oils (oleozon) were analytically tested by the method of iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, and FT-IR as general chemical substances. Ozonation may increase the peroxide and acid number for both oils but decrease the iodine number. The best ozonation condition has been seen from an increase of 277.52% acid number, peroxide number about 114.77 meq O2 2-/kg oil, and decrease of iodine number up to 22%. Furthermore, ozonated oils were mixed with herbal extract and be tested the diabetic wound healing ability through antibacterial activity test. A mixture of 160 mL coconut oil that ozonated for 72 hours and 0.18 gram herbal extracts with n-hexane solvent showed the highest inhibition zone of 18.3 mm in Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  16. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship of Cinnamaldehyde Compounds against Wood-Decaying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde, of the genius Cinnamomum, is a major constituent of the bark of the cinnamon tree and possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we used best multiple linear regression (BMLR to develop quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models for cinnamaldehyde derivatives against wood-decaying fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllun trabeum. Based on the two optimal QSAR models, we then designed and synthesized two novel cinnamaldehyde compounds. The QSAR models exhibited good correlation coefficients: R2Tv = 0.910 for Trametes versicolor and R2Gt = 0.926 for Gloeophyllun trabeum. Small errors between the experimental and calculated values of two designed compounds indicated that these two QSAR models have strong predictability and stability.

  17. Investigation of the biological properties of Cinnulin PF in the context of diabetes: mechanistic insights by genome-wide mRNA-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Ververis, Katherine; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Ziemann, Mark; Ooi, Jenny; Hu, Sean; Kwa, Faith A A; Loveridge, Shanon J; Georgiadis, George T; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating evidence of the beneficial effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni) in type-2 diabetes, a chronic age-associated disease, has prompted the commercialisation of various supplemental forms of the spice. One such supplement, Cinnulin PF(®), represents the water soluble fraction containing relatively high levels of the double-linked procyanidin type-A polymers of flavanoids. The overall aim of this study was to utilize genome-wide mRNA-Seq analysis to characterise the changes in gene expression caused by Cinnulin PF in immortalised human keratinocytes and microvascular endothelial cells, which are relevant with respect to diabetic complications. In summary, our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of action of Cinnulin PF in diabetes and diabetic complications. More generally, we identify relevant candidate genes which could provide the basis for further investigation.

  18. Investigation of the biological properties of Cinnulin PF in the context of diabetes: mechanistic insights by genome-wide mRNA-Seq analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Ververis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The accumulating evidence of the beneficial effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni in type-2 diabetes, a chronic age-associated disease, has prompted the commercialisation of various supplemental forms of the spice. One such supplement, Cinnulin PF®, represents the water soluble fraction containing relatively high levels of the double-linked procyanidin type-A polymers of flavanoids. The overall aim of this study was to utilize genome-wide mRNA-Seq analysis to characterise the changes in gene expression caused by Cinnulin PF in immortalised human keratinocytes and microvascular endothelial cells, which are relevant with respect to diabetic complications. In summary, our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of action of Cinnulin PF in diabetes and diabetic complications. More generally, we identify relevant candidate genes which could provide the basis for further investigation. To access the supplementary material to this article: ‘Supplementary tables 1–3’ please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  19. Non-destructive NIR-FT-Raman analyses in practice. Part I. Analyses of plants and historic textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, G N; Schrader, B; Schulz, H; Fuchs, R; Popov, S; Handjieva, N

    2001-12-01

    Non-destructive analysis of natural substances in plants as well as of old dyed textiles by Raman spectroscopy has not been possible using conventional techniques. Exciting lines from the visible part of the spectrum produced photochemical and thermal decomposition of the objects as well as strong fluorescence. Using Nd:YAG laser excitation at 1,064 nm together with a special sample arrangement and interferometric recording, various polyacetylenes in Aethusa cynapium and in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and the main valuable substances in gentian species (Gentiana lutea and G. punctata), curcuma roots (Curcuma longa), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were analyzed non-destructively and discussed in comparison with the corresponding pure standard compounds. We further analyzed non-destructively the FT Raman spectra of collections of historical textiles and lakes used for dyeing. It is possible to distinguish the main dye component non-destructively by using Raman bands.

  20. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  1. Preliminary Study of the Potential Extracts from Selected Plants to Improve Surface Cleaning

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    Ai Ting Vong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environment hygiene is important for preventing infection and promoting a healthier environment in which to live or work. The goal of this study was to examine the antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia (key lime juice and aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum iners (cinnamon bark and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime leaves on the kinetic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Antimicrobial activity was quantitatively evaluated using spectrophotometry and viable cell counts versus bacterial growth time. The fomite surface samples that were used in the second experiment were chosen randomly from the laboratories. They were assessed both before and after intervention using a mixture of commercial disinfectant detergent and lime juice. In the kinetic growth study, the lime juice effectively eliminated P. aeruginosa and MRSA. The cinnamon bark extract was more effective at inhibiting P. aeruginosa than MRSA. The kaffir lime leaf extract demonstrated bacteriostatic activity for the first 60 min, which then weakened after 90 min for both bacteria. The lime juice extract and commercial disinfectant mixture effectively disinfected the fomites. Further studies of the use of key lime juice as a disinfectant in the hospital environment should be conducted, as C. aurantifolia exhibits antibacterial activities against endemic microbes.

  2. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

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    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  4. 'Ipsa dicit, quod sic est, ergo verum.' Authority of Scripture, the Use and Sources of Biblical Citations in the Work of Jerome of Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Ota

    Suppl., č. 2 (2015), s. 70-89 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Jerome of Prague * Bible * John Wyclif * Bohemian Reformation * Prague University Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Inhibición de Paenibacillus larvae empleando una mezcla de aceites esenciales y timol Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae employing a mixture of essential oils and thymol

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    S. R. Fuselli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de una mezcla de dos aceites esenciales y timol frente a Paenibacillus larvae, agente causal de la enfermedad Loque americana, que afecta a las abejas. Los aceites esenciales utilizados fueron canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris, con el agregado de timol, componente mayoritario del tomillo presente en un 39,9%. Los parámetros medidos fueron la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM en caldo Muller-Hinton, mediante dilución seriada, y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM en agar MYPGP. El aceite esencial de tomillo registró valores de CIM entre 150 y 250 μg/ml, y de CBM entre 200 y 300 μg/ml, mientras que para el aceite esencial de canela los valores de CIM y de CBM obtenidos fueron 50 a 100 μg/ml y 100 a 125 μg/ml, respectivamente. El timol presentó valores de CIM y de CBM similares, de 100 a 150 μg/ml. No se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las cepas bacterianas estudiadas, pero sí entre la actividad de los aceites esenciales y la del timol (PIn vitro antimicrobial activity of a mixture of two essential oils and thymol against Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB, was evaluated. The essential oils were extracted from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris. The third component used, thymol, is the major component of the essential oil of thyme which contains 39.9 % of thymol. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC in Mueller-Hinton broth by the tube dilution method and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC on MYPGP agar were evaluated. Thyme registered MIC values of 150-250 μg/ml and MBC values of 200-300 μg/ml, while the MIC and MBC values obtained for cinnamon were of 50-100 μg/ml and 100-125 μg/ml. Thymol showed similar MIC and MBC values of 100-150 μg/ml. No significant differences between the bacterial strains were detected, but significant differences between essential oils and thymol activity

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita essential oil

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    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. O principal componente do óleo essencial obtido a partir de folhas da planta submetidas ao processo de hidrodestilação foi o linalol (80 a 95% m/m. O óleo essencial mostrou atividade antimicrobiana para todos os microrganismos testados, com exceção de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maior atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial sobre as bactérias testadas foi observada sobre Xanthomonas campestris (33,0 mm e a menor sobre Yersinia enterocolitica (10,5 mm. Para a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, observou-se que todos os microrganismos apresentaram-se susceptíveis ao óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. A variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-positivas foi de 1,00 mg.mL-1 (Streptococcus mutans a 1,75 mg.mL-1 (Staphylococcus epidermidis. Já a variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-negativas foi de 0,625 mg.mL-1 (Citrobacter freundii a 2,50 mg.mL-1 (Shigella flexneri. Os resultados obtidos na determinação da atividade antioxidante do óleo essencial demonstram que o percentual antioxidante aumenta proporcionalmente à concentração de óleo essencial adicionado, atingindo o valor máximo de 97,49% de atividade antioxidante para a concentração de 50000 μg.mL-1.The main objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the Ho-Sho essential oil. The major component of the essential oil obtained from the leaves submitted to hydro-distillation was linalool (80-95 wt%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity for all tested microorganisms, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Higher antimicrobial activities over the tested bacterium were observed for Xanthomonas campestris (33.0 mm, and lower activities were obtained for Yersinia enterocolitica (10.5 mm. For the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC, it was observed that all microorganisms presented susceptibility to the Ho-Sho essential oil. For Gram-positive bacteria, the MIC varied from 1.00 mg.mL-1 (Streptococcus mutans to 1.75 mg.mL-1 (Staphylococcus epidermidis. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, the MIC was 0.625 mg.mL-1 for Citrobacter freundii and 2.50 mg.mL-1 for Shigella flexneri. The results related to antioxidant activities demonstrated that the antioxidant percentage increases proportionally to the concentration of the essential oil added reaching the maximum value of 97.49% for the essential oil concentration of 50000 μg.mL-1.

  7. ‘Norine’, a cinnamon-linalool hybrid cultivar of basil

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    Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Norine’ is a hybrid cultivar of basil, adapted to the Northeastern Brazil, which is derived from the cultivars ‘Cinnamon’ and ‘Maria Bonita’. It has essential oil content of 2.91% and yield of 2.37 mL plant-1. The main chemical compounds of the essential oil are (E-methyl cinnamate (41.93 % and linalool (34.92 %. ‘Norine’ is characterized by presenting upright growth habit, rounded crown, mean height of 55 cm, mean crown diameter of 59 cm, mean leaf length of 8.4 cm, and mean leaf width of 4.5 cm.

  8. Natural Products for the Prevention and Alleviation of Risk Factors for Diabetes: Chromium and Cinnamon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products are widespread for the alleviation and prevention of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We have shown that glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c levels are all improved in people with type 2 diabetes following chromium supplementation in a double-b...

  9. Investigations into the Effects of Turmeric, Cinnamon and Green Tea on Glycaemic Control and Liver Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Wickenberg, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle changes such as caloric over-consumption and decreased physical activity are causing overweight and obesity, leading to an epidemic increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Overweight, cardiovascular disease and diabetes are closely linked, and cardio-vascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with T2DM. Identifying food that can reduce blood glucose and insulin, and increase satiety can help in the prevention and reduction of diabe...

  10. Cravo, canela, bala e favela Clove and cinnamon, guns and slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pereira Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da discussão sobre o lugar do corpo feminino subalterno, palco de conflitos onde se desdobram as tensões resultantes das relações desiguais de gênero, raça e classe no Brasil, este artigo se propõe a realizar uma leitura de textos ficcionais recentes - nomeadamente os romances As mulheres de Tijucopapo, de Marilene Felinto, e Ponciá Vicêncio, de Conceição Evaristo, e o filme O céu de Suely, de Karim Aïnouz -, inserindo-os no debate de um projeto de tradução da agenda pós-colonial para o português. Decorrentes dessa abordagem, temas como a viagem, o deslocamento e o exílio farão parte da experiência subjetiva ficcionalizada que se irá enfocar, e serão, portanto, também objeto de interpretaçãoBased on the discussion about the subaltern woman's body as a stage of conflicts where the tensions resulting from Brazil's unequal gender, class and race relations unfold, this article intends to analyze recent fictional works - specifically the novels: Marilene Felinto's As mulheres de Tijucopapapo and Conceição Evaristo's Ponciá Vicêncio, as well as the film O céu de Suely, by Karim Aïnouz - in order to place them within the debate of translation of the post-colonial agenda into Portuguese. Focusing the subjective experience represented in these fictional narratives, themes like travel, dislocation and exile will also be analyzed

  11. Microwave-Assisted Isolation of Essential oil of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Bl.: Comparison with Conventional Hydrodistillation

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    Duang Buddhasukh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assistedhydrodistillation was used to isolate an essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomuminers Reinw. ex Bl., and the results compared with those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation. The composition of the oil from both methods was found to be similar, and (--linalool was found as the main component (30-50 %. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained by both methods was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation methods, all of which indicated the same but insignificant activity.

  12. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

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    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  13. Green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles as a therapeutic tool to combat candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Tejas; Padalia, Hemali; Chanda, Sumitra

    2017-05-01

    Advancement of modern medicine, the increasing ratio of immunocompromised and immunosuppressive individuals is increased in hospitalized with serious underlying disease. This has resulted in a rise in the incidence of fungal infections, especially those due to Candida species. For many years the conventional antibiotic therapy has been critical in the fight against Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to various types of Candida (yeast) species. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesized using the Cinnamomum verum bark plus Cassia auriculata leaf powder extracts. The characterization of synthesized ZnONPs was done by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and SEM analysis. The average size of nanoparticles was 77 nm. Synergistic anticandidal activity of ZnONPs (ZnONPs plus antibiotics) was determined by disc diffusion method against 16 multidrug resistant clinical pathogens of Candida species. Antibiotic Ketoconazole plus ZnONPs showed best synergistic anticandidal activity against all the 16 isolates. Green synthesized ZnONPs appears to be a new promising approach to fight against Candidiasis.

  14. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A.; Abbott, Jason; Fahey, Paul; Cheema, Birinder S.; Bensoussan, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex reproductive endocrinopathy characterized by menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Lifestyle modification is a first‐line intervention; however, there are barriers to success for this form of self‐care, and women often seek adjunct therapies including herbal medicines. This pragmatic, randomized controlled trial, delivered in communities of Australia in overweight women with PCOS, compared the effectiveness and safety of a lifestyle intervention plus herbal medicine against lifestyle alone. All participants were helped to construct a personalized lifestyle plan. The herbal intervention consisted of two tablets. Tablet 1 contained Cinnamomum verum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypericum perforatum and Paeonia lactiflora. Tablet 2 contained Tribulus terrestris. The primary outcome was oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea. Secondary outcomes were hormones; anthropometry; quality of life; depression, anxiety and stress; pregnancy; birth outcomes; and safety. One hundred and twenty‐two women gave their consent. At 3 months, women in the combination group recorded a reduction in oligomenorrhoea of 32.9% (95% confidence interval 23.3–42.6, p herbal medicines in women with PCOS. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:28685911

  15. The use of health foods, spices and other botanicals in the Sikh community in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Davinder S; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Attitudes and practice concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are currently an area of considerable interest. However, little is known about the overall importance of such practices, for example, in immigrant communities such as the Sikh (Punjabi) British. The use of CAM in immigrants belonging to the Sikh religion in London was studied. The primary objective was to analyse the extent to which traditional medicine is used and understood by this population. Traditional Sikh medicine is important to this group of informants and a total of 42 species were recorded and identified tentatively. The most frequently mentioned species were Allium cepa (onion -- gunda), Allium sativum (garlic -- lasan, thon), Capsicum frutescens (cayenne pepper -- lalmirch), Cinnamomum verum (cinnamom--dhal chini), Citrus limon (lemon -- nimbu), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel -- saunf), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom -- elaichi) and Zingiber officinale (ginger -- adrak). The study also highlights the rapid change this tradition is undergoing in a diaspora situation. In depth studies on the use of CAM among other immigrant communities and among ethnic groups are urgent and may help to manage better the treatment of minor ailments as well as chronic diseases. Specifically, more research on traditional and herbal remedies amongst the numerous ethnic groups in urban Britain and how this impacts on the use of biomedicine (e.g. as it is provided by the NHS) is essential.

  16. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-09-01

    Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) , cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) , sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) , kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) , black pepper (Piper nigrum) , peppermint (Mentha piperita) , and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei , respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect against the 24-hour pre-established S

  17. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  18. KARO’S LOCAL WISDOM: THE USE OF WOODY PLANTS FOR TRADITIONAL DIABETIC MEDICINES

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    Rospita Odorlina Situmorang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the plant species used traditionally by Karo people in North Sumatra, to cure diabetes, analyses the cultural significance index of those plants for the Karo, and clarifies phytochemical contents of the plants. Data were collected using survey method from selected respondents (n=54 based on their knowledge and practices in utilising medicinal plants to cure diabetic disease. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS of plants was determined using the method proposed by Turner. Results showed that twelve woody plant species have been used to cure diabetes: loning leave (Psychotria sp., kacihe leave (Prunus accuminta Hook, umbrella tree leave (Maesopsis eminii Engl, mutamba leave (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, cepcepan leave (Villebrunea subescens Blume, pirdot/cepcepan lembu leave (Saurauia vulcani Korth, raru bark (Cotylelobium melanoxylo, breadfruit leave (Artocarpus altilis, salam leave (Syzygium polyanthum Wight, mahogany seed (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmani, and yellow bamboo rod (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Five of those plants: loning, umbrella tree, mutamba, raru and salam have the highest cultural significance level. These five plants are highly needed in large quatities by the Karo people, so their availability in the forest should be securely conserved and protected. The plants used contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids which can help to lower blood sugar level.

  19. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

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    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas Species Associated with Spoilage of Chilled Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osan Bahurmiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from spoiled chilled tilapia (Oreochromis sp. was evaluated in this study. In the first stage of this study, red tilapia was subjected to chilled storage (4°C for 3 weeks, and spoilage bacteria were isolated and identified from the spoiled fish. Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria isolated from the spoiled fish and further identification revealed that P. putida, P. fluorescens and Pseudomonas spp. were the main species of this group. In the second stage, methanolic extracts of 15 selected plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity, by agar disc diffusion method, against the Pseudomonas isolates. Results indicated that most of the extracts had different degrees of activity against the bacterial isolates. The strongest activity was exhibited by bottlebrush flower (Callistemon viminalis extract. This was followed by extracts from guava bark (Psidium guajava and henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis. Moderate antimicrobial activities were observed in extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, leaf and peel of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, wild betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum and fresh thyme (Thymus spp.. Weak or no antimicrobial activity was observed from the remaining extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity shown by some plant extracts in this study could significantly contribute to the fish preservation.

