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Sample records for cinnamomum kanehirae hay

  1. A Study on the Chemical Components in Essential Oil from Leaves of Cinnamomum kanehirae and Chemotype Divisions%牛樟叶精油化学成分分析及类型划分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海宽; 章挺; 汪信东; 温世坊; 国颖; 江香梅

    2016-01-01

    从5年生实生牛樟植株上采集叶样,水蒸汽蒸馏法提取牛樟叶挥发性精油,采用 GC-MS 技术对叶精油中的化学成分进行定性、定量分析。按叶精油中第一主成分进行化学类型划分,牛樟可初步划分为4种类型:桉叶油素型、异橙花叔醇型、芳樟醇型和肉豆蔻醛型。不同化学类型叶精油化学成分组成及得率均存在较大差异,异橙花叔醇型牛樟叶精油中特有化学成分共13种,桉叶油素型牛樟叶精油中特有化学成分共2种,芳樟醇型牛樟叶精油中特有化学成分共2种,肉豆蔻醛型牛樟叶精油中特有化学成分为1种,4种化学类型精油中所共有的化学成分共12种。叶精油中第一主成分平均含量大小依次排序为:芳樟醇型(68.71%)、桉叶油素型(57.38%)、异橙花叔醇型(37.91%)、肉豆蔻醛型(33.75%);4种化学类型叶精油平均得率大小依次排序为:桉叶油素型(1.28%)、异橙花叔醇型(0.19%)、芳樟醇型(0.04%)、肉豆蔻醛型(0.01%)。牛樟中的桉叶油素型与樟树中的油樟类型相似,牛樟的异橙花叔醇型与樟树的异樟类型相似,牛樟的芳樟醇型与樟树的芳樟类型相似。不同的是,牛樟有一种肉豆蔻醛型化学类型,而樟树有龙脑樟和脑樟类型。但总体而言,牛樟与樟树相似化学类型叶中的精油含量,前者普遍低于后者。%Essential oil from leaves of 5-year old Cinnamomum kanehirae seedlings were extracted by steam distillation method.The chemical components and contents of the essential oil were analyzed by combined gas chromatography⁃mass spectrometry.Based on the first principal component of essential oil the chemotype of the tree was preliminary divided into 4 types:eucalyptol type,iso⁃nerolidol type,linalool type and tetradecanal type.The chemical components and yields of essential oil were significant

  2. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  3. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A What's in this article? ... are at work. Seasonal allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that ...

  4. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Consolacion Y.Ragasa; Dinah L.Espineli; Esperanza Maribel G.Agoo; Ramon S.del Fierro

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense,an endemic and critically endangered tree found only in Cebu,Philippines.METHODS:The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography.The structures of the isolates were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy.RESULTS:The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of the bark of C.cebuense afforded a new monoterpene natural product 1 and a new sesquiterpene 2,along with the known compounds,4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3),4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (4),α-terpineol (5) and humulene (6).The DCM extract of the leaves of C.cebuense yielded 6,β-caryophyllene (7),squalene (8),and a mixture of α-amyrin (9),β-amyrin (10) and bauerenol (11).The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy,while the structures of 8-11 were identified by comparison of their 13C NMR data with those reported in the literature.CONCLUSION:The bark of C.cebuense afforded monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes and phenolics,while the leaves yielded sesquiterpenes and triterpenes.

  5. Cinnamomum casia Extract Encapsulated Nanochitosan as Antihypercholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiwiyana; Purbowatiningrum; Fachriyah, Enny; Ismiyarto

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis vascular disease with clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading cause of death in Indonesia. One solution to these problems is a natural antihypercholesterol medicine by utilizing Cinnamomum casia extract. However, the use of natural extracts to lower blood cholesterol levels do not provide optimal results because it is possible that the active components of extract have been degraded/damaged during the absorption process. So that, we need to do the research to get a combination of chitosan nanoparticles-Cinnamomum casia. extract as a compound which has an antihypercholesterol activity through the in vitro study. Modification of natural extracts encapsulated nanochitosan be a freshness in this study, which were conducted using the method of inclusion. The combination of both has the dual function of protecting the natural extracts from degradation and deliver the natural extracts to the target site. Analysis of nanochitosan using the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shows the particle size of synthesis product that is equal to 64.9 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of Cinnamomum casia extract-Chitosan Nanoparticles known through UV-VIS spectrophotometry test and obtained the efficiency encapsulation percentage of 84.93%. Zeta Potential at 193,3 mv that chitosan appropriate for a delivery drug. Antihypercholesterol activity tested in vitro assay that showed the extract-nanoparticle chitosan in concentration 150 ppm gave the highest cholesterol decreasing level in the amount of 49.66% w/v. So it can be concluded that Cinnamomum casia extract can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it has a cholesterol-lowering effect through the in vitro study.

  6. RUTHERFORD B.HAYES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    AFTER the scandals of Grant's administration the Republicans wanted an especially upright candidate; they found him in Rutherford B. Hayes, a devout, conscientious Ohioan whose Puritan ancestors had come from New England. In his third term as Governor of Ohio in 1876,

  7. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; M. Y. Ahmad-Mudzaqqir; W.A. Wan-Nurdiyana

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinn...

  8. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  9. Potential dangers of hay bailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Individuals engaged in farming have higher risks of injury and death from trauma than many other workers. Fatalities most often involve tractor-related incident such as roll-overs. Although it is also recognized that farm machinery may result in serious injuries and death, little has been reported on problems associated with hay baling, transport and storage. Case 1: A 43-year-old man trying to dislodge jammed hay in a hay baler had either been pulled, or had fallen, into the baler, where he had been crushed, rotated and then cocooned within a hay bale. The body showed extensive blunt trauma to the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and limbs, with burning from a fire that subsequently started within the overheated machine. Case 2: A 58-year-old man was crushed between the moving arms of a hay shuttle and a safety fence. Death was attributed to blunt chest and abdominal trauma with crush asphyxia. Case 3: A 56-year-old man fell some distance from the top of stacked hay bales fracturing his neck and causing virtual transection of his cervical spinal cord. These cases demonstrate rare forms of farm deaths that may be associated with the creation (baling), moving (shuttling) and storage of hay bales. All forms of farm machinery should be treated circumspectly, given the possibility that serious injury or death may result from inattention or inappropriate handling. Temporary stacking of hay bales may create high work platforms that risk falls with lethal consequences.

  10. Propionic acid preservatives for hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay producers working in humid environments are well-acquainted with the consequences of baling moist hays, which include heating, molding, losses of dry matter and nutritive value, and the possibility of spontaneous combustion. Traditionally, the effect of heat damage within forages has focused on ...

  11. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinnamon essential oil contains high cinnamaldehyde content which is the main component in cinnamon. The percentage of cinnamaldehyde in essential oil from steam distillation was about 90% and 62-73% from Soxhlet extraction. Cinnamon essential oil has high antimicrobial properties which formed clear zone when tested with gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis s.p and a gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. It also showed antimicrobial properties with two unknown bacteria with unknown characteristics. Cinnamaldehyde contains high antibiotic quality since it is the main compound in cinnamon.

  12. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  13. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

    OpenAIRE

    Das Manosi; Mandal Suvra; Mallick Budhimanta; Hazra Jayram

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhi...

  14. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, D.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14. CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a {sup 60}Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  15. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  16. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  17. A potential low-coumarin cinnamon substitute: Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-02-19

    The essential oils from leaves of Taiwan's indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde) have similar constituents as compared to that from commercial bark cinnamons. This indigenous cinnamon has been proven to have excellent bioactivities. To understand whether this indigenous cinnamon contains a high level of the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin, as often seen in Cassia cinnamons, current research focused on determining the coumarin content in this indigenous cinnamon and screening the low-coumarin clones. The results demonstrated that the coumarin contents in all tested indigenous cinnamon clones were much lower than that found in Cassia cinnamons. In addition, this indigenous cinnamon contains about 80% (w/w) of cinnamaldehyde and 0.4-2.7% (w/w) of eugenol in its leaf essential oils. This combination could provide this indigenous cinnamon a better shelf life compared to that of regular commercial cinnamons. These results suggested that leaves of this indigenous cinnamon could be a potential resource for a safer cinnamon substitute.

  18. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  19. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Manosi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhita”. The herb is used for the treatment of dyspeptic conditions, flatulence, loss of appetite, abdominal pain with diarrhoea, inflammation of the eye, leukorrhoea, vaginitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, wounds, and toothache. The oil isolated from the different parts of the plant containing cinnamaldehyde and eugenol as major constituents are considered as active principle of cinnamon. Over the past two decades many scientific journals are describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. This review has tried to include an up to date phytochemical and biological research on cinnamon. The ethnobotanical uses have also been discussed.

  20. A traditional method of Cinnamomum carolinense preparation eliminates safrole from a therapeutic Pohnpean tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Balick, Michael J; Lee, Roberta; Raynor, William; Pelep, Yosio; Kennelly, Edward J

    2005-11-14

    Cinnamomum carolinense, locally known as madeu, is a tree endemic to the volcanic mountains of the Island of Pohnpei in the Eastern Carolines of the South Pacific. The bark is harvested from trees and brewed to make a medicinal tea and hot beverage that is regularly consumed. Many species of Cinnamomum contain the known hepatocarcinogen safrole, sparking concern regarding habitual consumption of this beverage. HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed the presence of the carcinogen in alcoholic extracts of Cinnamomum carolinense bark shavings (0.435%, w/w), but safrole was not detected in the tea. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of safrole were determined to be 1.25 and 3.75 microg/mL, respectively. The traditional preparation method, which boils the bark shavings, degrades the safrole.

  1. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  2. Leaf anatomy of Cinnamomum schaeffer (Lauraceae) with special reference to oil and mucilage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.; Schaaf, van der P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and mucilage cells in the leaf of 150 species of Cinnamomum are described. Idioblasts are always present in the palisade and the spongy parenchyma. Usually both oil and mucilage cells occur; in some species either oil or mucilage cells are present. Bot

  3. Nitrogen Rates for Dryland Triticale Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryland farmers/ranchers in the CGPR have recently taken an interest in triticale as a hay crop. Triticale is well adapted and its forage is palatable and nutritionally competitive with other annual forages grown in the region. On deficient soils, triticale’s forage-yield response to applied fertili...

  4. Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad program provides grants to support overseas projects in training, research, and curriculum development in modern foreign languages and area studies by teachers, undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty engaged in a common endeavor. Projects may include short-term seminars, curriculum development,…

  5. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air during different times of ...

  6. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene.

  7. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  8. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  9. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum

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    R.Reji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial assay of acetone and ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum was performed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial culture. (E.coli, P.mirabilis and K.pneumoniae the acetone extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, ethanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi and acetone extract of Syzygium aromaticum were selected to evaluate the synergistic activity. The activities were combined in the ratio of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 (Trachyspermum ammi: Cinnamonum zeylancum: Syzygium aromaticum. Phytochemical analysis was carried out for the ethanol and acetone extract of Cinnamonum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum, to check the present of carbohydrate, proteins, sterioids, resins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and quinines.

  10. Development of an effective and efficient DNA isolation method for Cinnamomum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhau, B S; Gogoi, G; Baruah, D; Ahmed, R; Hazarika, G; Ghosh, S; Borah, B; Gogoi, B; Sarmah, D K; Nath, S C; Wann, S B

    2015-12-01

    Different species of Cinnamomum are rich in polysaccharide's and secondary metabolites, which hinder the process of DNA extraction. High quality DNA is the pre-requisite for any molecular biology study. In this paper we report a modified method for high quality and quantity of DNA extraction from both lyophilized and non-lyophilized leaf samples. Protocol reported differs from the CTAB procedure by addition of higher concentration of salt and activated charcoal to remove the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Wide utility of the modified protocol was proved by DNA extraction from different woody species and 4 Cinnamomum species. Therefore, this protocol has also been validated in different species of plants containing high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA showed perfect amplification when subjected to RAPD, restriction digestion and amplification with DNA barcoding primers. The DNA extraction protocol is reproducible and can be applied for any plant molecular biology study.

  11. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Paz Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%. Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%, alfa-felandreno (9,2%, p-cimeno (6,2%, limoneno (7,9%, linalol (10,6%; os sesquiterpenos alfa-copaeno (3,3%, (beta -cariofileno (6,7%, óxido de cariofileno (3,1% e os alilbenzenos (E-cinamaldeído (7,8% e acetato de (E-cinamila (9,7%.The essential oils of the leaves and branches "of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, collected at Manaus, state of Amazonas, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, of which eugenol, was the major (60%. Thirty-six components were identified in the branch oil, among them the monoterpenes alpha-pinene (9.9 %, beta-pinene (3.5 %, alpha phellandrene (9.2 %, p-cymene (6.2%, limonene (7.9%, linalool (10.6% were the most abundant, followed by the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (3.3%, (beta-caryophyllene (6.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.1% and the allybenzenes (E-cinnamaldehyde (7.8%, (E-cinnamyl acetate (9.7%.

  12. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  13. The Effects on the Cutting Propagation of Cinnamomum micranthum in Different Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bihua; CHEN; Shaohua; HUANG; Meifang; XIE; Juan; ZHANG; Liuying; CHEN; Xiaohan; SHE; Huihua; FAN; Qianzhen; LI

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum micranthum is one of China Third-class Endangered Tree Species. The seedlings of C. micranthum are difficult to obtain. It is important to study the cutting propagation of C. micranthum in different seasons to improve the rooting rate for providing seedling propagation technique for the afforestation industry. In this study,the optimal season for the cutting propagation of C. micranthum was summer( May),providing 80. 6% rooting rate. The rooting rate in Summer was 33. 4% higher than that in Spring( March). This technique is important to make the best use of rare C. micranthum resources and to provide plenty of seedlings for afforestation and greening industry.

  14. Hay fever in childhood, traits Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as independent predictors of the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda; Chapman, Benjamin P; Kornilaki, Ekaterina N; Treglown, Luke; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the associations between social and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood and the occurrence of adulthood hay fever in a longitudinal birth cohort study. A total of 5780 participants with data on parental social class, childhood hay fever up to age 7 years, childhood cognitive ability at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels and adult hay fever (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood hay fever identified by medical doctors and traits Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood.

  15. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faixová Zita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03 supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetheroleum of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calendula a.s., Nová L'ubovña, Slovakia. Continuous lighting and water and feed ad libitum were provided throughout the trial. The addition of cinnamon to the diets caused a significantly lower plasma glucose level and the effects of cinnamon on plasma glucose levels tended to be dose-dependent. Dietary intake of 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon reduced serum ALT and plasma potassium levels. Ingestion of cinnamon, however, resulted in no significant changes in circulating calcium, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol and cholesterol levels. It was concluded that cinnamon could be used not only for flavor and taste in food preparation but it had an additional role in glucose metabolism in broiler chickens.

  16. Rapid Extraction and Analysis of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum Cassia Presl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; WANG Zi-ming; LI Tie-chun; ZHOU Xin; DING Lan; ZHANG Han-qi

    2008-01-01

    An improved solvent-free microwave extraction(ISFME) was used for the extraction of essential oil from dried Cinnamomum cassia Presl. Two kinds of solid microwave absorption media[carbonyl iron powder(C/P) and graphite powder(GP)] were used. When ISFME was applied, the heating rate was enhanced and the extraction time was obviously shorter than that consumed in conventional solvent-free microwave extraction(CSFME). Twenty-eight kinds of compounds in the essential oil were identified, and the total content fractions of the compounds obtained by CIP-ISFME, GP-ISFME, CSFME, and hydrodistillation(HD) were 96.65%, 96.06%, 97.22%, and 96.29%, respectively.The compounds in the essential oil obtained from Cinnamomum cassia Presl. by ISFME, CSFME, and HD were compared and the quantity of the essential oil was almost the same. The ISFME has been proved to be a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried samples, and there are several obvious advantages in ISFME over those of liD and CSFME, for example, shorter extraction time(30 min) and lower energy consumption.

  17. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren D. Frizzo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae, known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the Hon-Sho.Os óleos essenciais de duas variedades da árvore canforeira (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae, conhecidas como Hon-Sho e Ho-Sho cultivadas em canteiros experimentais no sul do Brasil foram estudados. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos das folhas e ramos de plantas jovens por hidrodestilação. A identificação dos componentes foi feita por GC, GC/MS e índices de retenção nas fases metil silicone e carbowax. Os principais componentes foram linalol no Ho-Sho e cânfora no Hon-Sho.

  18. Maniçoba hay feeding Moxotó goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of native forages Caatinga set up as an alternative for the sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of Tifton 85 hay by Maniçoba hay in the components of the body weight of Moxotó goats. The animals were steers, initially weighing 21.67±3.92 kg, housed in individual pens and slaughtered at 58 days of confinement. The type of hay did not influence (P>0.05 any of the carcass traits. The animals presented for slaughter average body weight of 21.83 kg, and average weights of hot and cold carcass of 9.83 kg and 9.21 kg, respectively. The carcass were not affected by the type of hay (P>0.05 and average 44.98% and 42.11% for hot cold carcass. The loin eye area (LEA and carcass compactness index had averages of 6.19 cm² and 0.159 kg cm-1, respectively, and did not influence the type of hay in the diet. There was no difference (P> 0.05 between diets for weight of organs and viscera. The diet Tifton 85 yielded higher (P<0.05 weights skin. Replacement of Tifton 85 hay by Maniçoba hay, the diet of Moxotó goats does not alter carcass component, but reduces the weight of the skin.

  19. Interaction of tallow and hay particle size on ruminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W D; Bertrand, J A; Jenkins, T C

    1999-07-01

    Four nonlactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 4 21-d periods to determine if the effects of dietary fat would be affected by hay particle length. Treatments consisted of two levels of tallow (0 and 5%) and two hay particle lengths (short-cut and long-cut) in a 2 x 2 factorial. Diets contained alfalfa hay, corn silage, and concentrate [1:1:2, dry matter (DM) basis] fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) once per day. Samples of the 0 and 5% tallow TMR were ground and incubated in situ in polyester bags for 24 and 48 h. Ruminal samples were taken on day 21 at 0800 h and at 2-h intervals until 1600 h. The total tract digestibilities of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were not affected by tallow or by hay by tallow interactions. There was a trend for tallow to improve total tract digestibility of crude protein (CP) (70.2 vs. 74.7%). After 48 h of ruminal incubation, tallow significantly decreased the digestibilities of DM, ADF, and NDF. No hay length by tallow interactions for DM, NDF, ADF or CP digestibilities occurred after 24 or 48 h. Tallow increased concentrations of propionate and decreased concentrations of acetate and valerate and the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Total volatile fatty acids increased when tallow was added to diets with short-cut hay, which suggests that when unprotected fat is added to diets with a high level of hay, a short-cut hay length may be advantageous. This result may be due to shorter rumen retention time of feed particles, which reduces the time for fatty acids to exert antimicrobial effects. Or, it may because the increased surface area of the hay particle provides more area for microbial attachment and increased fermentation.

  20. Effects of haying on breeding birds in CRP grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary program that is available to agricultural producers to help protect environmentally sensitive or highly erodible land. Management disturbances of CRP grasslands generally are not allowed unless authorized to provide relief to livestock producers during severe drought or a similar natural disaster (i.e., emergency haying and grazing) or to improve the quality and performance of the CRP cover (i.e., managed haying and grazing). Although CRP grasslands may not be hayed or grazed during the primary bird-nesting season, these disturbances may have short-term (1 yr after disturbance) and long-term (≥2 yr after disturbance) effects on grassland bird populations. We assessed the effects of haying on 20 grassland bird species in 483 CRP grasslands in 9 counties of 4 states in the northern Great Plains, USA between 1993 and 2008. We compared breeding bird densities (as determined by total-area counts) in idle and hayed fields to evaluate changes 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after haying. Haying of CRP grasslands had either positive or negative effects on grassland birds, depending on the species, the county, and the number of years after the initial disturbance. Some species (e.g., horned lark [Eremophila alpestris], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) responded positively after haying, and others (e.g., song sparrow [Melospiza melodia]) responded negatively. The responses of some species changed direction as the fields recovered from haying. For example, densities for common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), and clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) declined the first year after haying but increased in the subsequent 3 years. Ten species showed treatment × county interactions, indicating that the effects of haying varied geographically. This long-term evaluation on the effects of haying on breeding birds provides important information on the strength and direction of changes in

  1. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF STRAW PARTICLES MOTION WHEN LEVELING HAY ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin V. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One can see some density irregularity within the roll in the baler with a chamber of constant volume. We have found out that the maximum density of hay roll width (the baler width is observed in the middle part. This is due to the shape of the hay roll entering the baler. To even the hay rolls they have mounted some rotating disks having some inclined spring pins above the baler. To improve the roller distribution the disks above the baler have been pushed forward forming a tapering gap. The evening discs rotating above the moving roll will cause some relative motion of hay particles. The interaction of the evening disks with the hay roll in the vertical plane will be determined by the elasticity of the hay roll and the weight of the frame with the disks. We have studied the trajectories of hay particles motion with the help of MathCad program. We have had the following initial parameters: the degree of compaction (decrease of the roll height when evening, the friction coefficient, the angle rate of the evening disks, the number of pins and the speed of the hay roll. As a result we have got the trajectories of the hay particles motion when the evening disks functioning. The analysis of the trajectories has allowed to establish some basic parameters of the evening device such as the distance of 0.15…0.2 m between the pins; the degree of compression while evening 20...25 %, the angle rate of the evening discs 23...30 rad / s and the diameter of the evening disc 0.74 m. The application of the evening device in the form of the disks with pins provides a uniform distribution of hay particles edgewise of the baler ensuring preliminary hay roll seal press before passing to the baler pressure chamber that contributes to getting the rolls with larger mass and a uniform distribution of hay density inside the roll

  2. Dessication tolerance of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness SeedsTolerância à dessecação de sementes de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Matos Barroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, submitted to different levels of drying, the fruits of dark brown and fully mature were collected and washed by hand, then the seeds were exposed to drying, on paper towel, under laboratory conditions. Treatments consisted of sampling for the determination of water content, germination and vigor tests at the beginning of the experiment and after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds each. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression. Cinnamon seeds are dispersed with high water content (39.43% and viability is compromised when dehydrated, the germination capacity as well as its speed decreases with dehydration, characterizing the recalcitrant behavior of seeds, with water content 34.82% less than both the percentage and the speed of germination are reduced. The seeds of C. zeylanicum tolerate desiccation to 12 hours without significant loss of vigor. Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness submetidas a diferentes níveis de secagem, os frutos de coloração marrom escura e completamente maduros foram coletados e despolpados manualmente, em seguida, as sementes foram expostas para a secagem, sobre papel toalha, em condições de laboratório. Os tratamentos consistiram na amostragem para a determinação do teor de água, testes de germinação e vigor no início do experimento e após 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. As sementes de canela são dispersas com alto teor de água (39,43% e tem a viabilidade comprometida quando desidratadas; a capacidade de germinação bem como a sua

  3. 2005 hay management monitoring report : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitoring report for hay management at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) for the year 2005. The goal of this monitoring program is to quantify management...

  4. 2004 hay management monitoring report : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitoring report for hay management at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) for the year 2004. The goal for this monitoring program is to check management...

  5. The Trail Inventory of John Hay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on John Hay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. Chemical Fingerprint of Leaves of Cinnamomum Sulphuratum Nees Growing in Kodagu, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuveera Muralidhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamalapatra (leaves of C. tamala is one among such important commodity used in the preparation of many Ayurvedic medicines. Leaves of C. sulphuratum are sometimes used as substitute to tamalapatra as a flavoring agent. Comprehensive chemical fingerprint profile is useful in the identification of any plant material. This investigation is an attempt to fingerprint the chemical characteristics of leaf of C. sulphuratum. Leaves from plants of C. sulphuratum growing wildly in Kodagu district were collected and subjected to physico-chemical, HPTLC and GC-MS analysis as per standard procedures. Physico-chemical constants, HPTLC fingerprint and essential oil composition were documented. The chemical fingerprint established in the present study will serve the purpose of standardization of this leaf drug, volatile oil composition by GCMS will be a diagnostic test for differentiation of leaves of C. sulphuratum from other Cinnamomum sp.

  7. Sensorial effects of gamma radiation processing on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, Debora C.; Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados]. E-mails: villavic@ipen.br; dcsalum@ipen.br; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Food irradiation is the processing of food products by ionizing radiation in order, among other things, to control food borne pathogens, reduce microbial load and insect infestation, inhibit the germination of root crops, and extend the durable life of perishable products. Irradiation of dried food ingredients, particularly herbs and spices, has a great application potential, and has already been implemented in many countries. Spice irradiation is performed to increase the hygienic quality and used as decontamination processes instead of fumigation methods. European Community approves irradiation processing as an effective residue-free alternative. The present paper evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties of cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans). The samples have been irradiated in multipurpose irradiator of {sup 60}Co in the doses: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 kGy. (author)

  8. Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Wahid; Zeeshan, Sara; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the traditional use of Cinnamomum cassia against depression. The standardised methanolic extract of the bark of C. cassia was evaluated for antidepressant activity using various behavioural tests, i.e. tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test. The serotonergic and noradrenergic modulation was assessed using 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches and yohimbine potentiation tests, respectively. The fluoxetine and phenelzine were used as positive controls in the study. The C. cassia extract significantly decreased the immobility time in TST (maximum effective dose tested was 50 mg/kg) while no effect was observed in FST and locomotor activity test. The extract significantly increased the 5-HTP-induced head twitches while yohimbine-induced lethality remained unaltered. The aforementioned results are similar to that caused by fluoxetine. The standardised methanolic extract of C. cassia demonstrated antidepressant activity that can be attributed to rise in serotonin levels.

  9. The essential oil profiles and antibacterial activity of six wild Cinnamomum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Nagappan, Thilahgavani; Kulip, Julius

    2014-09-01

    The essential oil composition of six species of wild Cinnamomum found in Borneo was investigated. The oils were obtained from bark by hydrodistillation and the volatile chemical profile was obtained via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). A total of 65 volatile constituents were identified, where the essential oils of the studied specimens contained high contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Eucalyptol (1.2-31.1%), terpinen-4-ol (7.9-22.1%), eugenol (0.4-37.9%) and α-cadinol (0.4-1.8%) were detected consistently in the specimens studied. The oils of C. cuspidatum and C. crassinervium exhibited significant inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes, specifically the latter, which displayed a lower minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value against Staphylococcus aereus and L. monocytogenes. This result had highlighted the possible usage of the essential oil derived from wild cinnamom species against food borne pathogens.

  10. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  11. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baraa Mohamed,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

  12. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon.

  13. Variability in volatile constituents of Cinnamomum tamala leaf from Uttarakhand Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hema Lohani; Harish C. Andola; Nirpendra Chauhan; Ujjwal Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variation of Cinnamomum tamala leaf essential oil in respect with months and tree size class. Methods: By fallowing standard laboratory methods using capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. Results: The oil samples were analyzed for two months and two different tree size classes. cinnamaldehyde, was the principal component, was higher in the both months i.e. October and January, highest in 30 cm girth class tree in January month (59.23%) and lowest in 60 cm girth class tree in a month of October (41.90%). Smaller size class tree contained greater amount of cinnamaldehyde as compared to higher size class. Conclusions: Consequences of the present study need to selection of proper, tree size and month for harsh economic potentials of such valuable resources.

  14. En tanto no hay relación sexual...hay síntoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Posada.

    1998-01-01

    Este trabajo, inserto en los planteamientos teóricos del campo freudiano, intenta articular cuatro conceptos: la relación sexual que no existe, el síntoma, el vínculo social y la ética.Comienza con una elaboración en torno a la proposición de Lacan: “no hay relación sexual”. En el lugar de ese imposible, el sujeto, a título de suplencia, produce un síntoma. Síntoma que por un lado sostiene y satisface su singular fijación de goce y a través del cual logra insertarse en un vínculo social. Dent...

  15. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hay or straw and similar material from... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or...

  16. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  17. Cinnamomum tamala leaf extract-mediated green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their use in pyranopyrazles synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sneha Yadav; Jitender M. Khurana

    2015-01-01

    A novel, biochemical, and eco-friendly method has been developed for the synthesis of Ag nanopar-ticles using an aqueous leaf extract of readily accessibleCinnamomum tamala as reducing and stabi-lizing agents. These Ag nanoparticles were used to catalyze the synthesis of pyranopyrazoles. The green nature and ease of recovery and reusability of the catalyst, together with high yields of prod-ucts, make this protocol attractive and useful.

  18. EFECTO ANTIBACTERIANO IN VITRO DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM (CANELA) SOBRE EL FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM ATCC 25586

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA RUBIO, KHATTERYNE MARISOL

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to determine in vitro the antibacterial effect of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. The study was carried out in the laboratories of Pharmacognosy and microbiological laboratories in the School of Medicine at the National University of Trujillo. Samples consisted in two sets of 12 repeats for each concentration of cinnamon and sample control (penicillin). One set was used to determine the se...

  19. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2005-12-01

    The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay with female lice at 0.25 mg/cm(2), benzaldehyde was 29- and 27-fold more toxic than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively, as judged by median lethal time (LT(50)) values. Salicylaldehyde was nine and eight times more active than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively. Pediculicidal activity of linalool was comparable with that of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Cinnamomum bark essential oil was slightly less effective than either d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. Benzyl alcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde exhibited moderate pediculicidal activity. After 24h of exposure, no hatching was observed with 0.063 mg/cm(2) salicylaldehyde, 0.125 mg/cm(2) benzaldehyde, 0.5mg/cm(2)Cinnamomum bark essential oil, 1.0 mg/cm(2) (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 1.0 mg/cm(2) benzyl cinnamate. Little or no ovicidal activity was observed with d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. In vapour phase toxicity tests with female lice, benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these compounds was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Neither d-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Cinnamomum bark essential oil and test compounds described merit further study as potential pediculicides or ovicides for the control of P. h. capitis.

  20. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Mohammad ASADPOUR; Jafari, Arash; Seyed Hossein MALEKPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum) were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL) of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0,...

  1. Hayâlî Bey’in Bilinmeyen Gazelleri Unknown Ghazals of Hayâlî Bey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaşkan Cem BAHADIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hayâlî Bey is one of the most famous poet in the 16th century and when we talk about 16th century poem we mention him at the first place. One of the 16th century tazkirah writer Kınalızâde Hasan Çelebi, mention Hayâlî Bey as “sultan of the Anatolian poets”. Hayâlî Bey is important as a poet and his influence on the other poets of his century is very important too. He has great effect on Rahmî, Ulvî and Vahidî. In every century nazeerahs written to his poems. Hayâlî Bey’s only work is his “Divan”. Although this stuation Hayâlî Bey didn’t arrenge his Divanwhen he was alive. Because of this, some poems which belongs to himcan be find in some different divan copy or in the poem mecmûas. Theghazals presents in this work are in a different hand writing divan. Thisdivan is in Süleymaniye Library. This divan in a divans macmua. All ofthe ghazals in this divan is take place in the work of Ali Nihat Tarlan’sHayâlî Bey Divan. Only twenty four ghazals are not in this divan. In thisstudy ghazals are researched. Because this ghazals could belong toanother poet appellation “Hayâlî”. Also this poems are compare withother poems of Hayâlî Bey. After these research we try to point out that,this ghazals are belong to Hayâlî Bey. This study includes twenty-fourpoems of Hayâlî Bey, doesn’t place in the “Hayâlî Bey Dîvân” which ispublish by Ali Nihat Tarlan. Klasik Türk edebiyatının meşhur şairlerinden olan Hayâlî Bey, (1500?- 1557 16. yüzyıl şiiri denildiğinde aklımıza ilk gelen şairlerdendir. Dönemindeki tezkirecilerden biri olan Kınalızâde Hasan Çelebi, Hayâlî’yi “Diyâr-ı Rûmun sultânü’ş-şu’arâsı” olarak tanıtmaktadır. Hayâlî Bey yazdığı şiirlerin yanı sıra dönemindeki diğer şairlere olan etkisi bakımından da önemli bir şahsiyettir. Çağdaşı olan Rahmî, Ulvî, Vahidî gibi şairler üzerinde tesiri büyüktür. Onun şiirlerine hemen her d

  2. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, C L; Robinson, T F; Hunter, Z R; Taylor, L; White, J; Johnston, N P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 (C1) and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay. The study was divided into two experiments. In Experiment 1 (EXP 1), 10 male alpacas (3+ years old, 65 kg BW) were divided into two groups, housed in drylot pens, provided ad libitum water and fed alfalfa (AH) or grass hay (GH) for 30 days. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter (DM) and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Four adult male (3+ years old, 60 kg BW), C1 fistulated alpacas were housed in metabolism crates and divided into two forage groups for Experiment 2 (EXP 2). Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Diurnal C1 VFA samples were drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. There were no differences between forages for tract weight, C1 and caecum digesta DM or NDF. Differences were noted (p pH between forages and sub-tract site. Volatile fatty acids concentrations were different (p < 0.05) for forage and site, and total VFA was higher for AH than GH (110.6 and 79.1 mm) and C1 than caecum (40.7 and 27.6 mm). Proportion of VFA was significant (p < 0.05) for forage and site, C1 acetate highest for GH (84.8 vs. 74.0 mm) and caecum acetate 83.7 and 76.2 mm for GH and AH respectively. These data demonstrate the level of VFA produced in C1 and the caecum of alpacas and the diurnal VFA patterns. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species.

  3. Hay una crisis en la poesía?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zalamea

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se formula el interrogante de si hay actualmente una crisis en la poesía, los analistas y cronistas de la vida literaria debemos andar con cuidado después de parcelar muy claramente cada uno de los aspectos del problema propuesto. Asi, por ejemplo, al hablar de esa supuesta crisis, hay que saber si se entiende como fenómeno universal, o como fenómeno latinoamericano o, más estrechamente, como fenómeno nacional.

  4. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Malaysia 1995. Participants' Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These reports and lesson plans were developed by teachers and coordinators who traveled to Malaysia during the summer of 1995 as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. Sections of the report include: (1) "Gender and Economics: Malaysia" (Mary C. Furlong); (2) "Malaysia: An Integrated,…

  5. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  6. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  7. Uudised : Isaac Hayes loobub koka rollist. Bergeni festival soomestub

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Satiirilises animaseriaalis "South Park" mustanahalise koolikoka rollis lugenud soulilauljast Isaak Hayes'ist. 24. maist 6. juunini kestval Bergeni kultuurifestivalil Norras tulevad esitusele Jean Sibeliuse sümfooniad, Magnus Lindbergi heliteosed, koreograaf Tomi Paasoneni teos "Olotila" ja pianist Juho Pohjoneni klverikontsert

  8. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity.

  9. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana Anghel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization.

  10. Profile of urinary and fecal proanthocyanidin metabolites from common cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed a suspension of the whole bark. The metabolites include ten mono-, di-, and tri- conjugated (epi)catechin phase II metabolites and more than 20 small phenolic acids from intestinal microbial fermentation. Some of these are sulfated conjugates. Feces contain intact (epi)catechin and dimers. This suggests that free radical scavenging species are in contact with the intestinal walls for hours after ingestion of cinnamon. The phenolic metabolite profile of cinnamon bark in urine is consistent with a mixture of proanthocyanidins that are depolymerized into their constitutive (epi)catechin units as well as cleaved into smaller phenolic acids during their transit along the intestinal tract, with subsequent absorption and conjugation into bioavailable metabolites.

  11. New identification of proanthocyanidins in cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Fuguet, Elisabet; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The positive health effects associated with the consumption of cinnamon could in part be due to its phenolic composition; proanthocyanidins (PA) are the major polyphenolic component in commercial cinnamon. We present a thorough study of the PA profile of cinnamon obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition to the advantages of MALDI-TOF as a sensitive technique for the analysis of high-molecular-weight compounds, the tandem arrangement allows the identification of the compounds through their fragmentation patterns from MS/MS experiments. This is the first time that this technique has been used to analyze polymeric PA. The results show that cinnamon PA are more complex than was previously thought. We show here for the first time that they contain (epi)gallocatechin and (epi)catechingallate units. As gallates (galloyl moieties) and the pyrogallol group in gallocatechins have been related to the biological activity of grape and tea polyphenols, the presence of these substructures may explain some of the properties of cinnamon extracts. MALDI-TOF/TOF reveals that cinnamon bark PA include combinations of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechingallate, (epi)gallocatechin, and (epi)afzelechin, which results in a highly heterogeneous mixture of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, and propelargonidins.

  12. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

  13. Antioxidant activity of various parts of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Li, Rong-Xian; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves) of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562-10.090 mg/mL and 0.072-0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values were 6.789-58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039-335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031-1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW) and 2.030-3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151-2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313-9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of Cinnamon barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from C. cassia.

  14. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  15. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  16. Responses of Soil Organic Carbon to Long-Term Understory Removal in Subtropical Cinnamomum camphora Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study on a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the subtropics of China, by removing understory gradually and then comparing this treatment with a control (undisturbed. This study analyzed the content and storage soil organic carbon (SOC in a soil depth of 0–60 cm. The results showed that SOC content was lower in understory removal (UR treatment, with a decrease range from 5% to 34%, and a decline of 10.16 g·kg−1 and 8.58 g·kg−1 was noticed in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm layers, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05. Carbon storage was reduced in UR, ranging from 2% to 43%, with a particular drastic decline of 15.39 t·hm−2 and 11.58 t·hm−2 in 0–10 cm (P<0.01 and 10–20 cm (P<0.01 layers, respectively. Content of SOC had an extremely significant (P<0.01 correlation with soil nutrients in the two stands, and the correlation coefficients of CK were higher than those of UR. Our data showed that the presence of understory favored the accumulation of soil organic carbon to a large extent. Therefore, long-term practice of understory removal weakens the function of forest ecosystem as a carbon sink.

  17. DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae); Derivado cinamoilico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substancias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araujo, Angela Regina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Silva, Marcelo Rogerio da [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2004-04-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactive iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-{delta}{sup 8'}-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neoli= gnan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time. (author)

  18. 9 CFR 95.22 - Hay and straw; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hay and straw; importations permitted... ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.22 Hay and straw; importations permitted subject to...

  19. 9 CFR 95.21 - Hay and straw; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hay and straw; requirements for... SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.21 Hay and straw; requirements for unrestricted entry. Except as provided in §...

  20. Genetic and environmental contributions to hay fever among young adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO;

    2006-01-01

    effects accounted for 29% of the individual susceptibility to hay fever. The same genes contributed to the susceptibility to hay fever both in males and in females. In families with asthma, the susceptibility to develop hay fever was, in addition to genes, to a great extent ascribable to family...

  1. 75 FR 59049 - International Education Programs Service; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad (GPA) Program administered by the International Education... Education Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program; Notices #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 185... Service; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary...

  2. Effectiveness of buffered propionic-acid preservatives for large hay packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most hay producers realize that hays packaged in large-round or large-square bales are particularly sensitive to spontaneous heating, dry matter losses, and negative changes in forage quality. During the last two decades, this has become an important dilemma for hay producers because the cost and av...

  3. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p sausages.

  4. Potencial de los aceites comerciales de Canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) y Laurel (Laurus nobilis) en el control de Fusarium oxysporum.

    OpenAIRE

    GIGANTE ESTEVE, ANA MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The main objective of this work is to study the antifungal activity of essential oils of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) against Fusarium oxysporum, isolated from tomato. The bioassays were conducted over dose of 300 μg/mL from the essential oil in the PDA culture medium. It was calculated the speed of growth of the fungi (mm/day), the daily average radial growth (mm), and the micelial growth inhibition (MGI). The speed of growth of the fungi was 5...

  5. Characteristics of water relations in seedling of Machilus yunnanensis and Cinnamomum camphora under soil drought condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tian-tian; ZHAO Lin-sen

    2006-01-01

    The soil drought stress experiment in different durations (no watering within 3d, 6d, 9d, 11d individually) was conducted to study the drought-resistant capacity of one-year-old seedlings for the native tree species (Machilus yunnanensis) in Yunnan Province and the introduced tree species (Cinnamomum camphora). The leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, proline content and plasma membrane permeability for two species seedlings were measured in different soil drought conditions. The results showed that, on the 9th day of drought stress, the leaf water potential of two species decreased obviously, whereas the free proline content and plasma membrane permeability increased sharply. On the 11th day, the leaf water potential of C. camphora seedlings was lower than that of M. yunnanensis seedlings; the plasma membrane permeability in C. camphora seedling leaves increased much more than that in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves, which showed that the injury to the former by soil drought stress was more severe than that to the latter. The free proline content in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves continued to increase on the 11th day, but that in the C. camphora seedling leaves started to drop obviously, indicating that the reduction of osmotic regulation substance in C. camphora seedling leaves after the 11th day was unable to maintain the osmotic balance between the plasma system and its surroundings and the water loss occurred inevitably. Comprehensively, M. yunnanensis seedlings enhanced the drought-resistance in the course of soil drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential and by increasing osmotic regulation substance to promote cell plasma concentration and maintain membrane structure integrity so as to reduce water loss. The subordination function index evaluated with fuzzy mathematic theory also showed that the drought-resistant capacity ofM. yunnanensis seedlings was stronger than that of C. camphora seedlings.

  6. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  7. STUDY ON COMPREHENSIVE SELECTION FOR MULTI- CHARACTERS IN CINNAMOMUM CASSIA PRESL%肉桂多性状综合选优的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁一池; 吴志庄; 阮少宁

    2001-01-01

    Based on the investigation and analysis in 25 - year- old Cinnamomum cassia Presl, the relative chiefvalue was defined, both the criteria and method of multi - characters selection was put forward. In the meanwhile,plus tree was classified according to them. The selection results were analysed and discussed.

  8. ¿Qué hay de nuevo en la Rizartrosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Margarit Martín, X.; Roncero Vilanova, L.; Mesado Vives, A.

    2015-01-01

    La rizartrosis en el momento actual está en periodo de avance, ya que nuevos descubrimientos biomecánicos sobre que ligamento es más importante para la estabilidad, e histológicos con el hallazgo de mecanoreceptores en los ligamentos abren un nuevo abanico de posibilidades terapéuticas con el control neuromuscular. La clasificación de Eaton y Littler sigue vigente actualmente, aunque hay nuevas propuestas como el índice radiológico para la artrosis del pulgar. El tratamiento poco ...

  9. Prediction of the energy content of tallgrass prairie hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, K C; Cochran, R C; Titgemeyer, E C; Mathis, C P; Jones, T J; Heldt, J S

    2008-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to describe the DE content of tallgrass prairie hay (TPH). In trial 1, steers (n = 13; 277 +/- 15 kg of BW) were used in a 13 x 4 Latin square experiment to measure the DE of 13 samples of TPH fed at 1.5% of BW daily (average feeding level = 0.7 x the maintenance energy requirement). Hays were harvested from a variety of locations in east-central Kansas and represented an array of harvest dates and storage methods. In trial 2, steers (n = 16; 261 + 17 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to assess the effects of TPH intake level on DE. Hay was fed at 1.3, 1.7, 2.1, or 2.5% of BW daily, which corresponded to 0.9, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 x the maintenance energy requirement. Steers in both trials were fed soybean meal in amounts calculated to provide ruminally degradable protein (RDP) equal to 11% of digestible OM intake. Hay samples were analyzed for ash, N, NDF, ADF, ADIN, NDIN, acid detergent-insoluble ash, lignin, monosaccharides, and alkali-labile phenolic acids. Chemical components related to DE (P < 0.2) were subjected to iterative regression analysis to predict the DE concentration of the diet. Iterations were ceased when the error mean square of the regression was optimized. At 0.7 x maintenance, the dietary DE concentration (Mcal/kg) was described by: DE = 0.13(CP) - 0.16(ADL) + 2.11 (R(2) = 0.73; S(y*x) = 0.13). Forage OM digestion decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as forage intake increased. Apparent dietary DE concentration decreased by 7.4% when intake was increased from 1 to 2 x maintenance. When RDP was adequate, chemical composition values were useful indicators of forage DE content in our study. Moreover, increased forage intake depressed GE digestion by steers, but ultimately increased total DE intake. Energy digestion varied with forage intake in a predictable manner between 1 and 2 x the maintenance feeding level.

  10. Ammoniated babassu palm hay in anglo-nubian goat diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Leidiana Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaves of babassu may be used in diets for goats under maintenance, however, it is a low-quality roughage due to its high fiber content. The chemical treatment by ammonia causes reduction in the proportion of the cell wall, in addition to providing non-protein nitrogen for the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Babassu palm hay ammoniated with 4% urea (BHAU4% was evaluated in this study as a substitute for guinea grass hay in the maintenance diets of goats in terms of intake, digestibility in vivo, and the partitioning of energy and nitrogen compounds. Twenty Anglo-Nubian male goats were used in a randomised block design with four treatments (diets containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% BHAU4% and five replicates (animals/block. The chemical compositions of the feeds, leftovers, faeces, nitrogen and crude energy of the urine were evaluated. In addition, the rumen fluid pH, the rumen N-NH3, and the blood serum urea were evaluated. The digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crud protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDFap and detergent acid (ADFap, corrected for ash and protein, declined (P<0.05 0.0939, 0.0722, 0.0953, 0.1113, and 0.2666%, respectively, with the 1% inclusion of babassu palm hay in the diet. A negative linear effect (P<0.05 was observed in the ingested nitrogen (N, excretion of N in the urine, retained N, and N balance, with decreases of 0.15711, 0.0225 and 0.1071 g/day and 0.1388%, respectively, per percentage unit of the babassu palm hay included in the diet. The intake and digestibility of the DM and nutrients are reduced with the inclusion of BHAU4% in maintenance diets for goats, with positive nitrogen balance and stability of the ruminal pH and N-NH3 as well as blood urea, which presented values within the normal physiological range for goats.

  11. Sin equidad de género no hay desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Escobar, Miryan

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza la problemática del desarrollo socioeconómico en Latinoamérica a la luz de la perspectiva de género; articulando tres conceptos esenciales, desarrollo, género y perspectiva de género, se afirma que sin equidad de género no hay desarrollo. A partir de los aportes mencionados, se contempla la posibilidad de integrar indicadores que incluyan la relación hombre-mujer en la planificación del desarrollo en diversas instituciones y organismos internacionales, que permit...

  12. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, diuretic properties and total phenolic content of Cinnamomum tamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala are aromatic, carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, lactagogue, and deobstruent. Other parts of the plant are also used as traditional remedies for various diseases. Aim: The aim of our study was to carry out the evaluation of the preliminary phytochemical and some pharmacological properties including cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity, total phenolic content, clot lysis and diuretic potential of the leaves of C. tamala. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract was carried out by standard chromogenic reagents and total phenolic content was estimated in term of gallic acid equivalent by using Folin Ciocalteu′s reagent. Brine shrimp lethality assay method was used to determine the degree of cytotoxicity. Antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity test was performed using disc diffusion method in agar medium and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by micro dilution method. Clot lysis and diuretic potential were compared with streptokinase and furosemide, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically interpreted using Student′s " t" test. Results: The extract contained alkaloids, steroids, tannins and reducing sugars. Total phenolic content was found to be 276 gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. In brine shrimp lethality assay, it showed moderate toxicity (LC 50 = 40 μg/ml and LC 90 = 160 μg/ml. The extract inhibited growth of tests bacteria and fungi with significant zones of inhibition. Highest activity was observed against the bacteria Salmonella typhi and the fungus Aspergillus niger. In-vitro clot lysis action of extract was comparable with streptokinase (48.22 ± 2.98% and maximum effect (24.75 ± 1.27% was found at a dose of 10 mg/ml. The extract showed diuretic activity which responded 29.16% and 37.50% diuretic activity in comparison with control (water which indicates the plant mild

  14. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  15. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter and its allelopathic activity on the growth of maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanshan; Hu, Hongling; Hu, Tingxing; Wang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Luo, Jie; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Ruyi

    2017-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of maize. In this study, the morphological traits of maize were significantly inhibited when the leaf litter amount reached or exceeded 40 g per pot; Furthermore, during the early growth stage or with a large amount of litter addition, the pigment contents were inhibited by C. septentrionale leaf litter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the volatile substances of leaf litter and 34 compounds were identified, several of which were reported to be phytotoxic. In conclusion, the leaf litter of C. septentrionale showed a strong allelopathic effect on the growth of maize. Thus, it is better to avoid the growing of maize under or near the C. septentrionale plantation unless the leaf litter could be eliminated in time or other effective leaf litter processing methods could be implemented.

  16. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kalantary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Trans- cinnamaldehyde was found to be the main constituent of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO, followed by methyl eugenol, δ- cadinene and γ- cadinene. The major components of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO were limonene, caryophyllene oxide, α-ionone, germacrene– D, γ- terpinene, β- pinene and terpinene-4-ol. For evaluating antifungal activities of CZEO and OVEO, A. flavus PTCC: 5006, was inoculated in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB and tomato paste, then 0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm of essential oils were added to each sample and incubated at 25±0.5oC for 30 and 60 days, respectively. The antifungal activity was measured by Agar Dilution method. The EOs at all tested concentrations had inhibitory effect against A. flavus growth. 200 ppm of CZEO and 500 ppm of OVEO completely inhibited A. flavus growth in culture media, while in tomato paste 300 ppm of CZEO and 200 ppm of OVEO had the same effect. Test panel evaluations were carried out in tomato ketchup base and samples with 100 and 200 ppm CZEO were accepted by panelists. The results may suggest the potential replacement of antifungal chemicals by CZEO as natural inhibitor to control A. flavus growth in tomato paste.

  17. Somos lo que hay y la autofagia social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gerardo Zermeño Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploran las relaciones violentas que se van tejiendo entre los personajes para mostrar el desolador panorama social que presenta la cinta Somos lo que hay (Jorge Michel Grau, 2010 que, aunque no es propiamente una película de zombis, procura evocar estéticas e ideas subyacentes de este subgénero, referencias que parecen mantener una cierta continuidad. A lo largo de la película se propone, además del estrictamente alimenticio, distintos modos de canibalismo: económico, social, sexual. Si en el cine de zombis los personajes luchan contra centenares de personas que han dejado su humanidad atrás, en esta película la batalla es campal y la deshumanización se aplica sistemáticamente.

  18. Daily hay fever forecast in the Netherlands. Radio broadcasting of the expected influence of the weather or subjective complaints of hay fever sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieksma, F T

    1980-10-01

    The literature on local pollen counts and their significance for hay fever is reviewed and a system for forecasting hay fever is described. Such forecasts have been broadcast by radio in The Netherlands since 1977. The hay fever forecast takes the form of a prognosis (in terms of three grades) of the influence of the expected whether situation on tomorrow's course of the subjective complaints of hay fever sufferers. It is not a forecast of the pollen count. When the subjective complaints of about 150 hay fever patients were used as reference for evaluation, the forecasts proved to have been correct in 72, 85, and 88% of the cases in 1977, 1978, and 1979, respectively. The practical usefulness and the limitations of the system are briefly discussed, with emphasis on the principle that not the local pollen count but the weather should be taken as the main determinative factor for the expected subjective experiences in a group of hay fever sufferers in a certain region.

