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Sample records for cinnamomum kanehirae hay

  1. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Man-Gang Lee; Su-Yu Kuo; Shih-Yu Yen; Hsia-Fen Hsu; Chung-Hang Leung; Dik-Lung Ma; Zhi-Hong Wen; Hui-Min David Wang

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts ha...

  2. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Ho, Cheng-Kuen; Chang, Shu-Hwa

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae (Hayata), the first to be completely sequenced of Lauraceae family, is presented in this study. The total genome size is 152,700 bp, with a typical circular structure including a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/b) of 20,107 bp of length separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 93,642 bp and 18,844 bp of length, respectively. The overall GC content of the genome is 39.1%. The nucleotide sequence shows 91% identities with Liriodendron tulipifera in the Magnoliaceae. In total, 123 annotated genes consisted of 79 coding genes, eight rRNA genes, and 36 tRNA genes. Among all 79 coding genes, seven genes (rpoC1, atpF, rpl2, ndhB, ndhA, rps16, and rpl2) contain one intron, while two genes (ycf3 and clpP) contain two introns. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. kanehirae chloroplast genome is closely related to Calycanthus fertilis within Laurales order. PMID:26053940

  3. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. PMID:27084445

  4. Taxonomic revision of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuu-Kuang, Soh

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six species of Cinnamomum are recognised in Borneo. Seventeen species are endemic to Borneo. Fifteen species names are newly reduced to synonymy. The species nomenclature, description, distribution, ecology, vernacular names and uses are given.

  5. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinna...

  6. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that occur during certain times ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Environmental Control Measures Can Kids Get Allergies All Year? Do ...

  7. [Chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    Various column chromatography, such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analysis, together with the comparison with literature data. Fifteen compounds were isolated from the 85% aqueous ethanol extract of C. cassia, and their structures were identified as (2R, 3R)-5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavan-3-ol( 1), (2R, 3R)-5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol (2), coumarin (3), cinnamic acid (4), (E)-2-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid cinnamoyl ester (5), 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrahydroxy biphenyl (6), methylstictic acid (7), epi-boscialin (8), (1R,2S,3S,4S)-2,3-epoxy-1, 4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-5-cyelohexene (9), 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl cyclohex-2-enone (10), cis-4-hydroxymellein (11), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamaldehyde (12). Compounds 5-11 were obtained from this genus plants for the first time. PMID:26983207

  8. RUTHERFORD B.HAYES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    AFTER the scandals of Grant's administration the Republicans wanted an especially upright candidate; they found him in Rutherford B. Hayes, a devout, conscientious Ohioan whose Puritan ancestors had come from New England. In his third term as Governor of Ohio in 1876,

  9. Hay Fever Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nasal Steroids The mainstay of treatment for allergic rhinitis, or hay fever, is nasal steroids. It is important to note that these are not like body-building, or anabolic, steroids. This type of steroids helps to control inflammation, in this case in the nose. For ...

  10. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    OpenAIRE

    Bandar E Al-Dhubiab

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been dem...

  11. PHYTOCHEMICALANALYSIS OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA OF LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Solanki

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomoum tamala is found in tropical and sub tropical Himalaya and in some other places. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Cinnamomum tamala is the member of Lauraceae family and its leaves are most popularly used as spice in Insian food. Along with spice, it is associates with many medicinal value such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antifungal etc. The phytochemicals are important in human health this is because ...

  12. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  13. The economics of hay storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    When it comes to storing hay, there are many options available. This is particularly true for hay in large round bales. A shed provides the best protection from the weather, but it also requires a relatively large investment. Setting bales outside without any protection requires little investment, b...

  14. Potential dangers of hay bailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Individuals engaged in farming have higher risks of injury and death from trauma than many other workers. Fatalities most often involve tractor-related incident such as roll-overs. Although it is also recognized that farm machinery may result in serious injuries and death, little has been reported on problems associated with hay baling, transport and storage. Case 1: A 43-year-old man trying to dislodge jammed hay in a hay baler had either been pulled, or had fallen, into the baler, where he had been crushed, rotated and then cocooned within a hay bale. The body showed extensive blunt trauma to the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and limbs, with burning from a fire that subsequently started within the overheated machine. Case 2: A 58-year-old man was crushed between the moving arms of a hay shuttle and a safety fence. Death was attributed to blunt chest and abdominal trauma with crush asphyxia. Case 3: A 56-year-old man fell some distance from the top of stacked hay bales fracturing his neck and causing virtual transection of his cervical spinal cord. These cases demonstrate rare forms of farm deaths that may be associated with the creation (baling), moving (shuttling) and storage of hay bales. All forms of farm machinery should be treated circumspectly, given the possibility that serious injury or death may result from inattention or inappropriate handling. Temporary stacking of hay bales may create high work platforms that risk falls with lethal consequences.

  15. Propionic acid preservatives for hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay producers working in humid environments are well-acquainted with the consequences of baling moist hays, which include heating, molding, losses of dry matter and nutritive value, and the possibility of spontaneous combustion. Traditionally, the effect of heat damage within forages has focused on ...

  16. Three new compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Three new compounds, including two new diterpenoids, named epianhydrocinnzeylanol (1) and cinnacasiol H (2), and one hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R,4S,6R)-4,6-dihydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), together with five known diterpenoids (4-8) and two known phenolic glycosides (9-10) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells and the compounds showed weak inhibition activities. PMID:26498626

  17. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; M. Y. Ahmad-Mudzaqqir; W.A. Wan-Nurdiyana

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinn...

  18. THE NEW WORLD SPECIES OF CINNAMOMUM TREW (LAURACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The American species of Phoebe Nees are relegated to Cinnamomum Trew; the reasons for this transfer are discussed. To retain nomenclatural stability the new combinations which have become necessary are presented, in anticipation of a general revision of  the   genus   Cinnamomum;   68   new   combinations   and   names   are presented.

  19. THE NEW WORLD SPECIES OF CINNAMOMUM TREW (LAURACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    The American species of Phoebe Nees are relegated to Cinnamomum Trew; the reasons for this transfer are discussed. To retain nomenclatural stability the new combinations which have become necessary are presented, in anticipation of a general revision of  the   genus   Cinnamomum;   68   new   combinations   and   names   are presented.

  20. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  1. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar E Al-Dhubiab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE, Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis, Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii.

  2. Macro-microscopic examination of leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burm. f.) Blume sold as Tamalapatra

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar, K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae) commonly known as ‘Tamalapatra’ is a highly reputed commodity in drug and spice trade. Its adulteration with other leaf species belonging to genus Cinnamomum is found to be a common practice in India and other parts of the world. Thorough macroscopic and microscopic investigations are essential to differentiate them. Survey of South Indian crude drug markets revealed that in place of C. tamala some other leaves of Cinnamomum species are so...

  3. The Glaser–Hay reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Jensen, Jonas; Tortzen, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    on the scope of this reaction by using both 13C NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopic methods. The former method was used to study the kinetics of the coupling of aryl-substituted alkynes as the aryl carbon resonances of the reactants and products have similar NOEs and relaxation times. The reaction was found......), was found to have a significant effect on the rate of the reaction: The percentage of alkyne remaining after a certain time decreased linearly with the rate of stirring. On the basis of systematic studies, the optimized conditions for the coupling reaction using CuCl/TMEDA as the catalyst system......The oxidative Glaser–Hay coupling of two terminal alkynes to furnish a butadiyne is a key reaction for acetylenic scaffolding. Although the reaction is performed under rather simple conditions [CuCl/TMEDA/O2 (air)], the mechanism is still under debate. Herein we present detailed studies...

  4. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinnamon essential oil contains high cinnamaldehyde content which is the main component in cinnamon. The percentage of cinnamaldehyde in essential oil from steam distillation was about 90% and 62-73% from Soxhlet extraction. Cinnamon essential oil has high antimicrobial properties which formed clear zone when tested with gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis s.p and a gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. It also showed antimicrobial properties with two unknown bacteria with unknown characteristics. Cinnamaldehyde contains high antibiotic quality since it is the main compound in cinnamon.

  5. Isolasi Sinamaldehida Dari Kulit Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum Burmanii)

    OpenAIRE

    Marnaek Nainggolan

    2008-01-01

    Minyak sinamon telah diisolasi dari kulit tumbuhan Kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii) melalui proses destilasi uap. Kulit Kayu manis yang telah dihaluskan menjadi tepung sebanyak 20,50 kg didestilasi uap selama 12 jam ternyata dapat menghasilkan 19, 75 g ( 0,0963 %) minyak sinamon Kayu manis Analisis kandungan kimia minyak sinamon Kayu manis dengan GC-MS menunjukkan kadar sinamaldehida sebesar 82,83 %. Pemisahan sinamaldehida dari minyak sinamon Kayu manis menggunakan teknik kromatografi kol...

  6. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    HAQUE RABIUL; MONDAL SUBHASISH; GHOSH PARAG

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic...

  7. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    OpenAIRE

    Junfen Zeng; Yongbo Xue; Yongji Lai; Guangmin Yao; Zengwei Luo; Yonghui Zhang; Jinwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhi...

  8. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Akter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Nees. The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala have shown good antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ascorbic acid used as a standard. The IC50 value of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 13.55 μg/ml while the IC50 value of ascorbic acid was 5.35 μg/ml. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and vincristine sulphate used as a standard. In this assay, the LC50 value of the ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 17.82μg/ml whereas LC50 value of vincristine sulphate was 5.24μg/ml. Therefore, these results suggest that leaves extract of Cinnamomum tamala has antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

  9. Purification and Characterization of Ionically Unbound Polyphenol oxidase from Cinnamomum tamala syn. Cinnamomum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Diwakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (EC. 1.10.3.1 PPO an ionically unbound and thermostable enzyme was extracted from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. The enzyme was purified 2.63-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 25 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 25 kD. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50oC temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0–9.0 and temperature (30–90oC. From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-80oC, the half-life (t1/2 values of the enzyme ranged from 19 to 72 min. The inactivation energy (Ea value of PPO was estimated to be 94.5 kJ mol-1. It showed higher specificity with substrate catechol (Km=6.8mM. Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu2+ indicating its role as cofactors, Fe2+, Hg2+, protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K+, Mg2+, Co2+, kojic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, urea, sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  10. Compatibility Determination for Haying for Grassland Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The use of haying as a management tool can provide longterm habitat improvements to grasslands that otherwise would degrade through natural succession or though...

  11. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  12. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

    OpenAIRE

    Das Manosi; Mandal Suvra; Mallick Budhimanta; Hazra Jayram

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhi...

  13. The Effect of Butanolides from Cinnamomum tenuifolium on Platelet Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yi Chen; Sheue-Jiun Chen; Hui-Ming Wu; Huei-Ping Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of isotenuifolide and tenuifolide B from the stems of Cinnamomum tenuifolium on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced human platelet aggregation. Treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (1 and 2 μg/μL) and tenuifolide B (1, 2 and 4 μg/μL) did not have any significant effect on human platelet aggregation in vitro, however, treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (4 μg/μL) resulted in an inhibitory effect on platelet aggr...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of oil from the root of Cinnamomum porrectum

    OpenAIRE

    Arunporn Itarat; Sopa Kummee; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Ladda Nilrat

    2007-01-01

    The steam-distilled oil from the root of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for its antimicrobial activity against human pathogens including bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. It exhibited strongestactivity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC 0.01 mg/ml) followed by Candida albicans and dermatophytes (0.5-1.0 mg/ml), Bacillus subtilis (2 mg/ml), and susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus (4-16 mg/ml).It showed moderate activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 16-64 mg/ml) but no activi...

  15. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Akter; Md. Ashraf Ali; Ranjan Kumar Barman; Bytul Mokaddesur Rahman; Mir Imam Ibne Wahed

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Nees). The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala have shown good antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ascorbic acid used as a standard. The IC50 value of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 13.55 μg/ml while the IC50 value of ascorbic acid was 5.35 μg/ml. Cytotoxic...

  16. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  17. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  18. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  19. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, D.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14. CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a {sup 60}Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  20. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  1. Investigation of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cinnamomum cassia bark water extract

    OpenAIRE

    Sozer Karadagli, Sumru; Agrap, Borte; Lermioglu Erciyas, Ferzan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recently many investigations on cinnamon have focused on its powerful antioxidant activity due to its rich polyphenol content. Polyphenols have also been reported to act as pro-oxidants, causing oxidative strand breaks in DNA. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cinnamomum cassia water extract in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: Cinnamomum cassia water extract was prepared from grounded bark of cinnamon by maceration with ultra...

  2. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum

    OpenAIRE

    Reji, R.; Maheswari Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial assay of acetone and ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum was performed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial culture. (E.coli, P.mirabilis and K.pneumoniae) the acetone extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, ethanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi and acetone extract of Syzygium aromaticum were selected to evaluate the synergistic activity. The activities were combined in the ratio of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 (Trachyspermum am...

  3. PEMANFAATAN MINUMAN SERBUK INSTAN KAYU MANIS (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR KOLESTEROL TOTAL DARAH TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang sering digunakan sebagai bumbu dapur, namun juga memiliki fungsi kesehatan, yakni menurunkan kadar kolesterol dalam darah. Telah dilakukan penelitian “Pemanfaatan Minuman Serbuk Instan Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) untuk Menurunkan Kadar Kolesterol Total Darah pada Tikus (Rattus norvegicus)”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan minuman serbuk instan kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii B...

  4. Antileukemic activity of lignans and phenylpropanoids of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adfa, Morina; Rahmad, Rizki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yudha S, Salprima; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of fractions and isolated constituents from Cinnamomum parthenoxylon woods against human leukemia HL-60 and U937 cells. The n-Hex, EtOAc, and MeOH-H2O fractions of the woods inhibited cell proliferation in both cell lines. Our phytochemical investigation of the n-Hex and EtOAc fractions led to the isolation of lignans and phenylpropanoids, whose chemical structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antileukemic activity; especially, hinokinin and cubebin exhibited strong inhibition toward U937 cell proliferation. Morphological observation indicated that these cytotoxic actions were mediated by apoptosis. Our findings suggested that an oxygenated functional group at the C-9 position in dibenzylfuran skeleton contributed their potency. In addition, these results enhanced the ethnopharmacological value of C. parthenoxylon. PMID:26774581

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S. L.; Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2009-10-01

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important branch of nanotechnology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth as the reducing agent is reported. The morphology of the particles formed consists of a mixture of gold nanoprisms and spheres with fcc (1 1 1) structure of gold. At lower concentrations of the extract, formation of prism shaped Au particles dominates, while at higher concentrations almost spherical particles alone are observed. Good crystallinity of the nanoparticles with fcc phase is evident from XRD patterns, clear lattice fringes in the high resolution TEM image and bright circular rings in the SAED pattern. Au nanoparticles grown are observed to be photoluminescent and the intensity of photoemission is found to increase with increase in leaf broth concentration. The ability to modulate the shape of nanoparticles as observed in this study for gold nanoparticles opens up the exciting possibility of developing further synthetic routes employing ecofriendly sources.

  6. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  7. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  8. Alfalfa Hay Quality and Alternative Pricing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Jared A.; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Burton, Robert O., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Price-quality relationships for alfalfa hay were analyzed by hedonic pricing models using 1996-2001 Wisconsin auction data. Individual nutrients included in the analysis all affected alfalfa price, with acid detergent fiber accounting for the largest impact. Alternative pricing models, based on an aggregate quality index or detailed quality information, were similar in their ability to predict price. However, disaggregating price predictions to account for differences in relative feed value (...

  9. A traditional method of Cinnamomum carolinense preparation eliminates safrole from a therapeutic Pohnpean tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Balick, Michael J; Lee, Roberta; Raynor, William; Pelep, Yosio; Kennelly, Edward J

    2005-11-14

    Cinnamomum carolinense, locally known as madeu, is a tree endemic to the volcanic mountains of the Island of Pohnpei in the Eastern Carolines of the South Pacific. The bark is harvested from trees and brewed to make a medicinal tea and hot beverage that is regularly consumed. Many species of Cinnamomum contain the known hepatocarcinogen safrole, sparking concern regarding habitual consumption of this beverage. HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed the presence of the carcinogen in alcoholic extracts of Cinnamomum carolinense bark shavings (0.435%, w/w), but safrole was not detected in the tea. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of safrole were determined to be 1.25 and 3.75 microg/mL, respectively. The traditional preparation method, which boils the bark shavings, degrades the safrole.

  10. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Manosi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhita”. The herb is used for the treatment of dyspeptic conditions, flatulence, loss of appetite, abdominal pain with diarrhoea, inflammation of the eye, leukorrhoea, vaginitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, wounds, and toothache. The oil isolated from the different parts of the plant containing cinnamaldehyde and eugenol as major constituents are considered as active principle of cinnamon. Over the past two decades many scientific journals are describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. This review has tried to include an up to date phytochemical and biological research on cinnamon. The ethnobotanical uses have also been discussed.

  11. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  12. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum) supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baraa Mohamed,; F. A. Huseen; O. T. Jawad

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum) in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate). The results showed significant (P

  13. Leaf anatomy of Cinnamomum schaeffer (Lauraceae) with special reference to oil and mucilage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.; Schaaf, van der P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and mucilage cells in the leaf of 150 species of Cinnamomum are described. Idioblasts are always present in the palisade and the spongy parenchyma. Usually both oil and mucilage cells occur; in some species either oil or mucilage cells are present. Bot

  14. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    F Kalantary

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Trans- cinnamaldehyde was found to be the main constituent of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO), followed by methyl eugenol, δ- cadinene and γ- cadinene. The major c...

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTI-OXIDANT AND ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA LINN LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy P; K.R.Srinath; D Yoganand Kumar; Pooja Chowdary C

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to focus on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum tamala Linn, with special reference to its curative and protective role in streptozotocin- induced diabetic animal model. Attempts were further made to study the antioxidant properties of Cinnamomum tamala Linn. leaves. The efficacy of 50% ethanolic extract of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala showed significant decrease in the blood glucose level and increase in the antioxidant efficacy in streptozotocin indu...

  16. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene.

  17. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. PMID:26718058

  18. Maniçoba hay feeding Moxotó goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of native forages Caatinga set up as an alternative for the sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of Tifton 85 hay by Maniçoba hay in the components of the body weight of Moxotó goats. The animals were steers, initially weighing 21.67±3.92 kg, housed in individual pens and slaughtered at 58 days of confinement. The type of hay did not influence (P>0.05 any of the carcass traits. The animals presented for slaughter average body weight of 21.83 kg, and average weights of hot and cold carcass of 9.83 kg and 9.21 kg, respectively. The carcass were not affected by the type of hay (P>0.05 and average 44.98% and 42.11% for hot cold carcass. The loin eye area (LEA and carcass compactness index had averages of 6.19 cm² and 0.159 kg cm-1, respectively, and did not influence the type of hay in the diet. There was no difference (P> 0.05 between diets for weight of organs and viscera. The diet Tifton 85 yielded higher (P<0.05 weights skin. Replacement of Tifton 85 hay by Maniçoba hay, the diet of Moxotó goats does not alter carcass component, but reduces the weight of the skin.

  19. Effects of haying on breeding birds in CRP grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary program that is available to agricultural producers to help protect environmentally sensitive or highly erodible land. Management disturbances of CRP grasslands generally are not allowed unless authorized to provide relief to livestock producers during severe drought or a similar natural disaster (i.e., emergency haying and grazing) or to improve the quality and performance of the CRP cover (i.e., managed haying and grazing). Although CRP grasslands may not be hayed or grazed during the primary bird-nesting season, these disturbances may have short-term (1 yr after disturbance) and long-term (≥2 yr after disturbance) effects on grassland bird populations. We assessed the effects of haying on 20 grassland bird species in 483 CRP grasslands in 9 counties of 4 states in the northern Great Plains, USA between 1993 and 2008. We compared breeding bird densities (as determined by total-area counts) in idle and hayed fields to evaluate changes 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after haying. Haying of CRP grasslands had either positive or negative effects on grassland birds, depending on the species, the county, and the number of years after the initial disturbance. Some species (e.g., horned lark [Eremophila alpestris], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) responded positively after haying, and others (e.g., song sparrow [Melospiza melodia]) responded negatively. The responses of some species changed direction as the fields recovered from haying. For example, densities for common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), and clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) declined the first year after haying but increased in the subsequent 3 years. Ten species showed treatment × county interactions, indicating that the effects of haying varied geographically. This long-term evaluation on the effects of haying on breeding birds provides important information on the strength and direction of changes in

  20. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF STRAW PARTICLES MOTION WHEN LEVELING HAY ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin V. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One can see some density irregularity within the roll in the baler with a chamber of constant volume. We have found out that the maximum density of hay roll width (the baler width is observed in the middle part. This is due to the shape of the hay roll entering the baler. To even the hay rolls they have mounted some rotating disks having some inclined spring pins above the baler. To improve the roller distribution the disks above the baler have been pushed forward forming a tapering gap. The evening discs rotating above the moving roll will cause some relative motion of hay particles. The interaction of the evening disks with the hay roll in the vertical plane will be determined by the elasticity of the hay roll and the weight of the frame with the disks. We have studied the trajectories of hay particles motion with the help of MathCad program. We have had the following initial parameters: the degree of compaction (decrease of the roll height when evening, the friction coefficient, the angle rate of the evening disks, the number of pins and the speed of the hay roll. As a result we have got the trajectories of the hay particles motion when the evening disks functioning. The analysis of the trajectories has allowed to establish some basic parameters of the evening device such as the distance of 0.15…0.2 m between the pins; the degree of compression while evening 20...25 %, the angle rate of the evening discs 23...30 rad / s and the diameter of the evening disc 0.74 m. The application of the evening device in the form of the disks with pins provides a uniform distribution of hay particles edgewise of the baler ensuring preliminary hay roll seal press before passing to the baler pressure chamber that contributes to getting the rolls with larger mass and a uniform distribution of hay density inside the roll

  1. Factors Affecting Hay Supply and Demand in Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Bazen, Ernest F.; Roberts, Roland K.; Travis, John; James A. Larson

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between supply and demand for hay is important because of hay’s significance to the agricultural sector and economy, and because hay is an important crop on highly erodible soils. As an example, Tennessee has the most erodible cultivated cropland in the United States (Denton, 2000), nearly half of the state’s current CRP acreage contracts are set to expire in 2007 (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2006), and hay is one of the most economically important crops pro...

  2. Maniçoba hay feeding Moxotó goats

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior; Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho; Bárbara Ferraz Ferreira; Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Maria Norma Ribeiro; Paulo de Barros Sales Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    The use of native forages Caatinga set up as an alternative for the sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of Tifton 85 hay by Maniçoba hay in the components of the body weight of Moxotó goats. The animals were steers, initially weighing 21.67±3.92 kg, housed in individual pens and slaughtered at 58 days of confinement. The type of hay did not influence (P>0.05) any of the carcass traits. The animals presented for slaughter average bo...

  3. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Paz Lima; Maria das Graças B. Zoghbi; Eloisa Helena A. Andrade; Tatiana Maria D. Silva; Carlos Sousa Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%). Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%), alfa-felandreno (9,2%), p-cimeno (6,2%), limoneno (7,9%), ...

  4. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  5. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Reji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial assay of acetone and ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum was performed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial culture. (E.coli, P.mirabilis and K.pneumoniae the acetone extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, ethanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi and acetone extract of Syzygium aromaticum were selected to evaluate the synergistic activity. The activities were combined in the ratio of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 (Trachyspermum ammi: Cinnamonum zeylancum: Syzygium aromaticum. Phytochemical analysis was carried out for the ethanol and acetone extract of Cinnamonum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum, to check the present of carbohydrate, proteins, sterioids, resins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and quinines.

  6. Development of an effective and efficient DNA isolation method for Cinnamomum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhau, B S; Gogoi, G; Baruah, D; Ahmed, R; Hazarika, G; Ghosh, S; Borah, B; Gogoi, B; Sarmah, D K; Nath, S C; Wann, S B

    2015-12-01

    Different species of Cinnamomum are rich in polysaccharide's and secondary metabolites, which hinder the process of DNA extraction. High quality DNA is the pre-requisite for any molecular biology study. In this paper we report a modified method for high quality and quantity of DNA extraction from both lyophilized and non-lyophilized leaf samples. Protocol reported differs from the CTAB procedure by addition of higher concentration of salt and activated charcoal to remove the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Wide utility of the modified protocol was proved by DNA extraction from different woody species and 4 Cinnamomum species. Therefore, this protocol has also been validated in different species of plants containing high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA showed perfect amplification when subjected to RAPD, restriction digestion and amplification with DNA barcoding primers. The DNA extraction protocol is reproducible and can be applied for any plant molecular biology study. PMID:26041191

  7. Seasonal variations of Cinnamomum camphora leaf aroma volatiles in greenhouse condition of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Hetka, Nelly; Rogovoy, Pavel; Subach, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Buvo tiriama kokybinė ir kiekybinė introdukuoto augalo Cinnamomum camphora džiovintuose lapuose esančių lakiųjų aromatinių medžiagų sudėtis. Šie augalai buvo auginami šiltnamio sąlygomis Baltarusijos nacionalinės mokslų akademijos Botanikos sodo šiltnamiuose. Birželio mėnesį visai vasarai augalai buvo išnešami į lauką, o žiemą, gruodžio mėnesį, tiriami chromatografu Model 5090. Buvo nustatyta kamparo, kuris yra pagrindinė Cinnamomum camphora lapų aromatinių medžiagų sudedamoji dalis, dalis pr...

  8. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibi...

  9. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shradha Bisht; Sisodia, S S

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally) for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose t...

  10. Sintesis Nanopartikel Perak Menggunakan Ekstrak Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum sp.) Sebagai Bioreduktor

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Jamaludin

    2015-01-01

    Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa nanopartikel perak dapat disintesis dengan metode reduksi menggunakan ekstrak kayu manis (Cinnamomum sp.). Semakin lama waktu kontak semakin bertambah nanopartikel perak yang terbentuk. Distribusi rata-rata ukuran sintesis nanopartikel perak tanpa pengadukan sebesar 40,2 nm, dengan pengadukan sebesar 42,8 nm, dan dengan penambahan PAA 0,5% sebesar 32,3 nm.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Chun Liao; Jeng-Shyan Deng; Chuan-Sung Chiu; Wen-Chi Hou; Shyh-Shyun Huang; Pei-Hsin Shie; Guang-Jhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels p...

  12. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Georgiana Anghel; Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Mariana Chirea; Valentina Grumezescu; Gabriel Socol; Florin Iordache; Alexandra Elena Oprea; Ion Anghel; Alina Maria Holban

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer...

  13. An Antimicrobial Compound Isolated from Cinnamomum Iners Leaves with Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Mahsufi Mansor; Marina Shah; Sabariah Ismail; Jayant Indurkar; Fazlina Mustaffa

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum iners standardized leave methanolic extract (CSLE), its fractions and isolated compounds. CSLE and fractions were subjected to disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests using different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and yeast. Within the series of fractions tested, the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active, particularly against methicil...

  14. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm) cultivated in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Caren D. Frizzo; Santos, Ana C; Natalia Paroul; Luciana A. Serafini; Eduardo Dellacassa; Daniel Lorenzo; Patrick Moyna

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae), known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the...

  15. Leaf anatomy of Cinnamomum schaeffer (Lauraceae) with special reference to oil and mucilage cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.; Schaaf, van der, Martijn

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and mucilage cells in the leaf of 150 species of Cinnamomum are described. Idioblasts are always present in the palisade and the spongy parenchyma. Usually both oil and mucilage cells occur; in some species either oil or mucilage cells are present. Both types of idioblasts possess a suberized wall layer. The idioblasts vary between species in size/ shape, stainability and number. Variations in the distribution pattern can partly be explained by ...

  16. Radical Scavenging Activity, Total Phenol Content and Antifungal Activity of Cinnamomum Iners Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Zurida Anis; Othman Sulaiman,; Rokiah Hashim; Sayed Hasan Mehdi; Raza Murad Ghalib

    2012-01-01

    The study was done to investigate the antioxidant, total phenol content and antifungal characteristics of phenolics compounds of extracts from Cinnamomum iners (Reinw. ex Blume-Lauraceae) wood. Radical scavenging activity method of DPPH was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Four fungus, namely white fungi (Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes versicolor, Fomitopsis palustris) and brown fungi (Gleophyllum trabeum) were used to determine the antifungal activity of the Cinnamomu...

  17. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from barks of Cinnamomum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    SWETHA, Valya Parambil; PARVATHY, Viswanath Alambath; SHEEJA, Thotten Elampillay; Bhaskaran SASIKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum Blume), the cinnamon of commerce, is an important aromatic tree spice having wide applications in perfumery, flavoring, beverages, and medicine. Adulteration of cinnamon with the cheaper and inferior barks of C. aromaticum and C. malabatrum is a problem. Morphological distinction of the barks is difficult; in the case of powdered barks, the situation is even worse. DNA-based molecular tools are preferred under these circumstances. Isolation of high q...

  18. 2004 hay management monitoring report : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitoring report for hay management at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) for the year 2004. The goal for this monitoring program is to check management...

  19. 2005 hay management monitoring report : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitoring report for hay management at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) for the year 2005. The goal of this monitoring program is to quantify management...

  20. Food Allergies Linked to Raised Risk of Asthma, Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160962.html Food Allergies Linked to Raised Risk of Asthma, Hay ... even higher when kids have more than one food allergy, researchers say To use the sharing features ...

  1. Hay se agt Bybelse beginsels vir die ekonomiese lewe

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. van Zyl

    1996-01-01

    Hay’s eight Biblical principles for economic lifeDonald Hay used the idea of stewardship to derive eight Biblical principles for economic life. The purpose of this article is to contribute commentary on and criticism of Hay's approach. The eight Biblical principles cover three main issues, namely creation and man's dominion, man and his work, and the distribution of goods. While social principles can be in conflict with each other, Biblical principles ought not to be in conflict. The test to ...

  2. En tanto no hay relación sexual...hay síntoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Posada.

    1998-01-01

    Este trabajo, inserto en los planteamientos teóricos del campo freudiano, intenta articular cuatro conceptos: la relación sexual que no existe, el síntoma, el vínculo social y la ética.Comienza con una elaboración en torno a la proposición de Lacan: “no hay relación sexual”. En el lugar de ese imposible, el sujeto, a título de suplencia, produce un síntoma. Síntoma que por un lado sostiene y satisface su singular fijación de goce y a través del cual logra insertarse en un vínculo social. Dent...

  3. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn.) SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lucineudo Oliveira de Freire; Gilberto Marinho de Sousa Filho; José Romilson Paes de Miranda; Patrícia Carneiro Souto; Lúcio Valério Coutinho de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica) and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach). The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum), four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil), 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1) and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergenc...