  1. Protective effect of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Yuan, Xing; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-11-15

    Cinnamaldehyde is a main ingredient of cinnamon oils from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, which has been widely used in food and traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells were investigated. Exposure to 4mM glutamate altered the GSH, MDA levels and SOD activity, caused the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulted in the induction of oxidative stress in PC12 cell, ultimately induced cell death. However, pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde at 5, 10 and 20μM significantly attenuated cell viability loss, reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species, stabilised mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased the release of cytochrome c and limited the activities of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, cinnamaldehyde also markedly increased Bcl-2 while inhibiting Bax expression,and decreased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. These results indicate that cinnamaldehyde exists a potential protective effect against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Haddioui, Laïla; Roques, Christine

    2017-08-01

    New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mechanical properties and release rates of cinnamon oil infused into PLA and Waxy Starch for single-serving cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers demand a safe food supply and are increasingly demanding natural options. Packaging is one of the most important technologies for preserving the quality of food and food products and for ensuring their safety. Food packaging, either rigid or flexible, functions as a barrier to light, humid...

  4. 22. ja 23. II esitatakse Tallinnas Kanuti Gildi saalis ning 25. ja 26. II Tartu Sadamateatris tantsulavastust "Myrrh and Cinnamon"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Koreograafideks on G. Welzman ja R. Haver ning selles kasutatakse nelja eesti helilooja A. Pärdi, M.-M. Lille, L. Sumera ja E.-S. Tüüri muusikat. Eesti gastrollidel esitab muusikat NYYD Ensemble. Lisaks eesti muusikutele on laval ka P. Pärenson

  5. Effect of repeated administration of cinnamon aqueous extract on body weight, glucose levels and lipid profile on over weight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the source of both traditional and medicinal plant for curing and treatment of diseases in recent year. Plant extracts containing several active constituents which often work together synergistically. The study was designed to investigate the effect CNAE on lipid profile and glucose level in overweight albino wistar rats. Animal were divided into two group 1 receive CNAE and 2 receive equal volume of tap water. Extract were given daily once a day at the dose of 2ml/animal. After the 17 % of reduction of weight treatment were terminated and blood sample were collected for biochemical estimation. The result show significant decrease in body weight total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increase in high y density lipoprotein while non-significant effect were observed in electrolyte levels. The data of present research demonstrated that CNAE not only possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties as well as it could be used for reduction body weight. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ponnusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL-1, Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL-1, isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL-1 and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL-1. The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL-1, isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL-1, acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL-1 and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL-1. Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.

  7. Herbal Medicine for Oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Ancient and Conventional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Menstrual bleeding cessation is one of the most frequent gynecologic disorders among women in reproductive age. The treatment is based on hormone therapy. Due to the increasing request for alternative medicine remedies in the field of women's diseases, in present study, it was tried to overview medicinal plants used to treat oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea according to the pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) and review the evidence in the conventional medicine. Methods This systematic review was designed and performed in 2017 in order to gather information regarding herbal medications of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in TPM and conventional medicine. This study had several steps as searching Iranian traditional medicine literature and extracting the emmenagogue plants, classifying the plants, searching the electronic databases, and finding evidences. To search traditional Persian medicine references, Noor digital library was used, which includes several ancient traditional medical references. The classification of plants was done based on the repetition and potency of the plants in the ancient literatures. The required data was gathered using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and web of knowledge. Results In present study of all 198 emmenagogue medicinal plants found in TPM, 87 cases were specified to be more effective in treating oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. In second part of present study, where a search of conventional medicine was performed, 12 studies were found, which had 8 plants investigated: Vitex agnus-castus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum verum, Paeonia lactiflora, Sesamum indicum, Mentha longifolia, and Urtica dioica. Conclusion. Traditional Persian medicine has proposed many different medicinal plants for treatment of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Although just few plants have been proven to be effective for treatment of menstrual

  8. Herbal Medicine for Oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Ancient and Conventional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moini Jazani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Menstrual bleeding cessation is one of the most frequent gynecologic disorders among women in reproductive age. The treatment is based on hormone therapy. Due to the increasing request for alternative medicine remedies in the field of women’s diseases, in present study, it was tried to overview medicinal plants used to treat oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea according to the pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM and review the evidence in the conventional medicine. Methods. This systematic review was designed and performed in 2017 in order to gather information regarding herbal medications of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in TPM and conventional medicine. This study had several steps as searching Iranian traditional medicine literature and extracting the emmenagogue plants, classifying the plants, searching the electronic databases, and finding evidences. To search traditional Persian medicine references, Noor digital library was used, which includes several ancient traditional medical references. The classification of plants was done based on the repetition and potency of the plants in the ancient literatures. The required data was gathered using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and web of knowledge. Results. In present study of all 198 emmenagogue medicinal plants found in TPM, 87 cases were specified to be more effective in treating oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. In second part of present study, where a search of conventional medicine was performed, 12 studies were found, which had 8 plants investigated: Vitex agnus-castus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum verum, Paeonia lactiflora, Sesamum indicum, Mentha longifolia, and Urtica dioica. Conclusion. Traditional Persian medicine has proposed many different medicinal plants for treatment of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Although just few plants have been proven to be effective for

  9. Herbal Medicine for Oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Ancient and Conventional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini Jazani, Arezoo; Hamdi, Kobra; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nasimi Doost Azgomi, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    Menstrual bleeding cessation is one of the most frequent gynecologic disorders among women in reproductive age. The treatment is based on hormone therapy. Due to the increasing request for alternative medicine remedies in the field of women's diseases, in present study, it was tried to overview medicinal plants used to treat oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea according to the pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) and review the evidence in the conventional medicine. This systematic review was designed and performed in 2017 in order to gather information regarding herbal medications of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in TPM and conventional medicine. This study had several steps as searching Iranian traditional medicine literature and extracting the emmenagogue plants, classifying the plants, searching the electronic databases, and finding evidences. To search traditional Persian medicine references, Noor digital library was used, which includes several ancient traditional medical references. The classification of plants was done based on the repetition and potency of the plants in the ancient literatures. The required data was gathered using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and web of knowledge. In present study of all 198 emmenagogue medicinal plants found in TPM, 87 cases were specified to be more effective in treating oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. In second part of present study, where a search of conventional medicine was performed, 12 studies were found, which had 8 plants investigated: Vitex agnus-castus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum verum, Paeonia lactiflora, Sesamum indicum, Mentha longifolia, and Urtica dioica. Conclusion . Traditional Persian medicine has proposed many different medicinal plants for treatment of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Although just few plants have been proven to be effective for treatment of menstrual irregularities, the results and

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de aves e bovinos Antimicrobial activity of spice essential oils against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A discutida questão da substituição do uso de antibacterianos em rações (promotores de crescimento requer urgentes alternativas. Face às necessidades de inibidores microbianos nesses alimentos, os óleos essenciais (OES se constituem em alternativa, sob avaliação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos OES de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela, Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de fezes de aves (n=43 e de bovinos (n=36. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, a partir da máxima concentração de 6400µg mL-1 de cada OE testado. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OES de orégano, orégano mexicano, tomilho, canela. Para todas as amostras testadas, independente de sua origem, os OES mais e menos efetivos quanto à atividade antimicrobiana foram o orégano e a canela, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmaram o potencial antibacteriano de alguns OES, os quais merecem novas investigações abordando sua adição na alimentação de aves e bovinos.The discussed issue about replacing the use of antibiotics in animal feed (growth promoters requires emerging alternatives. To meet the needs of microbial inhibitors in these foods, the essentials oils (EOS constitute potential alternatives under evaluation. In this study it was evaluated the antimicrobial activities of EOs from Oreganum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry (n

  11. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Budri, Paulo E; Silva, Nathalia CC; Bonsaglia, Erika CR; Fernandes Júnior, Ary; Araújo Júnior, Joao P; Doyama, Julio T; Gonçalves, Juliano L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Rall, Vera LM

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syz...

  12. POTENSI ANTI-HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA EKASTRAK CASSIA VERA [Anti-hypercholesterolemic Potency of Cassia Vera (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Blume Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Azima1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited report on the phytochemical content of cassia vera bark extract, and its potency as anti-hypercholesterolemic in rabbit is not known yet. The objectives of this research was to determine the phytochemical content and potency of anti-hypercholesterolemic of cassia vera bark extract using rabbit as the animal model.The research was devided into three stages, namely: (1 preparing cassia vera extraction with ethanol 96%; (2 analyzing phytochemical contents of cassia vera bark extract; (3 in vivo experiment, where twenty New Zealand White rabbits aged 5 months were used. Experimental rabbits were divided into 5 groups. The rabbits were fed with atherogenic cholesterol (0.1% as positive control, RB11 standard feed as negative control, or cassia vera extracts (100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day or fenofibrat (15 mg/day together with the atherogenic feed for 12 weeks. Levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were determined at 0, 4, 8, and 12 week. At the end of the experiment formation of fatty liver were observed. The results showed that the ethanol extract of cassia vera bark contains total phenol (62.25%, flavonoids, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. On the other hand, cassia vera bark extract was able to decrease total serum cholesterol from 443.3 mg/dl to 139.1 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol from 286.5 mg/dl to 95.8 mg/dl and triglyceride from 122.2 mg/dl to 61.2 mg/dl. Meanwhile, it increased HDL serum cholesterol from 29.1 mg/dl to 50.0 mg/dl in rabbit. It was also shown that the extract was able to decrease the everage fat globule on liver significantly from 27.47 globule to 3.59 globule per field view. Cassia vera bark extract with phytochemical content was found to be potential as anti-hypercholesterolemic and also in preventing fatty liver formatonr in rabbit

  13. Nitrogen isotope variations in camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaves of different ages in upper and lower canopies as an indicator of atmospheric nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Huayun, E-mail: xiaohuayun@vip.skleg.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wu Lianghong; Zhu Renguo; Wang Yanli; Liu Congqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Nitrogen isotopic composition of new, middle-aged and old camphor leaves in upper and lower canopies has been determined in a living area, near a motorway and near an industrial area (Jiangan Chemical Fertilizer Plant). We found that at sites near roads, more positive {delta}{sup 15}N values were observed in the camphor leaves, especially in old leaves of upper canopies, and {Delta}{delta}{sup 15}N = {delta}{sup 15}N{sub upper} - {delta}{sup 15}N{sub lower} > 0, while those near the industrial area had more negative {delta}{sup 15}N values and {Delta}{delta}{sup 15}N < 0. These could be explained by two isotopically different atmospheric N sources: greater uptake from isotopically heavy pools of atmospheric NO{sub x} by old leaves in upper canopies at sites adjacent to roads, and greater uptake of {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub y} in atmospheric deposition by leaves at sites near the industrial area. This study presents novel evidence that {sup 15}N natural abundance of camphor leaves can be used as a robust indicator of atmospheric N sources. - Research highlights: Camphor leaves showed high {delta}{sup 15}N values near roads and low values near the industrial area. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of camphor leaves near roads increased with time of exposure. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of camphor leaves near the industrial area decreased with time of exposure. More positive foliage {delta}{sup 15}N values were found in the upper canopies near roads. Near the industrial area, the upper canopies showed more negative foliage {delta}{sup 15}N values. - Nitrogen isotope in camphor leaves indicating atmospheric nitrogen sources.

  14. Antioxidant activities of the selected plants from the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Antioxidant activities of these extracts were evaluated through DPPH• radical scavenging, phosphomolybdate and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) methods. Methanolic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamomum tamala showed highest ...

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from selected herbs cultivated in the South of Brazil against food spoilage and foodborne pathogens Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas selecionadas cultivadas no Sul do Brasil contra micro-organismos patogênicos e deteriorantes de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mello da Silveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of 10 selected plant essential oils obtained by steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was screened against 12 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. MIC and MBC were determined for the essential oils that presented the highest activity in the agar disc-diffusion test. The most active essential oils against the tested bacteria were, in descending order, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and laurel (Laurus nobilis. Except for S. Typhimurium, the tested bateria were inhibited at MIC values lower or equal to 0.62mg mL-1 by lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil. Yersinia enterocolitica presented the highest sensitivity to all essential oils tested (CMI≤0.62mg mL-1. There was a significant correlation (PA composição química de 10 óleos essenciais obtidos por destilação a vapor foi determinada por CG/DIC e CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais foi detectada através do método de difusão em ágar frente a 12 espécies de bactérias de importância em alimentos. As CMI e CMB foram determinadas para os óleos essenciais que na difusão em ágar evidenciaram maior atividade. Os óleos essenciais que apresentaram maior atividade contra as bactérias testadas foram, em ordem decrescente, os de capim-limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, orégano (Origanum vulgare, folha de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e louro (Laurus nobilis. Com exceção de S. Typhimurium, o óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus apresentou valores de CMI e CMB iguais ou inferiores a 0,62mg mL-1 contra os micro-organismos testados. Yersinia enterocolitica foi o patógeno mais sensível frente a todos os óleos essenciais avaliados (CMI≤0,62mg mL-1. Foi detectada correlação significativa (P<0,05 entre os n

  16. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L., canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L., que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e 800 mg/mL. Como culturas-teste, foram utilizados os fungos Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium spp.; Eurotium repens e Aspergillus niger, isolados de pães envelhecidos. O óleo essencial da canela inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados. Os óleos de tomilho e alho tiveram o mesmo efeito nas concentrações mais altas. O cravo inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. e Eurotium repens com a concentração de 600 mg/mL e do fungo Penicillium spp. com a de 800 mg/mL.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "in vitro" effect of essential oils of garlic (Allium sativum L., cinnamon (Cinnmomum burnannil Meissn, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. condiments that were added to culture media (PDA and CYA 20S. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL, exept clove, which was tested in concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/mL. The fungi Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp., Eurotium repens and Aspergillus niger, isolated of breads discarded for consumption. The cinnamon essential oil inhibited completely the tested fungi development. The thyme and garlic oils presented a pronounced effect at the higher concentrations. The essencial oil of clove inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Eurotium repens at concetrations above 600 mg/mL and of Penicillium above 800 mg/mL.

  17. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or "natural" compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro ; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum ), gurmar ( Gymnema sylvestre ), ivy gourd ( Coccinia indica ), nopal ( Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus ), cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ), psyllium ( Plantago ovata ), and garlic ( Allium sativum ). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can

  18.  In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of three Indian Spices Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum; CIN, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, CLV and cumin (Cuminum cyminum, CMN against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, from Kolkata, India.Methods: The CIN, CLV and CMN were tested for their antibacterial activity against MRSA by in vitro methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the three extracts were determined, and time-kill studies were performed in order to investigate the bactericidal activity of the extracts (at the MIC level for the isolates. The killing efficacy of the extracts was determined at various concentrations.Results: The zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI obtained due to CIN, CLV and CMN ranged between 22-27 mm, 19-23 mm and 9-15 mm, respectively; while the MICs, for the isolates, were in the range of 64-256, 64-512 and 128-512 µg/ml, respectively. When tested for their MIC levels; the CIN and CLV were found to be bactericidal after 6 hrs of incubation, while CMN showed bactericidal activity after 24 hrs. However, when tested at various concentrations; CIN, CLV and CMN displayed bactericidal activity against S. aureus, after 24 hrs of incubation, at 200, 200 and 300 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum showed the strongest in vitro antibacterial activity followed by C. cyminum against MRSA, and such findings could be considered a valuable support in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in anti- S. aureus regimens.

  19. Phytophthora cinnamon causing stem canker and root rot of nursery-grown Platanus × acerifolia: first report in the Northern emisphere

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    Massimo PILOTTI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lethal stem and root cankers were observed in nursery-grown Platanus × acerifolia trees in Rome. Externally, canker lesions appeared as bluish or blackish areas starting from the stem base and extending upward. Inner bark was necrotised. In some cases an irregularly-shaped callus reaction attempted to heal the bark lesions. Black-stained necrosis affected the primary roots and the small branch roots to different degrees. The presence of Ceratocystis platani was excluded in the diseased trees. Phytophthora-like organisms were isolated from the altered tissue. Morphological and ITS-region-based analyses identified the isolates as Phytophthora cinnamomi. A pathogenicity test confirmed P. cinnamomi as the causal agent of the disease here defined as: stem canker and root rot of plane tree. This is the first report of P. cinnamomi in Platanus spp. in the Northern emisphere.