  19. 云南河口栽培肉桂的显微鉴别研究%The study on the microidentificution of cuttural Cinnamomum cassia form Yunnan Hecou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 汤秀梅; 逄丽艳; 赵寿祥

    2002-01-01

    通过生物显微技术、显微摄影的方法,对照(2000年版),对河口栽培肉桂进行了显微鉴定,证实河口栽培肉桂从显微结构上来看即2000年版(一部)所载肉桂(Cinnamomum cassia Presl).

  20. Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center Library and Archives: Patron Use of Collections and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Myrna J.

    The Rutherford B. Hayes Library opened in 1916, when the building in Fremont, Ohio was dedicated as the first presidential library and museum. The library's original purpose was to preserve the 12,000 volume personal library of President Hayes along with archival material from his careers in law, the military, and politics. This was a radical idea…

  1. Similarity, Induction, Naming, and Categorization (SINC): Generalization or Inductive Reasoning? Reply to Heit and Hayes (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to E. Heit and B. K. Hayes's comment on the target article "Induction and Categorization in Young Children: A Similarity-Based Model" (V. M. Sloutsky & A. V. Fisher, 2004a). The response discusses points of agreement and disagreement with Heit and Hayes; phenomena predicted by similarity, induction, naming, and…

  2. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity.

  3. Citizen science based symptom scores of allergic rhinitis to validate the grass pollen hay fever forecast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weger, L.A.; Bas Hofstee, H.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Sont, Jacob K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: On average 23% of the European population suffers from allergic rhinitis of which pollen is a major cause. Hay fever symptom forecasts can help these patients to adapt their behaviour and to take their medication in time. We developed the LUMC hay fever forecast for grass pollen allerg

  4. Tannin content and rate of ruminal protein degradation of legume hays

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work evaluated ruminal protein degradation rates of legume hays that varied in tannin content. Two cuttings of 5 varieties of birdsfoot trefoil, (Lotus corniculatus), selected for different tannin contents but similar NDF and CP contents, and Spredor 4 alfalfa (control) were conserved as hay. S...

  5. An update on the management of hay fever in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder occurring in about one in four people in Britain with a peak onset during adolescence.1-3 Although not necessarily a serious illness, it can adversely affect quality of life and disrupt normal activities, and is a risk factor for asthma.2,3 The symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis/rhino-conjunctivitis caused by an IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to airborne allergens, particularly pollens, and which typically occur between spring and autumn are commonly referred to as hay fever.3 There are a number of management options available including drug therapy. Several drugs can be bought over the counter in the UK, and so people with allergic rhinitis may commonly present to the pharmacy or to general practice. The choice of treatment will be influenced by the spectrum, intensity and frequency of symptoms, and should take into account safety, efficacy, cost and patient preferences. Some of the treatments now available have been developed since our previous review was published and include the newer antihistamines, oral leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA),(i) and sublingual allergen desensitisation immunotherapy.4.

  6. INFLUENCES OF LIMING ON YIELDS OF ALFALFA HAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetislav Popović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage legume on cultivated fields in Croatia (about 45000 ha of growing area – status 2003. The field experiment with application of four dolomite (Agrovapno MgO: 56% CaO and 40% MgO rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 tha-1 were conducted in autumn of 2004. The experiment was conducted by randomized block design in four replicates. Alfalfa (cultivar Osječanka 88 of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia was sown on March 25, 2005. Four cuttings / year were made. Fresh mass of alfalfa (cutting area 0.25 m2 was oven-dried at 65 oC. Year was the most influencing factor of alfalfa hay yields (13.03, 28.63, 29.43 and 32.77 tha-1, for 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Liming resulted in low increases of yields up to 5% only. We presume that possible high tolerance of Osječanka 88 cultivar to soil acidity could be the main reason of low effects of liming on alfalfa yields.

  7. Study on Relativity Between Cinnamomum camphora Etiolating and Iron Binding Protein Gene%香樟黄化与铁结合蛋白基因相关性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昱; 韩浩章

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum camphora grown in saline of the rhizosphere soil,are prone to iron-deficiency chlorosis. The research progress on relationship between Cinnamomum camphora etiolating and iron-binding protein gene was explained from three aspects,such as the relativity between Cinnamomum camphora etiolation and iron,plant ferritin gene,iron binding protein gene in plant,Cinnamomum camphora gene engineering research,in order to provide references for Cinnamomum camphora germplasm innovation by genetic engineering.%香樟在盐碱性根际土中栽培易发生缺铁性黄化病,从香樟黄化与铁元素的关系、植物体内的铁结合蛋白基因、香樟基因工程研究3个方面阐述了香樟黄化与其体内铁结合蛋白基因之间的相关性研究进展,以期为利用基因工程进行香樟种质创新提供参考。

  8. Comparison of Hay's criteria with Nugent's scoring system for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohit; Bhalla, Preena; Chadha, Sanjim; Grover, Sujatha; Garg, Suneela

    2013-01-01

    Although Nugent's criterion is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the method requires an experienced slide reader and considerable time and skill. In this study, we compared the method of Hay and Ison with Nugent's scoring criteria. Vaginal specimens were collected from a total of 213 women, presenting with or without the symptoms of vaginitis. Diagnosis of BV was done using Nugent' and Hay's method. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for positive and negative test were calculated for Hay's method using Nugent's method as the gold standard. We diagnosed 70 cases (32.86%) of BV by Nugent's method and 87 (40.85%) cases by the Hay's method. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of positive result, predictive value of negative result, and Kappa value when evaluating Hay's criteria using Nugent's criteria as the gold standard were ≥97.2%, ≥88.1%, ≥80.4%, ≥97.1%, and ≥0.830, respectively, when Hay's grade II and/or Nugent's intermediate score were considered either as negative or positive or excluded. Using Nugent score for the intermediate group is the most difficult. Hay's method shows good agreement with the gold standard method of Nugent et al. and can be used as an alternative to Nugent's criteria in busy tertiary care hospitals.

  9. 77 FR 10727 - Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program-Short-Term Projects and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad (GPA) Program supports overseas projects in training, research, and... grant application for the Fulbright- Hays GPA Programs at http://Grants.gov. You must search for the... Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program--Short-Term Projects and...

  10. Oviposition response of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to different concentrations of hay infusion in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D; Lakhan, A; Ramdath, W R; Persad, R C

    1993-09-01

    Ovitraps containing various concentrations of hay infusion and tap water were exposed weekly in the field for 15 wk to determine the oviposition patterns of Aedes aegypti. The results showed 10, 20, 60 and 80% hay infusions each attracted similar numbers of Ae. aegypti eggs oviposited and egg occurrences. No repellent effect was observed. In another field study, significantly more eggs and egg occurrences were collected from 25 and 50% hay infusions and tap water. The differences in these results from those of a previous study in Puerto Rico are discussed.

  11. Effect of pelleting on efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Moore, D A; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Burke, J M; Muir, J P; Wolfe, R

    2007-05-15

    Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) to anthelmintic treatment has increased pressure to find alternative, non-chemical control methods. Feeding hay of the high condensed tannin (CT) forage sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] to sheep and goats has reduced GIN fecal egg count (FEC) and worm numbers in the abomasum and small intestines. This effect has been reported with both unground (long) and ground hay. Pelleting of ground hay increases ease of storage, transport, and feeding, but heating during the pelleting process could reduce biological activity of CT. Eighteen naturally GIN-infected 5-6-month-old Kiko-Spanish cross bucks were fed pelleted and ground SL hay and ground bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactyon (L.) Pers.] hay diets (n=6 per treatment) in a confinement trial. The bucks were fed the ground BG hay (75% of daily intake) plus a pelleted 16% CP commercial goat chow (25% of daily intake) for 3 weeks, after which they were assigned to treatment groups based upon FEC, 12 animals were switched to ground and pelleted SL hay plus goat chow for 4 weeks, and then all animals were fed the BG ration for one additional week. Throughout the trial, feces and blood were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and blood packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. All goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial, with adult worms in the abomasum and small intestines recovered, counted, and identified to species. Both forms of SL hay reduced (P<0.05) FEC in goats relative to BG hay-fed animals, with a greater reduction in goats fed the SL pellets. There was no effect on PCV until the final sampling date, when the SL pellet-fed goats' PCV increased (P<0.05) compared with the other treatments. Feeding pelleted SL reduced (P<0.05) abomasal worms, primarily Haemonchus contortus, relative to the BG hay-fed goats. Worm numbers in the goats fed ground SL hay were intermediate. Pelleting SL hay enhanced its efficacy against

  12. Hay que preparar a Colombia para el turismo de naturaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Becerra

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available El turismo que se basa en su entorno natural es responsable por aproximadamente el 40% de los ingresos de turismo y es un mercado en crecimiento. Sin embargo, el turismo ha sido una actividad que ha generado graves impactos ambientales y sociales a nivel mundial. En el contexto ambiental ha transformado áreas de alto valor de conservación en ciudades de cemento y ladrillo, ha contaminado los recursos hídricos, ha erosionado terrenos, ha disminuido los hábitats de muchos animales ante la presencia no planificada de las actividades humanas y ha interrumpido el flujo de especies y de información genética ante la construcción de carreteras, complejos turísticos y otras edificaciones, entre otros impactos. En el contexto social, ha transformado culturalmente a muchas poblaciones locales, sin que hayan tenido la posibilidad y la capacidad de decidir sobre sus mejores opciones económicas y sociales. En muchos casos las poblaciones locales no han tenido la oportunidad, por fallas institucionales y de mercado, de participar activamente en la captura de beneficios de la actividad turística. Estos son ejemplos de los impactos negativos de la globalización cuando no hay la información, la capacidad y la participación ciudadana para la toma de decisión acertadas. Este artículo demuestra, mediante el uso de casos prácticos, cómo un turismo de naturaleza bien manejado, que permita la toma de buenas decisiones por parte de las personas relacionadas directa e indirectamente de sus actividades y que disminuya al máximo sus impactos negativos sociales y ambientales, es una actividad deseable para el desarrollo sostenible de una región y un país como Colombia.

  13. The Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Cinnamomum camphora and Their Insecticidal Activity against the Stored Product Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Geng, Zhufeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Chengfang; Deng, Zhiwei; Du, Shushan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of certain Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, the essential oils were extracted from the stem barks, leaves, and fruits of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, which were found to possess strong fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. The essential oils of the plants were extracted by the method of steam distillation using a Clavenger apparatus. Their composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses (HP-5MS column), and their insecticidal activity was measured by seal-spaced fumigation. D-camphor (51.3%), 1,8-cineole (4.3%), and α-terpineol (3.8%), while D-camphor (28.1%), linalool (22.9%), and 1,8-cineole (5.3%) were the main constituents of its fruits. The essential oils of the C. camphora all showed fumigant and contact toxicity. Other compounds exhibited various levels of bioactivities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora and its individual compounds can be considered a natural resource for the two stored-product insect management. PMID:27827929

  14. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  15. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool ( tǔ ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light-dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(-)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders.

  16. Potential source of S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaf: essential oil profile and enantiomeric purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Lin, Chun-Ya; Yeh, Ting-Feng; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2012-08-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool is one of the chemotypes of the indigenous cinnamon in Taiwan. In this study, hydrodistillation was used for extracting the essential oils (EOs) of C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves collected from various plants and seasons, and GC-MS and GC-FID were used to examine variations and contents of the chemical composition in EOs. Moreover, the absolute configuration of the main constituent and its EO content were illustrated by GC-FID with a chiral column. In addition, we also investigated the effect of the extraction time (1, 2, 6, and 10 h) on the yield of EO and the contents of the main constituents. Results from this study revealed that the average EO yield of 12 plants was 3.7%, and linalool accounted for more than 90%. The linalool in the EO was proved to be pure S-(+)-linalool, and its content in the leaves ranged from 28.8 ± 0.3 to 35.1 ± 0.2 mg/g. Furthermore, there were no obvious differences in EO yield and S-(+)-linalool content from various plants and seasons. On the other hand, we also demonstrated that EO and S-(+)-linalool from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves can be completely extracted out by 1 h of hydrodistillation.

  17. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  18. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity.

  19. ANTIPATHOGENIC EFFICACY OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA (BUCH.-HAM. AND AEGLE MARMELOS (L. WITH THEIR NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMIT KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipathogenic efficacy of methanolic leaf extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham. and Aegle marmelos(L. through inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216 andProteus mirabilis (MTCC 7837 the causative pathogens of food poisoning, boils, abscesses, wound infection,pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, typhoid fever, urethitis, cystitis, pylonephritis and prostatitis has beeninvestigated. All the strains were affected by methanolic leaf extract of C. tamala and A. marmelos in agar diffusionmethod and broth dilution method. The MIC values in agar diffusion method were 2.5 mg/mL against S. aureusfor extract of both plants and 5 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL, against P. mirabilis for the extract of C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The MIC values in broth dilution method were 2.5 mg/mL against S.aureus for both plantsextract, 4 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL against P.mirabilis and 9 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL against S. typhi for C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The nutritional value, phytochemical contents and inorganic substance content of C.tamala is higher than A. marmelos.

  20. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan RAKHSHANDEHROO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.

  1. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-09-30

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

  2. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin-uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Fukushima, Misato; Ito, Yoshimasa; Muraki, Etsuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    It has long been believed that an intake of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) alleviates diabetic pathological conditions. However, it is still controversial whether the beneficial effect is insulin-dependent or insulin-mimetic. This study was aimed at determining the insulin-independent effect of cinnamon. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups and orally administered with an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) for 22 d. The diabetic rats that had taken CE at a dose of more than 30 mg/kg/d were rescued from their hyperglycemia and nephropathy, and these rats were found to have upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in their brown adipose tissues as well as in their muscles. This was verified by using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which CE upregulates GLUT4 translocation and increases the glucose uptake. CE exhibited its anti-diabetic effect independently from insulin by at least two mechanisms: i) upregulation of mitochondrial UCP-1, and ii) enhanced translocation of GLUT4 in the muscle and adipose tissues.

  3. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients' daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of Cinnamomum cassia Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yeh Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values were 6.789–58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039–335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031–1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW and 2.030–3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151–2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313–9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of Cinnamon barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from C. cassia.

  5. Cinnamomum cassia essential oil inhibits α-MSH-induced melanin production and oxidative stress in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-09-18

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy.

  6. Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Santiago; Lin Sun; Murray Herbert Gibson Munro; Jacinta Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods: Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results: Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  7. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2008-10-01

    The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials.

  8. Evaluation of In-Vitro Antibacterial Acitivity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Extract on Different Microorganisms of the Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Hussain M. H. Al-Bayaty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cinnaomum zeylanicum on different types of dental plaque microorganisms. Screening study was perforned to detect the potential antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, S. mutans, L. casei, B. fragilis, A. actinomycemtemcomitans and dental plaque pool samples. From the screening test, values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were determined. The lowest MIC value was 25 mg/ml of aqueous and 12.5 mg/ml of ethanol extract for S. aureus. The highest MIC values were seen in A. actinomycetemcomitans and dental plaque aerobic pool samples with 300 mg/ml of aqueous extract and 150 mg/ml of ethanol extract. The MIC values for aqueous extracts ranged from 25 to 300 mg/ml whereas for fixed plant concentration test, showed the strongest inhibition effect for all the organisms tested. Generally, the ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum demonstrated a stronger antibacterial activity compared to the aqueous extract. This study also compared the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine with that of the plant extracts. Chlorhexidine showed a higher antibacterial effect on the microorganisms, with almost all organisms inhibited.

  9. The Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Cinnamomum camphora and Their Insecticidal Activity against the Stored Product Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Geng, Zhufeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Chengfang; Deng, Zhiwei; Du, Shushan

    2016-11-04

    To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of certain Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, the essential oils were extracted from the stem barks, leaves, and fruits of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, which were found to possess strong fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. The essential oils of the plants were extracted by the method of steam distillation using a Clavenger apparatus. Their composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses (HP-5MS column), and their insecticidal activity was measured by seal-spaced fumigation. D-camphor (51.3%), 1,8-cineole (4.3%), and α-terpineol (3.8%), while D-camphor (28.1%), linalool (22.9%), and 1,8-cineole (5.3%) were the main constituents of its fruits. The essential oils of the C. camphora all showed fumigant and contact toxicity. Other compounds exhibited various levels of bioactivities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora and its individual compounds can be considered a natural resource for the two stored-product insect management.

  10. Effects of NaCl Stress on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii%NaCl胁迫对普陀樟叶绿素荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李影丽; 汪奎宏; 杜国坚; 许利群; 杨华; 肖纪军

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii under NaCl stress. [Method] The seedling growth increment, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of 1-year old Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii were investigated in field experiment. [Result] Under NaCl stress, seedling growth increment reduced and the chlorophyll content decreased to a stable value; changes of Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo showed identical increasing trend and double peak type. With the aggravation of salt stress, most variations were ob- served in Fo, correlations among chlorophyll fluorescence parameters presented "rise-drop" trend (in the treatment of 7 g/L NaCl). [Condusion] Cinna-momum japonicum var. chenii is endowed with strong salt resistance and wide adaptability.

  11. Steam explosion pretreatment for enhancing biogas production of late harvested hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Lizasoain, Javier; Theuretzbacher, Franz; Agger, Jane W; Rincón, María; Menardo, Simona; Saylor, Molly K; Enguídanos, Ramón; Nielsen, Paal J; Potthast, Antje; Zweckmair, Thomas; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Svein J

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands are often abandoned due to lack of profitability. Extensively cultivating grassland for utilization in a biogas-based biorefinery concept could mend this problem. Efficient bioconversion of this lignocellulosic biomass requires a pretreatment step. In this study the effect of different steam explosion conditions on hay digestibility have been investigated. Increasing severity in the pretreatment induced degradation of the hemicellulose, which at the same time led to the production of inhibitors and formation of pseudo-lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the maximum glucose yields were obtained under pretreatment at 220 °C for 15 min, while higher xylose yields were obtained at 175 °C for 10 min. Pretreatment of hay by steam explosion enhanced 15.9% the methane yield in comparison to the untreated hay. Results indicate that hay can be effectively converted to methane after steam explosion pretreatment.

  12. 75 FR 60740 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the applicant's academic record (teaching, research, contributions, professional association... and language skills by conducting research abroad for periods of three to twelve months. The... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research...

  13. The Trail Inventory of John Hay National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on John Hay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  14. 75 FR 50777 - Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan; John Hay National Wildlife Refuge, Merrimack County, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan; John Hay National Wildlife Refuge... wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to outlining broad... Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan, Birds of Conservation Concern 2008, and other conservation plans at...

  15. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  16. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of allergic diseases including hay fever has increased in the last decades, especially in Westernised countries. The aim of this study was to analyse whether occupational exposure during pregnancy is associated with development of hay fever in 7-year-old Danish children....... METHODS: A total of 42 696 women and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Information on hay fever...... in the child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status...

  17. Assay of Volatile Oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl before and after Compatibility with Coptis Chinensis Franch by GC-MS%肉桂与黄连配伍前后挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严优芍; 钟伟健; 孙悦

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察肉桂与黄连配伍后挥发油成分的变化。方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取肉桂及黄连-肉桂中的挥发油,气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS )法分析提取物中挥发油成分。结果:与黄连配伍后,肉桂挥发油的主要组成成分不变,但绝大多数成分含量有所下降,同时有12个成分在配伍后消失,新增成分12~18个。结论:GC-MS法能全面地反映肉桂与黄连配伍后挥发油各个成分的变化,为两药配伍规律的研究提供一定的实验依据。%Objective To investigate the change of volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl before and after compatibility with Coptis Chinensis Franch.Methods The volatile oil of Cinnamomum cassia Presl and Cinnamomum cassia Presl -Coptis Chinensis Franch extracted by steam distillation were analyzed by GC-MS.Results After compatibility,the main components of volatile oil in Cinnamomum cassia Presl didn’t change,but the contents of most components were decreased,there were 12 components existed in Cinnamomum cassia Presl disappeared whiles 12~18 new components occurred in the paired decoction.Conclusion GC-MS can be used to reflect the change of volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl after compatibility,and the result will provide some evidence for the research of regular pattern of herb compatibility.

  18. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. Methods We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%). Results We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval]) among children with current eczema symptoms (1.77 [1.29–2.26]), current asthma symptoms (2.53 [2.08–2.98]), and current hay fever symptoms (1.21 [0.74–1.67]), compared with children without these symptoms. We also found increased use of prescribed medication and most subtypes of health services. Current asthma symptoms and current eczema symptoms, but not current hay fever symptoms, increased the health service costs with at least €300 per year per child. Conclusion Children with eczema, asthma, and hay fever used health services and prescribed medication more than children without these diseases. PMID:27695364

  19. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar quimicamente e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e gengibre (Zingiber officinale. A obtenção do óleo essencial foi realizada utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação por meio do aparelho de Clevenger modificado e a identificação e quantificação dos constituintes pelas análises em CG/EM e CG-DIC. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada por meio da técnica difusão cavidade em ágar, utilizando os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Salmonella Cholerasuis ATCC 6539 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoléico e o método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH. Nas análises cromatográficas, os constituintes majoritários encontrados no óleo essencial de C. nardus foram citronelal (47,12%, geraniol (18,56% e citronelol (11,07%, no óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foram identificados (E- cinamaldeído (77,72%, acetato de (E-cinamila (5,99% e o monoterpenóide 1,8-cineol (4,66% e, para Z. officinale os majoritários foram geranial (25,06%, neral (16,47%, 1,8-cineol (10,98%, geraniol (8,51%, acetato de geranila (4,19% e o canfeno (4,30%. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana tanto para bactérias Gram-negativas como para bactérias Gram-positivas, sendo que o óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foi o mais eficiente. A atividade antioxidante foi evidenciada pelo teste β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, respectivamente, para C. nardus, seguido de Z. officinale e C. zeylanicum, e pelo teste do DPPH foi observada apenas para C. nardus.The aims of this study were to chemically characterize and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and ginger

  20. Observations of the Biology and Ecology of the Black-Winged Termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Termitidae: Isoptera), in Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Arthur G.; Xing Ping Hu; Jinxiang Zhou; Zhongqi Qin; Hongyan Zhu; Xiangqian Chang; Zhijing Wang; Xianqin Liu; Mingyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the biology and ecology of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined in a grove of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L.), located at the Fruit and Tea Institute, Wuhan, China. Of the 90 trees examined, 91.1% had evidence of termite activity in the form of exposed mud tubes on the bark. There was no relationship between tree diameter and mud tube length. Mud tubes faced all cardinal directions; most (60%) trees had multiple tubes at all directions. H...

  1. ESTUDO QUÍMICO E ATIVIDADE LARVICIDA FRENTE AO Aedes aegypti DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DAS FOLHAS DE Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn (CANELA)

    OpenAIRE

    LEANDRA SOFIA DOS SANTOS MENDES

    2012-01-01

    Na procura pelo controle químico alternativo contra o mosquito Aedes aegypti, diversas pesquisas são desenvolvidas e estimuladas no intuito de se descobrir novas substâncias inseticidas de origem vegetal. Neste trabalho, a partir da extração e do estudo analítico do óleo essencial das folhas de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn (canela), foi analisado o efeito larvicida do óleo contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Extraiu-se quantitavamente o óleo essencial da...

  2. Effect of quantity, quality, and length of alfalfa hay on selective consumption by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, C; Armentano, L E

    2003-02-01

    Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 6 or 7 d. Cows were housed in tie-stalls, and diets were fed ad libitum twice daily at 1100 and 1600 h. Diets contained 60% concentrate and either 40% alfalfa hay or 20% alfalfa hay and 20% alfalfa silage (dry matter basis). The effect of quantity, quality, and length of hay on sorting behavior was determined. Treatments consisted of 20% lower or higher quality long alfalfa hay, 20% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay, and 40% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay. Variation of sorting among cows was also determined. Particle size distribution of samples of as-fed total mixed rations and orts were determined using the Wisconsin particle size separator. Screens have square holes with diagonals of 26.9, 18, 8.98, 5.61, and 1.65 mm (screens Y1 to Y5, respectively). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percentage ofthe predicted intake. Increasing the proportion of dry hay increased sorting. Quality of alfalfa hays that were offered did not affect sorting activity. Feeding long alfalfa hay increased selective consumption of fine particles. However, feeding long alfalfa hay also increased intake of longer particles because a higher percentage of long particles was offered. Across treatments, animals consistently sorted against longer particles in favor of finer particles. In particular, intake of Y1 as a percentage of the predicted intake was the most variable. Average Y1 intake, across the six treatments for each cow, was between 60 and 70% of predicted intake for four cows, 71 to 80% for 11 cows, 81 to 90% for five cows, 91 to 100% for two cows, and 101 to 110% for two cows. On one diet a cow failed to consume any of the Y1 portion of the total mixed ration. This variation among animals in sorting of very long feed particles may have practical significance.

  3. Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl bark essential oil in cream-filled cakes and pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food poisoning has been always a major concern in health system of every community and cream-filled products are one of the most widespread food poisoning causes in humans. In present study, we examined the preservative effect of the cinnamon oil in cream-filled cakes. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Cinnamon bark essential oil was examined against five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium to investigate its potential for use as a natural preservative in cream-filled baked goods. Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For evaluation of preservative sufficiency of the oil, pathogens were added to cream-filled cakes manually and 1 μL/mL of the essential oil was added to all samples except the blank.  Results: Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and twenty five components were identified where cinnamaldehyde (79.73%, linalool (4.08%, cinnamaldehyde para-methoxy (2.66%, eugenol (2.37% and trans-caryophyllene (2.05% were the major constituents. Cinnamon essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in vitro and the minimum inhibitory concentration values against all tested microorganisms were determined as 0.5 μL/disc except for S. aureus for which, the oil was not effective in tested concentrations. After baking, no observable microorganism was observed in all susceptible microorganisms count in 72h stored samples.  Conclusion: It was concluded that by analysing the sensory quality of the preserved food, cinnamon oil may be considered as a natural preservative in food industry, especially for cream-filled cakes and pastries.

  4. 锡兰肉桂中的黄酮类化合物%Flavonoids from Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅文莉; 瞿书华; 陈昌祥; 吴高芬

    2001-01-01

    @@  锡兰肉桂(Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl)为樟科樟属植物,原产斯里兰卡,勐腊、景洪有 栽培。前人对其中的挥发油成分进行过研究,但其它成分未见有报道。对采集于西双版纳植 物园的锡兰肉桂的地上部分的乙醇提取物进行了活性筛选,结果表明具有抗PAF活性。为寻 找抗PAF活性的先导化合物,我们对该植物的化学成分进行了研究。   现报道锡兰肉桂地上部分分离得到的5个黄酮类化合物,经1H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS等波谱测定,它们被分别鉴定为:山奈酚(kaempferol 1), 山奈酚-3-0-α-L-鼠李 糖甙(kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside 2) , 山奈酚-3-0-芦丁甙(kaempferol-3-O-rutin oside 3), 异鼠李亭3-0-芦丁甙(isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside 4),荭草甙(orientin 5)。

  5. Anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress activities of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayaprasad Upadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT leaves (aqueous extract in rats. Materials and Methods: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o., imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o., and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p.o. for anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress studies, respectively. Standard drugs were given 1 time, 30 min preceding the behavioral trials. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test was employed to analyze the results. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant as compared to control. CT at 400 mg/kg produced an antianxiety effect equivalent to lorazepam, in the elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests among selected doses of the CT. CT at 400 mg/kg also induced an antidepressant activity similar to imipramine, in the behavioral despair, learned helplessness test, and tail suspension among selected doses of the CT. Moreover, CT at 400 mg/kg produced a significant antistress effect comparable to W. somnifera in water immersion-restraint stress by decreasing ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, and by normalizing the plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels when related to stress control. Conclusion: The study shows that among the different CT doses, CT at 400 mg/kg possesses significant anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-stress effects and has therapeutic beneficial for the management of psychological ailments.

  6. polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina; Santiago; Lin; Sun; Murray; Herbert; Gibson; Munro; Jacinta; Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp.fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum.Methods:Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate.This was followed by hioaclivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography.The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi.Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial,antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis,mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database.Results:Three known compounds,namely 4—hydroxymellein,4,8—dihydroxy—6—melhoxy—3—methyl—3,4-dihydro—1H-isochromen-1—one and 1—(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone,were isolated from the fungus.The polyketide compound 4—hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus sublilis(97.3%).Meanwhile.4,8—dihydroxy-6—melhoxy—3—meth) 1—3,4-dihydro—1H—isochromen—1-one,a benzopyran compound,demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(48.8%)and the fungus Aspergillus niger(56.1%).The second polyketide compound.1(2,6—dihydroxyphenyl)ethanone was inactive against the tested targets.Conclusions:These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers ol pharmacologically important compounds,including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  7. The essential oil components of Cinnamomum cassia:an analysis under different thinning models of plantation Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dayan Tao; Yuanfa Li; Daodiao Lu; Yehong Luo; Sufang Yu; Shaoming Ye

    2016-01-01

    Thinning is an important activity employed in forest management. To date, studies have mainly focused on the effects of thinning on the growth of trees during the same thinning period. In this study, plantation Pinus mas-soniana Lamb. near maturity were thinned at varying intensities and an economically important species, Cin-namomum cassia Presl., was planted beneath the thinned canopy. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of the extent of thinning on the essential oil content and its components of C. cassia in different parts of the plant, as well as the economic feasibility of the P. massoniana–C. cassia management model. Thinning significantly reduced the oil yield in the bark and branches of C. cassia, but hardly impacted the oil yield from C. cassia leaves com-pared with pure C. cassia forest (CK). Among the different thinning treatments, both light (T.4) and extensive (T.1) thinning reduced the oil yield of C. cassia bark and new branches. The concentrations of the main aldehydes differed in different parts of the plant and were affected by the extent of thinning. The influence on cinnamaldehyde in the bark was minor, but was much greater in the branches and leaves. Both the oil yield and content of cinnamalde-hyde showed that moderate (T.3) thinning was more favorable than other thinning models. These results not only provide a potentially promising model for the trans-formation of low–yield artificial pure forests of P. masso-niana in the future, but also offer a reference for the management of artificial mixed stands.

  8. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Bechan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  9. Anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress activities of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Gayaprasad; Khoshla, Sarvesh; Kosuru, Ramoji; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves (aqueous extract) in rats. Materials and Methods: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress studies, respectively. Standard drugs were given 1 time, 30 min preceding the behavioral trials. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test was employed to analyze the results. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant as compared to control. CT at 400 mg/kg produced an antianxiety effect equivalent to lorazepam, in the elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests among selected doses of the CT. CT at 400 mg/kg also induced an antidepressant activity similar to imipramine, in the behavioral despair, learned helplessness test, and tail suspension among selected doses of the CT. Moreover, CT at 400 mg/kg produced a significant antistress effect comparable to W. somnifera in water immersion-restraint stress by decreasing ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, and by normalizing the plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels when related to stress control. Conclusion: The study shows that among the different CT doses, CT at 400 mg/kg possesses significant anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-stress effects and has therapeutic beneficial for the management of psychological ailments.

  10. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  11. [AMWFA method applied to research on changes of essential components and extractive ratioes of herbal pair Cinnamomum cassia and Poria cocos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Xian-Qin; Yu, Xiao-Min; Wei, Tao; Li, Yan-Xia

    2008-09-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, chemometric resolution method-Alternative movingwindow factor analysis that were proposed recently and the Kovats retention index were used to analyze the essential components of herbal pair Cinnamomum cassia Presl and Poria cocos (CCP-PC) and compare them with those of single herbal Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CCP). 46 and 42 essential components in essential oil of CCP and CCP-PC have been identified individually. Results shows that the number of essential components of CCP and CCP-PC were almost the same, but extractive ratioes of them have changed significantly, some of them were increased obviously, most of them were declined notably instead and even several ingredients of CCP-PC were disappeared due to CCP PC's interaction probably. The main pharmacodynamic ingredients of CCP-PC, 3-phenyl-2-propenal and Cinnamaldehyde were obviously higher contents than that of single CCP. It suggested that there exist certain interactions of the chemical ingredients in compound medicine rather than their sum effect of single medicines. There is a litter difference in quality and quantity between single medicines and pair medicines, so the application of pair medicines can expand single medicine's adaptive disease and has a good clinical referenced valuation.

  12. Changes in the timing of hay cutting in Germany do not keep pace with climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Anna; Sparks, Tim H; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2013-10-01

    A unique long-term phenological data set of over 110 000 records of 1st cutting dates for haymaking across Germany, spanning the years 1951-2011 was examined. In addition, we analyzed a long-term data set in the beginning of flowering of meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis) covering the last 20 years. We tested whether hay-cutting dates (based on a human decision when to cut) showed trends, temperature relationships and spatial distribution similar to the development of this grassland species, and if these trends could be related to climate change. The timing of 1st hay cut was strongly influenced (P cutting, with the majority of German federal states having significant (P cutting) were likely to be responsible for the regional differences, while the general increase in AES appears to have confounded the overall trend in hay cutting in the last 20 years. Trends over time and responses to temperature were small relative to those associated with the phenology of meadow foxtail. The advance in phenology of this species is greater than the advance in hay cutting, implying that hay cutting may not be keeping pace with a changing climate, which may have a positive effect on grassland ecology.

  13. Characteristics of the carcass of goats of different genotypes fed pineapple (Ananas comosus L. stubble hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Maria Brito Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the substitution of Tifton hay (0, 33, 66, 100 g/100 g for pineapple (Ananas comosus L. stubble hay was evaluated in the characteristics of the carcasses of goats of an unknown breed (UB in feedlot. Thirty-two bucks with an average initial live weight of 17.5±1.3 kg, at approximately 150 days of age, were housed in individual stalls provided with feeding and drinking troughs. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications. There was a quadratic effect on the weights of hot carcass and cold carcass, empty body, and loin eye area. A linear increase was observed for losses by carcass cooling. The weights of commercial cuts and the weights of total muscle, total bone, intramuscular fat, and total fat decreased linearly. All morphometric measurements were influenced by the inclusion of pineapple stubble hay in the .diets. Substitution of Tifton hay for pineapple stubble hay at the level of 33 g/100 g improves the carcasses of UB goats qualitatively and quantitatively

  14. The effect of supplementation on productive performance of Boer goat bucks fed winter veld hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A M; Schwalbach, L M; de Waal, H O; Greyling, J P C; Cardoso, L A

    2006-07-01

    Fifteen Boer goat bucks, (6-8 months old), were allocated into two groups and fed ad libitum for a period of 29 days. The WH group (winter hay; n = 8) received a chopped diet consisting of grass hay, predominantly Themeda trianda grass (cut during the winter) from a natural pasture (veld). The WH+S group (winter hay plus supplement; n = 7) received a chopped diet consisting of Themeda trianda veld hay, supplemented with maize meal, molasses meal and urea. Body weights and feed consumption were recorded. Animals were slaughtered and carcass characteristics (weight and percentages of selected carcass cuts) and the carcass chemical composition were determined. The WH+S animals showed a higher live weight and cumulated feed intake. Carcass cuts from WH animals represented a higher percentage of the total carcass, especially cuts where muscle depots are higher (legs, best end chops and prime cuts). There is an attempt by non-supplemented animals to preserve the body's nitrogen reserves under prolonged nutritional stress conditions, and there is consequently a necessity to supplement feeding of small ruminants fed winter veld hay, especially if the animals are to be used in subsequent breeding seasons.

  15. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  16. Interactions of tallow and hay particle size on yield and composition of milk from lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T C; Bertrand, J A; Bridges, W C

    1998-05-01

    An 18-wk lactation study was conducted to determine whether the effects of tallow on the lactation performance of dairy cows were influenced by particle size of hay in the ration. A total mixed ration containing 50% concentrate, 25% corn silage, and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis) was fed to Holstein cows. Four total mixed rations were developed based on differences in the percentage of tallow in the concentrate and particle size of alfalfa hay: 1) 0% tallow, long-cut hay; 2) 0% tallow, short-cut hay; 3) 5% tallow, long-cut hay; and 4) 5% tallow, short-cut hay. Ration had no effect on dry matter intake, body weight gain or change in body condition score. Tallow increased milk and milk protein yields but reduced milk protein concentration. However, the effects of tallow on milk and milk protein yields were the same, regardless of hay length in the ration. A tendency for an interaction of tallow and hay particle size was detected for fat-corrected milk (FCM) because tallow increased FCM more when hay was short. Ration had no effect on volatile fatty acids in ruminal samples collected via a stomach tube. In this study, the effects of tallow on milk yield and composition from Holstein cows were the same, regardless of hay particle size in the ration. The tendency for tallow to increase FCM more when hay was short suggests at least a limited role of forage particle size in the determination of how fat supplements in dairy rations affect lactation performance.

  17. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2016-01-01

    with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. METHODS: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register...... information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%). RESULTS: We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval]) among children with current eczema symptoms (1......BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children...

  18. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children...... with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. METHODS: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register...... information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%). RESULTS: We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval]) among children with current eczema symptoms (1...

  19. Passage kinetics of digesta in horses fed with coastcross hay ground to different degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pimentel Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics, physicochemical characteristics and particle size of digesta in the right ventral colon (RVC of horses fed coastcross hay ground to different degrees. Four horses fitted with cannulae in the RVC were used and were fed the following forms of hay: long, chopped, ground to 5 mm and ground to 3 mm. A Latin Square 4x4 study design was used. Each experimental period included 10 days for diet adaptation, four days for feces collection and one day for digesta collection. The kinetics of the particulate and solute phases of digesta were evaluated based on the mean retention time (MRT, passage rate (k and transit time (TT using two external markers: Cr-NDF and Co-EDTA. The TT of solid phase digesta was 3 hours longer (P0.05 in k or MRT in either the liquid or solid phase of digesta as a function of the different degrees of hay grinding. However, the liquid phase of digesta presented a higher k than the solid phase, with values of 3.28 and 2.73 h-1 being obtained, respectively. The smallest particle size and the lowest neutral detergent fiber contents in colon digesta were observed when hay ground to 3 mm was offered, leading to values of 0.51 mm and 53.46%, respectively. Grinding the hay increased the transit time of the liquid phase in the digestive tract of the horses, whereas no change in the kinetics of the solid phase digesta was observed. The grinding of hay reduced the NDF and the average particle size in the right ventral colon.

  20. Serum constituents and metabolic hormones in sheep and cattle fed Kochia scoparia hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D L; Smith, G S; Hallford, D M

    1991-07-01

    Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. is a prospective forage crop for arid areas, although its potential value is constrained by occasional toxicity that may involve alteration of metabolic hormones. The present research compared serum clinical profiles and metabolic hormone concentrations in steers and wethers fed kochia hay (85% OM, 13% CP, 45% ADF, and 6.3% total oxalate) to those of suitable controls that were pair-fed equal amounts of DM as alfalfa hay (91% OM, 13% CP and 42% ADF). Eight steers (240 +/- 2 kg BW) that were pair-fed kochia or alfalfa hay for 21 d had similar levels of serum insulin (INS) or somatotropin (GH), but kochia lowered prolactin (PRL) (6.0 vs 118 ng/ml; P = .14). Kochia hay did not elevate serum bilirubin at d 21 in these steers; however, lactic dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were elevated 1.3-fold (P less than .05). Ten fine-wool wethers (29 +/- kg BW) pair-fed kochia or alfalfa hay for 21 d had similar levels of PRL and INS at d 0, 5, 10, and 21; however, GH was lower in wethers fed kochia at d 5 (P less than .05) and somewhat lower at d 10 and 21. Kochia elevated serum unconjugated bilirubin 1.25-fold over pair-fed controls (P = .06) and increased (P less than .05) activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases. Metabolic hormone responses to kochia hay differed in steers vs wethers during undemutrition and mild toxicosis that occurred within 3 wk.

  1. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6...... with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position....

  2. Bromatological composition of pineapple crown silage with citrus pulp, hay, and urea.

    OpenAIRE

    Michael López-Herrera; Rodolfo WingChing-Jones; Augusto Rojas-Bourrillon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional characteristics of silage mixtures of pineapple crown including dehydrated citrus pulp and hay, with increasing levels of urea. The experiment was conducted between May to September 2013 and the crowns were from Guapiles, Costa Rica. These were chopped to obtain an average particle size of 3 cm, and packaged in vacuum- sealed bags to which were added: urea (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% w/w fresh basis), 2 high sources of dry matter: hay (H) of...

  3. Quality of aged shoulder from lambs fed with different oldman saltbush hay levels (Atriplex nummularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharcilla Isabella Rodrigues Costa Alvarenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of different levels of oldman saltbush hay and ageing time on the physical characteristics of Santa Inês lamb meat. Sixty shoulders from 32 male lambs fed with 30, 40, 50 or 60% oldman saltbush hay for 60 days were vacuum-packaged and stored in a refrigerator at 0 ± 1°C for 0, 7 or 14 days of ageing. The shear force, cooking loss and water holding capacity were 3.06kgf cm-2, 37.28% and 76.71%, respectively, and there were no significant changed by studied factors (P>0.05

  4. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  5. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II, using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG (Groups 1 and 2 and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4 blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05. Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05. Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001. Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001. Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  6. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Kuo Liu,1 Kuan-Hsing Chen,2 Yann-Lii Leu,3,4 Tzong-Der Way,5 Ling-Wei Wang,6,7 Yu-Jen Chen,8,9,* Yu-Ming Liu6–8,* 1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 2Kidney Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, School of Medicine, 3Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, 4Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 7National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 8School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae, a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition.

  8. Effect of Cinnamomum burmannii Nees ex Bl. and Massoia aromatica Becc. Essential Oils on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that can be found in almost every habitat. They can be attached to a surface and protected by an extracellular matrix of biomolecules that substantially protect microorganisms from environmental effects. The aim of this research is to explore the potency of essential oils from Cinnamomum burmannii Nees ex Bl. and Massoia aromatica Becc. against planktonic growth and biofilm formation of, two opportunistic pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I. Essential oil from C. burmannii  and M. aromatica showed a 50% inhibition of  P. aeruginosa and S. aureus planktonic growth (PMIC50 at concentration of 0.12 % v/v. Essential oil from C. burmannii and M.  aromatica showed capability to inhibit 50% (MBIC50 of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilm formation at concentration of 0.03 % v/v, whereas higher concentration (0.12 % v/v was needed by C. burmannii and M. aromatica oil to disrupt 50% of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus established biofilm. The analysis by GC-MS showed cinnamic aldehyde (92.02 % to be the major component of C. burmannii essential oil, whereas Massoialactone (92.05 % was the main constituent of M. aromatica essential oil. The results obtained in this study have made the oil of C. burmannii and M. aromatica oil as an interesting source for antibiofilm agents in the development of new strategies to treat infections caused by P. aeruginosa and  S. aureus biofilm.Industrial Relevance. Instead of freely swimming in solution (planktonic, in nature microbial tends to adhere to surfaces, and develop microbial biofilms. Microbial biofilms are exhibits resistance to both antimicrobial drugs and the host defence systems, which often results in persistent and difficult-to-treat infections. This makes the discovery of anti-infective agents which are active against planktonic and biofilm microbial represents an important goal. Plant is an interesting source for finding

  9. Fast pyrolysis of organic acid leached wood, straw, hay and bagasse: Improved oil and sugar yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Organic acid leaching of pine wood, straw, bagasse and hay effectively reduced the amount of catalytically active alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs). Using the (acetic) acid produced by pyrolysis as leaching agent, the AAEMs content could be reduced to 90–600 mg/kg. Tests with AAEMs impregnate

  10. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility meaurements in ponies fed different grass hays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Wartena, F.C.; Zoon, van M.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements of feedstuffs for equines were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming four grass-hay diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diets contained either a low (L), medium (M), high (H), or very high (VH) ADF content (264, 314, 375, or 396 g·kg-1 D

  11. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  12. Interaction of bale size and preservative rate for large-round bales of alfalfa hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, two studies conducted at the US Dairy Forage Research Center have reported inconsistent storage responses following the application of propionic-acid-based preservatives to alfalfa or alfalfa-orchardgrass hays. One of these studies utilized 5-foot-diameter round bales, and produced disappo...

  13. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program June 23-July 26, 1993. Brazilian History and Culture Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Div. of International Education.

    This document consists of 16 papers on aspects of Brazilian culture, history, and geography prepared by participants in the Fulbright Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Brazil in 1993. The papers are: (1) "Cordel Literature: A Window on the History and Culture of Brazil" (Juan Barroso VIII); (2) "Connections: Public Images of Indians and Brazil's…

  14. A Journey through India beyond the Textbook. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawierucha, Christina F. M.

    This unit is designed to accompany a video presentation that focuses on India from the perspective of a participant in the Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad Program. This unit can be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The text provides a narrative as students view contemporary pictures of India and is intended to…

  15. Indonesia and the Challenge of Development. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program (November, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    This collection of works from the Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar presents curriculum projects and cross cultural studies developed by the participants. The 18 works deal with Indonesia and the problems facing developing nations. Subjects include tradition, popular culture, change, and economic development and its impact on women. Indonesia is…

  16. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program 1992: Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMIDEAST, Washington, DC.

    The projects described in this document were submitted by U.S. teachers who spent time in Morocco and Tunisia as part of the 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The following are among the titles of the projects included: "Formal Education in Rural Morocco: Problems and Constraints" (Victoria Baker); "Continuity and Change…

  17. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Hays Army Ammunition Plant, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-07

    Society of Professional Archeologists in field, collections, and archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical archeology...evidence of broad regional cultural interactions throughout the prehistoric Paloo-Indian, Archaic, and Woodland tra- ditions. As discussed in 2.1.1...available in draft for consultation by Hays AAP facility personnel (Stephanie Rodeffer, personal co=nuication 1983). In addition, the Carnegie Museum has

  18. Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of hay and soybean processing waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiying; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yebo

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of soybean processing waste (SPW) and hay in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) for biogas production was investigated. Effects of the SPW to hay ratio, feedstock to effluent (inoculum) ratio, premixing of effluent with feedstock, and leachate recirculation on biogas production via SS-AD were studied. The highest methane yield of 258 L/kg VS was obtained with a SPW/hay ratio of 75:25 and feedstock/effluent (F/E) ratio of 3, which was 148% and 50% higher than that of 100% SPW and 100% hay, respectively. Increasing the F/E ratio from 1 to 5 decreased methane yield, however the highest volumetric methane yield (16.2L/L reactor) was obtained at an F/E of 3. There was no significant difference in methane yields between premixing 50% and 100% of the effluent. Leachate recirculation significantly accelerated the SS-AD start-up process when effluent was not completely premixed.

  19. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay i...

  20. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer-Helmich L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lene Hammer-Helmich,1,2 Allan Linneberg,1,3,4 Simon Francis Thomsen,5,6 Line Tang,1 Charlotte Glümer1,7 1Research Center for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 2Department of Real World Evidence and Epidemiology, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, 3Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 5Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 7Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Background: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. Methods: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%. Results: We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval] among children with current eczema symptoms (1.77 [1.29–2.26], current asthma symptoms (2.53 [2.08–2.98], and current hay fever symptoms (1.21 [0.74–1.67], compared with children without these symptoms. We also found increased use of prescribed medication and most subtypes of health services. Current asthma symptoms and current eczema symptoms, but not current hay fever symptoms, increased the health

  1. Soil Carbon Stocks in Two Hybrid Poplar-Hay Crop Systems in Southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiara Winans

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree-based intercropping (TBI systems, consisting of a medium to fast-growing woody species planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, are a potential sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. TBI systems contribute to farm income in the long-term by improving soil quality, as indicated by soil carbon (C storage, generating profits from crop plus tree production and potentially through C credit trading. The objectives of the current study were: (1 to evaluate soil C and nitrogen (N stocks in soil depth increments in the 0–30 cm layer between tree rows of nine-year old hybrid poplar-hay intercropping systems, to compare these to C and N stocks in adjacent agricultural systems; and (2 to determine how hay yield, litterfall and percent total light transmittance (PTLT were related to soil C and N stocks between tree rows and in adjacent agricultural systems. The two TBI study sites (St. Edouard and St. Paulin had a hay intercrop with alternating rows of hybrid poplar clones and hardwoods and included an adjacent agricultural system with no trees (i.e., the control plots. Soil C and N stocks were greater in the 0–5 cm depth increment of the TBI system within 1 m of the hardwood row, to the west of the poplar row, compared to the sampling point 1 m east of poplar at St. Edouard (p = 0.02. However, the agricultural system stored more soil C than the nine-year old TBI system in the 20–30 cm and 0–30 cm depth increments. Accumulation of soil C in the 20–30 cm depth increment could be due to tillage-induced burial of non-harvested crop residues at the bottom of the plow-pan. Soil C and N stocks were similar at all depth increments in TBI and agricultural systems at St. Paulin. Soil C and N stocks were not related to hay yield, litterfall and PTLT at St. Paulin, but hay yield and PTLT were significantly correlated (R = 0.87, p < 0.05, n = 21, with lower hay yield in proximity to trees in the TBI system and similar hay

  2. Observations of the Biology and Ecology of the Black-Winged Termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Termitidae: Isoptera, in Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (L. (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur G. Appel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology and ecology of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined in a grove of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L., located at the Fruit and Tea Institute, Wuhan, China. Of the 90 trees examined, 91.1% had evidence of termite activity in the form of exposed mud tubes on the bark. There was no relationship between tree diameter and mud tube length. Mud tubes faced all cardinal directions; most (60% trees had multiple tubes at all directions. However, if a tree only had one tube, 22.2% of those tubes faced the south. The majority (>99% of mud tubes were found on the trunk of the tree. Approximately 35% of all mud tubes had termite activity. Spatial distribution of termite activity was estimated using camphor and fir stakes installed throughout the grove. Camphor stakes were preferred. Kriging revealed a clumped distribution of termite activity.

  3. Registro de Acromyrmex disciger Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae no Município de Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pikart

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae is cultivated for production of leaves, bark and roots, due to its aromatic and spice proprieties. But despite being a resistant plant, C. zeylanicum is subject to attack by various insects and mites during their development, and these pests are responsible for considerable reduction in crop yields. The aim of this study was to record and characterize the attack by leaf-cutting ants in plants of C. zeylanicum in Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between January and March 2010. Damage were characterized by cutting young leaves and shoots of plants of C. zeylanicum with height between 1.0 to 1.5 m and total defoliation of plants less than 1.0 m. The attack in adult plants was not observed. This is the first record of leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex disciger Mayr damaging plants of C. zeylanicum in Brazil.

  4. Effect of plant growth regulators on direct somatic embryogenesis in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) from immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic calli induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuLi; Zhou Suo; Bao Man-zhu

    2007-01-01

    A description of a successful direct somatic embryogenesis induction from immature zygotic embryos of a camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) is presented. After a subculture of 2-3 years,embryogenic calli could be derived from primary somaticembryos. Immature zygotic embryos were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)basal medium supplemented with a range of combinations of cytokinins (BA) and auxins(2,4-D or NAA) for somatic embryo induction. Primary somatic embryos could be induced direly in almost all PGR combinations. A positive effect of 2,4-D On somatic embryo genesis from immature zygotic embryos of camphor tree was obtained. BA at appropriate concentrations (5mg·L-1) of BA had the effect of restraining somatic embryo induction. NAA had a less positive effect on somatic embryogenesis than 2,4-D.