  4. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Paz Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%. Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%, alfa-felandreno (9,2%, p-cimeno (6,2%, limoneno (7,9%, linalol (10,6%; os sesquiterpenos alfa-copaeno (3,3%, (beta -cariofileno (6,7%, óxido de cariofileno (3,1% e os alilbenzenos (E-cinamaldeído (7,8% e acetato de (E-cinamila (9,7%.The essential oils of the leaves and branches "of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, collected at Manaus, state of Amazonas, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, of which eugenol, was the major (60%. Thirty-six components were identified in the branch oil, among them the monoterpenes alpha-pinene (9.9 %, beta-pinene (3.5 %, alpha phellandrene (9.2 %, p-cymene (6.2%, limonene (7.9%, linalool (10.6% were the most abundant, followed by the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (3.3%, (beta-caryophyllene (6.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.1% and the allybenzenes (E-cinnamaldehyde (7.8%, (E-cinnamyl acetate (9.7%.

  5. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Faixová Zita; Faix Štefan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03) supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetherole...

  6. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ping Chen; Kai Yang; Chun Xue You; Ning Lei; Rui Qi Sun; Zhu Feng Geng; Ping Ma; Qian Cai; Shu Shan Du; Zhi Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%), linalool (22.92%), cineo...

  7. Reproductive biology of Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees. from wet evergreen forest of Western Ghats in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    D. Shivaprasad; C. N. Prasannakumar; R. K. Somashekar, et al.

    2015-01-01

    In Cinnamomum sulphuratum the initiation of the buds occurred after the leaf initiation during October and initiation of buds started during November last week. Inflorescence is an axillary panicle with 62.48±7.01 floral buds that took 13±1.41 days to bloom. Flower offer both pollen and nectar as a floral reward to the pollinators. Foragers include honeybees, butterflies, wasps, flies and ants. The flowers are self-compatible, pollinate both by self and cross pollination. In Allogamy (Hand cr...

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of Cinnamomum cassia Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Yeh Chuang; Rong-Xian Li; Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves) of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values were 6.789–...

  9. Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using broth of Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xin; Li Qingbiao, E-mail: kelqb@xmu.edu.cn; Wang Huixuan; Huang Jiale; Lin Liqin; Wang Wenta; Sun Daohua; Su Yuanbo; Opiyo, James Berya; Hong Luwei; Wang Yuanpeng; He Ning; Jia Lishan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (China)

    2010-06-15

    The development of dependable, environmentally benign processes for the synthesis of nanoscale materials is an important aspect of nanotechnology. In the present study, we report one-pot biogenic fabrication of palladium nanoparticles by a simple procedure using broth of Cinnamomum camphora leaf without extra surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The mean size of palladium nanoparticles, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 nm, could be facilely controlled by merely varying the initial concentration of the palladium ions. The polyols components and the heterocyclic components were believed to be responsible for the reduction of palladium ions and the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala in rats

    OpenAIRE

    NagaRaju, Bandaru; Ch, S.Vidhyadhara; Kumar, Aruna; Vikas, S.

    2016-01-01

                         The present study was designed to scientifically evaluate the cardio protective potential of Ethanolic Extract of dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Family: Lauraceae) (EECT), against doxorubicin induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats. Myocardial infarction was produced in rats with 15mg/kg of doxorubicin administered intraperitoneally (i.p), in six divided doses for two weeks. Effect of oral treatment of EECT at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight), bot...

  11. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake. PMID:24788311

  12. Emisi Metana dan Fermentasi Rumen in Vitro Ransum Hay yang Mengandung Tanin Murni pada Konsentrasi Rendah

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jayanegara; H. P. S. Makkar; Becker, K

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of addition of purified tannins at low concentration into hay diet on in vitro gas emission and rumen fermentation. Treatments consisted of: P0 (control hay), P1 (hay + 0.5 mg chestnut tannin/ml of incubation medium), P2 (hay + 0.5 mg/ml mimosa tannin), P3 (hay + 0.5 mg/ml quebracho tannin) and P4 (hay + 0.5 mg/ml sumach tannin). Variables measured were gas production kinetics, organic matter digestibility (OMD), methane production, expressed...

  13. Síndrome de Hay-Wells: relato de caso Hay-Wells syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dário Júnior de Freitas Rosa; Ronaldo Figueiredo Machado; Marcelino Pereira Martins Neto; Alessandra Almeida Montenegro de Sá; Aloísio Gamonal

    2010-01-01

    A síndrome de Hay-Wells é uma forma rara de displasia ectodérmica, descrita inicialmente em 1976 por Hay e Wells, de caráter autossômico dominante com expressão variável, composta por anomalias congênitas da pele, cabelos, dentes, unhas e glândulas sudoríparas. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente de 17 anos, filho de pais não consangüíneos, que apresentava anquiloblefaron filiforme adenatum, displasia ectodérmica e fenda palatina ao nascimento, sinais considerados cardinais pela maioria dos aut...

  14. Fermentation kinetics of sainfoin hay with and without PEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, S; Guglielmelli, A; Iannaccone, F; Danieli, P P; Tudisco, R; Ruggiero, C; Piccolo, G; Cutrignelli, M I; Infascelli, F

    2012-10-01

    The in vitro gas production technique was applied to evaluate the biological activity of tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) hay cut at four progressive phenological stages. The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen fluid was used as inoculum, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added as specific binding agent and an alfalfa hay (AH) was used as control. All samples were analysed for chemical composition and condensed tannin (CTs). According to the phenological stage of sainfoin, crude protein gradually decreased [from 219 to 122 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased (from 391 to 514 g/kg DM). Condensed tannins showed the highest value at the first phenological stage [31.5 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g DM], and their level significantly decreased at the subsequent growth stages. Gas production and fermentation rate were significantly affected by substrate type and PEG addition. The first stage of sainfoin showed the lowest value of gas and volatile fatty acids production and the slowest fermentation kinetics compared with the other samples, when incubated without PEG, because of the CTs effect. The incubation with PEG improved the fermentation process of the first stage of sainfoin, but no effect was registered on AH, where CTs were not detected. Among the sainfoin samples, the slowest kinetics with PEG was observed in the hay harvested at the fourth stage, probably due to its chemical composition. The use of PEG allowed to verify the effect of tannins on the in vitro fermentation characteristics of sainfoin hay. PMID:22168179

  15. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  16. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  17. Uudised : Isaac Hayes loobub koka rollist. Bergeni festival soomestub

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Satiirilises animaseriaalis "South Park" mustanahalise koolikoka rollis lugenud soulilauljast Isaak Hayes'ist. 24. maist 6. juunini kestval Bergeni kultuurifestivalil Norras tulevad esitusele Jean Sibeliuse sümfooniad, Magnus Lindbergi heliteosed, koreograaf Tomi Paasoneni teos "Olotila" ja pianist Juho Pohjoneni klverikontsert

  18. Rapid Extraction and Analysis of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum Cassia Presl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; WANG Zi-ming; LI Tie-chun; ZHOU Xin; DING Lan; ZHANG Han-qi

    2008-01-01

    An improved solvent-free microwave extraction(ISFME) was used for the extraction of essential oil from dried Cinnamomum cassia Presl. Two kinds of solid microwave absorption media[carbonyl iron powder(C/P) and graphite powder(GP)] were used. When ISFME was applied, the heating rate was enhanced and the extraction time was obviously shorter than that consumed in conventional solvent-free microwave extraction(CSFME). Twenty-eight kinds of compounds in the essential oil were identified, and the total content fractions of the compounds obtained by CIP-ISFME, GP-ISFME, CSFME, and hydrodistillation(HD) were 96.65%, 96.06%, 97.22%, and 96.29%, respectively.The compounds in the essential oil obtained from Cinnamomum cassia Presl. by ISFME, CSFME, and HD were compared and the quantity of the essential oil was almost the same. The ISFME has been proved to be a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried samples, and there are several obvious advantages in ISFME over those of liD and CSFME, for example, shorter extraction time(30 min) and lower energy consumption.

  19. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faixová Zita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03 supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetheroleum of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calendula a.s., Nová L'ubovña, Slovakia. Continuous lighting and water and feed ad libitum were provided throughout the trial. The addition of cinnamon to the diets caused a significantly lower plasma glucose level and the effects of cinnamon on plasma glucose levels tended to be dose-dependent. Dietary intake of 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon reduced serum ALT and plasma potassium levels. Ingestion of cinnamon, however, resulted in no significant changes in circulating calcium, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol and cholesterol levels. It was concluded that cinnamon could be used not only for flavor and taste in food preparation but it had an additional role in glucose metabolism in broiler chickens.

  20. Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamon barks extracts have been reported to regulate immune function; however, the component(s in cinnamon barks responsible for this effect is/are not yet clear. The aim of this study is to find out the possible component(s that can be used as therapeutic agents for immune-related diseases from cinnamon bark. In this study, the immunosuppressive effects of fraction (named CT-F and five procyanidin oligomers compounds, cinnamtannin B1, cinnamtannin D1 (CTD-1, parameritannin A1, procyanidin B2, and procyanidin C1, from Cinnamomum tamala or Cinnamomum cassia bark were examined on splenocytes proliferation model induced by ConA or LPS. Then, the effects of activated compound CTD-1 on cytokine production and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response were detected to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of CTD-1. It was found that CT-F and CTD-1 significantly inhibited the splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA or LPS. CTD-1 dose-dependently reduced the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 and intensively suppressed DNFB-induced DTH responses. These findings suggest that the immunosuppressive activities of cinnamon bark are in part due to procyanidin oligomers. CTD-1 may be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases.

  1. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Bisht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed before starting the experiment and blood glucose level was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences [SPSS] version 10.0 and student′s ′t′- test (Sigma Plot version 8.0. The values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results : Treatment of diabetic animals with Cinnamomum tamala extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level, and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters towards near normal range. Conclusion : The extract exhibited antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effect. Further, chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of this extract and to isolate the active principles responsible for these effects.

  2. Síndrome de Hay-Wells: relato de caso Hay-Wells syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dário Júnior de Freitas Rosa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Hay-Wells é uma forma rara de displasia ectodérmica, descrita inicialmente em 1976 por Hay e Wells, de caráter autossômico dominante com expressão variável, composta por anomalias congênitas da pele, cabelos, dentes, unhas e glândulas sudoríparas. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente de 17 anos, filho de pais não consangüíneos, que apresentava anquiloblefaron filiforme adenatum, displasia ectodérmica e fenda palatina ao nascimento, sinais considerados cardinais pela maioria dos autores. Destacamos também a importância do acompanhamento multidiscliplinar dos pacientes.Hay-Wells syndrome is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia initially described by Hay and Wells in 1976. It is an autosomal dominant disorder with varying forms of expression featuring congenital abnormalities of the skin, hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. The present report describes the case of a 17-yearold white boy, the son of nonconsanguineous parents, who presented ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, ectodermal dysplasia and a cleft palate at birth, which are considered cardinal signs of this syndrome by most authors. We also highlight the importance of implementing multidisciplinary follow-up of these patients.

  3. Genetic and environmental contributions to hay fever among young adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO;

    2006-01-01

    effects accounted for 29% of the individual susceptibility to hay fever. The same genes contributed to the susceptibility to hay fever both in males and in females. In families with asthma, the susceptibility to develop hay fever was, in addition to genes, to a great extent ascribable to family...

  4. Effectiveness of buffered propionic-acid preservatives for large hay packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most hay producers realize that hays packaged in large-round or large-square bales are particularly sensitive to spontaneous heating, dry matter losses, and negative changes in forage quality. During the last two decades, this has become an important dilemma for hay producers because the cost and av...

  5. Dessication tolerance of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness SeedsTolerância à dessecação de sementes de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Matos Barroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, submitted to different levels of drying, the fruits of dark brown and fully mature were collected and washed by hand, then the seeds were exposed to drying, on paper towel, under laboratory conditions. Treatments consisted of sampling for the determination of water content, germination and vigor tests at the beginning of the experiment and after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds each. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression. Cinnamon seeds are dispersed with high water content (39.43% and viability is compromised when dehydrated, the germination capacity as well as its speed decreases with dehydration, characterizing the recalcitrant behavior of seeds, with water content 34.82% less than both the percentage and the speed of germination are reduced. The seeds of C. zeylanicum tolerate desiccation to 12 hours without significant loss of vigor. Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness submetidas a diferentes níveis de secagem, os frutos de coloração marrom escura e completamente maduros foram coletados e despolpados manualmente, em seguida, as sementes foram expostas para a secagem, sobre papel toalha, em condições de laboratório. Os tratamentos consistiram na amostragem para a determinação do teor de água, testes de germinação e vigor no início do experimento e após 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. As sementes de canela são dispersas com alto teor de água (39,43% e tem a viabilidade comprometida quando desidratadas; a capacidade de germinação bem como a sua

  6. Direct Analysis in Real Time by Mass Spectrometric Technique for Determining the Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Vineeta Singh; Atul Kumar Gupta; Singh, S.P.; Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals pre...

  7. SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND IMMUNOMODULATORY POTENTIAL OF A MEDICINAL PLANT, CINNAMOMUM TAMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeyasree* and P. Dasarathan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum tamala is found in tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas and in some other places. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Antimicrobial activity of this plant extract was investigated by Kirby-Bayer methodology against four pathogenic organisms: K. Pneumonae,E. coli, S. aureus, and P.aeroginosa. The plant Butanol extract showed inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms and it has enhanced immunomodulatory activity also. Butanol extracts containing remarkable positive results for phytochemicals compared to other solvent extracts. The higher concentration (100mg/ml of butanol extracts shows maximum inhibition. Proliferation and activation of lymphocytes was also identified. The study scientifically validates the use of plant in traditional medicine.

  8. Chemical Fingerprint of Leaves of Cinnamomum Sulphuratum Nees Growing in Kodagu, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuveera Muralidhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamalapatra (leaves of C. tamala is one among such important commodity used in the preparation of many Ayurvedic medicines. Leaves of C. sulphuratum are sometimes used as substitute to tamalapatra as a flavoring agent. Comprehensive chemical fingerprint profile is useful in the identification of any plant material. This investigation is an attempt to fingerprint the chemical characteristics of leaf of C. sulphuratum. Leaves from plants of C. sulphuratum growing wildly in Kodagu district were collected and subjected to physico-chemical, HPTLC and GC-MS analysis as per standard procedures. Physico-chemical constants, HPTLC fingerprint and essential oil composition were documented. The chemical fingerprint established in the present study will serve the purpose of standardization of this leaf drug, volatile oil composition by GCMS will be a diagnostic test for differentiation of leaves of C. sulphuratum from other Cinnamomum sp.

  9. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baraa Mohamed,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

  10. Reproductive biology of Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees. from wet evergreen forest of Western Ghats in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shivaprasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Cinnamomum sulphuratum the initiation of the buds occurred after the leaf initiation during October and initiation of buds started during November last week. Inflorescence is an axillary panicle with 62.48±7.01 floral buds that took 13±1.41 days to bloom. Flower offer both pollen and nectar as a floral reward to the pollinators. Foragers include honeybees, butterflies, wasps, flies and ants. The flowers are self-compatible, pollinate both by self and cross pollination. In Allogamy (Hand cross pollination, highest mean percentage of fruit set was observed as 71 and 75% respectively for the period 2012-13 and 2013-14.

  11. Sensorial effects of gamma radiation processing on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, Debora C.; Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados]. E-mails: villavic@ipen.br; dcsalum@ipen.br; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Food irradiation is the processing of food products by ionizing radiation in order, among other things, to control food borne pathogens, reduce microbial load and insect infestation, inhibit the germination of root crops, and extend the durable life of perishable products. Irradiation of dried food ingredients, particularly herbs and spices, has a great application potential, and has already been implemented in many countries. Spice irradiation is performed to increase the hygienic quality and used as decontamination processes instead of fumigation methods. European Community approves irradiation processing as an effective residue-free alternative. The present paper evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties of cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans). The samples have been irradiated in multipurpose irradiator of {sup 60}Co in the doses: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 kGy. (author)

  12. Responses of Soil Organic Carbon to Long-Term Understory Removal in Subtropical Cinnamomum camphora Stands

    OpenAIRE

    Yacong Wu; Zhengcai Li; Caifang Cheng; Rongjie Liu

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study on a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the subtropics of China, by removing understory gradually and then comparing this treatment with a control (undisturbed). This study analyzed the content and storage soil organic carbon (SOC) in a soil depth of 0–60 cm. The results showed that SOC content was lower in understory removal (UR) treatment, with a decrease range from 5% to 34%, and a decline of 10.16 g·kg−1 and 8.58 g·kg−1 was noticed in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm l...

  13. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiale [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li Qingbiao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun Daohua [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lu Yinghua [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Su Yuanbo [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Huixuan [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Yuanpeng [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shao Wenyao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); He Ning [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hong Jinqing [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Cuixue [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2007-03-14

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

  14. Characterization of the leaf essential oils of an endemic species Cinnamomum perrottetii from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramavaratharajan, Venkatraman; Sudha, Veerappan; Murugan, Ramar

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from the leaf of Cinnamomum perrottetii Meissn. collected from three distinct populations in the southern Western Ghats, India were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 56 volatile constituents representing 92.2-96.3% of the oils were identified. Variations in the chemical constituents of the oils were found. Only three major components namely, α-pinene (5.1-6.6%), tau-cadinol (8.7-20.5%) and α-cadinol (7.3-13%) out of 10 were found in all three samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical compositions of leaf essential oil of C. perrottetii. PMID:26453373

  15. Seasonal course of CO{sub 2} exchange and carbon balance in fruits of Cinnamomum camphora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Takano, Y. [Dept. of Forestry, Fukuoka Pref., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    CO{sub 2} exchange in fruits of Cinnamomum camphora was studied over a growing season. Dark respiration was exponentially related to temperature. Light dependence on CO{sub 2} photosynthetic refixation was approximated by the hyperbolic function. Seasonal variation in maximum CO{sub 2} refixation capacity ranged between 52 and 174 per cent, with maximum capacity in early August. Daily photosynthetic CO{sub 2} refixation ranged between 17 and 51 per cent over the growth period. Seasonal variation translocation rate to the fruit was determined, and the results used to develop a simple carbon flow model of fruit development. The relationship between dry weight increment in the fruit and translocation rate was also derived. It was found to be approximated by a linear function. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. PMID:26133665

  17. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiale; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Daohua; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Yuanbo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Huixuan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Shao, Wenyao; He, Ning; Hong, Jinqing; Chen, Cuixue

    2007-03-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

  18. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect. PMID:17966976

  19. Variability in volatile constituents of Cinnamomum tamala leaf from Uttarakhand Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hema Lohani; Harish C. Andola; Nirpendra Chauhan; Ujjwal Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variation of Cinnamomum tamala leaf essential oil in respect with months and tree size class. Methods: By fallowing standard laboratory methods using capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. Results: The oil samples were analyzed for two months and two different tree size classes. cinnamaldehyde, was the principal component, was higher in the both months i.e. October and January, highest in 30 cm girth class tree in January month (59.23%) and lowest in 60 cm girth class tree in a month of October (41.90%). Smaller size class tree contained greater amount of cinnamaldehyde as compared to higher size class. Conclusions: Consequences of the present study need to selection of proper, tree size and month for harsh economic potentials of such valuable resources.

  20. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Santiago; Chris Fitchett; Munro, Murray H. G.; Juriyati Jalil; Jacinta Santhanam

    2012-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The b...

  1. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew R.; Aina Ramsay; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M; Helena Mejer; Peter Nejsum; Irene Mueller-Harvey; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated tha...

  2. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kuen-daw Tsai; Yi-Heng Liu; Ta-Wei Chen; Shu-Mei Yang; Ho-Yiu Wong; Jonathan Cherng; Kuo-Shen Chou; Jaw-Ming Cherng

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mit...

  3. Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Manaf A; Tjandrawinata RR; Malinda D

    2016-01-01

    Asman Manaf,1 Raymond R Tjandrawinata,2 Desi Malinda1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas, Dr M Djamil Padang Hospital, Padang, 2Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences (DLBS), Cikarang, Indonesia Background: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DLBS3233, a novel bioactive fraction derived from Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa, in improving insulin resistance and preserving β-cell performance in pa...

  4. A Comparative Study on the Anatomy and Development of Different Shapes of Domatia in Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIDA, SACHIKO; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; NOZAKI, Masumi

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Domatia are small organs usually found in the axils of major veins on the underside of leaves and, although they have received wide attention from ecologists, few detailed reports exist on their anatomy or development. This study is focused on the domatia of Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and is the first comparative study on the anatomy and development of the different shapes of domatia within a single plant.

  5. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS DE MELIA AZEDARACH, SYZGIUM AROMATICUM Y CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM CON EFECTO INHIBITORIO SOBRE BACTERIAS Y HONGOS

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón Márquez, Beatriz; Oranday Cárdenas, Azucena; Rivas Morales, Catalina; Verde Star, María Julia

    2003-01-01

    Se hicieron preparaciones de extractos, pruebas microbiológicas contra ocho microorganismos y caracterización de los compuestos activos de seis extractos obtenidos por dos métodos de extracción, de Melia azedarach, Syzygium aromaticum y Cinnamomum zeylanicum, teniendo como objetivos comparar la eficacia de las técnicas de extracción, y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de estas plantas, partiendo del antecedente de que son utilizadas como remedios caseros. Se obse...

  6. Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Shih; Shih-Lan Hsu; Yu-Che Lin; Chen-Tien Chang; Su-Tze Chou; Wen-Lun Chang

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of t...

  7. In vitro biological evaluation of eight different essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi, with emphasis on Cinnamomum verum essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Camila Maria O; Santos, Thalita Gilda; Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales; Soares, Maurilio José

    2014-01-01

    Background Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against trypanosomatid protozoa. Thus, we analyzed the biological activity of different EOs on Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. Methods The following EOs were evaluated on T. cruzi epimastigote forms: Cinnamomum verum, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon nardus, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus...

  8. Cinnamomum tamala leaf extract-mediated green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their use in pyranopyrazles synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sneha Yadav; Jitender M. Khurana

    2015-01-01

    A novel, biochemical, and eco-friendly method has been developed for the synthesis of Ag nanopar-ticles using an aqueous leaf extract of readily accessibleCinnamomum tamala as reducing and stabi-lizing agents. These Ag nanoparticles were used to catalyze the synthesis of pyranopyrazoles. The green nature and ease of recovery and reusability of the catalyst, together with high yields of prod-ucts, make this protocol attractive and useful.

  9. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  10. Effect of Rain Leaching on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia de Hernandez, Mercedes M.

    1981-01-01

    Yield and chemical changes of second-cutting alfalfa hay treated with artificial rain were determined in a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial experiment. Factors were 2 stages of maturity (1 late vegetative; 2 early bloom), 3 levels of artificial rain applied (1 =no rain; 2 =low or approximately 5 mm; 3 =high or approximately 20 mm), and 2 times of applying artificial rain (1 = when drying forage was 40-60% dry matter; 2 =when drying forage was 60-75% dry matter). Thirty samples of alfalfa were collected at...

  11. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  12. Rumen parameters of sheep fed Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Machado Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on animal nutrition have shown factors that affect livestock yield and their interaction with the environment, through assessments on food nutritional values, nutrient metabolism in livestock and biochemical parameters related to nutrition and animal breeding. Inclusion levels of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in the diet of sheep were studied by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI, production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen pH. Four males Santa Inês sheep with cannulas in the rumen were used in a 4x4 Latin Square design with four periods (21 days each and four treatments that corresponded to the inclusion levels (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% of Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte to replace grass hay Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross in the diet. The DMI showed a quadratic effect increased until treatment with 60% of Arachis and reduced in the treatment with 100% of the legume. Significant interaction was observed between treatments and sampling times for NH3-N and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. There was no interaction between treatments and sampling time for rumen pH and total VFA concentration. It is observed a rapid increase in ammonia concentration until 2 hours after the feeding, and then a decline is seen. At 8 hours after the feeding, the quadratic effect occurred (P0.05 increasing NH3-N concentration with 60% of Arachis, declining afterwards. The acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration, showed a quadratic effect (P0.01 in the sampling time after the feeding for treatment with 60% of Arachis with the concentration rising until 4 hours and declining thereafter. For total SCFA concentration, when analyzed individually, we observed the effect of sampling time (P0.05, in which the means showed a quadratic effect, with maximum increase until 4 hours after the feeding, reducing at 8 hours. For acetate:propionate ratio was a linear effect (P0

  13. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  14. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana Anghel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization.

  15. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds. PMID:22687781

  16. Responses of Soil Organic Carbon to Long-Term Understory Removal in Subtropical Cinnamomum camphora Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study on a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the subtropics of China, by removing understory gradually and then comparing this treatment with a control (undisturbed. This study analyzed the content and storage soil organic carbon (SOC in a soil depth of 0–60 cm. The results showed that SOC content was lower in understory removal (UR treatment, with a decrease range from 5% to 34%, and a decline of 10.16 g·kg−1 and 8.58 g·kg−1 was noticed in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm layers, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05. Carbon storage was reduced in UR, ranging from 2% to 43%, with a particular drastic decline of 15.39 t·hm−2 and 11.58 t·hm−2 in 0–10 cm (P<0.01 and 10–20 cm (P<0.01 layers, respectively. Content of SOC had an extremely significant (P<0.01 correlation with soil nutrients in the two stands, and the correlation coefficients of CK were higher than those of UR. Our data showed that the presence of understory favored the accumulation of soil organic carbon to a large extent. Therefore, long-term practice of understory removal weakens the function of forest ecosystem as a carbon sink.

  17. Cinnamomum loureirii Extract Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Ameliorates Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288

  18. Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Wahid; Zeeshan, Sara; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the traditional use of Cinnamomum cassia against depression. The standardised methanolic extract of the bark of C. cassia was evaluated for antidepressant activity using various behavioural tests, i.e. tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test. The serotonergic and noradrenergic modulation was assessed using 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches and yohimbine potentiation tests, respectively. The fluoxetine and phenelzine were used as positive controls in the study. The C. cassia extract significantly decreased the immobility time in TST (maximum effective dose tested was 50 mg/kg) while no effect was observed in FST and locomotor activity test. The extract significantly increased the 5-HTP-induced head twitches while yohimbine-induced lethality remained unaltered. The aforementioned results are similar to that caused by fluoxetine. The standardised methanolic extract of C. cassia demonstrated antidepressant activity that can be attributed to rise in serotonin levels. PMID:26134381

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 and carrageenan (Carr-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB, and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  20. Anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon. For this, tests were conducted to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and the action of C. zeylanicum EO on fungal cell wall of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei strains. The composition of the was analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Significant antifungal activity of the EO was observed on the strains tested, with 87.5% and 62.5% of them sensitive, respectively at a MIC of 312.5 µg/mL and MFC of 2500 µg/mL. In the presence of sorbitol, the MIC was 625 µg/mL against all the strains, showing a possible action of the EO on fungal cell wall. Eugenol (73.27% and trans-β-caryophyllene (5.38% were found in higher concentrations. The results indicated anti-Candida activity of the EO analyzed and suggested that it occurred due to the action on fungal cell wall.

  1. Removal of copper(II) ions by a biosorbent-Cinnamomum camphora leaves powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao, E-mail: chenhao2212@sohu.com [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China); Dai Guoliang; Zhao Jie; Zhong Aiguo; Wu Junyong; Yan Hua [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China)

    2010-05-15

    In the present study, Cinnamomum camphora leaves powder (CLP) was investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. The biosorbents before and after adsorption were measured by EDS and FT-IR. Kinetic data and sorption equilibrium isotherms were carried out in batch process. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that there are three stages in the whole adsorption process. It was found that Cu(II) adsorption onto CLP for different initial Cu(II) concentrations all followed pseudo-second order kinetics and were mainly controlled by the film diffusion mechanism. Batch equilibrium results at different temperatures suggest that Cu(II) adsorption onto CLP can be described perfectly with Langmuir isotherm model compared to Freundlich and D-R isotherm models, and the characteristic parameters for each adsorption isotherm were also determined. Thermodynamic parameters calculated show that the adsorption process has been found to be endothermic in nature. The analysis for the values of the mean free energies of adsorption (E{sub a}), the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup 0}) and the effect of ionic strength all demonstrate that the whole adsorption process is mainly dominated by ion-exchange mechanism, accompanied by a certain amount of surface complexation which has been verified by variations in EDS and FT-IR spectra and pH value before and after adsorption. Regeneration studies show CLP possesses an excellent reusability.

  2. Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2015-08-01

    The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73.4 microg/mL) and a high phenolic content (192.0%), while the leaf oil inhibited oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid with an inhibition value of 65.5 μg/mL. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition were assessed and the results showed that C. macrocarpun bark oil exhibited significant activity with inhibition values of 55.8% and 66.1%, respectively at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. PMID:26434143

  3. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%, linalool (22.92%, cineole (11.26%, and 3,7,11-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-6,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (4.50%. Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of D-camphor and linalool. D-camphor and linalool showed strong fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 2.36 and 18.04 mg/L air, resp. and contact toxicity (LD50 = 13.44 and 12.74 μg/adult, resp. against L. serricorne. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. camphora and its active compounds had the potential to be developed as natural fumigants and insecticides for control of L. serricorne.

  4. Citizen science based symptom scores of allergic rhinitis to validate the grass pollen hay fever forecast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weger, L.A.; Bas Hofstee, H.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Sont, Jacob K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: On average 23% of the European population suffers from allergic rhinitis of which pollen is a major cause. Hay fever symptom forecasts can help these patients to adapt their behaviour and to take their medication in time. We developed the LUMC hay fever forecast for grass pollen allerg

  5. Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center Library and Archives: Patron Use of Collections and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Myrna J.

    The Rutherford B. Hayes Library opened in 1916, when the building in Fremont, Ohio was dedicated as the first presidential library and museum. The library's original purpose was to preserve the 12,000 volume personal library of President Hayes along with archival material from his careers in law, the military, and politics. This was a radical idea…

  6. 34 CFR 664.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Group Projects Abroad Program is designed to contribute to the development and improvement of the study... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS...

  7. Book Review of the PHYSIOLOGY OF CROP YIELD by R. Hay and J. Porter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology of Crop Yield by R. Hay and J. Porter (2006; Blackwell Publishing) represents a complete rewrite of An Introduction to the Physiology of Crop Yield, by R. Hay and A.J. Walker (1989). The new text emphasizes quantitative description of plant development and growth, working from a simpl...

  8. Derivado cinamoílico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substâncias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae) DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Carbonezi; Márcia Nasser Lopes; Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva; Ângela Regina Araújo; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani; Maria Claudia Marx Young; Marcelo Rogério da Silva

    2004-01-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactives iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-delta8'-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time.

  9. DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae); Derivado cinamoilico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substancias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araujo, Angela Regina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Silva, Marcelo Rogerio da [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2004-04-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactive iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-{delta}{sup 8'}-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neoli= gnan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time. (author)

  10. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanga Ranasinghe; Sanja Perera; Mangala Gunatilake; Eranga Abeywardene; Nuwan Gunapala; Sirimal Premakumara; Kamal Perera; Dilani Lokuhetty; Prasad Katulanda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 a...