  20. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

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    Chinaputi, A.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty sun-dried medicinal plants were obtained from fraditional drug stores in Songkhla Province, Thailand, and examined for Aspergillus and aflatoxin B1. 288 isolates of Aspergillus were obtaines by standard blotter plate and 25 species were identified. The most common species were A. niger with 99 isolates, A. Flavus 84 isolates, A. terreus 33 isolates, A. oryzae 25 isolates, A.nidulans (Emericella nidulans 10 isolates, A fumigatus 9 isolates and A. chevalieri (Eurotium chevalieri 8 isolates. The other species[A. alliaceus, A.auricomus, A. carbonarius, A. carneus, A. clavatus, A. fisheri(Sartorya fumigata, A. janus, A. melleus,A. ochraceus, A. phoencis, A. sparsus, A. terricola, A. thomii, A. versicolor, A. wentii and Aspergillus sp.1-3] each had 1-2 siolates. Ofthe 50 different plants examined,9 had no trace of Aspergillus, namely Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Illicium verum, Andrographis paniculate, Carthamus tinctorius, Eugenia caryophyllus, Elettaria cardomomum, Coriandrum sativum, Curcuma longa and Cassia garrettiana. The highest number of species(9 of Aspergillus was found on Rauvolfia serpentina.The ability of Aspergillus to form aflatoxin was determined in coconut milk agar by observing the intensity of blue fluorescence in agar surrounding the colonies under ultraviolet light and the yellow pigment under the colonies. The results showed the production of aflatoxin was limited to the one species, A. flavus, from which 84 isolates produced aflatoxin in 57 isolates(67.8%.Aflatoxin B1. production was confirmed by culturing fluorescencing isolates of A. flavus in coconut nilk broth and detecting by ELISA technique. Aflatoxin B1. showed increasing production after 2 days, stabilizing at 3-4 days, and the decreasing after 5-6 days. Aflatoxin B1. could not be detected from nonfluorescencing isolates.The morphological characteristics of the aflatoxin B1. -producing and non-producing strains of A. flavus were similar under light microscope and

  1. The in vitro effect of selected essential oils on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Císarová, Miroslava; Tančinová, Dana; Medo, Juraj; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Salvia officinalis L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Carum carvi L., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Zingiber officinalis Rosc., Mentha piperita L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. (C. verum J.S.Presl.) were produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nová Ľubovňa, Slovakia). All essential oils exhibited activity against all tested strains of fungi. After 14 days of incubation, A. flavus (KMi-202-LR) showed the highest susceptibility with a growth inhibition percentage (GIP) of 18.70% to C. limon and 5.92% to C. sinensis, while A. parasiticus (KMi-220-LR) exhibited a GIP of 20.56% to J. officinale. The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of EOs with the most significant activity were recorded. The best antifungal activity, using the micro-atmosphere method was found in S. aromaticum with an MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air, T. vulgaris (MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air) and O. vulgare (MID of 31.5 μL L -1 air) against all tested strains. Mycotoxin production of the tested strains was evaluated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. Mycotoxin production of AFB 1 and AFG 1 was inhibited following all treatments with C. carvi, R. officinale and S. officinale, Eucalyptus globulus L. and O. basilicum L. Essential oils exhibited a potential inhibition activity against toxic fungi, although, these affected only the production of AFB 1 .

  2. Sire influence on reproductive, performance characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Panda White x Cinnamon Brown (PWxCB) and Silver Brown x Cinnamon Brown (SBxCB). The experiment was a randomized complete block design. Parameters measured include: fertility and hatchability traits, growth performance traits and ...

  3. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Ota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or “natural” compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon (Momordica charantia, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre, ivy gourd (Coccinia indica, nopal (Opuntia spp., ginseng, Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, psyllium (Plantago ovata, and garlic (Allium sativum. In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can be

  4. Drug: D02945 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available verum [TAX:124778] ... Same as: E00236 E00712 E00713 ... anise crushed fruits Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Anethole [CPD:C10428] ... CAS: 8007-70-3 PubChem: 17397102 ...

  5. Hyperspectral predictors for monitoring biomass production in Mediterranean mountain grasslands: Majella national park, Italy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available species include Brachypodium genuense, Briza media, Bromus erectus and 101 Festuca sp. Herbs include Helichrysum italicum, Galium verum, Trifolium pratense, Plantago 102 lanceolata, Sanguisorba officinalis and Ononis spinosa. 103 104 2.2. Field data...

  6. Chemiluminescence measurement of cinnamon-, curry-, red pepper- and milk powder as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment. Die Messung der Chemilumineszenz von Zimt-, Curry-, Paprika- und Milchpulver als Nachweis einer Behandlung mit ionisierenden Strahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegl, W; Heide, L

    1983-11-01

    The findings may be summarized as follows: significant differences in the dose response relationship of the different foodstuffs were found; the chemiluminescence intensity of different foodstuffs irradiated at equal dose levels may vary considerably; in some cases there might be evidence of radiation treatment even 2 months afterwards; after heating, the irradiated foodstuffs showed reduced chemiluminescence intensity. In some cases it is, however, possible to identify previous irradiation of a foodstuff; if irradiated foodstuffs are treated with water vapor, the radicals will react with the water so as to preclude the identification of previous irradiation; UV-irradiation will result in a drastic increase in luminescence intensity, at least in some cases and air oxidation may also increase the luminescence intensity, especially in fatty foodstuffs.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activity of an essential oil recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of white pepper, long pepper, cinnamon, saffron and myrrh in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanbin; Wang, Xinfang; Ma, Ling; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Chen, Jing; Fu, Xueyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil recipe (OR) in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes and hot plate test methods in mice. Additionally, the chemical composition of OR has been also analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds, representing 74.42% of the total oil content, were identified. β-Selinene (7.38%), aromadendrene (5.30%), β-elemene (5.22%), cis-piperitol (5.21%), cis-β-guaiene (4.67%), ylangene (3.70%), 3-heptadecene (3.55%), δ-cadinene (3%) and β-cadinene (2.87%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with OR (62.5-1000 mg/kg) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. OR significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection. All test samples showed no significant analgesic activity on the hot plate pain threshold in mice. These data demonstrated that the OR inhibits inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain. These results may support the fact that the essential oil of traditional Hui prescription played a role in the inflammation of stroke.

  8. Is there nothing new under the sun? The influence of herbals and pharmacopoeias on ethnobotanical traditions in Albacete (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Verde, Alonso; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Moreno, Candelaria; Egea, Teresa; Fajardo, José; Palazón, José Antonio; Valdés, Arturo; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero

    2017-01-04

    scammonia, pistils of Crocus sativus, grapes and raisins (Vitis vinifera), rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, bark of Cinnamomum verum, leaves and fruits of Olea europaea, mastic generally of Pistacia lentiscus, and wood of Santalum album. The statistical analysis of sources produces four well-separated clusters (Renaissance Herbals and Pharmacopoeias, Ethnobotany and Folk Medicine, Old phytotherapy, and Modern phytotherapy including Naturopathy) confirming our a priori classification. The clade of Renaissance Herbals and Pharmacopoeias appears separated from the rest in 97% of bootstrapped trees. Bayesian inference produces a tree determined by an initial set of two well-distinct core groups of ingredients: 64, locally used in Mediterranean Europe during centuries; and 45, imported, used in pharmacy during centuries. Complexity reached its maximum in Albacete 1526 and contemporary pharmacopoeias, gradually decreasing over time. The analysis of medicinal uses of the top 10 ingredients showed low coincidence between Dioscorides and different Renaissance herbals or medical treatises and of all of them with ethnobotany in Albacete. Regarding our question: is there something new under the sun? In some aspects, the answer is "No". The contrast between expensive drugs, highly valued medicines, and unappreciated local wild medicinal plants persists since the Salerno's school of medicine. Old medicine in Mediterranean Europe, as reflected by Albacete 1526 tariff of medicines, involved strict formulations and preferences for certain ingredients despite other ingredients locally available but underappreciated. This confirms the fact that any system of medicine does not get to use all available resources. Ethnobiological records of materia medica, in rural areas of Albacete, describe systems with a high degree of stability and resilience, where the use of local resources, largely wild but also cultivated, is predominant in contrast with the weight of imported exotic products in pharmacy

  9. (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Taiwan based on analysis of leaf morphology and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) molecular markers.

  10. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa

  11. Environ: E00650 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ame as: D06713 Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum cassia the dried leaves, twigs, and bark Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Cinnamaldehyde [CPD:C00903] CAS: 8007-80-5

  12. [Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) as therapeutic option in supraspinatus tendon syndrome? One year results of a placebo controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Tosch, A; Hünerkopf, M; Haake, M

    2002-07-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is seen as a therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic supraspinatus tendinitis by some authors. To test whether ESWT comprising 3 x 2000 pulses with the positive energy flux density ED+ of 0.33 mJ/mm2 is clinically superior to a sham ESWT treatment, a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study with an independent observer was performed. Forty patients were treated either by verum ESWT or sham ESWT under local anesthesia. Target criteria were the age-corrected Constant score, pain at rest and during activity on a visual analogue scale, and subjective improvement. Patients who reported no subjective improvement after 12 weeks were deblinded and received verum ESWT if they had belonged to the placebo group (partial crossover). The results of the verum group lie within the range of results for ESWT published by other authors. Patients in the placebo group with local anesthetic showed equally good results. At 12 weeks, and 1 year after intervention, no difference could be found between the verum and placebo groups regarding Constant score, pain, shoulder function, or subjective improvement. The nonresponders to the placebo ESWT continued to show no improvement after receiving verum ESWT. This contradicts a specific ESWT effect. Based on the results of this placebo-controlled study, ESWT appears to have no clinically relevant effect on supraspinatus tendinitis. The study underlines the importance of a control group in evaluating new treatment methods for diseases with unknown natural history.

  13. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  14. Biological evaluation of 32 different essential oils against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, 0.2% (v/v) levels of cinnamon oil, benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde completely killed ACC cells artificially contaminating watermelon seeds. This study suggests that cinnamon oil and its bioactive components, benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde, have potential for application as natural agents for the prevention ...

  15. Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza Badalzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  16. Differential Localization of Pain-Related and Pain-Unrelated Neural Responses for Acupuncture at BL60 Using BOLD fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Hee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to differentiate between pain-related and pain-unrelated neural responses of acupuncture at BL60 to investigate the specific effects of acupuncture. A total of 19 healthy volunteers were evaluated. fMRI was performed with sham or verum acupuncture stimulation at the left BL60 before and after local anesthesia. To investigate the relative BOLD signal effect for each session, a one-sample t-test was performed for individual contrast maps, and a paired t-test to investigate the differences between the pre- and post-anesthetic signal effects. Regarding verum acupuncture, areas that were more activated before local anesthesia included the superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, culmen, and cerebellar tonsil. The postcentral gyrus was more deactivated before local anesthesia. After local anesthesia, the middle occipital gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and declive were deactivated. Pre-anesthetic verum acupuncture at BL60 activated areas of vision and pain transmission. Post-anesthetic verum acupuncture deactivated brain areas of visual function, which is considered to be a pain-unrelated acupuncture response. It indicates that specific effects of acupoint BL60 are to control vision sense as used in the clinical setting.

  17. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives.

  18. Extrahypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin in the human brain; presence of vasopressin cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Guldenaar, S. E.; van de Wal, N.; Swaab, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of extrahypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OXT) in the human brain was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry. In the septum verum, few VP fibers were found in the nucleus septalis lateralis and medialis (NSL and NSM), and in the bed nucleus of

  19. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived volatile essential oils against fungal pathogens of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifung...

  20. Haematological changes and wound healing effects of sildenafil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... administration of insulin, type 1 diabetes is rapidly fatal. Type 2 diabetes ... mg/dl and above were considered diabetic and used for the experiment (Meiton, ..... effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in diabetic mice.

  1. Holland ja Eesti kohtuvad tantsulaval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Hollandi trupi Club Guy kontsertetendusest "Myrrh and Cinnamon", mis tuli esmakodselt ettekandele A. Pärdile pühendatud festivalil "Aestonishing music", kontsertetenduses kasutatud eesti heliloojate Pärdi, Tüüri, Sumera, Lille muusikast

  2. Drug: D06712 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [TAX:119260] ... Same as: E00084 E00567 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamon bark (dried) Major component: Cinnamaldehyde [CPD:C00903] ... PubChem: 47208363 ...

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... onHelicobacter Pylori (HP). ... turmeric and cinnamon by agar diffusion on helicobacter pylori have high ... flora of the gastrointestinal tract, mouth and vagina and people often receive ... was produced through water distillation.

  4. utilization of some physical methods for detection of some irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, I.A.S

    2007-01-01

    the present investigation was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated black pepper and marjoram using thermoluminescence (TL) and wheat, cinnamon and ginger using viscosity measurement. all samples were packed in polyethylene bags then irradiated at 5,10 and 15 kGy for black pepper, marjoram, cinnamon and ginger. wheat was irradiated at 1,2 and 3 kGy. all samples were stored for eight months at room temperature. results indicated that irradiation treatment caused markedly increasing in TL intensity for irradiated black pepper and marjoram while irradiation treatment decreased apparent viscosity of wheat flour, cinnamon and ginger powder, post irradiation and during storage. therefore, it could be concluded that the TL analysis can be used to detect irradiated black pepper and marjoram, also viscosity measurement can be used to detect irradiate wheat flour, cinnamon and ginger powder than non-irradiated ones after irradiation process and also during 8 months of storage at ambient temperature

  5. Biological evaluation of 32 different essential oils against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Among the various components of cinnamon oil, benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde ..... cinnamaldehyde have antimicrobial properties against .... Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. ... Needle. Sweet basil.

  6. Boletus durhamensis sp. nov. from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Alan E. Bessette; Owen L. McConnell

    2016-01-01

    A new bolete with cinnamon-brown pores, Boletus durhamensis, is described. Collected in northern North Carolina, it is possibly mycorrhizal with Quercus spp. Morphological and molecular characters support this taxon as a new species.

  7. Healthy Breakfast: Quick, Flexible Options to Grab at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with whole-wheat bread, eggs whites or an egg substitute, cinnamon and vanilla Try these tips for fitting in breakfast on a tight schedule: Cook ahead. Make breakfast the night before. Just reheat ...

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ASSESSMENT OF CONSUMERS' PREFERENCE TO THE USE OF GARLIC AND. CINNAMON OILS ON ... there was no significant difference in the consumer preference for the products. However, fresh ..... sustainable livestock production ...

  9. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    from ruminant livestock using antibiotic feed additives has proved to be useful strategy to .... The antimicrobial activity of ... cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil. In a ... Essential oils have antimicrobial properties,.

  10. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  11. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  12. Effects of consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on common respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in shift workers in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemard, Eric; Tanguy, Jérôme; Flavigny, Ann'Laure; de la Motte, Stephan; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

    2010-10-01

    The risk of infection may be increased in people under stress such as shift workers. This study examined the effect of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (verum) on the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal common infectious diseases (CIDs) and on immune functions in healthy shift workers. The study was single-center, randomized, double-blind, and controlled. Volunteers received 200 g/day of verum (n = 500) or control product (n = 500) for 3 months; 1-month follow-up was carried out. The cumulated number of CIDs (primary outcome) was not significantly different between groups. Because the Poisson distribution of the primary parameter did not fully fit the observed data, a post hoc categorical analysis was applied and showed a significantly lower cumulated number of CIDs in the verum group during the product consumption phase (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.95, p = 0.017). Verum also reduced the proportion of volunteers experiencing at least 1 CID (43% vs. 51%, p = 0.005), increased the time to the first occurrence of CID (p = 0.017) in the whole population, and reduced the cumulated number of CIDs in the subgroup of smokers (p = 0.033). In the course of CID, cumulated duration of fever was lower in the verum group (in the whole study phase) (p = 0.022), and an increase in leukocyte, neutrophil, and natural killer (NK) cell counts and activity (p = 0.047 to p fermented dairy product containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the risk of common infections in stressed individuals such as shift workers.

  13. [Wound healing effects of a Symphytum herb extract cream (Symphytum x uplandicum NYMAN: ): results of a randomized, controlled double-blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, Milos; Kucera, Alexander; Hladícova, Marie; Kucera, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Wound healing effects of a topically applied preparation (Traumaplant) containing a concentrate (10 % active ingredient) from the aerial parts of medicinal comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum NYMAN: ) were examined in a randomized clinical double-blind study including 278 patients with fresh abrasions (verum: n = 137), among them 64 patients of up to 20 years of age (verum n = 29, reference product n = 35). An otherwise identical low-dose preparation (1 % active ingredient; n = 141) was used as a reference. After 2-3 days of application of the study medication a highly significantly and clinically relevantly faster initial reduction of wound size of 49 + or - 19 % versus 29 + or - 13 % per day in favour of verum (p < 5x10(-21)) was found. From linear regression time to complete healing was determined to be 2.97 days faster with verum than with reference (4.08 vs. 7.05 days, p = 7.4 x 10(-45) in the t-Test comparison of regression lines). The physicians rated efficacy as good to very good in 93.4 % of cases, as compared to 61.7 % in the group treated with the reference product (p = 2 x 10(-11)). On a scale of 0-100 verum was rated with 84.4 + or - 10.1 points by the patients themselves. The reference product was rated with 65.5 + or - 24.8 points (p = 6.1 x 10(-18)). In subgroup analyses no significant influence of abrasion area, gender and age on healing effects was found, albeit a tendency towards better effects with increasing age was observed. No adverse effects or problems with drug tolerability occurred. Specifically, cutaneous reactions were observed in none of the patients throughout the 10 day observation phase. Symphytum herb extract can be attributed distinct wound healing effects, effects that can explicitly be used in paediatry.

  14. Mutagenic sensitivity to triticales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and their combined treatments on germination, survival, seedling height and sterility were studied in one winter Triticale var. 6TA 87 and one sprig Triticale var. cinnamon. Based on LD 50 , degree of reduction in seedling height and increase in seed and pollen sterility, it was concluded that Triticale var. cinnamon is highly sensitive and mutable compared to Triticale 6TA 876. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  15. High-resolution α-amylase assay combined with high-performance liquid chromatography−solid-phase extraction−nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for expedited identification of α-amylase inhibitors – proof of concept and α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okutan, Leyla; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Jäger, Anna

    2014-01-01

    . In combination with HPLC–HRMS–SPE–NMR, this provides an analytical platform that allows simultaneous chemical and biological profiling of α-amylase inhibitors in plant extracts. Proof-of-concept with an artificial mixture of six compounds—of which three are known α-amylase inhibitors—showed that the high...