  5. Evaluation of Antifungal and Antibacterial Activity and Analysis of Bioactive Phytochemical Compounds of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon Bark using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Hadi Hameed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites. Thirty nine bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Cinnamon bark. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. GC-MS analysis of Cinnamomum zeylanicum revealed the existence of the 6 -Oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one, Benzaldehyde, Cyclohexene,4-isopropenyl-1-methoxymethoxymethyl, Benzoic acid- methyl ester, Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal, Benzenepropanal, Benzylidenemalonaldehyde, 3-Phenylpropanol, Cinnamaldehyde, (E, 2-Propen- 1- ol,3-phenyl, 9-Methoxybicyclo[6.1.0]nona – 2,4,6- triene , 1,3-Bis(cinnamoyloxymethyladamantine, Alfa.– Copaene, Naphthalene , 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methyl, Cis – 2-Methoxycinnamic acid, Bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene,2,6- dimethyl-6-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl, Trans-2-Hydroxycinnamic acid , methyl ester, y-Muurolene, ß-Guaiene, Cadala-1(10,3,8-triene, Isolongifolene,4,5,9,10-dehydro, Cubenol, Tau-Muurolol, Α-Cadinol , Spiro[tricyclo[4.4.0.0(5.9]decane-10.2oxirane],1-methyl-4-isoprol, 6-Isopropenyl-4,8q-dimethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen, Ethyl9,9-difomylnona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoate, Trans-13-Octadecenoic acid, Tributyl acetylcitrate, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid ,2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 9-Octadecenamide, 17.alfa.-21ß-28,30-Bisnorhopane, 17.alfa.-21ß-28,30-Bisnorhopane, Androstan-3-one,cyclic 1,2-ethanediyl mercaptole , (5α, (4H4a,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydrobenzopyran-5-one-3-carboxamide,2, 4H-Cyclopropa[5´,6´]benz [1´,2´,7,8]azuleno[5,6]oxiren-4-one,8,8a, (22S-21-Acetoxy-6α,11ß-dihydroxy-16α,17α-propylmethylenediox, (+-γ-Tocopherol,O-methyl and Stigmasterol. Cinnamomum zeylanicum contain chemical constitutions which may be useful for various herbal formulation as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, cardiac tonic and antiasthamatic. Cinnamomum zeylanicum was highly active against

  6. Isolinderanolide B, a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, inhibits proliferation of T24 human bladder cancer cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Lin, En-Shyh; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chen, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Isolinderanolide B (IOB), a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in T24 human bladder cancer cells. To identity the anticancer mechanism of IOB, its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 Waf1/Cip1, Fas/APO-1 receptor, and Fas ligand was assayed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the G0/G1 phase arrest is because of increase in the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by IOB. This study reports the novel finding that the induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and activity of the Fas/mFas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the antiproliferative activity of IOB in T24 cells.

  7. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  8. Supplementary feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L with late harvested hay. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rehbinder

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the fodder available for roedeer during wintertime, late harvested hay was placed on racks early in November in three consecutive years. Freeezing kept the hay dry and fresh during all three winters. In the first winter, with much snow, the bulk of the hay was consumed whereas consumption in the two subsequent mild winters was low and selective. The crude protein content of the hay was low (3.5 - 8.4% dry matter. Metabolizable energy estimated from digestion in vitro was 3.5 — 5.6 MJ per kg dry matter. Rumen liquor from roe deer during a mild winter gave lower in vitro digestion than liquor from sheep fed with ordinary rations. The value of this poor hay for roe deer is discussed with respect to the animals requirements, seasonal adaption, the energy and protein content of the hay, water consumption and normal behavior. The results indicate that late harvested hay may be more suitable than regularly harvested hay or concentrates to help roe deer to survive spells of severe winter conditions. With late harvested hay placed out at several localized feeding sites, the risks of indigestion and dehydration, associated with a more concentrated, feed, are minimized and the ranking among the roe deer in particular will be less important and thus more animals will have improved prospects of gaining access to the fodder.Tilskottsutfodring av rådjur (Capreolus capreolus L med sent skordat ho. En pilotstudie.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: I avsikt att, for rådjur, oka mångden tillgångligt foder under vintertid, skordades och håssjades ho i borjan av november under tre på varandra foljande år. Hoet fros torn och holl sig fårskt alla vintrarna. Forstå vintern med mycket sno konsumerades huvuddelen av hoet medan de två foljande milda vintrarna konsumptionen var låg och selektiv. Mångden råprotein i hoet var lågt (3.5 — 8.4 % i torrsubstans. Innehållet av omsåttbar energi beråknad från digestion in vitro var 3

  9. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: dose titration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, T H; Dykes, G S; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2009-07-07

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small

  10. Study on quality standard of essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf in Guangxi%广西芳樟醇型樟叶油的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁忠云; 李桂珍; 陈海燕; 覃子海; 文彩琳

    2012-01-01

    用水蒸气蒸馏提取芳樟醇型樟叶油,用芳樟油对其进行主成分对照,并采用气相色谱测定不同产地精油成分,提出芳樟醇型樟叶油的质量标准的建议,叶油中芳樟醇含量大于80%,樟脑含量小于2.0%.%The essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf was extracted by steam distillation. The method compared with C. camphora (Linn) Presl oil was adopted to analyze and identity the oil and GC was used to determine the relative content of commom ( main) constituents from different fields in Guangxi. We gave the quality standard proposal of essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf of relative content of higher 80% linalool and lower 2. 0% camphor.

  11. Association between parental socioeconomic position and prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever among children in different age groups and examine the associations with parental socioeconomic position. METHODS: A cross-sectional health survey of four complete birth-cohorts in the municipality of Copenhagen was conducted....... Children aged 11 and 15 years and parents of children aged 3 and 6 years completed questionnaires on symptoms and diseases. Data were linked to national registers on demographics and socioeconomic position measured as education, employment and income. In total, 9720 children/parents responded (50...... and ranged between 15.5% and 17.8%. Odds Ratios for children of parents with the lowest vs. the highest educational level were 1.50 (95% CI = 1.17-1.91) for asthma; 1.68 (95% CI = 1.35-2.10) for hay fever; and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.89) for atopic eczema. Unemployment was significantly associated...

  12. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of a Glucose Dehydrogenase from a Hay Infusion Metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Basner; Garabed Antranikian

    2014-01-01

    Glucose hydrolyzing enzymes are essential to determine blood glucose level. A high-throughput screening approach was established to identify NAD(P)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for the application in test stripes and the respective blood glucose meters. In the current report a glucose hydrolyzing enzyme, derived from a metagenomic library by expressing recombinant DNA fragments isolated from hay infusion, was characterized. The recombinant clone showing activity on glucose as substrate ex...

  13. Optimization of Solid-Supported Glaser-Hay Reactions in the Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Lampkowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The translation of organometallic reactions into a microwave reactor has numerous advantages. Herein, we describe the application of a previously developed solid-supported Glaser-Hay reaction to microwave conditions. Overall, an array of diynes has been prepared demonstrating the ability to conduct chemoselective reactions in the microwave within 20 min compared to the 16 h thermal conditions. Moreover, non-microwave transparent alkynes have been found to react more quickly, preventing catalyst quenching, and resulting in higher yields.

  14. Fecal Kinetics and Digestibilities of Hays and Supplements Estimated by Marker Methods in the Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Hargreaves, Belinda Jane

    1998-01-01

    Fecal Kinetics and Digestibilities of Hays and Supplements Estimated by Marker Methods in the Horse by Belinda J. Hargreaves David S. Kronfeld, Chairman Department of Animal and Poultry Science (ABSTRACT) A marker model of fecal kinetics using chromic oxide (Cr) or ytterbium chloride (Yb) is being developed for grazing horses. The model consists of removal of feces at a constant rate from a single compartment, the prefecal mass. It was tested in experiments on stall-fed h...

  15. Use of conditioning in the production of black and white oat hay using two cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate the dehydration curves, chemical composition, and occurrence of fungi in white oat hay (Avena sativa L. cv. Guapa BRS and black oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common at two cutting heights. Dehydration curves were studied under a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using split plots in time, considering two types of oats (white and black, two cutting heights (10 and 20 cm, and 17 sampling times (0, 4, 19, 24, 28, 43, 47, 52, 67, 71, 76, 91, 95, 100, 115, 129, and 124 hours after harvesting with five replicates. For the chemical composition and occurrence of fungi, the experimental design comprised randomized blocks in a factorial 2 × 2 split-plot in time with two types of oats, two cutting heights, and three assessment periods: before cutting, during baling, and after 30 days of storage, with five replicates. The hay obtained by cutting of the black and white oats at heights of 10 and 20 cm showed similar dehydration curves. The crude protein values were higher in white oats only at the time of cutting (141.5 g/kg. The black oats showed lower nutritional quality, with higher levels of ADF and lignin. There was no effect of cutting height on the chemical composition, but the cutting height interfered with the production of dry matter and residue after cutting, with cutting at 10 cm leading to higher dry matter production and at 20 cm to increased waste production. The cutting heights of the oats interfere directly with the dry matter production and post-harvest residue without changing the chemical composition of the hay.

  16. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15 years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was linked to register data on demographics and parental socioeconomic position. 9215 (47.9%) children were included in the analyses. Results Linear regression analyses showed that children with current eczema symptoms had higher SDQ scores (mean difference, 95% CI) of emotional problems (0.26, 0.12 to 0.39), conduct problems (0.19, 0.09 to 0.29) and hyperactivity problems (0.32, 0.16 to 0.48); children with current asthma symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.45, 0.32 to 0.58), conduct problems (0.28, 0.18 to 0.38) and hyperactivity problems (0.52, 0.35 to 0.69); and children with current hay fever symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.57, 0.42 to 0.72), conduct problems (0.22, 0.11 to 0.33), hyperactivity problems (0.44, 0.26 to 0.61) and peer problems (0.14, 0.01 to 0.26), compared with children without current symptoms of the relevant disease. For most associations, parental socioeconomic position did not modify the effect. Conclusions Children with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position. PMID:27742629

  17. Implementing DRGs at Silas B. Hays Army Community Hospital: Enhancement of Utilization Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    DEFINITION T1 Newborn, Preterm (37 weeks or less gestation) T2 Newborn, Term (38 through 41 weeks gestation) T3 Newborn, Post- term (42 weeks or more...116 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP...patients falling into the top three clinic services noted has occurred over the past ten years at Silas B. Hays Hospital. An active midwifery program

  18. Precision and accuracy of the NDF rumen degradability of hays measured by the Daisy fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zanfi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 162 hay samples from Austrian permanent grasslands was used to obtain information about the precision of the in vitro NDF degradability (NDFd measured by the Daisy fermenter and its accuracy to predict in situ NDFd. The within forage standard error of the in vitro NDFd triplicate, obtained in five consecutive incubations, was equal to 2.8%, while the effect of the four jar positions in the fermenter was not significant. The cutting frequency had a great impact on the in situ effective NDFd of hays, which ranged (P<0.01 from values of 32.9, 43.1 and 48.3% in hays obtained from 2, 3 and 4 cuts/season, respectively. The regression analysis between the in vitro and in situ NDFd values (measured at 48h and effective, k=3%/h allowed to obtain medium degrees of correlation (r2 = 0.69 – 0.71; P<0.01 and low levels of accuracy (RSE = 4.0 -4.6 %.

  19. Rumen metabolism of swamp buffaloes fed rice straw supplemented with cassava hay and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate effects of cassava hay (CH) and urea (U) supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes, 365 ± 15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: T1 = CH 400 g/head/day + U 0 g/head/day, T2 = CH + U 30 g/head/day, T3 = CH + U 60 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + U 90 g/head/day, respectively. Results revealed that feed intake was not affected while nutrient digestibilities were increased (P urea supplementation, whereas ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea nitrogen were increased with urea supplement (P urea supplement (P urea supplement, while bacterial population particularly those of proteolytic, cellulolytic, and amylolytic bacteria and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were linearly increased (P urea and cassava hay for buffaloes fed rice straw improved rumen ecology and increased fermentation end products and microbial protein synthesis while reducing protozoal populations and methane production. Urea supplements of 60-90 g/head/day when fed with cassava hay are recommended for swamp buffaloes consuming rice straw.

  20. Comparison of harvesting and transport issues when biomass crops are handled as hay vs silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, J.W. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Cundiff, J.S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    1996-04-01

    Because of frequent rainfall, hay making is problematic in central Florida. High biomass yields can be produced, but the crops must be handled as silage. Because of the long available harvest season, the cost of making silage should be less here than in other regions. Harvest of silage in central Florida with two different systems, standard (35-55 Mg/ha yield) and high-capacity (based on a hypothesized forage chopper expected to handle 55-75 Mg/ha yield), was simulated. Simulated harvest and transport cost for three versions of the standard system ranged from $108.10/dry Mg, when juice was expressed prior to ensiling in 320-Mg silage bags, to $114.15, when the chopped material was directly ensiled in an above-ground pile. Total cost was $101.70 for the high-capacity system. These costs compare to $57.25/dry Mg for hay. It appears that silage is not competitive with hay for cellulose feedstock, even in the advantageous climate of central Florida. (Author)

  1. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  2. Climatic change: back to the IIF talk at La Haye; Changements climatiques: retour sur la communication de l'IIF a La Haye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, J.L.

    2002-07-01

    This document reprints the communication given by F. Billiard, head of the international institute of refrigeration (IIF), at the COP-6 conference of La Haye (November 2000). In his talk, F. Billiard explains the contribution of the refrigeration industry to the global warming which is mainly due to the leaks of refrigerants (CFC, HCFC, HFC) and to the carbon dioxide emissions corresponding to the electric power consumption of refrigerating machineries, air-conditioners and heat pumps. Thus, the abatement of these greenhouse gas emissions requires an improvement of the confinement of the refrigeration equipments and a continuous optimization of their energy efficiency. A second part analyzes the key points of this communication and the choice of some objective appreciation criteria for the remedial actions to be implemented. A glossary completes the document. (J.S.)

  3. Effects of Haying and Grazing on Duck Production in the Blitzen Valley (Unit 12) of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a study that was done at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge to determine the effects that haying and grazing have on duck production. Three...

  4. Viga on öelda, et me ei vaja PRi / Roger Hayes, Alasdair Sutherland ; interv. Tiiu Värbu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hayes, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Suhtekorraldajate Liidu 5. aastapäeva seminaril osalevad Rahvusvahelise Kommunikatsiooni Instituudi direktor R. Hayes ja maailma ühe juhtiva suhtekorraldusfirma Manning, Selvage & Lee asepresident A. Sutherland

  5. Effects of Temperature and Light on Seeds Germination of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Cinnamomum chekiangense%温度和光照对青冈栎和浙江樟种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素娟; 林夏珍; 李珍; 刘纯玲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The effects ot temperature and light on seeds germination ot Cyclonalanopsis glauca and Cmnamomum chekiangense were studied. [ Method] The thousand seed weight of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Cinnamomum chekiangense were calculated and morphological specificity were observed. The effects of 4 kinds of temperature and 3 kinds of uminous intensity on seeds germination were studied. [ Result] Germination percentage of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Cinnamomum chekiangense showed increased firstly and then decreased in 15 -30 ℃. Germination potential and germination percentage of Cyclobalanopsis glauca in the dark conditions were significantly lower than the illumination conditions, germination percentage of Cinnamomum chekiangense seeds exceeded 75% in the dark and illumination conditions. [ Conclusion] The best suitable germination temperature for Cyclobalanopsis glauca was 25 ℃ and 20 ℃ for Cinnamomum chekiangense. Light was a prerequisite for germination of Cyclobalanopsis glauca, and the seed germination was restrained in the dark treatment. The seed of Cinnamomum chekiangense can germinate both in the light and dark, but 12 hours treatment of light obviously enhanced the percentage of its germination.%[目的]研究不同温度和光照对青冈栎和浙江樟种子萌发的影响.[方法]计算青冈栎和浙江樟种子的千粒重并观察其形态特征.研究4种温度处理和3种光照时间对种子萌发的影响.[结果]在15~30℃范围内,青冈栎和浙江樟种子的发芽率呈现先上升后下降的趋势;青冈栎种子在黑暗条件下其发芽势和发芽率显著低于光照条件,浙江樟种子在光照和黑暗条件下萌发率都超过了75%.[结论]青冈栎的最适宜萌发温度为25℃,而浙江樟则为20℃;青冈栎种子萌发需在有光条件下进行,在黑暗中萌发受抑制,浙江樟种子在黑暗和光照条件下均能萌发,但是12 h的光照可以明显提高其种子发芽率.

  6. The Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves Extractive and Potassium Iodide%樟树叶提取液与碘化钾的缓蚀协同效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴文; 龚敏; 曾宪光; 姜春梅; 曾祥梅; 张婷

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical method was used to study the synergistic effect between Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive and potassium iodide for Q23S steel in sulfuric acid solution. The results showed that the corrosion current density decreased, when Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive complexed with potassium iodide, the desorption potential positively shifted and corrosion potential negatively shifted, so the effective inhibitor region was increased, the adsorption stability of inhibitor was improved, showing better corrosion inhibition performance. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing the Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive concentration. The composite inhibitor made up of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive and potassium iodide was a mixed-type inhibitor, and the inhibitor mechanism of which was coverage effect. The joint adsorption of Cinnamomum camphor Leaves and potassium iodide on the Q235 steel surface was mainly overlapping adsorption, and the adsorption conformed with Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation.%采用电化学方法研究了樟树叶提取液(CCIE)和碘化钾复配后(FPCCLE),对Q235钢在硫酸溶液中的缓蚀协同效应,结果表明:樟树叶提取液与碘化钾复配后,腐蚀电流密度减小,腐蚀电位负移,脱附电位Edes正移,增大了缓蚀剂的有效作用范围,提高了缓蚀剂的吸附稳定性,表现出更好的缓蚀作用,且缓蚀效率随提取液浓度的增加而增大;樟树叶提取液与碘化钾组成的复配缓蚀剂属于混合抑制型缓蚀剂,作用机理为几何覆盖效应;樟树叶提取液和碘化钾在Q235钢表面的联合吸附为重叠吸附,吸附规律符合Langmuir吸附等温方程.

  7. Evaluation of nebulised hay dust suspensions (HDS) for the diagnosis and investigation of heaves. 1: Preparation and composition of HDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; McLachlan, G; McGorum, B C

    2002-07-01

    Currently, heaves is investigated by exposing susceptible horses to dusty hay. Consequently, the response will be dependent on the organic dust content and composition of the hay. It was hypothesised that the use of a hay dust suspension (HDS) would reduce the variability of the challenge and therefore standardise experimental protocols. Furthermore, analysis of HDS would also permit further investigation of the organic dust components responsible for the response. Three hay dust suspensions (HDS-1, 2 and 3) were prepared for use in the diagnosis and investigation of heaves. HDS were produced from fine dust particles, comprising mostly fungal spores, collected from 3 batches of dusty hay. HDS-1 and 3 were analysed for endotoxin, beta-D-glucan and protein concentrations, general protease activity and enumeration and size distribution of particulates. Protease activity was mainly attributable to a 28 kDa serine protease and to 85 kDa and 160 kDa metalloproteases. The particulate and soluble components of HDS could be aerosolised by jet nebulisation. We therefore conclude that detailed analysis of HDS is possible, that such a challenge system provides a method of standardising experimental protocols and that all components of HDS (both soluble and particulate) can be delivered to the lung using standard nebulisation techniques. For the above reasons, nebulised HDS offers considerable advantages over conventional hay/straw challenge for the diagnosis and investigation of heaves.

  8. Bromatological composition of pineapple crown silage with citrus pulp, hay, and urea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael López-Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional characteristics of silage mixtures of pineapple crown including dehydrated citrus pulp and hay, with increasing levels of urea. The experiment was conducted between May to September 2013 and the crowns were from Guapiles, Costa Rica. These were chopped to obtain an average particle size of 3 cm, and packaged in vacuum- sealed bags to which were added: urea (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% w/w fresh basis, 2 high sources of dry matter: hay (H of Transvala grass (Digitaria decumbens Stent, cv Transvala and dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP, both at a level of inclusion (10% w/w fresh basis, and a single level of molasses (3% w/w and bacterial inoculum by molasses fermentation with whey (1 l/t. Also a sample without additives was prepared as a control. Hay increased dry matter content and all fiber components, but reduced crude protein content, non fibrous carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients.. When PCD was used, the fiber level was reduced which increased digestibility of ensiled mixture. The use of urea increased the CP content and reduced nitrogen linked to fiber by a dilution effect. It was estimated that, silage materials allow to obtain from 0.43 to 1.89 kg of milk/cow, whenconsuming 5 kg fresh matter (FM/animal; 0.86 to 3.77 kg milk/cow when consuming 10 kg FM/animal; 1.29 to 5.66 kg milk/cow when consuming 15 kg FM/animal.

  9. Rejuvenation of shallow-crustal silicic magma bodies at Augustine and Hayes volcanoes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, M. L.; Vazquez, J. A.; Hayden, L. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Andersen, N. L.; Till, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Rejuvenation of crystal-rich magma bodies leading to eruption can occur on a variety of scales and in varied tectonic settings. Two examples from the Aleutian arc highlight 1) segregation of silicic melt from an intermediate mush, and 2) "defrosting" of a shallowly emplaced intrusion. Augustine Volcano erupted a late Pleistocene rhyolite pumice fall that we link through zircon geochronology to cumulate dioritic blocks, ripped from Augustine's shallow magmatic plumbing system and ejected during the 2006 eruption. Unpolished zircon rims from the rhyolite yield a U-Th age of ~25 ka, and interiors yield a dominant age population of ~26 ka. Zircons from diorites have interior ages and compositions indistinguishable from those of the rhyolite. The diorites, rhyolite, and early Holocene dacites define whole-rock linear unmixing trends consistent with melt (rhyolite) extraction from a mush (dacites), leaving behind a cumulate residue (diorites). A volatile-rich basalt erupted just prior to the rhyolite likely facilitated melt extraction from the mush. The rhyolitic Hayes River ignimbrite, erupted from Hayes volcano, contains dense porphyry blocks that match pumices in composition and phenocryst content and are samples of a shallow intrusion. Autocrystic monazite accommodated up to several weight % Th and significantly affected the U-Th ratio of the magma during differentiation. An isochron for early melt and low-U monazites yields an age of ~67 ka, whereas one for late melt and high-U monazites yields ~42 ka. This younger age is indistinguishable from the laser single crystal Ar-Ar age for sanidine of 41±2 ka (1 sigma). We interpret the apparent ~25 k.y. crystallization interval to represent the assembly and differentiation timescale associated with the Hayes magma body. Sharp reverse zoning in sanidine from pumice (but not porphyry) records a thermal pulse not seen in the more slowly reacting phases, suggesting that a rejuvenation event occurred just prior to eruption.

  10. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  11. 大叶芳樟优良单株选择技术研究%Superior Individual Selecting Technologies of Cinnamomum porrectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗忠生; 蒋志茵; 龙光远; 黄恒辉; 彭锦云

    2014-01-01

    对休眠期的大叶芳樟鲜叶进行水蒸气蒸馏,并采用气象色谱面积归一法对其精油进行检测,筛选出叶含油量1.3%以上、主成分右旋芳樟醇含量95%以上的大叶芳樟30棵。建议以上以母本进行无性繁殖繁育大叶芳樟苗木,营建原料林,为市场提供优质天然右旋芳樟醇。%The essential oil in leaves of Cinnamomum porrectum can be extracted by steam distillation. 30 C. porrectum trees were selected which oil content of fresh branch reached at 1.3%, and D-linalool content reached up to 95 %. Using the selected superior individual as parent generation to cultivate and manufacture raw material forests, and can provide high quality natural dextrorotary linalool for the market.

  12. In vitro effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon and Allium sativum on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenner L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils may be effective preventive or curative treatments against several flagelated poultry parasites and may become primordial either to organic farms, or as more drugs are bannished. The anti-flagellate activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon pericarps and Allium sativum bulbs was investigated in vitro on Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. On T. gallinarum, the minimal lethal concentration (MLC at 24 hours was 0.25 μl/ml for C. aromaticum oil, and 0.125 μl/ml for C. limon and A. sativum oils. On H. meleagridis, MLC was 0.5 μl/ml for C. aromaticum oil and 1 μl/m l for C. limon and A. sativum oils at 24 and 48 hours. Moreover, no synergistic effects were evidenced in vitro. The essential oil constituents, based on their GC retention times have been also identified. The major component is trans-cinnamaldehyde (79 % for C. aromaticum; limonene for C. limon (71 % and diallyl tri- and disulfide (79 % for A. sativum. Even if concentration and protocol adaptations are required for successful in vivo treatments, it appears that these oils may be useful as chemotherapeutic agents against several poultry parasites.

  13. Gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry analysis and antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum burmanii essential oil to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairunnisa, Tamhid, Hady Anshory; Nugraha, Arde Toga

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance becomes a problem that must be resolved. Plant based products are among the alternative agents examined in order to replace conventional antibiotics. Cinnamaldehyde is one of the compound in cinnamon oil that has antibacterial activity. But the other compounds in cinnamon oil has also the potential antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study to conduct GC-MS analysis of cinnamon oil and its antibacterial activity to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact. Cinnamomum burmannii was distilled by water-steam distillation to obtain essential oil. Identification of compounds was analyzed by GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was observed by gaseous contact method in airtight boxes. The GC-MS analyzed showed that there are four major compounds of cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde (56,10%), 1,8-cineole (16,53%), α-pinene (3,44%) and α -terpineol (3,05%). The Minimum Inhibitory Dose (MID) of cinnamon oil to E. coli and S. aureus was 12.5 µL/L and 6.26 µL/L respectively. Gas compounds of cinnamon oil has more effective to gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry.

  15. 大叶芳樟不同季节大田扦插的成活率%Survival Rate of Cinnamomum porrectum with Field Cutting in Different Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭逸榴; 罗忠生; 蒋志茵

    2014-01-01

    Because of its own growth characteristics, only asexual reproduction of Cinnamomum porrectum can maintain the excellent characteristics of mother-trees. The four survival rate of C. porrectum with field cutting at spring, summer, autumn, winter was investigated, the most suitable cutting season was found out. The results showed that rooting time and the growth time of new shoots of C. porrectum in the summer was the shortest;the survival rate is the highest in autumn, up to 75%, and the worst in winter.%大叶芳樟由于自身发育特点,只有无性繁殖才能保持母树的优良特性。本文从春、夏、秋、冬四季对大叶芳樟大田扦插成活率作调查,找出其最适宜的扦插季节。结果表明大叶芳樟在夏季生根时间和新梢生长时间最短,秋季成活率最高,可达75%,冬季的成活率最差。

  16. 樟树优树生长与叶果性状分析%Analysis of Growth, Leaf and Fruit of Cinnamomum camphora Superior Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连辉明; 曾令海; 蔡燕灵; 何波祥; 张谦; 何立平; 周丽华; 蔡静如; 蓝燕群

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the growth, leaf and fruit traits of Cinnamomum camphora superior trees, selected from Guangdong province in 2003, and studied the traits of its leaves and fruits. The results show that; It is effective to select superior tree based on 5 dominant trees comparison. Variance analysis about the traits of the leaves and fruit shows that the differences were very significant between the superior trees and provenances. Dynamic clustering analysis shows that there are 7 kinds of leaf-fruit type.%文章通过分析2003年广东省所选樟树优树的生长与叶果性状,从多个角度证明了5株优势木法选出的樟树优树是合理的,大部分数量指标完全超过5株优势木,樟树优树的叶果性状在个体及种源间均呈极显著差异.动态聚类分析显示樟树优树叶果有7种类型,其中长叶重圆果型、圆叶轻圆果型和圆叶重圆果型较多,分别占所选优树的23.0%、41.4%和23.0%.

  17. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  18. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI, C. zeylanicum (GII, and nystatin (GIII for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α=5%. For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P<0.0001, with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  19. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition.

  20. Safety profile assessment and efficacy of chemically characterized Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil against storage fungi, insect, aflatoxin secretion and as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Shilpee; Singh, S C; Dubey, N K

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the efficacy of Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil (EO) as insecticidal, antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant agent so as to recommend its application as plant based preservatives for food commodities. The study reports the chemical characterization of C. glaucescens oil and its 100% insecticidal activity against insect pest Callosobruchus chinensis on 12 h exposure and 98.74% oviposition deterrency at 0.15 μl/ml. The EO significantly inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus LHP-10 at 4.5 and 3.5 μl/ml respectively. EO also showed appreciable antioxidant activity (IC(50) value=15.1 μl/ml), non phytotoxic nature on chickpea seed germination and in vivo potential as fumigant in food system providing 71.07% protection of chickpea samples from fungal contamination and 100% antifeedant activity against the insect invasion. The EO exhibited non-mammalian toxicity showing high LD(50) (3971.34 μl/kg) during oral toxicity on mice.

  1. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  2. Milk characteristics of grazing sheep fed with different hay/concentrate ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pistoia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal production of pasture forces in the period of grass shortage to supply the animal feeding with hay and concentrates. The supplies satisfy the animal nutritive needs, but reduce the advantages coming from the grazing on milk quality. The present trial was carried out on Massese breed on a low productive pasture, testing four kinds of feeding supplies with different hay/concentrate ratio. The individual milk productions, the chemical composition so as the acidic milk composition have been controlled for six weeks. Although the four feeding supplies given to the animals had different chemical-nutritional values (diet A 0.84 MFU/kgDM with forage/concentrate ratio 1:1.7; B 0.78 with 1:1; C 0.72 with 1: 0.7; D 0.68 with 2:1, they did not influence the milk production which resulted quite low and without significant differences. Results did not show differences in relation to the nutritional characteristics and the acidic milk composition. In the four groups Vaccenic acid and Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA of milk showed similar and decreasing trends during the trial. These trends were probably due to the progressive grass reduction on the grazing: the effects on the dietetic characteristics of the milk did not depend on the supply but on the quantity of grass intaken during the grazing.

  3. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  4. In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics of diets containing oldman saltbush hay and forage cactus, using a cattle inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.L. Tosto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate, by means of the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, fermentation kinetics of carbohydrates and degradability of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM of diets containing oldman saltbush hay levels (8.4; 18.8; 31.2 and 48.3% associated to forage cactus in natura. Pressure readings of the gases were done with a pressure transducer at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 20, 24, 28, 34, 48, 72 and 96h post-inoculation. The rumen kinetics was described by the following parameters: maximum potential of gas production, lag time and production rates of gas (k, fibrous carbohydrates (FC and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC. It could be observed that the addition of oldman saltbush hay to the diets promoted a quadratic effect in the production of gases originated from NFC. However, there was no significant effect on the production of gases originated from FC and on production rates of gases from NFC and FC. The degradability of DM and OM did not differ due to the addition of oldman saltbush hay. The use of 8.4% hay and 74.9% forage cactus promoted the maximum potential of production of gases from the fibrous fraction of diets containing cactus and oldman saltbush hay.

  5. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (psilage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (psilage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  6. Multilevel analysis of the impact of environmental factors and agricultural practices on the concentration in hay of microorganisms responsible for farmer's lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Piarroux, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is common in eastern France. It is the main form of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis, caused by chronic inhalation of microorganisms (antigens) from mouldy hay, straw, or grain. The purpose of this study was to assess, with a panel of data collected between 1997-2003, environmental factors and agricultural practices that independently modify concentrations in hay of microorganisms potentially responsible for FLD. A total of 629 hay samples from 86 farms were included in statistical analyses using linear multilevel regression models allowing to consider the nested structure of the data: individual-level (batch of hay) and group-level (farm). The outcome variable of these models was the concentration in hay (logarithmic value of concentration+1) of microorganisms incriminated in FLD (Absidia corymbifera, Eurotium spp., thermophilic actinomycetes). The simultaneous analysis of batch of hay- and farm-level factors showed that bad climatic conditions of harvest, high-density hay-packing modes, (especially round bales) and altitude (2nd plateau, ]700-900] m) were the main factors associated with high concentrations of these microorganisms in hay. This study allowed clarification of the factors that influence the microbial concentration of hay with etiological agents of FLD.

  7. Supplementation strategies to improve efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis on cattles fed with tropical grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen L Mulik

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at increasing rumen microbial protein supply into intestine through ration manipulation. Four Santa Gertrudis steers with a mean liveweight (W of 218 (±5.6 kg were used in a latin square design (4 x 4 to observe the effect of four diets on the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. The steers were given pangola grass hay (8.5% protein as the basal diet. The treatments were 1 pangola grass hay alone (KON, 2 pangola grass hay + 19 g urea/kg dry matter (DM hay (URE, 3 as for treatment URE + a supplement mix at 0.5% W (SUP, and 4 as for treatment SUP + salt at 0.15% W (SUG. Urea was added into the hay to support a theoretical EMPS of 160 g MCP/kg digestible organic matter (DOM whereas supplement mix contains fast, medium, and slow rumen fermentable energy and protein to synchronise energy and protein release in the rumen. Salt was added to alter passage rate of digesta. Addition of urea alone or with supplement mix increased EMPS significantly compared to KON (77 g MCP/kg DOM but no difference between URE (119 g MCP/kg DOM and SUP (110 g MCP/kg DOM. Addition of salt into supplement mix increased EMPS by 84% (140 g MCP/kg DOM. It might be concluded that rumen degradable protein (RDP was deficient in steers fed low quality grass hay hence urea supplementation significantly increased EMPS to a similar extent as that of the supplement mix formulated to have a synchrony in protein and energy release. Increasing fluid dilution rate, by adding salt, also had a dramatic affect on EMPS as observed in treatment SUG. It increased up to the level suggested in the International feeding standards.

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes of grazed and hayed wetland catchments in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Wetland catchments are major ecosystems in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) and play an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) flux. However, there is limited information regarding effects of land-use on GHG fluxes from these wetland systems. We examined the effects of grazing and haying, two common land-use practices in the region, on GHG fluxes from wetland catchments during 2007 and 2008. Fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2), along with soil water content and temperature, were measured along a topographic gradient every other week during the growing season near Ipswich, SD, USA. Closed, opaque chambers were used to measure fluxes of soil and plant respiration from native sod catchments that were grazed or left idle, and from recently restored catchments which were seeded with native plant species; half of these catchments were hayed once during the growing season. Catchments were adjacent to each other and had similar soils, soil nitrogen and organic carbon content, precipitation, and vegetation. When compared with idle catchments, grazing as a land-use had little effect on GHG fluxes. Likewise, haying had little effect on fluxes of CH4 and N2O compared with non-hayed catchments. Haying, however, did have a significant effect on combined soil and vegetative CO2 flux in restored wetland catchments owing to the immediate and comprehensive effect haying has on plant productivity. This study also examined soil conditions that affect GHG fluxes and provides cumulative annual estimates of GHG fluxes from wetland catchment in the PPR.

  9. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15N and (13C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin H Klaus

    Full Text Available Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ(15N and δ(13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ(15N (δ(15N plant - δ(15N soil to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ(13C in hay and δ(15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ(13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ(15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ(13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be

  10. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15)N and (13)C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Valentin H; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ(15)N (δ(15)N plant - δ(15)N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ(13)C in hay and δ(15)N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ(13)C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ(15)N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ(13)C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently

  11. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Byskov, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    NDFI (P0.05) and similar proportion of large particles (P>0.01) compared with later harvest. Rumination time per kg NDFI decreased with higher NDFI per kg BW (Pdigestibility of NDF...... was greater in hay than in silage from the same harvest probably due to field loss and therefore confounded effects of conservation method. This study of high digestibility grass/clover silage and hay showed that NDF content and NDFI per kg BW affect fecal particle size and rumination time per kg NDF......, and suggests implementation of NDFI per kg BW in systems evaluating physical structure in diets....

  12. Composition analysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil and shell oil%樟树籽仁油和壳油的油脂组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曼丽; 杨辉; 杨芳; 胡蒋宁; 邓泽元

    2012-01-01

    The grease composition of Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil and shell oil was analyzed and compared. The results indicated that the kernel oil was rich in capric acid and lauric acid accounting for a-bout 95%,and evenly distributed at Sn-1,2 and 3 positions of triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids of the shell oil were capric acid, oleic acid and lauric acid. The total content of capric acid and lauric acid was about 48% , half of which was distributed at Sn-2 position. The content of oleic acid was 27. 60% and concentrated at Sn-1 and Sn-3 positions. The stigmasterol content of the kernel oil was 33. 89 mg/100 g, which was three times of that in the shell oil. The kernel oil contained without squalene,or with content lower than the HPLC detection limit. The squalene content of the shell oil was 1. 88 mg/100 g. Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil mainly contained α-VE,δ-VE and γ-VE with 30. 45 mg/100 g totally,among which the γ-VE content was highest with about 19. 47 mg/100 g. The total VE content of the shell oil was two or three times than that of the kernel oil,with highest content of α-VE.%以樟树籽为研究对象,对其仁油及壳油的油脂组成进行分析比较.结果表明,仁油中富含癸酸和月桂酸,占95%左右,并且均匀分布在甘油三酯Sn-1,2和3位上;壳油中脂肪酸主要为癸酸、月桂酸和油酸,其中癸酸和月桂酸总量为48%左右,半数分布在Sn-2位上,油酸含量达27.60%,并集中在Sn-1,3位上.仁油中豆甾醇含量为33.89mg/100 g,壳油中豆甾醇含量是仁油的3倍左右.仁油中不含角鲨烯或者其含量低于HPLC检出限,壳油中角鲨烯含量为1.88mg/100 g.樟树籽仁油中主要含有α-VE,δ-VE和γ-VE,总量为30.45mg/100 g,其中以γ-VE含量最高,为19.47mg/100 g;壳油中VE总量是仁油的2~3倍,其中以α-VE含量最高.

  13. Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde: a novel antiproliferative drug inducing cell death through targeting both topoisomerase I and II in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-daw Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cinnamomum verum is used to manufacture the spice cinnamon. In addition, the plant has been used as a Chinese herbal medication. Methods: We investigated the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA, a constituent of the cortex of the plant, and the molecular biomarkers associated with tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphological analysis with bright field, acridine orange, and neutral red stainings, as well as comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was determined by assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VACs were determined by neutral red staining. Results: The results demonstrate that 2-MCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis as implicated by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm loss, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, increase of annexin V+PI+ cells, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Furthermore, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with elevated VAC, cytotoxicity, and inhibitions of topoisomerase I as well as II activities. Additional study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of 2-MCA found in a nude mice model. Conclusions: Our data implicate that the antiproliferative activity of 2-MCA in vitro involved downregulation of cell growth markers, both topoisomerase I and II, and upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with increased lysosomal vacuolation. In vivo 2-MCA reduced the tumor burden that could have significant clinical impact. Indeed, similar effects were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 and Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown. Our data implicate

  14. Study on Experiment of Cuttage Season and Matrix of Cinnamomum camphora%芳樟扦插育苗季节与基质的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东星

    2012-01-01

    芳樟是经良种选育的油用林优良品种,只有采取无性繁殖才能保持母本优良性状.在厦门开展不同扦插时间、基质的育苗试验,结果表明:8~10月是适宜扦插的时间,如任务繁重可延续到11月扦插;3~6月由于穗条木质化原因,扦插成活率低,不适合扦插育苗.4种基质的扦插成活率差异不显著,采用泥碳土20%;锯末20%;黄心土57%;过磷酸钙3%的配方处理扦插成活率最高,可达88.07%.%Cinnamomum camphora is a fine breeding variety of oil use forest, only asexual reproduction can maintain the fundamental character of female parent. In Xiamen, matrix cutting seedling test in different season has been conducted, the results shows that: the suitable cutting time is from August to October, if the task heavy, it can last to November: due to the strip lignifications from March to June, cutting survival rate is low, not suitable for cutting seedling. The differences of cuttage survival rate are not significant in four cottage matrix, the formula of soil carbon account for 20 % : sawdust 20 % : yellow soil 57 % : calcium superphosphate 3% is the best which cutting survival rate can reach to 88. 07%.

  15. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinjarernpan Pannee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia oil (CO from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC 50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages.

  16. In vitro antibacterial activity and major bioactive components of Cinnamomum verum essential oils against cariogenic bacteria,Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okhee Choi; Su Kyung Cho; Junheon Kim; Chung Gyoo Park; Jinwoo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum verum(C.verum) from32 different essential oils against cariogenic bacteria,Streptococcus mutans(S.mutans)and Streptococcus sobrinus(S.sobrinus).Methods:The antibacterial activities of each essential oil were individually investigated against S.mutans and S.sobrinus.The essential oil of C.verum was selected for further evaluation against S.mutans and S.sobrinus.Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to determine the major constituents of C.verum essential oil.In addition,the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of the most effective constituent was investigated.Results:The essential oil from C.verum exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity.Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major components of C.verum essential oil were cinnamaldehyde(56.3%),cinnamyl acetate(7.1%) and bphellandrene(6.3%).The MIC of cinnamaldehyde was measured using broth dilution assays.The MIC of cinnamaldehyde was 0.02%(v/v) against both bacterial strains tested.The minimum bactericidal concentration of cinnamaldehyde against S.mutans and S.sobrinus were 0.2% and 0.1%(v/v),respectively.Conclusions:The essential oil of C.verum and its major component cinnamaldehyde possessed considerable in vitro antibacterial activities against cariogenic bacteria,S.mutans and S.sobrinus strains.These results showed that the essential oil of C.verum and its bioactive component,cinnamaldehyde,have potential for application as natural agents for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

  17. Effects of harvesting on productivity of bay leaf tree (Cinnamomum ta-mala Nees & Eberm):Case from Udayapur district of Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dyutiman Choudhary; S.P Kala; N.P Todaria; S. Dasgupta; M. Kollmair

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of bay leaves (Cinnamomum tamalaNees & Eberm) to fulfil household income needs is a long established practice in Udayapur district of Nepal. The practices adopted by farmers for bay leaf harvesting have not, however, been validated by scientific investigation for their sustainability. To investigate the impacts of harvesting on the yield of branch, leaves and biomass of leaves, a two-year research project was conducted in farm fields at Kopche village of Routa VDC in Udayapur district, Nepal. Four different harvesting treatments, the orien-tation and the order of branches were taken as independent variables to test their effects on number of branches, leaves and biomass of leaves. Orientation, harvesting treatments and order of branches had a significant effect on the number of branches, but not on the number of leaves or biomass (fresh and dry weight) of leaves in the year of harvest. Between two consecutive harvests there was no significant difference in the num-ber of branches, leaves or biomass. Lower two-thirds portion of the trees produced the largest number of leaves and branches of the fourth order in both years. Therefore, lower two-thirds portion of the trees were suitable for harvesting. Our findings support farmer experience that no change in productivity of leaves is observed when harvesting each year. For long term sustainability, harvesting should be conducted without debarking of trees or damage to branches. Our findings could be extrapolated to and tested in other areas with different access and user rights where the rota-tion for harvest is fixed or regulated without research evidence.

  18. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Suresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%. CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results CTO (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased reduced glutathione (GSH. Conclusion Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity.

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and Laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

  20. Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupangwa, J F; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2000-08-01

    Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g CP/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher N retention and body mass gains than unsupplemented counterparts. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were increased by protein supplementation. Animals on supplemented diets had higher fractional outflow rates of particulate matter from the rumen. The production of protein by ruminal microbes and the efficiency of microbial N production were increased by supplementation. It was concluded that a mixture of low-quality grass hay (61.9 CP/kg DM) and either cassia, lablab or siratro hay, and maize grain can provide a productive balanced diet for growing goats.

  1. Filaggrin mutations in the onset of eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and the interaction with cat exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.; Kerkhof, M.; Jonkman, M.F.; Koppelman, G.H.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.; McLean, W.H.; Postma, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. Methods: FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth coho

  2. Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities in Education in the 21st Century. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1997 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Lisa

    This paper introduces students to lesser known and traveled parts of Mexico. The text is intended to accompany a Power Point presentation that traces the trip a Fulbright-Hays group took through Mexico, highlighting places of cultural and historical interest. The paper includes a list of slide notes and realia for each slide to be shared with the…

  3. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  4. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  5. Morocco and Senegal: Faces of Islam in Africa. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Morocco and Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas. The 13 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "Doorway to Morocco: A Student Guide" (Sue Robertson); (2)…

  6. Filaggrin mutations in the onset of eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and the interaction with cat exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M L A; Kerkhof, M; Jonkman, M F; Koppelman, G H; Brunekreef, B; de Jongste, J C; Wijga, A; McLean, W H I; Postma, D S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. METHODS: FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth coho

  7. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  8. Characterization and comparison of the temporal dynamics of ruminal bacterial microbiota colonizing rice straw and alfalfa hay within ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Zhang, Mengling; Xue, Chunxu; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-12-01

    Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to characterize the dynamics of bacterial colonization of rice straw and alfalfa hay and to assess the differences in the composition and inferred gene function of the colonized microbiota between these 2 forages. Nonincubated (0h) rice straw and alfalfa hay samples and residues in nylon bags incubated for 0.5, 2, 6, 16, and 48h were analyzed for dry matter and were used for DNA extraction and MiSeq (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbial communities that colonized the air-dried and nonincubated (0h) rice straw and alfalfa hay were both dominated by members of the Proteobacteria (contributing toward 70.47% of the 16S RNA reads generated). In situ incubation of the 2 forages revealed major shifts in the community composition: Proteobacteria were replaced within 30min by members belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, contributing toward 51.9 and 36.6% of the 16S rRNA reads generated, respectively. A second significant shift was observed after 6h of rumen incubation, when members of the Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteria phyla became abundant in the forage-adherent community. During the first 30min of rumen incubation, ~20.7 and 36.1% of the rice straw and alfalfa hay, respectively, were degraded, whereas little biomass degradation occurred between 30min and 2h after the rice straw or alfalfa hay was placed in the rumen. Significant differences were noted in attached bacterial community structure between the 2 forage groups, and the abundances of dominant genera Anaeroplasma, Butyrivibrio, Fibrobacter, and Prevotella were affected by the forage types. Real-time PCR results showed that the 16S rRNA copies of total bacteria attached to these 2 forages were affected by the forage types and incubation time, and higher numbers of attached bacterial 16S rRNA were observed in the alfalfa hay samples than in the rice straw from 0.5 to 16h of incubation. The metagenomes predicted by

  9. Effects of energy and protein supplementation of ammoniated tropical grass hay on the growth and carcass characteristics of cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W F; Johnson, D D

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory, digestion and growth studies were used to evaluate energy and protein supplements for ammoniated (4% of the forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Ammoniation increased (P less than .05) total N concentration (.7 to .9% vs 1.7 to 2.0%) and in vitro digestion of OM, NDF and ADF and reduced (P less than .05) NDF concentration of stargrass hay. Two digestion (3 x 3 Latin square, 250-kg steers) and two growth (400-kg Brahman crossbred cull cows, eight head per pasture, two pastures per treatment, November through February) trials evaluated citrus pulp or liquid cane molasses (Trial 1) and molasses or molasses plus cottonseed meal (Trial 2) supplementation of ammoniated hay. Supplementation with byproduct energy sources, citrus pulp or molasses (either alone or with cottonseed meal), improved (P less than .05) OM digestibility but reduced (P less than .05) NDF and ADF digestibilities. Apparent nutrient digestibilities were similar (P greater than .05) between diets supplemented with citrus pulp and molasses and between diets supplemented with molasses and molasses plus cottonseed meal. In Trial 1, ADG by cull cows was greater (P less than .05) for citrus pulp- (.71 kg) or molasses-(.68 kg) supplemented diets than for hay fed alone (.49 kg). In Trial ADG was greater (P less than .05) for cull cows fed ammoniated hay supplemented with molasses plus cottonseed meal (.85 kg) than for those supplemented with molasses only (.69 kg). Feeding cows over the winter increased their (P less than .05) carcass weight, marbling score, USDA quality grade and lipid percentage of the 9-10-11 rib section compared with cows slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Cinética ruminal do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Ruminal kinetics of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Sete carneiros fistulados no rúmen e no duodeno foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e alimentados com feno de Stylosanthes guianensis à vontade. Foi empregada a técnica de sacos de náilon para determinação da degradabilidade in situ do feno, utilizando-se os tempos de 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas para as retiradas dos sacos do rúmen. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi determinada utilizando-se cromo mordante como indicador. Os valores de pH no líquido ruminal foram medidos nos tempos de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação e a concentração de amônia nos tempos de 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 e 11 horas após a alimentação. A taxa de degradação da matéria seca (MS foi de 8,5%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 38,1% e a degradabilidade efetiva 30,3%. A taxa de degradação da proteína bruta (PB foi de 9,7%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 56,0% e a degradabilidade efetiva 47,5%. A celulose apresentou maior degradabilidade efetiva que a hemicelulose, com valores de 22,5 e 8,9%, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi 2,7%/h. O pH diminuiu linearmente à medida que os tempos de coleta aumentaram. Para o tempo de 5,13 horas após a alimentação, foi estimada a concentração máxima de amônia de 12,18mg/100ml. O feno de S. guianensis apresentou alta taxa de degradação e baixa degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs, were allocated in metabolic cages and were fed ad libitum with Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The in situ technique was used for determination of the degradability of the hay, at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The passage rate of solids was determined using chromium mordant as external marker. The pH of the rumen liquid was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding and the ammonia concentration at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 hours after feeding. The degradation rate, the potential degradability, and the effective degradability of dry matter (DM were 8.5%/h, 38

  11. Use of remote sensing derived parameters in a crop model for biomass prediction of hay crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Mohammad; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cheviron, Bruno; Belaud, Gilles; Zribi, Mehrez

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest yield forecasting is a critical challenge for producers, especially for large agricultural areas. During previous decades, numerous crop models were developed to predict crop growth and yield at daily time, most often for wheat or maize, and also for grasslands. Crop models require several input parameters that describe soil properties (e.g. field capacity), plant characteristics (e.g. maximal rooting depth) and management options (e.g. sowing dates, irrigation and harvest dates), which are referred to as the soil, plant and management families of parameters. Remote sensing technology has been extensively applied to identify spatially distributed values of some of the accessible parameters in the soil, plant and management families. The aim of this study was to address the feasibility, merits and limitations of forcing remote-sensing-derived parameters (LAI values, harvest and irrigation dates) in the PILOTE crop model, targeting the Total Dry Matter (TDM) of hay crops. Results show that optical images are suitable to feed PILOTE with LAI values without inducing significant errors on the predicted Total Dry Matter (TDM) values (Root Mean Square Error "RMSE" = 0.41 t/ha and Mean Absolute Percentage Error "MAPE" = 22%). Moreover, optical images with revisit times lower than 16 days are adequate to feed PILOTE with remotely sensed harvest dates (RMSE < 0.44 t/ha, MAPE < 10.8%). Finally, feeding PILOTE with noisy irrigation dates that were estimated from SAR images also enabled reliable model predictions, at least when attaching a random uncertainty of "only" 3 days to the real known irrigation dates. The case of one or several undetected irrigations has also been explored, with the expected conclusion that undetected irrigations significantly affect model predictions only in dry periods. For the tested soil properties and climatic conditions, a maximum underestimation of TDM of approximately 1.55 t/ha (reference TDM of 3.43 t/ha) was observed in the second

  12. Nutritional value of silk flower hay for lambs Valor nutritional do feno de flor-de-seda para cordeiros

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    Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated four levels of silk flower (Calotropis procera S.W. hay (SFH as a substitute of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hay (SBH in diet for lambs. Nutritional value of silk-flower hay was determined based on aparent digestibility and on metabolic, productive and economical performance of Santa Inês lambs. It was used twenty-four castrated males at 15.72 ± 1.92 kg body weight randomly distributed in four diets with silk-fklower and sorghum hay ratios (100:0, 66:33, 33:66, 0:100, and supplemented with a concentrate mixture based on 50% roughage:50% concentrate (weight/weight. Increase in the levels of silk-flower hay in the diet reduced weight gain and nutrient intake and it increased feed conversion and digestibility coeficients of all the nutrients. Nitrogen balance was similar in all levels of silk-flower hay, although there was a tendency of reduction in nitrogen retention at levels 66% and 100% of silk-flower hay. At the levels 0 and 33% of silk-flower hay in the diet, dry matter ingestion (170 and 180 g/day, daily average weight gain (84 and 89 g/kg0.75and feed conversion (4.99 and 5.02 were satisfactory. Silk-flower hay can represent up to 16.5% of the total food ingestion or 33% of the roughage in diet for lambs.Avaliaram-se quatro níveis de feno de flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera S.W. em substituição ao feno de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor na dieta de cordeiros. O valor nutricional do feno de flor-de-seda foi determinado com base na digestibilidade aparente e no desempenho metabólico, produtivo e econômico de cordeiros Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 24 machos castrados com peso corporal de 15,72 kg ± 1,92 kg distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro dietas com relações entre feno de flor-de-seda e de sorgo (100:0, 66:33, 33:66 e 0:100 e suplementadas com uma mistura concentrada à base de 50% de volumos e 50% de concentrado (peso/peso. O aumento nos níveis de feno de flor-de-seda na dieta diminuiu o ganho de peso e a ingestão de

  13. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB, extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27 was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h, but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1. Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell

  14. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  15. Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed oil with oleic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes enriched in medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhao, Man-Li; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Rong; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-10-29

    In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation. After optimization, results showed that the maximal incorporation of oleic acid into HMFS was 59.68%. Compared with CCSO, medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of HMFS accounted for >70%, whereas oleic acid was occupied predominantly at the sn-1,3 position (78.69%). Meanwhile, triacylglycerol (TAG) components of OCO (23.93%), CCO (14.94%), LaCO (13.58%), OLaO (12.66%), and OOO (11.13%) were determined as the major TAG species in HMFS. The final optimal reaction conditions were carried out as follows: substrate molar ratio (oleic acid/CCSO), 5:1; enzyme concentration, 12.5% (w/w total reactants); reaction temperature, 60 °C; and reaction time, 28 h. The reusability of Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis reaction was also evaluated, and it was found that it could be reused up to 9 times without significant loss of activities. Urea inclusion method was used to separate and purify the synthetic product. As the ratio of HMFS/urea increased to 1:2, the acid value lowered to the minimum. In a scale-up experiment, the contents of TAG and total tocopherols in HMFS (modified CCSO) were 77.28% and 12.27 mg/100 g, respectively. All of the physicochemical indices of purified product were within food standards. Therefore, such a MCFA-enriched HMFS produced by using the acidolysis method might have potential application in the infant formula industry.