  11. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Kayu Manis ( Cinnamomum burmanii ) Dengan Cara GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Daniel Freddy

    2011-01-01

    Has been isolated from the leaf essential oil of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum burmanii ) through the distillation process Stahl. Cinnamon leaf distilled Stahl for ± 7-8 hours to produce the essential oil of cinnamon leaves at 0.41% (v / w). Data analysis results obtained, data from the GC chromatogram of volatile oil from cinnamon leaf steam distillation results were as many as 16 peaks with MS chromatogram data of 10 compounds were analyzed based on the percentage of chemical terbesar.Chemical comp...

  12. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley N. Hoehn; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average ov...

  13. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p sausages.

  14. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD) were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts) were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC) of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day) were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p ...

  15. Characteristics of water relations in seedling of Machilus yunnanensis and Cinnamomum camphora under soil drought condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tian-tian; ZHAO Lin-sen

    2006-01-01

    The soil drought stress experiment in different durations (no watering within 3d, 6d, 9d, 11d individually) was conducted to study the drought-resistant capacity of one-year-old seedlings for the native tree species (Machilus yunnanensis) in Yunnan Province and the introduced tree species (Cinnamomum camphora). The leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, proline content and plasma membrane permeability for two species seedlings were measured in different soil drought conditions. The results showed that, on the 9th day of drought stress, the leaf water potential of two species decreased obviously, whereas the free proline content and plasma membrane permeability increased sharply. On the 11th day, the leaf water potential of C. camphora seedlings was lower than that of M. yunnanensis seedlings; the plasma membrane permeability in C. camphora seedling leaves increased much more than that in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves, which showed that the injury to the former by soil drought stress was more severe than that to the latter. The free proline content in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves continued to increase on the 11th day, but that in the C. camphora seedling leaves started to drop obviously, indicating that the reduction of osmotic regulation substance in C. camphora seedling leaves after the 11th day was unable to maintain the osmotic balance between the plasma system and its surroundings and the water loss occurred inevitably. Comprehensively, M. yunnanensis seedlings enhanced the drought-resistance in the course of soil drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential and by increasing osmotic regulation substance to promote cell plasma concentration and maintain membrane structure integrity so as to reduce water loss. The subordination function index evaluated with fuzzy mathematic theory also showed that the drought-resistant capacity ofM. yunnanensis seedlings was stronger than that of C. camphora seedlings.

  16. Possible Mechanism of Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala With Reference to Antioxidants Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Smerq

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are one of the most important nutraceutical compounds that have emerged from the recent decades of research in food science. The advances in this field have allowed a better understanding of the free radical damage of cellular constituents, such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Antioxidants and radical scavengers have a crucial role in the treatment or prevention of several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Restrictions on the use of synthetic antioxidants are being imposed because of their toxic properties. The present study is the continuation of a program aimed at investigation on antioxidant activity of extracts from medicinal plants and to identify alternative natural and safe sources of food antioxidant especially from plant origin. In this report the anti-peroxidative effect of alcoholic extract of Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala have been studied in rat liver homogenate where ferrous sulphate has been used as inducer to induce lipid per oxidation. On the basis of results, it could be concluded that TBARS production in normal condition group is very slow and it is very high in FeSO4 treated groups. Results further revealed that at lower doses, the rate of formation of TBARS is slow but grows as the level of dose is increased. Significant and moderate results were found from 0.40 mM to 0.80 mM of ferrous sulphate. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects may be related to the antioxidant effects of the polyphenols resulting in decreased free radical production.

  17. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  18. 34 CFR 662.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellowship Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation... DOCTORAL DISSERTATION RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM General § 662.1 What is the Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellowship Program? (a) The Fulbright-Hays Doctoral...

  19. STUDY ON COMPREHENSIVE SELECTION FOR MULTI- CHARACTERS IN CINNAMOMUM CASSIA PRESL%肉桂多性状综合选优的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁一池; 吴志庄; 阮少宁

    2001-01-01

    Based on the investigation and analysis in 25 - year- old Cinnamomum cassia Presl, the relative chiefvalue was defined, both the criteria and method of multi - characters selection was put forward. In the meanwhile,plus tree was classified according to them. The selection results were analysed and discussed.

  20. An update on the management of hay fever in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder occurring in about one in four people in Britain with a peak onset during adolescence.1-3 Although not necessarily a serious illness, it can adversely affect quality of life and disrupt normal activities, and is a risk factor for asthma.2,3 The symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis/rhino-conjunctivitis caused by an IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to airborne allergens, particularly pollens, and which typically occur between spring and autumn are commonly referred to as hay fever.3 There are a number of management options available including drug therapy. Several drugs can be bought over the counter in the UK, and so people with allergic rhinitis may commonly present to the pharmacy or to general practice. The choice of treatment will be influenced by the spectrum, intensity and frequency of symptoms, and should take into account safety, efficacy, cost and patient preferences. Some of the treatments now available have been developed since our previous review was published and include the newer antihistamines, oral leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA),(i) and sublingual allergen desensitisation immunotherapy.4.

  1. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Byskov, M. V.;

    2015-01-01

    (Lolium perenne), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was harvested in 2009 on May 9 (early) and 25 (late), and both cuts were conserved as silage and hay. The early silage, early hay, late silage and late hay contained dry matter (DM) of 454, 842, 250 and 828 g/kg, and NDF...... was greater in hay than in silage from the same harvest probably due to field loss and therefore confounded effects of conservation method. This study of high digestibility grass/clover silage and hay showed that NDF content and NDFI per kg BW affect fecal particle size and rumination time per kg NDF...

  2. Hay que preparar a Colombia para el turismo de naturaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Becerra

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available El turismo que se basa en su entorno natural es responsable por aproximadamente el 40% de los ingresos de turismo y es un mercado en crecimiento. Sin embargo, el turismo ha sido una actividad que ha generado graves impactos ambientales y sociales a nivel mundial. En el contexto ambiental ha transformado áreas de alto valor de conservación en ciudades de cemento y ladrillo, ha contaminado los recursos hídricos, ha erosionado terrenos, ha disminuido los hábitats de muchos animales ante la presencia no planificada de las actividades humanas y ha interrumpido el flujo de especies y de información genética ante la construcción de carreteras, complejos turísticos y otras edificaciones, entre otros impactos. En el contexto social, ha transformado culturalmente a muchas poblaciones locales, sin que hayan tenido la posibilidad y la capacidad de decidir sobre sus mejores opciones económicas y sociales. En muchos casos las poblaciones locales no han tenido la oportunidad, por fallas institucionales y de mercado, de participar activamente en la captura de beneficios de la actividad turística. Estos son ejemplos de los impactos negativos de la globalización cuando no hay la información, la capacidad y la participación ciudadana para la toma de decisión acertadas. Este artículo demuestra, mediante el uso de casos prácticos, cómo un turismo de naturaleza bien manejado, que permita la toma de buenas decisiones por parte de las personas relacionadas directa e indirectamente de sus actividades y que disminuya al máximo sus impactos negativos sociales y ambientales, es una actividad deseable para el desarrollo sostenible de una región y un país como Colombia.

  3. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of allergic diseases including hay fever has increased in the last decades, especially in Westernised countries. The aim of this study was to analyse whether occupational exposure during pregnancy is associated with development of hay fever in 7-year-old Danish children....... METHODS: A total of 42 696 women and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Information on hay fever...... in the child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status...

  4. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children...... with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. METHODS: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register.......77 [1.29-2.26]), current asthma symptoms (2.53 [2.08-2.98]), and current hay fever symptoms (1.21 [0.74-1.67]), compared with children without these symptoms. We also found increased use of prescribed medication and most subtypes of health services. Current asthma symptoms and current eczema symptoms...

  5. Steam explosion pretreatment for enhancing biogas production of late harvested hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Lizasoain, Javier; Theuretzbacher, Franz; Agger, Jane W; Rincón, María; Menardo, Simona; Saylor, Molly K; Enguídanos, Ramón; Nielsen, Paal J; Potthast, Antje; Zweckmair, Thomas; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Svein J

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands are often abandoned due to lack of profitability. Extensively cultivating grassland for utilization in a biogas-based biorefinery concept could mend this problem. Efficient bioconversion of this lignocellulosic biomass requires a pretreatment step. In this study the effect of different steam explosion conditions on hay digestibility have been investigated. Increasing severity in the pretreatment induced degradation of the hemicellulose, which at the same time led to the production of inhibitors and formation of pseudo-lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the maximum glucose yields were obtained under pretreatment at 220 °C for 15 min, while higher xylose yields were obtained at 175 °C for 10 min. Pretreatment of hay by steam explosion enhanced 15.9% the methane yield in comparison to the untreated hay. Results indicate that hay can be effectively converted to methane after steam explosion pretreatment.

  6. Dual mechanisms regulate ecosystem stability under decade-long warming and hay harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Xu, Xia; Souza, Lara; Wilcox, Kevin; Jiang, Lifen; Liang, Junyi; Xia, Jianyang; García-Palacios, Pablo; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-01-01

    Past global change studies have identified changes in species diversity as a major mechanism regulating temporal stability of production, measured as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation of community biomass. However, the dominant plant functional group can also strongly determine the temporal stability. Here, in a grassland ecosystem subject to 15 years of experimental warming and hay harvest, we reveal that warming increases while hay harvest decreases temporal stability. This corresponds with the biomass of the dominant C4 functional group being higher under warming and lower under hay harvest. As a secondary mechanism, biodiversity also explains part of the variation in temporal stability of production. Structural equation modelling further shows that warming and hay harvest regulate temporal stability through influencing both temporal mean and variation of production. Our findings demonstrate the joint roles that dominant plant functional group and biodiversity play in regulating the temporal stability of an ecosystem under global change. PMID:27302085

  7. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  8. Milk characteristics of grazing sheep fed with different hay/concentrate ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Pistoia, A.; L. Andreotti; Poli, P.; G. Balestri; Casarosa, L.; G. Ferruzzi

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal production of pasture forces in the period of grass shortage to supply the animal feeding with hay and concentrates. The supplies satisfy the animal nutritive needs, but reduce the advantages coming from the grazing on milk quality. The present trial was carried out on Massese breed on a low productive pasture, testing four kinds of feeding supplies with different hay/concentrate ratio. The individual milk productions, the chemical composition so as the acidic milk composition have b...

  9. Effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage and hay against gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Heckendorn, Felix; Häring, Dieter Adrian; Maurer, Veronika; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against two species of gastrointestinal nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Cooperia curticei) in lambs. Twenty-four days post experimental infection, 24 lambs were allocated to 4 equal groups. Group A and B received sainfoin silage and control silage respectively for 16 days. Groups C and D were fed on sainfoin hay or control hay for the same period. Feeds were administered ad libitum and ...

  10. Traditional versus sprinkler irrigation of mountain hay meadows in the Valais : consequences for biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Riedener, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Semi-natural grasslands including hay meadows belong to the most species-rich habitats in central Europe and are therefore of high conservation value. The high biodiversity of these grasslands has been maintained for many centuries through the regular disturbance by traditional management practices. In the Valais, an arid mountain region of Switzerland, traditional management of hay meadows includes irrigation by open water channels. In the past decades, however, the traditional irrigation te...

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, diuretic properties and total phenolic content of Cinnamomum tamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala are aromatic, carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, lactagogue, and deobstruent. Other parts of the plant are also used as traditional remedies for various diseases. Aim: The aim of our study was to carry out the evaluation of the preliminary phytochemical and some pharmacological properties including cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity, total phenolic content, clot lysis and diuretic potential of the leaves of C. tamala. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract was carried out by standard chromogenic reagents and total phenolic content was estimated in term of gallic acid equivalent by using Folin Ciocalteu′s reagent. Brine shrimp lethality assay method was used to determine the degree of cytotoxicity. Antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity test was performed using disc diffusion method in agar medium and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by micro dilution method. Clot lysis and diuretic potential were compared with streptokinase and furosemide, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically interpreted using Student′s " t" test. Results: The extract contained alkaloids, steroids, tannins and reducing sugars. Total phenolic content was found to be 276 gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. In brine shrimp lethality assay, it showed moderate toxicity (LC 50 = 40 μg/ml and LC 90 = 160 μg/ml. The extract inhibited growth of tests bacteria and fungi with significant zones of inhibition. Highest activity was observed against the bacteria Salmonella typhi and the fungus Aspergillus niger. In-vitro clot lysis action of extract was comparable with streptokinase (48.22 ± 2.98% and maximum effect (24.75 ± 1.27% was found at a dose of 10 mg/ml. The extract showed diuretic activity which responded 29.16% and 37.50% diuretic activity in comparison with control (water which indicates the plant mild

  12. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kalantary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Trans- cinnamaldehyde was found to be the main constituent of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO, followed by methyl eugenol, δ- cadinene and γ- cadinene. The major components of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO were limonene, caryophyllene oxide, α-ionone, germacrene– D, γ- terpinene, β- pinene and terpinene-4-ol. For evaluating antifungal activities of CZEO and OVEO, A. flavus PTCC: 5006, was inoculated in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB and tomato paste, then 0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm of essential oils were added to each sample and incubated at 25±0.5oC for 30 and 60 days, respectively. The antifungal activity was measured by Agar Dilution method. The EOs at all tested concentrations had inhibitory effect against A. flavus growth. 200 ppm of CZEO and 500 ppm of OVEO completely inhibited A. flavus growth in culture media, while in tomato paste 300 ppm of CZEO and 200 ppm of OVEO had the same effect. Test panel evaluations were carried out in tomato ketchup base and samples with 100 and 200 ppm CZEO were accepted by panelists. The results may suggest the potential replacement of antifungal chemicals by CZEO as natural inhibitor to control A. flavus growth in tomato paste.

  13. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  14. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  15. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  16. Potential of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium as Antimicrobials and Curing of Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Kamal Khder; Srwa A Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    Eighty two clinical isolates were collected from Sulaymani hospitals. The isolates show resistance to more than five antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium were proved to be the most powerful against E. coli E45 and E62 isolates, than aqueous extracts. The extracts exhibited most of the antibiotics activity against these two isolates irrespective of their antibiotic resistance behaviour. A comparative evaluation of plasmid elimi...

  17. 云南河口栽培肉桂的显微鉴别研究%The study on the microidentificution of cuttural Cinnamomum cassia form Yunnan Hecou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 汤秀梅; 逄丽艳; 赵寿祥

    2002-01-01

    通过生物显微技术、显微摄影的方法,对照(2000年版),对河口栽培肉桂进行了显微鉴定,证实河口栽培肉桂从显微结构上来看即2000年版(一部)所载肉桂(Cinnamomum cassia Presl).

  18. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata RR; Nailufar F; Arifin PF

    2013-01-01

    Raymond R Tjandrawinata1,2, Florensia Nailufar2, Poppy F Arifin11Section of Molecular Pharmacology, 2Section of Animal Pharmacology, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, IndonesiaAbstract: This study assessed the gastric acid antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from Cinnamomum burmannii. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase) activity and its gene expression were observed, and the antioxidant activity of DLBS2411 was also investigated. Treatment of DLBS2411 decreased the level...

  19. Isolasi Minyak Atsiri dari Simplisia Kulit Kayu Sintok (Cinnamomum sintoc Blume) dengan Metode Destilasi Uap dan Air serta Analisis Komponennya Menggunakan GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Kristiani

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil is volatile oil with different fragrance in accordance to the source and mixture from the physicochemical properties. Cinnamomum sintoc Blume of the family Lauraceae is one of plants that containing essential oil and widely used as traditional medicine mixture. The aim of this research was to compare the components of essential oil from steam distillation and water distillation. This research included the simplex characterization, the essential oil isolation by steam and wate...

  20. Identification of Compounds from the Water Soluble Extract of Cinnamomum cassia Barks and Their Inhibitory Effects against High-Glucose-Induced Mesangial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Luo; Yong-Xian Cheng; Qing Lu; Shu-Mei Wang; Qi Luo

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In...

  1. Subamolide B Isolated from Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum subavenium Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial and CHOP-Dependent Cell Death Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Yi Yang; Hui-Min Wang; Tai-Wen Wu; Yi-Ju Chen; Jeng-Jer Shieh; Ju-Hwa Lin; Tsing-Fen Ho; Ren-Jie Luo; Chung-Yi Chen; Chia-Che Chang

    2013-01-01

    Subamolide B is a butanolide isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments including carcinomatous swelling. We herein reported for the first time that subamolide B potently induced cytotoxicity against diverse human skin cancer cell lines while sparing nonmalignant cells. Mechanistic studies on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line SCC12 highlighted the involvement of apoptosis in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, as ev...

  2. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira; Ingrid Carla Guedes da Silva; Leonardo Antunes Trindade; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Hugo Lemes Carlo; Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti; Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to a...

  3. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Jiang; Jin Wang; Li Song; Xianshuang Cao; Xi Yao; Feng Tang; Yongde Yue

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in t...

  4. In vitro effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon and Allium sativum on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner L.; Callait M.P.; Granier C.; Chauve C.

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils may be effective preventive or curative treatments against several flagelated poultry parasites and may become primordial either to organic farms, or as more drugs are bannished. The anti-flagellate activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon pericarps and Allium sativum bulbs was investigated in vitro on Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. On T. gallinarum, the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) at 24 hours w...

  5. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6.......48); children with current asthma symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.45, 0.32 to 0.58), conduct problems (0.28, 0.18 to 0.38) and hyperactivity problems (0.52, 0.35 to 0.69); and children with current hay fever symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.57, 0.42 to 0...... with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position....

  6. Report on intercomparison IAEA/V-10 of the determination of trace elements in hay powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay plays an important role in the natural production circle of human nutrition. The level of its pollution is an important factor which can effect various branches of the food industry. The aim of the reported exercise organized by the IAEA was to provide the participating laboratories an opportunity to check their analytical performance by comparing their results with the results of other laboratories and to establish the concentration level of trace elements for certification purposes. The hay powder was analyzed by 50 laboratories from 25 countries for 42 elements. Neutron activation, atomic absorption, atomic emission and X-ray spectroscopy were predominantly used as analytical methods. The results provided by the participants of the reported intercomparison exercise have enabled to certify the concentration of eighteen trace and minor elements and to establish non-certified information values for the concentration of an additional twelve elements in Hay Powder IAEA/V-10

  7. Passage kinetics of digesta in horses fed with coastcross hay ground to different degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pimentel Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics, physicochemical characteristics and particle size of digesta in the right ventral colon (RVC of horses fed coastcross hay ground to different degrees. Four horses fitted with cannulae in the RVC were used and were fed the following forms of hay: long, chopped, ground to 5 mm and ground to 3 mm. A Latin Square 4x4 study design was used. Each experimental period included 10 days for diet adaptation, four days for feces collection and one day for digesta collection. The kinetics of the particulate and solute phases of digesta were evaluated based on the mean retention time (MRT, passage rate (k and transit time (TT using two external markers: Cr-NDF and Co-EDTA. The TT of solid phase digesta was 3 hours longer (P0.05 in k or MRT in either the liquid or solid phase of digesta as a function of the different degrees of hay grinding. However, the liquid phase of digesta presented a higher k than the solid phase, with values of 3.28 and 2.73 h-1 being obtained, respectively. The smallest particle size and the lowest neutral detergent fiber contents in colon digesta were observed when hay ground to 3 mm was offered, leading to values of 0.51 mm and 53.46%, respectively. Grinding the hay increased the transit time of the liquid phase in the digestive tract of the horses, whereas no change in the kinetics of the solid phase digesta was observed. The grinding of hay reduced the NDF and the average particle size in the right ventral colon.

  8. Bromatological composition of pineapple crown silage with citrus pulp, hay, and urea.

    OpenAIRE

    Michael López-Herrera; Rodolfo WingChing-Jones; Augusto Rojas-Bourrillon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional characteristics of silage mixtures of pineapple crown including dehydrated citrus pulp and hay, with increasing levels of urea. The experiment was conducted between May to September 2013 and the crowns were from Guapiles, Costa Rica. These were chopped to obtain an average particle size of 3 cm, and packaged in vacuum- sealed bags to which were added: urea (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% w/w fresh basis), 2 high sources of dry matter: hay (H) of...

  9. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadjeu Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg. For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%, total cholesterol (32.1% and LDL-cholesterol (75.3% while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4% with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group. Conclusion MECZ

  10. 34 CFR 662.20 - How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research... DISSERTATION RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Selection of Fellows § 662.20 How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected? (a) The Secretary considers applications for fellowships...

  11. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1989. Egypt: Transition to the Modern World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of four papers on various aspects of development in Egypt prepared by participants in the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Egypt in 1989. Four of the papers are descriptive, one is a lesson plan. The papers included are: (1) "Egypt: Transition to Modern Times" (Katherine Jensen) focuses on the role of women in…

  12. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program June 23-July 26, 1993. Brazilian History and Culture Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Div. of International Education.

    This document consists of 16 papers on aspects of Brazilian culture, history, and geography prepared by participants in the Fulbright Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Brazil in 1993. The papers are: (1) "Cordel Literature: A Window on the History and Culture of Brazil" (Juan Barroso VIII); (2) "Connections: Public Images of Indians and Brazil's…

  13. Association between parental socioeconomic position and prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever among children in different age groups and examine the associations with parental socioeconomic position. METHODS: A cross-sectional health survey of four complete birth-cohorts in the municipality of Copenhagen was conducted.......5%). RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma and hay fever increased with increasing age; asthma: from 3.2% among children aged 3 years to 15.4% among children aged 15 years; hay fever: from 3.1% among children aged 3 years to 21.3% among children aged 15 years. The prevalence of atopic eczema did not vary with age...... and ranged between 15.5% and 17.8%. Odds Ratios for children of parents with the lowest vs. the highest educational level were 1.50 (95% CI = 1.17-1.91) for asthma; 1.68 (95% CI = 1.35-2.10) for hay fever; and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.89) for atopic eczema. Unemployment was significantly associated...

  14. 75 FR 7287 - John Hay National Wildlife Refuge, Merrimack County, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... with the notice of intent we published in the Federal Register (73 FR 76376) on December 16, 2008. We... common, such as protecting and monitoring fish and wildlife species and the unique large white pines... Fish and Wildlife Service John Hay National Wildlife Refuge, Merrimack County, NH AGENCY: Fish...

  15. 78 FR 25705 - Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Education's list of Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs), as follows: Akan (Twi-Fante), Albanian, Amharic... those planning teaching careers are eligible to apply for this program. Estimated Available Funds: $3...: Performance Measure 1: The average language competency score of Fulbright-Hays DDRA Fellowship recipients...

  16. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  17. 75 FR 59049 - International Education Programs Service; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... / Friday, September 24, 2010 / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION International Education Programs... the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad (GPA) Program administered by the International Education... courses in foreign languages and international area studies as part of a teacher education...

  18. 77 FR 28577 - Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84... Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA) Fellowship Program... languages), Bosnian, Bulgarian, Burmese, Cebuano (Visayan), Chechen, Chinese (Cantonese), Chinese...

  19. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contagion of splenetic, Southern or Texas fever when imported for animal feed or bedding; therefore, such... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  20. Technology background and best practices: yield mapping in hay and forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last decade, researchers and equipment companies have worked to develop yield and moisture sensors that allow on-the-go collection of hay and forage yields in a spatial manner. Work has been conducted on windrowers, forage harvesters, large square balers, and round balers. However, commerci...

  1. Digestive and productive utilization of semi- simplifield hay diets enriched with vinasse for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Campos Gondim Martins Coelho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two qualities of Tifton 85 hay enriched or not with vinasse in semi-simplified diets on the apparent nutrient digestibility, composition and nutritional contribution of cecotropes, productive performance, and carcass, edible viscera and gastrointestinal tract yields of growing New Zealand White rabbits. Fresh vinasse at a proportion of 2:1 was added to the diets containing high-quality (HQV and low-quality Tifton 85 hay (LQV. The control diets containing high-quality (HQ and low-quality Tifton 85 (LQ were not enriched with vinasse. In the digestibility assay, the semi-simplified diets were not influenced (P>0.05 by the quality of hay or by the addition of vinasse, except for the digestibility coefficients of mineral matter, which were 52.31%, 51.13%, 54.45% and 46.73% for treatments HQ, HQV, LQ and LQV, respectively. In the cecotrophy assay, production, chemical composition or nutritional contribution was not altered (P>0.05 in any of the treatments. In the performance assay, no significant difference (P>0.05 was observed in productive parameters or carcass traits, except for kidney weight (P<0.05. It is therefore possible to include vinasse in hay diets without compromising the performance, nutritional contribution of cecotropes or digestibility of growing New Zealand White rabbits.

  2. 75 FR 38129 - TRW Automotive, Kelsey-Hayes Company, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon, OH; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., applicable to workers of TRW Automotive, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2009 (74 FR 57340). At the request of the State agency, the Department... Employment and Training Administration TRW Automotive, Kelsey-Hayes Company, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon,...

  3. Body weight and statistic vital of Texel sheep in Wonosobo District by giving the ramie hay as an additional woof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Kuntjoro A, Sutarno, Astirin OP. 2009. Body weight and statistic vital of Texel sheep in Wonosobo District by giving the ramie hay as an additional woof. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 23-30. This research is aimed to observe the body weight and statistic vital measurement of 50 Texel sheep. Sheep are classified into five treatments of giving woof P0 (giving tree greenish woof without concentrate, P1 (giving greenish woof and concentrate without adding the ramie hay/0% concentrate, P2 (giving greenish woof and concentrate by adding 10% ramie hay, P3 (giving greenish woof and concentrate by adding 20% ramie hay, P4 (giving greenish woof and concentrate by adding 30% ramie hay, every treatment was repeated 10 times. The result shows that even it can’t yet replace the concentrate function, but adding ramie hay as much as 10%, 20% and 30% on sheep woof can increase the body weight’s growth respectively 186.67 g/day, 153.34 g/day dan 103.34 g/day. The addition of ramie hay 10%, 20% and 30% can increase the addition of statistic vital’s measurement on breast of sheep livestock 1.20 cm; 0.95 cm and 0.90 cm; the addition of statistic vital measurement on the body length of sheep livestock 0.05 cm; 1.00 cm and 0.75 cm and also the addition of breast width is 1.50 cm; 0.15 cm and 0.3 cm. Meanwhile the addition of ramie hay on livestock woof can only increase the addition of statistic vital mesurement on breast at giving 30% as big as 0.15 cm. It is needed to know further on giving ramie hay by concentration comparasion of hay of different leaf and stem.

  4. Effects of NaCl Stress on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii%NaCl胁迫对普陀樟叶绿素荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李影丽; 汪奎宏; 杜国坚; 许利群; 杨华; 肖纪军

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii under NaCl stress. [Method] The seedling growth increment, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of 1-year old Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii were investigated in field experiment. [Result] Under NaCl stress, seedling growth increment reduced and the chlorophyll content decreased to a stable value; changes of Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo showed identical increasing trend and double peak type. With the aggravation of salt stress, most variations were ob- served in Fo, correlations among chlorophyll fluorescence parameters presented "rise-drop" trend (in the treatment of 7 g/L NaCl). [Condusion] Cinna-momum japonicum var. chenii is endowed with strong salt resistance and wide adaptability.

  5. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool ( tǔ ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light-dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(-)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders.

  6. Potential source of S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaf: essential oil profile and enantiomeric purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Lin, Chun-Ya; Yeh, Ting-Feng; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2012-08-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool is one of the chemotypes of the indigenous cinnamon in Taiwan. In this study, hydrodistillation was used for extracting the essential oils (EOs) of C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves collected from various plants and seasons, and GC-MS and GC-FID were used to examine variations and contents of the chemical composition in EOs. Moreover, the absolute configuration of the main constituent and its EO content were illustrated by GC-FID with a chiral column. In addition, we also investigated the effect of the extraction time (1, 2, 6, and 10 h) on the yield of EO and the contents of the main constituents. Results from this study revealed that the average EO yield of 12 plants was 3.7%, and linalool accounted for more than 90%. The linalool in the EO was proved to be pure S-(+)-linalool, and its content in the leaves ranged from 28.8 ± 0.3 to 35.1 ± 0.2 mg/g. Furthermore, there were no obvious differences in EO yield and S-(+)-linalool content from various plants and seasons. On the other hand, we also demonstrated that EO and S-(+)-linalool from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves can be completely extracted out by 1 h of hydrodistillation.

  7. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  8. Cleavage of Supercoiled Circular Double-stranded DNA Induced by a Eukaryotic Cambialistic Superoxide Dismutase from Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Zhong WANG; Xu-Bin WEI; Wang-Yi LIU

    2004-01-01

    A eukaryotic cambialistic superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from mature seeds of the disease- and insect-resistant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). Besides the known role of this SOD in protecting cells against oxidative stress, it can induce the cleavage of supercoiled double-stranded DNA into nicked and linear DNA. It can not cleave linear DNA or RNA, demonstrating there is no DNase or RNase in the purified cambialistic SOD. Furthermore, the SOD can linearize circular pGEM-4Z DNA that is relaxed by topoisomerase I. This result indicates that the DNA-cleaving activity requires substrates being topologically constrained. The supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity of the cambialistic SOD can be inhibited by either SOD inhibitor (azide) or catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers (ethanol and mannitol). The chelator of iron, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), also inhibits the supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity. These results show that the dismutation activity is crucial for the supercoiled DNA cleavage. The modification of tryptophan residue of the cambialistic SOD with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS)shows that these two activities are structurally correlative. The reaction mechanism is proposed that the hydroxyl radical formed in a transition-metal-catalyzing Fenton-type reaction contributes to the DNAcleaving activity. In addition, the cleavage sites in supercoiled pGEM-4Z DNA are random.

  9. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  10. Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Santiago; Lin Sun; Murray Herbert Gibson Munro; Jacinta Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods: Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results: Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  11. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  12. Evaluation of In-Vitro Antibacterial Acitivity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Extract on Different Microorganisms of the Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Hussain M. H. Al-Bayaty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cinnaomum zeylanicum on different types of dental plaque microorganisms. Screening study was perforned to detect the potential antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, S. mutans, L. casei, B. fragilis, A. actinomycemtemcomitans and dental plaque pool samples. From the screening test, values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were determined. The lowest MIC value was 25 mg/ml of aqueous and 12.5 mg/ml of ethanol extract for S. aureus. The highest MIC values were seen in A. actinomycetemcomitans and dental plaque aerobic pool samples with 300 mg/ml of aqueous extract and 150 mg/ml of ethanol extract. The MIC values for aqueous extracts ranged from 25 to 300 mg/ml whereas for fixed plant concentration test, showed the strongest inhibition effect for all the organisms tested. Generally, the ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum demonstrated a stronger antibacterial activity compared to the aqueous extract. This study also compared the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine with that of the plant extracts. Chlorhexidine showed a higher antibacterial effect on the microorganisms, with almost all organisms inhibited.

  13. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan RAKHSHANDEHROO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.