  16. Actividad biológica (farmacológica y/o etnomédica; y compuestos fitoquímicos aislados de algunas especies de los géneros: Persea, laurus, lindera, aniba, phoebe, nectandra, cassytha, cinnamon, licaria, ravensara, pleurothyrium, dehaasia, apollonias, y ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Enrique Macías Villamizar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Resumen La familia Lauraceae esta compuesta por 52 géneros y por más 3000 especies; entre árboles o arbustos con ciertas características morfológicas como son: poseer hojas alternas, inflorescencia cimosas, estambres libres y fruto tipo baya o drupa. El uso de las Lauraceae en medicina folclórica se remite, entre otros, a tratamientos, carminativo, emenagogo y contra la artritis. Dentro de su actividad biológica y/o farmacológica se encuentran: actividad citotóxica, actividad contra el cáncer de mama, antiinflamatoria, antifúngico, antinociceptiva y antitumoral. Las referencias bibliográficas muestran la importancia de la familia Lauraceae en el área de la salud por las múltiples aplicaciones no sólo en contextos de la etnomedicina; sino también en el farmacológico; soportado en los diferentes bioensayos; es decir, su conocimiento se convierte en una alternativa con soporte científico para el desarrollo de nuevos productos farmacéuticos. (DUAZARY 2010, 130 - 151AbstractThe family Lauraceae is composed of 52 genera and over 3000 species are trees or shrubs with some morphological characteristics such as: having leaves alternate, cimosas inflorescence, free stamens, and berry or drupe fruit type. The use of the Lauraceae in folk medicine refers, among others, carminative, emanogogo and treating arthritis. Within its biological activity and / or pharmacological include cytotoxic activity, activity against breast cancer, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antinociceptive and antitumoral. The references show the importance of the family Lauraceae in the health field for many applications not only in the context of ethnomedicine, but also supported the drug in different bioassays, that is an alternative scientific support for the development of new pharmaceutical products.Keywords: Lauraceae; Phytochemistry; biological activity and / or pharmacology; ethnomedicine.

  17. Anticestodal Efficacy of Folklore Medicinal Plants of Naga Tribes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderate activity was recorded for the leaves of Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Lasia spinosa and Centella asiatica, while Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum cassia, Gynura angulosa, Lasia spinosa (stem) and Aloe vera revealed a negligible degree of anticestodal activity. Key Words: Anticestodal Efficacy, Naga Tribes, India, ...

  18. Chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Ocimum gratissimum are spices widely used as aroma enhancers and food preservatives. This work assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of their essential oils on some food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter ...

  19. Digestive efficiency of indigenous and invasive avian species fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and Purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) Turacos and invasive alien Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) met their energy demands when fed fruits of four fleshyfruited invasive alien plant species: Solanum mauritianum, Cinnamomum camphora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba.

  20. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 47, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative propagation of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl by shoot cuttings: Effect of shoot physiological age · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C M Asare, E O Owusu, D K Bedeh, 55-59 ...

  1. Accumulation of soil organic C and N in planted forests fostered by tree species mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lei, Pifeng; Xiang, Wenhua; Yan, Wende; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing trend of converting monocultures into mixed forests, more and more studies have been carried out to investigate the admixing effects on tree growth and aboveground carbon storage. However, few studies have considered the impact of mixed forests on belowground carbon sequestration, particularly changes in soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as a forest grows. In this study, paired pure Pinus massoniana plantations, Cinnamomum camphora plantations and mixed Pinus massoniana-Cinnamomum camphora plantations at ages of 10, 24 and 45 years were selected to test whether the mixed plantations sequestrate more organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) in soils and whether this admixing effect becomes more pronounced with stand ages. The results showed that tree species identification, composition and stand age significantly affected soil OC and N stocks. The soil OC and N stocks were the highest in mixed Pinus-Cinnamomum stands compared to those in counterpart monocultures with the same age in the whole soil profile or specific soil depth layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) for most cases, followed by Cinnamomum stands and Pinus stands with the lowest. These positive admixing effects were mostly nonadditive. Along the chronosequence, the soil OC stock peaked in the 24-year-old stand and was maintained as relatively stable thereafter. The admixing effects were also the highest at this stage. However, in the topsoil layer, the admixing effects increased with stand ages in terms of soil OC stocks. When comparing mixed Pinus-Cinnamomum plantations with corresponding monocultures within the same age, the soil N stock in mixed stands was 8.30, 11.17 and 31.45 % higher than the predicted mean value estimated from counterpart pure species plantations in 10-, 24- and 45-year-old stands, respectively. This suggests that these admixing effects were more pronounced along the chronosequence.

  2. Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Hashemi, Maryam; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza

    2017-09-18

    The development of natural protective agents as alternatives to chemical fungicides is currently in the spotlight. In the present investigation, chemical composition and antifungal activities of thyme, cinnamon, rosemary and marjoram essential oils (EO), as well as synergism of their possible double and triple combinations were investigated. The compositions of the oils were determined by GC/MS. For determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, a broth microdilution method was used. The possible interactions of some essential oil combinations were performed by the two and three-dimensional checkerboard assay and isobologram construction. An in vivo antifungal assay was performed by artificial wounding of pear fruits. The maximum antifungal activity was demonstrated by thyme and cinnamon oils which displayed lower MIC values whereas rosemary and marjoram oils with MIC range between 2500 and 10,000μg/mL exhibited weak antifungal activities against tested fungi. In synergy testing, some double combinations (thyme/cinnamon, thyme/rosemary, cinnamon/rosemary) were found to be synergistic (FICi≤0.5). The triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary was synergistic for B. cinerea and P. expansum (FICi values of 0.5 and 0.375, respectively); while combination of cinnamon, marjoram and thyme exhibited additive and synergistic effect against P. expansum (FIC=0.625) and B. cinerea (FIC=0.375) respectively. The usage of a mathematical Gompertz model in relation to fungal kinetics, showed that the model could be used to predict growth curves (R 2 =0.993±0.05). For B. cinerea, Gompertz parameters for double and triple combination treatments showed significant increase in lag phase (1.92 and 2.92days, respectively) compared to single treatments. Increase lag time up to 2.82days (P<0.05) also observed in P. expansum treated by triple combination of EOs. Base on the results, the lowest maximum growth rate (0.37mm/day) was observed

  3. The Emperors sham - wrong assumption that sham needling is sham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Thomas; Lund, Iréne; Näslund, Jan; Thomas, Moolamanil

    2008-12-01

    During the last five years a large number of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have been published on the efficacy of acupuncture in different conditions. In most of these studies verum is compared with sham acupuncture. In general both verum and sham have been found to be effective, and often with little reported difference in outcome. This has repeatedly led to the conclusion that acupuncture is no more effective than placebo treatment. However, this conclusion is based on the assumption that sham acupuncture is inert. Since sham acupuncture evidently is merely another form of acupuncture from the physiological perspective, the assumption that sham is sham is incorrect and conclusions based on this assumption are therefore invalid. Clinical guidelines based on such conclusions may therefore exclude suffering patients from valuable treatments.

  4. Reinforced cassava starch based edible film incorporated with essential oil and sodium bentonite nanoclay as food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamareerat, Butsadee; Singh, Manisha; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable packaging in food materials is a green technology based novel approach to replace the synthetic and conventional packaging systems. This study is aimed to formulate the biodegradable cassava starch based films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil and sodium bentonite clay nanoparticles. The films were characterized for their application as a packaging material for meatballs. The cassava starch films incorporated with sodium bentonite and cinnamon oil showed significant antibacterial potential against all test bacteria; Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial effect of films increased significantly when the concentration of cinnamon oil was increased. The cassava starch film incorporated with 0.75% (w/w) sodium bentonite, 2% (w/w) glycerol and 2.5% (w/w) cinnamon oil was selected based on physical, mechanical and antibacterial potential to evaluate shelf life of meatballs. The meatballs stored at ambient temperature in cassava starch film incorporated with cinnamon oil and nanoclay, significantly inhibited the microbial growth till 96 h below the FDA limits (10 6  CFU/g) in foods compared to control films that exceeded above the limit within 48 h. Hence cassava starch based film incorporated with essential oils and clay nanoparticles can be an alternate approach as a packaging material for food industries to prolong the shelf life of products.

  5. Combined effect of ultrasound and essential oils to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Gülçin; Demirel Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer

    2016-06-01

    Salads prepared from contaminated fresh produce have a high risk of causing food-borne illnesses. Essential oils obtained from plants have antimicrobial activity and may provide a natural approach to reduce the pathogens on fresh produce. Additionally, ultrasound treatments have been shown to reduce the microbial counts on different foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of cinnamon and lemon essential oils in vitro and in food applications. Mixtures of lettuce, parsley and dill were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and then dip-treated for 5 min in one of the following treatments: sterile tap water, chlorinated water, 1% lemon essential oil, 2% cinnamon essential oil or 2% cinnamon essential oil + ultrasound. The samples were stored at 4 ℃ and collected at d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post inoculation. The 1% lemon (4 log) and 2% cinnamon (2 log) essential oil washes provided partial inhibition against L. monocytogenes by d 1. The combined application of 2% cinnamon oil and ultrasound resulted in only 0.85 log inhibition by d 1; however, the number of L. monocytogenes increased during storage and became nearly equal to the control at d 9. Therefore, different combinations of essential oils with other antimicrobials or novel technologies are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of a Natural Remedy for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Double-Blinded Randomized-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Alecci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is a common, chronic, relapsing symptom. Often people self-diagnose and self-treat it even though health-related quality of life is significantly impaired. In the lack of a valid alternative approach, current treatments focus on suppression of gastric acid secretion by the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, but people with GER have a significantly lower response rate to therapy. We designed a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a formulation based on sodium alginate/bicarbonate in combination with extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus-indica and Olea europaea associated with polyphenols (Mucosave®; verum, on GER-related symptoms. Male/female 118 (intention to treat subjects with moderate GER and having at least 2 to 6 days of GER episodes/week were treated with verum (6 g/day or placebo for two months. The questionnaires Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQoL and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS were self-administered by participants before the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Verum produced statistically significant reduction of GERD-HRQoL and GSAS scores, −56.5% and −59.1%, respectively, in comparison to placebo. Heartburn and acid regurgitation episodes for week were significantly reduced by verum (p<0.01. Results indicate that Mucosave formulation provides an effective and well-tolerated treatment for reducing the frequency and intensity of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux.

  7. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages.

  8. Effectiveness of Acupuncture Therapy on Stress in a Large Urban College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stefanie; Burnis, James; Denton, Antony; Krasnow, Aaron; Raghu, T S; Mathis, Kimberly

    2017-06-01

    This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial to study the effectiveness of acupuncture on the perception of stress in patients who study or work on a large, urban college campus. The hypothesis was that verum acupuncture would demonstrate a significant positive impact on perceived stress as compared to sham acupuncture. This study included 111 participants with high self-reported stress levels who either studied or worked at a large, urban public university in the southwestern United States. However, only 62 participants completed the study. The participants were randomized into a verum acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both the groups received treatment once a week for 12 weeks. The Cohen's global measure of perceived stress scale (PSS-14) was completed by each participant prior to treatment, at 6 weeks, at 12 weeks, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-treatment completion. While participants of both the groups showed a substantial initial decrease in perceived stress scores, at 12 weeks post treatment, the verum acupuncture group showed a significantly greater treatment effect than the sham acupuncture group. This study indicates that acupuncture may be successful in decreasing the perception of stress in students and staff at a large urban university, and this effect persists for at least 3 months after the completion of treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Burnout: evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of TARGET 1® for professional fatigue syndrome (burnout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Alain; Grolleau, Adeline; Jove, Jérémy; Lassalle, Régis; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of a dietary supplement (TARGET 1®: a combination of casozepine, taurine, Eleutherococcus senticosus and extramel) on burnout symptomatology. A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in workers engaged in professional contact with patients, students or clients. All were affected by burnout syndrome based on a score of ≥4 on the Burnout Measure Scale (BMS-10). The primary outcome measure was the change in the BMS-10 score; secondary outcome measures included the change in the Maslach's Burnout Inventory scale-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) score and the Beck Depression Inventory. Five scores were evaluated. Eighty-seven participants were enrolled in the study: 44 received the active formulation (verum group); 43 received placebo. After 12 weeks' supplementation, the placebo group showed significant improvements in scores for BMS-10, MBI-HSS fatigue and the Beck Depression Inventory, but MBI-HSS depersonalization and task management were not improved; the verum group showed significant improvements in all five scores. The verum group consistently showed significantly greater improvements in scores than the placebo group. TARGET 1® significantly improved the symptoms of burnout after 12 weeks' use. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, A; Gejdel, E; Sworen, H; Sienkiewicz, K; Jedrzejak, J; Teucher, T; Schmitz, H

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus preparation (Strotan capsules) was investigated in a randomized double blind study vs. placebo. This clinical study involved 52 women with luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia. The daily dose was one capsule (20 mg) Vitex agnus castus preparation and placebo, respectively. Aim of the study was to prove whether the elevated pituitary prolactin reserve can be reduced and deficits in luteal phase length and luteal phase progesterone synthesis be normalized. Blood for hormonal analysis was taken at days 5-8 and day 20 of the menstrual cycle before and after three month of therapy. Latent hyperprolactinaemia was analysed by monitoring the prolactin release 15 and 30 min after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH. 37 complete case reports (placebo: n = 20, verum: n = 17) after 3 month of therapy were statistically evaluated. The prolactin release was reduced after 3 months, shortened luteal phases were normalised and deficits in the luteal progesterone synthesis were eliminated. These changes were significant and occurred only in the verum group. All other hormonal parameters did not change with the exception of 17 beta-estradiol which rouse up in the luteal phase in patients receiving verum. Side effects were not seen, two women treated with the Vitex agnus castus preparation got pregnant. The tested preparation is thought to be an efficient medication in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia.

  11. Does rTMS Alter Neurocognitive Functioning in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia? An fNIRS-Based Investigation of Prefrontal Activation during a Cognitive Task and Its Modulation via Sham-Controlled rTMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Deppermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Methods. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. Results. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during the phonological task was found. Conclusion. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an “add-on” to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed.

  12. Does rTMS alter neurocognitive functioning in patients with panic disorder/agoraphobia? An fNIRS-based investigation of prefrontal activation during a cognitive task and its modulation via sham-controlled rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, Saskia; Vennewald, Nadja; Diemer, Julia; Sickinger, Stephanie; Haeussinger, Florian B; Notzon, Swantje; Laeger, Inga; Arolt, Volker; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Zwanzger, Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD) is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC) could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the phonological task was found. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an "add-on" to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed.

  13. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  14. Acupuncture-Evoked Response in Somatosensory and Prefrontal Cortices Predicts Immediate Pain Reduction in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The linkage between brain response to acupuncture and subsequent analgesia remains poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate this linkage in chronic pain patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. Brain response to electroacupuncture (EA was evaluated with functional MRI. Subjects were randomized to 3 groups: (1 EA applied at local acupoints on the affected wrist (PC-7 to TW-5, (2 EA at distal acupoints (contralateral ankle, SP-6 to LV-4, and (3 sham EA at nonacupoint locations on the affected wrist. Symptom ratings were evaluated prior to and following the scan. Subjects in the local and distal groups reported reduced pain. Verum EA produced greater reduction of paresthesia compared to sham. Compared to sham EA, local EA produced greater activation in insula and S2 and greater deactivation in ipsilateral S1, while distal EA produced greater activation in S2 and deactivation in posterior cingulate cortex. Brain response to distal EA in prefrontal cortex (PFC and brain response to verum EA in S1, SMA, and PFC were correlated with pain reduction following stimulation. Thus, while greater activation to verum acupuncture in these regions may predict subsequent analgesia, PFC activation may specifically mediate reduced pain when stimulating distal acupoints.

  15. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC 50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC 50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  16. Turmeric improves post-prandial working memory in pre-diabetes independent of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Liu, Hsiao-Yu; Lu, Ting-Mei; Xiu, Lili; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Andrews, Zane B; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment develops with pre-diabetes and dementia is a complication of diabetes. Natural products like turmeric and cinnamon may ameliorate the underlying pathogenesis. People ≥ 60 years (n=48) with newly-recognised untreated pre-diabetes were randomised to a double-blind metabolic study of placebo, turmeric (1 g), cinnamon (2 g) or both (1 g & 2 g respectively), ingested at a white bread (119 g) breakfast. Observations were made over 6 hours for pre- and post-working memory (WM), glycaemic and insulin responses and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(0, 2, 4 and 6 hours): amyloid precursor protein (APP), γ-secretase subunits presenilin-1 (PS1), presenilin-2 (PS2), and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β). Differences between natural product users and non-users were determined by Students t and chi square tests; and between pre-test and post-test WM by Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Interaction between turmeric and cinnamon was tested by 2-way ANOVA. Multivariable linear regression (MLR) took account of BMI, glycaemia, insulin and AD biomarkers in the WM responses to turmeric and cinnamon. No interaction between turmeric and cinnamon was detected. WM increased from 2.6 to 2.9 out of 3.0 (p=0.05) with turmeric, but was unchanged with cinnamon. WM improvement was inversely associated with insulin resistance (r=-0.418, pturmeric were best predicted with an R2 of 34.5%; and with significant turmeric, BMI and insulin/glucose AUC beta-coefficients. Co-ingestion of turmeric with white bread increases working memory independent of body fatness, glycaemia, insulin, or AD biomarkers.