  16. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  17. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a glucose dehydrogenase from a hay infusion metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Alexander; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-01-01

    Glucose hydrolyzing enzymes are essential to determine blood glucose level. A high-throughput screening approach was established to identify NAD(P)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for the application in test stripes and the respective blood glucose meters. In the current report a glucose hydrolyzing enzyme, derived from a metagenomic library by expressing recombinant DNA fragments isolated from hay infusion, was characterized. The recombinant clone showing activity on glucose as substrate exhibited an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding for a peptide of 328 amino acids. The isolated enzyme showed typical sequence motifs of short-chain-dehydrogenases using NAD(P) as a co-factor and had a sequence similarity between 33 and 35% to characterized glucose dehydrogenases from different Bacillus species. The identified glucose dehydrogenase gene was expressed in E. coli, purified and subsequently characterized. The enzyme, belonging to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases, shows a broad substrate range with a high affinity to glucose, xylose and glucose-6-phosphate. Due to its ability to be strongly associated with its cofactor NAD(P), the enzyme is able to directly transfer electrons from glucose oxidation to external electron acceptors by regenerating the cofactor while being still associated to the protein.

  18. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a glucose dehydrogenase from a hay infusion metagenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Basner

    Full Text Available Glucose hydrolyzing enzymes are essential to determine blood glucose level. A high-throughput screening approach was established to identify NAD(P-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for the application in test stripes and the respective blood glucose meters. In the current report a glucose hydrolyzing enzyme, derived from a metagenomic library by expressing recombinant DNA fragments isolated from hay infusion, was characterized. The recombinant clone showing activity on glucose as substrate exhibited an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding for a peptide of 328 amino acids. The isolated enzyme showed typical sequence motifs of short-chain-dehydrogenases using NAD(P as a co-factor and had a sequence similarity between 33 and 35% to characterized glucose dehydrogenases from different Bacillus species. The identified glucose dehydrogenase gene was expressed in E. coli, purified and subsequently characterized. The enzyme, belonging to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases, shows a broad substrate range with a high affinity to glucose, xylose and glucose-6-phosphate. Due to its ability to be strongly associated with its cofactor NAD(P, the enzyme is able to directly transfer electrons from glucose oxidation to external electron acceptors by regenerating the cofactor while being still associated to the protein.

  19. ¿HAY EFECTOS DE INTERACCIÓN REGIONAL EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO FINANCIERO DE LAS PYME?

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    María Luz Maté Sánchez Val

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se basa en la hipótesis de que la estructura de capital de las PyME está afectada por la ubicación territorial de las empresas. Este comportamiento podría estar motivado por las similitudes en las políticas financieras de las empresas ve-cinas, ya que comparten características financieras, jurídicas y de entorno econó-mico, y debido a los vínculos comerciales y financieros que existen entre ellas. Para contrastar esta idea, aplicamos una metodología econométrica espacial a una muestra de 23 279 empresas manufactureras españolas. Nuestros hallazgos confir-man que las proporciones de endeudamiento total no se distribuyen aleatoriamente en el territorio español, sino que hay regiones con un endeudamiento alto (bajo que tienden a estar rodeadas de zonas con una deuda alta (baja. Por otra parte, los determinantes tradicionales de la estructura de capital cambian un poco cuando se considera el efecto de interacción regional entre unidades productivas. Por tanto, resulta necesario considerar estos efectos en los modelos financieros de estructura de capital para evitar estimaciones erróneas.

  20. Modeling and mitigating winter hay bale damage by elk in a low prevalence bovine tuberculosis endemic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, R M; Brook, R K

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife causes extensive crop damage throughout much of North America and these shared feeds are a key risk factor in the transmission of diseases between wildlife and livestock, including bovine tuberculosis (TB). Predicting wildlife use of agricultural crops can provide insight directed toward targeted disease mitigation at areas of potential indirect interaction. In this study, we quantified use of hay bales by elk (Cervus canadensis) during the winter in southwestern Manitoba, Canada using a database of 952 damage claims paid compensation from 1994 to 2012. We evaluated environmental factors predicted to determine risk of hay bale damage on each quarter section by elk using a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) model. The most important variables (as measured for each quarter section and based on cumulative Akaike weights that scale from 0 to 1) were distance to protected areas (1.00), forest including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), forage crop including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), distance from streams (0.99), forage crop (0.92), cereal and oilseed crop cover including a buffer (0.85), and forest cover (0.82). We then developed an RSPF-based predictive map of damage to hay bales by elk that identified key areas with high probability of damage (RSPF≥0.6), accounting for 3.5% of the study area. We then multiplied the RSPF values by the inverse of the proximity to known cases of TB positive elk and determined that 0.51% of the study area had an overall high combined probability of hay bale damage and proximity to TB positive elk (i.e. adjusted probability of ≥0.6). In the southern half of the study area where 164 hay yard barrier fences have been implemented since 2002, there has been a significant decrease in the number of annual claims. Barrier fencing around Riding Mountain National Park has been successful at reducing elk damage where it has been implemented. In our study area, prevalence of TB in both cattle (0

  1. Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F

    2009-02-01

    Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy.

  2. Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (pcactus-based diet had no effect on nutrient intakes or total tract nutrient utilization. Changes in ruminal fermentation parameters reflected differences in ruminal degradability between the two fiber sources. Bermudagrass tifton hay was more effective than SH in reducing the risk of bloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants.

  3. Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: chemical and antimicrobial characterization Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: caracterização química e antimicrobiana

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    J.M Freire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Origanum majorana L. (marjoram, Illicium verum Hook. f. (star-anise and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon were obtained by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger device. The antimicrobial activity of each oil was evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by observing their growth and/or mycelial inhibition through comparison with the standard dish (without oil. The essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for identification and coupled to a flame ionization detector for quantification. The major constituents of marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon essential oils were 4-terpineol, trans-anetole and cinnamic aldehyde, respectively. In in vitro tests, essential oils of marjoram and cinnamon promoted an inhibitory effect on the bacteria S. aureus and E. coli, while the essential oil of star-anise presented activity only against E. coli. Marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon oils were effective against the studied fungi, presenting an inhibitory effect. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was 1 and 0.01 µL mL-1 for star-anise and cinnamon oils, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for A. parasiticus was 0.25, 2 and 2 µL mL-1 for cinnamon, star-anise and marjoram oils, respectively.Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L. (manjerona, Illicium verum Hook. f. (anis estrelado e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (canela foram obtidos pela técnica de arraste a vapor d'água com aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Foram avaliadas as atividades antimicrobianas de cada um sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e para os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus, observando o crescimento e/ou inibição micelial, comparando-se estes com a placa-padrão (sem óleo. Os óleos essenciais foram analisados em cromat

  4. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume leaves on some food-related bacteria Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial das folhas de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre bactérias de interesse em alimentos

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    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, has long been known for having many biological properties. This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves using GC-MS and to assess its inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on MIC and MBC determination and kill-time study. Eugenol (73.27% was the most prevalent compound in the essential oil followed by trans-β-cariophyllene (5.38%, linalool (3.31%, and alcohol cinamic acetate (2.53%. The results showed an interesting antibacterial activity of the oil with MIC ranging from 1.25 to 10 µL.mL-1. MBC values were in the range of 20 - 80 µL.mL-1. A concentration of 10 and 40 µL.mL-1 of the essential oil caused a fast and steady decrease in viable cell count (2 to 5 log cycles of all assayed strains along 24 hours. A concentration of 40 µL.mL-1 of the oil provided a total elimination of the initial inocula of S. aureus after 2 hours. These results show the possibility of regarding the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves as alternative sources of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food conservation systems.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, é uma espécie vegetal reconhecida, a longo tempo, como possuidora de muitas propriedades biológicas. Este estudo objetivou identificar os constituintes do óleo essencial das folhas de C. zeylanicum, utilizando CG-EM, e avaliar seu efeito inibitório sobre Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa através da determinação da CIM e CBM, bem como através da análise do tempo de morte bacteriana. Eugenol (73,27% foi o composto mais prevalente no óleo essencial, seguido por trans-β-cariofileno (5,38%, linalol (3,31% e álcool acetato cinâmico (2,53%. Os resultados mostraram uma interessante atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial com CIM, variando de 1,25 a 10 µL.mL-1. Os valores de

  5. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae essential oil and beta-pinene on the growth of dematiaceous moulds Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae e beta-pineno sobre o crescimento de fungos dematiáceos

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    Ana Carolina Pessoa Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous moulds are pathogen microorganisms able to act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oil and beta-pinene in inhibiting the growth of various strains of dematiaceous moulds (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia sp., Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Antimicrobial assays were led by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC using the solid medium diffusion procedure and observing the interference of the MIC values on the mould radial mycelial growth along 14 days. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil oscillated between 63 and 125 µL/mL. beta-pinene showed MIC value of 125 µL/mL for the most mould strains, however C. resinae and C. globosum were resistant to it in all assayed concentrations. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene presented intense fungicidal effect noted by a total inhibition of the mycelial growth of C. cladosporioides and F. compacta along 14 days of exposure. These results showed the intense antimould potential of C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene which could be regarded in a rational use in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat some mycoses, particularly, those caused by dematiaceous moulds.Os fungos dematiáceos são microrganismos patogênicos capazes de agir como agentes etiológicos de micoses com diferentes graus de severidade. Este estudo avaliou a efetividade do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e beta-pineno em inibir o crescimento de várias cepas de fungos dematiáceos (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia, Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Os ensaios antimicrobianos foram conduzidos através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima-CIM utilizando-se da t

  6. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the rowth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species Efeito do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas

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    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 µL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 µL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 µL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume é uma planta conhecida por apresentar ampla variedade de propriedades medicinais. Portanto, este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a interferência do óleo essencial C. zeylanicum sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas. O óleo essencial testado apresentou potente efeito antifúngico demonstrado pela visualização de grandes zonas de inibição de crescimento de todas as linhagens testadas. Os valores de CIM50 e de CIM90 foram 40 e 80 µL/mL, respectivamente. Nas concentrações de 80, 40 e 20 µL/mL o óleo demonstrou um potente efeito fumigante, inibindo o crescimento micelial radial de A. niger, A. flavus e A. fumigatus ao longo de 14 dias de exposição. A 80 e 40 µL/mL o óleo essencial promoveu inibição de 100% da germinação de esporos, das três espécies de Aspergillus citadas

  7. Digestion and energy value of macerated sudangrass hay used in growing-finishing diets for feedlot cattle

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    Alejandro Plascencia Jorquera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical maceration enhances site and extent of digestion of low-moisture, low-quality forages. Four Holstein steers (172 ± 8 kg with cannulas in rumen and proximal duodenum were used in 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate the process of mechanical maceration of sudangrass hay on the characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion. Treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based growing diet supplemented with 21 % forage (DM basis as: i wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, STRW, ii sudangrass hay (Sorghum sudanense, SG, iii macerated SG at intensity of 4,134 kPa (MAC600 and 4 macerated SG at intensity of 6,200 kPa (MAC900. All forages were ground to pass through a 3.8 cm screen before incorporation into complete mixed diets (21:79 forage to concentrate ratio. Maceration did not affect (p ≥ 0.17 on site and extent of OM, N and ADF, and DE of sudangrass supplemented diets. Characteristics of ruminal digestion of OM, ADF, starch, as well as, microbial efficiency (microbial N, g kg-1 of OM fermentad and protein efficiency (nonammonia N, g g-1 of N intake were not different (p ≥ 0.11 for wheat straw versus sudangrass supplemented diets. However, total tract digestion of OM, ADF, N, and DE diet were greater (p ≤ 0.05 for sudangrass than for wheat straw supplemented diets. Using the replacement technique, DE value of SG averaged 9.59 MJ kg-1, very close to the expected value given its chemical composition. Mechanical maceration did not enhance the feeding value of sudangrass hay. Increase the intensity of maceration from 4,134 to 6,200 kPa did not altered ruminal or total tract digestion of OM, NDF or energy value of processed hay

  8. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

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    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  9. Field comparison of Bermuda-hay infusion to infusions of emergent aquatic vegetation for collecting female mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Mullen, Gary R

    2007-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted in east-central Alabama in 2003 and 2004 to compare the attractiveness of selected gravid-trap infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. Comparisons were made among infusions of the following plants: Bermuda hay, Cynodon dactylon, and 3 species of emergent aquatic plants typical of Culex larval habitats, i.e., soft rush, Juncus effusus; a common sedge, Rhynchospora corniculata; and broad-leaf cattail, Typha latifolia. Experiments were conducted at a site in Lee County, AL, with an abundance of common nuisance mosquitoes, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Carbon dioxide-baited miniature light traps were operated concurrently with gravid traps to provide an activity index of mosquito species at the site. Gravid traps with hay infusion collected the greatest numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex restuans females (2003). The results indicate that hay infusion is highly attractive to Cx. quinquefasciatus and is the infusion of choice for collecting females of this species in gravid traps. In the case of Ae. albopictus, infusions were not determined to be significantly different from one another in their attractiveness to gravid females. In general, females of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. restuans demonstrated selectivity when choosing an oviposition site, whereas Ae. albopictus females did not. Factors associated with the oviposition biology of the latter species most likely account for their lack of preference for any single infusion type.

  10. Comparison between two hay based diets in buffalo nutrition: microbiological characteristics of milk, curd and mozzarella cheese

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    F.P. Cuscunà

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of twenty milking Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed two diets, with the same energy and protein content, based on Italian ryegrass hay (diet G1 and Italian ryegrass hay silage (diet G2. Presumptive lactobacilli and lactococci were determined on milk, curd and mozzarella cheese, collected at 30, 60, 90 days from the beginning of the trial. Milk and mozzarella cheese at 30, 60, 90 days showed significantly higher microbial counts in diet G2 with respect to diet G1, apart from lactococci in milk at 90 days. For curd at 30, 60, 90 days the numbers of lactobacilli and lactococci in diet G1 were significantly higher with respect to diet G2, apart from lactococci at 30 days. Genetic analysis by 16S rDNA characterization of colonies, randomly isolated, showed in diet G2 also the presence of not lactic species. Probably Italian ryegrass hay silage, present in diet G2, could bring bacteria in the environment and consequently in the milk that are detrimental for the proper growing of lactic microflora in the curd and that are resistant to the high temperature used in the mozzarella cheese making process.

  11. Long-term falls in antibodies to dust mite and pollen allergens in patients with asthma or hay fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, F C; Burr, M L; Platts-Mills, T A

    1983-09-01

    'Spontaneous' improvement in, or alteration of, allergic symptoms is a common occurrence, and the immunological basis is of interest in attempts to develop effective specific therapy. In the present study we measured levels of serum antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients diagnosed as having house-dust-allergic asthma up to 40 years previously. The results show a progressive fall in both IgG and IgE antibodies to antigen P1 and RAST binding to crude D. pteronyssinus extract. By contrast changes in total serum IgE were not marked. Within each of the groups of patients diagnosed 20, 30 and 40 years previously, 70% no longer suffered severe symptoms. However, the absence of detectable IgE antibody in serum was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for loss of symptoms. A group of patients who had spontaneously recovered from hay fever had significantly lower IgG and IgE antibody for the major grass pollen allergen Rye I and also lower total IgE than current hay fever sufferers. In neither hay fever nor asthma was there evidence to link spontaneous improvement in symptoms with an increase in IgG antibodies.

  12. Efficacy of grass-maize pollen oral immunotherapy in patients with seasonal hay-fever: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, C H; De Wet, J I

    1987-11-01

    Forty patients with a well-documented history of seasonal hay fever and a positive skin-prick test specific to grass pollen, including Bermuda grass and maize pollen (Zea maize), were allocated randomly on a double-blind basis to receive either an oral mixed grass-maize pollen extract or a matched placebo during the 1981/1982 grass pollen season. After 12 months the code was broken and patients on placebo were transferred to active therapy while patients on active therapy continued with maintenance therapy for another 12 months during the 1982/1983 grass pollen season. The assessment of the effect of the orally administered grass-maize pollen extract was on the clinical symptoms. During the first year the patients on active therapy had significantly fewer hay fever symptoms during the summer months compared with the placebo group. During the second study year, with all patients on active therapy, both groups had markedly milder symptoms compared with the placebo group. Side-effects were negligible. This study concludes that oral immunotherapy with grass-maize pollen extract in grass pollen-sensitive seasonal hay fever patients is safe and effective.

  13. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  14. Effect of dental correction on voluntary hay intake, apparent digestibility of feed and faecal particle size in horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirglmaier, S; Remler, H-P; Senckenberg, E; Fritz, J; Stelzer, P; Kienzle, E

    2013-02-01

    In nine adult Warmblood horses with mild to moderate dental findings (no signs of discomfort during chewing), voluntary hay intake before and after dental correction was examined. In a second experiment, digestibility of feed and faecal particle size were determined (3 days of total faecal collection) before and after dental correction. During both digestion trials including a 3-day adaptation period, the amount of hay and concentrate (mixture of oats, barley and maize) was kept constant in each individual horse before and after dental correction. Voluntary hay intake in individual horses ranged from 11 to 22 g DM/kg BW/day and did not differ before and after dental treatment. Apparent digestibility of DM, energy, crude fibre and Nfe increased significantly after dental correction (energy digestibility before dental correction 46.8 ± 7.4%, after dental correction 51.5 ± 8.5%). Apparent digestibility of feed was higher in horses eating more concentrates than in those eating less concentrates. Improvement of digestibility was more marked in horses eating larger amounts of grain. There was no relationship between severity or type of dental alterations and improvement of apparent feed digestibility. Dental correction had no effect on faecal particle size.

  15. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de alho e casca de canela contra fungos do grupo Aspergillus flavus Evaluation of essential oils from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum zeilanicum and their toxicity against fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group

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    Elson de C. Viegas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da propriedade inibitória de óleos essenciais vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos e da importância das espécies do grupo Aspergillus flavus, que apresentam potencial para síntese de aflatoxina, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro a toxicidade de óleos essenciais vegetais contra fungos do grupo A. flavus, isolados a partir da cultura do amendoim. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a toxicidade de oito óleos essenciais vegetais no desenvolvimento micelial de dois isolados do grupo A. flavus, em comparação ao fungicida sintético benomyl. Em seguida, foi avaliada a toxicidade dos óleos de casca de canela (Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. e de bulbilho de alho (Allium sativum L. contra 37 isolados do grupo A. flavus, durante 12 meses. A maior inibição do desenvolvimento micelial de A. flavus foi obtida com o emprego dos óleos essenciais de casca de canela e de bulbilho de alho, e o efeito inibitório variou com o isolado testado.Considering the inhibitory property of essential plant oils on the mycelial development of fungi, and the importance of Aspergillus flavus-like fungi which may produce aflatoxins, this research was designed to evaluate the toxicity of essential oils against fungi belonging to the group A. flavus isolated from peanut crops. The toxicity of eight essential oils against two isolates of A. Flavuslike fungi was evaluated in comparison to the synthetic fungicide benomyl. The toxicity of Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. and Allium sativum L. essential oils was also evaluated against 37 fungal isolates for a period of 12 months. The highest inhibition of the mycelial development of A. flavus was obtained with cinnamon and garlic essential oils. The inhibitory effect on growth was variable according to the fungal isolate.

  16. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  17. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  18. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  19. Cloning and Expression Profiling of CcCBF Genes in Cinnamomum camphora%香樟CcCBFs基因的克隆及表达模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇鹏; 张力维; 张佳佳; 陈慧茹; 曹玥华; 杜丽

    2016-01-01

    CBF转录因子又称为DREB1,在增强植物抵御非生物胁迫(低温 、干旱和盐胁迫)方面具有重要的作用.利用同源克隆的方法结合RACE PCR技术,从香樟中获得2个CBF类似基因的cDNA全长序列,命名为CcCBFa和CcCBFb,其cDNA序列全长分别为909和941 bp,分别包含一个714和729 bp的开放阅读框,编码237和242个氨基酸;gNDA序列分析结果显示,CcC BFa和CcCB Fb基因均不含有内含子.一系列生物信息学分析表明,CcCBFa和CcCBFb基因属于DREB家族的CBF/DREB1亚家族,将所获得香樟CBF基因cDNA全长序列提交到NCBI(登录号:KJ958932和KJ958933).此外,实时定量PCR结果表明,CcCBFa和CcCBFb基因在香樟不同器官中的表达量存在一定差异,并且均能被低温、干旱、盐以及ABA强烈诱导.这些结果表明,CcCBFa和CcCBFb可能在香樟应对低温、干旱和盐等非生物胁迫时发挥重要作用,并且可能与ABA信号通路有关.%As an important transcription factor , C-repeat binding factor ( CBF ) , also called dehydration-responsive element binding factor 1( DREB1) , plays a key role in enhancing plant tolerance to abotic environmental stresses such as low tem -perature , drought and salinity .Two novel CBF-like genes designated as CcCBFa and CcCBFb were successfully isolated from Cinnamomum camphora, and the full length cDNA sequences were 909 and 941 bp, respectively .Their open reading frames (ORF) were 714 and 729 bp, respectively, encoding 237 and 242 amino acids.There was no intron in the coding regions of the two genes .By an array of bioinformatics analysis , two genes were classified into the CBF/DREB1 subfamily , and their full-length cDNA sequences were submitted to the NCBI with accession numbers of KJ 958932 and KJ958933.By qPCR, CcCBFa and CcCBFb could be dramatically induced by low temperature , drought and salinity, as well as ABA, and the expression level of the two genes had specific expression differences in different organs of C

  20. 樟树5种化学类型叶片转录组分析%Transcriptome analysis for leaves of five chemical types in Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江香梅; 伍艳芳; 肖复明; 熊振宇; 徐海宁

    2014-01-01

    樟树(Cinnamomum camphora )是樟科植物的一个代表种,具有材用、药用、香料、油用和生态环境建设等多种用途.叶精油中富含利用价值极高的樟脑、芳樟醇、1,8-桉叶油素、异-橙花叔醇和右旋龙脑等萜类化合物.依据叶精油中主要成分的种类和含量,可将樟树划分为脑樟、芳樟、油樟、异樟、龙脑樟5种化学类型.文章采用Illumina HiSeq 2000高通量测序技术,对5种化学类型叶片转录组进行测序,对测序得到的所有Unigene进行GO(Gene Ontology)、COG(Clusters of Orthologous Groups)和KEGG(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes)分类,给出功能注释和Pathway注释,并预测Unigene蛋白编码区(Coding sequence,CDS).De novo组装共获得156 278个Unigene,序列平均长度584 bp,N50(覆盖50%所有核苷酸的最大Unigene长度)为1 023 bp.通过与其他核酸、蛋白数据库的Blast搜索比对,共有55 955条Unigene获得了基因注释,占所有Unigene的35.80%.其中,有24 717条Unigene得到GO注释,有21 806条Unigene得到COG注释.KEGG pathways分析结果表明,共有3 350条基因(10.19%)注释到次生代谢生物合成途径,其中参与单萜、二萜、倍半萜和萜类骨架合成的Unigene有424个.在单萜合成的代谢通路中,有9条Unigene可能编码芳樟醇合成酶基因,且表达分析结果显示,芳樟醇合成酶基因在芳樟化学类型中优势表达,在油樟化学类型中表达水平较低.这些注释信息的完成为樟树功能基因及相关候选基因的发掘提供了基础数据和重要依据.

  1. Gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto avoid ovipositing in Bermuda grass hay infusion and it’s volatiles in two choice egg-count bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, LK; Okal, MN; Borg-Karlson, AK; Fillinger, U; Lindh, JM

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of mosquito species in the Culex and Aedes genera prefer to lay eggs in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) hay infusions compared to water alone. These mosquitoes are attracted to volatile compounds from the hay infusions making the infusions effective baits in gravid traps used for monitoring vectors of arboviral and filarial pathogens. Since Bermuda grass is abundant and widespread, it is plausible to explore infusions made from it as a potential low cost bait for outdoor ...

  2. Effect of alfalfa hay on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing lambs with ad libitum access to total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Alhidary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forty male Naemi lambs were used to evaluate the effect of total mixed rations (TMR alone or in combination with supplementation of alfalfa hay offered at different schedules on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Lambs at the age of three months, with an average weight of 28.85±1.09 kg, were randomly selected and distributed into four different feeding systems, 10 lambs each, as follows: TMR diet (control; TMR plus 100 g alfalfa hay; TMR plus 200 g alfalfa hay every two days; and TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days. The TMR and fresh drinking water were offered ad libitum. Lambs in the treated groups (with alfalfa hay had significantly higher body weight, body weight change, dry matter intake, and feed conversion ratio compared with the control. Similarly, slaughter weight, carcass weight (hot and cold, and internal organs weight significantly increased in the treated groups, except for dressing weight percentage, which improved only in the treatment with TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay. By contrast, mesentery fat, back fat, and body wall fat decreased in treated groups. Meat quality characteristics indicated that cooking loss and pH values did not differ between the control and treated groups; however, meat colour (lightness, yellowness, and redness and pH (1 and 24 h improved in post-slaughter treated groups. Furthermore, no difference was found in texture profile analysis (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, although the shear force decreased significantly in treated groups. Addition of alfalfa hay offered at the present plan may not only improve the growth and carcass characteristics, but also enhance the meat quality of Naemi lambs. From the labour and economic point of view, TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days may be adopted while taking into account the management decision.

  3. Spatial and temporal assessment of cumulative disturbance impacts due to military training, burning, haying, and their interactions on land condition of Fort Riley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangxing; Murphy, Dana; Oller, Adam; Howard, Heidi R; Anderson, Alan B; Rijal, Santosh; Myers, Natalie R; Woodford, Philip

    2014-07-01

    The effects of military training activities on the land condition of Army installations vary spatially and temporally. Training activities observably degrade land condition while also increasing biodiversity and stabilizing ecosystems. Moreover, other anthropogenic activities regularly occur on military lands such as prescribed burns and agricultural haying-adding to the dynamics of land condition. Thus, spatially and temporally assessing the impacts of military training, prescribed burning, agricultural haying, and their interactions is critical to the management of military lands. In this study, the spatial distributions and patterns of military training-induced disturbance frequency were derived using plot observation and point observation-based method, at Fort Riley, Kansas from 1989 to 2001. Moreover, spatial and variance analysis of cumulative impacts due to military training, burning, haying, and their interactions on the land condition of Fort Riley were conducted. The results showed that: (1) low disturbance intensity dominated the majority of the study area with exception of concentrated training within centralized areas; (2) high and low values of disturbance frequency were spatially clustered and had spatial patterns that differed significantly from a random distribution; and (3) interactions between prescribed burning and agricultural haying were not significant in terms of either soil erosion or disturbance intensity although their means and variances differed significantly between the burned and non-burned areas and between the hayed and non-hayed areas.

  4. Effect of protein supplementation on tropical grass hay utilization by beef steers drinking saline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; Arroquy, J I; Juárez Sequeira, A V; García, M; Nazareno, M; Coria, H; Distel, R A

    2014-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of increasing levels of supplemental soybean meal (SBM; 45.7% CP) in cattle consuming tropical grass hay (Panicum maximum cultivar Gatton; 7.0% CP and 81.8% NDF) and drinking low salt water (LS) or high salt water (HS). Six ruminally fistulated beef steers (BW = 375 ± 43 kg) were used in a 6-treatment, 4-period crossover experiment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial, with 2 levels salt in the water (LS and HS: 786 and 6,473 mg/kg of total dissolved solids [TDS], respectively) and 3 levels of SBM (0, 0.2, and 0.4% BW/d). After 15 d of adaptation to treatments, periods consisted of 5 d for intake and digestibility determination, 1 d for monitoring ruminal fermentation, 1 d for ruminal evacuation, and 1 d for blood sampling. Supplemental SBM × water quality interactions were significant (P water intake seemed to reach a plateau in LS while this was not observed in HS. Total tract digestible OM intake increased linearly (P = 0.01) and TTDNDFI tended to increase (P = 0.09) in response to increased SBM. Digestibility of OM and NDF were not affected by treatment (P > 0.21). Passage rate of acid detergent insoluble ash linearly increased (P water quality (P = 0.98). Total VFA concentrations and ruminal pH were not affected (P > 0.60 and P > 0.31, respectively) by treatment. Ruminal ammonia N levels were linearly increased by SBM supplementation (P water quality (P = 0.25). However, ruminal ammonia tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in HS at 0.2% of SBM supplementation. No interaction was observed for plasma urea N (PUN; P = 0.20). Plasma urea N was affected by SBM supplementation (P = 0.05) and water quality (P treatments. In conclusion, a high level of SBM supplementation (0.4% BW) counteracted the detrimental effect of high TDS in drinking water on low-quality forage consumption by cattle.

  5. The study on essential oil components and comparison of identification in Chinese cassia and Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu.%国产肉桂和大叶清化桂的鉴别比较及其挥发油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世伟

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares Chinese cassia with Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu in macroscopical identification, microscopical identification, and physicochemical identification, and determing the content of essential oil in different parts of two plants.The results showed Cinnamadehyde content in Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu is higher than Chinese cassia, its quality is superior.%对国产肉桂与大叶清化桂的性状鉴别、显微鉴别、理化鉴别进行了比较,并测定了二者不同部位挥发油含量,论证了大叶清化桂皮中桂皮醛含量要高于国产肉桂,其质较优.

  6. En este último mes del año 2007 hay varias noticias importantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redaccion Veterinaria.org

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este último mes del año 2007 hay varias noticias importanteshttp://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n121207/1207editorial00.pdfAsí es, pues aparte de los artículos, informamos de dos reuniones importantes de ámbito latinoamericano en las que REDVET ha participado: la Asamblea Anual o Junta de editores anual de e-revistas de las revistas que conformamos la Plataforma OpenAcces de Revistas Electrónicas Españolas y Latinoamericanas, celebrada en Madrid,en las instalaciones del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, y el I EncuentroLatinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas, celebrado en Córdoba en las instalaciones de la Facultad de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Córdoba. Igualmente nos hacemos eco de varias bases de datos donde REDVET está indexada y, de manera especial en el importante directorio universitario de Chile, Al día, junto con RECVET, y de la culminación plena en la Red de Revistas Científicas de AméricaLatina y el Caribe, España y Portugal (Redalyc. Igualmente, reproducimos la carta enviada en octubre pasado a la Comisión Nacional Evaluadora de la Actividad Investigadora de España en defensa de la adecuada valoración de las revistas científicas electrónicas que en conjunto firmamos con el resto de editores que integramos la Plataforma Open Access de Revistas ElectrónicasEspañolas y Latinoamericanas e-revist@ Esa y otras noticias están disponibles en el número normal de REDVET de este mes de diciembre del 2007.Ahora bien en este mes el número normal se complementa con otros números monográficos de REDVET, el Monográfico sobre Bienestar Animal, con lo que por fin podemos cumplir, antes de terminar el año, con lo avisado en la Editorial de REDVET de Julio http://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n070707.html “Confiamos en la compresión de la mayoría de vosotros y para compensaros os adelantamos que el equipo directivo de Veterinaria.org no tomaremos vacaciones este verano para cumplir

  7. Timothy hays differing in dietary cation-anion difference affect the capability of dairy cows to maintain their calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, V S; Tremblay, G F; Oba, M

    2009-01-01

    Forages low in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can be used to decrease the DCAD in prepartum diet but the extent to which DCAD needs to be reduced is of recent interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of timothy hays differing in DCAD at maintaining Ca homeostasis. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay with DCAD values of 4.1 +/- 3.6 (LOW), 14.1 +/- 3.0 (MED), or 25.1 +/- 2.5 (HIGH) mEq per 100 g of DM in a duplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d experimental periods. The LOW and MED hays were produced by fertilizing established timothy fields at a rate of 224 kg CaCl(2) per ha, and HIGH hay was obtained from the same field where LOW hay was produced, but from a section not fertilized with CaCl(2). Experimental diets, containing LOW, MED, or HIGH timothy hay at 71% of dietary DM, had DCAD values of 0.7, 7.3, and 14.4 mEq per 100 g of DM, respectively. Animals were fed at 6% of metabolic body weight, which provided 108% of their daily energy requirement. For each period, after a 12 d diet adaptation, cows were subjected to an EDTA challenge (3 cows each on d 13 and 14). Infusion of EDTA solution into the jugular vein decreases the concentration of blood ionized Ca, and the EDTA challenge protocol determined the resistance time and recovery time: the time required for the blood ionized Ca concentration to decrease to 60%, and the time required to recover to 90% of the prechallenge concentrations, respectively. Urine pH was lower when cows were fed LOW compared with HIGH diet (6.88 vs. 7.83), but urine pH when cows were fed MED diet (7.15) did not differ from that when cows received the LOW or HIGH diet. However, immediately before the EDTA challenge, blood pH was lower when cows were fed LOW or MED compared with HIGH diet (7.44 vs. 7.47). Although the resistance time was not affected by treatments, the recovery time was shorter when cows were

  8. The effect of milk-feeding method and hay provision on the development of feeding behavior and non-nutritive oral behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, K C; Miller-Cushon, E K

    2017-02-22

    We investigated the interactive effects of common feeding management factors on the development of feeding and non-nutritive oral behaviors in preweaned calves through the weaning transition. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed by milk-feeding method (teat or bucket) and ad libitum access to chopped timothy hay: control, milk provided by bucket and no access to hay (CON; n = 10); milk provided by bucket and access to hay (H; n = 10); milk provided via a teat and access to hay (TH; n = 10). Calves had ad libitum access to concentrate and water, and were fed 6 L/d of pasteurized waste milk, divided into 2 meals. All calves were weaned by removing the second milk meal for 9 ± 2 d, beginning at 36 d of age. Daily concentrate and hay intake were recorded, and calves were weighed weekly to measure growth. We recorded the behavior of all calves using 2 s time-lapse video during time periods that encompassed milk meals, from 6000 h to 1000 h and 1600 h to 2000 h, on 2 consecutive focal days in wk 2 and 4. We continuously monitored lying time and activity using electronic data loggers. During the preweaning period, hay selection by H and TH calves was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with TH calves increasing hay intake to a greater extent over time. Similarly, we observed a tendency for a treatment × week interaction for hay dry matter intake. Before weaning, concentrate intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, increasing to a greater extent over time for H and TH calves, but was greater overall for CON calves. As predicted, milk-feeding method and hay provision influenced the proportion of time devoted to feeding and non-nutritive behaviors. The CON calves spent the greatest amount of time performing non-nutritive sucking directed at the pen, TH calves the least, and H calves intermediate amounts. Considering the time TH calves sucked on their teat when milk was not present in addition to the time they spent sucking

  9. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  10. Effects of cottonseed meal supplementation time on ruminal fermentation and forage intake by Holstein steers fed fescue hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, M B; Krysl, L J; Barton, R K; Holcombe, D W; Gunter, S A; Broesder, J T

    1991-09-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (average BW 303 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design digestion trial to study the influence of daily cottonseed meal (CSM; 1.6 g of CP/kg of BW) supplementation time on forage intake and ruminal fluid kinetics and fermentation. Steers were housed individually in tie stalls and were fed chopped fescue hay on an ad libitum basis at 0600 and 1400. Treatments were 1) control, grass hay only (CON) and grass hay and CSM fed once daily at 2) 0600 (EAM) 3) 1000 (MAM), or 4) 1400 (PM). Ruminal NH3 N concentrations reflected a time of supplementation x sampling time interaction (P less than .05); CON steers had the lowest (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 N concentrations at all times other than at 0600, 1000, 1200, and 2400, when they did not differ (P greater than .05) from at least one of the supplemented groups. Forage intake, ratio of bacterial purine:N, rate of DM and NDF disappearance, and ruminal fluid kinetics were not influenced (P greater than .05) by supplementation time. Total ruminal VFA differed (P less than .05) between CON and supplemented steers, as well as among supplemented steers (linear and quadratic effects P less than .05). Acetate, propionate, and valerate proportions were influenced (P less than .05) by a sampling time X supplementation time interaction. Under the conditions of this study, greater peak ammonia concentrations with morning supplementation than with afternoon supplementation did not stimulate ruminal fermentation or rate of NDF disappearance.

  11. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, M; Neres, M A; Guimarães, V F; Klein, J; Inagaki, A M; Ducati, C

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more

  12. Hayâlî Bey’in “Dünya” Algısı Hayâlî Bey’s “World” Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi ÖZEROL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hayâlî Bey is one of the greatest poets in Classical Turkish poem. Collector of biographies, Âşık Çelebi tells us that Hayâlî Bey isn’t an ordinary poet; he has a sensitive, contented character and he has been to many cities with the Kalenderî people. Althought he has gone far from that vicinity with some reason, he went on using sufistic ideas and excitement sincerely in his poems. He usually has put space between himself and the world life with the effect of sufism and he has nevercared about his social position, property.As we know, in sufism the world means everything that distractsone from Allah and makes him careless. The idea in sufism is that theworld is less valuable than afterdeath. Furthermore the world is a placewhere Allah is manifested. The universe is like a whole mirror composedof small mirrors infinite in number and you can see different sparkles ofreflections of the certain being Allah in each small mirror.In this study, which deals with the “world” perception in HayâlîBey’s Divan (Ottoman poetry, the concepts similar to and associatedwith the “world” have been determined and we have tried to make thepoet’s world perception clear. Hayâlî Bey has focused primarily on thebad aspects of the world in his poems and he has mentioned the badresults that commitment to the world will cause. As well as thisnegative perception of the world, Hayâlî also has couplets in which heperceives the world as a sign that proves Allah’s certain being, andeverything created as a sign of the “creator” and he has used the worldto tell some situations of the lover and the praised, beauty and comfort,too. Hayâlî Bey, Klasik Türk şiirinin büyük şairleri içerisinde yer almayı başarmış bir şahsiyettir. Tezkireci Âşık Çelebi onun kayıt tanımayan, yaratılış olarak hassas ve tok gözlü bir karaktere sahip olduğunu, genç yaşlarda Kalenderîlere katılıp şehir şehir dolaştığını söyler.

  13. Development and validation of a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast for patients with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A; Beerthuizen, Thijs; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Sont, Jacob K

    2014-08-01

    One-third of the Dutch population suffers from allergic rhinitis, including hay fever. In this study, a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast was developed and validated for grass pollen allergic patients in the Netherlands. Using multiple regression analysis, a two-step pollen and hay fever symptom prediction model was developed using actual and forecasted weather parameters, grass pollen data and patient symptom diaries. Therefore, 80 patients with a grass pollen allergy rated the severity of their hay fever symptoms during the grass pollen season in 2007 and 2008. First, a grass pollen forecast model was developed using the following predictors: (1) daily means of grass pollen counts of the previous 10 years; (2) grass pollen counts of the previous 2-week period of the current year; and (3) maximum, minimum and mean temperature (R (2)=0.76). The second modeling step concerned the forecasting of hay fever symptom severity and included the following predictors: (1) forecasted grass pollen counts; (2) day number of the year; (3) moving average of the grass pollen counts of the previous 2 week-periods; and (4) maximum and mean temperatures (R (2)=0.81). Since the daily hay fever forecast is reported in three categories (low-, medium- and high symptom risk), we assessed the agreement between the observed and the 1- to 5-day-ahead predicted risk categories by kappa, which ranged from 65 % to 77 %. These results indicate that a model based on forecasted temperature and grass pollen counts performs well in predicting symptoms of hay fever up to 5 days ahead.

  14. 内生真菌对油樟悬浮细胞培养的影响%Effects of fungal endophytes on cell suspension culture of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琴; 谭韵雅; 李群; 游玲; 汪超; 王玉; 廖淋

    2016-01-01

    该文研究了内生真菌YG42、YG71、YY11和YY26发酵液,对油樟悬浮细胞的生长量及挥发性代谢产物积累量的影响。结果表明:4种内生真菌对油樟悬浮细胞的生长均有抑制作用,抑制强度随发酵液添加量的增加而加强。4种内生真菌对油樟悬浮细胞挥发性代谢产物积累总量及1,8-桉叶油素、γ-叶松油烯和α-油松油醇3种油樟油组分物质积累量的影响多表现为低浓度促进高浓度抑制的趋势。其中,1%添加量的YG42和YY26及0.25%添加量的YY11对悬浮细胞总挥发性代谢产物积累的促进作用相当且最强,其积累量分别是空白组的2.00、1.95、2.01倍;0.25%添加量的YG71对1,8-桉叶油素积累的促进作用最强,其积累量为空白组的11.03倍;0.25%添加量的YG71和YY26对α-松油醇积累的促进作用相当且最强,其积累量分别为空白组的1.72和1.81倍;对于γ-松油烯的积累,在空白组中未检测到其峰值,4种真菌诱导子对γ-松油烯的产生有诱导作用,诱导的最大峰面积为0.19,诱导菌是0.25%添加量的YG71。该研究结果为充实内生菌影响香料植物挥发性代谢产物合成理论奠定了基础,也为生产上内生真菌提高油樟油中有用物质组分含量措施的采用提供了依据。%We studied the effects of fungal endophytes YG42, YG72, YY11 and YY26 on cell growth and volatile of secondary metabolites accumulation in suspension cultures of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum. The results showed that four kinds of fungal endophytes had obvious inhibitory effects on C. longepaniculatum cell growth, and the denser the fer-mentation fluid was, the stronger inhibitory effects they had. The trend of the effects that the four kinds of endophytic fungi had on the total volatile of secondary metabolites accumulation and C. longepaniculatum oil component 1,8-cineoleγ-terpinene andα-terpineol accumulation in suspension cultures of C. longepaniculatum was

  15. Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization.

  16. 樟树花挥发性有机化合物日动态变化分析%Diurnal variation of volatile organic compounds emitted from Cinnamomum camphora flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周帅; 马楠; 林富平; 张汝民; 高岩

    2011-01-01

    In order to make clear the diurnal variation of plant volatiles, we collected the VOCs from Cin-namomum camphora flowers using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method at 7:30, 10:00, 12:30, 15:00 and 17:30, identified the main compounds of VOCs with thermal desorption system/gas chromatography/mass spectrum (TDS-GC-MS). Results showed that C. camphora flowers emitted 51 types of VOCs, mainly as terpenoids. At 15:00, species and emission of the VOCs were highest (40 species and 8 049.5 peak area units), mainly as linalool (relative content 37.0%), epoxylinalol (127%), (Z)-ocimene (72%) and perillene(6.2%). Thus, increases in species and emissions of the VOCs from C camphora flowers at 15:00 are both visibly increased revealed a possible affinity have strong relevance for strong light and high temperature stress. [Ch, 3 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]%为探讨植物挥发物的日动态变化,以樟树Cinnamomum camphora花为实验材料,采用动态项空气体循环采集法和热脱附/气相色谱/质谱联用技术(TDS-GC-MS),对5个时间点(7:30,10:00,12:30,15:00,17:30)樟树花挥发物进行收集鉴定.结果表明:樟树花释放挥发物中共检测出51种化合物,主要成分为萜烯类化合物.15:00时樟树花挥发物释放量及种类最多(40种,8 049.5峰面积单位),主要有芳樟醇(相对含量37.0%),环氧芳樟醇(12.7%),(Z)-罗勒烯(7.2%)和紫苏烯(6.2%);樟树花挥发物释放量及种类显著增加与受到强光和高温胁迫有密切联系.

  17. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay.

  18. 芳樟无性系叶精油及芳樟醇含量变异分析%Analysis on content variation of essential oil and linalool from leaf of Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国防; 于静波; 冯娟

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil content and linalool relative content in leaf of excellent individual of Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera Fujita. clones and their variation states were compared. The result shows that essential oil content of the maternal plant is 1.78% and its linalool relative content is 97.56%. Average content of essential oil in leaf of the first and the second generation clones of tissue culture and their cutting clone is 1.65% , 1.60% and 1.58% with CV values of 9.09% , 7.50% and 7.59% , respectively, and average relative content of linalool in these clones is 94.32% , 94.52% and 94.60% with CV values of 0. 60% , 0. 73% and 0. 73% , respectively. There is some difference in essential oil content and linalool relative content between the first generation clone of tissue culture and the maternal plant, but the difference is small. Essential oil content and linalool relative content among these clones have no significant difference and those are stable within clones, indicating the clonal progeny can keep their parent 's good traits.

  19. 湖南产樟树不同部位精油分析%Essential Oils of the Different Parts of Cinnamomum camphora(L.) Presl in Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学文; 熊艳; 游奎一

    2008-01-01

    从湖南樟树花、嫩叶以及根皮三个部位中提取挥发油,通过 GC/MS 分析鉴定了其中含量占95%以上的40个化合物.采用 ABTS+ 和 LPO 两种方法研究了三种精油的体外抗氧化能力,结果显示三种精油均表现较强的清除自由基和脂质过氧化物能力,三种精油清除能力均为根皮嫩叶樟花.%In this paper,the phytoehemical components of the essential oils of flowers, young leaves and root-bark from Cinnamomum camphora(L.) presl in Hunan, China, were examined by GC/MS, which resulted in the identification of 40 compounds representing 95% of the essential oils. The antioxidant potency of three essential oils were investigated by employing two established in vitro systems, such as ABTS+ and Lipid Peroxides(LPO). All the three essential oils signif-icantly showed trapping of free radicals, and thereby inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the orders of scaven-ging activity of different essential oils both were found to be: root-bark > young leaves > flowers.

  20. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells.

  1. Addition of fructooligosaccharides and alfalfa hay to the diet of weaned piglets on the microbiota and the small intestine morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to verify the effect of the fructooligossaccharide prebiotic (FOS addition in the diet containing varying levels of alfalfa hay, on the microbiology and intestinal morphology of weaned piglets. It was used 72 piglets, crossed, both sexes, with initial weight of 5.95 ± 0.73 Kg, with approximate age of 21 days. It was evaluated the treatment: T1 – Basal feed + 0% FOS; T2 – Basal feed + 0.3% FOS; T3 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; T4 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS; T5 – Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS. In the end of the experimental period one piglet of each replication was slaughtered for the collection of sample aiming to analyze Salmonela sp. and coliformes and intestinal morphology (height of villus and depht of crypt. The analysis for coliformes didn’t show statistic difference among the levels of FOS and alfalfa hay. It wasn’t find Salmonella sp. colonies in the samples. No difference was observe in the crypt depht (P>0.05 among the treatments. The height of villus and the relation of height of villus per depht of crypt, the group without the addition of FOS didn’t show difference (P>0.05, however, the group supplemented with 0.3% of FOS showed a significant improvement (P<0.05 related to levels of 5% and 10% of alfalfa. There was no influence of treatment on the presence of Salmonella sp. and E. Coli. Regarding intestinal morphology data for villus height and villus height ratio/crypt depth showed the best results in the presence of FOS.

  2. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia: hay quality monitoring over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project:“Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding in each of the two investigation years (from November 2003 to May 2004 and from November 2004 to May 2005. In this paper the nutritive value of hay on 18 dairy farms over the second year of investigation and the comparison of the results with the first year was done. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. The following parameters were estimated: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC and organic matter digestibility in DM (D-value. The average results show desirable DM content (873.30 g kg-1, high NDF (671.16 g kg-1DM, but low WSC (83.53 g kg-1 DM, CP (61.75 g kg-1 DM, ME (8.75 MJ kg-1 DM and D-value (58.33%. Great variations were observed for CP (40-133 g kg-1 DM, ME (6-11.7 MJ kg-1DM, WSC (21-160 g kg-1 DM and D-value (40-78%. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 among family farms were recorded for CP (P<0.05 that varied from 40-112.4 g kg-1 DM. No statistically significant differences were observed in the investigated parameters between the first and the second year of the investigation.