  14. Antifungal and antioxidative potential of oil and extracts derived from leaves of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum tamala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Mishra, A K; Mishra, A

    2012-01-01

    Plant—based antimicrobials and antioxidants represent a vast untapped source for medicines and food supplements and hence have enormous therapeutic potential. Present work reports the fungicidal potential of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm (Lauraceae) leaf oil against five food spoilage and pathogenic fungi. In addition antioxidant efficacy of seven different solvent extracts derived from leaf was also evaluated using in vitro models. The oil demonstrated potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium spp. in agar diffusion assay. Zone of inhibition ranged from 17-25 mm. The MFC values of oil against all the test fungi were found to be 230μg/ml. Phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf were extracted in several solvents for assessing their effect in oxidative defense. The extracts exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay and reducing power assay. The antioxidative activities of extracts were compared with the activities of standard antioxidant compounds BHA and ascorbic acid. Petroleum ether, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts exhibited about 30-67% antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay. Aqueous and ethanol extracts exhibited better reducing power which increased gradually with increasing amount of the extract concentration showing dose dependent response. Results indicated that natural phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf extracts have potential to prevent growth of food spoilage/pathogenic fungi. In addition they also have capability to mitigate the oxidative stress by antioxidant response. PMID:23273204

  15. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  16. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  17. ANTIPATHOGENIC EFFICACY OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA (BUCH.-HAM. AND AEGLE MARMELOS (L. WITH THEIR NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMIT KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipathogenic efficacy of methanolic leaf extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham. and Aegle marmelos(L. through inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216 andProteus mirabilis (MTCC 7837 the causative pathogens of food poisoning, boils, abscesses, wound infection,pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, typhoid fever, urethitis, cystitis, pylonephritis and prostatitis has beeninvestigated. All the strains were affected by methanolic leaf extract of C. tamala and A. marmelos in agar diffusionmethod and broth dilution method. The MIC values in agar diffusion method were 2.5 mg/mL against S. aureusfor extract of both plants and 5 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL, against P. mirabilis for the extract of C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The MIC values in broth dilution method were 2.5 mg/mL against S.aureus for both plantsextract, 4 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL against P.mirabilis and 9 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL against S. typhi for C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The nutritional value, phytochemical contents and inorganic substance content of C.tamala is higher than A. marmelos.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  19. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Cinnamomum cassia and Its Nanoparticles Against H7N3 Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Munazza; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf; Amraiz, Deeba; Afzal, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have wide-scale applications in various areas, including medicine, chemistry, electronics, and energy generation. Several physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants provide advantages over other methods as it is easy, efficient, and eco-friendly. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as potential antimicrobials to target pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Their applications recently extended to development of antivirals to inhibit viral infections. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) and evaluated their activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H7N3. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UVVis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cinnamon bark extract and its nanoparticles were tested against H7N3 influenza A virus in Vero cells and the viability of cells was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. The silver nanoparticles derived from Cinnamon extract enhanced the antiviral activity and were found to be effective in both treatments, when incubated with the virus prior to infection and introduced to cells after infection. In order to establish the safety profile, Cinnamon and its corresponding nanoparticles were tested for their cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. The tested concentrations of extract and nanoparticles (up to 500 μg/ml) were found non-toxic to Vero cells. The biosynthesized nanoparticles may, hence, be a promising approach to provide treatment against influenza virus infections. PMID:26403820

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of Cinnamomum cassia Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yeh Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values were 6.789–58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039–335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031–1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW and 2.030–3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151–2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313–9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of Cinnamon barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from C. cassia.

  1. Elevated UV-B radiation increased the decomposition of Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca leaf litter in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xinzhang Z.; Zhang, Huiling L.; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shuquan Q. [Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). The Nurturing Station for the State Key Lab. of Subtropical Silviculture; Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems; Chang, Scott X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Peng, Changhui H. [Quebec Univ., Montreal (Canada). Inst. of Environment Sciences

    2012-03-15

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earth's surface has been increasing due to ozone depletion and can profoundly influence litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The role of UV-B radiation in litter decomposition in humid environments is poorly understood; we thus investigated the effect of UV-B radiation on litter decomposition and nitrogen (N) release in a humid subtropical ecosystem in China. We conducted a field-based experiment using the litterbag method to study litter decomposition and N release under ambient and elevated (31% above ambient) UV-B radiation, using the leaf litter of two common tree species, Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca, native to subtropical China. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly increased the decomposition rate of C. camphora and C. glauca leaf litter by 16.7% and 27.8%, respectively, and increased the N release from the decomposing litter of C. glauca but not C. camphora. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly accelerated the decomposition of litter of two native tree species and the N release from the decomposition litter of C. glauca in humid subtropical China, which has implications for soil carbon flux and forest productivity. (orig.)

  2. Assay of Volatile Oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl before and after Compatibility with Coptis Chinensis Franch by GC-MS%肉桂与黄连配伍前后挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严优芍; 钟伟健; 孙悦

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察肉桂与黄连配伍后挥发油成分的变化。方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取肉桂及黄连-肉桂中的挥发油,气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS )法分析提取物中挥发油成分。结果:与黄连配伍后,肉桂挥发油的主要组成成分不变,但绝大多数成分含量有所下降,同时有12个成分在配伍后消失,新增成分12~18个。结论:GC-MS法能全面地反映肉桂与黄连配伍后挥发油各个成分的变化,为两药配伍规律的研究提供一定的实验依据。%Objective To investigate the change of volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl before and after compatibility with Coptis Chinensis Franch.Methods The volatile oil of Cinnamomum cassia Presl and Cinnamomum cassia Presl -Coptis Chinensis Franch extracted by steam distillation were analyzed by GC-MS.Results After compatibility,the main components of volatile oil in Cinnamomum cassia Presl didn’t change,but the contents of most components were decreased,there were 12 components existed in Cinnamomum cassia Presl disappeared whiles 12~18 new components occurred in the paired decoction.Conclusion GC-MS can be used to reflect the change of volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl after compatibility,and the result will provide some evidence for the research of regular pattern of herb compatibility.

  3. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: dose titration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, T H; Dykes, G S; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small

  4. Penentuan Komponen Senyawa/Minyak Atsiri Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Fraksi N-Heksana, Etil Asetat Dan Metanol Kulit Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum Burmanii)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricki

    2011-01-01

    Serbuk kulit kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii) diekstraksi dengan cara maserasi menggunakan pelarut n-heksana, etil asetat dan metanol yang didasarkan atas perbedaan polaritas pelarutnya. Diperoleh ekstrak fraksi n-heksana sebanyak 2,3 mL, fraksi etil asetat sebanyak 3,0 mL dan fraksi metanol sebanyak 4,0 mL. Kandungan senyawa/minyak atsiri pada masing-masing fraksi dianalisa dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Untuk fraksi n-heksana diperoleh 3 senyawa/minyak atsiri yaitu berupa sinamaldehida (79,1%), ...

  5. Derivado cinamoílico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substâncias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonezi Carlos Alberto; Lopes Márcia Nasser; Silva Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araújo Ângela Regina; Bolzani Vanderlan da Silva; Young Maria Claudia Marx; Silva Marcelo Rogério da

    2004-01-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactives iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-delta8'-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time.

  6. Observations of the Biology and Ecology of the Black-Winged Termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Termitidae: Isoptera), in Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur G. Appel; Xing Ping Hu; Jinxiang Zhou; Zhongqi Qin; Hongyan Zhu; Xiangqian Chang; Zhijing Wang; Xianqin Liu; Mingyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the biology and ecology of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined in a grove of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L.), located at the Fruit and Tea Institute, Wuhan, China. Of the 90 trees examined, 91.1% had evidence of termite activity in the form of exposed mud tubes on the bark. There was no relationship between tree diameter and mud tube length. Mud tubes faced all cardinal directions; most (60%) trees had multiple tubes at all directions. H...

  7. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Kianpour Rad; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Sri Nurestri Abd Malek; Guan Serm Lee; Chung Yeng Looi; Won Fen Wong

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells ...

  8. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H; Kırkpınar, F; Tan, K

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  9. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  10. Carbon footprint from cheese produced on milk from Holstein and Jersey cows feed hay differing in proportion of herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact on emission of green house gasses (GHG) from production of cheese based on milk from different type of hay and breed of cows, and as an integrated part to give figures for emission from production of hay in climate lees favorable for on field hay drying. Emission of GHG was estimate using life cycle assessment with kg of milk and kg of energy corrected milk (ECM) delivered to the dairy factory, and kg of cheese at the retailor level in Denma...

  11. Source and level of energy supplementation for yearling cattle fed ammoniated hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royes, J B; Brown, W F; Martin, F G; Bates, D B

    2001-05-01

    Brahman x British crossbred steers were used in growth and digestion trials to evaluate the response of source (corn, sugar cane molasses, or soybean hulls) and feeding rate (0, 1.4, or 2.8 kg DM per steer daily in the growth trials; 0, 15, or 30% of the ration DM in the digestion trial) of energy supplementation in cattle fed ammoniated (4% of forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Cattle on all treatments were fed 0.5 kg cottonseed meal daily. In the growth trials, steers grazed dormant bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture. Increasing the levels of supplementation decreased hay intake but increased total dietary intake for all diets (P hemicellulose digestibility. Apparent OM digestibility of all diets increased linearly (P = 0.02) as the level of supplementation increased. Apparent NDF and ADF digestibility decreased (P sources. PMID:11374553

  12. Use of conditioning in the production of black and white oat hay using two cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate the dehydration curves, chemical composition, and occurrence of fungi in white oat hay (Avena sativa L. cv. Guapa BRS and black oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common at two cutting heights. Dehydration curves were studied under a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using split plots in time, considering two types of oats (white and black, two cutting heights (10 and 20 cm, and 17 sampling times (0, 4, 19, 24, 28, 43, 47, 52, 67, 71, 76, 91, 95, 100, 115, 129, and 124 hours after harvesting with five replicates. For the chemical composition and occurrence of fungi, the experimental design comprised randomized blocks in a factorial 2 × 2 split-plot in time with two types of oats, two cutting heights, and three assessment periods: before cutting, during baling, and after 30 days of storage, with five replicates. The hay obtained by cutting of the black and white oats at heights of 10 and 20 cm showed similar dehydration curves. The crude protein values were higher in white oats only at the time of cutting (141.5 g/kg. The black oats showed lower nutritional quality, with higher levels of ADF and lignin. There was no effect of cutting height on the chemical composition, but the cutting height interfered with the production of dry matter and residue after cutting, with cutting at 10 cm leading to higher dry matter production and at 20 cm to increased waste production. The cutting heights of the oats interfere directly with the dry matter production and post-harvest residue without changing the chemical composition of the hay.

  13. Optimization of Solid-Supported Glaser-Hay Reactions in the Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Lampkowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The translation of organometallic reactions into a microwave reactor has numerous advantages. Herein, we describe the application of a previously developed solid-supported Glaser-Hay reaction to microwave conditions. Overall, an array of diynes has been prepared demonstrating the ability to conduct chemoselective reactions in the microwave within 20 min compared to the 16 h thermal conditions. Moreover, non-microwave transparent alkynes have been found to react more quickly, preventing catalyst quenching, and resulting in higher yields.

  14. Use of conditioners in the production of Tifton 85 grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the curve of dehydration, bromatological composition and occurrence of fungi in Tifton 85 grass, submitted to four methods of dehydration. The curves of dehydration were studied in a completely randomized design with a 4 × 11 factorial scheme with four drying systems (1 conditioning + 1 turn-over; 2 conditionings + 1 turn-over; no conditioning + 1 turn-over and no conditioning + 2 turn-overs and 11 sampling times (0, 3, 15, 18, 21, 24, 39, 42, 45 and 47 hours after the cutting, with six replicates. For the bromatological composition and fungi occurrence, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with the four drying methods of Tifton 85 grass and three periods of evaluation (before the cutting, at the time of the baling and 30 days after storage with six replicates. It was found that after the first hour after cutting and at the end of the period of dehydration, Tifton 85 plants that were treated with conditioners showed higher levels of dry matter. Stored hay that was treated with conditioners presented higher levels of acid detergent insoluble protein. Until baling, the drying methods did not alter the crude protein content of hay; however, after storage, the hay submitted only to turn-over showed crude protein content higher (13.90% than those submitted to conditioners (9.94%. There was an increase in the occurrence of fungi after storage, but the application of conditioners and one turn-over resulted in lower CUF/g, compared with other treatments, enhancing the effect of conditioners on accelerating the dehydration rate and obtaining better hay storage conditions

  15. Comparison of Hay's Criteria with Nugent's Scoring System for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Chawla; Preena Bhalla; Sanjim Chadha; Sujatha Grover; Suneela Garg

    2013-01-01

    Although Nugent’s criterion is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the method requires an experienced slide reader and considerable time and skill. In this study, we compared the method of Hay and Ison with Nugent’s scoring criteria. Vaginal specimens were collected from a total of 213 women, presenting with or without the symptoms of vaginitis. Diagnosis of BV was done using Nugent’ and Hay’s method. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values f...

  16. Precision and accuracy of the NDF rumen degradability of hays measured by the Daisy fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zanfi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 162 hay samples from Austrian permanent grasslands was used to obtain information about the precision of the in vitro NDF degradability (NDFd measured by the Daisy fermenter and its accuracy to predict in situ NDFd. The within forage standard error of the in vitro NDFd triplicate, obtained in five consecutive incubations, was equal to 2.8%, while the effect of the four jar positions in the fermenter was not significant. The cutting frequency had a great impact on the in situ effective NDFd of hays, which ranged (P<0.01 from values of 32.9, 43.1 and 48.3% in hays obtained from 2, 3 and 4 cuts/season, respectively. The regression analysis between the in vitro and in situ NDFd values (measured at 48h and effective, k=3%/h allowed to obtain medium degrees of correlation (r2 = 0.69 – 0.71; P<0.01 and low levels of accuracy (RSE = 4.0 -4.6 %.

  17. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world. PMID:14691309

  18. Comparison of harvesting and transport issues when biomass crops are handled as hay vs silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, J.W. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Cundiff, J.S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    1996-04-01

    Because of frequent rainfall, hay making is problematic in central Florida. High biomass yields can be produced, but the crops must be handled as silage. Because of the long available harvest season, the cost of making silage should be less here than in other regions. Harvest of silage in central Florida with two different systems, standard (35-55 Mg/ha yield) and high-capacity (based on a hypothesized forage chopper expected to handle 55-75 Mg/ha yield), was simulated. Simulated harvest and transport cost for three versions of the standard system ranged from $108.10/dry Mg, when juice was expressed prior to ensiling in 320-Mg silage bags, to $114.15, when the chopped material was directly ensiled in an above-ground pile. Total cost was $101.70 for the high-capacity system. These costs compare to $57.25/dry Mg for hay. It appears that silage is not competitive with hay for cellulose feedstock, even in the advantageous climate of central Florida. (Author)

  19. Rumen metabolism of swamp buffaloes fed rice straw supplemented with cassava hay and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate effects of cassava hay (CH) and urea (U) supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes, 365 ± 15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: T1 = CH 400 g/head/day + U 0 g/head/day, T2 = CH + U 30 g/head/day, T3 = CH + U 60 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + U 90 g/head/day, respectively. Results revealed that feed intake was not affected while nutrient digestibilities were increased (P cassava hay for buffaloes fed rice straw improved rumen ecology and increased fermentation end products and microbial protein synthesis while reducing protozoal populations and methane production. Urea supplements of 60-90 g/head/day when fed with cassava hay are recommended for swamp buffaloes consuming rice straw. PMID:26898691

  20. Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl bark essential oil in cream-filled cakes and pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food poisoning has been always a major concern in health system of every community and cream-filled products are one of the most widespread food poisoning causes in humans. In present study, we examined the preservative effect of the cinnamon oil in cream-filled cakes. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Cinnamon bark essential oil was examined against five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium to investigate its potential for use as a natural preservative in cream-filled baked goods. Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For evaluation of preservative sufficiency of the oil, pathogens were added to cream-filled cakes manually and 1 μL/mL of the essential oil was added to all samples except the blank.  Results: Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and twenty five components were identified where cinnamaldehyde (79.73%, linalool (4.08%, cinnamaldehyde para-methoxy (2.66%, eugenol (2.37% and trans-caryophyllene (2.05% were the major constituents. Cinnamon essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in vitro and the minimum inhibitory concentration values against all tested microorganisms were determined as 0.5 μL/disc except for S. aureus for which, the oil was not effective in tested concentrations. After baking, no observable microorganism was observed in all susceptible microorganisms count in 72h stored samples.  Conclusion: It was concluded that by analysing the sensory quality of the preserved food, cinnamon oil may be considered as a natural preservative in food industry, especially for cream-filled cakes and pastries.

  1. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

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    Sharma Bechan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  2. polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina; Santiago; Lin; Sun; Murray; Herbert; Gibson; Munro; Jacinta; Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp.fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum.Methods:Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate.This was followed by hioaclivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography.The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi.Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial,antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis,mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database.Results:Three known compounds,namely 4—hydroxymellein,4,8—dihydroxy—6—melhoxy—3—methyl—3,4-dihydro—1H-isochromen-1—one and 1—(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone,were isolated from the fungus.The polyketide compound 4—hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus sublilis(97.3%).Meanwhile.4,8—dihydroxy-6—melhoxy—3—meth) 1—3,4-dihydro—1H—isochromen—1-one,a benzopyran compound,demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(48.8%)and the fungus Aspergillus niger(56.1%).The second polyketide compound.1(2,6—dihydroxyphenyl)ethanone was inactive against the tested targets.Conclusions:These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers ol pharmacologically important compounds,including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  3. The essential oil components of Cinnamomum cassia:an analysis under different thinning models of plantation Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dayan Tao; Yuanfa Li; Daodiao Lu; Yehong Luo; Sufang Yu; Shaoming Ye

    2016-01-01

    Thinning is an important activity employed in forest management. To date, studies have mainly focused on the effects of thinning on the growth of trees during the same thinning period. In this study, plantation Pinus mas-soniana Lamb. near maturity were thinned at varying intensities and an economically important species, Cin-namomum cassia Presl., was planted beneath the thinned canopy. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of the extent of thinning on the essential oil content and its components of C. cassia in different parts of the plant, as well as the economic feasibility of the P. massoniana–C. cassia management model. Thinning significantly reduced the oil yield in the bark and branches of C. cassia, but hardly impacted the oil yield from C. cassia leaves com-pared with pure C. cassia forest (CK). Among the different thinning treatments, both light (T.4) and extensive (T.1) thinning reduced the oil yield of C. cassia bark and new branches. The concentrations of the main aldehydes differed in different parts of the plant and were affected by the extent of thinning. The influence on cinnamaldehyde in the bark was minor, but was much greater in the branches and leaves. Both the oil yield and content of cinnamalde-hyde showed that moderate (T.3) thinning was more favorable than other thinning models. These results not only provide a potentially promising model for the trans-formation of low–yield artificial pure forests of P. masso-niana in the future, but also offer a reference for the management of artificial mixed stands.

  4. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cinnamomum cassia derived phenolic phytochemicals, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B-H; Racicot, K; Pilkenton, S J; Apostolidis, E

    2014-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) are believed to have anti-hyperglycemic potential via stimulation of insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of cinnamon PACs. Five grams of cinnamon bark powder were extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (CAE) (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature and in 100 mL deionized water for 30 min at 90 °C (CWE). PACs were purified from CAE using LH-20 (CAE-PAC) to be further evaluated. PAC contents were evaluated by 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay and yielded 795, 177 and 123 mg/g, for CAE-PAC, CAE and CWE respectively. The total phenolic contents of CAE and CWE were determined to be 152 and 134 mg/g respectively. All extracts were adjusted to the same PAC content (180, 90, 45 and 20 μg) and the inhibitory activity against rat α-glucosidase was determined. The CAE-PAC fraction had very low rat α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, CAE had the highest (IC50 0.474 mg/mL total phenolic (TP) basis) followed by CWE (IC50 0.697 mg/mL TP basis). The specific maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities were determined and CAE (IC50 0.38 and 0.10 mg/mL TP basis) had higher inhibition than CWE (IC50 0.74 and 0.37 mg/mL TP basis). Results suggest that the observed bioactivity is not PAC dependent and that CAE has a higher anti-hyperglycemic potential than CWE via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:24706251

  5. Anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress activities of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Gayaprasad; Khoshla, Sarvesh; Kosuru, Ramoji; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves (aqueous extract) in rats. Materials and Methods: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress studies, respectively. Standard drugs were given 1 time, 30 min preceding the behavioral trials. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test was employed to analyze the results. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant as compared to control. CT at 400 mg/kg produced an antianxiety effect equivalent to lorazepam, in the elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests among selected doses of the CT. CT at 400 mg/kg also induced an antidepressant activity similar to imipramine, in the behavioral despair, learned helplessness test, and tail suspension among selected doses of the CT. Moreover, CT at 400 mg/kg produced a significant antistress effect comparable to W. somnifera in water immersion-restraint stress by decreasing ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, and by normalizing the plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels when related to stress control. Conclusion: The study shows that among the different CT doses, CT at 400 mg/kg possesses significant anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-stress effects and has therapeutic beneficial for the management of psychological ailments.

  6. Effects of Haying and Grazing on Duck Production in the Blitzen Valley (Unit 12) of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a study that was done at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge to determine the effects that haying and grazing have on duck production. Three...

  7. Viga on öelda, et me ei vaja PRi / Roger Hayes, Alasdair Sutherland ; interv. Tiiu Värbu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hayes, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Suhtekorraldajate Liidu 5. aastapäeva seminaril osalevad Rahvusvahelise Kommunikatsiooni Instituudi direktor R. Hayes ja maailma ühe juhtiva suhtekorraldusfirma Manning, Selvage & Lee asepresident A. Sutherland

  8. The Hayes principles: learning from the national pilot of information technology and core generalisable theory in informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Simon de Lusignan; Paul Krause

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been much criticism of the NHS national programme for information technology (IT); it has been an expensive programme and some elements appear to have achieved little. The Hayes report was written as an independent review of health and social care IT in England. Objective To identify key principles for health IT implementation which may have relevance beyond the critique of NHS IT. Outcome We elicit ten principles from the Hayes report, which if followed may result ...

  9. Climatic change: back to the IIF talk at La Haye; Changements climatiques: retour sur la communication de l'IIF a La Haye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, J.L.

    2002-07-01

    This document reprints the communication given by F. Billiard, head of the international institute of refrigeration (IIF), at the COP-6 conference of La Haye (November 2000). In his talk, F. Billiard explains the contribution of the refrigeration industry to the global warming which is mainly due to the leaks of refrigerants (CFC, HCFC, HFC) and to the carbon dioxide emissions corresponding to the electric power consumption of refrigerating machineries, air-conditioners and heat pumps. Thus, the abatement of these greenhouse gas emissions requires an improvement of the confinement of the refrigeration equipments and a continuous optimization of their energy efficiency. A second part analyzes the key points of this communication and the choice of some objective appreciation criteria for the remedial actions to be implemented. A glossary completes the document. (J.S.)

  10. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  11. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different grass hays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; Wartena, F C; Zoon, M V; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2015-10-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements of feedstuffs for equines were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming four grass-hay diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diets contained either a low (L), medium (M), high (H), or very high (VH) ADF content (264, 314, 375, or 396 g·kg DM, respectively). Diets were supplemented with minerals, vitamins, and TiO (3.9 g Ti·d). Daily feces excreted were collected quantitatively over 10 consecutive days and analyzed for moisture, ash, ADL, AIA, and titanium (Ti). Minimum duration of total fecal collection (TFC) required for an accurate estimation of apparent organic matter digestibility (OMD) of grass hay was assessed. Based on literature and the calculated cumulative OMD assessed over 10 consecutive days of TFC, a minimum duration of at least 5 consecutive days of fecal collection is recommended for accurate estimation of dry matter digestibility (DMD) and OMD in ponies. The 5-d collection should be preceded by a 14-d adaptation period to allow the animals to adapt to the diets and become accustomed to the collection procedures. Mean fecal recovery over 10 d across diets for ADL, AIA, and Ti was 93.1% (SE 1.9), 98.9% (SE 5.5), and 97.1% (SE 1.8), respectively. Evaluation of CV of mean fecal recoveries obtained by ADL, AIA, and Ti showed that variation in fecal Ti (6.8) and ADL excretion (7.0) was relatively low compared to AIA (12.3). In conclusion, the use of internal ADL and externally supplemented Ti are preferred as markers to be used in digestibility trials in equine fed grass-hay diets. PMID:26523567

  12. Bromatological composition of pineapple crown silage with citrus pulp, hay, and urea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael López-Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional characteristics of silage mixtures of pineapple crown including dehydrated citrus pulp and hay, with increasing levels of urea. The experiment was conducted between May to September 2013 and the crowns were from Guapiles, Costa Rica. These were chopped to obtain an average particle size of 3 cm, and packaged in vacuum- sealed bags to which were added: urea (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% w/w fresh basis, 2 high sources of dry matter: hay (H of Transvala grass (Digitaria decumbens Stent, cv Transvala and dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP, both at a level of inclusion (10% w/w fresh basis, and a single level of molasses (3% w/w and bacterial inoculum by molasses fermentation with whey (1 l/t. Also a sample without additives was prepared as a control. Hay increased dry matter content and all fiber components, but reduced crude protein content, non fibrous carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients.. When PCD was used, the fiber level was reduced which increased digestibility of ensiled mixture. The use of urea increased the CP content and reduced nitrogen linked to fiber by a dilution effect. It was estimated that, silage materials allow to obtain from 0.43 to 1.89 kg of milk/cow, whenconsuming 5 kg fresh matter (FM/animal; 0.86 to 3.77 kg milk/cow when consuming 10 kg FM/animal; 1.29 to 5.66 kg milk/cow when consuming 15 kg FM/animal.

  13. Por qué hay que estudiar Historia de la Comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, M.

    2003-01-01

    Los estudios de Publicidad o Comunicación Comercial, que adoptan muy variados perfieles en Europa, han de conseguir un “status” universitario. Se trata de una profesión que influye de manera significativa en la configuración de la sociedad contemporánea, y por ello es responsable en cierta medida de su evolución. Pero la responsabilidad sólo se puede pedir si previamente hay libertad. La Publicidad es una profesión liberal en este sentido. Por tanto, es necesario que en ese curriculum univers...

  14. Truthiness Fever: A conversation with Dr. Rick Hayes-Roth [audio

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes-Roth, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Rick Hayes-Roth, Author of “Truthiness Fever” is a Professor at the Naval Postgraduate School as well as Chairman & CEO of Truth Seal Corp., an organization that operates www.TruthSeal.com. Truth Seal’s mission is to create a market for truth telling by validating public statements, making the statements and their authors trustworthy, and rewarding TruthScouts who find evidence to falsify invalid claims. His book focuses on truth, beliefs that best match empirical evidence. Truth contrasts w...

  15. Methane emission of blackbelly rams consuming whole sugarcane forage compared with dichanthium sp hay

    OpenAIRE

    Archimède, Harry; Martin, Cécile; Périacarpin, Fred; Rochette, Yvanne; Silou-Etienne, Tatiana; Anais, Caroline; Doreau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Dietary strategies are options to mitigate enteric methane from ruminants. This trial has been performed to estimate the production of methane with a sugar-rich forage versus a high-fibre grass. Comparative intake, digestion and methane emission of whole Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) plant and of Dichanthium sp. hay (from permanent grassland) were studied. Eight Blackbelly rams (40.1 ± 1.4 kg on average) were used in a 2 × 2 crossover design. All the animals received two diets ad libitum:...

  16. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  17. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II, using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG (Groups 1 and 2 and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4 blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05. Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05. Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001. Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001. Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  18. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080

  19. Effect of Cinnamomum burmannii Nees ex Bl. and Massoia aromatica Becc. Essential Oils on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro

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    Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that can be found in almost every habitat. They can be attached to a surface and protected by an extracellular matrix of biomolecules that substantially protect microorganisms from environmental effects. The aim of this research is to explore the potency of essential oils from Cinnamomum burmannii Nees ex Bl. and Massoia aromatica Becc. against planktonic growth and biofilm formation of, two opportunistic pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I. Essential oil from C. burmannii  and M. aromatica showed a 50% inhibition of  P. aeruginosa and S. aureus planktonic growth (PMIC50 at concentration of 0.12 % v/v. Essential oil from C. burmannii and M.  aromatica showed capability to inhibit 50% (MBIC50 of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilm formation at concentration of 0.03 % v/v, whereas higher concentration (0.12 % v/v was needed by C. burmannii and M. aromatica oil to disrupt 50% of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus established biofilm. The analysis by GC-MS showed cinnamic aldehyde (92.02 % to be the major component of C. burmannii essential oil, whereas Massoialactone (92.05 % was the main constituent of M. aromatica essential oil. The results obtained in this study have made the oil of C. burmannii and M. aromatica oil as an interesting source for antibiofilm agents in the development of new strategies to treat infections caused by P. aeruginosa and  S. aureus biofilm.Industrial Relevance. Instead of freely swimming in solution (planktonic, in nature microbial tends to adhere to surfaces, and develop microbial biofilms. Microbial biofilms are exhibits resistance to both antimicrobial drugs and the host defence systems, which often results in persistent and difficult-to-treat infections. This makes the discovery of anti-infective agents which are active against planktonic and biofilm microbial represents an important goal. Plant is an interesting source for finding

  20. In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics of diets containing oldman saltbush hay and forage cactus, using a cattle inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.L. Tosto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate, by means of the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, fermentation kinetics of carbohydrates and degradability of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM of diets containing oldman saltbush hay levels (8.4; 18.8; 31.2 and 48.3% associated to forage cactus in natura. Pressure readings of the gases were done with a pressure transducer at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 20, 24, 28, 34, 48, 72 and 96h post-inoculation. The rumen kinetics was described by the following parameters: maximum potential of gas production, lag time and production rates of gas (k, fibrous carbohydrates (FC and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC. It could be observed that the addition of oldman saltbush hay to the diets promoted a quadratic effect in the production of gases originated from NFC. However, there was no significant effect on the production of gases originated from FC and on production rates of gases from NFC and FC. The degradability of DM and OM did not differ due to the addition of oldman saltbush hay. The use of 8.4% hay and 74.9% forage cactus promoted the maximum potential of production of gases from the fibrous fraction of diets containing cactus and oldman saltbush hay.

  1. Production of tifton 85 hay overseeded with white oats or ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to estimate the curve of dehydration, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and crude protein digestibility (IVCPD of tifton 85 hay, produced single or overseeded with ryegrass or white oat IPR 126. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a 3 × 10 factorial arrangement, with three cropping systems and ten evaluation times (0, 4, 8, 24, 28, 32, 48, 52 and 56 and 71 hours after harvest during the dehydration process. For chemical composition and in vitro DM and CP digestibility, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with three cropping systems and three evaluation times (before cutting, before baling and 100 days after of storage. It was found that tifton 85 intercropped with white oat kept its higher nutritional value after storage, with 19.78% crude protein and 70.03% of in vitro dry matter digestibility. The participation of white oat in tifton 85 area was 57.04% and for ryegrass, it was 38.52%, but the dry matter yield of single tifton 85 was higher than other intercrops. Thus, it is recommended an oversowing of winter annual species on Tifton 85, without moisture restriction, because of the benefits obtained in the hay nutritional value.