  17. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils. Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  18. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils.  Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  19. Enhancement Nisin Activity By Some Natural Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, H.A.; El-Fouly, M.E.; Zayed, M.N.; Harroun, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Nisin showed great inhibition of gram positive bacteria while it had no effect on gram negative bacteria or yeast.It is clear from the present study that 250ug/ml of nisin was lethal for S .aureus but this dose decreased to 25 ug/ml when combined with 0.05% of citric acid or 0.1% of lactic acid or 0.4% of cinnamon. Although nisin had no effect on P. aeruginosa but when 200ug/ml of nisin combined with 0.2% of citric acid or 0.1% of lactic acid or 2% of cinnamon P. aeruginosa completely inhibited.In the same manner 200ug/ml of nisin was sufficient to inhibit Debaryomyces sp. growth when combined by 3% of citric or 3.5% of lactic or 2% of cinnamon. On the other hand, 25 μg/ml of nisin reduced the following lethal concentrations of S .aureus from0.2% to 0.05%, 0.15% to 0.1% and from 1.2% to 0.4% for citric acid, lactic acid and cinnamon, respectively. While. 200 ug/ml of nisin decreased the following lethal concentrations of P. aeruginosa from 0.3% to 0.2%, 0.3% to 0.1% and from 4% to 2% for citric acid, lactic acid and cinnamon, respectively. Two hundred ug/ml of nisin decreased lethal concentrations of Debaryomyces sp. from4% to 3%, 4.5% to 3.5% for citric acid and lactic acid, respectively. Two hundred ug/ml of nisin did not reduce cinnamon lethal dose.

  20. AcEST: BP919664 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5W9_9INFA Hemagglutinin OS=Influenza A virus (A/cinnamon teal/Bolivia/4537/2001(H...o BlastX Result : TrEMBL tr_hit_id Q0Q5W9 Definition tr|Q0Q5W9|Q0Q5W9_9INFA Hemagglutinin OS=Influenza A virus (A/cinnamon teal/Boliv...ia/4537/2001(H7N3)) Align length 51 Score (bit) 36.6 E-v

  1. Morphological and chemical variability of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of 17 sweet basil cultivars as well as essential oil content and composition were determined. The study clearly indicated great variability of Ocimum basilicumL. The content of essential oil in the dried herb was high and varied from 0.75% (O. basilicumvar. piperita to 1.89% (O. basilicumvar. cinnamon. Based of the primary components, three chemotypes were distinguished: citral (‘Lime’, ‘Lemon’ and var. citriodorum, E-methyl cinnamate/linalool (‘Licorice’, var. cinnamon and methyl chavicol (‘Tai’.

  2. In-vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from locally available medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ara, G.; Shawar, D.; Akbar, A.; Kanwal, F.; Imran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of essential oils from locally available species of four plants, Nigella sativa, Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum tenuis and Curcuma aromatica was carried out using steam distillation followed by ether extraction. Dried and purified extracted oils were screened for their antibacterial activity against three bacterial strains namely, Bacillus lichaniformis (Gram +ve), Micrococcus leutus (Gram +ve) and Salmonella Typhimurium (Gram -ve) using Mc. Cartney's method. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) values of these oils were also determined. It was observed that the oils extracted from Nigella sativa and Cinnamomum tenuis were found to be more potent as compared to other two species. With the exception of Nigella sativa, all the other oils showed bacterial inhibition at 50 mmol concentration. These results support that these plant oils can be used to cure bacterial infections and may also have role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. (author)

  3. Detecting long-term low-irradiance stress and water stress of trees with laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, M.; Kurata, K.; Takahashi, K.; Mineuchi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find simple and objective methods of diagnosing the ailments of trees in indoor spaces, such as atriums. In this study, two simple diagnostics were compared. One was the analysis of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of leaves and the other was the analysis of the laser-induced chlorophyll-fluorescence induction kinetics (Kautsky effect). In the latter analysis, second time derivatives of the induction-kinetics curves were used. Cinnamomum camphora and Quercus myrsinifolia grown under different light conditions and Cinnamomum camphora under water stress were used in the experiments. The effects of low irradiance were detected in both the induction kinetics and the spectra; however, the effects of water stress were detected in the induction kinetics only. These results indicate the possibility of utilizing laser-induced-fluorescence induction-kinetics for diagnosing the ailments of trees. (author)

  4. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sumalan, Renata-Maria; Alexa, Ersilia; Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) a...

  5. Pemanfaatan Limbah Ranting Kayu Manis (Cinnamomun Burmanii) untuk Penciptaan Seni Kerajinan dengan Teknik Laminasi

    OpenAIRE

    Edi Eskak

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAKLimbah ranting kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii) merupakan sisa kayu yang tidak ikut dikupas untuk diambil kulitnya sebagai bahan rempah-rempah. Limbah ranting ini jumlahnya cukup banyak pada saat panen kulit kayu manis. Pada saat ini limbah tersebut hanya dibuang ataupun dibakar. Penciptaan seni ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatan limbah ranting kayu manis tersebut menjadi aneka produk seni kerajinan. Metode yang digunakan yaitu eksplorasi, perancangan, dan perwujudan karya. Hasilnya berup...

  6. A prospective, double-blind study of prophylaxis of radioxerostomia by coumarin/troxerutine in patients with head and neck cancer; Prospektive, doppelblinde Therapiestudie zur Prophylaxe der Radioxerostomie durch Cumarin/Troxerutin bei Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Karzinomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groetz, K.A.; Al-Nawas, B.; Wagner, W. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Mainz (Germany); Henneicke-von Zepelin, H.H.; Wuestenberg, P.; Naser-Hijazi, B. [Schaper und Bruemmer, Salzgitter (Germany). Hauptbereich Medizin; Kohnen, R. [Institute for Medical Research Management and Biometrics, Nuernberg (Germany); Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Kutzner, J. [Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Mainz (Germany); Belz, G.G. [Zentrum fuer Kardiovaskulaere Pharmakologie, Mainz (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Aim: Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study to prove the efficacy of Coumarin/Troxerutine (Venalot {sup trademark} Depot) for protection of salivary glands during a head and neck irradiation. Patients and Method: Forty-eight radiotherapy patients (60 Gy) with head and neck cancer were included in this trial. During radiotherapy the salivary glands were located in the core irradiation field. Primary efficacy parameters were sialometry, quantitative salivary gland scientigraphy and clinical evaluation of early effects of radiotherapy (RTOG-score). All data were collected at 6 assessments: 1 week pre-radiation (U1), at start (U2), half time (U3) and end (U4) of irradiation, 8 days (U5) and 28 days (U6) after the end of irradiation. Results: Twenty-three patients (11 verum, 12 placebo) completed the study with all assessments. Sialometrically, all patients were severely (half of radiotherapy) or completely (end of radiotherapy) xerostomatic. In a global efficacy measure according to O'Brien combining scintigraphy and RTOG there was a tendency for a higher efficacy of verum compared to placebo (p=0.068). After start of irradiation therapy, the RTOG-score showed continuously and significantly lower early radiation effects under verum than under placebo (U3 vs U6: p<0.05, area under curve: p=0.032). The scintigraphically determined excretion fraction was slightly less impaired in the verum group compared to the placebo treatment (p=0.12). There was no difference in drug safety between placebo and verum for adverse events, changes in the activity of liver enzymes and for global impression of tolerability. Concluions: The results give support for an advantageous effect of Venalot {sup trademark} Depot in the treatment of radiogenic sialadenitis and mucositis. In even a small number of evaluable patients, early clinical effects of irradiation (RTOG-score) were less pronounced in the active treatment group than in the placebo group, but the sample

  7. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  8. The Impact of the Roast Levels of Coffee Extracts on their Potential Anticancer Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Benigno E; Fong, Lisa E; Biju, Denny; Muharram, Alfeah; Davis, Isabel M; Vela, Klarisse O; Rios, Diana; Osorio-Camacena, Elena; Kaur, Baljit; Rojas, Sebastian M; Forester, Sarah C

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and contains numerous phytochemicals that are beneficial to consumer health. The phytochemical profile of coffee, however, can be affected by the roast level. In this study, we compared the effect of roasting level on the growth inhibitory activity of HT-29 (colon) and SCC-25 (oral) cancer cell lines. The different roasting stages selected for this study were green, cinnamon/blonde, city/medium, full city/medium-dark, and full city plus/dark. Cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of coffee extracts for 72 hr. Cell viability was quantified using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. It was found that the lighter roast extracts, Cinnamon in particular, reduced cell growth more than darker roast extracts. The Cinnamon extract had the greatest amount of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Relative levels of gallic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acid in the extracts were also compared. The Cinnamon coffee extract had the highest levels of gallic and caffeic acids, which have both been widely-regarded as bioactive phytochemicals. In conclusion, the consumption of lighter roasted coffee, may contribute to the prevention of certain types of cancer such as oral and colon. Chemical compounds in coffee may reduce the risk for certain types of cancers. These compounds may be particularly abundant in lighter roasted coffee. Therefore, lighter roasted coffee could contribute to the prevention of cancer through a healthy diet. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Environmental Effects Exceed Genetic Effects on Perceived Intensity and Pleasantness of Several Odors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-01-01

    and pleasantness of cinnamon, chocolate, turpentine, and isovaleric acid (sweaty) odors by quantitative genetic modeling of odor rating data from 856 twin individuals (including 83 complete monozygotic and 275 dizygotic twin pairs) aged 10-60 years (44% males and 56% females) from Australia, Denmark, and Finland...

  10. Determination of coumarin in seasonal bakery products using QuEChERS and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, F; Müller, C; Stöckelhuber, M; Bracher, F

    2017-06-01

    Cinnamon is a traditional herbal drug, but more importantly, it is used as a flavor compound in the production of foodstuff. Due to the content of significant concentrations of coumarin in Cassia cinnamon, effective control of the coumarin content in seasonal bakery products like ginger bread and cinnamon biscuits is urgently needed. Here we present a novel, fast and fully validated protocol for the determination of coumarin in marketed bakery products using the QuEChERS sample preparation technique in combination with GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of homogenized sample was mixed with 20 mL acetonitrile/water (1:1) and 5 g magnesium sulfate/sodium chloride mixture (4:1). The organic phase was cleaned by dSPE with 25 mg magnesium sulfate/PSA (5:1). The LOD was 0.15 μg/mL and the LOQ 0.50 μg/mL. We detected a mean coumarin content of 19.5 μg/kg in 9 out of 14 seasonal food products (ranging from 1.45 to 39.4 mg/kg). No coumarin was detected in five cinnamon containing products. With this investigation we demonstrate that the QuEChERS sample preparation, previously applied mainly to the analysis of pesticides in vegetables, is also suitable for other complex matrices.

  11. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  13. Khaki et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(4):1-8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and ..... relatively stable blue-green color measured spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. ..... cinnamon intake on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female athletes. .... Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat.

  14. Influence of heat sterilization on the organoleptic quality of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarse, H.; Nijssen, L.M.; Nowak, M.

    1982-01-01

    Heat sterilization and storage of food products containing spices often results in a change of their organoleptic quality. Our knowledge about the stability of individual spices, however, is low. Therefore the heat stability of 8 different spices most frequently used has been investigated: cinnamon,

  15. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaki, A. Vol 10, No 6 (2013) - Articles Effect of Rosmarinic acid on sertoli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats. Abstract PDF.

  17. Armastus lahkamiskambris : dramaturgi kaasamine andis mõjuva terviklavastuse / Heili Vaus-Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaus-Tamm, Heili, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Hollandi tantsutrupi Club Guy and Roni etendus "Myrrh and Cinnamon" 22. veebr. Kanuti Gildi saalis. Koreograafideks G. Welzman ja R. Haver ning selles kasutatakse nelja eesti helilooja A. Pärdi, M.-M. Lille, L. Sumera ja E.-S. Tüüri muusikat

  18. Laval on mürri ja kaneeli hõngu / Märt-Matis Lill ; interv. Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Märt-Matis, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Hollandi trupi Club Guy kontsertetendusest "Myrrh and Cinnamon" Kanuti Gildi saalis., mis tuli esmakodselt ettekandele A. Pärdile pühendatud festivalil "Aestonishing music", kontsertetenduses kasutatud eesti heliloojate Pärdi, Tüüri, Sumera, Lille muusikast. Koreograafid G. Welzman ja R. Haver

  19. Cross-sensitization patterns in guinea pigs between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, H; Hansen, J; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1989-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) were performed with cinnamon substances. There was a certain degree of cross-reactivity between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid as animals sensitized to cinnamaldehyde reacted to the challenge with the three substances. Animals sensitized to...

  20. Critical responses of photosynthetic efficiency in Campsis radicans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    and annual accumulated temperature over 10°C is 2750°C The soil is classified as brown and cinnamon soil, with inferior development and severe water and soil erosion. The vegetation type is forest- steppe and shrub zones with little shrub species and most of woodland is open forest with low stability. Jiang-bao et al.

  1. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  2. The effect of plant extracts fed before farrowing and during lactation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of plant extracts (XTRACT. 6930), consisting of 5.4% (wt/wt) carvacrol (oregano), 3.2% cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) and 2.2% capsicum oleoresin (Mexican pepper), on piglet and sow performance when used as dietary supplements to the sows.

  3. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sweet rolls and cinnamon toast. High fructose corn-syrup is 55% fructose, and 45% glucose - not 100% fructose. 9. Why are you singling ... on labels include: • Brown sugar • Corn sweetener • Corn ... fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose) • High-fructose corn syrup • Fruit ...

  4. Drug: D09063 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9], Jujube [DR:D06758], Ginger [DR:D06744], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Japanese angelica root [DR:D06768], Sac... D09063 Formula ... Drug Kigikenchuto Cinnamon bark [DR:D06712], Peony root [DR:D0673

  5. Drug: D06956 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Ginger [DR:D06744], Immature orange [DR:D06706], (Atractylodes rhizome [DR:D06780] | ...703], Cinnamon bark [DR:D06712], Ephedra herb [DR:D06791], Jujube [DR:D06758], Gl

  6. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  7. Guy ja Roni intensiivravi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Hollandi tantsutrupi Club Guy and Roni etendus "Myrrh and Cinnamon" Kanuti Gildi saalis. Koreograafideks G. Welzman ja R. Haver ning selles kasutatakse nelja eesti helilooja A. Pärdi, M.-M. Lille, L. Sumera ja E.-S. Tüüri muusikat

  8. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  9. 77 FR 4973 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... flying squirrel's coloration is gray to wood-brown to cinnamon on the upper side of the body and pale.... 5). Microhabitat factors related to mature forests (such as stumps, snags, and dead trees) are used... the amount of fuel in the forest include removing dead trees and thinning the forest (USFS 2005b, p...

  10. Study on the Antimicrobial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Essential Oils of Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V.N.Srujan and M.Sravanthi

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon were estimated by using various bacterial pathogens. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oil of garlic, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be highly sensitive followed by E.coli. L.monocytogenes and S.pyogenes were found to be less sensitive. The essential oil of clove was found to be most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli. B.cereus and C. jejuni. The essential oil of cinnamon was also most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli and C.jejuni. Essential oil of cinnamon was found to be active against all the bacterial pathogens tested, when compared to garlic and clove oils. However Staph. aureus, E. coli and C.jejuni were found to be most sensitive to the action of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oils of spices to know the MIC by agar diffusion method, C.jejuni was found to be most sensitive to the essential oil of garlic followed by E.coli, S. typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. L. monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus were found to be comparatively less sensitive. Essential oil of clove was also found to be highly effective against C.jejuni followed by E.coli, S.typhimurium and S.aureus. Again L.monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant S.aureus were comparatively less sensitive to the action of essential oil of clove. All most all the bacterial pathogens tested were found to be sensitive to the essential oil of cinnamon. However C.jejuni and E.coli were found to be most sensitive followed by S.typhimurium, Staph. aureus and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus . [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 311-316

  11. Laboratory Assessment for the Efficacy of Some botanical oils to Prevent Animal Wound Myiasis by Flesh Fly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A. A.; Amin, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of certain plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba, marjoram and cinnamon) each applied at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40% as protectants of meat from myiasis caused by Chrysomya albiceps was studied. Experiments conducted revealed that at a concentration of 20% cinnamon oil with an exposure period of three days were more efficient than jojoba, thyme, ginger and marjoram oils at the highest concentration 40% with exposure period 7 days of treated meat against the larvae. Most treatments caused high mortality within exposure period of one week, while both cinnamon and jojoba oils caused 100% larval mortality at concentration 40% with exposure period 3 and 7 days which leads to zero % infestation. It is clear that there was a latent effect of the six tested oils applied at all concentrations on the reduction of adult emergence. No adult emergence of C. albiceps was occurred from meat treated with cinnamon or jojoba oil at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Percent malformation increased by increasing the concentration of tested oils where, the highest percent malformation was obtained at concentration 40% of thyme oil and at concentration 10% of jojoba, being 86.66 and 66.66 %, respectively. The sex ratio was in favor of males in the most tested oils at all levels of treated meat. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a variable number of electrophoretic protein bands in the whole body tissue of third instar larvae exposed to untreated meat (control) and meat treated with tested plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba and cinnamon) at concentration 40%. Fourteen bands were separated and their molecular weight ranged between 15.85 and 104.0 KDa. The appearance of new protein band might be due to increasing of protein synthesis while the disappearance of other could be attributed to their breakdown as a result of toxicity of oils

  12. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  13. Pain and mobility improvement and MDA plasma levels in degenerative osteoarthritis, low back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis after infrared A-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siems, W.; Siems, R.; Kitzing, M.; Harting, H.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P.M.; Brenke, R.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared (IR)-A irradiation can be useful in back and musculoskeletal pain therapy. In this study joint and vertebral column pain and mobility were measured during two weeks of IR-A irradiation treatment of patients suffering from degenerative osteoarthritis of hip and knee, low back pain, or rheumatoid arthritis. Additionally, before and after IR-A treatment MDA serum levels were measured to check if MDA variations accompany changes in pain intensity and mobility. Two-hundred and seven patients were divided into verum groups getting IR-irradiation, placebo groups getting visible, but not IR irradiation, and groups getting no irradiation. In osteoarthritis significant pain reduction according to Visual Analogue Scale and mobility improvements occurred in the verum group. Even though beneficial mean value changes occurred in the placebo group, the improvements in the placebo and No Irradiation groups were without statistical significance. In low back pain, pain and mobility improvements (by 35 - 40 %) in the verum group were found, too. A delayed (2 nd week) mobility improvement in rheumatoid arthritis was seen. However, pain relief was seen immediately. In patients suffering from low back pain or rheumatoid arthritis, the pain and mobility improvements were accompanied by significant changes of MDA serum levels. However, MDA appears not a sensitive bio factor for changes of the pain intensity in degenerative osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, unaffected or lowered MDA levels during intensive IR-A therapy argue against previous reports on free radical formation upon infrared. In conclusion, rapid beneficial effects of IR-A towards musculoskeletal pain and joint mobility loss were demonstrated. (authors)