  3. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia: hay quality monitoring over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project:“Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding in each of the two investigation years (from November 2003 to May 2004 and from November 2004 to May 2005. In this paper the nutritive value of hay on 18 dairy farms over the second year of investigation and the comparison of the results with the first year was done. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500.The following parameters were estimated: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC and organic matter digestibility in DM (D-value. The average results show desirable DM content (873.30 g kg-1, high NDF (671.16 g kg-1DM, but low WSC (83.53 g kg-1 DM, CP (61.75 g kg-1 DM, ME (8.75 MJ kg-1 DM and D-value (58.33%. Great variations were observed for CP (40-133 g kg-1 DM, ME (6-11.7 MJ kg-1DM, WSC (21-160 g kg-1 DM and D-value (40-78%. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 among family farms were recorded for CP (P<0.05 that varied from 40-112.4 g kg-1 DM. No statistically significant differences were observed in the investigated parameters between the first and the second year of the investigation.

  4. The use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS in the prediction of chemical composition and in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestibility of Italian alfalfa hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formigoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop calibration equations for the prediction of chemical composition and forage digestibility from different populations of alfalfa hay harvested in Parmigiano- Reggiano cheese production area of Northern Italy. Due to annual climatic variations that affect soil and growing conditions and consequently cause high variability in chemical and physical composition, 319 hay samples from four years were used to build robust calibration. NIRS calibration equations were developed for the prediction of in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFd and 20 chemical parameters (dry matter, starch, fat, sugar, fiber fractions, crude protein, nitrogen fractions and some minerals of Italian hay. The results obtained show that NIRS equations greatly explain the variation in the composition existing in alfalfa hays grown in Northern Italy, except for a few parameters characterized by low variability range value. The equations obtained for the prediction of biological and chemical parameters explain the major part of the variation existing in the reference data, which open great prospects for the use of NIRS in planning feeding strategies of livestock, based on alfalfa forage.

  5. Rumen-degradable protein in roll conditioned or macerated legume hays and silages estimated by in situ kinetics vs. alternative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to the in situ method for estimating rumen-degradable protein (RDP) in diverse forage legumes should be validated. In this study, RDP in roll conditioned or macerated silages and hays of Medicago, Lotus, and Trifolium species with differing polyphenol compositions were estimated from in...

  6. Evaluation of the relative ability of three models, the isotropic, Klucher and Hay, to predict the global radiation on a tilted surface in Beer Sheva, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, A.I. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Solar Energy Lab.); Ianetz, A. (Israel Meteorological Service, Bet Dagan (Israel). Research and Development Dept.)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to test the relative ability of three widely used models, isotropic, Klucher and Hay, to predict the total radiation incident on a titled surface. The last two models correct the isotropic model for the inherent anisotropy present in the diffuse component of global radiation. A statistical analysis of the three models, using values of measured normal incidence beam and global radiation on a horizontal surface and on a south-facing surface inclined at 40{sup o}C at a semi-arid site, Beer Sheva, Israel (31{sup o}15'N, 34{sup o}48'E), gave the following conclusions: (i) on a yearly basis, the Hay model gives the most accurate prediction of total radiation on a tilted surface, i.e. an average RMSE value of 4.0%. (ii) from April to August, the accuracy of the isotropic model approaches that of the Hay model; (iii) from January to March and from September to December, the accuracy of the Klucher and Hay models are comparable; and (iv) based upon the results of the analysis, the simple isotropic model provides a very good first approximation of the total radiation incident on south-facing surfaces inclined up to an angle of 40{sup o}. (author).

  7. Ruminal Methane Emissions by Goats Consuming Dry Hay of Condensed Tannin-Containing Lespedeza With or Without Polyethylene Glycol, Alfalfa, or Sorghum-Sudangrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (initial BW of 37.7 +/- 1.09) were used to assess effects of different sources of dry hay on ruminal methane emission. Treatments were a legume (Sericea lespedeza, Lespedeza cuneata) high in condensed tannins (CT; 15.3%) without (S) or with (P)polyethylene...

  8. Challenges of the 1990's: Economic Development, Social Equity, and Environmental Protection in Mexico and Guatemala. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program (November 14, 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    This collection of curriculum projects concern Guatemala and Mexico and were written by U.S. school teachers who participated in the Summer 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad Program. The following are some titles of included curriculum projects: "Problems and Opportunities of Guatemala, A Developing Nation"; "Mexico: Integrated…

  9. Effect of supplementing Rhodes grass hay (Chloris gayana) with Berchemia discolor or Zizyphus mucronata on the performance of growing goats in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, I M; Abdulrazak, S A; Muleke, C I; Fujihara, T

    2012-08-01

    Twenty growing Small East African goats were used to determine the effects of feeding sun-dried leaves of the browse forages Berchemia discolor and Zizyphus mucronata as supplements to low-quality basal diet, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay, on voluntary feed intake (VFI), digestibility and growth performance. The grass hay and maize bran were used as a control. The dried leaves were then included at the rates of 15% and 30% of the dry matter intake (DMI). Berchemia discolor had the highest crude protein (CP) content of 195.5 g/kg DM, while Z. mucronata had CP content of 169.5 g/kg DM. The grass hay had the lowest CP content of 50.9 g/kg DM. The browse forages had low fibre content [Neutral detergent fibre (NDF); 257.9-369.5 g/kg DM], while the grass hay had high fibre content (NDF; 713.1 g/kg DM). Goats in the groups supplemented with either of the browse forages had higher total DMI, nitrogen (N) intake and retention and live-weight gains than those in the control diet group. The digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) was not affected by supplementation, but the CP digestibility increased with supplementation. The use of the browse forages as supplements for goats fed on poor-quality basal diets would enhance the performance of the animals.

  10. Two Curricular Units for Advanced Spanish Students: Guatemala, Ayer y Hoy Descubre Mexico. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bonnie L.

    These two curriculum units were developed as a result of study in Mexico and Guatemala during the Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program, 2000. The units are designed for use in an upper-level high school Spanish class. They are intended to be taught in Spanish, and the supplementary materials (with a few exceptions) are written in Spanish.…

  11. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  12. 34 CFR 664.3 - Who is eligible to participate in projects funded under the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... teacher in an elementary or secondary school; (3) Is an experienced education administrator responsible... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to participate in projects funded under the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program? 664.3 Section 664.3 Education Regulations of...

  13. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  14. Actividad Antifúngica de Aceites Esenciales de Canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) y Orégano (Origanum vulgare L.) y su Efecto sobre la Producción de Aflatoxinas en Nuez Pecanera [Carya illinoensis (F.A. Wangenh) K. Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Arturo García-Camarillo; Martha Yolanda Quezada-Viay; Josefina Moreno-Lara; Gabriela Sánchez-Hernández; Ernesto Moreno-Martínez; María Cristina Julia Pérez-Reyes

    2006-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) y orégano (Origanum vulgare) fueron evaluados para determinar su actividad antifúngica contra Aspergillus flavus y la producción de aflatoxinas en nuez pecanera. Ambos aceites presentaron actividad fungicida in vitro contra A. flavus, el aceite esencial de orégano a partir de 1000 ppm y el de canela de 2000 ppm, en medio de cultivo de malta-salagar y un efecto fungistático en 100 ppm. Sin embargo, al evaluar el efecto inhibitorio en la ...

  15. 芳樟型樟树叶精油减压连续精馏分离芳樟醇的工艺模拟%Process simulation of separating linalool from Cinnamomum camphora leaf essential oil by continuous vacuum distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡女丹; 覃引; 朱金秋

    2015-01-01

    In order to study process conditions of separating high-quality linalool, and investigate the relationship between purity of linalool and energy consumption, the equilibrium relationship of linalool and the other main components in Cinnamomum camphora leaf essential at the pressures of 1 kPa was analyzed by Aspen Plus software, separating models of single-tower and double-tower were established, and separating process of linalool from C. camphora leaf essential oil was simulated. The productions with 95.4%and 99%of linalool were obtained, and heat duty of double-tower distillation was 2.6 times as much as that of single-tower distillation. The results showed that camphor content in linalool products was the key factor affecting the distillation process parameters.%为了研究精馏分离高品质芳樟醇的工艺条件,考察芳樟醇产品纯度与能耗的关系,应用Aspen Plus软件分析了芳樟醇与芳樟型樟树叶精油其他主要成分的二元系统在1 kPa下相平衡的关系,并建立单塔精馏和双塔精馏分离模型,对芳樟型樟树叶精油分离芳樟醇的工艺进行了模拟,结果分别得到了含天然芳樟醇95.4%和99%的产品,双塔精馏的塔底热负荷之和为单塔精馏的2.6倍。模拟结果表明,芳樟醇产品中的樟脑含量是影响精馏工艺参数的关键因素。

  16. An investigation of the effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark extracts on oxidative DNA damage and possible cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in transformed/untransformed cell lines from Type 1 diabetic patients, in vitro.

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    Ferzan Lermioglu Erciyas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM had increased level of oxidative DNA damage and decreased efficacy of DNA repair. These changes were implicated in the increased cancer risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cinnamon bark extracts have diverse biological activities including antidiabetic and anti-tumor properties. Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia is a common used cinnamon species present in commercial cinnamon preparations. We aimed to investigate the effects of cinnamon extracts prepared from C. cassia bark on endogenous and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage, as well as cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in this study. Type 1 diabetic (T1DM lymphocytes (GM02765, GM01838 and fibroblasts (GM01837 were obtained from NIGMS Human Genetic Cell Repository of Coriell Institute, New Jersey, USA. Cytotoxicity analysis were performed by using a tetrazolium salt, 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl 2-(4-nitrophenyl 2H-5-tetrazolio] 1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1. The effects of extracts on endogenous and H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage were studied using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; Comet Assay, a technique allowing DNA damage in a single cell. Apoptotic activities of extracts were investigated by TUNEL and Annexin V/PI assays. using flow cytometry. IC50 and IC20 values of the extracts varied and the effects on endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage were different regarding cell lines and extracts. Although their protective effects at some doses against to H2O2-induced oxidative damage, our results suggested DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of cinnamon bark extracts on Type 1 diabetic cell lines, in vitro.

  17. Nutritional Value of Raisin by- Product and its Effect on Late Flower Alfalfa Hay Fermentation Profile and Nutrient Availability in Ruminants

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    Mojtaba Yari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agro-industrial by-products in ruminants feeding could help in semi arid climate condition throughout the year. Raisin by-product is produced in huge magnitude in Malayer city, Hamedan province. Local different raisin by-products which produced during machinery cleaning and sorting of sun dried treated grapevine cluster (Vitisvinifera L. cv. Sultana, are as:1 some outer layer of flesh and skin and pedicle of berries; 2 rejected raisins mostly un-ripped berries with their pedicles and 3 peduncles and rachises with their lateral branches of clusters. They may have suitable nutritive value in ruminants. However, their nutrient profile and availability and anti nutrient factors such as lignin and tannin should be considered. Alfalfa hay is usually the important forage used in dairy cow’s diet. However, it has lower fiber digestibility and higher ruminal crude protein degradability. Increasing alfalfa hay fiber digestibility and decreasing ruminal crude protein degradability can help its feeding value. Raisin by-product may help to achieve those in the case of alfalfa hay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of raisin by-product in ruminant feeding compared with late flower alfalfa hay and consideration of its effect on in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay. Material and methods Based on completely randomized block design, two original samples (two blocks for each of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product from local availabilities were collected. In first experiment, chemical and phenolic (total phenol and tannin composition analysis was measured by two replicates for each block according to AOAC methods. In second experiment, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product was measured using two fistulated Mehraban rams. For ruminal incubation times of 0, 3, 6, 16, 36, and 72 h respectively 2, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 filled nylon bags used which randomly assigned in animals. In situ

  18. 杭州湖滨景区古樟树不同立地土壤性状分析%Soil properties of ancient Cinnamomum camphora at different sites in the lakeside scenic area of Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚元春; 王小德; 肖昆仑; 吴家森; 钱小平; 丁水龙

    2011-01-01

    Soil physical and chemical properties as well as nutrient contents under ancient Cinnamomum camphora crown projections were studied at the lakeside scenic area of Hangzhou, where a high water table and strong human disturbance were found, using a correlation analysis.Results showed that soil pH was partially alkaline varying from 6.57 to 7.58; soil bulk density was loose varying from 0.75 to 1.28 g·cm-3; organic matter content varied from 16.1 to 78.8 g·kg-1; and overall the soil nutrient levels were above average.A strong positive correlation (P<0.05) among soil total N, total P, total K, hydrolysable N, and available P were found.Additionally, a negative correlation was found between soil exchangeable Ca and exchangeable Mg (P<0.05), but there was no correlation among different microelements.Soil properties in the green space of the Three Pools Mirroring the Moon Scenic Area were superior to the green space, lawn, and tree ponds at Round Lake which was more beneficial to the growth of ancient C.camphora trees.In tree ponds, soil properties with ceramic and bark mulch were superior to turf grass or seeded grass as mulch; however, the human activities that readily disturbed ancient C.camphora growing in tree ponds meant that the coefficient of variation with ceramic and bark mulch was higher than with grass mulch.The higher pH would be harmful to the growth of Cinnamomum camphora.Therefore, the balance of soil pH, aeration, water and fertilizer conservation will be improved by covering the tree pool with organic mulch such as bark and wood chips, avoiding laying sod and seeding within the projection region of the crown, and reducing the alkaline substances such as soil cement, lime and bricks mixed in the soil after the transformation in the scenic spots.%针对湖滨景区立地环境地下水位高,人为干扰大等特点,对古樟树Cinnamomum camphora树冠投影下的土壤进行理化性质及养分的测定.结果表明:古樟树生长地土壤pH 6

  19. Indicating Function of Different Organs of Cinnamomum camphora to Heavy Metals in Air%香樟不同器官对空气中重金属的指示作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 林匡飞; 赵建华; 刘曦子; 苏禄晖; 杨意; 沙妙清; 杨明华; 朱丽红

    2016-01-01

    Taking Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl. on both sides of road in traffic busy area (pollution plot) and relatively clean area(the control plot) as research objects, contents of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, As and Ni in different organs including trunk, old bark, biennial branch, annual branch, leaf and fruit were determined, and cumulative amount and pollution index and their distribution proportion of six heavy metal elements in different organs of Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl. at pollution plot were analyzed.The results show that heavy metal element contents in the body C. camphoraa appear different change regulation because of differences in sampling plots, organs and elements, and there are obvious differences in cumulative amount and its distributionproportion, pollution index and its distribution proportion of 6 heavy metal elements at pollution plot because of differences in organs and elements. Overall, contents of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, As and Ni in each organ at pollution plot are all higher than those at the control plot with significant difference (P<0.05). Compared among 6 heavy metal elements, content of Zn is the highest, content of Cu is the second, while the contents of Pb、As、Ni are lower. And the content of same heavy metal element in different organs also has obvious difference, content of Pb, Cu and As in biennial branch are the highest. Cd and Ni in old bark are the highest, content of Zn in annual branch is the highest. Cumulative amount and its distribution proportion of 6 heavy metal elements are the highest in leaf, secondly in old bark, lower in fruit and annual branch, while the pollution index Pb and Zn its distribution proportion are the highest in old bark, the pollution index of other 4 heavy metal elements are the highest in leaf. It is indicated that the organs of C.camphoraa all have a certain absorption capacity to heavy metal elements in air, and absorption capacities of leaf and old bark both are obviously better than those of other organs . Leaf

  20. Reproductive Response of Ewes Fed with Taiwan Grass Hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) Supplemented with Duckweed (Lemna sp. and Spirodela sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetina-Córdoba, P.; Ortega-Cerrilla, M. E.; Sánchez Torres-Esqueda, M. T.; Herrera-Haro, J. G.; Ortega-Jiménez, E.; Reta-Mendiola, J. L.; Vilaboa-Arroniz, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of duckweed (DW) supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI), presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4) in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH). Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05); however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05) on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05). However the period was significant (p<0.01), since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application. PMID:25049670

  1. ¿Hay un hipertexto en esta clase? Dispositivos pedagógicos, tecnología y subjetividad

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    Julieta Armella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan resultados de una investigación en torno a los procesos de transformación de los dispositivos pedagógicos, atendiendo a la introducción de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC en nuestras sociedades. El trabajo de campo fue realizado en escuelas secundarias públicas de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Entendemos que las TIC tienen efectos en nuestras formas de pensar y actuar en el mundo, en los procesos de producción de subjetividad, en cuanto forman parte de la transformación material y simbólica de nuestra vida cotidiana y de las instituciones. Las escuelas no han quedado exentas de ello: hoy se encuentran interpeladas por los modos en que se adquieren los procesos de producción, distribución y acceso a la cultura. Por medio del análisis de episodios nos proponemos describir las modalidades en que los procesos de informatización de la vida social se expresan en el espacio escolar. Ante la pregunta ¿hay un hipertexto en esta clase? procuramos describir algunas de las dinámicas que caracterizan los dispositivos pedagógicos en tiempos digitales y/o postalfabéticos.

  2. Hay que ver Yemen, aunque el viaje sea largo We need to see Yemen, no matter the distance

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    Ana Liliana Palacios García

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "Hay que ver Yemen, aunque el viaje sea largo". Esta parece ser la frase en mente de muchos viajeros cuando ven las fotografías y escuchan los comentarios de aquellos que han tenido la oportunidad de estar allí. Parece raro, pero perfectamente podría ser la misma sentencia para otros que en lugar de conocimiento buscan encontrar una situación diferente a la de su país de origen. Unos u otros llegan a un lugar que tiene espacios donde todo parece detenido en el tiempo por lo auténtico y refleja de manera clara los contrastes del mundo globalizado de hoy."We need to see Yemen, no matter the distance". It seems what wonder many travelers when they can have a look at the pictures and listen the comments of those who have had the chance of being there. It seem rare, but it can be the same sentence, perfectly for others who look for their country' different situation rather than knowledge. All of them arrive to a place where there are spaces like stuck into the past due to their authentic and reflects clearly the contrasts of nowadays' globalized world.

  3. Evaluation of nebulised hay dust suspensions (HDS) for the diagnosis and investigation of heaves. 3: Effect of fractionation of HDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Dixon, P M; McGorum, B C

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the relative importance of inhaled particulates and soluble components in the response to inhaled hay dust suspension (HDS), heaves (previously termed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; n = 7) and control (n = 6) horses were given inhalation challenges with whole and fractionated HDS. Fractionation was achieved by centrifugation to yield supernatant (SUP) and particulate debris. The particulates were then washed repeatedly in saline to produce a washed particulate (WP) fraction which comprised mainly fungal spores, and a wash fraction (WF) which comprised saline and soluble components washed from the surface of the particulates. Inhalation of HDS and SUP induced a significant airway neutrophilia in both groups, with the magnitude of the response being significantly greater in heaves horses. SUP induced significantly less airway neutrophilia than HDS in both groups, despite the endotoxin and protease content of HDS and SUP being comparable. WP and WF induced only a slight airway neutrophilia in heaves horses. However, a combined challenge with SUP and WP induced a neutrophilic response approaching the magnitude of that following HDS challenge, indicating that dust particulates contribute to the pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils in heaves. Consequently, inhalation challenge with HDS, which contains both particulates and soluble dust components, may be a more useful tool for the diagnosis and investigation of heaves than aqueous dust extracts, which contain only soluble components.

  4. Que hay en el horizonte sobre el virus del papiloma humano, vacunas y el control del cáncer

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    Patricia J. García

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión provee una visión general sobre las infecciones genitales producidas por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH y de las neoplasias relacionadas con éste y la información sobre las expectativas crecientes de la vacunación como medio de prevención. Se explora como se han desarrollado las vacunas contra el VPH y que aspectos hay que tener en cuenta para una posible implementación de un programa de vacunación para prevenir el cáncer cervical, como los costos, el público objetivo (varones, mujeres o ambos, grupos de riesgo, a que edad vacunarlos, consideraciones que debemos tener en cuenta en la promoción de la vacuna, que pasaría con los programas de detección precoz de cáncer cervical y cuales son los potenciales problemas que tendría en países en desarrollo.

  5. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  6. Different responses in postprandial plasma ghrelin and GH levels induced by concentrate or timothy hay feeding in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Hasegawa, S; Touno, E; Otani, Y; Haga, S; Itoh, F; Katoh, K; Obara, Y

    2008-05-01

    Ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) play a key role in regulating energy balance, metabolic hormone secretion and food intake. Ghrelin and GH responses to dietary compositions have not yet been fully clarified, although there may be significant relationships between dietary compositions and ghrelin and GH responses. In the present study, therefore, we assessed whether dietary compositions influence postprandial plasma ghrelin and GH levels in wethers. Four wethers were respectively fed concentrate (C) or timothy hay (R) for 14 days. The levels of total digestive nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were adjusted to be at the same level. The basal ghrelin in both groups was rapidly and significantly decreased after feeding. Although the decline of ghrelin levels in C was greater and shorter than that in R, no significant difference was observed in the area under the curve (AUC) or in the incremental area. The plasma GH levels were also rapidly and significantly decreased after feeding in both groups and a significant difference was observed between the two groups for AUC of GH. Interestingly, the circadian changes in the plasma ghrelin levels were close to those in the GH levels in C, but this was not the case in R. These data suggest that dietary compositions influence postprandial plasma ghrelin and GH levels, and that these differences may be caused by several factors, including nutrients and ruminal fermentation.

  7. Estudo comparativo da proteína do feno de maniçoba em relação à proteína do feno de alfafa na ração de coelhos Comparative study of maniçoba hay crude protein in relation to alfafa hay crude protein in the diet of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Brito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição parcial da proteína bruta (PB do feno da alfafa (FA pela PB do feno de maniçoba (FM na alimentação de coelhos em crescimento, bem como o valor nutricional da proteína bruta do feno de maniçoba. Foram estudados os parâmetros de desempenho, digestibilidade, rendimento de carcaça e dos cortes nobres submetidos às dietas experimentais. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro níveis de substituição (0, 25, 50 e 75% da proteína do feno de alfafa pelo feno de maniçoba. A substituição crescente dos níveis de feno maniçoba resultou em um aumento linear no consumo de ração e no ganho de peso de forma quadrática aos 83 dias, mostrando que esse ingrediente pode ser utilizado como substituto ao feno de alfafa na dieta de coelhos. A proteína do feno da alfafa pode ser substituída parcialmente pela proteína do feno de maniçoba.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value and the partial substitution of crude protein (CP of alfalfa hay (FA with CP hay maniçoba (FM in diets for growing rabbits. The performance, digestibility, carcass yield and prime cuts parameters submitted to experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75% of protein alfalfa hay and maniçoba hay. The increasing substitution levels of maniçoba hay resulted in a linear increase in feed intake and weight gain quadratically at 83 days, showing that this ingredient can be used as a substitute for alfalfa hay in the diet of rabbits. The protein of alfalfa hay can be partially replaced by the maniçoba protein hay.

  8. The Hays Office and the Two Updated Film Versions of Madeleine Smith’s Case: Letty Lynton (1932 and Dishonored Lady (1947

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    Carmen GUIRALT GOMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The celebrated case of Madeleine Smith, the Glasgow poisoner, who was tried for murder (and absolved in 1857, has resulted in many novels, plays, films and television series. Hollywood, during its classical period, made two updated versions of the incident: Letty Lynton (Clarence Brown, 1932 and Dishonored Lady (Robert Stevenson, 1947. Even though the two films are separated by more than a decade, the self-censorship introduced by the studios themselves – MPPDA, commonly known as the Hays Office – exercised so much control over the two pictures that they can hardly be taken as equivalent. This article proposes a comparative analysis of the two films and how censorship acted as a constraint on them. Through this study, we will establish the different ways the MPPDA acted towards the same material both before and after July 1934, when Hollywood became subject to the rigorous oversight of the Hays Code.

  9. Effects of diets containing alfalfa hay or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage on feeding behavior, productivity, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad

    2009-08-01

    The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.

  10. ¿Por qué en Sonora no hay arqueología? Nacionalismo y turismo en billetes de banco y folletos de viaje

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    César Villalobos Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En México el pasado arqueológico es significativo, pese a que no todas las ruinas son valoradas equitativamente. Se piensa que la arqueología existe donde hay pirámides, y se considera que en su ausencia no hay arqueología. En la zona maya de Mesoamérica prevalece la primera idea, mientras que en Sonora predomina la segunda. En este artículo se pretende demostrar que la valoración desigual de la arqueología es el resultado de varios factores, entre los que se distinguen el nacionalismo y el turismo. Aquí se realiza una comparación de áreas cultural y geográficamente diferentes: el sitio maya de Tulum, en Quintana Roo, y el Cerro de Trincheras, en Sonora. Para el análisis se utiliza la cuarta emisión de billetes del Banco de México, así como folletos de viaje para promoción turística, producidos por la Secretaría de Turismo. La simplicidad de la frase en el norte no hay arqueología permite, en realidad, comprender el éxito selectivo del manejo del pasado prehispánico que ha tenido la clase dirigente. Se concluye que la arqueología ha sido un proyecto paralelo del nacionalismo y turismo posrevolucionarios.

  11. Supplementations of Hyparrhenia rufa -dominated hay with groundnut cake- wheat bran mix: effects on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsha, Simret; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-08-01

    A digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance experiment was conducted using twenty yearling male Somali goats weighing 23.4 +/- 2.02 (mean+/-SD). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of supplementation with graded levels of mixture of groundnut cake and wheat bran at a ratio of 3:1 on DM basis on feed intake, apparent digestibility and N balance in Somali goats. The experimental design was a completely randomized design consisting of five animals in each treatment. The dietary treatments included ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control), and daily supplementation with 200 (T2, low) 300 (T3, medium) and 400 g DM (T4, high) of the concentrate mix. Increased level of supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) daily hay DM intake. Digestibility of crude protein (CP) was higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented goats. Urinary nitrogen, total nitrogen excretion and retention increased (P < 0.01) with the level of supplementation. It was concluded that supplementation with groundnut -wheat bran mixture promoted feed intake and digestibility of DM, CP, and N retention in Somali goats fed hay. However, supplementation at the medium level appeared to be more effective since it promoted similar N balance with the high level of supplementation.

  12. Evaluation of microwave irradiation for analysis of carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, cyanogen, ethyl formate, methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide, and phosphine in hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonglin; Mahon, Daphne

    2007-01-10

    Fumigant residues in hay were "extracted" by microwave irradiation. Hay, in gastight glass flasks, was placed in a domestic microwave oven, and fumigants were released into the headspace by microwave irradiation. Power settings for maximum release of fumigants were determined for carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS(2)), cyanogen (C(2)N(2)), ethyl formate (EF), methyl bromide (CH(3)Br), sulfuryl fluoride (SF), propylene oxide (PPO), and phosphine (PH(3)). Recoveries of fortified samples were >91% for COS, CS(2), CH(3)Br, SF, PPO, and PH(3) and >76% for C(2)N(2) and EF. Completeness of extraction was assessed from the amount of fumigant retained by the microwaved hay. This amount was determined from further microwave irradiation and was always small (<5% of the amount obtained from the initial procedure). Limits of quantification were <0.1 mg/kg for COS, CS(2), C(2)N(2), EF, and PH(3) and <0.5 mg/kg for CH(3)Br, SF, and PPO. These low limits were essentially due to the absence of interference from solvents and no necessity to inject large-volume gas samples. The microwave method is rapid and solvent-free. However, care is required in selecting the appropriate power setting. The safety implications of heating sealed flasks in microwave ovens should be noted.

  13. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

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    Jessica Riveros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La anemia se determinó tomando como punto de corte una concentración de hemoglobina <12 g/dL. La deficiencia de hierro se evaluó según la saturación de la transferrina. Además, se evaluó el índice de masa corporal (IMC y los hábitos nutricionales a través de una encuesta. La frecuencia de anemia fue de 15,1% (IC95% 8,7-23,8%, de éste el 33,3% (IC95% 12,8-61,6% correspondió a anemia ferropénica. Se observó asociación entre la presencia de anemia y los niveles disminuidos tanto del hematocrito (<38% como del número de glóbulos rojos (<4,2x 106/uL. Todas las mujeres con anemia ferropénica tenían peso <64 kg e IMC <24,5 kg/m2. Además, se detectó una alta frecuencia de sobrepeso y obesidad (45,4%, alto consumo de grasas, y bajo consumo de legumbres, frutas y verduras. A partir de estos resultados, se sugiere mantener la vigilancia e implementar programas que incluyan a estas mujeres, tanto para evitar deficiencias nutricionales como excesos.

  14. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  15. Hay Fever Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  16. GC-MS analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Cinnamomum camphora leaves by different extraction methods%GC-MS分析不同方法提取的樟树叶挥发油成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇新; 章挺; 江香梅; 罗丽萍; 杨海宽; 郭夏丽; 刘星星; 李桂兰

    2015-01-01

    为确定樟树叶挥发油最佳的提取方法,采用传统水蒸气蒸馏法、微波辅助蒸馏法、超声波辅助蒸馏法和同时蒸馏萃取法提取樟树叶挥发油,并用GC-MS法对其化学成分进行分析比较。实验结果,MAHD挥发油得率为3.1%,略高于SDE的2.8%。4种提取方法所得挥发油共鉴定出79种化学成分,共有成分达到37种,其主要组成成分相近,主要为芳樟醇(64.156%~69.464%)、石竹烯(3.188%~3.814%)、桉叶油醇(2.559%~3.511%)、樟脑(2.015%~4.215%)等。综合分析,SDE成本投入少,简便,耗时短,是一种高效快速提取植物性挥发油的方法。%In this paper, the volatile oil form the Cinnamomum camphora leaves was obtained by hydro-distillation (HD), microwave assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD), ultrasound assisted hydro-distillation (UAHD) and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) method. Then its chemical composition was analyzed and compared by gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The results showed that the yield of MAHD was 3.1%, which was a little more than that of SDE(2.8%). 79 chemical constituents were separated and identified from above methods, there were 37 common components. The main compounds were linalool(64.156%~69.464%), caryophyllene(3.188%~3.814%), eucalyptol(2.559%~3.511%), camphor(2.559%~3.511%), etc. The SDE method offers important over traditional method, lower cost, easy and shorter extraction time. So SDE is an effective method for extract volatile oil from aromatic plants and has advantages of higher yield and quick exaction.

  17. Analysis of main component and the essential oil chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora in Guangxi%广西樟树精油的主成分分析及其化学型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 莫建光; 周翔

    2013-01-01

    Through the 64 essential oil samples from different areas of Guangxi principal component analysis,five principal extracted components of major interrelated changes in chemical composition were evaluated, α-pinene and terpinen-4-ol played main role in the first main component,nerolidol and α-caryophyllene played main role in the second main component,eucalyptol and α-terpineol played main role in the third main component,camphor and linalool played main role in the fourth main component, and myrcenet played main role in the fifth main component.Combined with GC-MS analysis results, selected the Ward' s method and the squared Euelidean distance method for clustering analysis.The results showed that the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphorastem in Guangxi were clustered into five chemotypes( Num = 22): linalool type, nerolidol type, eucalyptol type, camphor type and the pinene-terpineol type.The linalool type were distributed most widely and linalool contented were the highest.%通过对64份广西不同产地樟树枝叶精油样品的主成分分析,提取出五个主成分评价原主要化学成分间的相关变化.第一主成分中主要起作用的是α-蒎烯和4-萜烯醇,第二主成分中主要起作用的是橙花叔醇和α-律草烯,第三主成分中主要起作用的是α-松油醇和桉叶油素,第四主成分中主要起作用的是樟脑和芳樟醇,第五主成分中主要起作用的是月桂烯.结合GC-MS分析结果,选取欧氏距离平方距离测度法和离差平方和的聚类方法对樟树精油主成分进行聚类分析,结果表明,当聚类水平为22时,将广西樟树分为五种化学类型:芳樟醇型、橙花叔醇型、桉叶油素型、樟脑型和蒎烯-萜烯醇型.其中芳樟醇型分布最广泛,芳樟醇含量占绝对优势.

  18. Effect of salicylic acid on cold tolerance of Cinnamomum camphora seedling under low temperature stress%低温胁迫下水杨酸对香樟幼苗抗寒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩浩章; 王晓立; 张丽华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on cold tolerance of Cinnamomum camphora seedling was studied under low temperature stress in order to provide references for introducing C. Camphora to Northern China. [Method]One year old potted C. Camphora seedlings were used as test material. After spraying SA in different concentra-tions, the test materials were treated with low temperature stress (5t). The parameters such as conductivity, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, activity of antioxidative enzymes, MDA content and soluble sugar content were assayed. [Result] SA was found to reduce chlorophyll degradation, MDA content and plant tissue conductivity, while its application improved the photosynthetic rate and SOD and POD activity. The application of 2 mmol/L SA showed the best effects on C. Camphora seedlings, while 5 mmol/L SA had inhibitory effect on the growth of C. Camphora seedlings. [Conclusion] It has been concluded that SA in appropriate concentration can slow down the effect of low temperature and support nor-mal growth and development of C. Camphora.%[目的]研究外源水杨酸(SA)对低温胁迫下香樟幼苗抗寒性的影响,为香樟在我国北方地区的引种工作提供参考.[方法]以一年生盆栽香樟幼苗为试材,叶面喷施不同浓度的SA后,再进行低温胁迫处理,测定其电导率、光合速率、叶绿素含量、保护酶活性以及丙二醛(MDA)和可溶性糖含量.[结果]外源施用SA能够抑制香樟幼苗叶片中叶绿素的降解、提高光合速率及超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性、降低MDA含量和植物组织电导率;2mmol/L的SA处理对香樟幼苗施用效果最好;而5 mmol/L的SA对香樟叶片的正常生长发育可能存在抑制作用.[结论]适宜浓度的外源SA能够减弱低温对香樟正常生长发育的影响.

  19. 肉桂水提物对大鼠肠道梭菌属IV簇细菌和拟杆菌的影响%Effect of aqueous Cinnamomum cassia extracts on gastrointestinal Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroides in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽珠; 詹宏林; 王聪; 彭喜春; 张宁; 刘柳

    2012-01-01

    目的:肉桂水提物对大鼠结肠和直肠梭菌属IV簇和拟杆菌的影响。方法:给SD大鼠灌胃一个月后分别取结肠和直肠内容物,针对肠道梭菌属IV簇和拟杆菌的16SrRNA基因应用末端限制性片段多态性分析技术对这两类菌的多样性及分布进行分析。结果:研究发现肉桂水提物能降低梭菌属IV簇细菌在结肠和直肠中的数量,增加拟杆菌属细菌在结肠和直肠中的数量;该水提物对结肠和直肠的结构均产生影响,但影响并不相同,其中对直肠的影响更大。结论:肉桂水提物对大鼠肠道菌群的这种影响可能与肉桂治疗肥胖和糖尿病有功效有关。%Objective:To explore the impact of aqueous Cinnamomum cassia(C.cassia) extracts on gut microbiota.Methods:The colon and rectal contents were sampled after rats had been orally administrated the aqueous extracts for one month.Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroides in the samples were analyzed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism(tRFLP) method based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and nucleotide sequencing.Result:The aqueous C.cassia extracts could down-regulate the amount of microbiota of Clostridium cluster IV in rat gut,along with the increase of microbiota of Bacteroides.Various effects were exerted by the extracts on microbiota in colon and rectum,and the impact presented heavier in rectum.Conclusion:These variations of rat gut microbiota induced by the aqueous C.cassia extracts may reflect the functions of anti-obese and anti-dyspepsia of C.cassia.

  20. Effect of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells%宜宾油樟的化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓骛远; 罗通; 郑田喜

    2011-01-01

    利用油樟水浸提液作用蚕豆根尖研究了油樟化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.结果表明:油樟对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用和浸提液浓度、作用时间有密切关系.在实验设计的范围内,随油樟水浸提液浓度的加大,蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数显著减小,而细胞微核率显著提高;油樟浸提液作用48 h时,对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用最强;油樟水浸提液诱导蚕豆根尖细胞产生染色体断片和滞后染色体等多种畸变染色体,并使有丝分裂各时期的分裂相减少.说明油樟化感物质抑制了细胞的有丝分裂,促进微核的产生,从而影响蚕豆根尖的生长和细胞的遗传稳定性.%The effect of Youzhang [Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble), N.Chan]allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells was studied with Youzhang water extracts acting Vicia faba root tips.The result shows the allelopathy has a close relation to the extract concentration and treating time.Within designed range of the experiment, the mitosis index of Vicia faba root tip cells decreases obviously, and the micronucleus frequency rises remarkably along with the increase of Youzhang extract concentrations.When acting time comes to 48 hours, the allelopathy of Youzhang extracts on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells is the strongest.Youzhang water extracts induce a variety of aberrant chromosomes, such as chromosome fregments and delaying chromosomes, and inhibit mitosis different phases.It is implied that Youzhang's allelopthy matter inhibits cell mitosis, and promotes micronucleus generation of cells, and finally affects the growth of Vicia faba root tips and the genetic stability of cells.

  1. 城市污泥好氧堆肥肥料对绿化土壤特性和香樟树生长的影响%Effects on Properties of Green Areas Soil and Growth of Cinnamomum Hupehanum after Application of Aerobic Compost Fertilizer with Sewage Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海星; 沈伟

    2011-01-01

    采用温室盆栽试验的方法,研究了城市污泥好氧堆肥对绿化土壤化学特性、香樟树生长、重金属含量的影响.试验共设6个处理过程,CK代表对照处理(供试土壤),施用10%、15%、20%、25%、30%的污泥.结果表明:随着污泥比例的增加,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷明显增加,pH值明显降低.空白处理中含有的铜、锌、铬、铅随着污泥添加量的增加而逐步升高,锌和铜的含量增加最为明显.香樟在污泥25%、30%比例时,叶绿素含量、株高达最大值.香樟树对锌元素有较强的富集作用,对铜的吸收仅低于锌.总体而言,污泥施用后,可明显提高绿化土壤有机质及全氮全磷含量.%An experiment using pots in greenhouse was conducted to study the effects of sewage sludge (MSS) on soil chemical properties, growth of cinnamomum hupehanum and heavy metal contents in cinnamomum hupehanum. The experiment made six treatments:Control (no application of MSS), percentage of MSS as follows: 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %, respectively. Results showed that with the increase of MSS, soil organic carbon, TN and TP were significantly increased, while pH was significantly decreased. Cu, Zn, Cr and Rb increased with the increasing of MSS dosage, in which Zn and Cu increased significantly. Chlorophyll contents in leaves and growth height of cinnamomum hupehanum reaches the maximum at 25 % and 30% sewage sludge content. The enrichment of heavy metals in cinnarnomum hupehanum first is Zn,then Cu. In a word, the results indicats that the application of MSS can obviously increase soil organic carbon and the contents of TN and TP.

  2. 干旱胁迫对香樟幼树生长及光合特性的影响%Effects of drought stress on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cinnamomum camphora saplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义; 胡庭兴; 胡红玲; 陈洪; 王彬; 李晗

    2014-01-01

    通过盆栽和持续干旱研究了干旱胁迫(以2d为一个处理间隔,持续干旱0-16 d)对香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)幼树生长及光合特性的影响.结果显示:(1)干旱胁迫下香樟幼树的地径、树高生长量受到了抑制.轻度、中度干旱处理(干旱时间2-8 d)叶片含水量和叶片相对含水量与对照差异均不显著,重度干旱处理(干旱时间>10 d)下显著低于对照(P<0.01);(2)干旱胁迫影响了香樟叶片光合作用的日变化进程,妨碍了其有机物质积累;(3)干旱胁迫下香樟叶片光合色素总量先升高后降低,在干旱第8天达到最高.所有干旱处理的净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)均受到不同程度的抑制.气孔因素和非气孔因素共同作用影响香樟幼树的光合作用,在干旱初期(干旱时间2-8 d)气孔因素起主导作用,干旱后期(干旱时间>10 d)非气孔因素起主导作用;(4)干旱胁迫下香樟幼树叶片的表观量子效率(AQY)、RuBP羧化速率(CE)、光补偿点(LCP)、光饱和点(LSP)及CO2补偿点(CCP)均显著降低,表明干旱会降低香樟幼树对环境中光照和CO2的利用及适应能力.综上,干旱胁迫下香樟幼树的水分生理状况变差,光合能力及光合日变化进程受到影响,对环境中光照和CO2的利用及适应能力也明显降低,最终香樟幼树的形态生长受到抑制.%Cinnamomum camphora is a broad-spectrum tree species wildly distributed in south China.However,the effects of drought stress on growth and photosynthesis of C.camphora are poorly understood.This paper aimed to study the response of young C.camphora trees to drought stress to provide theoretical reference for water management of C.camphora plantations.The experiment was conducted in greenhouse in Aug.2013.Twenty-nine pots (27 cm in diameter and 25 cm in height) of C.camphora were treated with drought stress for continuously 0 d,2 d...16 d with a time interval of 2 d,respectively.After 16 d

  3. Short-term effects of nitrogen deposition on soil respiration of Cinnamomum camphora plantation%模拟氮沉降对樟树人工林土壤呼吸的短期效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张徐源; 闫文德; 马秀红; 郑威; 王光军; 梁小翠

    2012-01-01

    The nitrogen deposition experiments on Cinnamomum camphora plantation of Hunan provincial botanical garden were simulated from June the 7th to October the 7th 2010, the nitrogen deposition levels was respectively as control(CK, 0g·m-2a-1). low nitrogen (LN, 5g·m-2a-1) , medium nitrogen (MN, 15g·m-2a-1) and high nitrogen (HN, 30 g·m-2a-1) . The soil respiration speed and soil surface temperature and the surface water content of the soil were determined by LI-8100 measuring instrument. The results show that the average values of soil respiration speed were CK (4.09±0.66 μ mol·m-2 s-1) , LN (2.39+0.29 μ mol·m-2 s-1 ) , MN (2.18±0.19 μ mol·m-2 s-1) , HN (2.28±0.25 μ mol·m-2 s-1) , that of the CK was obviously higher than the other three treatments (P 0. 05). Volumetric water content of 5 cm soil was between 0.266 6 ~ 0.294 4 (m3·m-3) . it did not vary much monthly during the research period (1.8% ~ 9.4%) . The findings suggest that the initial stage of nitrogen deposition obviously influenced the soil respiration of Cinnamomum camphora plantation.%通过对中亚热带地带性植被樟树林进行模拟氮沉降试验,氮沉降水平分别为对照(CK,0 g·m-2 a-1)、低氮(LM 5 g·m-2 a-1)、中氮(MN,15 g·m-2 a-1)和高氮(HN,30 g·m-2 a-1),利用LI-8100土壤呼吸测定系统,研究了模拟氮沉降对其土壤呼吸速率的影响以及与土壤表层温湿度的响应.结果表明,不同浓度氮沉降处理水平下的土壤呼吸速率平均值分别为CK 4.09±0.66μmol·m-2s-1、LN 2.39±0.29 μ mol·m-2 s-1、MN 2.18±0.19 μ mol·m-2 s-1、HN 2.28±0.25 μ mol·m-2s-1.对照处理显著高于其它3种处理(P<0.01);土壤呼吸温度敏感系数Q10值分别为CK1.80、LN 1.67、MN 1.77、HN 1.53,各处理土壤呼吸速率与土壤地表温度呈显著正相关关系;5cm土壤体积含水率在0.266 6~0.294 4(m3·m-3)之间,各月份土壤体积含水率差异不大(1.8%~9.4%),土壤呼吸速率与5cm土层土壤体积

  4. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  5. Effects of level of concentrate supplementation on growth performance of Arsi-Bale and Boer × Arsi-Bale male goats consuming low-quality grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Seid; Urge, Mengistu; Animut, Getachew; Awigechew, Kassahun; Abebe, Girma; Goetsch, Arthur Louis

    2012-08-01

    Eighteen Arsi-Bale (local) and 18 Boer × Arsi-Bale (crossbred) male goats, initially approximately 10 months of age, were used in a 12-week experiment to investigate potential interactions between genotype and nutritional plane in growth performance, carcass and skin characteristics, and mass of non-carcass components. Grass hay (6.7% crude protein and 71.9% neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum supplemented with 150, 300, or 450 g/day (dry matter; low, moderate, and high, respectively) of a concentrate mixture (50% wheat bran, 49% noug seed cake, and 1% salt). Initial body weight was 20.7 and 14.0 kg for crossbred and local goats, respectively (SE = 0.36). Hay dry matter intake was greater (P goats (461 and 429 g/day) and similar among concentrate levels (438, 444, and 451 g/day for high, moderate, and low, respectively; SE = 4.7). Average daily gain was greater (P goats (36.6 and 20.8 g) and differed (P goats, respectively; SE = 0.59) and greater (P goats, respectively) and high and low (8.80 and 6.66 kg, respectively). Carcass concentrations of physically dissectible lean and fat were similar between genotypes and high and low concentrate levels. There were few differences between genotypes or concentrate levels in other carcass characteristics such as color and skin properties. Relative to empty body weight, the mass of most non-carcass tissues and organs did not differ between genotypes. However, the low concentrate-level mass of omental-mesenteric fat was greater (P goats (1.06% vs. 0.54% empty body weight, respectively). In conclusion, growth performance and carcass weight advantages from crossing Boer and Arsi-Bale goats were similar with a low-quality basal grass hay diet regardless of level of supplemental concentrate.

  6. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  7. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  8. Hay donde leer, una apuesta gerencial pedagógica en pro del mejoramiento de la comprensión lectora

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro Burgos, Diego Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (Especialista en Gerencia Educativa). Universidad Católica de Manizales, Facultad de Educación, 2014 El presente proyecto de investigación denominado “¡Hay donde leer!, una apuesta gerencial-pedagógica en pro del mejoramiento de la comprensión” se desarrolló en la Institución educativa Marilópez Bellavista ubicada en el municipio de Suarez- Cauca y tuvo como principal finalidad la creación de espacios de lectura que mejoraran la eficacia de la comprensión lectora en los y las estudia...

  9. 苜蓿干草捆复合型天然防霉剂的研究%Research of Compound Natural Mould Inhibitor of Alfalfa Hay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉山; 张晓娜; 格根图; 王志军; 荣磊

    2011-01-01

    为提高苜蓿干草捆的品质,以草原2号苜蓿为试验材料,通过复合型天然防霉剂配比组合筛选试验,对其粗蛋白质含量、总可消化养分、霉菌数量等方面进行综合评定表明:复合型天然防霉剂各成分的最适添加水平为氧化钙1%、陈皮0.3%、沸石粉2%.复合型天然防霉剂能够有效保存苜蓿干草营养成分(干草捆的粗蛋白质含量达17.09%,总可消化养分为58.21),防霉效果显著(霉菌数量为5.74×103个/g),且成本明显低于市场现行销售的单一型防霉剂.%To avoid the alfalfa hay bale mildewing, improve the quality of alfalfa hay bale. Medicago varia Martin, cv. Caoyuan No. 2 was token as the study object to assess content of crude protein, total digestible nutrition and fungal amount through selection of preparation combination of compound natural mould inhibitor, the optimal addition level of all elements in compound natural mould inhibitor was calcium oxide 1%, tangerine peel 0. 3% and zeolite powder 2%. The compound natural mould inhibitor can conserve nutrients in hay effectively (content of CP in hay bale was 17. 09%, the total TDN was 58. 21) ,anti-mould effect was obvious (moulds was 5. 74 X 103/g) , and the cost was significantly lower than the single-type anti-mould which is sold on the market currently.

  10. The effect of feeding barley or hay alone or in combination with molassed sugar beet pulp on the metabolic responses in plasma and caecum of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Austbø, Dag; Blache, D

    2016-01-01

    glucose absorption, hence affect the metabolic responses measured in plasma and the hindgut. Four diets with different carbohydrate composition were investigated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment in four periods using four caecum cannulated Norwegian coldblooded trotter horses. The diets were hay...... collection, then each horse changed to a new diet in the next period. Caecum pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the metabolic responses measured in plasma at rest were followed for 9 h after the test meal. Caecum pH decreased more (P .... However, the plasma concentrations of SCFA were differently affected with greater (P carbohydrate derived nutrients from the small...

  11. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis.

  12. Forage preservation (grazing vs. hay fed to ewes affects the fatty acid profile of milk and CPT1B gene expression in the sheep mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervishi Elda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in lipid metabolism occur when animals are exposed to different feeding systems. In the last few decades, the characterisation of genes involved in fat metabolism and technological advances have enabled the study of the effect of diet on the milk fatty acid (FA profile in the mammary gland and aided in the elucidation of the mechanisms of the response to diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage diets (grazing vs. hay near the time of ewe parturition on the relationship between the fatty acid profile and gene expression in the mammary gland of the Churra Tensina sheep breed. Results In this study, the forage type affected the C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 (CLA and long-chain saturated fatty acid (LCFA content, with higher percentages during grazing than during hay feeding. This may suggest that these FAs act as regulatory factors for the transcriptional control of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B gene, which was more highly expressed in the grazing group (GRE. The most highly expressed gene in the mammary gland at the fifth week of lactation is CAAT/ enhancer- binding protein beta (CEBPB, possibly due to its role in milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland. More stable housekeeping genes in the ovine mammary gland that would be appropriate for use in gene expression studies were ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19 and glyceraldehyde- 3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. Conclusions Small changes in diet, such as the forage preservation (grazing vs. hay, can affect the milk fatty acid profile and the expression of the CPT1B gene, which is associated with the oxidation of fatty acids. When compared to hay fed indoors, grazing fresh low mountain pastures stimulates the milk content of CLA and LCFA via mammary uptake. In this sense, LCFA in milk may be acting as a regulatory factor for transcriptional control of the CPT1B gene, which was more highly expressed in the grazing group.