  2. In situ degradability and selected ruminal constituents of sheep fed with peanut forage hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gisele Machado; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Teixeira de Mattos, Waldssimiler; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Junior, Evaldo Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Because legumes are a very important feed source for ruminants, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal inclusion level of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in sheep diets by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI), concentration of volatile fatty acids, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, ruminal pH and the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). In the experiment with four sheep, a 4 × 4 Latin Square design was used with four periods and four treatments (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% Arachis replacing grass hay). Significant interactions were observed between treatments and sampling times for ammonia-nitrogen and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by interaction between treatments and sampling time. The degradation of DM and CP was similar, rising with the increasing content of Arachis, showing a linear effect. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results, with good levels of daily weight gain and higher ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. The legume showed high levels of CP, high digestibility and appropriate levels of fibre, with excellent standards of degradation and ruminal characteristics. The use of the legume  Arachis for ruminants is a promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals. PMID:24016145

  3. Milk characteristics of grazing sheep fed with different hay/concentrate ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pistoia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal production of pasture forces in the period of grass shortage to supply the animal feeding with hay and concentrates. The supplies satisfy the animal nutritive needs, but reduce the advantages coming from the grazing on milk quality. The present trial was carried out on Massese breed on a low productive pasture, testing four kinds of feeding supplies with different hay/concentrate ratio. The individual milk productions, the chemical composition so as the acidic milk composition have been controlled for six weeks. Although the four feeding supplies given to the animals had different chemical-nutritional values (diet A 0.84 MFU/kgDM with forage/concentrate ratio 1:1.7; B 0.78 with 1:1; C 0.72 with 1: 0.7; D 0.68 with 2:1, they did not influence the milk production which resulted quite low and without significant differences. Results did not show differences in relation to the nutritional characteristics and the acidic milk composition. In the four groups Vaccenic acid and Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA of milk showed similar and decreasing trends during the trial. These trends were probably due to the progressive grass reduction on the grazing: the effects on the dietetic characteristics of the milk did not depend on the supply but on the quantity of grass intaken during the grazing.

  4. Towards Detection of Cutting in Hay Meadows by Using of NDVI and EVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Halabuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main requirement for preserving European hay meadows in good condition is through prerequisite cut management. However, monitoring these practices on a larger scale is very difficult. Our study analyses the use of MODIS vegetation indices products, namely EVI and NDVI, to discriminate cut and uncut meadows in Slovakia. We tested the added value of simple transformations of raw data series (seasonal statistics, first difference series, compared EVI and NDVI, and analyzed optimal periods, the number of scenes and the effect of smoothing on classification performance. The first difference series transformation saw substantial improvement in classification results. The best case NDVI series classification yielded overall accuracy of 85% with balanced rates of producer’s and user’s accuracies for both classes. EVI yielded slightly lower values, though not significantly different, although user accuracy of cut meadows achieved only 67%. Optimal periods for discriminating cut and uncut meadows lay between 16 May and 4 August, meaning only seven consecutive images are enough to accurately detect cutting in hay meadows. More importantly, the 16-day compositing period seemed to be enough for detection of cutting, which would be the time span that might be hopefully achieved by upcoming on-board HR sensors (e.g., Sentinel-2.

  5. Inhibition of Extractives from Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves on Carbon Steel in H2SO4 Solution%樟树叶提取液在硫酸介质中对碳钢的缓蚀作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴文; 龚敏; 曾宪光; 姜春梅; 曾祥梅; 张婷

    2012-01-01

    应用动电位极化法和电化学阻抗(EIS)研究了樟树叶提取液(CCLE)在硫酸介质中对碳钢的缓蚀性能和缓蚀机理.结果表明,采用酸浸泡法从樟树叶中提取的缓蚀剂,对碳钢在10%H2SO4溶液中具有良好的缓蚀作用,随着提取液浓度的增加,缓蚀效率增大;随着实验温度升高,缓蚀效率减小.樟树叶提取液为混合抑制型缓蚀剂,提取液中的有效缓蚀成分在碳钢表面的吸附满足Langmuir等温吸附方程;樟树叶提取液的加入使碳钢在硫酸中反应的表观活化能增加,起到缓蚀作用.%The corrosion inhibition effect of the Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive for carbon steel in 10% H2SO4 solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive had good corrosion inhibition effect for carbon steel in 10% H2SO4 solution. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive, and decreased with increasing temperature. The Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive was a mixed-type inhibitor, and the adsorption of the effective corrosion inhibition component of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive on the carbon steel surface conformed with Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. The addition of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive in sulfuric acid solution enhanced the apparent activation energy of the reaction on carbon steel, which made the corrosion inhibition effective.

  6. Multilevel analysis of the impact of environmental factors and agricultural practices on the concentration in hay of microorganisms responsible for farmer's lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Piarroux, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is common in eastern France. It is the main form of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis, caused by chronic inhalation of microorganisms (antigens) from mouldy hay, straw, or grain. The purpose of this study was to assess, with a panel of data collected between 1997-2003, environmental factors and agricultural practices that independently modify concentrations in hay of microorganisms potentially responsible for FLD. A total of 629 hay samples from 86 farms were included in statistical analyses using linear multilevel regression models allowing to consider the nested structure of the data: individual-level (batch of hay) and group-level (farm). The outcome variable of these models was the concentration in hay (logarithmic value of concentration+1) of microorganisms incriminated in FLD (Absidia corymbifera, Eurotium spp., thermophilic actinomycetes). The simultaneous analysis of batch of hay- and farm-level factors showed that bad climatic conditions of harvest, high-density hay-packing modes, (especially round bales) and altitude (2nd plateau, ]700-900] m) were the main factors associated with high concentrations of these microorganisms in hay. This study allowed clarification of the factors that influence the microbial concentration of hay with etiological agents of FLD.

  7. Effect of plant growth regulators on direct somatic embryogenesis in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) from immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic calli induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuLi; Zhou Suo; Bao Man-zhu

    2007-01-01

    A description of a successful direct somatic embryogenesis induction from immature zygotic embryos of a camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) is presented. After a subculture of 2-3 years,embryogenic calli could be derived from primary somaticembryos. Immature zygotic embryos were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)basal medium supplemented with a range of combinations of cytokinins (BA) and auxins(2,4-D or NAA) for somatic embryo induction. Primary somatic embryos could be induced direly in almost all PGR combinations. A positive effect of 2,4-D On somatic embryo genesis from immature zygotic embryos of camphor tree was obtained. BA at appropriate concentrations (5mg·L-1) of BA had the effect of restraining somatic embryo induction. NAA had a less positive effect on somatic embryogenesis than 2,4-D.

  8. Propylene epoxidation over biogenic Au/TS-1 catalysts by Cinnamomum camphora extract in the presence of H2 and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingming; Huang, Jiale; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-03-01

    The Au/TS-1 catalysts with different Au nanoparticles (NPs) sizes ranging from 3.1 to 8.4 nm but the same Au loading of 0.5 wt% were prepared by Cinnamomum camphora (CC) extract, and were used for propylene epoxidation. The results showed that the interaction between Au and TS-1 support surface is important for propylene epoxidation and much smaller Au NPs (<3 nm) are the dominant active sites. After reaction of 100 h, there is no decreasing in both the activity and the PO selectivity for the Au/TS-1 catalysts, and only 1.8 wt% of the carbonaceous deposits on the surface of the catalyst after reaction, suggesting that the desorption of the product from the modified catalysts surface by residual biomolecules is much easier.

  9. Neolignans with a Rare 2-Oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one Motif from the Stem Bark of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yongji; Liu, Tingting; Sa, Rongjian; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Yonghui; Yao, Guangmin

    2015-07-24

    Two pairs of racemic spirodienone neolignans with a rare 2-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one motif, named (±)-subaveniumins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum subavenium. The chiral separation of the (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers was accomplished via high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral column. Their structures were elucidated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroic spectra. The (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values of 17.9, 5.6, 15.1, and 4.3 μM, respectively. PMID:26087384

  10. An efficient method for following the enzymic reactions involved in camphor biosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora by use of GC-MS and regiospecifically deuteriated substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamitsu, Tohru; Suga, Takayuki (Hiroshima Univ., Kagamiyama (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry); Ohta, Shinji (Hiroshima Univ., Higashisenda-machi, Naka-ku (Japan). Instrument Center for Chemical Analysis)

    1992-05-01

    An efficient method has been developed to follow the enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of camphor in Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) by use of (5,5-{sup 2}H{sub 2})geranyl diphosphate as a substrate and GC-MS with selected ion monitoring. Borneol and camphor biosynthesized in the enzymic reactions gave a base peak due to the deuterium-containing ion in its EI mass spectrum. It is possible to detect 1.5 ng of the biosynthesized borneol and camphor per injection into GC-MS. This method enabled us to differentiate easily the biosynthesized camphor from the endogenous camphor and it is a facile and sensitive technique to determine the amount of the biosynthesized camphor. (author).

  11. Isolinderanolide B, a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, inhibits proliferation of T24 human bladder cancer cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Lin, En-Shyh; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chen, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Isolinderanolide B (IOB), a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in T24 human bladder cancer cells. To identity the anticancer mechanism of IOB, its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 Waf1/Cip1, Fas/APO-1 receptor, and Fas ligand was assayed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the G0/G1 phase arrest is because of increase in the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by IOB. This study reports the novel finding that the induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and activity of the Fas/mFas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the antiproliferative activity of IOB in T24 cells.

  12. Registro de Acromyrmex disciger Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae no Município de Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pikart

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae is cultivated for production of leaves, bark and roots, due to its aromatic and spice proprieties. But despite being a resistant plant, C. zeylanicum is subject to attack by various insects and mites during their development, and these pests are responsible for considerable reduction in crop yields. The aim of this study was to record and characterize the attack by leaf-cutting ants in plants of C. zeylanicum in Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between January and March 2010. Damage were characterized by cutting young leaves and shoots of plants of C. zeylanicum with height between 1.0 to 1.5 m and total defoliation of plants less than 1.0 m. The attack in adult plants was not observed. This is the first record of leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex disciger Mayr damaging plants of C. zeylanicum in Brazil.

  13. Substrate selection for plastic bag-growing of Cinnamomum pedunculatum%天竺桂容器苗基质配方筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊豫武; 殷云龙; 杜丽娟

    2012-01-01

    Using adobe as control,garden soil,peat moss,vermiculite and perlite as substrate constituents,we made up 14 different substrates,and selected the best matrix formulation by testing the morphology of one-year-old Cinnamomum pedunculatum seedlings.The results showed that Cinnamomum pedunculatum seedlings of height(22.1 cm),diameter(0.39 cm),tap root length(12.25 cm) and other characteristics grown in the matrix substrate of 30% garden soil+50% peat +20% perlite,was superior to that in the control.This substrate was good in water holding capacity and water retention,with reduced cost of labor and management,then worth promoting.%采用生土为对照,园土、泥炭土、蛭石和珍珠岩为基质,按不同的体积配制成14种配方,经过试验对天竺桂1年生实生苗生长形态指标特性筛选出天竺桂容器苗最优基质配方,结果表明:园土30%+泥炭土50%+珍珠岩20%为配方的基质培育天竺桂幼苗,其平均株高为22.1 cm、地径0.39 cm、主根长12.25 cm,这些特性均优于对照,此种基质有很好的持水性和保水性,可以减少人工和降低水分管理成本。

  14. Greenhouse gas fluxes of grazed and hayed wetland catchments in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Wetland catchments are major ecosystems in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) and play an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) flux. However, there is limited information regarding effects of land-use on GHG fluxes from these wetland systems. We examined the effects of grazing and haying, two common land-use practices in the region, on GHG fluxes from wetland catchments during 2007 and 2008. Fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2), along with soil water content and temperature, were measured along a topographic gradient every other week during the growing season near Ipswich, SD, USA. Closed, opaque chambers were used to measure fluxes of soil and plant respiration from native sod catchments that were grazed or left idle, and from recently restored catchments which were seeded with native plant species; half of these catchments were hayed once during the growing season. Catchments were adjacent to each other and had similar soils, soil nitrogen and organic carbon content, precipitation, and vegetation. When compared with idle catchments, grazing as a land-use had little effect on GHG fluxes. Likewise, haying had little effect on fluxes of CH4 and N2O compared with non-hayed catchments. Haying, however, did have a significant effect on combined soil and vegetative CO2 flux in restored wetland catchments owing to the immediate and comprehensive effect haying has on plant productivity. This study also examined soil conditions that affect GHG fluxes and provides cumulative annual estimates of GHG fluxes from wetland catchment in the PPR.

  15. Supplementation strategies to improve efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis on cattles fed with tropical grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen L Mulik

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at increasing rumen microbial protein supply into intestine through ration manipulation. Four Santa Gertrudis steers with a mean liveweight (W of 218 (±5.6 kg were used in a latin square design (4 x 4 to observe the effect of four diets on the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. The steers were given pangola grass hay (8.5% protein as the basal diet. The treatments were 1 pangola grass hay alone (KON, 2 pangola grass hay + 19 g urea/kg dry matter (DM hay (URE, 3 as for treatment URE + a supplement mix at 0.5% W (SUP, and 4 as for treatment SUP + salt at 0.15% W (SUG. Urea was added into the hay to support a theoretical EMPS of 160 g MCP/kg digestible organic matter (DOM whereas supplement mix contains fast, medium, and slow rumen fermentable energy and protein to synchronise energy and protein release in the rumen. Salt was added to alter passage rate of digesta. Addition of urea alone or with supplement mix increased EMPS significantly compared to KON (77 g MCP/kg DOM but no difference between URE (119 g MCP/kg DOM and SUP (110 g MCP/kg DOM. Addition of salt into supplement mix increased EMPS by 84% (140 g MCP/kg DOM. It might be concluded that rumen degradable protein (RDP was deficient in steers fed low quality grass hay hence urea supplementation significantly increased EMPS to a similar extent as that of the supplement mix formulated to have a synchrony in protein and energy release. Increasing fluid dilution rate, by adding salt, also had a dramatic affect on EMPS as observed in treatment SUG. It increased up to the level suggested in the International feeding standards.

  16. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15N and (13C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin H Klaus

    Full Text Available Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ(15N and δ(13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ(15N (δ(15N plant - δ(15N soil to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ(13C in hay and δ(15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ(13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ(15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ(13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be

  17. Organic vs. Conventional Grassland Management: Do 15N and 13C Isotopic Signatures of Hay and Soil Samples Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Valentin H.; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ15N and δ13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ15N (δ15N plant - δ15N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ13C in hay and δ15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently used in practice

  18. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay in...... fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  19. Effects of supplementation with digestible fibre on the digestion and intake of triticale whole-crop and meadow hays by sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three experiments were carried out to assess the effect of digestible fibre on the intake of whole-crop triticale treated with urea (Experiment 1) and natural meadow hays (Experiments 2 and 3) by sheep. Urea was almost completely hydrolyzed and controlled mould growth. Intake of the basal feed was not significantly affected by the low level of CGF supplementation. However, intake of triticale silage was significantly reduced in diet 3. Liveweight gain increased from 36.9 g (diet 1) up to 94.8 and 116.7 g (diets 2 and 3, respectively). Organic matter digestibility of whole-crop triticale was significantly reduced in diet 3. In Experiment 2, twenty ewes were used in a feeding study. The ewes were assigned to diets (1) hay + casein, (2) hay + casein + citrus pulp, low level, (3) hay + casein + citrus pulp, medium level, and (4) hay + casein + citrus pulp, high level. The feeding trial was carried out for 7 weeks. Daily intake of hay dry matter (DM) was not significantly reduced while total DM intake steadily increased with citrus pulp supplementation. Organic matter digestibility of the hay was not affected by low and medium levels of citrus pulp supplementation but it was significantly reduced when citrus pulp was fed at the highest level. In Experiment 3, twenty female lambs were used in a 10-week growth study. The lambs were allocated to the diets (1) hay + 235 g soybean meal (SBM), (2) hay + 150 g SBM + 150 g lucerne pellets, (3) hay + 125 g SBM + 300 g lucerne pellets, and (4) hay + 70 g SBM + 450 g lucerne pellets. Supplementation of the basal diet with 150 g lucerne pellets significantly increased total DM intake (P<0.05). Further increments of lucerne had no effect on DM intake. Although the growth rates of lambs fed lucerne-supplemented diets was higher than those fed the control diet, the differences were not statistically significant. 19 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  20. Study on quality standard of essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf in Guangxi%广西芳樟醇型樟叶油的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁忠云; 李桂珍; 陈海燕; 覃子海; 文彩琳

    2012-01-01

    用水蒸气蒸馏提取芳樟醇型樟叶油,用芳樟油对其进行主成分对照,并采用气相色谱测定不同产地精油成分,提出芳樟醇型樟叶油的质量标准的建议,叶油中芳樟醇含量大于80%,樟脑含量小于2.0%.%The essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf was extracted by steam distillation. The method compared with C. camphora (Linn) Presl oil was adopted to analyze and identity the oil and GC was used to determine the relative content of commom ( main) constituents from different fields in Guangxi. We gave the quality standard proposal of essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf of relative content of higher 80% linalool and lower 2. 0% camphor.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and Laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

  2. Wheezing, asthma, hay fever, and atopic eczema in relation to maternal occupations in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, L L; Wennborg, H; Bonde, J P; Olsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether prenatal occupational exposures, especially to organic solvents, are associated with atopic diseases in childhood. Methods The study comprised children born in Odense or Aalborg, Denmark between 1984 and 1987. Occupational job titles were derived from questionnaires filled out by the mothers when attending midwife centres. Assessment of organic solvent exposures was based on job titles selected by occupational specialists. A follow up questionnaire to the parents provided data on medical diagnoses as well as wheezing symptoms for 7844 children aged 14–18. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the cumulative risk for wheezing (early wheezing not diagnosed as asthma), asthma, hay fever, and atopic eczema during childhood by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Explorative analyses by maternal job titles in pregnancy showed elevated odds ratios concerning different atopic diseases for occupational groups such as “bakers, pastry cooks, and confectionary makers”, “dental assistants”, “electrical and electronic assemblers”, “sewers and embroiders”, and “bookbinders and related workers”. An excess risk ratio for hay fever (OR 2.8, CI 1.1 to 7.5) was found following maternal gestational exposure to organic solvents. Furthermore, a slightly raised odds ratio for asthma was observed in children of shift workers (OR 1.2, CI 1.0 to 1.5). Conclusion The data suggest links between certain maternal occupations during pregnancy and atopic diseases, which merits further scrutiny. However, no consistent pattern was seen across the different atopic diseases. PMID:16757508

  3. Filaggrin mutations in the onset of eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and the interaction with cat exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M L A; Kerkhof, M; Jonkman, M F; Koppelman, G H; Brunekreef, B; de Jongste, J C; Wijga, A; McLean, W H I; Postma, D S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. METHODS: FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth coho

  4. Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities in Education in the 21st Century. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1997 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Lisa

    This paper introduces students to lesser known and traveled parts of Mexico. The text is intended to accompany a Power Point presentation that traces the trip a Fulbright-Hays group took through Mexico, highlighting places of cultural and historical interest. The paper includes a list of slide notes and realia for each slide to be shared with the…

  5. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility. PMID:25069970

  6. Morocco and Senegal: Faces of Islam in Africa. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Morocco and Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas. The 13 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "Doorway to Morocco: A Student Guide" (Sue Robertson); (2) "A Social…

  7. Kajian Mutu dan Palatibilitas Silase dan Hay Ransum Komplit Berbasis Sampah Organik Primer pada Kambing Peranakan Etawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmadi Yusmadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality and palatibility of silage and hay complete ration based on organic primer garbage in peranakan etawah (PE poad ABSTRACT. This research was conducted to study the quality and palatability of silage and hay complete ration based on organic primer garbage in nine heads of Peranakan Etawah (PE Goat. The quality of silage and hay was evaluated By measuring pH, total number of lactic acid Bacteria (LAB, palatability, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM aroma and color of silage. Nine heads of peranakan etawah were grouped based on their lactation periode and randomly assigned to one of tree dietary treatments. The treatments were (1 Control rations; (2 silage complete ration (SRK; and (3 Hay complete ration (HRK. The results indicated that the silage had PH 4.15 and total number of LAB was 2.4 x 10 cfu/g of silage. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility of SRK were better than those of HRK. The palatability of SRK was higher than HRK but less than control. Storage of SRK for did not change dry matter and organic matter content. Organoleptic analysis indicated that texture and color of HRK were changed at after storage, while SRK was still constant. It is concluded that silage composed of organic primer garbage has high quality in terms of physical, chemical and microbial characteristics, prolong storage.

  8. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  9. Billedet - Om Robert Hay og hans tegning af Amerna-bygrænsestelen 'A' som historisk kilde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Kort indlæg om blyantstegningen lavet i 1827 under en ekspedition ledet af den skotske ægyptolog Robet Hay (1799-1863), af en af farao Amenhotep 4/Akhnatons (r. ca. 1351-1334 f.Kr.) klippesteler til demarkation af bygrænsen for oldtidsbyen Akhet-aton (Tell el-Amarna)....

  10. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; TAN, K

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p

  11. The bacterial population adherent to plant particles in the rumen of reindeer fed lichen, timothy hay or silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Alterskjær Olsen

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves taken from a natural winter pasture were given ad lib. access to lichen (n = 3, timothy silage (n = 3 and hay (n = 3 for 7 weeks. Median numbers of viable anaerobic bacteria adherent to the plant particles (cells/g wet weight of rumen solids, growing on a habitat simulating medium (M8V, were significantly higher (P = 0.05 in the rumen of reindeer fed lichen (26.5 x 109- 53.0 x 109 and hay (4.0 x 109- 40.5 x 109, compared to reindeer fed silage (1.15 x 109 - 3.25 x 109. Anaerobic bacterial strains (n = 551 from the plant particles obtained from the rumen of the nine reindeer examined, were isolated using an acid swollen cellulose medium (M8SC and tested for their ability to hydrolyse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. The proportion of CMC hydrolysing adherent bacteria isolated from M8SC was significantly higher in reindeer fed hay (21.5% compared ro animals fed lichen (5.3% and silage (2.7% (P = 0.05. The CMC hydrolysing bacterial srrains (n=42 isolated from reindeer fed hay where characterised as non-cellulolytic Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (9.5%, cellulolytic B. fibrisolvens (50.0%, Clostridium sp. (2.4% and unknowns (38.1%, while CMC hydrolysing strains (n=11 isolated from animals fed lichen and strains (n=4 isolated from animals fed silage where all characterised as B. fibrisolvens. None of the bacterial strains isolated from the rumen solids of reindeer fed lichen or silage were found to be cellulolytic. This study suggests that both lichen and timothy silage have a negative influence, compared to hay, on the numbers of cellulolytic bacteria adherent to the plant particles in the rumen of reindeer.

  12. Effects of energy and protein supplementation of ammoniated tropical grass hay on the growth and carcass characteristics of cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W F; Johnson, D D

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory, digestion and growth studies were used to evaluate energy and protein supplements for ammoniated (4% of the forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Ammoniation increased (P less than .05) total N concentration (.7 to .9% vs 1.7 to 2.0%) and in vitro digestion of OM, NDF and ADF and reduced (P less than .05) NDF concentration of stargrass hay. Two digestion (3 x 3 Latin square, 250-kg steers) and two growth (400-kg Brahman crossbred cull cows, eight head per pasture, two pastures per treatment, November through February) trials evaluated citrus pulp or liquid cane molasses (Trial 1) and molasses or molasses plus cottonseed meal (Trial 2) supplementation of ammoniated hay. Supplementation with byproduct energy sources, citrus pulp or molasses (either alone or with cottonseed meal), improved (P less than .05) OM digestibility but reduced (P less than .05) NDF and ADF digestibilities. Apparent nutrient digestibilities were similar (P greater than .05) between diets supplemented with citrus pulp and molasses and between diets supplemented with molasses and molasses plus cottonseed meal. In Trial 1, ADG by cull cows was greater (P less than .05) for citrus pulp- (.71 kg) or molasses-(.68 kg) supplemented diets than for hay fed alone (.49 kg). In Trial ADG was greater (P less than .05) for cull cows fed ammoniated hay supplemented with molasses plus cottonseed meal (.85 kg) than for those supplemented with molasses only (.69 kg). Feeding cows over the winter increased their (P less than .05) carcass weight, marbling score, USDA quality grade and lipid percentage of the 9-10-11 rib section compared with cows slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of energy and protein supplementation of ammoniated tropical grass hay on the growth and carcass characteristics of cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W F; Johnson, D D

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory, digestion and growth studies were used to evaluate energy and protein supplements for ammoniated (4% of the forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Ammoniation increased (P less than .05) total N concentration (.7 to .9% vs 1.7 to 2.0%) and in vitro digestion of OM, NDF and ADF and reduced (P less than .05) NDF concentration of stargrass hay. Two digestion (3 x 3 Latin square, 250-kg steers) and two growth (400-kg Brahman crossbred cull cows, eight head per pasture, two pastures per treatment, November through February) trials evaluated citrus pulp or liquid cane molasses (Trial 1) and molasses or molasses plus cottonseed meal (Trial 2) supplementation of ammoniated hay. Supplementation with byproduct energy sources, citrus pulp or molasses (either alone or with cottonseed meal), improved (P less than .05) OM digestibility but reduced (P less than .05) NDF and ADF digestibilities. Apparent nutrient digestibilities were similar (P greater than .05) between diets supplemented with citrus pulp and molasses and between diets supplemented with molasses and molasses plus cottonseed meal. In Trial 1, ADG by cull cows was greater (P less than .05) for citrus pulp- (.71 kg) or molasses-(.68 kg) supplemented diets than for hay fed alone (.49 kg). In Trial ADG was greater (P less than .05) for cull cows fed ammoniated hay supplemented with molasses plus cottonseed meal (.85 kg) than for those supplemented with molasses only (.69 kg). Feeding cows over the winter increased their (P less than .05) carcass weight, marbling score, USDA quality grade and lipid percentage of the 9-10-11 rib section compared with cows slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005029

  14. Effects of Temperature and Light on Seeds Germination of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Cinnamomum chekiangense%温度和光照对青冈栎和浙江樟种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素娟; 林夏珍; 李珍; 刘纯玲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The effects ot temperature and light on seeds germination ot Cyclonalanopsis glauca and Cmnamomum chekiangense were studied. [ Method] The thousand seed weight of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Cinnamomum chekiangense were calculated and morphological specificity were observed. The effects of 4 kinds of temperature and 3 kinds of uminous intensity on seeds germination were studied. [ Result] Germination percentage of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Cinnamomum chekiangense showed increased firstly and then decreased in 15 -30 ℃. Germination potential and germination percentage of Cyclobalanopsis glauca in the dark conditions were significantly lower than the illumination conditions, germination percentage of Cinnamomum chekiangense seeds exceeded 75% in the dark and illumination conditions. [ Conclusion] The best suitable germination temperature for Cyclobalanopsis glauca was 25 ℃ and 20 ℃ for Cinnamomum chekiangense. Light was a prerequisite for germination of Cyclobalanopsis glauca, and the seed germination was restrained in the dark treatment. The seed of Cinnamomum chekiangense can germinate both in the light and dark, but 12 hours treatment of light obviously enhanced the percentage of its germination.%[目的]研究不同温度和光照对青冈栎和浙江樟种子萌发的影响.[方法]计算青冈栎和浙江樟种子的千粒重并观察其形态特征.研究4种温度处理和3种光照时间对种子萌发的影响.[结果]在15~30℃范围内,青冈栎和浙江樟种子的发芽率呈现先上升后下降的趋势;青冈栎种子在黑暗条件下其发芽势和发芽率显著低于光照条件,浙江樟种子在光照和黑暗条件下萌发率都超过了75%.[结论]青冈栎的最适宜萌发温度为25℃,而浙江樟则为20℃;青冈栎种子萌发需在有光条件下进行,在黑暗中萌发受抑制,浙江樟种子在黑暗和光照条件下均能萌发,但是12 h的光照可以明显提高其种子发芽率.

  15. The Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves Extractive and Potassium Iodide%樟树叶提取液与碘化钾的缓蚀协同效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴文; 龚敏; 曾宪光; 姜春梅; 曾祥梅; 张婷

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical method was used to study the synergistic effect between Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive and potassium iodide for Q23S steel in sulfuric acid solution. The results showed that the corrosion current density decreased, when Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive complexed with potassium iodide, the desorption potential positively shifted and corrosion potential negatively shifted, so the effective inhibitor region was increased, the adsorption stability of inhibitor was improved, showing better corrosion inhibition performance. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing the Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive concentration. The composite inhibitor made up of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive and potassium iodide was a mixed-type inhibitor, and the inhibitor mechanism of which was coverage effect. The joint adsorption of Cinnamomum camphor Leaves and potassium iodide on the Q235 steel surface was mainly overlapping adsorption, and the adsorption conformed with Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation.%采用电化学方法研究了樟树叶提取液(CCIE)和碘化钾复配后(FPCCLE),对Q235钢在硫酸溶液中的缓蚀协同效应,结果表明:樟树叶提取液与碘化钾复配后,腐蚀电流密度减小,腐蚀电位负移,脱附电位Edes正移,增大了缓蚀剂的有效作用范围,提高了缓蚀剂的吸附稳定性,表现出更好的缓蚀作用,且缓蚀效率随提取液浓度的增加而增大;樟树叶提取液与碘化钾组成的复配缓蚀剂属于混合抑制型缓蚀剂,作用机理为几何覆盖效应;樟树叶提取液和碘化钾在Q235钢表面的联合吸附为重叠吸附,吸附规律符合Langmuir吸附等温方程.