  14. Effects of Homeopathic Medicines on Polysomnographic Sleep of Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Related Insomnia

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    Bell, Iris R.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Baldwin, Carol M.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Homeopathy, a common form of alternative medicine worldwide, relies on subjective patient reports for diagnosis and treatment. Polysomnography offers a modern methodology for evaluating the objective effects of taking homeopathic remedies that clinicians claim exert effects on sleep quality in susceptible individuals. Animal studies have previously shown changes in non rapid eye movement sleep with certain homeopathic remedies. Methods Young adults of both sexes (ages 18–31) with above-average scores on standardized personality scales for either cynical hostility or anxiety sensitivity (but not both), and a history of coffee-induced insomnia, participated in the month-long study. At-home polysomnographic recordings were obtained on successive pairs of nights once per week for a total of eight recordings (nights 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, 23). Subjects (N=54) received placebo pellets on night 8 (single-blind) and verum pellets on night 22 (double-blind) in 30c doses of one of two homeopathic remedies, Nux Vomica or Coffea Cruda. Subjects completed daily morning sleep diaries and weekly Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scales, as well as Profile of Mood States Scales at bedtime on polysomnography nights. Results Verum remedies significantly increased PSG total sleep time and NREM, as well as awakenings and stage changes. Changes in actigraphic and self-rated scale effects were not significant. Conclusions The study demonstrated the feasibility of using in-home all-night sleep recordings to study homeopathic remedy effects. Findings are similar though not identical to those reported in animals with the same remedies. Possible mechanisms include initial disruption of the nonlinear dynamics of sleep patterns by the verum remedies. PMID:20673648

  15. Diagnostic value of lumbar facet joint injection: a prospective triple cross-over study.

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    Uwe Schütz

    Full Text Available The diagnosis "lumbar facet syndrome" is common and often indicates severe lumbar spine surgery procedures. It is doubtful whether a painful facet joint (FJ can be identified by a single FJ block. The aim of this study was to clarify the validity of a single and placebo controlled bilateral FJ blocks using local anesthetics. A prospective single blinded triple cross-over study was performed. 60 patients (31 f, 29 m, mean age 53.2 yrs (22-73 with chronic low back pain (mean pain persistance 31 months, 6 months of conservative treatment without success admitted to a local orthopaedic department for surgical or conservative therapy of chronic LBP, were included in the study. Effect on pain reduction (10 point rating scale was measured. The 60 subjects were divided into six groups with three defined sequences of fluoroscopically guided bilateral monosegmental lumbar FJ test injections in "oblique needle" technique: verum-(local anaesthetic-, placebo-(sodium chloride- and sham-injection. Carry-over and periodic effects were evaluated and a descriptive and statistical analysis regarding the effectiveness, difference and equality of the FJ injections and the different responses was performed. The results show a high rate of non-response, which documents the lack of reliable and valid predictors for a positive response towards FJ blocks. There was a high rate of placebo reactions noted, including subjects who previously or later reacted positively to verum injections. Equivalence was shown among verum vs. placebo and partly vs. sham also. With regard to test validity criteria, a single intraarticular FJ block with local anesthetics is not useful to detect the pain-responsible FJ and therefore is no valid and reliable diagostic tool to specify indication of lumbar spine surgery. Comparative FJ blocks with local anesthetics and placebo-controls have to be interpretated carefully also, because they solely give no proper diagnosis on FJ being main pain

  16. Characterizing acupuncture stimuli using brain imaging with FMRI--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

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    Wenjing Huang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action underlying acupuncture, including acupuncture point specificity, are not well understood. In the previous decade, an increasing number of studies have applied fMRI to investigate brain response to acupuncture stimulation. Our aim was to provide a systematic overview of acupuncture fMRI research considering the following aspects: 1 differences between verum and sham acupuncture, 2 differences due to various methods of acupuncture manipulation, 3 differences between patients and healthy volunteers, 4 differences between different acupuncture points.We systematically searched English, Chinese, Korean and Japanese databases for literature published from the earliest available up until September 2009, without any language restrictions. We included all studies using fMRI to investigate the effect of acupuncture on the human brain (at least one group that received needle-based acupuncture. 779 papers were identified, 149 met the inclusion criteria for the descriptive analysis, and 34 were eligible for the meta-analyses. From a descriptive perspective, multiple studies reported that acupuncture modulates activity within specific brain areas, including somatosensory cortices, limbic system, basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum. Meta-analyses for verum acupuncture stimuli confirmed brain activity within many of the regions mentioned above. Differences between verum and sham acupuncture were noted in brain response in middle cingulate, while some heterogeneity was noted for other regions depending on how such meta-analyses were performed, such as sensorimotor cortices, limbic regions, and cerebellum.Brain response to acupuncture stimuli encompasses a broad network of regions consistent with not just somatosensory, but also affective and cognitive processing. While the results were heterogeneous, from a descriptive perspective most studies suggest that acupuncture can modulate the activity within specific brain areas, and the

  17. Brain areas involved in acupuncture needling sensation of de qi: a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Li, Gan-Long; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Na

    2012-12-01

    De qi is a sensory response elicited by acupuncture stimulation. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), de qi is essential for clinical efficacy. However, the understanding of the neurobiological basis of de qi is still limited. To investigate the relationship between brain activation and de qi by taking a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan while applying acupuncture at TE5. A total of 24 volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups, and received verum or sham acupuncture at true acupuncture point TE5 or a nearby sham point according to grouping. All subjects then received a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scan. All six subjects in the verum acupuncture at true acupuncture point group experienced de qi sensation; in contrast, all six subjects in the sham acupuncture at the sham point group responded with nothing other than non-sensation. Compared to the scan results from subjects who experienced non-sensation, SPECT scans from subjects with de qi sensation demonstrated significant activated points mainly located in brodmann areas 6, 8, 19, 21, 28, 33, 35, 37, 47, the parahippocampal gyrus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum and red nucleus; deactivated points were seen in brodmann areas 9 and 25. Verum acupuncture at true acupuncture points is more likely to elicit de qi sensation. De qi sensations mainly resulted in brain area activations, but not deactivations. These brain areas are related to the curative effect of Te5. The acupuncture needle sensations of de qi and sharp pain are associated with different patterns of activations and deactivations in the brain.

  18. Rosa damascena oil improves SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in male patients suffering from major depressive disorders: results from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Farnia V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vahid Farnia,1 Mehdi Shirzadifar,2 Jalal Shakeri,1 Mansour Rezaei,3 Hafez Bajoghli,4,5 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,6 Serge Brand6,7 1Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 2Student Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 4Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; 6Psychiatric Clinics of the Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 7Sport Science Section, Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: A substantial disadvantage of psychopharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is the impact on sexual dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the oil of Rosa damascena can have a positive influence on SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction (SSRI-I SD of male patients who are suffering from MDD and are being treated with SSRIs.Method: In a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total of 60 male patients treated with an SSRI and suffering from MDD (mean age =32 years and SSRI-I SD were randomly assigned to take either verum (R. damascena oil or a placebo. Patients completed self-ratings of depression and sexual function at baseline, at 4 weeks later, and at the end of the study, 8 weeks after it started.Results: Over time, sexual dysfunction improved more in the verum group than in the control group. Improvements were observed in the verum group from week 4 to week

  19. Composición y capacidad antioxidante in-vitro de aceites esenciales ricos en Timol, Carvacrol, trans-Anetol o Estragol Composition and in-vitro antioxidant capacity of essential oils rich in Thymol, Carvacrol, trans-Anethole or Estragole

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    Amner Muñoz-Acevedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS la composición química de aceites esenciales (AE, aislados por hidrodestilación asistida por la radiación de microondas (MWHD, de las especies vegetales aromáticas Artemisia dracunculus, Foeniculum vulgare, Illicium verum, Lippia micromera, Lippia origanoides, Ocimum spp., Plectranthus amboinicus, Tagetes filifolia, Tagetes lucida y Thymus vulgaris. Los valores de capacidades antioxidantes in vitro de estos aceites esenciales, se obtuvieron usando los ensayos de decoloración del catión-radical ABTS+• (metodologías convencional y con dilución en microplacas y la oxidación del ácido linoleico, inducida por O2 y Fe+2. El potencial inhibitorio de ABTS+• fue más alto para los aceites esenciales que contienen fenoles (carvacrol y timol, que para los aceites esenciales ricos en éteres (trans-anetol y estragol. La actividad antioxidante mediante el ensayo ABTS+• modificado en orden decreciente fue: AE Plectranthus amboinicus ≥ AE Lippia origanoides >> AE Thymus vulgaris > AE Lippia micromera >>> AE Tagetes lucida (flores > AE Ocimum sp. > AE Tagetes lucida (hojas > AE Illicium verum > AE Tagetes filifolia (Cenivam > AE Foeniculum vulgare. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 287-294Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to determine the chemical composition of essential oils (EO isolated by microwave-radiation-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD of Artemisia dracunculus, Foeniculum vulgare, Illicium verum, Lippia micromera, Lippia origanoides, Ocimum sp., Plectranthus amboinicus, Tagetes filifolia, Tagetes lucida and Thymus vulgaris. in vitro antioxidant capacity values using ABTS+• discoloration assays (traditional and microplate methods and the linoleic acid oxidation (with O2 and Fe+2 of these essential oils were obtained. Essential oils with phenols (carvacrol and thymol high content showed higher total antioxidant capacity values than

  20. Diagnostic evaluation of rare lesions of the arteria poplitea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Froehner, S.; Binder, F.; Schweiger, H.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical and radiological findings of six patients are discussed who, due to a specific pathology of the arteria poplitea, developed claudicatio primarily in the lower leg. Applying MS-CT and MRI, the following lesions of the arteria poplitea wer found: bilateral aneurysm verum (1 case), unilateral aneurysm spurium (1 case), the arteria magna syndrome (1 case), entrapment syndrome (2 cases), and cystic adventitia degeneration. The outstanding diagnostic value of MR angiography combined with MR imaging is explained. Good knowledge of the specific pathology of the arteria poplitea is pre-requisite of efficient diagnostic evaluation, and prevention of thromboembolic complications, or ineffective therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  1. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK DAN KANDUNGAN TOTAL FENOL MINUMAN REMPAH TRADISONAL (MINUMAN SECANG

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    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secang drink is an Indonesian traditional drink, especially from Yogyakarta and Central Jawa, that is made from secang wood (Caesalpinia sappan L which gives red color like wine.  Except secang wood in secang drink, there are also other spices, such as ginger, clove, lemongras, cinnamon bark, cardamon, and nutmeg.  The active component of spices mostly from phenolic compound, including brazilin dan brazilein (secang wood, zingiberen, gingerol, dan shogaol (ginger, eugenol (clove, geraniol, citronellal, citronellol, lemonene (lemongrass, sineol dan sinamaldehida (cinnamon bark, cineol dan pinen (kapulaga, myristicin dan safrol (nutmeg.  This research objectives were to investigate the effect of various types of phenols in the spices of the organoleptic properties and phenol total content of secang drink. The treatments were the formulation of secang drink, secang wood (F1, secang wood and red ginger (F2, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass (F3, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove (F4, secang wood, red ginger, lemongress, clove, cinnamon bark (F5, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove, cinnamon bark, cardamon (F6, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove, cinnamon bark, cardamon, nutmeg (F7.  The formulation of secang drink were 1 liter water, 5 stalk secang wood (1 cm, 100 gram red ginger, 2 clove, 2 lemongrass, 2 stalk cinnamon bark (1 cm, 2 cardamon, 1/3 nutmeg, 100 gram sugar, 1 tablespoon.  Based on the average value of the panelist's favorite degree on color, aroma, flavor, and overall appearance of the most high secang drinks in a row is the formulation 1 (3,4, formulation 2 (3.0, formulation 2 (2.8 , and the formulation of 2, 4, 5, and 6 (2.8. There were differences between the treatment of color and aroma, but nots between the treatment of taste and overall appearance.  The formulation 1 of secang drinks contained the lowest total phenol (117.989 mg/L and the  formulation 7 of secang drinks contained the highest total

  2. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  3. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  4. Gastrointestinal blood loss induced by three different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, A; Hammermaier, A; Nagyiványi, P; Pabst, G; Waitzinger, J

    1995-04-01

    A clinical study was performed on 18 healthy volunteers to compare the gastrointestinal daily blood loss induced by oral intake of three different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lysine clonixinate (CAS 55837-30-4), ibuprofen (CAS 15687-27-1) and acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2 ASA). For quantitative determination of gastrointestinal blood loss, autologous erythrocytes were radiolabelled in vitro with 51Cr and reinfused at study start. The amount of radioactivity excreted in faeces was measured during a placebo baseline phase of three days, a treatment phase of five days with thrice daily dosing of ASA, ibuprofen or lysine clonixinate and a subsequent wash-out phase of five days. The highest increase of mean daily blood loss over baseline was observed after treatment with ASA (+ 1.66 ml/d versus baseline). Treatment with ibuprofen led to an increase of mean daily blood loss by + 0.52 ml/d. During treatment with lysine clonixinate the mean increase of daily blood loss was +0.32 ml/d versus baseline. In the ibuprofen and lysine clonixinate treatment groups the values of mean daily blood loss decreased during the wash-out phase with respect to the verum phase, whereas the mean daily blood loss during the wash-out phase after treatment with ASA even increased in comparison to the verum phase (mean daily blood loss: +2.07 ml/d versus baseline.

  5. Effects of traditional cupping therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Andreas; Bock, Silke; Lüdtke, Rainer; Rampp, Thomas; Baecker, Marcus; Bachmann, Jürgen; Langhorst, Jost; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav J

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of cupping, a traditional method of treating musculoskeletal pain, in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in an open randomized trial. n = 52 outpatients (58.5 +/- 8.0 years) with neurologically confirmed CTS were randomly assigned to either a verum (n = 26) or a control group (n = 26). Verum patients were treated with a single application of wet cupping, and control patients with a single local application of heat within the region overlying the trapezius muscle. Patients were followed up on day 7 after treatment. The primary outcome, severity of CTS symptoms (VAS), was reduced from 61.5 +/- 20.5 to 24.6 +/- 22.7 mm at day 7 in the cupping group and from 67.1 +/- 20.2 to 51.7 +/- 23.9 mm in the control group [group difference -24.5mm (95%CI -36.1; -2.9, P cupping therapy may be effective in relieving the pain and other symptoms related to CTS. The efficacy of cupping in the long-term management of CTS and related mechanisms remains to be clarified. The results of a randomized trial on the clinical effects of traditional cupping therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome are presented. Cupping of segmentally related shoulder zones appears to alleviate the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  6. FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network

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    Zhao Baixiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that the primary acupuncture effects are mediated by the central nervous system. However, specific brain networks underpinning these effects remain unclear. Results In the present study using fMRI, we employed a within-condition interregional covariance analysis method to investigate functional connectivity of brain networks involved in acupuncture. The fMRI experiment was performed before, during and after acupuncture manipulations on healthy volunteers at an acupuncture point, which was previously implicated in a neural pathway for pain modulation. We first identified significant fMRI signal changes during acupuncture stimulation in the left amygdala, which was subsequently selected as a functional reference for connectivity analyses. Our results have demonstrated that there is a brain network associated with the amygdala during a resting condition. This network encompasses the brain structures that are implicated in both pain sensation and pain modulation. We also found that such a pain-related network could be modulated by both verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture. Furthermore, compared with a sham acupuncture, the verum acupuncture induced a higher level of correlations among the amygdala-associated network. Conclusion Our findings indicate that acupuncture may change this amygdala-specific brain network into a functional state that underlies pain perception and pain modulation.

  7. Acupuncture analgesia involves modulation of pain-induced gamma oscillations and cortical network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Schröder, Sven; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Lorenz, Jürgen; Friedrichs, Sunja; Nolte, Guido; Gerloff, Christian; Engel, Andreas K

    2017-11-24

    Recent studies support the view that cortical sensory, limbic and executive networks and the autonomic nervous system might interact in distinct manners under the influence of acupuncture to modulate pain. We performed a double-blind crossover design study to investigate subjective ratings, EEG and ECG following experimental laser pain under the influence of sham and verum acupuncture in 26 healthy volunteers. We analyzed neuronal oscillations and inter-regional coherence in the gamma band of 128-channel-EEG recordings as well as heart rate variability (HRV) on two experimental days. Pain ratings and pain-induced gamma oscillations together with vagally-mediated power in the high-frequency bandwidth (vmHF) of HRV decreased significantly stronger during verum than sham acupuncture. Gamma oscillations were localized in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), primary somatosensory cortex and insula. Reductions of pain ratings and vmHF-power were significantly correlated with increase of connectivity between the insula and MCC. In contrast, connectivity between left and right PFC and between PFC and insula correlated positively with vmHF-power without a relationship to acupuncture analgesia. Overall, these findings highlight the influence of the insula in integrating activity in limbic-saliency networks with vagally mediated homeostatic control to mediate antinociception under the influence of acupuncture.