  13. 油樟叶提取物对人肝癌BEL-7402细胞增殖的抑制作用%Effects of the Extracts of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum Leaves on the Proliferation of Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Strain BEL-7402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永华; 叶奎川; 周黎军; 张萍; 魏琴; 殷中琼

    2014-01-01

    The extracts of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves were extracted by the technique of steam distillation and solvent-refining. The effects of different extracts of C. longepaniculatum on the proliferation of human hepatocarcinoma cell strain BEL-7402 were investigated by a method of MTT. The results shown that different extracts of C. longepaniculatum leaves exihibited different degree of inhibition on the proliferation of BEL-7402 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The order of inhibition was acetic ether extract>petroleum ether extract>ethanol extract>1,8-cineole>leaves essential oil>n-butanol extract. The difference of inhibitive activity between 1,8-cineole and leaves essential oil was statistical significance at low concentration (P0.05). The investigaitons indicated that the extracts of C. longepaniculatum leaves can inhibit the proliferation of human hepatocarcinoma cell, and 1,8-cineole may be act the major role in the leaves essential oil, the active ingredient of C. longepaniculatum leaves may be in the part of petroleum ether extract and acetic ether extract.%采用水蒸汽蒸馏和系统溶剂提取获得油樟叶的不同提取物,运用MTT法考查油樟叶各提取物对人肝癌BEL-7402细胞增殖抑制作用的影响。结果表明,油樟叶各提取物对BEL-7402细胞的增殖具有不同程度的抑制作用,呈现明显的量效关系;各提取物抑制作用的大小顺序为:乙酸乙酯萃取物>石油醚萃取物>乙醇提取物>1,8-桉叶油素>油樟叶精油>正丁醇萃取物;低浓度时1,8-桉叶油素与油樟叶精油的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高浓度时油樟叶精油、乙醇提取物、石油醚萃取物和乙酸乙酯萃取物之间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。油樟叶提取物有一定抑制肝癌细胞增殖的作用,油樟叶精油的主要活性成分可能是1,8-桉叶油素,去精油后残渣的活性组分存在于石油醚部分和乙酸乙酯部分。

  14. The Response of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Leaves of Cinnamomum camphora chvar.Borneol to Different Fertilization Levels%龙脑樟叶片光合特性对氮磷钾肥的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈周琴; 张露; 李燕山; 苏恒; 彭招兰; 曹福亮; 郁万文; 杨亮

    2015-01-01

    通过“3414”不完全正交回归设计,研究氮磷钾肥对龙脑樟矮林光合特性的影响,以确定其生长发育最佳的施肥处理。结果表明随着氮磷钾肥单一施肥量的增加,龙脑樟叶片的叶绿素含量(Chl)、净光合速率(Pn)和胞间CO2浓度(Ci)均呈现“先增大后减小”的变化趋势;适宜的氮(N100 g/株)、磷(P2O5140 g/株)、钾(K2O 60 g/株)用量及其配施能够明显增加龙脑樟的Chl和Pn,其中Pn受氮肥施用量的影响更大;氮、磷、钾肥之间交互效应不明显。通过龙脑樟光响应曲线拟合分析可知,在一定范围内,随着施肥量增加,龙脑樟的最大净光合速率(Amax)、光饱和点(LSP)和表观量子效率(AQY)均升高,而光补偿点(LCP)和暗呼吸速率(Rd)均降低,有利于龙脑樟叶片光合产物的积累,加快龙脑樟的生长发育。%Based on “3414” incomplete orthogonal regression design, the effects of fertilization of N, P and K on photosynthetic characteristics of Cinnamomum camphora chvar were investigated so as to determine the optimal fertilization mode for its growth.Borneol coppice leaves were studied.The results showed that with the increase of the single fertilization of N,P and K,Chl content,Pn and Ci tended to increase first decrease later.The Chl content and Pn could significantly be improved by applying the appropriate amounts of N(N100g per plant),P(P2O5140 g per plant) and K(K2O 60 g per plant),or their combination.The study found Pn to be most affected by nitrogen levels.No obvious interaction effect was found between nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium,phosphorus and potassium,respectively.Photoresponse curves fitting analysis showed under definite fertilizer supply,Amax,LSP and AQY increased,LCP and Rd decreased with the fertilizer sup-ply rising by photoresponse curves fitting analysis.

  15. Litter fall production and nutrient dynamics of Cinnamomum camphora in subtropical region%亚热带樟树林凋落物量及其养分动态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁冰; 闫文德; 马秀红

    2011-01-01

    2009年至2010年,在湖南省森林植物园对樟树林的凋落物生物量及养分归还量进行为期1 a的定位研究.结果表明:樟树林的年凋落物量为3.26 t·hm-2a-1,凋落叶占绝对优势(71.09%),年凋落物量的月变化模式为单峰型,8月份出现高峰值;N、S、P、K、Ca、Mg这6种大量元素的养分年归还量共计为78.433 9±4.129 1 kg·hm-2a-1,N最大,P最小;就各组分而言,各元素在凋落物各组分中的养分归还量均表现为落叶>落枝>落果;樟树林凋落叶的分解速率为2.465 1 t·a-1,95%周转期为1.22 a,50%周转期为0.28 a,而凋落枝的分解速率为0.928 9 t·a-1,95%周转期为3.23 a,50%周转期为0.75 a;凋落枝和叶的分解均是在夏季速度最快.%Based on the position research of Cinnamomum camphora forest for a year (2009~2010) in Hunan forest botanical gardens, the biomass and nutrition returns of the stand were investigated. The results show that the annual litter of the forest was 3. 26 t · hm-2a-1 and leaf dominated(in 71. 09%), and the monthly litter fall pattern appearing single peak, appeared litter peak in August; the total of forest litter nutrients return quantity of N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg was 78. 433 9±4. 129 1 kg · hm-2a-1. To every components, the elements in the litter nutrient components were ordered from large to small: foliage>branches>fruits; the decomposition rate of leaf litter was 2. 465 1 t · a-1, 95% turnover was 1. 22 year, 50% turnover was 0. 28 year, and that of branch litter was 0. 928 9 ta-1, turnover was 3. 23 year, 50% turnover was 0. 28 year. The decomposition of the branches and leaf of the litter was the fastest in the summer.

  16. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  17. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability).

  18. Production, Nutritional Quality and In vitro Methane Production from Andropogon gayanus Grass Harvested at Different Maturities and Preserved as Hay or Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G. O.; Teixeira, A. M.; Velasco, F. O.; Faria Júnior, W. G.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Chaves, A. V.; Gonçalves, L. C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Andropogon gayanus is an important grass due to its high biomass production, drought tolerance and favorable growth on low fertility acidic soils. Currently, there is little research on the impact of growth stage on the nutritional quality or the degree of CH4 production that may arise from this forage during ruminal fermentation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of regrowth stage of A. gayanus on its chemical composition, in vitro production of gas and CH4, as well as in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility when grown under tropical Brazilian conditions and conserved as hay or as silage. The nutritional value of A. gayanus grass declined with increasing maturity; however digestible DM yield linearly increased. After 112 d of regrowth, A. gayanus produced higher quality silage (higher lactate and lower pH and butyrate content) and higher DM yield. However, the low levels of crude protein at this time would make protein supplementation a necessity for proper rumen fermentation. No differences in CH4 kinetic parameters were found with advancing maturity or preservation method (hay or silage). PMID:25049959

  19. Effect of undigested neutral detergent fiber content of alfalfa hay on lactating dairy cows: Feeding behavior, fiber digestibility, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A

    2017-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF240, aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH <5.8 was lower in Hu-HD diets. Milk production and components were not different among diets. Total-tract aNDFom and potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction

  20. Tratamento do feno de braquiária pelo fungo Pleurotus ostreatus Pretreatment effects on fiber degradation of brachiaria hay by Pleurotus ostreatus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação de forragens com fungos lignocelulolíticos é uma opção para melhorar a qualidade destas sem adição de produtos químicos. O tratamento do substrato influencia a ação do fungo e a qualidade final do produto. Neste experimento, aplicaram-se quatro tratamentos (compostagem do feno inteiro, compostagem do feno picado, hidratação do feno em água fria e hidratação do feno em água quente a um feno de Brachiaria decumbens. Aos tratamentos seguiu-se inoculação com o fungo Pleurotus ostreatus e incubação por 35 dias, sob temperatura controlada. Usou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e medidas repetidas. Amostras foram colhidas semanalmente para acompanhar a degradação do substrato, mediante a análise química do feno. Observou-se aumento linear, com o decorrer do tempo, no teor de proteína bruta (PB e na proporção de lignina na parede celular (LIG-FDN, e decréscimo linear nos valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, celulose e hemicelulose. Não se observou efeito de tratamento no teor de FDA. Os tratamentos com compostagem apresentaram maiores valores de PB, lignina e LIG-FDN e menores de FDN e hemicelulose. Não se observou diferença entre os tratamentos com hidratação. O tratamento do feno de braquiária com o fungo propiciou degradação da fração fibrosa e aumento no teor de PB, com efeito mais intenso nos tratamentos que usaram compostagem. A ação do fungo foi mais efetiva sobre a hemicelulose que sobre os demais componentes da fibra.The innoculation of forages with lignocellulolytic fungi is an option for improving quality without adding chemical products. Substrate quality influences fungal activity and endproduct quality. The effects of four treatments (composting of whole hay, composting of chopped hay, soaking in cool water and soaking in hot water on a Brachiaria decumbens hay were evaluated. The treatments were followed by innoculation with Pleurotus ostreatus

  1. Komponen kimia daun Cinnamomum macrophyllum Miq Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Agusta

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis on the chemical constituents of Cinnnamomum macrophyllum Miq leaves from Halmahera island using combination techniques GCMS was conducted. Total numbers of the constituents which can be detected were 59 consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol derivates, alkanes, oxygenated hydrocarbon, alcohols, aldehydes, caboxilix acid and alkaloid aong with eight unidentified compounds (1-8. Leaves of C. macrophyllum contained bioactive compound such as limonene, isoeugenol, methyleugenon, safrole, vitamin E, furfuraldehyde, 2-furan-carboxaldehyde and 7-methyl xanthine.

  2. Effect of Alffalfa Hay Rich in Se, Co and Zn on Cow and Sheep Raising%富含硒钴锌的苜蓿青干草在牛羊饲喂中的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 哈斯; 介晓磊; 郭孝; 李建平; 蒋士传

    2011-01-01

    A comparative trial was conducted in which three kinds of functional alfalfa hays (which consists of selenium rich type, selenium-cobalt rich type and selenium-cobalt-zinc rich type and common type ) were applied to Holstein Cow and sheep diet in order to analyse their regulation and effects on the feed conversion and characteristics of animal production. The results showed that compared to common type alfalfa hay , three kinds of functional alfalfa hays could enhance forage conversion efficiency when supplemented with 5% in animal diets. Alfalfa hays (selenium-cobalt rich type and selenium-cobalt-zinc rich type )could raise daily gain of Holstein cow and Dopper sheep, nevertheless, alfalfa hays (selenium rich type)could enhance milk production of Holstein Cow. In animal production, functional alfalfa hays should be applied into diets of sheep and cow scientifically in'order to produce different animal products with good qualities.%通过在荷斯坦奶牛和杜泊羊日粮中添加5%高硒型、高硒钴型、高硒钴锌苜蓿青干草,研究3种苜蓿青干草对牛羊饲料转化和生产特点的影响.结果表明,功能型苜蓿青干草能够显著提高牛羊的饲料转化率,其中高硒钴和高硒钴锌苜蓿青干草有利于提高羊和牛的日增重,而高硒型青干草有利于提高荷斯坦奶牛的产奶量.

  3. 苜蓿干草在泌乳奶牛上的应用浅析%Effects of Appended Alfalfa Hay on Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军彪; 刘光磊; 张勇峰; 杨光; 李倩倩

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在通过利用苜蓿干草替代部分精料来研究对奶牛生产性能以及经济效益的影响.选择年龄、体重、泌乳天数、产奶量、健康状况相近的20头奶牛,随机分为2组(对照组、试验组),每组10头,进行为期60d的试验.试验组利用2kg苜蓿干草替代等量的奶牛精补料.结果显示,与对照组比较,试验组产奶量提高了2.06kg/(头·d),乳脂率、乳蛋白率分别提高了0.1、0.01个百分点,但差异均不显著(P>0.05).通过经济效益比较发现,试验组收益比对照组增加了7.64元/(头·d).试验结果表明,利用苜蓿干草替代部分奶牛精补料有提高奶牛生产性能的趋势,可增加经济效益.%The experiment studied the effects on production performance of lactating dairy and economic beneifts by replacing part of concentrate using alfalfa hay. Twenty Holstein lactation cows were selected with similar age, avoirdupois, lactation period, milk quantity and randomly grouped two teams,control group and test group.The trial was conducted for 60 days.Two kilograms alfalfa hay was substituted for partial concentrated feed of the dairy cow ration.The results indicated that compared with the control group, the test group milk production increased 2.06kg, milk fat and milk protein were respectively increased by 0.1and 0.01 percentage points, the difference was not signiifcant (P>0.05). According to economic beneifts, the proift of test group was increased 7.64 yuan everyday and every cow than control group. The test results showed that, the cow concentrate was replaced by alfalfa hay can improve the production performance of dairy cows and increase economic beneifts. Using alfalfa grass block substitute some extract feed supplement is feasible.

  4. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  5. Architecture of β-Graphdiyne-Containing Thin Film Using Modified Glaser-Hay Coupling Reaction for Enhanced Photocatalytic Property of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqiang; Xie, Ziqian; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zhenzhu; Huang, Qunxing; Zhang, Shuqing; Zhou, Jingyuan; Liu, Rong; Gao, Xin; Chen, Changguo; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2017-03-15

    β-Graphdiyne (β-GDY) is a member of 2D graphyne family with zero band gap, and is a promising material with potential applications in energy storage, organic electronics, etc. However, the synthesis of β-GDY has not been realized yet, and the measurement of its intrinsic properties remains elusive. In this work, β-GDY-containing thin film is successfully synthesized on copper foil using modified Glaser-Hay coupling reaction with tetraethynylethene as precursor. The as-grown carbon film has a smooth surface and is continuous and uniform. Electrical measurements reveal the conductivity of 3.47 × 10(-6) S m(-1) and the work function of 5.22 eV. TiO2 @β-GDY nanocomposite is then prepared and presented with an enhancement of photocatalytic ability compared to pure TiO2 .

  6. Evaluation of nebulised hay dust suspensions (HDS) for the diagnosis and investigation of heaves. 2: Effects of inhaled HDS on control and heaves horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Collie, D D S; Dixon, P M; McGorum, B C

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate inhaled hay dust suspensions (HDS) as a tool for the diagnosis and investigation of heaves, the pulmonary inflammatory and functional consequences of inhalation challenge with 3 different HDS were determined in 6 control and 7 asymptomatic heaves horses. Heaves horses given HDS challenge developed the characteristic features of heaves, including airway neutrophilia, obstructive airway dysfunction and mucus hypersecretion. While HDS challenge induced a mild airway neutrophilia in controls, the no-response threshold for controls was greater than that of heaves horses, and there was no overlap in BALF neutrophil ratio of controls and heaves horses. Furthermore, HDS challenge did not induce airway dysfunction or mucus hypersecretion in controls. Therefore, HDS challenges enabled differentiation of control and heaves horses. Interestingly, in both groups, the airway neutrophilia was a dose-dependent response rather than an 'all or nothing' response. This study suggests that HDS challenges are of value in the diagnosis and investigation of heaves.

  7. Effect of sunflower-seed oil or linseed oil on milk fatty acid secretion and lipogenic gene expression in goats fed hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Leroux, Christine; Faulconnier, Yannick; Durand, Denys; Shingfield, Kevin J; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-05-01

    Plant oils in the diet are known to alter milk fat composition owing to changes in the supply of fatty acid precursors and/or activity of lipogenic enzymes in the mammary gland. Thirteen mid-lactating Alpine goats were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods to evaluate possible mechanisms regulating milk fat synthesis and fatty acid composition on grass hay-based diets containing none (H) or 55 g/kg diet dry matter of sunflower-seed oil (HSO) or linseed oil (HLO). Inclusion of oils in the diet had no effect on milk yield but enhanced (Pdiet enhance milk fat synthesis, alter milk fatty acid composition and specifically inhibit mammary SCD activity in the goat. Furthermore, the results suggest that the regulation of mammary lipogenesis in response to plant oils appears related to factors other than altered mammary gene expression or potential lipogenic enzyme activity.

  8. Consumo e digestibilidades aparentes total e parciais do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Intake, total and partial apparent digestibilities of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se sete carneiros, sem raça definida, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, para avaliar o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL e hemicelulose (HCEL do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis. Os animais receberam apenas feno de S. guianensis mais sal mineral como componentes da dieta. O fornecimento do feno foi ad libitum, sendo a quantidade calculada para permitir sobras de 20%. Utilizou-se óxido crômico como indicador para estimar a produção de fezes e o fluxo de digesta no duodeno. Os consumos de MS e MO do S. guianensis foram 67,71 e 64,70 g/kg0,75, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO, PB, FDN e FDA foram 49,2, 51,3, 61,2, 42,0 e 42,7%, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminais da MS, MO, FDN e FDA foram 75,8, 84,7, 89,6 e 90,6%, respectivamente, em função do total digerido. A digestibilidade ruminal da PB foi 21,3%. Concluiu-se que o feno de S. guianensis, colhido em estádio de maturidade avançada, pode ser indicado para ruminantes, pois seu consumo é capaz de atender às necessidades energéticas de mantença já que seus valores, apesar de sua digestibilidade não ser elevada, são ligeiramente maiores do que os de outras forrageiras tropicais.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs were used to evaluate the intake and the total and the partial apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL and hemicellulose (HCEL of the Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The diet was composed by the hay of S. guianensis plus mineral salt. The hay was offered ad libitum with the refusals estimated for being 20%. Chromium oxide was used as an external marker, to estimate fecal production and digesta

  9. Types of oilseed and adipose tissue influence the composition and relationships of polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products in steers fed a grass hay diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Rolland, D C; Basarab, J A; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Proctor, S D; Dugan, M E R

    2014-03-01

    The current study evaluated the composition and relationships of polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products (PUFA-BHP) from the perirenal (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) of yearling steers fed a 70 % grass hay diet with concentrates containing either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS). Analysis of variance indicated several groups or families of structurally related FA, and individual FA within these were affected by a number of novel oilseed by fat depot interactions (P adipose tissue differences, therefore, present unique opportunities to differentially enrich a number of PUFA-BHP which seem to have positive health potential in humans (i.e., t11-18:1, c9,t11-18:2 and c9,t11,c15-18:3).

  10. Examining Communities at Risk: Physical and Socioeconomic Impacts of an Earthquake Scenario on the Hayward Fault (The HayWired Scenario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, L.; Wein, A. M.; Johnson, L. A.; Jones, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research led by the U.S. Geological Survey aims to inform and stimulate the development of plans and policies in disaster management and hazard mitigation that will help improve the capacity of residents, businesses and communities to rebound from disasters. As was evidenced in the 1994 Northridge earthquake, "ghost towns" emerged in neighborhoods with high concentrations of damaged rental housing. Also, rental properties that served predominantly lower income households had more difficulty financing repairs which led to blight and other long-term community recovery challenges. Our approach is to develop a framework for identifying and spatially analyzing communities at risk of long-term displacement and recovery challenges for an earthquake scenario. The HayWired scenario postulates a M7.05 earthquake on the Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area with surface fault rupture, liquefaction, landslides, and fires, as well as subsequent aftershocks. The analytical framework relies on the literature and prior disaster experience to identify and systematically combine physical and socioeconomic impacts of the earthquake sequence with pre-existing socioeconomic conditions to identify areas where housing and building damage, lifeline service disruption, and socioeconomic challenges intersect and can potentially lead to long-term displacements of people, businesses, and jobs. Hazus analyses estimate $46 billion in building damage from the HayWired main shock, which increases by 10-25% due to aftershocks. Heavy damage to large apartment buildings exceeds many other housing types, and preliminary analyses identify neighborhoods where these damage concentrations also intersect with concentrations of low income households. Also, in some counties, the estimated population displaced from severely damaged housing far exceeds the number of vacant housing units, which means residents may be forced to move well away from former neighborhoods and even outside the region

  11. Effects of pistachio by-products in replacement of alfalfa hay on populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation and fermentative parameters in the rumen of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, M H; Tahmasbi, A-M; Khorvash, M; Naserian, A-A; Ghaffari, A H; Valizadeh, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sundried pistachio by-products (PBP) as a replacement of alfalfa hay (AH) on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation (BH) in Baluchi sheep. Four adult male Baluchi sheep (41 ± 1.3 kg, BW) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) control, (ii) 12% PBP (0.33 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP), (iii) 24% PBP (0.66 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP) and (iv) 36% PBP (all of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP). The basal diet was 360 g/kg dry matter (DM) alfalfa hay, 160 g/kg DM wheat straw and 480 g/kg DM concentrate. The trial consisted of four periods, each composed of 16 days adaptation and 4 days data collection including measurement of blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and population of bacteria. No differences were observed in rumen pH among the treatments, while rumen ammonia-N concentrations were decreased (p< 0.05) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM of the diets. Using of 36% PBP in the diet reduced (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportion of acetate, while the concentration of propionate, butyrate and acetate to propionate ratio were similar to all other treatments. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreased (p < 0.01) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM in the diets of sheep. However, other blood metabolites were not affected by the experimental diets. It was concluded that PBP in replacement of AH had no effects on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in relation to the control diet.

  12. Characterization of in situ nitrogen and fiber digestion and bacterial nitrogen contamination of hay crop forages preserved at different dry matter percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocek, J E; Grant, A L

    1987-02-01

    Alfalfa, red clover, orchardgrass and timothy were harvested in the vegetative stage, wilted and stored as hay, or ensiled in small batch silos (20 kg) at 60, 40 or 20% (direct cut) dry matter and were analyzed for compositional differences. A ruminally cannulated lactating cow, consuming 50% of her dry matter intake from hay crop silage, was used to measure in situ dry matter, N, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance. Diaminopimelic acid was used as a bacterial marker to correct for bacterial N contamination for in situ residual N. Fibrous components tended to become concentrated as percent dry matter at preservation decreased, presumably associated with leaching of water solubles during storage. For most forages, as dry matter percentage of preservation decreased, water soluble dry matter and N increased, with a concomitant increase of ruminally nondigested dry matter. Specific trends in coefficients of digestion associated with forage type or preservation dry matter percentage were not observed for dry matter, N, neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber. Correction for contamination by bacterial N decreased lag time in digestion and altered rates of N digestion compared with noncorrected rates. Linear and quadratic bacterial N contamination profiles were observed with time of ruminal incubation. Rate of digestion of N was highly correlated with fibrous component concentration, and to a lesser extent to rate of neutral and acid detergent fiber digestion. Dry matter percentage at preservation had a variable effect on ruminal digestion rate of dry matter and N, which varied with forage type and had no effect on neutral detergent and acid detergent fiber digestion rates. Correction for bacterial N contamination should be considered when establishing N digestion rates for forage by the in situ technique.

  13. A Study to Determine the Ambulatory Quality Assurance Impact of a Computer-Stored Medical Records System Upon the Family Practice Clinic, Silas B. Hays Army Community Hospital, Fort Ord, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    implementation, the CMRIS 10 appeared to be on schedule and proceeding according to mile- stone dates.. Initial study efforts were, therefore, geared...RESPIR TRACT 07AUG81 INFECTION JJCR2 ACUTE TONSILLITIS & OUINSY 05AUG81 JLAV3-1 HAY FEVER 05AUG81 BHNK3-1 POSTNATAL CARE 17FEBB1 Y MAX9 -I REGRANCY

  14. Valor nutritivo e utilização do feno de Desmodium ovalifolium em substituição ao feno de alfafa para coelhos em crescimento Nutritional feeding value and use of Desmodium ovalifolium hay replacing alfafa hay for rabbits in growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    1999-11-01

    nutritional feeding value and the performance of rabbits fed with diets including desmodium hay (Desmodium ovalifolium. The digestibility trial used 14 male New Zealand White rabbits, with 50 days of age, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and seven replications. A reference diet and a test in which desmodium hay replaced 25% of the reference diet on DM basis were used. Digestible dry matter, digestible protein and digestible energy contents of desmodium hay, based on the total dry matter, were respectively, 17.97% and 4.77%, and 821kcal/kg. In the performance trial, 72 New Zealand White rabbits were used, 36 males and 36 females, 40 to 90 days old, alloted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments, six replications and two animals per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a reference diet and other five diets where Desmodium ovalifolium hay replaced 15%, 30%, 45%, 60% or 75% of the alfafa hay, on crude fiber basis. The daily feed intake and weight gain during the period of 40 to 90 and 70 to 90 days old and the feed conversion in the period of 70 to 90 days old, as well as the final weight and carcass weight at 90 days, showed better result for the animals fed with desmodium diet. Excluding the diet reference, the regression analysis, according to the levels of alfalfa hay substitution, showed that not only the performance but also rabbits carcass traits were similar during the experimental period. The results showed that desmodium hay at those inclusion levels replaced efficiently alfalfa hay in rabbits rations.

  15. Avaliação do feno de Arachis pintoi utilizando o ensaio de digestibilidade in vivo Evaluation of Arachis pintoi hay using in vivo digestibility trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Machado Ladeira

    2002-11-01

    fiber (NDF, non fibrous carboidratos (NFC, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HCEL and energy of Arachis pintoi hay. Nitrogen balance was also determined. Animals were kept in metabolic cages and received A. pintoi hay plus mineral salt. The Arachis pintoi was harvested with approximately 100 days. The supply of the hay was ad libitum with 20% allowed refusals. The experiment had 15 days of adaptation period and five days for sampling of hay, refusals, feces and urine samples. Chromium oxide was used as external marker to estimate fecal production. The intake of DM and OM of A. pintoi was 90.17 and 85.67 g/kg0.75, respectively. The crude protein, total digestible nutrients (TDN and metabolizable energy (EM were, respectively, 14.3%, 66.4% and 2.0 Mcal/kg DM. The nitrogen (N balance was 12.1 g/day and represented 40.2% of total intake N. The total apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, EE, CHO, NDF, NFC, ADF, CEL, HCEL and energy were 64.4, 68.4, 70.0, 63.4, 68.2, 53.6, 93.3, 47.2, 62.8, 66.8 and 63.7%, respectively. The Arachis pintoi hay showed high intake of digestible nutrients for a tropical legume forages, what gives support for its use in the feeding of ruminants.

  16. 油樟内生溶磷菌的筛选及其生物学特性%Screening and characterization of phosphate dissolving endophytic bacteria from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞章; 周诰均; 魏琴; 周万海; 范轶玲; 秦欢

    2016-01-01

    筛选具有溶磷能力的植物内生细菌,并探索该类菌的促生和抗逆性能,有助于扩大溶磷微生物来源、研发微生物肥料、改善土壤磷素营养和提高农业产量。该研究以从油樟组织中分离得到的50株内生细菌为材料,通过溶磷圈法初筛得到24株具有溶磷潜能的菌株,利用钼蓝比色法测定它们的溶磷能力和培养液的pH值,并研究溶磷能力较强菌株产生吲哚乙酸( IAA)、铁载体、1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸( ACC)脱氨酶、几丁质酶等促生和抗逆性能。结果表明:24株油樟内生细菌都能从磷酸钙中释放出有效磷(溶磷量为51.26~237.08μg·mL-1),其中,YG60、YG43、YG36、YG25、YG49、YG44株菌的溶磷量较高,均大于150μg·mL-1。接种油樟内生菌后,培养液的pH值均有一定程度的降低,但菌株溶磷量与培养液pH值间不存在显著相关性。6株溶磷量大于150μg · mL-1的菌株大部分具有分泌IAA、产铁载体、ACC脱氨酶活性和几丁质酶活性的能力;其中YG43、YG60和YG25分泌IAA的能力较强(IAA分泌量分别为22.55、18.75和16.41μg·mL-1),YG43和YG60产铁载体的能力较强(As/Ar小于0.6),YG43、YG60和YG25的ACC脱氨酶活性(分别为0.194、0.224、0.208 U·mg-1)较高,YG43和YG60的几丁质酶活性(分别为2.968 U和2.502 U)较高。综合菌株的溶磷、促生和抗逆性能,认为YG43、YG60和YG25菌株在促进植物生长、提高植物抗性及生物防治方面具有较好的应用前景。%Screening endophytic strains with phosphate-dissolving and exploring the characterization of growth promo-ting and resistance were conducive to broad the phosphate dissolving microbial resources, to develop microbial fertiliz-ers, to improve soil phosphorus nutritious and to increase agricultural yield. We isolated 50 endophytic bacteria from interior tissues of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum, and 24 phosphate dissolving endophytic bacteria strains

  17. Comparason on Anatomical Structure and FTIR Spectra between Cinnamomum camphora and Phoebe zhennan Woods%樟和楠木的木材解剖结构特征和红外光谱比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓明; 谢春平; 孙小苗; 南程慧

    2016-01-01

    【目的】以樟科的珍贵木材的樟木和楠木作为研究对象,探讨2种结构相近木材的有效识别方法。【方法】通过光学显微镜和傅立叶红外光谱对二者的解剖结构、红外光谱特征分别进行了比较研究。【结果】2种木材样本的显微结构特征较为相似,差异主要体现在樟木半散孔至散孔材,楠木为散孔材;樟木与楠木管孔平均弦径为(114.5293±31.5645)μm、(106.3788±19.6872)μm,樟木作为半散孔材平均弦径变化范围比楠木广。通过对6个木材样本的红外光谱比较,产地对樟木和楠木2种木材的红外光谱区域的指纹图谱有一定影响;2种木材的一维红外图谱峰形和出峰位置差异较小,仅在表征纤维素和半纤维素中C-O伸缩振动区域有所区别,樟木在波数1055 cm-1和1039 cm-1处形成了峰强度不等的双峰,楠木该位置只形成了波数1054 cm-1的一个不对称单峰;以1510 cm-1峰作为内标峰,与1595 cm-1(樟木)、1599 cm-1(楠木)的比值分别为1.1612和0.9969,说明樟木的木素中愈疮木基比例较高;樟和楠木的木材在波数800~1800 cm-1范围内的二阶导数谱差异明显,主要体现在吸收峰的数量和形状上,樟木的吸收峰可以分为17组峰簇,而楠木为17个独立吸收峰,全图谱的匹配度只有37.5。【结论】分析产地因素,波数900~3400 cm-1区域为木材图谱特征稳定的区域,可用于2种木材的图谱区分;在1055 cm-1和1039 cm-1范围内吸收峰的形状、1595 cm-1(樟木)和1599 cm-1(楠木)和1510 cm-1峰的相对强度比,可以作为2种木材一维图谱的种间识别特征;2种木材的二阶导数图谱差别较大,可用于2种木材的区分。%Objective]The aim of the this paper was to establish an identification method for 2 woods (Cinnamomum camphora and Phoebe zhennan) with similar structure.[Method]Optical microscope and fourier transform

  18. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  19. An exploration of place and its representations: an intertextual/ dialogical reading of the photographs of AB Ovenstone and the novel Gillespie by John MacDougall Hay.

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    Lindsay Fiona Blair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available “An intertextual/ dialogical reading of place through photography and fiction” The article is an exploration of place and its representations based on the intertextual reading of a series of photographs (1880-82 of Tarbert, Loch Fyne by Andrew Begbie Ovenstone (1851-1935 and the dialogical reading of a novel, Gillespie (1914, by John MacDougall Hay (1881-1919 which is set in Tarbert. The proposed article is inspired by a sense that a semiotic approach to the subject will reveal far more than has been discovered within the tradition of hermeneutics and patrimony and that much will be gained by a study of the contrast between written and visual signifiers. The article raises questions about the (unexamined coded readings of place especially in relation to the photograph, and the lack of an adequately theorized tradition for the novel. The literary text is well known - if not well understood - but the images are from a rare, unpublished, private collection of photographs from Scotland, India and the furthest reaches of Empire (Ovenstone was the Atlantic Freight Manager of Anchor Line Ltd, the Glasgow shipping company. The paper emphasizes the need for the use of codes to decipher the texts. When we “read” the photographs we need to be aware of the intertextual relationship between the photograph and the landscape painting tradition as well as the common practice of the created tableau – there is then overlaid upon the image the sense of a set of conventions, a system which operates much like a language. We are able to discover through the notion of the “long quotation from appearances” the potential for more complex “synchronic” readings. Likewise, in the case of Gillespie, the novel operates within a genre which determines a “reading”. When we are aware of a code, we become aware of the way that Hay manoeuvres adroitly to thwart the reader’s best efforts to settle upon a preferred reading – especially one shaped by an

  20. Nitrogen balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay and infused with differing proportions of casein in the rumen and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K C; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2004-02-01

    Twenty wether lambs (46 +/- 2 kg) fitted with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of differing proportions of ruminal and abomasal casein infusion on N balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay (0.8% N, DM basis) for ad libitum intake. Wethers were infused with 0 (control) or 10.7 g/d of N from casein with ratios of ruminal:abomasal infusion of 100:0 (100R:0A), 67:33 (67R:33A), 33:67 (33R:67A), or 0:100% (0R:100A), respectively, over a 12-d period. Total N supply (hay N intake + N from casein infusion) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion (g/d) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion decreased as casein infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly increased in lambs receiving 0R:100A (quadratic, P = 0.02). Total N excretion was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls and decreased linearly (P = 0.005) as casein infusion was shifted to the abomasum. Retained N (g/d, % of N intake, and % of digested N) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein than in controls. Retained N increased as infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly decreased in lambs receiving 0R: 100A (quadratic, P infusion to maximize N retention was 68% into the abomasum. The regression suggests that supplementation with undegradable intake protein had an additional benefit over supplementation with ruminally degradable intake protein (100R:0A) and that changing the percentage of ruminally undegradable intake protein in supplemental protein from 33 to 100% resulted in minimal differences in N retention. Apparent N, DM, OM, and energy digestibility (% of intake) was greater (P infused with casein than controls but did not differ among casein infusion groups. These data suggest that feeding protein supplements containing a portion (greater

  1. Geophysical delineation of the freshwater/saline-water transition zone in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Travis and Hays Counties, Texas, September 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.D.; Kress, W.H.; Shah, S.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Smith, B.A.; Hunt, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    During September 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barton Springs/Edwards Aquifer Conservation District, conducted a geophysical pilot study to determine whether time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) sounding could be used to delineate the freshwater/saline-water transition zone in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer in Travis and Hays Counties, Texas. There was uncertainty regarding the application of TDEM sounding for this purpose because of the depth of the aquifer (200-500 feet to the top of the aquifer) and the relatively low-resistivity clayey units in the upper confining unit. Twenty-five TDEM soundings were made along four 2-3-mile-long profiles in a study area overlying the transition zone near the Travis-Hays County boundary. The soundings yield measurements of subsurface electrical resistivity, the variations in which were correlated with hydrogeologic and stratigraphic units, and then with dissolved solids concentrations in the aquifer. Geonics Protem 47 and 57 systems with 492-foot and 328-foot transmitter-loop sizes were used to collect the TDEM soundings. A smooth model (vertical delineation of calculated apparent resistivity that represents an estimate [non-unique] of the true resistivity) for each sounding site was created using an iterative software program for inverse modeling. The effectiveness of using TDEM soundings to delineate the transition zone was indicated by comparing the distribution of resistivity in the aquifer with the distribution of dissolved solids concentrations in the aquifer along the profiles. TDEM sounding data show that, in general, the Edwards aquifer in the study area is characterized by a sharp change in resistivity from west to east. The western part of the Edwards aquifer in the study area shows higher resistivity than the eastern part. The higher resistivity regions correspond to lower dissolved solids concentrations (freshwater), and the lower resistivity regions correspond to

  2. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

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    Aberra Melesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2, 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3 and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4. The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001 higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001 also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.3 kg. The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05 higher than those reared in the control (T1 (54.0 g/goat/day and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4 had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good

  3. Quality Standard of Essential Oil from D-linalool Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm Presl Leaves in Ji'an of Jiangxi Province%江西吉安右旋芳樟醇型黄樟鲜枝叶油的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗忠生; 蒋志茵; 龙光远; 黄恒辉

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil in leaves of d-linalool Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm can be extracted by steam distillation. Control by its main component, samples of different woodland condition were analyzed by GC method and the formulation of quality standard can be sett, the d-linalool was more than 90%and the camphor was less than 1.5%.%用水蒸汽蒸馏提取d-芳樟醇型黄樟鲜枝叶油。用芳樟油对其进行主成分对照,并采用气相色谱测定不同立地条件的精油主成分,提出右旋芳樟醇型黄樟鲜枝叶油的质量标准建议,黄樟鲜枝叶油芳樟醇含量大于90%,樟脑含量小于1.5%。

  4. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Buri

    Full Text Available Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES. We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1 first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES; 2 first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3 first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing. Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year and cumulative (from one year to the following positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  5. Efficacy of a Nasal Spray from Citrus limon and Cydonia oblonga for the Treatment of Hay Fever Symptoms-A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A; Klein, S D; Gründemann, C; Garcia-Käufer, M; Wolf, U; Huber, R

    2016-09-01

    Nasal spray from lemon and quince (LQNS) is used to treat hay fever symptoms and has been shown to inhibit histamine release from mast cells in vitro. Forty-three patients with grass pollen allergy (GPA) were randomized to be treated either with placebo or LQNS for one week, respectively, in a cross-over study. At baseline and after the respective treatments patients were provoked with grass pollen allergen. Outcome parameters were nasal flow measured with rhinomanometry (primary), a nasal symptom score, histamine in the nasal mucus and tolerability. In the per protocol population absolute inspiratory nasal flow 10 and 20 min after provocation was higher with LQNS compared to placebo (-37 ± 87 mL/s; p = 0.027 and -44 ± 85 mL/s; p = 0.022). The nasal symptom score showed a trend (3.3 ± 1.8 in the placebo and 2.8 ± 1.5 in the LQNS group; p = 0.070) in favor of LQNS; the histamine concentration was not significantly different between the groups. Tolerability of both, LQNS and placebo, was rated as very good. LQNS seems to have an anti-allergic effect in patients with GPA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Whole-tract digesta kinetics and comparison of techniques for the estimation of fecal output in steers fed coastal bermudagrass hay at four levels of intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbuhl, J M; Pond, K R; Burns, J C

    1994-01-01

    Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers) hay was fed to four ruminally cannulated steers (380 +/- 14 kg BW) of evaluate the effects of intake level on digesta flow kinetics in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Forage intakes represented 50, 70, 88, and 99% of feed voluntarily consumed per animal during a pre-experimental period. Masticated boli and wet-sieved masticated leaves (ML) and stems (MS) retained by a 4.0-mm sieve and feces retained by a .063-mm sieve were mordanted with chromium or marked with erbium, ytterbium, or dysprosium, respectively. Particle markers and a solution of Co-EDTA were pulse-dosed via the ruminal cannula. A continuous infusion of Co-EDTA was later delivered with peristaltic pumps. Intake level had no effect (P > .10) on fluid and particle passage rate (PR; percentage/hour) of any fractions marked. For all particle fractions, increasing intake level caused linear decreases in mean retention time (MRT; P infusion of Co-EDTA did not differ. Kinetic estimates differed in magnitude according to the characteristics of the particle fractions marked. Marked feces gave the shortest estimate of MRT and the smallest estimate of FILL and FO. Kinetics of ML and MS also differed (P < .001), the former having faster PR, shorter MRT, and smaller FILL and FO. Use of representative samples of ingested feed should give more realistic estimates of digesta kinetics than estimates derived from ingesta fractions because kinetics of separated leaf and stem fractions differed.

  7. Sin chivo expiatorio, no hay grupo: el caso de las administraciones públicas (No scapegoat, no group: the case of public administrations

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    Josu Bingen Fernández Alcalde

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Con base en Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, o la Sociología Clínica se analiza la posición de “Chivo Expiatorio” como suceso universal en los procesos de desarrollo de grupos y equipos. Una etapa esperable y gestionable de su evolución; no un accidente a evitar ni un motivo para desmantelar los equipos laborales puestos en marcha. Sin chivo expiatorio no hay grupo, ni regeneración grupal. Toda grupalidad vive cíclicamente “el destronamiento” de una figura anterior de liderazgo con algún tipo de violencia sacrificial. Tal acontecimiento cierra una fase de conflicto importante e inaugura una renormalización grupal. Por ello, propone incluirla como fase propia en los modelos generales de desarrollo grupal.ABSTRACTBased on Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, or Clinical Sociology analyzes the position of "Scapegoat" as a universal event in the development processes of groups and work groups. An expected and manageable stage of its evolution, not an accident to avoid nor a reason for dismantling the set up work teams. No scapegoat no group, no regeneration group. All groups lives cyclically "the dethronement" of an earlier figure of leadership with some sort of sacrificial violence. This event closes a major conflict phase and inaugurates a renormalization group. It is therefore proposed to include itself as a phase in the generic models of group development.

  8. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo CP digestibility.

  9. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Ferlay, Anne; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Based on the potential benefits to long-term human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. The impact of plant oil supplements to diets containing different forages on caprine milk fatty acid composition was examined in two experiments using twenty-seven Alpine goats in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with 28 d experimental periods. Treatments comprised of no oil (control) or 130 g/d of sunflower-seed oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) supplements added to diets based on grass hay (H; experiment 1) or maize silage (M; experiment 2). Milk fat content was enhanced (Pdiets, resulting in 17, 15 and 14% increases in milk fat secretion, respectively. For both experiments, plant oils decreased (Pdiet. In conclusion, plant oils represent an effective strategy for altering the fatty acid composition of caprine milk, with evidence that the basal diet is an important determinant of ruminal unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the goat.

  10. Optimization of candidate-gene SNP-genotyping by flexible oligonucleotide microarrays; analyzing variations in immune regulator genes of hay-fever samples

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    Beier Markus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variants in immune regulator genes have been associated with numerous diseases, including allergies and cancer. Increasing evidence suggests a substantially elevated disease risk in individuals who carry a combination of disease-relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. For the genotyping of immune regulator genes, such as cytokines, chemokines and transcription factors, an oligonucleotide microarray for the analysis of 99 relevant SNPs was established. Since the microarray design was based on a platform that permits flexible in situ oligonucleotide synthesis, a set of optimally performing probes could be defined by a selection approach that combined computational and experimental aspects. Results While the in silico process eliminated 9% of the initial probe set, which had been picked purely on the basis of potential association with disease, the subsequent experimental validation excluded more than twice as many. The performance of the optimized microarray was demonstrated in a pilot study. The genotypes of 19 hay-fever patients (aged 40–44 with high IgE levels against inhalant antigens were compared to the results obtained with 19 age- and sex-matched controls. For several variants, allele-frequency differences of more than 10% were identified. Conclusion Based on the ability to improve empirically a chip design, the application of candidate-SNP typing represents a viable approach in the context of molecular epidemiological studies.

  11. The seasonal symptoms of hyposensitized and untreated hay fever patients in relation to birch pollen counts: correlations with nasal sensitivity, prick tests and RAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viander, M; Koivikko, A

    1978-07-01

    A 2 year prospective study of thirty-eight birch pollen-sensitive hay fever patients under specific immunotherapy and of nineteen untreated control patients showed a significant correlation between the total seasonal symptom scores of the patients and their clinical sensitivities assessed by the RAST and a graded nasal test. The agreement between a positive nasal test and a positive RAST was 74%. In the early season with low pollen counts the onset of symptoms was significantly associated with high sensitivity of the patients, while many patients showed symptoms in the late season irrespective of their nasal and RAST sensitivity. About 90% of both the treated and the untreated patients reported mild symptoms when the pollen count exceeded 80/m(3) in the early season. 80% of them still had symptoms when the count was below 30/m(3) in the late pollen season. Although hyposensitization therapy had no effect on the occurrence of the mild symptoms, the treated patinets had severe symptoms significantly less often than the untreated ones on days with high pollen counts.

  12. Geologic strip map along the Hines Creek Fault showing evidence for Cenozoic displacement in the western Mount Hayes and northeastern Healy quadrangles, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Hanshaw, Maiana N.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Hines Creek Fault and the adjacent Trident Glacier and McGinnis Glacier Faults to the north in the eastern Alaska Range, Alaska, reveals that these faults were active during the Cenozoic. Previously, the Hines Creek Fault, which is considered to be part of the strike-slip Denali Fault system (Ridgway and others, 2002; Nokleberg and Richter, 2007), was interpreted to have been welded shut during the intrusion of the Upper Cretaceous Buchanan Creek pluton (Wahrhaftig and others, 1975; Gilbert, 1977; Sherwood and Craddock, 1979; Csejtey and others, 1992). Our geologic mapping along the west- to west-northwest-striking Hines Creek Fault in the northeastern Healy quadrangle and central to northwestern Mount Hayes quadrangle reveals that (1) the Buchanan Creek pluton is truncated by the Hines Creek Fault and (2) a tectonic collage of fault-bounded slices of various granitic plutons, metagabbro, metabasalt, and sedimentary rock of the Pingston terrane occurs south of the Hines Creek Fault.

  13. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55

  14. Valor nutritivo do feno de braquiária amonizado com uréia ou inoculado com Pleurotus ostreatus Nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens hay ammoniated with urea or innoculated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se, mediante análises de composição química e ensaio de digestibilidade com ovinos, o efeito dos tratamentos químico (amonização com uréia e biológico (inoculação com o fungo Pleurotus ostreatus sobre o valor nutritivo do feno de Brachiaria decumbens. Ambos os tratamentos duraram 42 dias; após esse período, o feno foi seco e moído para fornecimento aos animais. As dietas experimentais foram: feno não tratado (FNT; feno não tratado + uréia (FNT + U; feno inoculado com fungo + uréia (FTB + U; e feno amonizado + feno não tratado (FTQ + FNT. As dietas FNT + U, FTB + U e FTQ + FNT foram isonitrogenadas. Tanto o tratamento químico como o biológico causaram mudanças na composição química do feno. A amonização elevou os teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e reduziu os teores de hemicelulose (HEM e a proporção de hemicelulose na parede celular (HEM-FDN. Já o tratamento biológico tendeu a aumentar o teor de PB; elevou os teores de FDA, lignina (LIG, a proporção de celulose na parede celular (CEL-FDN e a proporção de lignina na parede celular (LIG-FDN; e reduziu os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, HEM e HEM-FDN. Entretanto, diminuiu a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, FDN, celulose (CEL e FDA, mas aumentou o consumo, provavelmente em decorrência do menor teor de FDN e menor tamanho médio de partículas, o que causou maior velocidade de passagem. Os tratamentos biológico e químico são alternativas importantes no incremento do valor nutritivo de materiais lignocelulósicos, todavia, os resultados obtidos neste ensaio não foram satisfatórios.The effect of a chemical treatment (ammoniation with urea or a biological treatment (innoculation with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on the nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens hay was evaluated by means of chemical analyses and a digestibility trial with sheep. Both treatments lasted 42 days, and thereafter the hay was dried

  15. ¿Hay o no hay conflicto armado en Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nieto Navia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca demostrar que, no obstante que el Gobierno piense otra cosa, en Colombia existe un conflicto armado nterno. De esa consideración no se pueden derivar consecuencias tales como que se trate de grupos armados “beligerantes” con subjetividad internacional. Esos grupos son, además, terroristas y, como no reúnen las condiciones que el derecho internacional exige, no pueden ser reconocidos como sujetos.

  16. Effect of dolomite, magnesium oxide (MgO) and chalk (CaCO3) on in vitro fermentation of amorphous and crystalline cellulose and meadow hay using inoculum from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradyová, Zora; Baran, Miroslav; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Siroka, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Some minerals can influence some biochemical parameters of rumen fermentation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of different amounts (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g) of dolomite and to compare the effect of dolomite, magnesium oxide (MgO) and chalk (CaCO3) upon the end products of rumen fermentation in vitro. Amorphous and crystalline cellulose as well as meadow hay were used as substrates and incubated with buffered rumen fluid in sealed fermentation bottles. In dependence on the amount of dolomite and the kind of substrate an inhibitory effect of dolomite on methane production was evident. Significant differences of methane production were found between the controls, crystalline cellulose and meadow hay with 0.5 g of dolomite. An increase of total gas production was observed for cellulose with both 0.25 and 0.5 g of dolomite and also for meadow hay with 0.5 g of dolomite. It can be concluded that there was a remarkable effect of dolomite on methane production and also a slight effect of magnesium oxide and chalk as compared to the effect of dolomite on the fermentation parameters of incubated substrates.

  17. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  18. Changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of a hay-based ration offered once or twice daily to dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mantovani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of the total mixed ration (TMR based on hay as the main forage component (“dry” TMR and distributed once (7.00 am or twice (7.00 am and 1.00 pm daily to 32 lactating cows. The trial was divided in two periods of 14 days each. Diet (DM=53.7% was formulated in order to assure the nutritional requirements of cows producing 24 kg/d of milk (crude protein=14.4% DM; NDF=40.9% DM; milk FU=0.88/kg DM and additional amounts of concentrates were distributed using automatic feeders. Four TMR samples were collected daily (7.00 am, 10.00 am, 1.00 pm, 4.00 pm for six days during each experiment period for a total number of 48 feed samples. Each feed sample was subjected to the estimation of the particle size distribution using the separator of Pennsylvania State University composed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm and a collector on the bottom, and to the determination of the chemical composition. Changes of all three particle size fractions for TMRs were observed during the day with distributions of the TMR both once and twice daily. With the once daily distribution, the large particles fraction increased linearly (P<0.001 from 19.7 to 23.4, 32.2, and 35.1%, while the finest particle fraction decreased (from 60.1 to 58.3, 50.0, 47.8%. According to particle size changes, the chemical composition varied significantly at the different times of sampling when TMR was distributed once daily. Significant variations of DM were detected for TMR with a linear (P<0.001 increase (from 54.4 to 57.9, 60.7, 61.5%. Considering once TMR distribution, the values of NDF and starch showed an opposite trend with an increase of 6.5 and a decrease of 8.3 points from 7.00 am to 4.00 pm (i.e., 9 hrs after distribution. Correlations were estimated between chemical and physical characteristics of TMRs. NDF content was positively and significantly correlated to

  19. Anatomia e cinética de degradação do feno de Manihot glaziovii = Anatomy and kinetics of degradation of Manihot glaziovii Hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Araújo de França

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição química, o teor de compostos secundários, adegradabilidade in situ, a anatomia e a degradabilidade dos tecidos do feno de maniçoba, a partir de plantas em início de frutificação, oriundas de uma vegetação de caatinga em Ibimirim, Estado do Pernambuco. O caule apresentou células com variados graus de lignificação, destacando-se a presença de fibras gelatinosas, parênquima medular lignificado e espessas paredes celulares no xilema. As folhas se destacam pela presença da estrutura girder, caracterizam-se pela grande quantidade de mesofilo, constituído por células com paredes delgadas, contribuindo para a degradabilidade de matéria seca. Idioblastos contendo drusas de oxalato foram encontrados nos tecidos vasculares, na nervura principal da folha. Eles funcionam como mecanismos de defesa do vegetal contra herbívoros e podem afetar a disponibilidade de minerais para o animal. O feno demaniçoba, apesar de obtido de planta em avançado estágio de maturidade (início da frutificação, possui adequada composição química e baixos teores de ácido cianídrico e taninos. Os principaislimitantes à degradabilidade são o espessamento e a lignificação das paredes celulares, especialmente nos tecidos do caule. Adicionalmente, os diversos aspectos aqui relatados induzem à continuidade de pesquisas em diversos focos e visam ao melhoramento e à utilização desta espécie como forrageira.This study the structural components of cell wall with its degradability, chemical composition, secondary compounds, in situ degradability, anatomy and tissue degradability of the hay of “maniçoba” (wild cassava from plants in early fruiting, from savanna vegetation in Ibimirim, Pernambuco. The stem showed cells with varied degrees of lignification, highlighting the presence of gelatinousfibers, lignified pith parenchyma and thick cell walls inside the xylem. The leaves were highlighted by the presence of a girder

  20. Influence of ruminal or duodenal soybean oil infusion on intake, ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Bohman, V R

    1991-06-01

    Six heifers (two Hereford X Jersey, four Hereford X Longhorn; average BW 278 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and fed a grass hay (fescue/orchardgrass) diet were used in a replicated 3 X 3 Latin square. Treatments were either no infusion (C), 150 ml of duodenally infused soybean oil (DI), or 150 ml of ruminally infused soybean oil (RI)/heifer twice daily for a total daily infusion of 300 ml of soybean oil. Periods of the Latin square included 18 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection. Forage OM, ADF, NDF, and N intakes were not affected (P greater than .10) by soybean oil infusion. Ruminal (P = .11) and total tract (P less than .10) OM digestibilities were decreased by RI compared with C or DI, but ADF and NDF digestibilities were not affected by treatment. Duodenal N (P less than .05) and microbial N flows were increased (P less than .10) for C and RI compared with DI. Microbial efficiency (g of N/kg of OM truly fermented) was improved (P less than .10) by RI compared with DI but did not differ (P greater than .10) from C. Ruminal pH was lower (P less than .05) with RI than with either C or DI. Ruminal NH3 N, total VFA, and acetate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Propionate (mol/100 mol) was greater (P less than .05) with RI than with DI and C, but the proportion of butyrate did not differ among treatments. These data indicate minimal direct benefits for improving forage usage as a result of soybean oil infusion with a 100% grass diet; however, animals should realize benefits from additional dietary energy provided by infused lipid.