  16. Cinética ruminal do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Ruminal kinetics of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Sete carneiros fistulados no rúmen e no duodeno foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e alimentados com feno de Stylosanthes guianensis à vontade. Foi empregada a técnica de sacos de náilon para determinação da degradabilidade in situ do feno, utilizando-se os tempos de 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas para as retiradas dos sacos do rúmen. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi determinada utilizando-se cromo mordante como indicador. Os valores de pH no líquido ruminal foram medidos nos tempos de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação e a concentração de amônia nos tempos de 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 e 11 horas após a alimentação. A taxa de degradação da matéria seca (MS foi de 8,5%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 38,1% e a degradabilidade efetiva 30,3%. A taxa de degradação da proteína bruta (PB foi de 9,7%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 56,0% e a degradabilidade efetiva 47,5%. A celulose apresentou maior degradabilidade efetiva que a hemicelulose, com valores de 22,5 e 8,9%, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi 2,7%/h. O pH diminuiu linearmente à medida que os tempos de coleta aumentaram. Para o tempo de 5,13 horas após a alimentação, foi estimada a concentração máxima de amônia de 12,18mg/100ml. O feno de S. guianensis apresentou alta taxa de degradação e baixa degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs, were allocated in metabolic cages and were fed ad libitum with Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The in situ technique was used for determination of the degradability of the hay, at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The passage rate of solids was determined using chromium mordant as external marker. The pH of the rumen liquid was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding and the ammonia concentration at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 hours after feeding. The degradation rate, the potential degradability, and the effective degradability of dry matter (DM were 8.5%/h, 38

  17. Nutritional value of silk flower hay for lambs Valor nutritional do feno de flor-de-seda para cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated four levels of silk flower (Calotropis procera S.W. hay (SFH as a substitute of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hay (SBH in diet for lambs. Nutritional value of silk-flower hay was determined based on aparent digestibility and on metabolic, productive and economical performance of Santa Inês lambs. It was used twenty-four castrated males at 15.72 ± 1.92 kg body weight randomly distributed in four diets with silk-fklower and sorghum hay ratios (100:0, 66:33, 33:66, 0:100, and supplemented with a concentrate mixture based on 50% roughage:50% concentrate (weight/weight. Increase in the levels of silk-flower hay in the diet reduced weight gain and nutrient intake and it increased feed conversion and digestibility coeficients of all the nutrients. Nitrogen balance was similar in all levels of silk-flower hay, although there was a tendency of reduction in nitrogen retention at levels 66% and 100% of silk-flower hay. At the levels 0 and 33% of silk-flower hay in the diet, dry matter ingestion (170 and 180 g/day, daily average weight gain (84 and 89 g/kg0.75and feed conversion (4.99 and 5.02 were satisfactory. Silk-flower hay can represent up to 16.5% of the total food ingestion or 33% of the roughage in diet for lambs.Avaliaram-se quatro níveis de feno de flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera S.W. em substituição ao feno de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor na dieta de cordeiros. O valor nutricional do feno de flor-de-seda foi determinado com base na digestibilidade aparente e no desempenho metabólico, produtivo e econômico de cordeiros Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 24 machos castrados com peso corporal de 15,72 kg ± 1,92 kg distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro dietas com relações entre feno de flor-de-seda e de sorgo (100:0, 66:33, 33:66 e 0:100 e suplementadas com uma mistura concentrada à base de 50% de volumos e 50% de concentrado (peso/peso. O aumento nos níveis de feno de flor-de-seda na dieta diminuiu o ganho de peso e a ingestão de

  18. Use of remote sensing derived parameters in a crop model for biomass prediction of hay crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Mohammad; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cheviron, Bruno; Belaud, Gilles; Zribi, Mehrez

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest yield forecasting is a critical challenge for producers, especially for large agricultural areas. During previous decades, numerous crop models were developed to predict crop growth and yield at daily time, most often for wheat or maize, and also for grasslands. Crop models require several input parameters that describe soil properties (e.g. field capacity), plant characteristics (e.g. maximal rooting depth) and management options (e.g. sowing dates, irrigation and harvest dates), which are referred to as the soil, plant and management families of parameters. Remote sensing technology has been extensively applied to identify spatially distributed values of some of the accessible parameters in the soil, plant and management families. The aim of this study was to address the feasibility, merits and limitations of forcing remote-sensing-derived parameters (LAI values, harvest and irrigation dates) in the PILOTE crop model, targeting the Total Dry Matter (TDM) of hay crops. Results show that optical images are suitable to feed PILOTE with LAI values without inducing significant errors on the predicted Total Dry Matter (TDM) values (Root Mean Square Error "RMSE" = 0.41 t/ha and Mean Absolute Percentage Error "MAPE" = 22%). Moreover, optical images with revisit times lower than 16 days are adequate to feed PILOTE with remotely sensed harvest dates (RMSE PILOTE with noisy irrigation dates that were estimated from SAR images also enabled reliable model predictions, at least when attaching a random uncertainty of "only" 3 days to the real known irrigation dates. The case of one or several undetected irrigations has also been explored, with the expected conclusion that undetected irrigations significantly affect model predictions only in dry periods. For the tested soil properties and climatic conditions, a maximum underestimation of TDM of approximately 1.55 t/ha (reference TDM of 3.43 t/ha) was observed in the second crop growth cycle when ignoring two

  19. Performance of Beef Steers Fed Brewers Grain Ensiled With Hay or Forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    yearling Boran beef steers were fed on brewers grain ensiled with Rhodes grass hay or sorghum silage to assess steer nutrient intake, growth and fed conversion efficiency. Forage sorghum variety 'E6518' harvested at grain milk growth stage produced young sorghum silage while that harvested beyond had dough stage made old sorghum silage. At ensiling, brewers grain was mixed with hay, young or old sorghum at ratio of 60:40, 50:50 and 50:50 to produce silage A, B and C. Thirty Boran Steers were used in the experiment where 10 steers were fed on each of the three types of silage. The initial steer group weight averaged 187.6, 188.6 and 186.2 kg for those on diet A, B and C. The steers ate silage A,B and C for 68 days, the initial 12 days being the adaptation period. The pH of A, B and C were 4.7, 4.6 and 4.7. The mean composition of A, B and C were dry matter, 27.5, 23.2 and 23.4%, organic matter, 91.4, 90.0 and 90.3%, crude protein, 12.1 11.2 and 9.8%, crude fibre,26.5, 24.2 and 25.3%. Steer dry matter intake was 3.1, 4.3 and 4.5 kg on A, B and C. Diet A caused loss in steer weight while B and C produced steady growth. Steers on A lost 243 g daily while those on B and C gained 357 and 371 g daily. Feed efficiency expressed in gain per 100 kg dry matter was negative on A but 8.28 and 8.30 kg on B and C. The steer growth rates are similar to cattle grazed on improved ley or fodder and fed a limited amount of concentrates. The three types of silage required protein supplementation to increase growth

  20. Modeling and mitigating winter hay bale damage by elk in a low prevalence bovine tuberculosis endemic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, R M; Brook, R K

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife causes extensive crop damage throughout much of North America and these shared feeds are a key risk factor in the transmission of diseases between wildlife and livestock, including bovine tuberculosis (TB). Predicting wildlife use of agricultural crops can provide insight directed toward targeted disease mitigation at areas of potential indirect interaction. In this study, we quantified use of hay bales by elk (Cervus canadensis) during the winter in southwestern Manitoba, Canada using a database of 952 damage claims paid compensation from 1994 to 2012. We evaluated environmental factors predicted to determine risk of hay bale damage on each quarter section by elk using a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) model. The most important variables (as measured for each quarter section and based on cumulative Akaike weights that scale from 0 to 1) were distance to protected areas (1.00), forest including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), forage crop including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), distance from streams (0.99), forage crop (0.92), cereal and oilseed crop cover including a buffer (0.85), and forest cover (0.82). We then developed an RSPF-based predictive map of damage to hay bales by elk that identified key areas with high probability of damage (RSPF≥0.6), accounting for 3.5% of the study area. We then multiplied the RSPF values by the inverse of the proximity to known cases of TB positive elk and determined that 0.51% of the study area had an overall high combined probability of hay bale damage and proximity to TB positive elk (i.e. adjusted probability of ≥0.6). In the southern half of the study area where 164 hay yard barrier fences have been implemented since 2002, there has been a significant decrease in the number of annual claims. Barrier fencing around Riding Mountain National Park has been successful at reducing elk damage where it has been implemented. In our study area, prevalence of TB in both cattle (0

  1. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  2. Considerations for the use of restricted, soaked grass hay diets to promote weight loss in the management of equine metabolic syndrome and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Caroline McG; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; McGowan, Catherine M

    2015-11-01

    The addition of hay soaking to current nutritional advice for weight loss management for equine obesity lacks clinical evidence. Twelve overweight/obese horses and ponies were used to test the hypothesis that feeding soaked hay at 1.25% of body mass (BM) daily as dry matter (DM) before soaking would elicit weight losses within the target 0.5-1.0% of BM weekly. Six animals were used to evaluate the impact of nutrient-leaching on the digestibility and daily intakes of dietary energy and nutrients. Soaked hay DM was corrected in accordance with the 'insoluble' ADF content of fresh and soaked hays. The ADF-based method was validated using a test-soaking protocol. Animals fed soaked hay for 6 weeks lost 0.98 ± 0.10% of BM weekly. The most weight loss sensitive animal lost ~2% of BM weekly. Soaking hay did not alter DM gross energy concentrations, incurred losses of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ash and increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) concentrations. Digestibilities of GE, DM, ash and WSC were unaltered but soaking increased uncorrected values for crude protein (+12%) and ADF (+13.5%) digestibility. Corrected DM provision was only 1% of BM daily, providing 64% of maintenance DE requirements, a 23.5% increase in the intended magnitude of energy restriction. Hay soaking leached nutrients, reduced DM and DE provision and was associated with accelerated weight losses over those expected had fresh-hay been fed to the same level. The ADF-based method will allow the predictive evaluation of individual hays to direct feeding management and prevent inadvertently severe DM and energy restriction. PMID:26403956

  3. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI, C. zeylanicum (GII, and nystatin (GIII for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α=5%. For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P<0.0001, with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  4. 大叶芳樟优良单株选择技术研究%Superior Individual Selecting Technologies of Cinnamomum porrectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗忠生; 蒋志茵; 龙光远; 黄恒辉; 彭锦云

    2014-01-01

    对休眠期的大叶芳樟鲜叶进行水蒸气蒸馏,并采用气象色谱面积归一法对其精油进行检测,筛选出叶含油量1.3%以上、主成分右旋芳樟醇含量95%以上的大叶芳樟30棵。建议以上以母本进行无性繁殖繁育大叶芳樟苗木,营建原料林,为市场提供优质天然右旋芳樟醇。%The essential oil in leaves of Cinnamomum porrectum can be extracted by steam distillation. 30 C. porrectum trees were selected which oil content of fresh branch reached at 1.3%, and D-linalool content reached up to 95 %. Using the selected superior individual as parent generation to cultivate and manufacture raw material forests, and can provide high quality natural dextrorotary linalool for the market.

  5. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%, methyleugenol (19.98%, linalool (14.66% and camphor (5.5%. In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment, respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86% was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  6. Potential of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium as Antimicrobials and Curing of Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Kamal Khder

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two clinical isolates were collected from Sulaymani hospitals. The isolates show resistance to more than five antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium were proved to be the most powerful against E. coli E45 and E62 isolates, than aqueous extracts. The extracts exhibited most of the antibiotics activity against these two isolates irrespective of their antibiotic resistance behaviour. A comparative evaluation of plasmid elimination from E. coli E62 clinical isolate by sub-MIC of plant extracts showed that these extracts could cure plasmids effectively at their respective sub-MIC concentration. Maximum plasmid cured was observed by sub-MIC of ethanol extract of C. zeylanicum at 1100 :g/mL cured two plasmids 15 and 45 kb, followed by sub-MIC of L. usitatissimus extract at 1100 :g/mL was cured 45 kb plasmid and sub-MIC of aqueous and ethanol of Q. infectoria were cured 15 kb plasmid from E62 isolate. Curing of plasmid DNA from E. coli isolate confirmed by determining the loss of resistance markers in cured cultures.

  7. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry.

  8. 樟树优树生长与叶果性状分析%Analysis of Growth, Leaf and Fruit of Cinnamomum camphora Superior Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连辉明; 曾令海; 蔡燕灵; 何波祥; 张谦; 何立平; 周丽华; 蔡静如; 蓝燕群

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the growth, leaf and fruit traits of Cinnamomum camphora superior trees, selected from Guangdong province in 2003, and studied the traits of its leaves and fruits. The results show that; It is effective to select superior tree based on 5 dominant trees comparison. Variance analysis about the traits of the leaves and fruit shows that the differences were very significant between the superior trees and provenances. Dynamic clustering analysis shows that there are 7 kinds of leaf-fruit type.%文章通过分析2003年广东省所选樟树优树的生长与叶果性状,从多个角度证明了5株优势木法选出的樟树优树是合理的,大部分数量指标完全超过5株优势木,樟树优树的叶果性状在个体及种源间均呈极显著差异.动态聚类分析显示樟树优树叶果有7种类型,其中长叶重圆果型、圆叶轻圆果型和圆叶重圆果型较多,分别占所选优树的23.0%、41.4%和23.0%.

  9. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Improves Lipid Metabolism and Enhances β3-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of dietary Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) containing medium-chain triacylglycerols on lipid metabolism and mRNA and protein expression of β-3 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue were studied in diet-induced obese rats. High fat food-induced obese rats were randomly divided into CCSKO group, Lard group, Soybean oil (SOY) group and naturally restoring group (n = 10). Rats fed with low fat food were used as a normal control group. Significant decreases in body mass and abdominal fat mass/body mass after 12 weeks were found in CCSKO group as compared with Lard and SOY groups (p triglyceride, free fatty acid, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the CCSKO group were decreased significantly, and noradrenaline level and insulin sensitivity index in the CCSKO group were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile liver TC and triglyceride levels in the CCSKO group were also decreased markedly. Expression levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein were higher in CCSKO group than in Lard and SOY groups. These results suggest that CCSKO may contribute to reduction of the body fat mass, promote lipid metabolism and up-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor expression in high fat diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27068065

  10. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. PMID:26142866

  11. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition. PMID:25381741

  12. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids. PMID:27043503

  13. Effects of reforestation and intensified land use on vascular plant species richness in traditionally managed hay meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Myklestad, Åse; Sætersdal, Magne

    2003-01-01

    In this study of 130 sites with different management we investigated whether vascular plant species richness is significantly reduced when traditionally managed hay meadows are abandoned and reforested. We also compared the effects of reforestation with those of intensified land-use to see which have the largest effects on species richness. Finally, we investigated the relative importance of relevant ecological factors for species richness. While the use of artificial fertilizers in tradition...

  14. Structural Change of the Western United States Alfalfa Hay Market and its Effects of the Western United States Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cann, Joseph Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa is the fourth largest commodity grown in the Western U.S., representing 20% of the crop acreage over the past twenty years. In the last five years alfalfa hay price has doubled from what it was previously, indicating a possible structural change in the market. This research project was completed to test for this structural change using econometric analysis of the important demand components of alfalfa price. In addition to this, simulations of an average Utah dairy were completed to e...

  15. Aspects related to production e storage of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay with white oat IPR 126 and Guapa oversowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Ames

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics, curve dehydration, dry matter production, chemical composition, occurrence of fungi, temperature in the storage of hay bales of Tifton 85 oversowing with long-cycle oat (IPR 126 and oats for short-cycle grains production (Guapa, were evaluated. For chemical composition, the experimental design used was randomized blocks, a split-plot overtime and 3 treatments (single Tifton 85, Tifton 85 with IPR 126 oat oversowing and Tifton 85 in association with Guapa white oat and 3 assessment periods (cutting, baling and 30 days of storage with 5 repetitions. The dry matter production was higher in single Tifton 85 compared to associations with white oat. The largest stem diameter of guapa white oat contributed to reduce losses of water in the dehydration process, with the hay in this culture system being stored under 800 g kg-1 DM. It was found that the crude protein did not differ between cropping systems, but Tifton 85 hay showed high levels of acid detergent insoluble protein and higher levels of NDF and lignin. The occurrence of fungi was higher after storage predominating fungi of the genus Penicillium.

  16. Comparison between two hay based diets in buffalo nutrition: microbiological characteristics of milk, curd and mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Cuscunà

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of twenty milking Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed two diets, with the same energy and protein content, based on Italian ryegrass hay (diet G1 and Italian ryegrass hay silage (diet G2. Presumptive lactobacilli and lactococci were determined on milk, curd and mozzarella cheese, collected at 30, 60, 90 days from the beginning of the trial. Milk and mozzarella cheese at 30, 60, 90 days showed significantly higher microbial counts in diet G2 with respect to diet G1, apart from lactococci in milk at 90 days. For curd at 30, 60, 90 days the numbers of lactobacilli and lactococci in diet G1 were significantly higher with respect to diet G2, apart from lactococci at 30 days. Genetic analysis by 16S rDNA characterization of colonies, randomly isolated, showed in diet G2 also the presence of not lactic species. Probably Italian ryegrass hay silage, present in diet G2, could bring bacteria in the environment and consequently in the milk that are detrimental for the proper growing of lactic microflora in the curd and that are resistant to the high temperature used in the mozzarella cheese making process.

  17. Long-term falls in antibodies to dust mite and pollen allergens in patients with asthma or hay fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, F C; Burr, M L; Platts-Mills, T A

    1983-09-01

    'Spontaneous' improvement in, or alteration of, allergic symptoms is a common occurrence, and the immunological basis is of interest in attempts to develop effective specific therapy. In the present study we measured levels of serum antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients diagnosed as having house-dust-allergic asthma up to 40 years previously. The results show a progressive fall in both IgG and IgE antibodies to antigen P1 and RAST binding to crude D. pteronyssinus extract. By contrast changes in total serum IgE were not marked. Within each of the groups of patients diagnosed 20, 30 and 40 years previously, 70% no longer suffered severe symptoms. However, the absence of detectable IgE antibody in serum was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for loss of symptoms. A group of patients who had spontaneously recovered from hay fever had significantly lower IgG and IgE antibody for the major grass pollen allergen Rye I and also lower total IgE than current hay fever sufferers. In neither hay fever nor asthma was there evidence to link spontaneous improvement in symptoms with an increase in IgG antibodies.

  18. Efficacy of grass-maize pollen oral immunotherapy in patients with seasonal hay-fever: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, C H; De Wet, J I

    1987-11-01

    Forty patients with a well-documented history of seasonal hay fever and a positive skin-prick test specific to grass pollen, including Bermuda grass and maize pollen (Zea maize), were allocated randomly on a double-blind basis to receive either an oral mixed grass-maize pollen extract or a matched placebo during the 1981/1982 grass pollen season. After 12 months the code was broken and patients on placebo were transferred to active therapy while patients on active therapy continued with maintenance therapy for another 12 months during the 1982/1983 grass pollen season. The assessment of the effect of the orally administered grass-maize pollen extract was on the clinical symptoms. During the first year the patients on active therapy had significantly fewer hay fever symptoms during the summer months compared with the placebo group. During the second study year, with all patients on active therapy, both groups had markedly milder symptoms compared with the placebo group. Side-effects were negligible. This study concludes that oral immunotherapy with grass-maize pollen extract in grass pollen-sensitive seasonal hay fever patients is safe and effective.

  19. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  20. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  1. Effect of dental correction on voluntary hay intake, apparent digestibility of feed and faecal particle size in horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirglmaier, S; Remler, H-P; Senckenberg, E; Fritz, J; Stelzer, P; Kienzle, E

    2013-02-01

    In nine adult Warmblood horses with mild to moderate dental findings (no signs of discomfort during chewing), voluntary hay intake before and after dental correction was examined. In a second experiment, digestibility of feed and faecal particle size were determined (3 days of total faecal collection) before and after dental correction. During both digestion trials including a 3-day adaptation period, the amount of hay and concentrate (mixture of oats, barley and maize) was kept constant in each individual horse before and after dental correction. Voluntary hay intake in individual horses ranged from 11 to 22 g DM/kg BW/day and did not differ before and after dental treatment. Apparent digestibility of DM, energy, crude fibre and Nfe increased significantly after dental correction (energy digestibility before dental correction 46.8 ± 7.4%, after dental correction 51.5 ± 8.5%). Apparent digestibility of feed was higher in horses eating more concentrates than in those eating less concentrates. Improvement of digestibility was more marked in horses eating larger amounts of grain. There was no relationship between severity or type of dental alterations and improvement of apparent feed digestibility. Dental correction had no effect on faecal particle size.

  2. Efect of urea levels on the nutritional value of Tanzania-grass hay/
    Efeito de níveis de uréia sobre o valor nutricional do feno de capim-Tanzânia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele de Jesus Ferreira; Edson Mauro Santos; Anderson de Moura Zanine; Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of the urea addition on the nutritional value of the Tanzânia-grass hay (Panicum maximum, Jacq cv. Tanzânia). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four treatments: T1 – only hay, T2 – hay with 1.0% of urea, T3 – hay with 2.0% of urea and T4 – hay with 3.0% of urea, with base in the dry matter, and ten replicates per treatment. There was positive linear effect of the urea levels on the crude protein (CP), being the largest l...

  3. Airborne pollen spectrum of Dnіpropetrovsk city as a basis of hay fever control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rodinkova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hay fever is important allergenic complain with number of patients rising year by year. Ukraine holds the leading positions in Europe in accordance with pollinosis morbidity. Therefore, it’s important to determine regional pollen spectrum for all five climatic and geographical zones of the country having certain variety of plants’ allergens. There are just a few cities with a constant pollen monitoring carried out in Ukraine. They are Vinnytsia, Kyiv, Odessa and Lviv. Palynological range of other Ukrainian cities remains unknown or poorly studied. Dnipropetrovsk – Ukrainian city with location in the Central part of the country in the Steppe zone – isn’t exception as well. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine the pattern of airborne pollen distribution and pollen calendar creation for the city of Dnipropetrovsk. Pollen count obtained at Vinnytsia National Pirogov Memorial Medical University (VNMU by Aerobiology Research Group. Study was held in 2010 from the 17th of March till the 20th of October on daily basis employed volumetric methods using the Burkard trap. It stands on the roof of the Dnipropetrovsk Municipal hospital at 20 meters of a relative height above ground. The air samples were sent by currier mail on weekly basis from Dnipropetrovsk to Vinnytsia for the research term. 51 pollen types were determined during the study period. The aeropalinological research was done for the Dnipropetrovsk at first. Study was conducted in association with the European Aeroallergen Network (EAN. The EAN tools and the software package “Statistica 5.5” were used for data statistical analysis. The study showed prevalence of the airborne herbal pollen types in Dnipropetrovsk. The “weeds : trees” pollen ratio was «88 : 12». Most abundant pollen rain (59% of total annual pollen count was produced by Ambrosia. The second position with 6% was held by Amaranthus / Chenopodiaceae pollen group and Urtica dioica pollen. Artemisia and

  4. [Desensitization at the first stage of IGE-mediated response as hay fever prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniazdowska, B; Gniazdowski, R

    The aim of our work was to assess the prophylactic aspects of desensitization at the first stage of IgE-mediated response to grass pollen antigens (GPA). Forty six patients aged 10-45 (Me = 20.45) years (group I) and 50 patients aged 11-45 (Me = 19.17) years (group II) were included in to the study. All of them: 1) suffered from allergic rhinitis due to house dust (HD), feathers (F), weed (W) or tree (T) pollen, 2) had also some other allergic diseases, 3) had positive family history of allergic disorders, 4) had reproducible, strongly positive skin reaction of type I to GPA, but 5) did not show any clinical symptoms of hypersensitivity to GPA. Specific immunotherapy with HD, F, W, and T aqueous extracts was administered to both groups for at least 3 successive years, while parallel desensitization with GPA aqueous extract was carried out in group I, only. The symptoms of grass pollinosis were searcher for and the effects of immunotherapy were evaluated in all the patients over the period of at least 5 successive years after the complete course of vaccines administration. Clinical signs of hypersensitivity to GPA became evident in 6 patients (13.04%) of group I and in 27 patients (54.00%) of group II (p less than 0.001). Thus the desensitization at the first stage of IgE-mediated response to GPA effectively prevented development of the symptomatic hay fever. However, the disease revealed itself in few cases still much later and its course was much milder than in people who were not subjected to such a preventive desensitization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2098734

  5. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  6. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  7. Spatial and temporal assessment of cumulative disturbance impacts due to military training, burning, haying, and their interactions on land condition of Fort Riley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangxing; Murphy, Dana; Oller, Adam; Howard, Heidi R; Anderson, Alan B; Rijal, Santosh; Myers, Natalie R; Woodford, Philip

    2014-07-01

    The effects of military training activities on the land condition of Army installations vary spatially and temporally. Training activities observably degrade land condition while also increasing biodiversity and stabilizing ecosystems. Moreover, other anthropogenic activities regularly occur on military lands such as prescribed burns and agricultural haying-adding to the dynamics of land condition. Thus, spatially and temporally assessing the impacts of military training, prescribed burning, agricultural haying, and their interactions is critical to the management of military lands. In this study, the spatial distributions and patterns of military training-induced disturbance frequency were derived using plot observation and point observation-based method, at Fort Riley, Kansas from 1989 to 2001. Moreover, spatial and variance analysis of cumulative impacts due to military training, burning, haying, and their interactions on the land condition of Fort Riley were conducted. The results showed that: (1) low disturbance intensity dominated the majority of the study area with exception of concentrated training within centralized areas; (2) high and low values of disturbance frequency were spatially clustered and had spatial patterns that differed significantly from a random distribution; and (3) interactions between prescribed burning and agricultural haying were not significant in terms of either soil erosion or disturbance intensity although their means and variances differed significantly between the burned and non-burned areas and between the hayed and non-hayed areas.

  8. Composition analysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil and shell oil%樟树籽仁油和壳油的油脂组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曼丽; 杨辉; 杨芳; 胡蒋宁; 邓泽元

    2012-01-01

    The grease composition of Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil and shell oil was analyzed and compared. The results indicated that the kernel oil was rich in capric acid and lauric acid accounting for a-bout 95%,and evenly distributed at Sn-1,2 and 3 positions of triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids of the shell oil were capric acid, oleic acid and lauric acid. The total content of capric acid and lauric acid was about 48% , half of which was distributed at Sn-2 position. The content of oleic acid was 27. 60% and concentrated at Sn-1 and Sn-3 positions. The stigmasterol content of the kernel oil was 33. 89 mg/100 g, which was three times of that in the shell oil. The kernel oil contained without squalene,or with content lower than the HPLC detection limit. The squalene content of the shell oil was 1. 88 mg/100 g. Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil mainly contained α-VE,δ-VE and γ-VE with 30. 45 mg/100 g totally,among which the γ-VE content was highest with about 19. 47 mg/100 g. The total VE content of the shell oil was two or three times than that of the kernel oil,with highest content of α-VE.%以樟树籽为研究对象,对其仁油及壳油的油脂组成进行分析比较.结果表明,仁油中富含癸酸和月桂酸,占95%左右,并且均匀分布在甘油三酯Sn-1,2和3位上;壳油中脂肪酸主要为癸酸、月桂酸和油酸,其中癸酸和月桂酸总量为48%左右,半数分布在Sn-2位上,油酸含量达27.60%,并集中在Sn-1,3位上.仁油中豆甾醇含量为33.89mg/100 g,壳油中豆甾醇含量是仁油的3倍左右.仁油中不含角鲨烯或者其含量低于HPLC检出限,壳油中角鲨烯含量为1.88mg/100 g.樟树籽仁油中主要含有α-VE,δ-VE和γ-VE,总量为30.45mg/100 g,其中以γ-VE含量最高,为19.47mg/100 g;壳油中VE总量是仁油的2~3倍,其中以α-VE含量最高.

  9. 不同生长势古香樟矿质营养分析%Analysis of Mineral Nutrition of Ancient Cinnamomum camphor with Different Growth Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利娟; 杨志民; 贺随超; 刘君

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamomum camphor is a very important species for greening and beautifying in southern city. Ancient C. Camphor objectively records the social development and species change, however, its aging is increas-ingly serious. Based on nutritional deficit theory, we analyzed 12 kinds of mineral elements in leaves of ancient C. Camphor with different growth potential, in order to find the key elements caused aging and provide theory basis of aging evaluation and regeneration. Results showed that, there was no significant difference in the content of K be-tween different seasons, while significant but small differences in the contents of the others. The differences be-tween different trees were related with the grade of senescence. When dij was 5 (dij means Euclidean distance) , the tested C. Camphor could be divided into 3 grades ( I , II and Ⅲ, respectively) according to growth potential (from strong to weak) by clustering analysis. With senescence aggravating, the content of Na and Al in leaves in-creased , while the others decreased, and the ratio of N, P and K was imbalanced seriously. By principal compo-nent analysis, three main components were extracted, whose accumulative total variance contribution rate was 94.91%. The variance contribution of the first principal component was 69.25% , including P, K, Cu, Fe, Mg and B. The second principal component was N, its variance contribution was 13.45%. The variance contribution of the third principal component was 12. 21% , including Ca, Al, Zn and Mn.%香樟(Cinnamomum camphor)是南方城市绿化、美化的重要树种,古香樟客观记录了社会发展和物种变迁,但其衰老现象日趋严重.文章从营养亏缺理论出发,对不同生长势古香樟叶片12种矿质元素进行分析,以期找到引起其衰老的关键元素,为古树名木评价和复壮提供依据.研究结果表明:不同季节间,K含量差异不显著,其他各元素在部分季节间存在差异,但差异较小;不同生长势

  10. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. PMID:25683297

  11. Antiproliferative Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents and Effects of Pifithrin-Alpha on Their Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Hep G2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lean-Teik Ng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde (Cin, cinnamic acid (Ca and cinnamyl alcohol (Cal, major constituents of Cinnamomum cassia, have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and other activities. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of these compounds in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells and examine the effects of pifithrin-alpha (PFTα; a specific p53 inhibitor on their apoptotic signaling transduction mechanism. The antiproliferative activity was measured by XTT assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blotting. Results showed that at a concentration of 30 μM, the order of antiproliferative activity in Hep G2 cells was Cin > Ca > Cal. Cin (IC50 9.76 ± 0.67 μM demonstrated an antiproliferative potency as good as 5-fluorouracil (an anti-cancer drug; IC50 9.57 ± 0.61 μM. Further studies on apoptotic mechanisms of Cin showed that it downregulated the expression of Bcl-XL, upregulated CD95 (APO-1, p53 and Bax proteins, as well as cleaving the poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in a time-dependent pattern. PFTα pre-incubation significantly diminished the effect of Cin-induced apoptosis. It markedly upregulated the anti-apoptotic (Bcl-XL expression and downregulated the pro-apoptotic (Bax expression, as well as effectively blocking the CD95 (APO-1 and p53 expression, and PARP cleavage in Cin-treated cells. This study indicates that Cin was the most potent antiproliferative constituent of C. cassia, and its apoptotic mechanism in Hep G2 cells could be mediated through the p53 induction and CD95 (APO-1 signaling pathways.

  12. Investigation of Solidifying Volatile Oil from Cinnamomum cassia with Porous Starch%多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁青; 蒋艳荣; 张振海; 贾晓斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate properties of solidifying volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia with porous starch. Method: Volatile oil from C. cassia was solidified by porous starch, Effect of different dosages of porous starch on yield of cinnamaldehyde, in vitro dissolution and thermal stability; Physical characterization of solidified powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) and differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) . Result: Yield of cinnamaldehyde was up to 92. 6% , when solidification ratio of porous starch to volatile oil was 2:1; Dissolution rate of cinnamaldehyde increasesd and its thermal stability improved after volatile oil from C. cassia was solidified. Conclusion: Production technology of solidifying volatile oil from C. cassia by porous starch was simple and convenient operation with high application value.%目的:评价多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油的特性.方法:采用多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油,考察多孔淀粉用量对桂皮醛收率、体外溶出度和受热稳定性的影响;采用差示扫描量热法和扫描电镜法对固化粉末进行物相表征.结果:多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油质量比2∶1,桂皮醛收率达92.6%;肉桂挥发油被固化后,桂皮醛体外溶出速率加快,受热稳定性提高.结论:多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油的生产工艺简单、操作方便,具有较高的应用价值.