  8. Placebo controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blinded study for the investigation of the effectiveness and safety of the acoustic wave therapy (AWT(®)) for cellulite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe-Wilfingsleder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth; Vester, Johannes C; Haller, Gerd; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Placebo controlled double-blinded, prospectively randomized clinical trial with 17 patients (11 verum, 5 placebo) for evaluation of cellulite treatment with Acoustic Wave Therapy, (AWT(®)) was performed. The patients were treated once a week for 7 weeks, a total of 8 treatments with the D-ACTOR(®) 200 by Storz Medical AG. Data were collected at baseline, before 8th treatment, at 1 month (follow-up 1) and at 3 months (follow-up 2) after the last treatment with a patients' questionnaire, weight control, measurement of circumference and standardized photography. Treatment progress was further documented using a specially designed 3D imaging system (SkinSCAN(3D), 3D-Shape GmbH) providing an objective measure of cellulite (primary efficacy criteria). Patient's questionnaire in the verum group revealed an improvement in number and depth of dimples, skin firmness and texture, in shape and in reduction of circumference. The overall result (of skin waviness, Sq and Sz, surface and volume of depressions and elevations, Vvv and Vmp) at two follow-up visits indicates a more than medium sized superiority (MW = 0.6706) and is statistically significant (pWei-Lachin = 0.0106). The placebo group revealed no statistical significance. No side effects were seen. This indicates the efficacy and safety of AWT(®) for patients with cellulite.

  9. Efficacy and safety of comfrey root extract ointment in the treatment of acute upper or lower back pain: results of a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, B M; Staiger, C; Bulitta, M; Predel, H-G

    2010-07-01

    The objective was to show the superiority of comfrey root extract ointment to placebo ointment in patients with acute upper or lower back pain. The study was conducted as a double-blind, multicentre, randomised clinical trial with parallel group design over a period of 5 days (SD 1). The patients (n = 120, mean age 36.9 years) were treated with verum or placebo ointment three times a day, 4 g ointment per application. The trial included four visits. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve (AUC) of the visual analogue scale (VAS) on active standardised movement values at visits 1 to 4. The secondary efficacy variables were back pain at rest using assessment by the patient on VAS, pressure algometry (pain-time curve; AUC over 5 days), global assessment of efficacy by the patient and the investigator, consumption of analgesic medication and functional impairment measured using the Oswestry disability index. There was a significant treatment difference between comfrey extract and placebo regarding the primary variable. In the course of the trial the pain intensity on active standardised movement decreased on average (median) approximately 95.2% in the verum group and 37.8% in the placebo group. The results of this clinical trial were clear-cut and consistent across all primary and secondary efficacy variables. Comfrey root extract showed a remarkably potent and clinically relevant effect in reducing acute back pain. For the first time a fast-acting effect of the ointment (1 h) was also witnessed.

  10. [Placebo and the relationship between doctors and patients. Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, P C

    2012-09-01

    In medicine, placebos are used both in scientific studies and for practical therapeutic purposes. In evidence-based medicine, the efficacy of treatment may be determined as the difference between the effects of the verum (the active study drug) and the placebo, the latter being a substance lacking specific action on the disease under consideration. However, the improvements in patients' conditions under placebo treatment may be substantial and comparable to those with verum. Genuine placebos predominate in clinical studies, while pseudoplacebos prevail in practical therapy. The term pseudoplacebo can also be applied to many procedures in complementary medicine, including homeopathic medicine (Büchel et al., Placebo in der Medizin, 2011). The comprehensive definition of placebo, as used in a report by the German Medical Association (Büchel et al., Placebo in der Medizin, 2011), states that a placebo effect may occur even when treating with verum. The placebo effect is modulated by the context of the treatment, by the expectations of the patients and the doctors, and by the success of the relationship between doctors and patients. A number of unspecific effects, e.g., spontaneous alleviation, statistical effects, variance with time, methodological errors, in addition to the placebo effect make up the total response that is called"placebo reaction." A complete list of the effectiveness of placebo for all important diseases is still lacking. Further, it is not possible to predict which patients will respond to placebo. Which characteristics of doctors are important (competence, empathy, communicative ability and partnership, trust) in order to achieve a placebo effect, particularly in addition to the verum effect measures of evidence-based medicine? Are there doctors who are better in this than others? Could the nocebo effect weaken the efficacy of treatment in evidence-based medicine? Since a placebo effect may occur in almost any standard therapy, information about

  11. Selected Physical Properties of Andisols under Different Land Use Condition in Gunung Kerinci Subdistrict, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endriani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to study the effect of different land use at some land slopecondition on some physical properties of Andisols in Gunung Kerinci Subdistrict, Jambi.. The research was conductusing field survey and purposive random sampling methods to collect soil. The land use which was using in this studywere: forest, cultivation, cinnamon, and coffee plantation, while land slope level weres: 3-8%, 8-15%, 15-25 %, and> 25%. The results showed that among land use types, the rank of soil physical properties, such as: soil organicmatter, bulk density, porosity, percentage of agregation, stability of agregate, pore distribution and permeability werein order of : forest > cultivation > cinnamon > coffee. Land conversion from forest to agricultural land causeddecreasing in the soil physical properties. The higher level of land slope caused the decreasing of soil physicalproperties at all type of land use.

  12. Susceptibility of Postharvest Pathogens to Esential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial volatile substances from plants represent alternatives to synthetic pesticides and food preservatives. In this study, the compositions of some essential oils were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and the inhibitory properties of the essential oils and their components against the bacterial postharvest pathogens Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (CCM 1008, Pseudomonas syringae (CCM 7018, Xanthomonas campestris (CCM 22 were determined by the microdilution method. Essential oils from oregano, cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender, clove, rosemary, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger and their components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol were used in the tests. The essential oil components exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The oregano and cinnamon essential oils were most effective. The rosemary, lavender, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger oils were not effective at the tested concentrations. In conclusion, certain essential oils, particularly their components, are highly effective and could be used for the control of postharvest bacterial pathogens.

  13. Response of Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa_and Cladobotrym sp. Mushroom Pathogens to Some Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Tanović

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of 18 essential oils was evaluated against Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa and Cladobotryum sp., the causal agents of button mushroom diseases. Essential oils including: turpentine, basil, lemon, mint, fenchel, rose geranium, anise, cinnamon, scots pine, clove, thyme, juniper, lavender, orange, eucalyptus, rosemary, bergamot orange and tea tree, were screened for their effectiveness against the pathogens in vitro. In order to investigate fungicidal activity, isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils for seven days. Of the 18 essential oils analyzed, cinnamon, clove, thyme, and tea tree showed the highest antifungal activity against all investigated mycopathogens,with Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC being 0.02 μl/ml of air. Turpentine essential oil expressed the lowest antifungal effect to all isolates tested.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography.Conclusions: Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended...

  15. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the phenolic acids of some Indian spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variyar, P.S.; Bandyopadhyay, C.; Thomas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Five commercially important spices, namely cinnamon, clove, cardamom, nutmeg and mace, were subjected to gamma-irradiation using a dose of 10 kGy, which is recommended for microbial decontamination. Various phenolic acids present in these spices were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In clove and nutmeg, quantitatively significant changes were noted in some of the phenolic acids upon irradiation. The content of gallic and syringic acids in irradiated clove increased by 2.2- and 4.4-fold respectively, whereas in irradiated nutmeg many of the phenolic acids showed wide increases and decreases in the range of two- to sixfold compared with the control samples. No qualitative and major quantitative changes were, however, observed in the phenolic acids of cinnamon, cardamom and mace upon irradiation. The possibility that gamma-radiation induced breakdown of tannins could be responsible for the changes in phenolic acids content of clove and nutmeg is discussed

  16. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  17. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  18. An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    W.K.D.D. Liyanage; N.S. Gamage; G.D.C Pushpa Kumara; L Xulong

    2013-01-01

    Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a...

  19. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-12-01

    Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute unstimulated saliva. After five minutes, while some volunteers continued to collect only unstimulated saliva, the others asked to start chewing one of the five flavored gums randomly. The flavors were spearmint, cinnamon, watermelon, strawberry, and apple. The whole saliva was collected over time periods of 0 - 1, 1 - 3, and 3 - 6 minutes, and the SFR and pH were also measured. The data were subjected to pair t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Duncan tests. Compared to the unstimulated rate, all five different flavored gums significantly increased the SFR within six minutes. Although the flow rate peaked during the first minute of stimulation with all five products, it reduced gradually, but still remained above the unstimulated saliva, after six minutes. In the first minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest weight, yet, it only induced a significantly higher SFR compared to the cinnamon-flavored gums. During one to three minutes, strawberry and apple-flavored gums showed significantly higher SFR, respectively, compared to cinnamon-flavored gums. There were no significant differences in the flow rates elicited by each flavored gum through the three-to-six minute interval, although the spearmint-flavored gums induced slightly higher SFR. Only the spearmint and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased the salivary pH. Gum flavor can affect the SFR and special flavors may be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  20. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P....P. Methyl salicylate, N.F. Mustard oil, volatile (allyl isothiocyanate), U.S.P. XII. Peppermint oil... pounds of any one, or a total of 10 pounds of two or more, of the oils and substances listed below: Alpha...

  1. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, JI-XIN; SUN, YAN-HONG; LI, CHAO-PIN

    2015-01-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome ...

  2. Lyoluminescence technique as an identification method for irradiated food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazhoor, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the studies made on the suitability of lyoluminescence technique as an analytical method for the identification of irradiated food stuffs. Powder milk, cinnamon, cardamom, clove, red chilly, cocoa, pepper, tea, coffee, turmeric and coriander showed lyoluminescence response when irradiated by a 10 kGy 60 Co and dissolved in luminol solution. Various dosimetric parameters such as effect of storage time, proportionality of the lyoluminescence response to dose etc were studied. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs

  3. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Sites. Final Feasibility Study Shepley’s Hill Landfill Operable Unit Data Item A009

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    WELL LOCATIONS MONITORING PARAMETERS SHL-3 Volatile Organic Compounds SHL-4 USEPA Method 624 plus acetone, 2-butanone, 2- methyl pentanone, and xylenes...pines ( Pinus strobus) in addition to red maple (Acer rubrum). The understory in this area contains american hazelnut, cinnamon fern, and3 clubmoss...NAME STATUS* Trees URed Maple Acer rubrum FAC Gray Birch Betula populifolia FAG Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica FACW` Red Pine Pinus resinosa FACU White

  4. Chemometric brand differentiation of commercial spices using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J; Dunn, Emily E; Hall, Adam B

    2016-05-15

    Commercial spices represent an emerging class of fuels for improvised explosives. Being able to classify such spices not only by type but also by brand would represent an important step in developing methods to analytically investigate these explosive compositions. Therefore, a combined ambient mass spectrometric/chemometric approach was developed to quickly and accurately classify commercial spices by brand. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was used to generate mass spectra for samples of black pepper, cayenne pepper, and turmeric, along with four different brands of cinnamon, all dissolved in methanol. Unsupervised learning techniques showed that the cinnamon samples clustered according to brand. Then, we used supervised machine learning algorithms to build chemometric models with a known training set and classified the brands of an unknown testing set of cinnamon samples. Ten independent runs of five-fold cross-validation showed that the training set error for the best-performing models (i.e., the linear discriminant and neural network models) was lower than 2%. The false-positive percentages for these models were 3% or lower, and the false-negative percentages were lower than 10%. In particular, the linear discriminant model perfectly classified the testing set with 0% error. Repeated iterations of training and testing gave similar results, demonstrating the reproducibility of these models. Chemometric models were able to classify the DART mass spectra of commercial cinnamon samples according to brand, with high specificity and low classification error. This method could easily be generalized to other classes of spices, and it could be applied to authenticating questioned commercial samples of spices or to examining evidence from improvised explosives. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Developing Online Recruitment Process for Cinnabon Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lopyrev, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Since the times internet started to become accessible to the general public, employers noticed its effectiveness as a recruitment tool. Nowadays, a big percentage of recruitment happens online. Internet presents cost-effective opportunities to reach large pool of candidates, compared to pre-internet era recruitment tools. In this thesis, the aim is to develop online recruitment process for Finnish franchisee of Cinnabon – an international chain of bakeries famous for its cinnamon rolls. T...

  6. GAYA PENGASUHAN DAN PERKEMBANGAN SOSIAL EMOSI ANAK USIA SEKOLAH PADA KELUARGA PETANI KAYU MANIS

    OpenAIRE

    Elmanora Elmanora; Istiqlaliyah Muflikhati; Alfiasari Alfiasari

    2012-01-01

     The aim of the research was to analyze correlation between parenting style and children’s social emotional development, and also to analyze the influence of family characteristics, child characteristics, and parenting style toward school-aged children’s social emotional development in cinnamon farmer families at Tamiai Village, Kerinci District, Jambi Province. This research involved 50 families that were selected randomly. Data collected by interview and self report with questionnaire. Pare...

  7. Uudised : Reggae. Tants. Balletiskandaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    18. veebr. Von Krahlis reggaepeol "Bashment" ska-ansambli Kontrapanda esinemisest ja debüütsingli "Kui tantsuhallis möllab ska!" esitlusest. Hollandi tantsukompanii Club guy & roni ja NYYD Ensemble'i kontsert-tantsuetendusest "Myrrh and Cinnamon" 22.-23. veebr. Tallinnas Kanuti Gildi saalis ja 25.-26. veebr. Tartu Sadamateatris. Jekaterinburgi õigeusklike tahtest oma linnas keelata vene Keiserliku Balleti külalisetendust - balletti "Rasputin"

  8. Učinak začina i različitih biljaka na preživljavanje i rast bakterije Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial activity of a total of 16 spices at a final concentration of 2.5 % against V. parahaemolyticus at two different temperatures, 5 and 37 ºC, was tested. Anise seed, chili, cloves, cinnamon, coriander seed, cumin, curry, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, black and white pepper, rosemary, thyme and turmeric, were collected from a retail store from the same producer. Prior to antibacterial screening, the spices were analyzed using standard microbiological procedure...

  9. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chalfoun,Sára Maria; Pereira,Marcelo Cláudio; Resende,Mario Lúcio V.; Angélico,Caroline Lima; Silva,Rozane Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  10. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mansouri; Ensieh Zibafar; Seyed Jamal Hashemi; Mohsen Gerami Shoar; Roshanak Daie Ghazvini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spices (flavorings) are contaminated to microbial agents such as filamentous and yeast fungi during production processing. Almost these are grown and harvested in warm and humid areas of the world where the growth of a wide variety of organisms is readily supported. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contaminations of three current spices including turmeric, black pepper and cinnamon from some supermarkets in Tehran and evaluating of their hygienic quality. Methods:...

  11. Efeito de tratamentos com condimentos em pó sobre o crescimento micelial, esporulação e produção de aflatoxinas por fungos toxigênicos

    OpenAIRE

    Chalfoun, Sára Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Cláudio; Resende, Mario Lúcio V.; Angélico, Caroline Lima; Silva, Rozane Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  12. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  13. Sweet samosas: a new food product in the Portuguese market

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Since in the present times families have much less time to prepare meals or even deserts, and because sweets are always so well accepted to enjoy a moment of pleasure either alone or shared, it was the aim of this academic work to prepare an alternative desert, not at sale in the Portuguese market, and study its acceptance by the consumers. The product selected was sweet samosas, and these were prepared with different filings (apple & cinnamon, chocola...

  14. Investigations on the detection of irradiated food by measuring the viscosity of suspended spices and dried vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, L.; Nürnberger, E.; Bögl, K. W.

    Studies on the viscosity behavior were performed with 20 different spices or dried vegetables. In nine spices (cinnamon, ginger, mustard seed, celery, onions, shallots, lemon peel, black and white pepper) differences between unirradiated and irradiated samples were observed. Further lots were investigated to estimate the variations of viscosity depending on the origin of the samples. Additional storage experiments showed that measuring the viscosity may be a simple method to identify some radiation treated spices even after years.

  15. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qing‐Yi; Summanen, Paula H.; Lee, Ru‐Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M.; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP‐HPLC‐DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects o...

  16. Interferences in radioimmunoassay of aflatoxins in food and fodder samples of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, P.; Fukal, L.; Brezina, P.; Kas, J.

    1988-01-01

    Cross-reactions and resulting nonspecific binding of substances with structures resembling aflatoxins (derivatives of coumarin, and cinnamonic and benzoic acids, etc.) were investigated. The concentrations of these substances causing erroneously high or false positive values in radioimmunoassay were determined. One μg aflatoxin B 1 /kg sample may be simulated by the occurrence of 5 g coumarin, 10 g caffeic acid, 16 g chlorogenic acid, or 15 g vanillin/kg fodder or food sample

  17. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    OpenAIRE

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza; Marcelo Cláudio Pereira; Caroline Lima Angélico; Carlos José Pimenta

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L.), canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn), cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L.), que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S). Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e ...

  18. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Sára Maria Chalfoun de; Pereira,Marcelo Cláudio; Angélico,Caroline Lima; Pimenta,Carlos José

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L.), canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn), cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L.), que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S). Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e ...

  19. COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA E AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE CARRAPATICIDA DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE Cinnamomun zeylanicum NO CONTROLE DE Rhipicephalus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    ILDENICE NOGUEIRA MONTEIRO

    2013-01-01

    Os constituintes do óleo de Cinnamomum zeylanicum foram identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM). Também foi avaliada a atividade deste óleo essencial contra larvas e fêmeas de Rhipicephalus microplus (carrapato bovino). O óleo das folhas mostrou um rendimento de 1,03% e seus principais constituintes foram Benzoato de Benzila (65,39%), Linalol (5,37%), E-Cinamaldeido (3,97%), α-Pineno (3,95%), β-Felandreno (3,42%), Eugenol (3,36%) e Benzalde...

  20. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).