  1. Intake and digestibility of silages containing pineapple pulp and coast-cross hay with or without urea and markers recovery in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribeiro Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and digestibility of silages containing pineapple pulp and coast-cross hay, with or without addition of urea, and the recovery of the markers chromium oxide (Cr2O3, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF, indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF, and indigestible dry matter (iDM, in a digestibility assay, in sheep. Treatments were as follows: two levels of pineapple pulp (818 and 758 g kg−1 and two levels of urea (with and without urea, in a completely randomized design. Twelve sheep (three per treatment were used, kept in metabolic cages. Fecal excreta were determined by total collection or estimated by using the markers. Marker samples were obtained in morning and afternoon collections, with mean concentrations obtained for both daily activities. The level of silage pulp did not affect intake, while addition of urea increased the intake of crude protein (CP, but did not influence the intakes of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber. The digestibility coefficients of all afore-mentioned fractions increased with the increase in pulp, the same happening with the addition of urea. The internal marker with lowest variability among the internal markers was iADF, with mean values near 100%. Mean recovery of Cr2O3 was approximately 107%, but with lower variability among treatments. Inclusion of pineapple pulp in silage does not influence intake, while addition of urea only increases the intake of CP. The levels of pineapple pulp in silage with or without urea increase the digestibility of the silage. Indigestible acid detergent fiber is the marker with lowest variability of recovery, with mean recovery for the four silages used very close to 100%.

  2. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (pAsparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets.

  3. Subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M Petri

    Full Text Available Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH or red clover silage (RC, and either sunflower-seed (SS or flaxseed (FS, providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05 subcutaneous trans (t-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05 for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid.

  4. Hay huellas en el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bertone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente reseña introduce y comenta el libro de los compiladores Victoria D`hers y Eduardo Galak “Estudios sociales sobre el cuerpo: prácticas, saberes, discursos en perspectiva”; el cual surge en el marco de las “VI Jornadas de Sociología de la UNLP” y consta de un prólogo realizado por Adrián Scribano y Lucas Aimar, y once artículos producidos por jóvenes investigadores en relación a los Cuerpos y las Emociones.Los autores proponen recorrer un mapeo y ensayar lecturas sobre las conexiones entre prácticas corporales, afecciones y emociones. La escritura y el modo de presentación del libro reflejan la textura de la temática y la complejidad del espacio de reflexión. Desde una sociología de los cuerpos y las emociones es posible hallar pistas que nos conduzcan a comprender el sentido que los actores dan a sus prácticas; identificar nodos conflictuales que emergen en esas comprensiones cotidianas; y dar cuenta de cómo la sociedad que se hace cuerpo, puede ser rastreada a partir del análisis de determinadas emociones sociales. Desde el título podemos reconocer que el libro deja huellas para comprender que el propio cuerpo es discusión del presente y del futuro inmediato.

  5. The Glaser–Hay reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Jensen, Jonas; Tortzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . This unfavorable change in reaction profile could be avoided by adding molecular sieves to the reaction mixture, thereby removing the water that is accumulated from the air and produced in the reaction in which dioxygen acts as the oxidizing agent. Not unexpectedly, the stirring rate, and hence uptake of air (O2...... on the scope of this reaction by using both 13C NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopic methods. The former method was used to study the kinetics of the coupling of aryl-substituted alkynes as the aryl carbon resonances of the reactants and products have similar NOEs and relaxation times. The reaction was found...

  6. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  7. Proteic supplements with and without sulfur sources on intake behavior of steers fed with low quality haySuplementos proteicos com e sem fontes de enxofre sobre o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conduct to study the effects of proteic supplementation and different sulfur sources added to supplements on the intake behavior, for cattle. Seven Holstein steers, weighing 442 kg ± 59 kg of live weight. The statistical design was a Latin square 7 x 7, and treatments consisted of the supplements use or no with addition or no of different sulfur sources: hay + supplement without sulfur (SWS, hay + sulfur 70S (S70, hay + sulfur 98S (S98, hay + calcium sulfate hemi-hydrated (CSH, hay + calcium sulfate di-hydrated (CSD, hay + ammonium sulfate (SFA and hay without supplement (FSS. The Supplements affected in a positive way the feeding, chewing and resting activities. Steers without supplement (HWS showed shorter total time of feeding, lower total time of chewing, and resting than steers with supplements. They had shorter meals and spent more time for rumination chewing per ruminal bolus, had lower efficiency of feeding (g DM/hour and lower rumination efficiency (g of DM/hour and g of NDF/hour as well as of the lower intake. SWS showed higher total time of rumination then supplements with different sulfur sources. The animals that had consumed supplements with sulfur, had presented lower number of rumination chews per day and per bolus, but they had not different to feeding efficiency and rumination.O presente experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da suplementação proteica e de diferentes fontes de enxofre adicionadas aos suplementos, sobre o comportamento ingestivo de bovinos consumindo feno de baixa qualidade. Foram utilizados sete bovinos, machos, castrados, da raça Holandesa Preto e Branco com 442 kg ± 59 kg de peso vivo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 7 x 7, e os tratamentos consistiram na utilização ou não de suplementos com adição ou não de diferentes fontes de enxofre, conforme segue: feno + suplemento sem enxofre (SSE, feno + enxofre 70S (E70, feno + enxofre

  8. Effects of altering alfalfa hay quality when feeding steam-flaked versus high-moisture corn grain on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, J-S; Kelley, A W; Neal, K; Young, A J; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was performed to test a hypothesis that nutritive benefits of feeding high-moisture corn (HMC) would be different when fed with different qualities of alfalfa hay (AH) due to associative effects on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization efficiency. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used; 4 were surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Days in milk averaged 184 ± 10.7 at the start of the experiment. The experiment was performed in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. Within each square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets during each of the four 21-d periods (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used; fair-quality AH [FAH; 39.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 17.9% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH; 33.6% NDF and 21.9% CP) was combined with steam-flaked corn (SFC) or HMC to form 4 treatments: FAH with SFC, FAH with HMC, HAH with SFC, and HAH with HMC. The AH was fed at 32% dry matter (DM) content, whereas SFC or HMC was included at 17% DM content. Quality of AH did not affect DM intake, whereas feeding HMC decreased DM intake, regardless of quality of AH. Digestibility of DM was greater for cows fed HAH compared with those fed FAH (70.1 vs. 67.6%). Digestibility of NDF increased by feeding HMC (67.6 vs. 58.4%), but not by quality of AH. Under FAH, starch digestibility decreased by feeding HMC compared with SFC (85.7 vs. 95.0%), but it was similar under HAH, resulting in an interaction between quality of AH and type of corn grain (CG). Feeding different qualities of AH did not affect milk yield; however, feeding HMC decreased milk yield in FAH diet, causing an AH × CG interaction. Efficiency of milk yield/DM intake was improved due to feeding HMC, regardless of the quality of the AH. In addition, dietary N utilization for milk N tended to increase by feeding HMC, but it was not influenced by quality of AH. Yield of microbial

  9. Infecciones de transmisión sexual en mujeres de edad fértil usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Virginia Caballero Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (ITS se encuentran entre las cinco razones de consulta más frecuente en adultos. En Paraguay existe un conocimiento limitado sobre frecuencia de ITS especialmente en mujeres no gestantes en edad fértil. Por ello, este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso analizó la frecuencia de sífilis, de infección por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH de factores de riesgo asociados en 100 mujeres en edad fértil (18-48 años no gestantes que acudieron al Hospital Regio-nal de Villa Hayes. La detección de sífilis se realizó mediante el método inmunocromato-gráfico y la confirmación por la Prueba de Absorción de Anticuerpos Treponémicos Fluo-rescentes. La infección por VIH fue detectada mediante el método inmunocromatográfi-co y el Ensayo por Inmunoabsorción Ligado a Enzimas. Se consideró un conocimiento aceptable sobre prevención y transmisión de estas ITS si el 60% de las preguntas se contestaban correctamente. Se observó una alta frecuencia de sífilis, de 13% (IC95%7,1-21,2% y una asociación entre el bajo nivel educativo y la presencia de sífilis (p=0,002. No se encontró ningún resultado positivo para VIH. El 11% de las mujeres presentó un nivel inaceptable de conocimiento, sin embargo se evidenció una alta fre-cuencia de mujeres (58% que no utilizaba preservativo, lo cual indica falta de buenas prácticas. Es preciso fortalecer las medidas de control y manejo de ITS ya existentes en esta región especialmente en las mujeres no gestantes en edad fértil.

  10. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1–4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60–62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05). This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis. PMID:28045916

  11. Geologic framework, hydrostratigraphy, and ichnology of the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Golab, James A.; Morris, Robert E.

    2016-09-13

    This report presents the geologic framework, hydro­stratigraphy, and ichnology of the Trinity and Edwards Groups in the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quad­rangles in Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas. Rocks exposed in the study area are of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group and lower part of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Lower Cretaceous Edwards Group. The mapped units in the study area are the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand, and Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group and the lower portion of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Edwards Group. The Glen Rose Limestone is composed of the Lower and Upper Members. These Trinity Group rocks con­tain the upper and middle Trinity aquifers. The only remaining outcrops of the Edwards Group are the basal nodular member of the Fort Terrett Formation, which caps several hills in the northern portion of the study area. These rocks were deposited in an open marine to supratidal flats environment. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Balcones fault zone, an extensional system of faults that generally trends southwest to northeast in south-central Texas.The hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers were mapped and described using a classification system based on fabric-selective or not-fabric-selective poros­ity types. The only hydrostratigraphic unit of the Edwards aquifer present in the study area is hydrostratigraphic unit VIII. The mapped hydrostratigraphic units of the upper Trinity aquifer are (from top to bottom) the Camp Bullis, upper evaporite, fossiliferous, and lower evaporite which are interval equivalent to the Upper Member of the Glen Rose Limestone. The middle Trinity aquifer encompasses (from top to bottom) the Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone, the Hensell Sand Member, and the Cow Creek Limestone Member of the Pearsall Formation. The Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone is subdivided into six informal hydro

  12. Effect of feed restriction with voluntary hay intake on the performance and quality of laying hen eggs=Efeito da restrição alimentar com oferta de feno sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Abe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of a quantitative feed restriction on the voluntary intake of hay, the performance of laying hens, and on egg quality. A total of 150 Hisex Brown laying hens at 51-weeks old were distributed into five treatments and five replications of six hens each. The treatments consisted of control, with supply of 100 g of feed bird-1 day-1 without hay; and the others consisting of a feed restriction of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of the diet offered to the birds in the control treatment, along with an ad libitum supply of cunhã hay (CH, leucaena leaf meal (LLM and tifton hay (TH. A linear increase was found in the hay intake with increasing level of dietary restriction. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion decreased linearly. Yolk color was affected by the treatments. Birds with 20% feed restriction presented the greatest yolk pigmentation. In conclusion, laying hens can be subjected to a 5% feed restriction with supply of hay ad libitum.O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre a ingestão voluntária de feno, o desempenho das aves e a qualidade dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 150 poedeiras da linhagem Hisex Brown com 51 semanas de idade. As aves foram distribuídas em cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições de seis aves cada. O tratamento controle consistiu no fornecimento de 100 g de ração ave-1 dia-1 sem oferta de feno e os demais na oferta de 95, 90, 85 e 80 g de ração ave-1 dia-1, que corresponderam, respectivamente, às restrições de 5, 10, 15 e 20% da quantidade de ração, com o fornecimento de feno à vontade. Foram utilizados os fenos de cunhã, das folhas de leucena e de tifton. Com o aumento no nível de restrição, houve aumento no consumo diário de feno, redução na produção, na massa de ovo, no peso médio das aves e piora na conversão alimentar. Em relação às características de qualidade dos ovos, apenas a coloração da gema variou

  13. The voluntary intake of hay and silage by lactating cows in response to ruminal infusion of acetate or propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by a balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H; Forbes, J M

    1993-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that negative feedback signals from abdominal receptors are integrated in an additive manner in the control of voluntary food intake, cows with rumen fistulas were given intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate or sodium propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by balloon. Intakes were monitored during the 3 h experimental period and for 2 h after and samples of rumen fluid were taken for estimation of short-chain fatty acid concentrations and osmolality. Six cows in mid-lactation were fed on hay and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 5.5 mol sodium acetate, 5.2 mol sodium propionate and 7.5 l of distension. Compared with the control (water infusion), neither acetate, propionate nor distension significantly depressed hay intake when given separately. When given in combination, however, the following significantly depressed intake during the 3 h treatment period: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Seven cows in early lactation were fed on silage and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 9.0 mol sodium acetate, 4.0 mol sodium propionate and 10.0 litres of distension. Again, none of the three given alone depressed silage intake to a significant extent during the 3 h treatment period, whereas the following combinations had a significant effect: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Basal rumen osmolalities were similar for the two types of feed but infusion of the sodium salts caused a very much greater increase with silage than with hay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juvenal Kanani; Dirk Philipp; Kenneth PCoffey; Elizabeth BKegley; Charles PWest; Shane Gadberry; John Jennings; Ashley NYoung; Robert TRhein

    2014-01-01

    Background:The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminal y cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets:low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal col ection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results:Forage DMI was affected by diet (P=0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P<0.05) than from L. Apparent DMD tended (P=0.08) to differ among diets while FO (P=0.20) was not affected by diet treatments. Average ADL recovery (1.16) was greater (P<0.05) than that of ADIA (1.03) and APL (1.06), but ADIA and APL did not differ (P=0.42). Estimates of FO and DMD derived using APL and ADIA were not different (P≥0.05) from total fecal collection while those using ADL differed (P<0.05). There was no diet by marker interaction (P≥0.22) for either FO or DMD. Conclusion:Acid-detergent insoluble ash and APL accurately predicted FO and DMD of cattle fed bermudagrass hay of varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary

  15. Effects of prepartum controlled-energy wheat straw and grass hay diets supplemented with starch or sugar on periparturient dairy cow performance and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, N B; da Silva, D N L; Hansen, W P; Davis, L; Emanuele, S; Blalock, H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of a forage source [wheat straw (WS) versus grass hay (GH)] prepartum and supplemental carbohydrate source [corn (dry feed; DF) versus molasses (liquid feed; LF)] on pre- and postpartum intake, digestibility, selective particle consumption, milk yield, and lipid metabolism. The objectives were to determine if forage or pre- and postpartum supplement alters periparturient intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Sixty (n=15) multiparous dairy cows were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare WS versus GH diets supplemented with either DF or LF. Dietary treatments were (1) WS prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (WSDF), 2) WS prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (WSLF), (3) GH prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (GHDF), and (4) GH prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (GHLF). Treatments began at dry-off, × before expected calving. During the prepartum phase, cows maintained dry matter intake (DMI) at 2.0% of body weight and prepartum energy balance remained positive for all treatments until calving. Prepartum GH diets had a more positive energy balance compared with WS diets. On week -5, energy balance was more positive for GHDF than for WSDF or GHLF. Energy balance for WSLF, however, was lower on week -3 and -1 than GHDF. Liquid feed decreased dry matter digestibility and increased prepartum liver triglyceride, serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and tended to increase β-hydroxybutyrate. After calving, LF decreased DMI and energy balance, but not yield of milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk, resulting in greater feed efficiency compared with DF. Forage did not affect postpartum DMI, but milk yield tended to be higher for WS versus GH. The DMI expressed as percentage of body weight was not affected by supplement or prepartum forage type. Cows fed WS had lower serum NEFA, higher liver glycogen, and tended to have a lower triglyceride to glycogen ratio postpartum than GH. Serum

  16. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  17. Analysis on Pentosan Content in Machilus pauhoi Kanehira Wood%刨花楠木聚戊糖的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓腊云; 覃族; 陈茜文; 何洪城

    2013-01-01

    刨花楠木中含有大量聚戊糖,具有很高的经济利用价值.该文建立了用硫代硫酸钠滴定法测定刨花楠木粉中戊糖含量的方法.主要对木材原木粉、经苯乙醇抽提后的木粉、经1%盐酸加热提取后的木粉、经热水抽提后的木粉等样品进行戊糖测定,对各种方法处理的木粉原料中的戊糖含量进行了比较.该方法操作简单,对于粗测刨花楠木粉中戊糖含量有重要意义.

  18. 油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对家兔自然感染皮肤真菌病的疗效观察%Curative effect of the emulsion in water from volatile oil of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves on treating rabbits with dermatophytosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范静; 汪开毓; 殷中琼; 魏琴; 周黎军; 贾仁勇; 耿毅; 杜永华

    2012-01-01

    从患皮肤真菌病家兔的皮屑、被毛中分离病原真菌,并进行病原鉴定;分别用5、10、30mL/L油樟叶挥发油水乳剂通过皮肤涂擦法进行治疗试验,以观察油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对家兔皮肤真菌病的疗效。结果显示,分离得到的2种病原真菌经培养特性、菌落性状、菌丝形态和孢子性状特征等鉴定,为须毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌;3种剂量组的油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对家兔皮肤真菌病均有较好的疗效,其中以10mL/L油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对于家兔自然感染皮肤真菌病的疗效最好。试验表明油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对兔自然感染的皮肤真菌病具有一定的疗效。%The pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from scurf and coat of diseased rabbits.After identification of the pathogenic microorganism,the rabbits with dermatophytosis were treated with three different dosages of emulsion(5 mL/L,10 mL/L,30 mL/L) in water from volatile oil of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves by skin iatraliptics to observe the curative effect of the emulsion on treating rabbits with dermatophytosis.Result showed that two kinds of pathogenic microorganism were isolated,which were identified as Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes,according to colony morphology,hypha and spore morphology,culture character,and the pathogenic experiments of the bacteria isolates.All of the three different dosages of emulsion had good antifungal effects and the emulsion containing 10 mL/L volatile oil showed a preferable curative effect on treating rabbits with dermatophytosis.Therefore,the emulsion in water from volatile oil of C.longepaniculatum leaves had good antifungal effect against dermatophytosis.

  19. Energy use and sustainability in hay production in a intensive system of milk production; Uso de energia e sustentabilidade na producao de feno em sistema intensivo de producao de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir; Navarine, Franciele Clenice [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), M.C. Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the energy balance and the sustainability in the hay production through seven years data from a Intensive System of Milk Production, located in the region of Coronel Pacheco/MG Brazil. To the energy matrix determination, the categories of direct and indirect energy were considered. The energy inputs occurred in the implanting and establishing of the crop were distributed in the years considered as useful life. The direct energy, relative to the inputs, had larger participation that the indirect one, being the percentiles found of 93.05 and 6.95, respectively. The main consumer of indirect energy was the tractor, which turns on all the implements, followed by the irrigation system. The estimated energy efficiency by the process was of 3.19. Most of the used direct energy was that derived from fossil resources, in the form of fuel (diesel). The use of organic fertilizer, of poultry litter, promoted a relative reduction in the consumption of energy originated from fertilizer derived from fossil resources. With the obtained results, it was concluded that, despite of the several sources of energy consumption, the production of alfalfa hay is sustainable and efficient in the energy conversion. (author)

  20. Avaliação de fontes de urease na amonização de fenos de Brachiaria brizantha com dois teores de umidade Evaluation of urease sources in the ammoniation of Brachiaria brizantha hays with two moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da amonização com uréia (5,0% matéria seca do feno de Brachiaria brizantha, com dois teores de umidade (15 ou 30% de umidade, associado a três fontes de urease (feno de capim Brachiaria decumbens, capim-elefante [Pennisetum purpureum] e leucena [Leucaena leucocephala], foi avaliado. Foram determinados os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fração solúvel (A, frações de proteína verdadeira solúvel e insolúvel em borato fosfato (B1 e B2, fração de proteína potencialmente degradável (B3 e fração da proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido (C. Avaliaram-se os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 10 tratamentos (dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, sem uréia e sem urease; dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, com uréia e sem urease; seis combinações de fontes de urease e conteúdo de umidade e três repetições. A amonização dos fenos com diferentes conteúdos de umidade, associados a fontes de urease, aumentou os teores de PB e da fração A, mas não afetou B1 e B2. Contudo, as frações B3 e C diminuíram em reposta à amonização. A aplicação de uréia nos fenos de 30% de umidade, associados ou não a fontes de urease, diminuiu os teores de FDN. A adição de fontes de urease não alterou os teores dos constituintes da parede celular, quando comparada aos tratamentos amonizados com uréia. Os tratamentos aplicados não proporcionaram efeitos consistentes sobre os teores de FDA e de CEL dos fenos e não afetaram os teores de LIG. A aplicação de uréia associada a 15 ou 30% de umidade foi favorável para aumentar o nitrogênio solúvel do feno de Brachiaria brizantha e diminuir o nitrogênio indisponível para o ruminante.The urea ammoniation (5.0% dry matter effects in Brachiaria brizanta hay baled with two

  1. Influence of branched-chain fatty acid supplementation on voluntary intake, site and extent of digestion, ruminal fermentation, digesta kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Broesder, J T; Barton, R K

    1990-09-01

    Four heifers (British x British; average BW 372 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and consuming a grass hay (fescue-orchardgrass) diet were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and supplemented with four levels (0, 20, 40, and 60 g.head-1.d-1) of supplemental four- and five-carbon VFA (BCFA). Forage OM, ADF, NDF and N intakes and digestibilities were not affected (P greater than .10) by BCFA supplementation. Likewise, duodenal N (microbial, feed and ammonia) flows and microbial efficiency were not altered (P greater than .10) by BCFA supplementation. Neither particulate and fluid passage rate nor in situ rate of NDF digestion was affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Ruminal pH, ammonia concentrations and total VFA concentrations were similar (P greater than .10) among treatments. Ruminal proportions of acetate and propionate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment; however, butyrate responded in a cubic (P less than .05) fashion to BCFA, with the lowest proportion of butyrate at the 40 g BCFA feeding level. A time x treatment interaction (P less than .05) was noted for isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate proportions; they were increased as a function of BCFA dosage at 2 to 8 h postdosing. Supplemental four- and five-carbon VFA had no effect on digestion and fermentation of grass hay. Supplementation of low-quality roughages with BCFA is not justified.

  2. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of beef cattle fed with ammoniated marandugrass hay Desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos de corte alimentados com fenos de capim-marandu amonizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted aiming to evaluate the effects of Brachiaria brizantha vegetative seed harvest residues hay treated with anhydrous ammonia (NH3 or urea, and protein sources on the steers performance, and carcass quality. Twenty-four male beef cattle were (12 F1 Nellore X Aberdeen Angus and 12 F1 Nellore X Red Angus, distributed in four treatments, with six replications. Animal crossbreed type and initial body weight were considered blocks. The diets were: Untreated hay supplemented with non-protein nitrogen (UHNPN; untreated hay supplemented with cottonseed meal (UHCM, hay treated with 5% urea (HTU, hay treated with 3% anhydrous ammonia (HTA of DM%. Diets were formulated to be isoproteic and isoenergetic. The initial body weight (kg, daily DM intake (kg, and percentage of body weight (% BW did not differ among treatments, and the average values observed were 422.6 kg, 10.24 kg, and 2.16% BW, respectively. Animals fed with HTA showed better daily weight gain, feed efficiency, 1.336 kg/day, and 7.78 kg/kg of weight gain, followed by the UHCM, 1.161 kg/day, and 8.98 kg/kg, respectively. Animals of the HTA showed highest NDF, ADF and cellulose intake. Carcass fat thickness was highest on the HTA animals, 6.3 mm.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão da amônia anidra ou ureia em fenos de resíduo pós-colheita de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha e da fonte proteica suplementar ao feno não-tratado sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de bovinos confinados. Vinte e quatro animais não-castrados (12 animais F1 Nelore Aberdeen Angus, variedade preta, e 12 F1 Nelore Aberdeen Angus, variedade vermelha foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos, totalizando seis repetições, considerando blocos o cruzamento e o peso inicial. As dietas experimentais consistiram de feno não-tratado suplementado com nitrogênio não-proteico; feno não-tratado suplementado com farelo de algodão; feno tratado com 5% de ureia; e

  4. Time change rule of contents of essential oil and its main compositions in leaves of different chemical types of Cinnamomum camphora var.linaloolifera%不同化学型芳樟叶精油及主成分含量的时间变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国防; 冯娟; 于静波; 凡辉; 张春; 黄诗晓

    2012-01-01

    对不同化学型(包括芳樟型、桉樟型和脑樟型)芳樟(Cinnamomum camphora var.linaloolifera Fujita.)叶片精油含量及精油中主成分的相对含量在一年中不同月份的变异状况进行了分析,并分析了优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量及其主成分芳樟醇的相对含量在6月份至12月份以及全天不同时段内的变化规律.结果表明:全年各月份不同化学型芳樟叶片精油含量和精油中主成分相对含量均有差异.其中,叶片精油含量的变化规律相似,即在生长季节均较高、非生长季节均较低,且在5月份和7月份至9月份都处于较高水平.精油中主成分含量的变化规律较复杂;芳樟型芳樟精油的主成分芳樟醇的相对含量在6月份最高,随后略有下降但直到12月份变化幅度均不大;脑樟型芳樟精油的主成分樟脑的相对含量在7月份最高,其他月份降低但差异不大;桉樟型芳樟精油的主成分1,8-桉叶油素的相对含量在4月份最高,随后下降,6月份后趋于平稳.在6月份至12月份间,优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量在9月份最高,12月份降至最低;而精油中芳樟醇相对含量则在9月份最低,12月份升至最高.全天不同时段优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量和芳樟醇相对含量有明显差异;叶片精油含量在早晨最低,日出后逐渐升高,在16:00至17:00时段达到最高;而芳樟醇相对含量则在早晨最高,其他时段略有降低但变化幅度不大.综合分析结果表明:芳樟叶片的适宜采收月份为8月份至9月份,每天8:00至17:00均可采收.%The variation status of essential oil content and relative content of main compositions in essential oil from leaves of different chemical types (including linalool-, cineol- and camphora-type) of Cinnamomum camphora var.linaloolifera Fujita.at different months in a whole year was analyzed, and the change rule of essential oil content and relative content of its main

  5. 樟树幼苗机械损伤叶片对挥发性有机化合物及叶绿素荧光参数的影响%Effects of mechanical damage of leaves on volatile organic compounds and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周帅; 林富平; 王玉魁; 沈应柏; 张汝民; 高荣孚; 高岩

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to reveal the mechanism of the effects of mechanical damage of leaves on emission of C6-C10 aldehydes and the variation of PSII in Cinnamomum camphora leaves. Methods We analyzed the composition and content of the C6-C10 aldehydes in seedlings of damaged C. camphora by the dynamic headspace air-circulation method and thermal desorption system/gas chromatography/mass spectrum (TDS-GC-MS) measured the activity of lipoxygenases (LOX) in leaves after mechanical damage and investigated the effects of mechanical damage of leaves on chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. Important findings Results showed that the emissions of hexanal heptanal octanal nonanal and decanal were increased by 2.47 0.99 1.34 0.91 and 28.38 (p < 0.01) times respectively and four kinds of C6-C10 aldehydes were induced: (E)-2-hexenal (E E)-2,47hexadienal (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-nonenal. The activity of LOX was increased by 1.2 times. The absorption flux per PSII reaction center and trapping flux were significantly decreased by 12.8% (p < 0.05) and 11.1% (p < 0.01) respectively. The density of the active reaction centers per cross section quantum yield of electron transport electron transport chain further than primary quinone acceptor of PSII (QA~) and the performance of PSII activity were increased by 23.3% 24.4% 22.6% and 82.7% (p < 0.01) respectively. The species and emissions of C6-C10 aldehydes activity of LOX and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters nearly recovered after 24 h. This suggested that the damage caused by mechanically damaged stress is more prominent at the donor side of PSII. The activity of LOX was increased and as a result the emission of C6-C10 aldehydes increased. In response to high salt stress C. camphora seedlings improve the quantity of the active reaction centers.%为探讨植物在机械损伤后C6-C10醛类化合物的释放机理,及C6-C10醛类化合物对叶片光系统Ⅱ (PSⅡ)的影响,以樟树(Cinnamomum camphora)为材料,采用动态

  6. Interspecific Differences between Cinnamomum camphora and C. longepaniculatum in Cd Absorption and Tolerance under Two Levels of Cd Pollution%镉污染条件下香樟和油樟对镉的吸收能力和耐性差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良华; 徐睿; 杨万勤; 张健; 胡相伟; 张明锦; 高顺

    2015-01-01

    利用速生乡土木本植物修复 Cd 污染土壤日益受到重视。利用香樟( Cinnamomum camphora )和油樟( C. longepaniculatum)作为实验材料,研究镉(Cd)污染(对照(CK)0.12 mg·kg-1;处理1(T1)2.5 mg·kg-1;处理2(T2)5 mg·kg-1)对2种树种形态生长、Cd积累与分配和生理生化特征的效应,旨在比较2种树种的重金属耐受性及修复能力差异。T1和T2均没有显著影响香樟的生物量积累,但T2条件下油樟叶片和根部的生物量显著下降,仅为CK的86%和65%;T1和T2均显著增加了2种树种细根及叶片的Cd含量,油樟在T1时总积累量达最大(与香樟相当,均为0.37 mg),T2条件下油樟的生物量和耐性指数显著降低,仅为CK的85%和76%,香樟的Cd总积累量(0.48 mg)高于油樟(0.36 mg),因此认为T2条件下香樟具有更强的修复能力;油樟叶片在T1和T2时均受到氧化胁迫,但香樟叶片却并没有受到活性氧分子的显著伤害;香樟在2个污染处理时超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)(T1和T2分别为CK的1.3和1.2倍)和过氧化物酶(POD)(T1和T2分别为CK的6.3和4.0倍)的活性均显著上升,但油樟的这些抗氧化酶活性却没有显著变化。这些结果说明,香樟幼苗比油樟幼苗具有更强的Cd耐受能力和脱毒能力;从土壤修复角度讲,低水平污染土壤条件下2种树种的修复能力差异不大,但香樟更适合修复污染程度更高的土壤。%More and more attention is being paid to the methods of using fast-growing woody plants for cleaning soil polluted by heavy metals. In our study, Cinnamomum camphora and C. longepaniculatum as model species were used to detect three levels of cadmium (Cd) (CK, 0.12 mg·kg-1 soil;T1, 2.5 mg·kg-1 soil;T2, 5 mg·kg-1 soil) on morphological growth, metal accumulation and distribution, and physiological and biochemical traits. Our aim was to compare the differences in metal

  7. Apparent digestibility of diets with combinations of soybean hulls and coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay offered to ram lambs Digestibilidade aparente de dietas com combinações de casca de soja e feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. oferecidas para cordeiros

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    Rafael Canonenco de Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SH are an alternative fiber source that may be used to maintain neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration while increasing the energy concentration of ruminant diets. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay NDF by SH NDF on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance of Santa Inês ram lambs. Twenty-four animals (42.5 ± 3.6 kg of body weight and six months old were placed in metabolism crates and assigned in a randomized complete block design defined by body weight (BW. Experimental diets provided a similar concentration of NDF (52% and crude protein (15%. Hay NDF from a 70% roughage-based diet was replaced with SH NDF by 33%, 67%, and 100%, resulting in 0, 25, 52, and 77% of SH in the dietary dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a linear increase (p 0.05 on water intake when SH replaced hay. The SH can replace forage and may be included up to 77% in the dietary DM of ram lambs with satisfactory values of nutrient digestibilities.A casca de soja (CS é uma fonte de fibra alternativa que visa manter o teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e aumentar a concentração energética da dieta de ruminantes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição da FDN de feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. pela FDN da CS sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros Santa Inês. Vinte e quatro animais (42,5 ± 3,6 kg de peso vivo e seis meses de idade foram colocados em gaiolas para ensaio de digestibilidade e arranjados em delineamento blocos completos casualizados definidos pelo peso vivo (PV. As dietas isonitrogenadas (15% de proteína bruta continham concentrações semelhantes de FDN (52%. O tratamento controle foi composto de 70% de feno na matéria seca (MS da dieta, sendo a FDN proveniente do feno substituída em 33%, 67% e 100% pela FDN proveniente da CS, correspondendo a 0, 25, 52 e 77% de

  8. Phylogenetic diversity of methanogenic archae in diets with different hay proportions Diversidade filogenética de archaea metanogênica em dietas com diferentes proporções de feno

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    Marta de Campos Neves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to detect the presence of archaea in the bovine rumen using genetic sequences from the conserved region of the 16S rDNA. Samples were collected from bovines that were fed two different experimental dietetic ratios of roughage to concentrate. The 16S rDNA region was amplified using PCR and analyzed using the Phred/Phrap/Consed programs. For the treatment with 70% hay diet 96 sequences related to the Methanobacteriaceae family, 47 sequences from non-cultured archaea, and 60 sequences from unknown archaea were identified by the BLAST analysis. For the treatment with 30% hay diet the BLAST analysis identified 125 sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriaceae fa-mily 42 sequences from non-cultured archaea, and 32 sequences from unknown archaea. The analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of archaea collected from the bovine rumen, allows more sequences matching the unknown archaea were identified in the treatment with 70% hay.O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar a presença de arqueias no rúmen bovino por meio das sequências gênicas da região conservada 16S rDNA. As amostras foram coletadas de bovinos alimentados com duas dietas experimentais contendo diferentes relações volumoso e concentrado. Para amplificação da região ribossomal 16S rDNA foi feita PCR e a análise das sequências foi realizada pelos programas Phred/Phrap/Consed. As análises do BLAST permitiram identificar no tratamento com 70% de feno, 96 sequências relacionadas à família Methanobacteriaceae, 47 sequências a arqueias não cultiváveis e 60 sequências foram de arqueias desconhecidas e no tratamento com 30% de feno foram 125 sequências relacionadas à família Methanobacteriaceae, 42 sequências a arqueias não cultiváveis e 32 sequências foram de arqueias desconhecidas. A análise das sequências da região 16S rDNA de arqueias do rúmen bovino permitiu detectar maior número de sequências relacionadas com arqueias desconhecidas

  9. 元谋干热河谷区海狮苏丹草引种与适应研究%Introduction and Adaptability Evaluation of Sorghum sudanense (Hay-King) Stapf. in Hot Arid Valley of Yuanmou County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光熊; 史亮涛; 张明忠; 邰建辉; 龙会英; 闫帮国; 金杰; 沙毓沧; 纪中华

    2011-01-01

    对云南干热河谷典型区元谋引人的海狮苏丹草[Sorghumsudanense(Hay—King)Stapf.]进行适应性评价。结果表明:海狮苏丹草生育期95d,种子黑亮,平均株高220.0cm,再生能力强;刈割后分蘖数增多,可达58个,具褐色中脉特性;在元谋干热气候粗放管理条件下,年可刈割3~4次,平均鲜草产量达81.16t/hm2,干草产量达19.03t/hm2;营养价值高,粗蛋白含量达17.64%;适口性好,可用于牛羊鱼等草食动物饲养。总之,元谋干热气候条件在一定程度上影响其产量.但其优良功能性状及生态功能在试验区具有较大发展潜力。%The present study was intended to bring a new grass named Sorghum sudanense (Hay-King) Stapf. into Yuanmou country, a typically place which was dry and hot arid zone, and evaluate it's adaptability. The results showed that S. sudanense (Hay-King) Stapf. growth period is 95 days and has regeneration ability, seed is black and produced at an average height of 220 cm; tillers increased after cutting, the number can be up to 58, characteristic by brown midrib; with extensive management in the conditions of hot dry climate, it can be mowed annually 3-4 times and the average fresh yield is 81 162.54 kg/hm2 and hay yield 19 033.21 kg/hm2; the grass has a great nutritional value, the content of crude protein (CP) is up to 17.64%; the grass is palatable and can be used for rearing herbivores such as cattle and sheep even fish. In summary, to a certain extent the yield is affected by hot and dry weather, but its good functional traits and ecological function showed a great development potential in the tested area.

  10. Feno de maniçoba em dietas para ovinos: consumo de nutrientes, digestibilidade aparente e balanço nitrogenado Maniçoba hay in diets for sheep: intake, apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divan Soares da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade da MS, MO e dos nutrientes (PB, EB, FDN, FDA, CT, CNF e EE e o balanço de nitrogênio de dietas contendo feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg.. Vinte quatro cordeiros Santa Inês com média de 28,62 kg PV foram distribuídos em um delinemento completamente casualizado e alimentados com rações contendo 20, 40, 60 ou 80% de feno de maniçoba. Os consumos médios de MS, MO, PB e CT foram 1,24; 1,12; 0,20 e 0,82 kg/dia, respectivamente, e os consumos médios de EM, FDN, FDA, EE e CNF foram, respectivamente, 2,78 mcal/dia; 401,01; 215,50; 83,42; 426,62; e 126,10 g/dia. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, PB e EB foram, respectivamente, 60,22; 56,16 e 61,90%, e os de FDN, FDA, CT e CNF, 44,73; 54,63; 61,50 e 78,41%, respectivamente. O balanço nitrogenado foi positivo, com média de 7,20 g N/kg MS/dia, e o nitrogênio aparentemente retido representou 21,45% do N ingerido. A inclusão de 80% de feno de maniçoba na dieta não afetou o consumo de MS, no entanto, reduziu a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta.The objective was to determine the voluntary intake and digestibility of DM, OM and nutrients (CP, GE, NDF, ADF, CT, NSC and EE. And nitrogen balance of diets containing maniçoba maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. hay Twenty-four Santa Ines lambs, average 28.62 kg LW were allotted to a completely randomized design and fed diets containing 20, 40, 60 e 80% of maniçoba hay.The mean intakes of DM, OM, CP and CT were 1.24, 1.12; 0.20; and 0.827 kg/d, respectively, and the mean intakes of ME, NDF, ADF, EE and NSC were, respectively, 2.78 mcal/kg, 401.01, 215.50, 83.42, 426.62, and 126.10 g/d. The apparent digestibility for DM, CP, and CE were respectively, 60.22, 61.28, 56.16, 61.90, and for NDF, ADF CT and NSC were, respectively, 44.73, 54.63, 61.50, and 78.41. The nitrogen balance was positive, with mean of 7.20 g N/kg DM/d, and the apparently

  11. Substituição do feno de coastcross por casca de soja na alimentação de cabras em lactação Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in diets for lactating goats

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    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a resposta de cabras em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross. Trinta e seis cabras (38±5 dias em lactação; 2,1±0,4 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados e confinadas por oito semanas. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e com o mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross em 0, 33, 67 ou 100% da matéria seca (MS. O consumo de matéria seca e a eficiência alimentar apresentaram resposta quadrática aos teores de casca de soja na dieta. A produção de leite e a variação do peso corporal não foram alteradas, porém a concentração de gordura e lactose do leite aumentou e os tempos gastos com ruminação e mastigação decresceram com a inclusão da casca de soja na dieta. A casca de soja pode substituir totalmente o feno de coastcross em dietas para cabras em lactação, pois essa substituição não prejudica a produção de leite e aumenta o teor de gordura e lactose do leite. Em comparação ao feno picado de coastcross, a casca de soja apresenta menor efetividade em estimular a ruminação e a mastigação.The objective of this experiment was to verify the response of lactating goats fed diets with different levels (content of soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay (Cynodon sp. on performance. Thirty-six lactating Saanen goats (38±5 days of lactation; 2.1±0.4 kg/day were assigned to a randomized complete blocks design and housed for 8 weeks. Goats were fed diets of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, but with the same amount of neutral detergent fiber. Soybean hulls replaced hay by 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the dry matter (DM. Dry matter and NDF intake and feed efficiency showed a quadratic response to the levels of soybean hulls in the diet. Milk yield and body weight variations did not change; however, milk fat

  12. Determinación de hongos y bacterias termofílicas en heno y paja en criaderos de caballos criollos chilenos Fungi and thermophilic bacteria found in hay and straw from chilean horse breeding grounds

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    L. ZAROR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (COPD del equino es una alteración alérgica del tracto respiratorio bajo, con obstrucción de las vías aéreas y una bronquiolitis mucopurulenta, desencadenada por diversos alergenos. Es una patología de distribución mundial, geográficamente es más común en países templados donde los equinos se alimentan en base a heno y se mantienen estabulados por largos períodos. En Chile, la enfermedad ha sido descrita y se presenta especialmente en primavera. En el presente estudio se analizaron 99 muestras de paja, heno mixto y heno de alfalfa provenientes de 19 criaderos de caballos chilenos de las provincias de Valdivia y Osorno con el objeto de determinar la presencia de hongos y bacterias termofílicas. Los hongos más aislado fueron A. fumigatus. De las bacterias termofílicas se aisló escasamente Thermoactinomyces vulgaris y S. rectivirgulaChronic obstructive pulmonar disease (COPD of horses is an alergic alteration of lower respiratory tract with obstruction of aerovias and a mucupurolent bronchiolitis, developped by an amount of alergenics. It is disease of world wide distribution, being more common in warm countries where horses are feeded chiefly with hay & stay stabulated for long periods. In Chile it has been described being more ofter in springtime. In the present study 99 samples were analysed being of straw, mixed hay & alfalfa coming from 19 Chilean horse breeding grounds of the Valdivia & Osorno provinces in order to determinate the presence of thermophilic fungus & bacteria. The most isolated fungi were A. fumigatus, Mucor hiemalis & A. niger. Thermophilic bacteria were scarsely. Thermoactinomyces vulgaris & S. rectivirgula

  13. Custo energético de construção de uma instalação para armazenagem de feno Energy inputs used for building a hay storage structure

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    Alessandro Torres Campos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo obter uma estimativa da energia empregada na construção de uma estrutura utilizada para armazenamento de fardos de feno, em um sistema de produção animal. Para tanto utilizaram-se os coeficientes energéticos levantados pela Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais (CETEC. O valor obtido foi de 587,09 MJ.m-2, o qual foi amplamente diferente daqueles observados na literatura. Da energia total empregada na construção da instalação os itens fechamentos, estrutura de cobertura, piso e fundações representaram 50,35, 27,71, 18,72 e 3,22%, respectivamente. Considerando o sistema de produção de feno de alfafa e "coast-cross" como um todo, a instalação contribuiu com somente 0,14 e 0,16% da composição do custo energético anual destas culturas, respectivamente.The study objective was to estimate the energy involved in the construction of the structure to store hay bales in a animal production system. Data on energy coefficients published by Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais was used. The value of 587.09 MJ.m-2 was obtained, which is thoroughly different from those observed in the literature. In the total spent energy in the construction of the installation, the items walls, roof structure, floor and foundations represented 50.35, 27.71, 18.72 and 3.22%, respectively. Considering the whole alfalfa and coast-cross hay production system, the installation contributed with only 0.14 and 0.16% of the annual energy cost composition of these crops, respectively.

  14. 油樟叶挥发油乳剂和醑剂的制备及其对空气的消毒效果研究%Study on the Preparation of Emulsion and Spiritus of the Volatile Oil from the Leaf of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N.Chao and Their Sterilizing Effect to Air

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    张笑乐; 向楠; 殷中琼; 尚永祥; 夏春丽; 申义君; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to evaluate air sterilizing effect of emulsion and spiritus of the volatile oil from the leaf of C. Longepaniculatum. [ Method ] Stable emulsion and spiritus of the volatile oil from the leaf of C. Longepaniculatum were got, obtaining the sample 30 nun after sterilizing laboratory animal rooms for 15 min by general nutrition agar plate; then counting the bacteria volume separately after incubated for 48 h in 37 ℃. [ Result] The significant differentia is existing when comparing the bacteria volume after been sterilized by the 2% ,8% and 16% of the emulsion of the volatile oil with not being sterilized( P <0.05 ) ,the 84% of bacillus could be eliminated by the 16% emulsion. The significant differentia is existing when comparing the bacteria volume after been sterilized by the 2% ,4% and 8% of the spirit of the volatile oil with not being sterilized(P <0.01),the 91% of bacillus could be eliminated by the 4% spiritus. 4% of the spirit can get the best disinfection effect among the two pharmaceutics of different concentrations. [ Conclusion] As a whole, spiritus do better in air sterilizing compared with the emulsion. The spiritus at low concentrations is relatively effective on the system, so disinfections like 84 could be substituted.%[目的]研究油樟[ Cinnamomum longepaniculatum(Gamble)N.Chao]叶挥发油乳剂和醑剂的空气消毒效果.[方法]制备稳定的油樟叶挥发油乳剂和醑剂,液体喷雾消毒动物实验房15 min,消毒后营养琼脂平板采样30 min.37℃培养48h后进行空气中菌落计数.[结果]用浓度为2%、8%和16%的油樟叶挥发油乳剂消毒后空气中菌落数显著少于空气对照(P<0.05),浓度为16%的剂量组细菌平均消亡率达84%;油樟叶挥发油醑剂各剂量组空气中菌落数均极显著少于溶剂对照(P<0.01),浓度为4%的剂量组细菌平均消亡率达91%.不同浓度的2种制剂中4%的醑剂消毒效果最佳.[结论]醑剂整体消毒

  15. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

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    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  16. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

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    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior

  17. Assessment of Bioactivity of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.

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    Sukumar Dandapat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of medicinal plants is due to presence of various kinds of primary and secondary metabolites. Among studied phytochemicals polyphenol was in higher quantity (16.7 ± 0.7 g/100g. Antipathogenic efficacy of C. tamala has been tested against, S. typhi (MTCC 3216, P. aeruginosa (MTCC 7837, S. aureus (MTCC 3160, P. mirabilis (MTCC 1249 and B. subtilis (MTCC 736 by agar diffusion method and broth dilution methodand all the strains were affected by methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of C. tamala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values in agar diffusion method were 1.25mg-5mg and 2.5mg-5mg for methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts respectively. Complete inhibition was observed in broth dilution method at1.25mg/mL-9mg/mL and 1mg/mL-13mg/mL concentration of methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. The leaf extracts did not show cytotoxic at 0.2mg.mL- 1mg/mL concentration of aqueous leaf extract but showed haemolysis at 1mg/mL concentration of metanolic leaf extract of C. tamala. C. tamala leaves showed high nutritional values (143.5 ± 0.5 Kcal/100g. The nutritional components like protein, fats, carbohydrates and edible fibres were 6 ± 0.5, 8.5 ± 1.8, 9.5 ± 0.5 and 30.5 ± 0.6 g/100g respectively. Therefore it can be concluded that leaf extract of C. tamala can be used safely against above mentioned human pathogens and for the preparation of new pharmaceutical drug.

  18. KOEFISIEN TRANSFER MASSA PADA PROES EKSTRAKSI KAYU MANIS (CINNAMOMUM BURMANNI

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    Faleh Setia Budi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman kayu manis mengandung minyak atsiri yang mempunyai banyak manfaat seperti bahan antiseptis, pewangi/peningkatan cita rasa untuk menyegarkan bau sabun, deterjen, lotion, parfum, dan cream. Pengambilan minyak atsiri kayu manis pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara ekstraksi dengan pelarut n-heksana teknis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konstanta kesetimbangan ekstraksi kulit kayu manis serta mempelajari pengaruh diameter pengaduk dan kecepatan putar pengaduk terhadap nilai koefisien transfer massa dan juga nilai difusivitas efektifnya. Setiap 40 gram kayu manis yang telah dihaluskan dan diayak dengan ukuran tertentu diekstraksi dengan 200 ml n-heksana teknis pada labu leher tiga dengan pengaduk magnetik selama 150 menit pada suhu 55°C. Setiap 25 menit diambil cuplikan untuk dianalisa kadar minyaknya dengan cara penimbangan. Data-data konsentrasi solut dalam solven dari penelitian diolah lebih lanjut untuk mendapatkan nilai Kc dan De dengan menyelesaikan persamaan diferensial parsial menggunakan metode Finite Difference Approximation cara implisit dan optimasi 2 peubah menggunakan minimasi Hooke-Jeeves. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah harga Kc naik sebanding  dengan kenaikan  kecepatan  putar pengaduk dan diameter pengaduk, sedangkan harga De yang diperoleh relatif tetap, sehingga dapat diperoleh hubungan persamaan kelompok tak berdimensi Sh =  4,8136 x 10-3 .Re 0,6716  dengan kesalahan relatif rara-rata 2,620%.