  13. Effects of harvesting on productivity of bay leaf tree (Cinnamomum ta-mala Nees & Eberm):Case from Udayapur district of Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dyutiman Choudhary; S.P Kala; N.P Todaria; S. Dasgupta; M. Kollmair

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of bay leaves (Cinnamomum tamalaNees & Eberm) to fulfil household income needs is a long established practice in Udayapur district of Nepal. The practices adopted by farmers for bay leaf harvesting have not, however, been validated by scientific investigation for their sustainability. To investigate the impacts of harvesting on the yield of branch, leaves and biomass of leaves, a two-year research project was conducted in farm fields at Kopche village of Routa VDC in Udayapur district, Nepal. Four different harvesting treatments, the orien-tation and the order of branches were taken as independent variables to test their effects on number of branches, leaves and biomass of leaves. Orientation, harvesting treatments and order of branches had a significant effect on the number of branches, but not on the number of leaves or biomass (fresh and dry weight) of leaves in the year of harvest. Between two consecutive harvests there was no significant difference in the num-ber of branches, leaves or biomass. Lower two-thirds portion of the trees produced the largest number of leaves and branches of the fourth order in both years. Therefore, lower two-thirds portion of the trees were suitable for harvesting. Our findings support farmer experience that no change in productivity of leaves is observed when harvesting each year. For long term sustainability, harvesting should be conducted without debarking of trees or damage to branches. Our findings could be extrapolated to and tested in other areas with different access and user rights where the rota-tion for harvest is fixed or regulated without research evidence.

  14. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Suresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%. CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results CTO (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased reduced glutathione (GSH. Conclusion Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity.

  15. Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde: a novel antiproliferative drug inducing cell death through targeting both topoisomerase I and II in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Cherng, Jonathan; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Yang, Shu-mei; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum verum is used to manufacture the spice cinnamon. In addition, the plant has been used as a Chinese herbal medication. Methods We investigated the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the cortex of the plant, and the molecular biomarkers associated with tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphological analysis with bright field, acridine orange, and neutral red stainings, as well as comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was determined by assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VACs) were determined by neutral red staining. Results The results demonstrate that 2-MCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis as implicated by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, increase of annexin V+PI+ cells, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Furthermore, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with elevated VAC, cytotoxicity, and inhibitions of topoisomerase I as well as II activities. Additional study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of 2-MCA found in a nude mice model. Conclusions Our data implicate that the antiproliferative activity of 2-MCA in vitro involved downregulation of cell growth markers, both topoisomerase I and II, and upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with increased lysosomal vacuolation. In vivo 2-MCA reduced the tumor burden that could have significant clinical impact. Indeed, similar effects were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 and Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data implicate that 2-MCA could be a

  16. クスノキ (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees and Eberm.) のクローン大量増殖

    OpenAIRE

    アザド,ムスタファ・アブル・カラム; 横田,信三; 石栗,太; 矢原,正治; 吉澤,伸夫

    2005-01-01

    無菌的に生育した実生由来の植物体を用いて、サイトカイニンとオーキシンを異なる濃度で様々に組み合わせて添加したMS培地で培養することにより、クスノキ (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees and Eberm.) の大量増殖プロトコルを開発した。子葉の節を4.0μM BAPを含むMS培地で培養することにより、最も多くの腋芽シュートが得られた。5.0μM BAPと2.0μM NAAを含むMS培地で誘導されたカルスから、不定シュートを得ることが出来た。そのシュートを2.0μM BAPと0.5μM NAAを含むMS培地で培養し、シュートを増殖させ、伸長させた。無菌的に増殖させ、伸長させたシュートを1.0μM IBAを含むMS培地で培養し、発根させた。無菌的に再生した幼植物体を鹿沼土に移植して馴化させたところ、生存率は90%であった。...

  17. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinjarernpan Pannee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia oil (CO from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC 50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages.

  18. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  19. En este último mes del año 2007 hay varias noticias importantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redaccion Veterinaria.org

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este último mes del año 2007 hay varias noticias importanteshttp://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n121207/1207editorial00.pdfAsí es, pues aparte de los artículos, informamos de dos reuniones importantes de ámbito latinoamericano en las que REDVET ha participado: la Asamblea Anual o Junta de editores anual de e-revistas de las revistas que conformamos la Plataforma OpenAcces de Revistas Electrónicas Españolas y Latinoamericanas, celebrada en Madrid,en las instalaciones del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, y el I EncuentroLatinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas, celebrado en Córdoba en las instalaciones de la Facultad de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Córdoba. Igualmente nos hacemos eco de varias bases de datos donde REDVET está indexada y, de manera especial en el importante directorio universitario de Chile, Al día, junto con RECVET, y de la culminación plena en la Red de Revistas Científicas de AméricaLatina y el Caribe, España y Portugal (Redalyc. Igualmente, reproducimos la carta enviada en octubre pasado a la Comisión Nacional Evaluadora de la Actividad Investigadora de España en defensa de la adecuada valoración de las revistas científicas electrónicas que en conjunto firmamos con el resto de editores que integramos la Plataforma Open Access de Revistas ElectrónicasEspañolas y Latinoamericanas e-revist@ Esa y otras noticias están disponibles en el número normal de REDVET de este mes de diciembre del 2007.Ahora bien en este mes el número normal se complementa con otros números monográficos de REDVET, el Monográfico sobre Bienestar Animal, con lo que por fin podemos cumplir, antes de terminar el año, con lo avisado en la Editorial de REDVET de Julio http://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n070707.html “Confiamos en la compresión de la mayoría de vosotros y para compensaros os adelantamos que el equipo directivo de Veterinaria.org no tomaremos vacaciones este verano para cumplir

  20. Detecting the Seeds of Nassella neesiana in Large Round Hay Bales, by Means of Non-Destructive Core Sampling.

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    Sandra Weller

    Full Text Available In the last three decades or so there has been a significant increase in fodder trading, both in terms of the quantity of fodder traded and in terms of its economic value to the industry. Often, this fodder type may be supplied free of charge to graziers in distress due to circumstances that follow natural disasters such as bushfires, drought, and flood. However, because of the obvious urgency arising from these situations, it is suspected that much relief fodder may unintentionally pose an elevated risk for dispersal of weeds since it may be supplied from pasture not normally used for trade in fodder, and therefore is of unknown quality. Previous destructive method to detect weed propagules in bales of fodder are cumbersome, time consuming and of limited ecological and statistical value. Therefore, objective of this paper was to development of a convenient method to assess round pasture hay bales for the presence of weed propagules, to prevent unintentional spread of noxious species in hay bales. To examine this objective known quantity of seeds were added in a series of distributions to bales of seed free pasture hay, and a positive correlation for the amount of seed added per bale with that recovered in core samples was observed. Whilst the number of seeds detected per bale varied according to the distribution of seeds within the bales and the number of cores analysed, the absolute detection of seeds suggests that this sampling method is worthy of further examination. In addition, a pragmatic estimation of bale remnants after stock feeding has been investigated to more closely estimate the potential size of the remaining seed bank. The authors propose that development of this approach is timely, in the light of future climatic uncertainty driving extreme weather events that increase the need for relief fodder, which can be a potential vector for the spread of noxious weed seeds.

  1. Detecting the Seeds of Nassella neesiana in Large Round Hay Bales, by Means of Non-Destructive Core Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sandra; Florentine, Singarayer; Sillitoe, James; Grech, Charles; McLaren, David; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades or so there has been a significant increase in fodder trading, both in terms of the quantity of fodder traded and in terms of its economic value to the industry. Often, this fodder type may be supplied free of charge to graziers in distress due to circumstances that follow natural disasters such as bushfires, drought, and flood. However, because of the obvious urgency arising from these situations, it is suspected that much relief fodder may unintentionally pose an elevated risk for dispersal of weeds since it may be supplied from pasture not normally used for trade in fodder, and therefore is of unknown quality. Previous destructive method to detect weed propagules in bales of fodder are cumbersome, time consuming and of limited ecological and statistical value. Therefore, objective of this paper was to development of a convenient method to assess round pasture hay bales for the presence of weed propagules, to prevent unintentional spread of noxious species in hay bales. To examine this objective known quantity of seeds were added in a series of distributions to bales of seed free pasture hay, and a positive correlation for the amount of seed added per bale with that recovered in core samples was observed. Whilst the number of seeds detected per bale varied according to the distribution of seeds within the bales and the number of cores analysed, the absolute detection of seeds suggests that this sampling method is worthy of further examination. In addition, a pragmatic estimation of bale remnants after stock feeding has been investigated to more closely estimate the potential size of the remaining seed bank. The authors propose that development of this approach is timely, in the light of future climatic uncertainty driving extreme weather events that increase the need for relief fodder, which can be a potential vector for the spread of noxious weed seeds. PMID:26348493

  2. Effects of cottonseed meal supplementation time on ruminal fermentation and forage intake by Holstein steers fed fescue hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, M B; Krysl, L J; Barton, R K; Holcombe, D W; Gunter, S A; Broesder, J T

    1991-09-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (average BW 303 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design digestion trial to study the influence of daily cottonseed meal (CSM; 1.6 g of CP/kg of BW) supplementation time on forage intake and ruminal fluid kinetics and fermentation. Steers were housed individually in tie stalls and were fed chopped fescue hay on an ad libitum basis at 0600 and 1400. Treatments were 1) control, grass hay only (CON) and grass hay and CSM fed once daily at 2) 0600 (EAM) 3) 1000 (MAM), or 4) 1400 (PM). Ruminal NH3 N concentrations reflected a time of supplementation x sampling time interaction (P less than .05); CON steers had the lowest (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 N concentrations at all times other than at 0600, 1000, 1200, and 2400, when they did not differ (P greater than .05) from at least one of the supplemented groups. Forage intake, ratio of bacterial purine:N, rate of DM and NDF disappearance, and ruminal fluid kinetics were not influenced (P greater than .05) by supplementation time. Total ruminal VFA differed (P less than .05) between CON and supplemented steers, as well as among supplemented steers (linear and quadratic effects P less than .05). Acetate, propionate, and valerate proportions were influenced (P less than .05) by a sampling time X supplementation time interaction. Under the conditions of this study, greater peak ammonia concentrations with morning supplementation than with afternoon supplementation did not stimulate ruminal fermentation or rate of NDF disappearance.

  3. Effect of method of applying fibrolytic enzymes or ammonia to Bermudagrass hay on feed intake, digestion, and growth of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, N A; Adesogan, A T; Staples, C R; Krueger, W K; Kim, S C; Littell, R C; Sollenberger, L E

    2008-04-01

    This study examined how different methods of applying a fibrolytic enzyme or ammonia affect the nutritive value of Bermudagrass hay and the performance of beef cattle. Fifty Angus x Brangus crossbred steers (mean initial BW 244 +/- 26 kg) were individually fed for ad libitum intake of a 5-wk regrowth of a mixture of Florakirk and Tifton 44 Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers] hay for 84 d with a concentrate supplement (77% soybean hull pellets, 23% cottonseed meal (DM basis) fed at 1% of BW daily. The Bermudagrass was conserved as hay without treatment (control), with NH(3) (30 g/kg of DM), or with a fibrolytic enzyme (16.5 g/t, air-dry basis) that was applied immediately after cutting (Ec), at baling (Eb), or at feeding. Chromic oxide was dosed to steers for 10 consecutive days, and fecal Cr concentrations from the last 5 d were used to estimate apparent total tract digestibility. In situ ruminal DM degradability was measured by incubating ground (4-mm) hay samples in duplicate in each of 2 ruminally cannulated cows having ad libitum access to Bermudagrass hay and 500 g/d of soybean meal. Unlike the enzyme treatment, ammoniation increased (P 0.05) by treatment. The wash loss fractions in hays treated with Ec and Eb were lower than that in the control hay, but the potentially degradable fraction, total degradable fraction, and the effective degradability were increased (P < 0.01) by NH(3) treatment. Application at cutting was the most promising method of enzyme treatment, and this treatment was almost as effective as ammonia for enhancing forage quality. PMID:18156364

  4. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, M; Neres, M A; Guimarães, V F; Klein, J; Inagaki, A M; Ducati, C

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more

  5. Utilization of conserved Lucerne Hay as a Protein Supplement in the Diet of Calves on Smallholder Farms of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutritive value and the conserved lucerne hay as a protein supplement in the diet of calves reared on the smallholder farms of Kenya was studied in relation to feed intake, growth rate and efficiency of feed utilization. Forty Friesian calves aged one week were allocate in a completely randomised design experiment to the following five dietary treatments: Napier Grass only (N) and supplemented with 33% lucerne (NL33), 50% lucerne (NL50), 67% lucerne (NL67) and 100% lucerne hay (L100) in the diet of calves. Results showed that increasing the level of lucerne supplementation in the ratio of dairy calves from 50 to 100% lucerne hay significantly (P <0.01) increased the crude protein content the mixed ration from 13.8 t o 16.88% CP which would meet the protein, requirement of the growing ruminants. The growth rate of calves increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the levels of lucerne supplements fro 50 to 100 % lucerne hay resulting in 0.02 kg gain more growth per day per kg additional feed supplement given. The cost of production per kg gain decreased with increase in the level of lucerne supplementation and cost of could further reduced by farmers growing lucerne on the smallholder farms for use in compounding home-made ration at the farm level. Result of these study further shows that lucerne as a leguminous forage has ability to fix Nitrogen in the soil which has significantly effect on soil fertility, increased crop yields and reduction in the cost of fertilisers. It is recommended that an acre of lucerne could yield five to seven tons of dry matter per year sufficient to rear a herd of 15 to 20 calves for a period of 1 year. This research has further shown that a pure stand of lucerne crop which is very deep rooted crop has a longevity of five to seven years in the same field and that pest and diseases are not of a serious problem to lucerne, thus making it excellent supplementary legume to the Napier grass in the diet of calves on smallholder farms of Kenya

  6. The Hayes principles: learning from the national pilot of information technology and core generalisable theory in informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions Had the Hayes principles been embedded within our approach to health IT, and in particular to medical record implementation, we might have avoided many of the costly mistakes with the UK national programme. However, these principles need application within the modern IT environment. Closeness to the patient must not be interpreted as physical but instead as a virtual patient-centred space; data will be secure within the cloud and we should dump the vault and infrastructure mentality. Health IT should be developed as an adaptive ecosystem.

  7. Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:20050945

  8. Confirmed Datura poisoning in a horse most probably due to D. ferox in contaminated tef hay : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gerber

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two out of a group of 23 mares exposed to tef hay contaminated with Datura ferox (and possibly D. stramonium developed colic. The 1st animal was unresponsive to conservative treatment, underwent surgery for severe intestinal atony and had to be euthanased. The 2nd was less seriously affected, responded well to analgesics and made an uneventful recovery. This horse exhibited marked mydriasis on the first 2 days of being poisoned and showed protracted, milder mydriasis for a further 7 days. Scopolamine was chemically confirmed in urine from this horse for 3 days following the colic attack, while atropine could just be detected for 2 days. Scopolamine was also the main tropane alkaloid found in the contaminating plant material, confirming that this had most probably been a case of D. ferox poisoning. Although Datura intoxication of horses from contaminated hay was suspected previously, this is the 1st case where the intoxication could be confirmed by urine analysis for tropane alkaloids. Extraction and detection methods for atropine and scopolamine in urine are described employing enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS.

  9. Radiocaesium transfer to ewes fed contaminated hay after the Chernobyl accident: effect of vermiculite and AFCF (ammonium ferricyanoferrate) as countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated hay harvested in the south-east of France in June 1986 was fed to lactating and non-lactating ewes for 50-60 days. The mean transfer coefficients observed were 0.075 days litre-1 to milk and 0.11 days kg-1 to meat. Adding vermiculite to feed pellets decreased the transfer coefficients by a factor of 2.5 to both milk and meat if given at 30 g day-1; a factor of 8 difference was reached using 60 g day-1 added vermiculite or 2 g day-1 ammonium ferricyanoferrate (AFCF). No adverse effects on intake rates, animal weight or milk production were observed during the administration period (90-100 days, 50-60 days during the oral contamination and 40 days during the depletion period), whatever the treatment. Three lactating goats were fed the same contaminated hay, but chopped and mixed with powdered maize, for 15 days. The mean milk transfer coefficient was lower than that for ewes at 0.032 days litre-1. (author)

  10. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  11. Effect of feeding maize silage supplemented with concentrate and legume hay on growth in Nellore ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Malisetty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main intension of this research work is to develop a feeding system for growing Nellore ram lambs by feeding maize silage based rations supplemented with concentrate and or legume hay at certain levels to investigate the growth rate. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (Nellore ram lambs were purchased from local sandy and maize silage was prepared at village by using silos (9''L X 9''W X 8''D and concentrate mixture was prepared at feed mill located at department by using locally available ingredients. Animals were housed in well ventilated sheds and were dewormed and vaccinated against diseases. Fortnightly body weights were taken by using spring balance and calculated the total weight gain and ADG. The experimental animals were divided into seven groups based on their body weight to contain six in each and were fed intensively for five months with sole maize silage (R-I, silage + concentrate at 0.5 per cent body weight (R-II, silage + concentrate at 1.0 per cent body weight (R-III, silage + concentrate at 1.5 per cent body weight (R-IV, silage + lucerne hay (R-V and silage + GN haulms (R-VI and sweet sorghum bagasse based complete diet (R-VII to study the growth rate. Results: Significantly (P<0.01 increase in ADG was observed in ram lambs fed R-IV ration was 16.58, 20.49, 24.10, 29.74, 38.28 and 62.01 per cent, respectively in comparison to those fed R-VII, R-V, R-III, R-VI, R-II and R-I rations. Almost similar ADG was noticed in lambs fed R-III, R-V and R-VII rations and the supplementation of concentrate at 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of body weight plus maize silage ad lib has increased the growth/gain in ram lambs by 62.48, 99.81 and 163.25 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole silage feeding. Similarly, supplementation of lucerne hay and groundnut haulms with maize silage has increased the weight gain by 109.31 and 84.97 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole maize silage fed animals. Sole sweet sorghum bagasse

  12. Milk yield response of cows supplemented with sorghum stover and Tithonia diversifolia leaf hay diets during the dry season in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katongole, Constantine Bakyusa; Kabirizi, Jolly Mary; Nanyeenya, William Ntege; Kigongo, John; Nviiri, Geofrey

    2016-10-01

    Five primiparous cows (Friesians crossed with undefined breeds and in early lactation) were used to assess the milk yield response of dairy cows offered a basal feed of Panicum maximum hay and supplemented with diets based on sorghum stover and Tithonia diversifolia leaf hay during the dry season. The cows were assigned to five experimental diets in a 5 × 5 Latin square design of 21-day experimental periods. The experimental diets consisted of a control (Panicum hay alone), and four experimental diets whereby Panicum hay was supplemented with diets based on sorghum stover, Tithonia leaf hay, maize bran, sunflower cake, and sugar cane molasses as follows: stover/Tithonia/bran/molasses (STBM), stover/Tithonia/bran (STB), stover/Tithonia/bran/cake (STBC), and stover/bran/cake (SBC). The supplements were formulated and offered to meet the crude protein and energy recommendations of a 350-kg cow producing about 10 kg milk/day. Average milk yield significantly increased (P  0.05) in the amounts consumed across the supplements. A similar trend was observed for milk returned/kg supplement consumed. On average, each kilogram of STB, STBC, STBM, and SBC returned 0.48, 0.37, 0.29, and 0.29 kg milk/day, respectively. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that supplements based on sorghum stover and Tithonia leaf hay are a viable option as dry season feed supplements for dairy cows. However, only two supplements, namely STB and STBC, had positive net financial benefits. PMID:27517580

  13. The effect of feeding barley or hay alone or in combination with molassed sugar beet pulp on the metabolic responses in plasma and caecum of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Jensen, R.; Austbo, D.; Blache, D.;

    2016-01-01

    Highly fermentable fibre sources like sugar beet pulp (SBP) might be fed as an alternative to starch rich concentrate to horses. However, including soluble fibre from SBP in a meal of con-centrate might delay gastric emptying and increase viscosity in the small intestine, altering or impairing...... glucose absorption, hence affect the metabolic responses measured in plasma and the hindgut. Four diets with different carbohydrate composition were investigated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment in four periods using four caecum cannulated Norwegian coldblooded trotter horses. The diets were hay...... and HAY + SBP. Diet also affected the proportions of acetate (P fermented by the caecal microbes. Feeding barley...

  14. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  15. IN SITU AND LABORATORY GEOTECHNICAL TESTS OF THE PIERRE SHALE NEAR HAYES, SOUTH DAKOTA - A CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERING BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Thomas C.; Collins, Donley S.; Davidson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation of the Pierre Shale near Hayes, South Dakota, was conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey as a basis for evaluating problems in deep excavations into that formation. The physical and mechanical properties of the shale were determined through use of core holes drilled to a maximum depth of 184 m. In situ borehole determinations included a gravimeter survey, pressuremeter testing, thermal profile measurements, and borehole velocity measurements. Onsite and offsite laboratory measurements included rebound measurements, sonic velocity measurements of shear and primary waves, X-ray mineralogy and major element determinations, size analyses, fracture analyses, fabric analyses, and determination of thermal properties. The properties of the clay shale indicate problems that may be encountered in excavation and use of deep underground facilities.

  16. A vueltas con la enseñanza inicial de la lengua escrita. No hay nada resuelto?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martínez, Pilar; Gallardo Fernández, Isabel María; Ríos García, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    La justificación para abordar este tema en un contexto de formación de docentes viene dada por el hecho de que los resultados de la investigación nos ofrecen pautas para la enseñanza inicial de la lengua escrita, que si bien no son absolutamente nuevas, se van clarificando cada vez más, apoyándose o corroborando otros estudios anteriores. Ya no hay excusas para desconocer cuáles son los parámetros en los que sería conveniente basar la enseñanza de la lengua escrita, más allá de los métodos, ...

  17. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume leaves on some food-related bacteria Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial das folhas de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre bactérias de interesse em alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, has long been known for having many biological properties. This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves using GC-MS and to assess its inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on MIC and MBC determination and kill-time study. Eugenol (73.27% was the most prevalent compound in the essential oil followed by trans-β-cariophyllene (5.38%, linalool (3.31%, and alcohol cinamic acetate (2.53%. The results showed an interesting antibacterial activity of the oil with MIC ranging from 1.25 to 10 µL.mL-1. MBC values were in the range of 20 - 80 µL.mL-1. A concentration of 10 and 40 µL.mL-1 of the essential oil caused a fast and steady decrease in viable cell count (2 to 5 log cycles of all assayed strains along 24 hours. A concentration of 40 µL.mL-1 of the oil provided a total elimination of the initial inocula of S. aureus after 2 hours. These results show the possibility of regarding the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves as alternative sources of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food conservation systems.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, é uma espécie vegetal reconhecida, a longo tempo, como possuidora de muitas propriedades biológicas. Este estudo objetivou identificar os constituintes do óleo essencial das folhas de C. zeylanicum, utilizando CG-EM, e avaliar seu efeito inibitório sobre Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa através da determinação da CIM e CBM, bem como através da análise do tempo de morte bacteriana. Eugenol (73,27% foi o composto mais prevalente no óleo essencial, seguido por trans-β-cariofileno (5,38%, linalol (3,31% e álcool acetato cinâmico (2,53%. Os resultados mostraram uma interessante atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial com CIM, variando de 1,25 a 10 µL.mL-1. Os valores de

  18. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae essential oil and beta-pinene on the growth of dematiaceous moulds Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae e beta-pineno sobre o crescimento de fungos dematiáceos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pessoa Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous moulds are pathogen microorganisms able to act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oil and beta-pinene in inhibiting the growth of various strains of dematiaceous moulds (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia sp., Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Antimicrobial assays were led by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC using the solid medium diffusion procedure and observing the interference of the MIC values on the mould radial mycelial growth along 14 days. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil oscillated between 63 and 125 µL/mL. beta-pinene showed MIC value of 125 µL/mL for the most mould strains, however C. resinae and C. globosum were resistant to it in all assayed concentrations. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene presented intense fungicidal effect noted by a total inhibition of the mycelial growth of C. cladosporioides and F. compacta along 14 days of exposure. These results showed the intense antimould potential of C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene which could be regarded in a rational use in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat some mycoses, particularly, those caused by dematiaceous moulds.Os fungos dematiáceos são microrganismos patogênicos capazes de agir como agentes etiológicos de micoses com diferentes graus de severidade. Este estudo avaliou a efetividade do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e beta-pineno em inibir o crescimento de várias cepas de fungos dematiáceos (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia, Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Os ensaios antimicrobianos foram conduzidos através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima-CIM utilizando-se da t

  19. Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: chemical and antimicrobial characterization Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: caracterização química e antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Freire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Origanum majorana L. (marjoram, Illicium verum Hook. f. (star-anise and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon were obtained by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger device. The antimicrobial activity of each oil was evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by observing their growth and/or mycelial inhibition through comparison with the standard dish (without oil. The essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for identification and coupled to a flame ionization detector for quantification. The major constituents of marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon essential oils were 4-terpineol, trans-anetole and cinnamic aldehyde, respectively. In in vitro tests, essential oils of marjoram and cinnamon promoted an inhibitory effect on the bacteria S. aureus and E. coli, while the essential oil of star-anise presented activity only against E. coli. Marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon oils were effective against the studied fungi, presenting an inhibitory effect. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was 1 and 0.01 µL mL-1 for star-anise and cinnamon oils, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for A. parasiticus was 0.25, 2 and 2 µL mL-1 for cinnamon, star-anise and marjoram oils, respectively.Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L. (manjerona, Illicium verum Hook. f. (anis estrelado e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (canela foram obtidos pela técnica de arraste a vapor d'água com aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Foram avaliadas as atividades antimicrobianas de cada um sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e para os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus, observando o crescimento e/ou inibição micelial, comparando-se estes com a placa-padrão (sem óleo. Os óleos essenciais foram analisados em cromat

  20. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the rowth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species Efeito do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 µL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 µL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 µL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume é uma planta conhecida por apresentar ampla variedade de propriedades medicinais. Portanto, este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a interferência do óleo essencial C. zeylanicum sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas. O óleo essencial testado apresentou potente efeito antifúngico demonstrado pela visualização de grandes zonas de inibição de crescimento de todas as linhagens testadas. Os valores de CIM50 e de CIM90 foram 40 e 80 µL/mL, respectivamente. Nas concentrações de 80, 40 e 20 µL/mL o óleo demonstrou um potente efeito fumigante, inibindo o crescimento micelial radial de A. niger, A. flavus e A. fumigatus ao longo de 14 dias de exposição. A 80 e 40 µL/mL o óleo essencial promoveu inibição de 100% da germinação de esporos, das três espécies de Aspergillus citadas

  1. Addition of fructooligosaccharides and alfalfa hay to the diet of weaned piglets on the microbiota and the small intestine morphology

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    Fabio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to verify the effect of the fructooligossaccharide prebiotic (FOS addition in the diet containing varying levels of alfalfa hay, on the microbiology and intestinal morphology of weaned piglets. It was used 72 piglets, crossed, both sexes, with initial weight of 5.95 ± 0.73 Kg, with approximate age of 21 days. It was evaluated the treatment: T1 – Basal feed + 0% FOS; T2 – Basal feed + 0.3% FOS; T3 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; T4 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS; T5 – Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS. In the end of the experimental period one piglet of each replication was slaughtered for the collection of sample aiming to analyze Salmonela sp. and coliformes and intestinal morphology (height of villus and depht of crypt. The analysis for coliformes didn’t show statistic difference among the levels of FOS and alfalfa hay. It wasn’t find Salmonella sp. colonies in the samples. No difference was observe in the crypt depht (P>0.05 among the treatments. The height of villus and the relation of height of villus per depht of crypt, the group without the addition of FOS didn’t show difference (P>0.05, however, the group supplemented with 0.3% of FOS showed a significant improvement (P<0.05 related to levels of 5% and 10% of alfalfa. There was no influence of treatment on the presence of Salmonella sp. and E. Coli. Regarding intestinal morphology data for villus height and villus height ratio/crypt depth showed the best results in the presence of FOS.

  2. 樟树、柑橘、冬青卫矛炭疽病病原学比较研究%Comparison of the Pathogen of Cinnamomum camphora, Euonymus japonicus and Citrus reticulata Anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柏泉; 邹东霞; 卢宗荣; 余兴主

    2006-01-01

    采用组织分离法,对樟树(Cinnamomum camphora)、冬青卫矛(Euonymus japonicus)、柑橘(Citrus reticulata)3个树种炭疽病进行病原分离,经纯化培养,在此基础上进行寄主接种试验.结果表明,3种炭疽病的病原均为炭疽菌属的胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloesporioides).3个炭疽菌的分生孢子萌发、附着孢的形态学特征以及纯化培养的菌落均存在一定的差异.致病性测定结果显示,3个菌种分别对同一寄主的致病性存在一定的差异.

  3. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de alho e casca de canela contra fungos do grupo Aspergillus flavus Evaluation of essential oils from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum zeilanicum and their toxicity against fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson de C. Viegas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da propriedade inibitória de óleos essenciais vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos e da importância das espécies do grupo Aspergillus flavus, que apresentam potencial para síntese de aflatoxina, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro a toxicidade de óleos essenciais vegetais contra fungos do grupo A. flavus, isolados a partir da cultura do amendoim. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a toxicidade de oito óleos essenciais vegetais no desenvolvimento micelial de dois isolados do grupo A. flavus, em comparação ao fungicida sintético benomyl. Em seguida, foi avaliada a toxicidade dos óleos de casca de canela (Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. e de bulbilho de alho (Allium sativum L. contra 37 isolados do grupo A. flavus, durante 12 meses. A maior inibição do desenvolvimento micelial de A. flavus foi obtida com o emprego dos óleos essenciais de casca de canela e de bulbilho de alho, e o efeito inibitório variou com o isolado testado.Considering the inhibitory property of essential plant oils on the mycelial development of fungi, and the importance of Aspergillus flavus-like fungi which may produce aflatoxins, this research was designed to evaluate the toxicity of essential oils against fungi belonging to the group A. flavus isolated from peanut crops. The toxicity of eight essential oils against two isolates of A. Flavuslike fungi was evaluated in comparison to the synthetic fungicide benomyl. The toxicity of Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. and Allium sativum L. essential oils was also evaluated against 37 fungal isolates for a period of 12 months. The highest inhibition of the mycelial development of A. flavus was obtained with cinnamon and garlic essential oils. The inhibitory effect on growth was variable according to the fungal isolate.

  4. Effects of including saponins (Micro-aid®) on intake, rumen fermentation, and digestibility in steers fed low-quality prairie hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen ruminally-cannulated crossbred steers (529 ± 45 kg initial body weight, BW) were used to evaluate in situ dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (aNDF), and N degradation characteristics of low quality prairie hay, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and rumen fermentation parameters in steers provi...