  1. Antimicrobial screening of some plants of medicinal importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehjabeen, A.; Ahmad, M.; Zia-ul-Haq, M.; Wazir, A.; Jahan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum (leaves and seeds of both black and red varieties), Elettaria cardamomum Cuscuta reflexa and Cinnamomum camphora were tested in vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial study performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia aldovae indicated that investigated plants have potent activity against all microorganisms. The antifungal activity of these extracts was performed against six fungi, viz., Saccharomyces cereviciae, Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichophyton rubrum, Macrophomina, Fusarium solani and Candida albicans. The extracts showed moderate as well as significant activity against different fungal strains. (author)

  2. A Study of Allelopathy of Some Shade Trees to Coffea arabicaL. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of social economic judgment, many coffee planters nowadays grow Cassia spectabilisand in the certain regions used Cinnamomum burmani, Macadamia integrifolia, Tectona grandisand Cassia siameaas shade trees or intercrops. Before being used in large scale, allelopathy study is appropriate to be done because this effect is much more difficult to be overcome than competiton as growing factor. Research on allelopathy of those species had been conducted in glasshouse of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Salisbury & Ross method. Leachate of Cassia spectabilis Cinnamomum burmani, Macadamia integrifolia, Tectona grandisand Cassia siamea, pure media (without plant and control (well water were used as treatments. Planting material of Cinnamomum burmani, Macadamia integrifolia, Tectona grandisand Cassia siameawere as seedlings of one year old, whereas C. spectabiliswas 3 months old. Those materials were planted in polybags 20 cm x 30 cm and replicated five times. The media was a mixture of top soil, manure and sand 1 : 1 : 1 (v/v. After those species were maintained for one months and Arabica seedlings for three month old, watering of coffee seedlings then using leachate from shade trees media. Every two days, each seedling was applied with 200 ml. Control was applied with well water. Pure media was used to study the effect of nutrient supply contained in the leachate. The experiment was stopped at seven month old of the coffee seedlings. The result showed that C. spectabilisreleased chemicals which showed allelopathic effect to Arabica coffee, their growth was inhibited 10% to control. The growth decreament from Cassia siameaand D. zibethinustreatment mainly caused by lower mineral content in the leachate and indicated by weak allelopathic. On the other hand M. integrifoliaand C. burmanidid not show allelopathic to Arabica coffee. Thus, based on allelopathy aspect, it can be included that C. spectabilisand C. siamea were not

  3. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

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    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  4. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert E

    2004-09-22

    We evaluated 17 plant essential oils and nine oil compounds for antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juices in a bactericidal assay in terms of % of the sample that resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of bacteria (BA(50)). The 10 compounds most active against E. coli (60 min BA(50) range in clear juice, 0.018-0.093%) were carvacrol, oregano oil, geraniol, eugenol, cinnamon leaf oil, citral, clove bud oil, lemongrass oil, cinnamon bark oil, and lemon oil. The corresponding compounds against S. enterica (BA(50) range, 0.0044-0.011%) were Melissa oil, carvacrol, oregano oil, terpeineol, geraniol, lemon oil, citral, lemongrass oil, cinnamon leaf oil, and linalool. The activity (i) was greater for S. enterica than for E. coli, (ii) increased with incubation temperature and storage time, and (iii) was not affected by the acidity of the juices. The antibacterial agents could be divided into two classes: fast-acting and slow-acting. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the bactericidal results are related to the composition of the oils. These studies provide information about new ways to protect apple juice and other foods against human pathogens.

  5. Analysis of the Detection Characteristics of Irradiated Dried Spices and Herbs by Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E.R.; Kang, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; An, K.A.; Cho, S.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, D.H.; Kang, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to determine whether Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL) is applicable for the detection of post-irradiated foods by measuring the PSL photon counts of unirradiated and irradiated dried spices and herbs. A total of 19 dried spices and herbs was irradiated with a ∨60Co γ-ray source at 1, 5 and 10 kGy followed by measurement of PSL photon. The photon counts of unirradiated samples below 700 correspond to negative. Fifteen samples irradiated over 1 kGy showed photon counts of more than 5,000, indicating irradiation treatment. Intermediate counts (photon count 700-5,000) were observed in irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark at 10 kGy. These results suggest that it is possible to detect whether dried spices and herbs were irradiated by analyzing PSL, with the exception of white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark. Irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark containing low levels of minerals were not sensitive to PSL. Therefore, further investigation is suggested to be performed by Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis or another validated or standardized method

  6. Viscosity measurement - probably a means for detecting radiation treatment of spices. Viskositaetsmessung - ein Verfahren zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Gewuerze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, L; Albrich, S; Boegl, K W; Mohr, E; Wichmann, G

    1987-12-01

    The viscosity of 13 different spices and dried vegetables in total was measured. Optimal conditions were first determined for each product, i.e. concentration, pH-value, temperature, particle size and soaking time. For method evaluation, examinations were primarily performed to study the effect of storage, the reproducibility and the influence of the different varieties of the same spice. In supplement, for pepper, the viscosity was measured as a function of radiation dose. In summation, significant changes in the gel forming capability after irradiation could be observed after preliminary experiments in 8 dried spices (ginger, carrots, leek, cloves, pepper, celery, cinnamon and onions). With 3 spices (ginger, pepper and cinnamon) could the results from examining all different varieties of the same spice be substantiated. An additional influence of storage time on viscosity could not be proved during the investigative period of 8 months. Generally seen, there is no possibility of being able to identify an irradiated spice on the basis of viscosity measurements alone, since the difference between the varieties of one and the same spice is considerably great. However, radiation treatment can be reliably excluded with ginger, pepper and cinnamon, if the viscosities are high (10-20 Pa x s).

  7. Viscosity measurement - probably a means for detecting radiation treatment of spices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Albrich, S.; Boegl, K.W.

    1987-12-01

    The viscosity of 13 different spices and dried vegetables in total was measured. Optimal conditions were first determined for each product, i.e. concentration, pH-value, temperature, particle size and soaking time. For method evaluation, examinations were primarily performed to study the effect of storage, the reproducibility and the influence of the different varieties of the same spice. In supplement, for pepper, the viscosity was measured as a function of radiation dose. In summation, significant changes in the gel forming capability after irradiation could be observed after preliminary experiments in 8 dried spices (ginger, carrots, leek, cloves, pepper, celery, cinnamon and onions). With 3 spices (ginger, pepper and cinnamon) could the results from examining all different varieties of the same spice be substantiated. An additional influence of storage time on viscosity could not be proved during the investigative period of 8 months. Generally seen, there is no possibility of being able to identify an irradiated spice on the basis of viscosity measurements alone, since the difference between the varieties of one and the same spice is considerably great. However, radiation treatment can be reliably excluded with ginger, pepper and cinnamon, if the viscosities are high (10-20 Pa x s). (orig./MG) [de

  8. Effects of soil type on leaching and runoff transport of rare earth elements and phosphorous in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Chong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2011-01-01

    Through leaching experiments and simulated rainfall experiments, characteristics of vertical leaching of exogenous rare earth elements (REEs) and phosphorus (P) and their losses with surface runoff during simulated rainfall in different types of soils (terra nera soil, cinnamon soil, red soil, loess soil, and purple soil) were investigated. Results of the leaching experiments showed that vertical transports of REEs and P were relatively low, with transport depths less than 6 cm. The vertical leaching rates of REEs and P in the different soils followed the order of purple soil > terra nera soil > red soil > cinnamon soil > loess soil. Results of the simulated rainfall experiments (83 mm h⁻¹) revealed that more than 92% of REEs and P transported with soil particles in runoff. The loss rates of REEs and P in surface runoff in the different soil types were in the order of loess soil > terra nera soil > cinnamon soil > red soil > purple soil. The total amounts of losses of REEs and P in runoff were significantly correlated.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Wang, Jinzhi; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-03-01

    Extracts prepared from honeysuckle, Scutellaria, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb), cinnamon, and rosemary with 75% ethanol and from clove oil dissolved in 75% ethanol were applied to inoculated agar media to observe their inhibitory effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Lactobacillus plantarum. All the extracts suppressed the growth of these bacteria; Scutellaria exhibited the strongest effect against E. coli. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial composite extracts were equal-volume mixtures of 0.125 g/ml Scutellaria + 0.5 g/ml honeysuckle + 0.125 g/ml Forsythia + 0.25 g/ml cinnamon and 0.25 g/ml cinnamon + 0.125 g/ml rosemary + 0.25% clove oil. These mixed extracts also produced strong antimicrobial effects in vacuum-packaged fresh pork, with 1.81- to 2.32-log reductions in microbial counts compared with the control when stored for up to 28 days. The sensory panel detected minimal differences in surface color and off-odors between meat samples treated with herb-spice extracts and the control. These results indicate that combined herb and spice extracts can be used as natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

  10. Development of sodium alginate/PVA antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M.; Hussain, T.; Abid, S.; Nazir, A.; Masood, R.

    2018-03-01

    Electrospinning is a well known method for the manufacturing of nanoscale fibers. Electrospun nanofibers have higher surface area to volume ratio and can be used for the incorporation of different materials. Essential oils are well known for their antimicrobial and healing properties since ancient times. The main objective of this study was to develop antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils in sodium alginate/PVA solution. Sodium alginate and PVA have excellent biocompatible properties which are the base of their use in wound care applications. Three different essential oils (cinnamon, clove, and lavender) at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were used to optimize the fiber forming conditions during electrospinning and then the desired antibacterial properties were evaluated. Addition of oils in PVA/SA solutions increased the viscosity but reduced the surface tension and conductivity as compared to pure PVA/sodium alginate solution. FTIR Spectra of composite fibers verified the successful incorporation of essential oils in nanofibers through electrospinning. All oil containing samples showed good antibacterial properties against staphylococcus aureus which make them a good replacement of antibiotics. Cinnamon oil loaded nanofibers showed the best results among selected oils regarding the antibacterial properties. Nanofibers with 1.5% cinnamon oil exhibited highest zone of inhabitation of 2.7 cm. Nanofibrous coated cotton gauze showed higher liquid absorptions as compared to simple cotton gauze and potential to be used as wound dressings for its improved liquid absorption and antibacterial activity.

  11. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  12. Reliable screening of various foodstuffs with respect to their irradiation status: A comparative study of different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Kwak, Ji-Young; Jeong, Mi-Seon; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effective and time-efficient analytical techniques are required to screen large food lots in accordance to their irradiation status. Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) cinnamon, red pepper, black pepper, and fresh paprika were investigated using photostimulated luminescence (PSL), direct epifluorescent filter technique/the aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), and electronic-nose (e-nose) analyses. The screening results were also confirmed with thermoluminescence analysis. PSL analysis discriminated between irradiated (positive, >5000 PCs) and non-irradiated (negative, <700 PCs) cinnamon and red peppers. Black pepper had intermediate results (700–5000 PCs), while paprika had low sensitivity (negative results) upon irradiation. The DEFT/APC technique also showed clear screening results through the changes in microbial profiles, where the best results were found in paprika, followed by red pepper and cinnamon. E-nose analysis showed a dose-dependent discrimination in volatile profiles upon irradiation through principal component analysis. These methods can be used considering their potential applications for the screening analysis of irradiated foods. - Highlights: • Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. • Gamma-irradiated spices were investigated to confirm their irradiation status. • Screening techniques such as PSL, DEFT/APC, and E-nose were tested. • Specificity and potential applications of screening techniques were evaluated. • The screening results were confirmed by promising thermoluminescence technique

  13. Chemistry of Secondary Polyphenols Produced during Processing of Tea and Selected Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review will discuss recent progress in the chemistry of secondary polyphenols produced during food processing. The production mechanism of the secondary polyphenols in black tea, whisky, cinnamon, and persimmon fruits will be introduced. In the process of black tea production, tea leaf catechins are enzymatically oxidized to yield a complex mixture of oxidation products, including theaflavins and thearubigins. Despite the importance of the beverage, most of the chemical constituents have not yet been confirmed due to the complexity of the mixture. However, the reaction mechanisms at the initial stages of catechin oxidation are explained by simple quinone–phenol coupling reactions. In vitro model experiments indicated the presence of interesting regio- and stereoselective reactions. Recent results on the reaction mechanisms will be introduced. During the aging of whisky in oak wood barrels, ellagitannins originating from oak wood are oxidized and react with ethanol to give characteristic secondary ellagitannins. The major part of the cinnamon procyanidins is polymerized by copolymerization with cinnamaldehyde. In addition, anthocyanidin structural units are generated in the polymer molecules by oxidation which accounts for the reddish coloration of the cinnamon extract. This reaction is related to the insolubilization of proanthocyanidins in persimmon fruits by condensation with acetaldehyde. In addition to oxidation, the reaction of polyphenols with aldehydes may be important in food processing.

  14. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

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    Simang Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu, LU7 (liéque, and LR3 (táichong; once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS, and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale". Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67, intensity (p-value = 0.71 and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98. In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a

  15. Improved Lipid Profile Associated with Daily Consumption of Tri-Sura-Phon in Healthy Overweight Volunteers: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Sirigoon Kuamsub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tri-Sura-Phon (TSP, a traditional Thai polyherbal formula renowned for its rejuvenating properties, is commonly used as a blood tonic. It comprises Cinnamomum bejolghota, Cinnamomum parthenoxylon, and Aquilaria crassna. The aim of this study is to evaluate the beneficial properties of TSP tea consumption on blood glucose regulation and serum lipid profiles of healthy overweight volunteers. This open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 healthy overweight adults. Two groups of 35 subjects took a TSP infusion or a placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 8 weeks. The blood glucose regulation, serum lipid profiles, BMI, and liver function tests of the subjects were determined at the baseline, 4th week, and endpoint (8th week. Significant decreases in the average fasting levels of total cholesterol (p=0.013, triglyceride (p=0.001, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, p=0.017 were observed in the TSP group at the 8th week compared to those at the baseline. The average HDL level in the TSP group at the beginning of the study was 65.2 mg/dL, and it increased significantly (p=0.005 to 72.4 mg/dL after 8 weeks of TSP intake. This study showed that the intake of TSP tea as an antioxidant-rich beverage might be safe and improve lipid profiles in overweight adults.

  16. Improved Lipid Profile Associated with Daily Consumption of Tri-Sura-Phon in Healthy Overweight Volunteers: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuamsub, Sirigoon; Singthong, Pariyaphat; Chanthasri, Wipawee; Chobngam, Nicharee; Sangkaew, Warissara; Hemdecho, Sasithorn; Kaewmanee, Thammarat

    2017-01-01

    Tri-Sura-Phon (TSP), a traditional Thai polyherbal formula renowned for its rejuvenating properties, is commonly used as a blood tonic. It comprises Cinnamomum bejolghota, Cinnamomum parthenoxylon, and Aquilaria crassna. The aim of this study is to evaluate the beneficial properties of TSP tea consumption on blood glucose regulation and serum lipid profiles of healthy overweight volunteers. This open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 healthy overweight adults. Two groups of 35 subjects took a TSP infusion or a placebo (cornstarch) twice daily for 8 weeks. The blood glucose regulation, serum lipid profiles, BMI, and liver function tests of the subjects were determined at the baseline, 4th week, and endpoint (8th week). Significant decreases in the average fasting levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.013), triglyceride (p = 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, p = 0.017) were observed in the TSP group at the 8th week compared to those at the baseline. The average HDL level in the TSP group at the beginning of the study was 65.2 mg/dL, and it increased significantly (p = 0.005) to 72.4 mg/dL after 8 weeks of TSP intake. This study showed that the intake of TSP tea as an antioxidant-rich beverage might be safe and improve lipid profiles in overweight adults. PMID:28484502

  17. Improved Lipid Profile Associated with Daily Consumption of Tri-Sura-Phon in Healthy Overweight Volunteers: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuamsub, Sirigoon; Singthong, Pariyaphat; Chanthasri, Wipawee; Chobngam, Nicharee; Sangkaew, Warissara; Hemdecho, Sasithorn; Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Chusri, Sasitorn

    2017-01-01

    Tri-Sura-Phon (TSP), a traditional Thai polyherbal formula renowned for its rejuvenating properties, is commonly used as a blood tonic. It comprises Cinnamomum bejolghota , Cinnamomum parthenoxylon , and Aquilaria crassna . The aim of this study is to evaluate the beneficial properties of TSP tea consumption on blood glucose regulation and serum lipid profiles of healthy overweight volunteers. This open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 healthy overweight adults. Two groups of 35 subjects took a TSP infusion or a placebo (cornstarch) twice daily for 8 weeks. The blood glucose regulation, serum lipid profiles, BMI, and liver function tests of the subjects were determined at the baseline, 4th week, and endpoint (8th week). Significant decreases in the average fasting levels of total cholesterol ( p = 0.013), triglyceride ( p = 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, p = 0.017) were observed in the TSP group at the 8th week compared to those at the baseline. The average HDL level in the TSP group at the beginning of the study was 65.2 mg/dL, and it increased significantly ( p = 0.005) to 72.4 mg/dL after 8 weeks of TSP intake. This study showed that the intake of TSP tea as an antioxidant-rich beverage might be safe and improve lipid profiles in overweight adults.

  18. Kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives promote adiponectin production during adipogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Jongho; Jung, Hyo-Il; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, John Hwan; Shin, Song Seok; Noh, Minsoo

    2014-05-01

    The subcutaneous fat tissue mass gradually decreases with age, and its regulation is a strategy to develop anti-aging compounds to ameliorate the photo-aging of human skin. The adipogenesis of human adipose tissue-mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) can be used as a model to discover novel anti-aging compounds. Cinnamomum cassia methanol extracts were identified as adipogenesis-promoting agents by natural product library screening. Cinnamates, the major chemical components of Cinnamomum cassia extracts, promoted adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We synthesized kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives to improve the pharmacological activity of cinnamates. Structure-activity studies of kojyl cinnamate derivatives showed that both the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl ester group and the kojic acid moiety play core roles in promoting adiponectin production during adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We conclude that kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives provide novel pharmacophores that can regulate adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Andnet Abtew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  20. Point specificity in acupuncture

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    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.