  19. Ruminal variables in steers fed with Tifton 85 (Cynodon Spp hay with different particle sizes / Variáveis ruminais em novilhos alimentados com feno de Tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partículas

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    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 concentration and the pH were determined with the objective of evaluating the effect of different particle sizes (5, 7, 10mm and whole of Tifton 85 hay in the diet of Holstein steers, with average live weight of 300kg and age of 20 months. A completely randomized design, with four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement was used. The plots were the experimental treatments (5, 7, 10mm and whole hay and the subplots were the times of collection (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h. The use of diets including hay with particle sizes of 5mm and whole, did not affect (P>0,05 the ruminal pH; average values were 6.14 and 6.61, respectively. A linear reduction in the ruminal pH was verified in the steers fed on diets constituted by 10mm particles. For the diets including Tifton hay with particle size of 7mm, it was observed a quadratic effect, where the minimum pH (5.39 was observed 8:00 h after the feed was furnished. Concentrations of N-NH3 were affected by collection time in a quadratic way. Maximum concentrations of N-NH3, 15.55, 15.83, 18.32, 12.0 mg/100 mL, were observed at 4:28, 3:58, 2:99 and 2:80h after feeding, for the diets including Tifton 85 hay with 5, 7, 10mm and whole particle sizes, respectively. It was concluded that all diets allowed normal nycterohemeral patterns of fermentation.As concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 e pH foram determinadas objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de feno de Tifton 85 (5, 7, 10mm e inteiro na dieta de novilhos holandeses, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300kg e idade média de 20 meses. As determinações das concentrações de amônia ruminal (N-NH3 e o pH foram analisadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcela subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tratamentos experimentais (5, 7, 10mm e feno inteiro e nas sub-parcelas os tempos de coleta (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h, com quatro repetições. A utilização de dietas constituídas com

  20. Evaluation of sugar cane bagasse subjected to haying and ensiling Avaliação do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar submetido à fenação e à ensilagem

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    Rosana Cristina Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate sugar cane bagasse from cachaça production, subjected to hay-making and ensiling. The experiment was conduced at Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, using the completely random delineation (CRD, with seven treatment and three repetitions. The treatments were constituted of in natura sugar cane bagasse (INB, manually hayed and baled sugar cane bagasse, mechanically hayed and baled, manually baled INB and mechanically baled INB, whole ensiled INB and chopped ensiled INB. Bromatological composition, tampon capacity (TC, pH values and total sugar rate of the INB were evaluated. For the ensilage, there were used cistern silos and for the baling, manual and mechanical balers. The bagasse was baled in natura, or after reaching 89% rate of DM, according to the treatments. The evaluated characteristics were dry matter rate (DM, crude protein (CP, fiber in neutral detergent (FND, fiber in acid detergent (FAD. The results went through variance analyses and the averages were compared by the Scott - Knott test (PNeste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar proveniente da produção de cachaça, submetido à fenação e à ensilagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com sete tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por bagaço de cana in natura (BIN, bagaço de cana fenado e enfardado manualmente, bagaço de cana fenado e enfardado mecanicamente, BIN enfardado manualmente, BIN enfardado mecanicamente, BIN ensilado inteiro e BIN ensilado picado. Foram avaliadas a composição bromatológica, capacidade tampão (CT, valores de pH e os teores de açúcares totais do BIN. Para a ensilagem foram utilizados silos cisternas e para o enfardamento, enfardadoras manual e mecânica. O bagaço foi enfardado in natura, ou após atingir teor de 89% de MS, conforme os tratamentos. As caracter

  1. Performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed corn silage and oat hay/ Desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias alimentados com silagem de milho e feno de aveia

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    Adriana Pereira da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives to evaluate the performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed with different roughage sources in confinement. Thirty animals out of Corriedale ewes mated to Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk rams, were used. After weaning the animals were fedlot and distributed in one of the following treatments: T1 – Corn silage + concentrate; T2 – Corn silage and oat hay (50% each + concentrate; and T3 – Oat hay + concentrate. It was used a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio, dry matter basis. At the beginning of the experiment the animals weighed 11.51, 12.46 and 12.33 kg (P>0.05, and after nine weeks of feedlot the weights were 17.53, 19.34 and 19.35 kg (P>0.05, respectively, for T1, T2 e T3. Average daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05 among treatments. It was not observed differences (P>0.05 in weights and weight gains among the genetic groups. However, male lambs presented greater average daily weight gain than female lambs (0.120 x 0.091 kg. There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments, however, animals from the T2 had greater dry matter intake. It can be concluded that either corn silage or oat hay can be used for feeding weaned lambs.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias e alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 30 animais oriundos de cruzamentos entre ovelhas Corriedale e carneiros Hampshire Down, Ile de France e Suffolk. Logo após o desmame os animais foram confinados, sendo distribuídos para receberem um dos tratamentos: T1 – Silagem de milho mais concentrado; T2 – Silagem de milho e feno de aveia (50% do volumoso cada mais concentrado; e T3 – Feno de aveia mais concentrado. A proporção volumoso:concentrado utilizada foi de 60:40, base seca. Os pesos médios dos animais no início do experimento foram de 11,51; 12,46 e 12,33 kg (P>0,05 e os pesos finais, após nove semanas de

  2. 复合型天然防霉剂对苜蓿干草贮藏期营养价值的影响%Influences of Compound Natural Mold Inhibitor on the Nutritional Value of Alfalfa Hay Bale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉山; 格根图; 张晓娜; 荣磊

    2011-01-01

    为探索苜蓿(Medicago sativa)干草捆贮藏的最佳方式,以氧化钙(CaO)、陈皮、沸石粉为原料配制复合型天然防霉剂,并以草原2号苜蓿为材料,对复合型天然防霉剂在苜蓿干草贮藏期营养价值的影响进行了研究.结果表明:在整个贮藏过程中,FR处理(压扁结合喷施2.5%碳酸钾进行田间晒制,干草含水量为28%~30%,添加复合型天然防霉剂)较其他各处理其营养成分含量损失较少,粗蛋白(Crude protein,CP)含量由打捆初期的19.21%降至18.17%,整个贮藏过程中CP含量仅下降了 1.04%,较其他各处理CP损失最少;中性洗涤纤维(Nutral deter-gent fibre,NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(Acid detergent fibre,ADF)在贮藏后含量为51.13%,39.54%,显著低于其他各处理,粗脂肪(Ether extract,EE)、粗纤维(Curde fiber,CF)在贮藏过程中变化相对较小.%In order to explore the best way of storing alfalfa hay, the influence of compound natural mold inhibitor including calcium oxide (CaO), dried tangerine peel and zeolite powder on the nutritional value of alfalfa hay bale was studied. Results showed that: FR treatment (spraying with 2. 5% potassium carbonate and pressing flat with sun-dried in field to 28%~30% moisture content, then adding mold inhibitor),lost less nutrition than others in the storage process. Its CP(Crude protein)content only decreased from 19.21% to 18.17% during storage process. NDF(Nutral detergent fibre) content was 51.13% and ADF (Acid detergent fibre)content was 39.54 % after the storage process. Both contents were significantly lower in FR treatment than other treatments. Changes of EE(Ether extract) and CF(Curde fiber) during storage were relatively small.

  3. Composição química e digestibilidade de fenos tratados com amônia anidra ou uréia Chemical composition and digestibility of the ammoniated hays

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    Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para se avaliarem as alterações na composição química e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS dos fenos de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf, colhidos no estádio de maturação das sementes e tratados com amônia anidra (3,0% MS ou uréia (5,4% MS. A análise dos dados demonstra que a amonização diminuiu os conteúdos de FDN e hemicelulose com a mesma eficiência. Os tratamentos químicos não alteraram os teores de FDA, celulose e lignina. Observou-se aumento nos teores de compostos nitrogenados, como N total e N insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA em resposta à amonização. A relação NIDA/NT diminuiu com a amonização, aumentando a quantidade de N disponível para a digestão. A DIVMS aumentou em resposta às alterações observadas na composição química da fração fibrosa e incremento no conteúdo de N prontamente digestível dos fenos tratados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes on the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf, jaragua (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf hays, harvested following the seed ripening stage and treated with anhydrous ammonia (3.0% DM or urea (5.4% DM. The data showed that anhydrous ammonia and urea decreased NDF and hemicellulose contents with the same efficiency. The treatments did not change ADF, cellulose, and lignin contents. It was observed an increase in the nitrogen as compounds, TN and ADIN due to the ammoniation. The ADIN/TN ratio was reduced due to the ammoniation. The IVDMD increased due to the changes observed in the chemical composition of the fiber, and the increase of the readily digestible nitrogen of the hays.

  4. Sin Tierras No Hay Paraíso: Turismo, organizaciones agrarias y apropiación territorial en México. Gustavo Marín Guardado (Coordinador. El Sauzal, Tenerife.

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    Maximiliano E Korstanje

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sin Tierras No Hay Paraíso se sitúa como un trabajo editado por el profesor Marín Guardado que convoca 10 excelentes capítulos donde queda en evidencia esa tensión primigenia entre tierras orientadas al trabajo, y esta suerte de centros ejemplares ideológicamente orquestados para reforzar la superioridad de una clase sobre el resto de la sociedad.  En dicho proceso, y lejos de generar un crecimiento sustentable, el turismo monopoliza el uso de ciertas tierras creando serios efectos indeseados en zonas enteramente dedicadas a la agricultura. La lucha de las organizaciones agrarias en México por permanecer en las tierras que históricamente les pertenecían es inversamente proporcional a la voracidad empresaria del capitalismo moderno. Una de las grandes falencias de los estudios turísticos consiste en la sobrevaloración del turismo como un organizador social y geográfico, ciertamente con fallas que deben ser corregidas pero trivializando los alcances de los estudios postmarxistas los cuales han denunciado como los procesos de re-territorialización esconden una lógica de la “expropiación” y/o transferencia de riqueza.

  5. Effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change, and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep fed a basal diet of native grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Mekasha, Yoseph

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep. The experiment employed 25 male sheep with mean (±standard error) initial body live weight (BLW) of 19.1 ± 0.09 kg. The experiment consisted of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by carcass evaluation. The experiment employed a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five blocks. Treatments comprised of grass hay alone fed ad libitum (GHA; control), GHA + 100 % concentrate mix (CM) consisting of wheat bran and noug seed cake at a ratio of 2:1 (0 S. sesban), GHA + 67 % CM + 33 % S. sesban (33 S. sesban), GHA + 33 % CM + 67 % S. sesban (67 S. sesban), and GHA + 100 % S. sesban (100 S. sesban). Total dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p mix.

  6. Effects of supplementing Erythrina brucei leaf as a substitute for cotton seed meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinnesu, Asmamaw; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The replacement value of dried Erythrina brucei leaf for cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics was evaluated. Twenty-five yearling buck goats (15.8 ± 1.4 kg) were assigned into five treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100% CSM (T2), 67% CSM + 33% E. brucei (T3), 33% CSM + 67% E. brucei (T4), and 100% E. brucei (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats consumed more (P  0.05) by the proportion of the supplements. The highest (P goats supplemented with CSM alone, whereas the lowest intake was observed in the non-supplemented group. Total CP intake decreased (P goats gained more (P goats than in the non-supplemented ones, but similar (P > 0.05) among the supplemented group. The digestibility of CP was higher (P goats, except in those goats fed E. brucei alone, than the non-supplemented group. Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats than for the non-supplemented ones. It could be concluded that E. brucei could be used as a substitute to CSM under smallholder production systems.

  7. ¿Hay patria para todos? Ambivalencia de lo público y “emergencia plebeya” en la política de los nuevos gobiernos progresistas en Sudamérica

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    Marc Saint-Upéry

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available “Ahora, Venezuela es de todos”; “Brasil, um país de todos”; “La patria ya es de todos” (Ecuador. Esta semejanza entre los lemas oficiales de algunos de los nuevos gobiernos progresistas sudamericanos nos alerta sobre una posible nueva figura de lo “colectivo” y de lo “público”. Pero más allá de las controversias sobre las fronteras de la dicotomía público/privado, en las políticas públicas de estos gobiernos, hay una ambivalencia más profunda de “lo público”. El nuevo estilo de liderazgo y su conexión con la “emergencia plebeya” en Sudamérica saca a la luz una corriente subyacente de “sociabilidad polimorfa” que evoca algunos rasgos de “lo público” descritos en los trabajos de E. P. Thompson, Philippe Ariès y otros historiadores del mundo moderno preindustrial.

  8. Incorporação de uréia encapsulada em suplementos protéicos fornecidos para novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade Incorporation of coated urea in protein supplements supplied to steers fed with low quality hay

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    Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da suplementação com uréia encapsulada ou normal sobre a utilização de volumoso de baixa qualidade em novilhos. Os tratamentos foram: Feno + sal mineralizado; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia comum; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 1; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 2. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. de baixa qualidade (PB: 4,62%, FDN: 83,46%. Foram realizadas medidas de digestibilidade, consumo e cinética digestiva. A relação entre o consumo de proteína degradável no rúmen e o consumo de matéria orgânica digestível foi maior (P0,05, ao comparar suplementados ou não suplementados com PDR, e da mesma forma ao comparar fontes de nitrogênio não-protéico. A suplementação de proteína degradável no rúmen não foi efetiva em alterar os parâmetros estudados, assim como as fontes de uréia encapsulada mostraram respostas semelhantes à uréia comum.A trial was accomplished with the objective to verify the effect of the coated or common urea supplementation on the utilization of low quality hay in steers. The treatments were: hay + mineral supplement; hay + protein supplement with common urea; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 1; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 2. Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. hay of low quality (CP: 4.62%, NDF: 83.46% was used. The measures were: digestibility, intake and digestive kinetics. The relation between degradable intake protein and digestible organic mater intake was highest (P0.05 when compared the supplemented or not supplemented diets with DIP and in the same way, when compared the non-protein nitrogen sources. The ruminal degradable protein supplementation was not effective for modifying the studied parameters, as well as, the coated urea sources showed to be similar to the common urea.

  9. SUBSTITUIÇÃO DO FENO DE TIFTON PELO RESÍDUO ÚMIDO DE CERVEJARIA EM DIETAS DE OVINOS EM MANTENÇA WET BREWERS’ GRAIN AS REPLACEMENT FOR HAY IN MAINTENANCE SHEEP DIET

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    Ives Cláudio da Silva Bueno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo úmido de cervejaria é um subproduto disponível ao longo do ano, podendo ser utilizado como um substituto das forragens durante os períodos críticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilização do resíduo úmido de cervejaria como substituto do feno em dietas exclusivas de volumoso para ovinos. Mantiveram-se seis ovinos machos da raça Santa Inês em gaiolas de metabolismo em um delineamento experimental de quadrado latino múltiplo de 3 x 3, com dietas experimentais 100% de feno de Tifton 85 capim-bermuda (Cynodon ssp (FT, 67% de FT + 33% de resíduo de cervejaria (RUC33 e 33% de FT + 67% de resíduo de cervejaria (RUC67. O ensaio avaliou o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da matéria seca, da matéria orgânica, da proteína bruta, e das fibras em detergente neutro e em detergente ácido, pH ruminal e perfil de nitrogênio (N amoniacal. O consumo voluntário foi de 1.090, 1.129 e 737 (EP = 66,9 g MS dia-1 nas dietas FT, RUC33 e RUC67, respectivamente. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca não foi afetada pelos tratamentos, mas a inclusão do resíduo aumentou a digestibilidade da proteína bruta. Os perfis de N-NH3 no rúmen foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos e o pH ruminal diferiu entre os tratamentos (6,26; 5,98 e 6.28 (EP = 0,05 no FT, RUC33 e RUC67, respectivamente. Os animais apresentaram diminuição no consumo quando o resíduo foi oferecido nas quantidades de 67% da MS. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Avaliação de alimentos, subprodutos, suplementação para ruminante Wet brewers’ grain (RUC is an available by-product throughout the year and its fiber fractions could replace forage fibers during critical periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate wet brewers’ grain as a substitute for hay in exclusive forage diets for sheep. Six Santa Inês male sheep were kept in metabolic cages in a 3x3 multiple Latin square, in which the experimental diets were 100% Tifton 85 Bermudagrass

  10. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  11. ¿Madre hay una sola?

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    Bravi, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Un patrón de herencia uniparental libre de recombinación unido a una alta tasa de evolución molecular han hecho del ADNmt una herramienta de alta resolución en el estudio del origen y evolución de las poblaciones humanas. La existencia de una robusta filogenia global, basada en >2.000 genomas mitocondriales completos, y de más de 30.000 secuencias de la Región Hipervariable I (RHV-I publicadas a la fecha permiten evaluar los patrones de distribución étnico/geográfica y las afinidades extra-continentales de los linajes maternos presentes en América. El análisis de ∼4.000 RHV-I publicadas para Nativos Americanos permite describir: a una distribución recíprocamente excluyente para varios grupos monofiléticos de linajes maternos; b un origen "híbrido" para las poblaciones peri-árticas; c una notable pérdida de diversidad respecto de Asia: en todo el continente americano, desde Alaska a la Patagonia, coexisten hoy menor cantidad de haplogrupos y sub-haplogrupos mitocondriales que en cualquier población indígena siberiana.

  12. Microfluidos: ¿cuánto hay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Rivas, D.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic groups many branches of Physics ranging from Fluid Dynamics to Electronics and closely linked with Biology Sciences. Its interdisciplinary character is a distinctive feature, as the times we are living today. In the last ten years, along with the development of biotechnology, microelect

  13. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  14. Rhinitis (Hay Fever): Tips to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  15. Lástima, pero hay que aterrizar

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    Juan Sierra

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Colombia a new vision. Juan Carlos Botero. Fotografías: Santiago Harker. Villegas Editores, Santafé de Bogotá, 1993, 160 págs. Colombia desde el aire. Gustavo Wilehes Chaux. Fotografías: Aldo Brando. Villegas Editores, Santafé de Bogotá, 1993, 192 págs.

  16. Valores energéticos e composição bromatológica dos fenos de jureminha, feijão bravo e maniçoba para aves Energy values and chemical composition of jureminha, bravo beans and maniçoba hays for poultry

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    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para determinação dos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn e da composição química dos fenos de feijão-bravo (FFB, jureminha (FJ e maniçoba (FM para uso na alimentação de aves. Duzentos e oitenta pintos com 17 dias de idade foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em sete tratamentos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 1 (três tipos de feno x dois níveis de substituição da dieta-referência + dieta-referência, com quatro repetições de dez aves. Os níveis de EMA e EMAn dos fenos de jureminha, feijão-bravo e maniçoba foram 3.205 e 2.911, 2.990 e 2.648, 2.728 e 2.419, determinados com 15% de substituição da dieta-referência pelo alimento e 2.678 e 2.371, 2.875 e 2.523, 2.277 e 1.956 com substituição de 30%, respectivamente, e evidenciaram influência do nível de substituição da dieta-referência sobre os valores de EMA e EMAn das dietas. Os valores de EMA e EMAn, para aves, dos fenos de jureminha e feijão-bravo são superiores aos do feno de maniçoba.An experiment was carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn and chemical composition of bravo bean hay (HBB, jureminha hay (HJ and maniçoba hay (HM for use in birds feeding. Two hundred and eighty, 17 days old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design, into seven treatments organized in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 + 1 (three hay types x two levels of substitution of the reference diet + reference diet, with four repetitions of 10 birds each. The contents of AME and AMEn of jureminha, bravo bean and maniçoba hays were 3.205 and 2.911, 2.990 and 2.648, 2.728 and 2.419, respectively, when the ingredients test substituted 15% of the reference diet, and 2.678 and 2.371, 2.875 and 2.523, 2.277 and 1.956, respectively, when the ingredients test

  17. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge on the Highveld of South Africa

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    T.W. Naude

    2005-09-01

    late seasonal rain had resulted in mature, heavily ergotised nut sedge being cut with the silage. Claviceps cyperi sclerotia, collected on the affected fields in the following autumn contained 3 600-4 000 ppm ergocryptine. That the dominant alkaloid produced by this particular fungus was indeed ergocryptine, was confirmed by negative ion chemical ionization MS/MS. In one further outbreak in another Holstein herd, teff hay contaminated with ergotised nut sedge and containing 1 200 ppb alkaloids, was incriminated as the cause of the condition. This is the first report of bovine ergotism not associated with the Poaceae infected with Claviceps purpureum or endophytes but with the family Cyperaceae and this particular fungal phytopathogen.

  18. Avaliação de fontes de amônia para o tratamento de fenos de gramíneas tropicais. 2. Compostos nitrogenados Evaluation of ammonia sources to tropical grasses hays treatment. 2. Nitrogen compounds

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    Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para se avaliarem as alterações nos conteúdos de compostos nitrogenados dos fenos de braquiária decumbens (Brachiaria decumbnes Stapf e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf não-tratados, tratados com uréia (U - 5,4% da MS, uréia (UL - 5,4% da MS mais labe-labe (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3,0% da MS ou amônia anidra (NH3 -3,0% da MS. A aplicação de amônia anidra ou de uréia aumentou os teores de N total, N insolúvel em detergente neutro, N insolúvel em detergente ácido, N não-protéico e N amoniacal. A amonização diminuiu as relações N insolúvel em detergente neutro/N total e N insolúvel em detergente ácido/N total e aumentou as relações N não-protéico/N total, N amoniacal/N total e os teores de PB. O N aplicado foi retido, principalmente, nas formas de NNP e N amoniacal.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes on the nitrogen compounds of the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf grasses hay, untreated, treated with urea (5.4% DM, urea plus lab-lab (UL-5.4% DM plus Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3.0% DM and anhydrous ammonia (NH3 - 3.0% DM. The chemical treatment with urea or NH3 increased the total N, neutral detergent insoluble N 9NDIN, acid detergent insoluble N (ADIN, non nitrogen protein (NNP, and the ammonical nitrogen (AN contents. Ammoniation decreased the NDIN/TN and ADIN/TN ratios. The chemical treatment increased the NNP/TN and NA/TN ratios, and the crude protein contents. The N applied as urea or NH3 was retained as NNP and in the ammoniacal form.

  19. Análise energética na produção de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers hay production

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    Alessandro T. Campos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar o consumo de energia na implantação, condução, fenação e armazenamento, assim como a eficiência energética do Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, em sistema intensivo de produção de leite, na região de Coronel Pacheco - MG, sendo utilizados dados coletados pela Embrapa Gado de Leite, em média de sete anos. Para o levantamento dos componentes da matriz, foram utilizados coeficientes energéticos preconizados por autores especializados. A energia direta, relativa aos insumos, teve maior participação que a indireta, sendo os percentuais encontrados de 94,69 e 5,31, respectivamente. O principal consumidor de energia indireta foi o trator, por acionar todos os equipamentos tratorizados, seguido do equipamento de irrigação. A eficiência energética, de 4,18, foi considerada favorável, demonstrando sustentabilidade do agroecossistema. A maioria da energia direta utilizada foi derivada de petróleo, na forma de combustível. Houve, ainda, grande consumo de outro derivado de petróleo, o fertilizante, principalmente na forma de nitrogênio (28,89% do total.The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from Embrapa Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipments, followed by the

  20. Desempenho de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas completas contendo feno de maniçoba Performance of Santa Inês lambs fed total mixed rations containing different ratios of concentrate to ceara rubbertree hay

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    Jacilene Maria da Cunha Castro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com dieta completa formulada com diferentes proporções de feno de maniçoba. Foram utilizados 32 animais Santa Inês machos, não-castrados (idade inicial de 70 dias e peso vivo de 16,02±2,37 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As dietas foram constituídas de concentrado e feno de maniçoba (FM nas proporções de 20, 40, 60 e 80%. As proporções de feno na dieta não influenciaram os consumos de MS, PB e CT, cujas médias diárias foram 1,214; 0,201 e 0,816 kg, respectivamente. Os níveis de feno tiveram efeito linear positivo sobre o consumo de FDN e efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de EM e CNF. O ganho de peso diário foi afetado pelos níveis de feno na dieta, apresentando médias de 290,84; 293,62; 253,35 e 208,48 g, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba. As dietas influenciaram a conversão (Y = 3,332+0,028x e a eficiência alimentar (Y = 0,280,0013x. Pela análise econômica, observaram-se relações custo:benefício de 1,49; 1,57; 1,69 e 1,84 para os níveis de 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba na dieta. O custo operacional efetivo por quilograma de carcaça produzida foi de R$ 3,68; R$ 3,49; R$ 3,23 e R$ 2,98, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno. A inclusão de 80% de feno de maniçoba em dietas completas possibilitou a obtenção de desempenho satisfatório dos cordeiros e melhor retorno financeiro.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of concentrate (C to ceara rubbertree hay (CRH; Manihot Glaziovii Muell. Arg. on performance of lambs. Thirty two intact Santa Inês lambs averaging 70 days of age and 16.02±2.371 kg of body weight were fed one of the following four treatments as total mixed rations: 80C:20CRH (diet A, 60C:40CRH (diet B, 40C:60CRH (diet C, or 20C:80CRH (diet D in a completely

  1. Leaf tissues degradation of signalgrass hay pretreated with urea and submitted to in vitro digestion Degradação de tecidos foliares de feno de braquiária tratado com uréia e submetido à digestão in vitro

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    Kátia Fernanda Gobbi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment using signalgrass hay treated with increasing urea levels (0, 20, 40, and 80 g/kg of dry matter, and submitted to in vitro digestion times (0, 6, 12, 24 or 72 hours was conducted to evaluate the effects of ammoniation rates and digestion times on leaf blade tissue degradation. A completely randomized design with a 4 × 5 factorial treatment arrangement, with three replicates was used. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis. Urea-treated hay presented smaller proportion of remaining tissues measured in leaf blades cross-sections after in vitro digestion. Tissues more affected by urea treatment degradation were parenchyma bundle sheath and sclerenchyma. The hay treated with 80 g urea/kg DM and in vitro digested for 24 or 72 hours showed smallest proportion of tissues with thick and lignified cell walls such as parenchyma bundle sheath and sclerenchyma. The treatment with urea also reduced the time necessary to tissue degradation. The urea-treated hay in vitro digested for 12 hours, showed the same tissue proportion found in untreated hay submitted to 24 or 72 hours of in vitro digestion. The epidermis and lignified vascular tissue showed the smallest degradation following in vitro digestion. Results indicated that treatment of signalgrass hay with urea contributed to cell wall structure disruption, enhancement of tissues microbial degradation and reduction of the time necessary to digestion.Um experimento utilizando feno de Brachiaria decumbens tratado com níveis crescentes de uréia (0, 20, 40 e 80 g/kg de MS e submetido a diferentes tempos de digestão in vitro (0, 6, 12, 24 ou 72 horas, foi conduzido com o objetivo de se avaliar quais tecidos foliares têm a degradação mais afetada pela amonização e digestão.Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, num arranjo fatorial 4 × 5, com três repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise multivariada. O feno tratado com uréia apresentou a menor

  2. Digestão do feno de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott sob diferentes níveis de consumo em ovinos Dwarf elephant grass hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott digestion by sheep at different levels of intake

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    Jucileia Aparecida da Silva Morais

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados doze ovinos Texel × Corriedale machos, castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso vivo (PV inicial médio de 27kg, mantidos em gaiolas de metabolismo, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, conduzido em dois períodos, para avaliar o efeito do nível de consumo (base matéria seca (MS de feno de capim elefante anão (CEA (1,50; 1,75; 2,00; 2,25; 2,50% do PV e ad libitum sobre a digestão nesses animais. A digestibilidade aparente da MS, da matéria orgânica (MO e do nitrogênio (N, bem como a digestibilidade verdadeira do N, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e a síntese de proteína microbiana ruminal não foram afetados, mas a retenção de N (em g dia-1 e como % do N consumido foi sempre positiva e aumentou linearmente (PTwelve one year old Texel x Corriedale castrated male sheep, with 27kg mean live weight (LW, housed in metabolic cages, were used in a completely randomized experiment, carried out in two periods, to evaluate the effect of level of intake (dry matter (DM basis of dwarf elephant grass (1.5; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.5% of LW and ad libitum on digestion. DM, organic matter (OM and nitrogen (N apparent digestibility, as well as the N true digestibility, total digestible nutrients (TDN contents and rumen microbial protein synthesis were not affected by level of hay intake. N retention (as g day-1 and as % of N intake was always positive and increased linearly (P<0.05 as the level of hay intake increased. However, neutral (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF apparent digestibility, as well as OM true digestibility decreased linearly (P<0.05 with increasing intake. Passage rate and mean retention time in the cecum-colon were not affected, whereas passage rate through the reticulum-rumen increased and mean retention time decreased (P<0.05 as the level of intake increased. Fibre and OM true digestibility decreased as hay intake increased (P<0.05, mainly due to a decreasing in retention time of particles into the

  3. Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild

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    José Morais Pereira Filho

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico consistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas à determinação da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos.Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was

  4. Suplementação nitrogenada com ureia comum ou encapsulada sobre parâmetros ruminais de novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade Nitrogen supplement with common or coated urea on ruminal parameters of steers fed with low quality hay

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    Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento de suplementação com novilhos fistulados no rúmen com o objetivo de verificar a utilização de ureia encapsulada como fonte de nitrogênio de liberação mais lenta e uniforme ao longo do tempo, bem como seu efeito sobre a degradabilidade da parede celular do feno. Os tratamentos foram: Feno + sal mineralizado (SM; Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia comum (SU; Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia encapsulada fórmula 1 (UE1; e Feno + suplemento proteico com ureia encapsulada fórmula 2 (UE2. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. de baixa qualidade (PB: 4,62% e FDN: 83,46%. Foram realizadas medidas de pH e N-NH3 ruminais e parâmetros de degradação ruminal da FDN do volumoso. Verificou-se efeito (P0,05 da ureia comum. Os valores de pH e degradabilidade in situ não foram afetados pelos tratamentos (P>0,05, ao serem comparados os suplementados ou não suplementados com proteína degradável no rúmen e ao serem comparadas fontes de nitrogênio não proteico. A ureia encapsulada não demonstrou superioridade sobre a ureia comum, provavelmente pela baixa eficiência da sua proteção. A utilização de ureia encapsulada e a suplementação de proteína degradável não foram eficientes em aumentar a degradabilidade da parede celular do volumoso utilizado.A supplementation trial was accomplished with rumen fistulated steers with the objective of verifying the coated urea use as a source of nitrogen of slower and uniform release throughout the time, as well as its effect on cellular wall degradability. The treatments were: hay + mineral supplement; hay + protein supplement with common urea; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 1; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 2. The forage used was Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. hay of low quality (CP: 4.62% and NDF: 83.46%. The measures were: ruminal pH and N-NH3, rumen degradability of NDF and ruminal degradation parameters

  5. Dietas contendo silagem de milho (Zea maiz L. e feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. em diferentes proporções para bovinos Corn silage and tifton 85 bermudagrass hay-based diets for steers

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    Ana Clara Rodrigues Cavalcante

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e concentração de amônia ruminais e a taxa de passagem em bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 (TIF e silagem de milho (SM em diferentes proporções. Utilizaram-se quatro animais castrados, com peso médio de 523kg, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4, recebendo 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado, na base da matéria seca. O volumoso consistiu das seguintes proporções (%: 100 TIF:0 SM; 67 TIF:33 SM; 33 TIF:67 SM e 0 TIF:100 SM. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, de matéria orgânica (MO e de matéria orgânica digestível (MOD, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos totais (CHOT e digeríveis (CHOD não foram influenciados pelas diferentes proporções de feno de capim-tifton 85: silagem de milho nas dietas, registrando-se valores médios de 9,2; 8,7; 6,4; 1,1; 3,7; 7,3 e 5,4 kg/dia, respectivamente. O consumo de extrato etéreo (EE elevou linearmente com o aumento da silagem de milho nas dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes da MS, MO, PB, EE e CHO também não foram influenciadas pelas diferentes proporções de silagem de milho, obtendo-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 71,8; 73,0; 69,5; 69,2 e 73,9%. Para a digestibilidade da FDN, observou-se efeito quadrático, estimando-se valor máximo de 65,2% para dietas contendo 30,98% de silagem de milho. Estimou-se concentração máxima de amônia de 12,0 mg/100 ml e valor mínimo de pH de 5,98 às 2,44 e 6,82 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem não foi influenciada pelas diferentes proporções de feno:silagem, no volumoso, apresentando valor médio de 4,2%/hora.The intake, digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations and passage rate were evaluated in steers fed corn silage (CS and Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay (T85H-based diets, at different forage proportions. Four rumen fistulated steers with 523 kg of live

  6. Avaliação de fontes de amônia para o tratamento de fenos de gramíneas tropicais. 1. Constituintes da parede celular, poder tampão e atividade ureática Evaluation of ammonia sources to tropical grasses hays treatment. 1. Cell wall contents, buffer capacity and urease activity

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    Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações da fração fibrosa e as características químicas dos fenos de braquiária decumbens (Brachiaria decumbnes Stapf e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf não-tratados, tratados com uréia (U-5,4% da MS, uréia (UL-5,4% da MS mais labe-labe (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3,0% da MS ou amônia anidra (NH3 -3,0% da MS. O tratamento químico com uréia ou NH3 aumentou o pH e a digestibilidade in vitro verdadeira dos fenos. A amonização não alterou os teores de fibra em detergente ácido e celulose, mas diminuiu os de fibra em detergente neutro, hemicelulose e lignina. O uso do labe-labe como fonte adicional de urease não aumentou a eficiência da uréia no tratamento dos volumosos. As avaliações do conteúdo de umidade, do poder tampão e da atividade ureática são técnicas que podem auxiliar na previsão das respostas dos volumosos à amonização com o uso de uréia.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes on the chemical composition and the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf hays, untreated, treated with urea (5.4% DM, urea (UL-5.4% DM and lab lab (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3.0% DM; and anhydrous ammonia (NH3 3.0% DM. The chemical treatment increased the pH and the in vitro digestibility of the hays Ammoniation did not affect ADF and cellulose contents. The NDF, hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased due to ammoniation with NH3. The urea utilization had the same efficiency that anhydrous ammonia on the hemicellulose content of the hays. The use of an external source of urease did not affect the urea treatment efficiency. The evaluation of the chemical characteristics of the forages, as the dry matter content, buffering capacity, and urease activity can be helpful on the prediction of their responses to the ammoniation.

  7. ENERGIA DIGESTÍVEL E DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE DA PROTEÍNA BRUTA E MATÉRIA SECA DO FENO DE PLANTAS AQUÁTICAS PARA SUÍNOS EM FASE DE CRESCIMENTO DIGESTIBLE ENERGY AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF THE CRUDE PROTEIN AND DRY MATTER OF THE AQUATIC PLANTS HAY FOR GROWTH PHASE SWINE

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    Fábio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o intuito de avaliar o feno de plantas aquáticas como ingrediente de dietas para suínos em crescimento. Utilizaram-se dez suínos de peso inicial de 28,85 ± 2,95kg, distribuídos entre os tratamentos – ração-referência (RR e ração-teste (RT – sendo que a RT correspondeu a 80% da RR acrescida de 20% de feno de plantas aquáticas. Desenvolveu-se ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se como marcador 1,0% de óxido férrico adicionado às dietas, e no sétimo dia deu início à coleta das fezes. O feno de plantas aquáticas apresentou os seguintes valores nutricionais de energia digestível: 812,26 kcal/kg; de proteína digestível: -2,38% e de matéria seca digestível: 12,90%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fibra, leitão, metabolismo.
    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of the aquatic plants hay as ingredient of diets for growth swine. Ten swine with initial weight of 28.85 ± 2.95kg were used, distributed among the treatments: ration reference (RR and ration tests (RT, where RT corresponded to 80% of added RR of 20% of aquatic plants hay. The digestibility assay was accomplished, being used as marker 1.0% of ferric oxide added to the diets and in the seventh day the collection of the feces was begun. The aquatic plants hay presented the following nutritional values of digestible energy: 812.26 kcal/kg; of digestible protein: -2.38% and of dry matter digestible: 12.90%.

    KEY WORDS: Fiber, metabolism, pig.

  8. Evaluating the use of Atriplex nummularia Hay on Feed Intake, Growth, and Carcass Characteristics of Creole Kids Evaluación del Uso de Heno de Atriplex nummularia en el Consumo de Alimento, Crecimiento y Características de Canal de Cabritos Criollos

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    Raúl Meneses

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a surplus of Atriplex nummularia Lindl. grazing that can be used as animal feed. This material was harvested to assess the effects on intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of kids. Atriplex replaced alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L. in a proportion of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% for 60 creole kids weighing 13 kg and was assigned to the diets in a completely randomized design. The process was conducted from March to May. Two males and two females were used from each group to evaluate individual nutrient intake. Height at withers, thoracic diameter, and weight change were evaluated in all the animals. The carcasses of four females per group were evaluated. Offered and rejected hay diet samples were chemically analyzed. Atriplex hay crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, chlorine (Cl, and sodium (Na contents were 20.20%, 1.99 Mcal kg-1, 4.78%, and 6.47% respectively. Hemicellulose (Hc, ash intake, height at withers, thoracic diameter, and carcass component, except for the kidney, were not different (P > 0.05 among treatments. Over 20% of A. nummularia hay content in the diet caused an increase in mineral consumption (P Existe excedente del pastoreo de Atriplex nummularia Lindl. que puede ser usado en la alimentación animal. Este material fue cosechado para evaluar el efecto en el consumo, crecimiento y en las características de canal de caprinos. El Atriplex fue entregado en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en una proporción de 0, 10, 20, 30 y 40%, a 60 crías criollas, de 13 kg de peso, asignadas a las cinco dietas, en un diseno completamente al azar, entre marzo y mayo. El consumo individual se evaluó en dos hembras y dos machos por grupo. La altura a la cruz, variación de peso y diámetro de tórax fueron evaluados en todos los animales. Las canales se evaluaron en cuatro hembras por grupo. Muestras de heno, dietas ofrecidas y rechazadas fueron analizadas químicamente. El contenido de proteína cruda (PC

  9. On Juristic Dilemma of Protection of News Sources: Study on Branzburg v. Hayes in America%新闻记者保护消息来源的法律困境——对美国"布莱兹伯格案"的回顾与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛静

    2007-01-01

    美国宪法第一修正案是否保护新闻记者享有拒绝透露消息来源的特权?"布莱兹伯格案"(Branzburg v.Hayes)是美国关于这一问题争论的开端.美国最高法院审理此案,最终拒绝了基于宪法第一修正案给予新闻记者以特殊的保护,反对的意见则主张承认记者丰有有限特权,并提出了"三步检验法".

  10. En diálogo con los artículos del dossier psicoanálisis y filosofía. ¿Hay un diálogo posible?/In dialogue with the articles of dossier psychoanalysis and phylosophy. Is there a possible dialogue?

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    Ana María Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la pregunta que anima este número de la revista ¿hay un diálogo posible entre el psicoanálisis y la filosofía? el presente artículo tiene como cometido realizar un dialogo con algunos autores del Dossier, tomando como punto de referencia los trabajos en los cuales está presente cierta problematización del psicoanálisis a través de los trabajos de Foucault. The main question that brings about this new issue of the Journal is about the possible or impossible dialog between psychoanalysis and philosophy. Particularly, this article considers author contributions to this issue challenging psychoanalysis through the lens of Foucauldian theory.

  11. Consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes em cabras Moxotó recebendo dietas com diferentes níveis de feno de maniçoba Intake and digestibility of nutrients in Moxotó dairy goats fed diets with different Maniçoba hay levels

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    Marcos Jácome de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a utilização do feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. em diferentes níveis (30, 40, 50 e 60% sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, energia bruta (EB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e os consumos de água e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Moxotó, multíparas, com aproximadamente 60 dias de lactação, pesando 44,26 ± 4,23 kg, em delineamento quadrado latino duplo 4 × 4, com quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos e quatro animais. Cada período teve duração de 15 dias (10 de adaptação dos animais às dietas e 5 para coleta de dados. Utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi como indicador interno para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal. A utilização do feno de maniçoba nos níveis de 30, 40, 50 e 60% nas dietas para cabras em lactação não alterou os consumos de MS, MO, PB, EE, MM e CT. Os consumos de CNF, NDT e água diminuíram linearmente com o aumento no nível de feno de maniçoba nas dietas, enquanto os de FDN e FDA (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 aumentaram linearmente. A digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF, EB e FDA reduziu linearmente, enquanto a da FDN não se alterou com o aumento dos níveis de feno na dieta.This research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the use of different Maniçoba hay (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg levels (30, 40, 50 and 60% on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, gross energy (GE, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TCHT, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, water intake (WI, besides total digestible nutrients intake (TDNI. Eight multiparous Moxotó dairy goats with initial

  12. Consumo, digestibilidade, desempenho, desenvolvimento ponderal e economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de capim-tifton 85 para novilhas leiteiras Effects of partial replacement of Tifton 85 hay with citrus pulp on intake, performance, and development of dairy heifers

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    Josué Mendes Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o consumo, a digestibilidade, o desempenho, o desenvolvimento ponderal, a conversão alimentar e a economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear para novilhas leiteiras. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis (0; 16,6; 33,3 e 50% de substituição do feno por polpa cítrica. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com sete repetições. Utilizaram-se 28 novilhas holandesas (12 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 184 kg mantidas em baias individuais. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, CT e NDT aumentaram linearmente e o de FDN decresceu à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. O consumo de EE elevou de forma quadrática com aumento dessa substituição, apresentando valor mínimo quando 2,27% do feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. Os consumos de Ca e P aumentaram com o aumento dos níveis de substituição do feno. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS, MO, PB e FDN reduziram linearmente, enquanto os de EE e CT não foram influenciados pela substituição. O ganho de peso aumentou linearmente, mas o crescimento de altura de cernelha foi menor e o de altura de garupa não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição. Observou-se aumento linear no perímetro torácico à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. A polpa cítrica pode ser utilizada em até 35% da dieta total na alimentação de novilhas leiteiras de acordo com a conveniência econômica e a disponibilidade de alimentos volumosos, como alternativa para o produtor reduzir a idade à primeira cobertura e ao primeiro parto, com menor custo de alimentação.The objective of this trial was to evaluate intake, digestibility, performance, development, feed efficiency and feeding costs in dairy heifers fed increasing levels of citrus pulp that partially replaced Tifton-85 hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear in the

  13. Environ: E00052 [KEGG MEDICUS

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    Full Text Available E00052 Cinnamomum obtusifolium bark Crude drug Cinnamomum obtusifolium [TAX:397101] Laura...ceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum obtusifolium bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Lauraceae (laurel family) E00052 Cinnamomum obtusifolium bark ...

  14. Environ: E00183 [KEGG MEDICUS

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    Full Text Available E00183 Cinnamomum sieboldii bark Crude drug Cinnamomum sieboldii [TAX:119266] Laura...ceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum sieboldii bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Lauraceae (laurel family) E00183 Cinnamomum sieboldii bark ...

  15. Environ: E00118 [KEGG MEDICUS

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    Full Text Available E00118 Cinnamomum burmannii bark Crude drug Cinnamomum burmannii [TAX:119261] Laura...ceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum burmannii bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Lauraceae (laurel family) E00118 Cinnamomum burmannii bark ...

  16. Fluxo portal e visceral líquido de metabólitos em ovinos alimentados com feno de capim-arroz cortado com diferentes idades de rebrota Net portal and visceral flux of metabolites in lambs fed rice-grass hay cut at different regrowth ages

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    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois ensaios para medir os fluxos portal e visceral total de metabólitos em ovinos (peso vivo (PV médio de 35 ± 3 kg recebendo feno de capim-arroz (Echinochloa sp. cortado aos 32, 46, 72 ou 90 dias de rebrota. Um dos ensaios foi realizado em quadrado latino 4 × 4 (ensaio 1 para avaliação dos quatro fenos e outro em quadrado latino 3 × 3 (ensaio 2, sem o feno do capim cortado aos 32 dias de rebrota. Os animais foram implantados com cateteres permanentes nas veias mesentérica e hepática. Sangue arterial foi acessado através de cateteres temporários na carótida. O fluxo de sangue portal e visceral foi estimado com base na diluição de paraminohipurato infundido continuamente em uma veia mesentérica. Na refeição prévia às amostragens, o consumo de matéria orgânica (MO total e digestível não foi afetado, mas o consumo de nitrogênio total e digestível diminuiu linearmente com o aumento da idade de rebrota do capim-arroz em ambos os ensaios. Os fluxos de sangue portal e visceral, o fluxo visceral líquido de glicose, uréia e aminoácidos e o fluxo portal líquido de glicose e uréia não foram afetados pela idade de rebrota da forrageira. Os fluxos portais de aminoácidos e amônia foram maiores nos animais que consumiram o feno de 46 dias e maior quantidade de nitrogênio digestível. A maior parte dos nutrientes absorvidos pelos ovinos consumindo feno de capim-arroz foi metabolizada pelo sistema visceral, de modo que a disponibilidade de aminoácidos e de glicose aos tecidos periféricos representou somente pequena proporção do nitrogênio ou da matéria orgânica ingerida. Em geral, o metabolismo visceral dos animais não foi afetado pela idade de rebrota da forrageira.In order to measure the net portal and visceral flux of metabolites in lambs (35 ± 2.5 kg live weight fed rice-grass (Echinochloa sp. hay cut at 32, 46, 72 or 96 days of regrowth age, two assays were carried out. One of them was a 4 × 4

  17. Eficiência microbiana, fluxo de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso, amônia e pH ruminais, em bovinos recebendo dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota Microbial efficiency, abomasal nitrogen compounds flow, ruminal ammonia and ruminal pH in cattle fed diets containing tifton 85 bermudagrass hays at different regrowth ages

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    Karina Guimarães Ribeiro

    2001-04-01

    cattle fed diets containing Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay with different regrowth ages were evaluated. Four rumen and abomasum fistulated zebu cattle with average 340 kg LW were allotted in a 4x4 Latin square. All diets contained 60:40 forage to concentrate ratio. The forage was consisted in Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay with 28, 35, 42 and 56 days of age, and the concentrate contained corn meal and mineral mix. The amount of microorganisms was determined using purines as a marker. The pH and N-ammonia were determined in the ruminal fluid before and 2, 4 and 6 hours after feeding. The passage rate was determined by unicompartimental model using the chromic oxide as a marker. The microbial efficiency synthesis was not affected by the age of the hay in the diet, presenting mean values of 31.32 g Nbact/kg RDOM, 30.74 g Nbact/kg RDCHO, 33.74 g DMbact/kg RDCHO and 12.5 g CPbact/100 g TDN. The maximum estimates of total nitrogen compound flows, ammonia and non ammonia were 119.0, 9.76 and 109.6 g/day, with the inclusion of hay with 39.7; 37.6 and 39.9 days of regrowth age, respectively and the bacterial nitrogen compounds flow of 80.54 an average. Nitrogen balance, passage rate, ruminal ammonia concentration and ruminal pH also were not affected by the age of the hay, with values of 30.67 g/day, 3.2%/h, 9.7 mg/100mL (maximum at 1.38h and 6.08 (minimum at 6.64 h, respectively.

  18. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

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    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  19. Consumo e digestibilidade do feno de capim-braquiária em bovinos de corte sob suplementação com mistura contendo sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia Intake and digestibility of palisade grass hay by beef cattle supplemented with a mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein and urea

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    Luiz Henrique Gomes da Silva de Rezende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas contendo feno de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 de baixa qualidade e de diferentes níveis protéicos. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle (somente feno e feno com adição crescente, via infusão ruminal, da mistura sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia (0,5:1,0:4,5 de modo a elevar em +2, +4, +6 e +8% o nível de PB das dietas. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento quadrado latino, com cinco níveis de suplementação, cinco animais e cinco períodos. A adição de quantidades crescentes de nitrogênio não-protéico (NNP à dieta teve efeito quadrático sobre os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e extrato etéreo (EE. O maior consumo de MS foi observado com o nível de 10,5% PB. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de PB sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, MO, FDN e EE. Houve efeito linear crescente sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade da PB, que apresentou valores de 57,4; 66,9; 73,6; 77,3 e 81,7% nos níveis de PB de 6,3; 8,5; 10,5; 12,63 e 14,8%, respectivamente. O nível de 10,5% de PB foi o ponto crítico para a obtenção de resposta máxima para os consumos de MS (7,7 kg/dia e MO (7,2 kg/dia. A suplementação com compostos nitrogenados em quantidades que permitam elevar o nível protéico da dieta a 10,5% otimiza o uso de forragens de baixa qualidade.The intake and digestibilility of the nutrients of diets containing palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 hay of low quality and different protein levels were evaluated. The evaluated treatments were control (only hay and hay with crescent addition, by rumen infusion, of the mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein end urea (0.5:1.0:4.5 in way to elevate in +2, +4, +6 and +8% the CP level in the diets. A Latin square experimental design with five levels supplementation, five animals and five periods was used. The

  20. Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. hay and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. millsp digestibility and nutrients average intake by sheep under two feeding systems/ Consumo médio e digestibilidade do feno de capim “Coast cross” (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp em carneiros submetidos a dois regimes alimentares

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    Luiz Waldemar de Oliveira Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objectives of determining the daily average intake (DAI, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of coast cross hay and pigeon pea nutrients and to evaluate thenitrogen balance in sheep. Ten wethers with average weight of 27.50 kg, alloted to suitable cages, were used. A completely randomized design with two treatments (T1= 80% coast cross hay + 20% pigeon peaand T2= 60% coast cross hay + 40% pigeon pea and five replicates, was used. The treatments were evaluated under two feeding systems (voluntary and restrict. Animals receiving ration of T2 presentedhigher DAI (g/kg PV 0.75 (PO experimento foi realizado com os objetivos de determinar o consumo médio diário (CMD, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos nutrientes do feno de capim Coast cross e feijão guandu e avaliar o balanço de nitrogênio (BN em ovinos. Foram utilizados dez ovinos machos, castrados, com peso médio de 27,50 kg, alojados em gaiolas para metabolismo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (T1 = 80% de feno de Coast cross + 20% de guandu e T2 = 60% de feno de Coast cross + 40% de guandu e cinco repetições por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram avaliados sob dois regimes alimentares (consumo voluntário e restrito. Os animais recebendo ração do T2 apresentaram maior CMD (g/kg PV0,75 (p < 0,05 de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra bruta (FB, matéria orgânica (MO e extrato não nitrogenado (ENN, do que aqueles animais recebendo ração do T1. O CDA da FB da ração T2 foi maior (p < 0,05 do que o da ração T1. O BN dos animais que receberam 40% de guandu (13,15g N/ dia foi superior aos daqueles que receberam 20% desta leguminosa (10,29g N/dia. Conclui-se que o feijão guandu pode ser utilizado como fonte protéica na alimentação de ruminantes, possibilitando CDA da MS próximo de 52% para animais em regime de consumo voluntário, e 81% para animais em regime de consumo restrito. O

  1. Effects of Different Proportions of Grass hay and Corn Silage on Lactation Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Laoshan Dairy Goats%不同比例青干草与青贮玉米对崂山奶山羊泌乳性能和血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永臻; 苗福泓; 杨国锋; 程明; 袁力; 孙娟

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different proportions of grass hay and corn silage on lactation performance and serum biochemical parameters of Laoshan dairy goats. Twenty parous (2 times) Laoshan dairy goats in lactation with a milk yield of (1.65±0.05) kg/d were used and randomly di-vided into 4 groups with 5 goats per group. The proportions of grass hay and corn silage in roughages of differ-ent groups were 8∶2 ( group Ⅰ) , 6∶4 ( group Ⅱ) , 4∶6 ( group Ⅲ) and 2∶8 ( group Ⅳ) , respectively. The pretest period and test period lasted for 7 and 60 d, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) milk yield, dry matter intake and feed to milk ratio in different groups had no significant differences ( P>0.05) . There was no significant difference in milk fat content on days 0, 20 and 40 (P>0.05), but group Ⅱ was significantly higher than group Ⅲ on day 60 ( P0.05)。乳脂含量在第0天、第20天、第40天无显著差异( P>0.05),第60天试验Ⅱ组显著高于试验Ⅲ组( P<0.05)。试验Ⅱ组的乳蛋白含量平均值显著高于其他各组( P<0.05)。试验Ⅱ组和试验Ⅳ组的血清葡萄糖含量均显著高于试验Ⅰ组( P<0.05),试验Ⅱ组的血清胆固醇含量为最低值,且显著低于试验Ⅲ组( P<0.05)。综合得出,崂山奶山羊粗饲料青干草与青贮玉米以6∶4组合