  5. Influence of supplemental whole flaxseed level on forage intake and site and extent of digestion in beef heifers consuming native grass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of supplemental whole flaxseed level on intake and site and extent of digestion in beef cattle consuming native grass hay. Nine Angus heifers (avg. BW 303 ± 6.7 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 × 3 ...

  6. Compendium of Curriculum Projects for 1991 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Ancient and Modern Egypt and Israel, June 20-22, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    These curriculum projects were produced by teachers who traveled to Egypt and Israel as part of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The materials developed by the educators were: Activities and Bibliography of Resources to Promote Student Involvement in a Class Study of Egypt and Egyptian Culture (Edith Baxter); Egypt at the Crossroads of…

  7. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a F

  8. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  9. 樟树5种化学类型叶片转录组分析%Transcriptome analysis for leaves of five chemical types in Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江香梅; 伍艳芳; 肖复明; 熊振宇; 徐海宁

    2014-01-01

    樟树(Cinnamomum camphora )是樟科植物的一个代表种,具有材用、药用、香料、油用和生态环境建设等多种用途.叶精油中富含利用价值极高的樟脑、芳樟醇、1,8-桉叶油素、异-橙花叔醇和右旋龙脑等萜类化合物.依据叶精油中主要成分的种类和含量,可将樟树划分为脑樟、芳樟、油樟、异樟、龙脑樟5种化学类型.文章采用Illumina HiSeq 2000高通量测序技术,对5种化学类型叶片转录组进行测序,对测序得到的所有Unigene进行GO(Gene Ontology)、COG(Clusters of Orthologous Groups)和KEGG(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes)分类,给出功能注释和Pathway注释,并预测Unigene蛋白编码区(Coding sequence,CDS).De novo组装共获得156 278个Unigene,序列平均长度584 bp,N50(覆盖50%所有核苷酸的最大Unigene长度)为1 023 bp.通过与其他核酸、蛋白数据库的Blast搜索比对,共有55 955条Unigene获得了基因注释,占所有Unigene的35.80%.其中,有24 717条Unigene得到GO注释,有21 806条Unigene得到COG注释.KEGG pathways分析结果表明,共有3 350条基因(10.19%)注释到次生代谢生物合成途径,其中参与单萜、二萜、倍半萜和萜类骨架合成的Unigene有424个.在单萜合成的代谢通路中,有9条Unigene可能编码芳樟醇合成酶基因,且表达分析结果显示,芳樟醇合成酶基因在芳樟化学类型中优势表达,在油樟化学类型中表达水平较低.这些注释信息的完成为樟树功能基因及相关候选基因的发掘提供了基础数据和重要依据.

  10. The study on essential oil components and comparison of identification in Chinese cassia and Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu.%国产肉桂和大叶清化桂的鉴别比较及其挥发油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世伟

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares Chinese cassia with Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu in macroscopical identification, microscopical identification, and physicochemical identification, and determing the content of essential oil in different parts of two plants.The results showed Cinnamadehyde content in Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu is higher than Chinese cassia, its quality is superior.%对国产肉桂与大叶清化桂的性状鉴别、显微鉴别、理化鉴别进行了比较,并测定了二者不同部位挥发油含量,论证了大叶清化桂皮中桂皮醛含量要高于国产肉桂,其质较优.

  11. 肥料配施对苜蓿干物质产量的影响%Effects of Mixed Fertilizer Applications on Hay Yield of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高向培; 李运起; 唐淑霞; 李建国; 曹玉凤; 李秋凤; 于合兴; 李月娥; 杨武

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同元素合理配施对苜蓿产量的影响.[方法]试验采用四元二次回归正交旋转组合设计,研究了硫酸钾、氯化铵、过磷酸钙和氧化镁对苜蓿干物质产量的影响.[结果]试验肥料对苜蓿干物质产量的影响顺序为硫酸钾>氯化铵>氧化镁>过磷酸钙.其中,硫酸钾对苜蓿干物质产量有显著影响,硫酸钾和氧化镁互作时产量影响显著.[结论]获得苜蓿干物质产量为19 224.6 kg/hm以上的优化方案为硫酸钾163.235~181.679 kg/hm;氯化铵155.877~174.258 kg,/hm;过磷酸钙566.177~632.924 kg/hm;氧化镁30.060-33.628 kg/hm.%[ Objective] To study the effects of combined application of different elements on alfalfa hay yield. [ Method] Potassium sulfate,ammonium chloride, superphosphate and magnesium oxide were applied to alfalfa field in the experiment, and quaternary quadratic regression orthogonal combination was used to examine the effects of the experiment factors on hay yield of alfalfa. [ Result] The order of targets based on the effects on hay yield is as follows: potassium sulfate > ammonium chloride > magnesium oxide > superphosphate. Among them, the potas sium sulfate had a significant impact on alfalfa hay yield. The interaction between potassium sulfate and magnesium oxide also had a significant impact on alfalfa hay yield. [ Conclusion] The optimal cultivation measures for alfalfa hay yield of more than 19 224.6 kg/hm2 are as follows:potassium sulfate, 163. 352 - 181. 679 kg/hm2; ammonium chlorie, 155. 877 - 174. 258 kg/hm2; superphosphate, 566. 177 - 632. 924 kg/hm2; and magnesium oxide, 30.060 - 33. 628 kg/hm2.

  12. An Integrated Multi-Omics Approach Reveals the Effects of Supplementing Grass or Grass Hay with Vitamin E on the Rumen Microbiome and Its Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Kingston-Smith, Alison H; Newbold, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Rumen function is generally suboptimal leading to losses in methane and nitrogen. Analysis of the rumen microbiome is thus important to understanding the underlying microbial activity under different feeding strategies. This study investigated the effect of forage conservation method and vitamin E supplementation on rumen function using a rumen simulation technique. Ryegrass (GRA) or ryegrass hay (HAY) was supplemented with 20% concentrate containing zero or 50 IU/d vitamin E, as α-tocopheryl acetate, according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. The forage conservation method did not substantially change the nutrient composition but had a profound impact on the structure and diversity of the rumen microbiome. HAY diets promoted a more complex bacterial community (+38 OTUs) dominated by Firmicutes. This bacterial adaptation, together with increased rumen protozoa levels and methanogen diversity, was associated with greater fiber disappearance (+12%) in HAY diets, but also with greater rumen true N degradability (+7%) than GRA diets. HAY diets also had a higher metabolic H recovery and methane production (+35%) suggesting more efficient inter-species H transfer between bacteria, protozoa and methanogens. Contrarily, GRA diets promoted more simplified methanogen and bacterial communities, which were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus, thus lactate formation may have acted as an alternative H sink in GRA diets. Moreover the structure of the bacterial community with GRA diets was highly correlated with N utilization, and GRA diets promoted greater bacterial growth and microbial protein synthesis (+16%), as well as a more efficient microbial protein synthesis (+22%). A dose-response experiment using batch cultures revealed that vitamin E supplementation increased rumen fermentation in terms of total VFA and gas production, with protozoal activity higher when supplying α-tocopheryl acetate vs. α-tocopherol. Moreover, α-tocopheryl acetate promoted a small increase

  13. An Integrated Multi-Omics Approach Reveals the Effects of Supplementing Grass or Grass Hay with Vitamin E on the Rumen Microbiome and Its Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Kingston-Smith, Alison H.; Newbold, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Rumen function is generally suboptimal leading to losses in methane and nitrogen. Analysis of the rumen microbiome is thus important to understanding the underlying microbial activity under different feeding strategies. This study investigated the effect of forage conservation method and vitamin E supplementation on rumen function using a rumen simulation technique. Ryegrass (GRA) or ryegrass hay (HAY) was supplemented with 20% concentrate containing zero or 50 IU/d vitamin E, as α-tocopheryl acetate, according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. The forage conservation method did not substantially change the nutrient composition but had a profound impact on the structure and diversity of the rumen microbiome. HAY diets promoted a more complex bacterial community (+38 OTUs) dominated by Firmicutes. This bacterial adaptation, together with increased rumen protozoa levels and methanogen diversity, was associated with greater fiber disappearance (+12%) in HAY diets, but also with greater rumen true N degradability (+7%) than GRA diets. HAY diets also had a higher metabolic H recovery and methane production (+35%) suggesting more efficient inter-species H transfer between bacteria, protozoa and methanogens. Contrarily, GRA diets promoted more simplified methanogen and bacterial communities, which were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus, thus lactate formation may have acted as an alternative H sink in GRA diets. Moreover the structure of the bacterial community with GRA diets was highly correlated with N utilization, and GRA diets promoted greater bacterial growth and microbial protein synthesis (+16%), as well as a more efficient microbial protein synthesis (+22%). A dose-response experiment using batch cultures revealed that vitamin E supplementation increased rumen fermentation in terms of total VFA and gas production, with protozoal activity higher when supplying α-tocopheryl acetate vs. α-tocopherol. Moreover, α-tocopheryl acetate promoted a small increase

  14. Reproductive Response of Ewes Fed with Taiwan Grass Hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) Supplemented with Duckweed (Lemna sp. and Spirodela sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetina-Córdoba, P.; Ortega-Cerrilla, M. E.; Sánchez Torres-Esqueda, M. T.; Herrera-Haro, J. G.; Ortega-Jiménez, E.; Reta-Mendiola, J. L.; Vilaboa-Arroniz, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of duckweed (DW) supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI), presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4) in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH). Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05); however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05) on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05). However the period was significant (p<0.01), since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application. PMID:25049670

  15. [The effect of methanol extracts of sawdust on the digestion of cellulose, hay and wheat bran in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalc, D; Zelenák, I; Bucko, J; Vendrák, T; Siroka, P

    1990-07-01

    An experiment was treated to investigate the effects of an extract of conditioned beech sawdust (80% methanol extraction) on the in vitro digestion of cellulose and on the digestion of hay and wheat bran diet (80 to 20%) in a artificial rumen (Rusitec). The addition of 10, 25, 50, 75 mg of extract to 0.25 g cellulose reduced significantly its digestibility from 94.5 to 92.9%; 90.4; 85.2; 82.1 and 80.1%, respectively. The addition of 0.6, 1.5 and 3.0 g of extract to 14 g diet DM in Rusitec decreased the digestibility from 49.6 to 41.8%. Gas (CO2, H2, CH4) production increased as well as the production of total volatile fatty acids: acetic, propionic, n-butyric and isobutyric, glucose utilization and ATP production were also better. The addition of extracts did not influence significantly the effectiveness of microbial proteosynthesis (YATP). The methanol extract of conditioned beech sawdust contained reducing sugars (saccharides), besides the phenolic substances (syringaldehyde and vanillin); these sugars influenced diet fermentation in Rusitec. PMID:2087799

  16. ¿Hay un hipertexto en esta clase? Dispositivos pedagógicos, tecnología y subjetividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Armella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan resultados de una investigación en torno a los procesos de transformación de los dispositivos pedagógicos, atendiendo a la introducción de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC en nuestras sociedades. El trabajo de campo fue realizado en escuelas secundarias públicas de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Entendemos que las TIC tienen efectos en nuestras formas de pensar y actuar en el mundo, en los procesos de producción de subjetividad, en cuanto forman parte de la transformación material y simbólica de nuestra vida cotidiana y de las instituciones. Las escuelas no han quedado exentas de ello: hoy se encuentran interpeladas por los modos en que se adquieren los procesos de producción, distribución y acceso a la cultura. Por medio del análisis de episodios nos proponemos describir las modalidades en que los procesos de informatización de la vida social se expresan en el espacio escolar. Ante la pregunta ¿hay un hipertexto en esta clase? procuramos describir algunas de las dinámicas que caracterizan los dispositivos pedagógicos en tiempos digitales y/o postalfabéticos.

  17. Que hay en el horizonte sobre el virus del papiloma humano, vacunas y el control del cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. García

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión provee una visión general sobre las infecciones genitales producidas por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH y de las neoplasias relacionadas con éste y la información sobre las expectativas crecientes de la vacunación como medio de prevención. Se explora como se han desarrollado las vacunas contra el VPH y que aspectos hay que tener en cuenta para una posible implementación de un programa de vacunación para prevenir el cáncer cervical, como los costos, el público objetivo (varones, mujeres o ambos, grupos de riesgo, a que edad vacunarlos, consideraciones que debemos tener en cuenta en la promoción de la vacuna, que pasaría con los programas de detección precoz de cáncer cervical y cuales son los potenciales problemas que tendría en países en desarrollo.

  18. Response in two commercial Holstein herds to addition of sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, D L; Bishop, S E; Peterson, N G; Hight, W B; De Peters, E J

    1985-07-01

    Feeding trials were conducted in two commercial dairy herds to evaluate the addition of .8% sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets. Approximately half of each herd served as controls and the other half was fed the same diet with sodium bicarbonate. A total of 1280 Dairy Herd Improvement Association lactation records were obtained in the two herds during the trials. Cows in herd 1 were milked three times daily and cows in herd 2 were milked twice daily. In herd 1, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 7491 and 7748 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8363 and 8791 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8713 and 9562 kg/cow. There were no differences in milkfat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. In herd 2, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 6800 and 7158 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8487 and 8082 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8807 and 8216 kg/cow. First lactation cows fed sodium bicarbonate had a lower milk fat percentage than controls. There were no other differences in milk fat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. PMID:2993391

  19. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  20. (S*)-2,7,8-Trihydroxychroman-4-one

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yi Chen; Ming-Jen Cheng; Hung-Chun Yeh; Wen-Li Lo

    2009-01-01

    Reticumanone (1), a new chromanone, isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum reticulatum Hay (Lauraceae), has been characterized as (S*)-2,7,8-trihydroxychroman-4-one, by means of spectroscopic methods.

  1. The Hays Office and the Two Updated Film Versions of Madeleine Smith’s Case: Letty Lynton (1932 and Dishonored Lady (1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen GUIRALT GOMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The celebrated case of Madeleine Smith, the Glasgow poisoner, who was tried for murder (and absolved in 1857, has resulted in many novels, plays, films and television series. Hollywood, during its classical period, made two updated versions of the incident: Letty Lynton (Clarence Brown, 1932 and Dishonored Lady (Robert Stevenson, 1947. Even though the two films are separated by more than a decade, the self-censorship introduced by the studios themselves – MPPDA, commonly known as the Hays Office – exercised so much control over the two pictures that they can hardly be taken as equivalent. This article proposes a comparative analysis of the two films and how censorship acted as a constraint on them. Through this study, we will establish the different ways the MPPDA acted towards the same material both before and after July 1934, when Hollywood became subject to the rigorous oversight of the Hays Code.

  2. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics of Physiologically Etiolated Cinnamomum camphora leaves%生理性黄化香樟叶绿素荧光特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁梦; 陈晓娟; 秦金舟; 刘桂华

    2013-01-01

    The daily changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Cinnamomum camphora leaves at different levels of etiolation were studied .The results showed that the F0(minimal fluorescence ),Fm(maximal flu-orescence),Fm′(actual maximal fluorescence ),Fv(variable fluorescence ),Fv/Fm(optimal/maximal photochemi-cal efficiency of PSⅡ),Fm/F0(electron transfer rate ),and Fv/F0(potential activity of PSⅡ) first increased and then descended in the healthy and light-etiolated camphor leaves between 08:00-16:00,and the highest values occurred between 12:00 to 14:00.The daily change trend of N P,Q(non-photochemical quenching ) was contrary to those parameters mentioned above ,the trend was first increasing and then descending ,and the lowest values of Fm/F0 and Fv/F0 occurred in the period of 12:00 to 14:00,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed a flat trend in moderate-and severe-etiolated camphor leaves .The average values of Fv/Fm in health camphor leaves were obviously higher than those in the etiolated camphor leaves .The maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡin the healthy camphor leaves was higher ,the average electron transfer rate and the potential activity of PSⅡshowed a descending trend .The daily average value of N P,Q in the etiolated camphora leaves was obviously higher than that in the healthy camphor leaves ,and increased with the increase of etiolation degree ,indicating that the more seriously the leaves were etiolated the higher proportion of light energy was absorbed by camphor leaves to avoid the destruction of photosynthetic tissue through hot dissipation .%对冬季不同黄化等级的香樟叶片主要叶绿素荧光参数的日变化进行了测定。结果表明:从08:00-16:00,健康和轻度黄化香樟F0(最小荧光)、Fm(最大荧光)、Fm′(光适应下的最大荧光)、Fv(可变荧光)、Fv/Fm (PSⅡ最大光能转换效率)、Fm/F0(电子传递效率)、Fv/F0(PSⅡ潜在活性)均呈现

  3. [The effect of monensin on the fermentation of feed with different proportions of hay and concentrate in an artificial rumen (rumen simulation technic)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalc, D; Baran, M; Vendrák, T; Siroka, P

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with rumen pouch (RUSITEC--Rumen Simulation Technique). In four fermentation vessels (V), percent proportions of hay and barley were as follows: V1--40:60, V2 - 60:40, V3--80:20 and V4--100:0. Every day 5 mg of monensin dissolved in 1 ml 96% ethanol were added to each fermentation vessel. All diets were isonitrogenous, and after an addition of urea the crude protein (CP) content made 13% in each diet. The experiment lasted 12 days: so called steady state period took the first six days when the fermentation conditions were stabilized. Monensin reduced dry matter digestibility, production of total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, n-butyric and isovaleric acids and acetate: propionate proportion, and it increased the production of propionic and n-valeric acids. The production of methane and CO2 decreased. The higher proportion of hay in diets decreased dry matter digestibility, digestibility of detergent fibre, total and individual volatile fatty acids, CO2, methane energy yield of volatile fatty acids (E), glucose utilization, production of adenosine triphosphate and production of fermented hexoses. The production, utilization and recovery of metabolic hydrogen also decreased. The effectiveness of microbial matter synthesis (YATP = 11.3) was highest during the fermentation of feed containing 60% hay and 40% barley. PMID:1926680

  4. Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P gluten feed, producers can reduce the frequency of supplementation to every other day without reducing digestibility or N retention. PMID:22064733

  5. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  6. Spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in two hybrid poplar-hay crop systems in southern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Canadian agricultural operations contribute approximately 8% of national GHG emissions each year, mainly from fertilizers, enteric fermentation, and manure management (Environment Canada, 2010). With improved management of cropland and forests, it is possible to mitigate GHG emissions through carbon (C) sequestration while enhancing soil and crop productivity. Tree-based intercropped (TBI) systems, consisting of a fast-growing woody species such as poplar (Populus spp.) planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, were one of the technologies prioritized for investigation by the Agreement for the Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AAGGP), because fast growing trees can be a sink for atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2) as well as a long-term source of farm income (Montagnini and Nair, 2004). However, there are relatively few estimates of the C sequestration in the trees or due to tree inputs (e.g., fine root turnover, litterfall that gets incorporated into SOC), and hybrid poplars grow exponentially in the first 8-10 years after planting. With the current study, our objectives were (1) to evaluate spatial variation in soil C and nitrogen (N) storage, CO2 and nitrogen oxide (N20), and tree and crop productivity for two hybrid poplar-hay intercrop systems at year 9, comparing TBI vs. non-TBI systems, and (2) to evaluate TBI systems in the current context of C trading markets, which value C sequestration in trees, unharvested crop components, and soils of TBI systems. The study results will provide meaningful measures that indicate changes due to TBI systems in the short-term and in the long-term, in terms of GHG mitigation, enhanced soil and crop productivity, as well as the expected economic returns in TBI systems.

  7. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  8. Bacterial communities in the rumen of Holstein heifers differ when fed orchardgrass as pasture versus as hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazzudin eMohammed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich and diverse microbiota of the rumen provides ruminant animals the capacity to utilize highly fibrous feedstuffs as their energy source, but there is surprisingly little information on the composition of the microbiome of ruminants fed all-forage diets, despite the importance of such agricultural production systems worldwide. In three 28-d periods, three ruminally-cannulated Holstein heifers sequentially grazed orchardgrass pasture (OP, then were fed orchardgrass hay (OH, then returned to OP. These heifers displayed greater shifts in ruminal bacterial community composition (determined by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes than did two other heifers maintained 84 d on the same OP. Phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated all ruminal samples, and quantitative PCR indicated that members of the genus Prevotella averaged 23 % of the 16S rRNA gene copies, well below levels previously reported with cows fed total mixed rations. Differences in bacterial community composition and ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA profiles were observed between the OP and OH despite similarities in gross chemical composition. Compared to OP, feeding OH increased the molar proportion of ruminal acetate (P = 0.02 and decreased the proportion of ruminal butyrate (P < 0.01, branched-chain VFA (P < 0.01 and the relative population size of the abundant genus Butyrivibrio (P < 0.001, as determined by pyrotag sequencing. Despite the low numbers of animals examined, the observed changes in VFA profile in the rumens of heifers on OP vs. OH are consistent with the shifts in Butyrivibrio abundance and its known physiology as a butyrate producer that ferments both carbohydrates and proteins.

  9. 芳樟无性系叶精油及芳樟醇含量变异分析%Analysis on content variation of essential oil and linalool from leaf of Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国防; 于静波; 冯娟

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil content and linalool relative content in leaf of excellent individual of Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera Fujita. clones and their variation states were compared. The result shows that essential oil content of the maternal plant is 1.78% and its linalool relative content is 97.56%. Average content of essential oil in leaf of the first and the second generation clones of tissue culture and their cutting clone is 1.65% , 1.60% and 1.58% with CV values of 9.09% , 7.50% and 7.59% , respectively, and average relative content of linalool in these clones is 94.32% , 94.52% and 94.60% with CV values of 0. 60% , 0. 73% and 0. 73% , respectively. There is some difference in essential oil content and linalool relative content between the first generation clone of tissue culture and the maternal plant, but the difference is small. Essential oil content and linalool relative content among these clones have no significant difference and those are stable within clones, indicating the clonal progeny can keep their parent 's good traits.

  10. Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho-Yiu; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Yang, Shu-mei; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Chang, Chen-Mei; Yao, Belen T; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26676220

  11. Discovery of a novel anti-cancer agent targeting both topoisomerase I and II in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamomum verum has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in the DNA content in sub G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis. 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against Hep 3B cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity, inflammatory responses involving COX-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26707867

  12. Na+ transport across rumen epithelium of hay-fed sheep is acutely stimulated by the peptide IGF-1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zanming; Martens, Holger; Schweigel-Röntgen, Monika

    2012-04-01

    An energy-rich diet leads to enhanced ruminal Na(+) absorption, which is associated with elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and an increased number of IGF-1 receptors in rumen papillae. This study examined the in vitro effect of IGF-1 on Na(+) transport across the rumen epithelium of hay-fed sheep, in which the IGF-1 concentration in plasma is lower than in concentrate-fed animals. At concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 μg l(-1), serosal LR3-IGF-1, a recombinant analogue of IGF-1, rapidly (within 30 min) stimulated the mucosal-to-serosal Na(+) flux (J(ms)Na) and consequently the net Na(+) flux (J(net)Na). Compared with controls, J(net)Na increased by about 60% (P LR3-IGF-1 (20 μg l(-1)). The IGF-1-induced increment of J(ms)Na and J(net)Na was inhibited by mucosal amiloride (1 mmol l(-1)). Neither IGF-1 nor amiloride altered tissue conductance or the short-circuit current of the isolated rumen epithelium. These data support the assumption that the stimulating effect of serosally applied IGF-1 on Na(+) transport across the rumen epithelium is mediated by Na(+)-H(+) exchange (NHE). A further study was performed with cultured rumen epithelial cells and a fluorescent probe (BCECF) to estimate the rate of pH(i) recovery after acid loading. The pH(i) of isolated rumen epithelial cells was 6.43 ± 0.15 after butyrate loading and recovered by 0.26 ± 0.02 pH units (15 min)(-1). Application of LR3-IGF-1 (20 μg l(-1)) significantly increased the rate of pH(i) recovery to 0.33 ± 0.02 pH units (15 min)(-1). Amiloride administration reduced the recovery rate in both control and IGF-1-stimulated cells. These results show, for the first time, that an acute effect of IGF-1 on Na(+) absorption across rumen epithelium results from increased NHE activity. Insulin-like growth factor 1 is thus important for the fast functional adaptation of ruminal Na(+) transport via NHE. PMID:22227200

  13. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  14. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  15. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  16. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  17. Funciones del sueño en un auto de Calderón: Sueños hay que verdad son (1670)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    International audience SUMMARY:This study seeks to analyze the different functions of dream in the auto of Calderón, Sueños hay que verdad son (1670), which is based on some episodes from Josef's life in Genesis. Beginning with the structuring function of dream, in Bible stories, I study the dramatic function of this motif in this auto, within the sacramental frame of a double reading: historial and allegorical. After first establishing the structure of the work based on its metrical organ...

  18. Introduction to japanese politics; Louis D. Hayes : M. E. Sharpe. Armonk, New York. London, England. Third Edition. 2001. Pp. 386

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    Luego de una introducción sobre las etapas históricas y características geográficas del archipiélago nipón, Hayes se centra en la etapa de la ocupación y los avatares ocurridos a las instituciones preexistentes, especialmente los zaibatsus, en virtud de la nueva constitución de 1947. Luego analiza los diferentes procesos que llevaron al Japón al lugar destacado que ocupa actualmente. Primero elabora el proceso político, al que describe con su organización, procedimientos, estructura del gobie...

  19. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis.

  20. Actividad Antifúngica de Aceites Esenciales de Canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) y Orégano (Origanum vulgare L.) y su Efecto sobre la Producción de Aflatoxinas en Nuez Pecanera [Carya illinoensis (F.A. Wangenh) K. Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Arturo García-Camarillo; Martha Yolanda Quezada-Viay; Josefina Moreno-Lara; Gabriela Sánchez-Hernández; Ernesto Moreno-Martínez; María Cristina Julia Pérez-Reyes

    2006-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) y orégano (Origanum vulgare) fueron evaluados para determinar su actividad antifúngica contra Aspergillus flavus y la producción de aflatoxinas en nuez pecanera. Ambos aceites presentaron actividad fungicida in vitro contra A. flavus, el aceite esencial de orégano a partir de 1000 ppm y el de canela de 2000 ppm, en medio de cultivo de malta-salagar y un efecto fungistático en 100 ppm. Sin embargo, al evaluar el efecto inhibitorio en la ...

  1. Characteristics and Species Diversity of Cinnamomum burmannii Community on Song Mountain,Macao%澳门松山阴香群落特征及物种多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贤利; 邢福武; 易绮婓; 郭菲力

    2013-01-01

    采用样方调查法,对澳门松山阴香( Cinnamomum burmannii)群落的种类组成、区系、外貌、群落结构特征、物种多样性和群落优势种的物候进行调查分析。结果表明,澳门松山阴香群落为南亚热带次生性常绿阔叶林,1200 m2样方中有维管植物87种,隶属于46科78属,其中占绝对优势是热带成分。阴香为群落优势种,重要值77.45。群落可分为乔木层、灌木层和草本层,3个层次多样性格局基本表现为灌木层>乔木层>草本层,终年常绿,成层现象明显,且层间植物丰富。对优势种群的年龄结构进行分析表明,该群落处于增长状态。群落频度分布规律为A级>B级>C级>D( E)级,与Raunkiaer的L形频度定律曲线相一致。澳门松山阴香群落是澳门较少有的天然近顶级群落,建议对松山的植被进行适当的保护。%Using quadrats survey method to investigate Cinnamomum burmannii community on Song Mountain of Macao , this paper analyzed its floristic composition,flora,color,structure characteristics,species diversity and dominant species ’ phenology.The results showed that C.burmannii community belonged to south subtropical secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest with 87 species belonging to 78 genera and 46 families in 12 plots of 1200 m2.The floristic composition of the community was mainly tropicalgenera.The sin-gle-dominant species in this community was C.burmannii with the importent value of 77.45.The community could be vertically di-vided into 3 layers:tree layer ,shrub layer and herb layer.It was evergreen all the year round.The order of the magnitude of species diversity was shrub layer >tree layer>herb layer.Based on analyzing the age structure of dominant populations ,it was found that the C.burmannii population belonged to the increasing type.The law of frequency distribution of the community was A >B>C>D( E) , which was in accord with the L-shaped Raunkiaer

  2. Effects of simulated different fertilization treatments on tree height and base diameter ofCinnamomum camphora var.1inaloolifera Fujita.%模拟不同施肥处理对芳樟树高和地径的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑜; 张国防; 李左荣

    2015-01-01

    为探讨不同施肥处理对芳樟Cinnamomum camphora var.1inaloolifera Fujita.树高和地径的影响.运用三元二次通用旋转组合设计,对不同的施肥处理对芳樟的树高和地径的影响开展研究;结合各个指标值建立数学模型,对其拟合方程进行最优求解,确定芳樟最优生长的施肥配比.显著性分析结果显示:N和K施用量对树高和地径有显著影响,P施用量对树高和地径极显著.建立N、P和 K施用量与芳樟树高和地径数学模型的回归方程,据此计算出最优树高可达到43.16 cm,与之对应的N,P和K的施肥量分别为3.64,5.00,3.07g.最优地径可达到6.34 mm,与之对应的N,P和K的施肥量分别为:3.01,3.01,2.7g.研究结果显示:不同的芳樟树高和地径最佳N、P和K施肥配比不完全相同,树高生长对N、P、K需求量均较大,对P的需求尤为明显,地径生长对N、P、K需求均较大.因此在实际的芳樟林培育生产中,可以根据不同的生产需求或阶段选择需要的最优施肥方案,而达到施肥功效最大化的目的.%The ternary quadratic general rotary unitized design was applied to study the effects simulated different fertilization treatments of on tree height and base diameter ofCinnamomum camphora var.1inaloolifera Fujita. The mathematic model was built based on the integration of all index values. The best solution was calculated for simulated equation systems in order to determine the best fertilization proportion. The significance analysis indicated the fertilization amount of N and K had significant effects on tree height and base diameter while the effect from fertilization amount of P was more remarkable. The regression equations of the mathematic models of N, P and K fertilization proportion versus the height and ground diameter of C. camphora var.1inaloolifera Fujita were established. According to the regression equations, the predicted optimal tree height will be up to 43.16 cm with the fertilization

  3. Production, Nutritional Quality and In vitro Methane Production from Andropogon gayanus Grass Harvested at Different Maturities and Preserved as Hay or Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G. O.; Teixeira, A. M.; Velasco, F. O.; Faria Júnior, W. G.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Chaves, A. V.; Gonçalves, L. C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Andropogon gayanus is an important grass due to its high biomass production, drought tolerance and favorable growth on low fertility acidic soils. Currently, there is little research on the impact of growth stage on the nutritional quality or the degree of CH4 production that may arise from this forage during ruminal fermentation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of regrowth stage of A. gayanus on its chemical composition, in vitro production of gas and CH4, as well as in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility when grown under tropical Brazilian conditions and conserved as hay or as silage. The nutritional value of A. gayanus grass declined with increasing maturity; however digestible DM yield linearly increased. After 112 d of regrowth, A. gayanus produced higher quality silage (higher lactate and lower pH and butyrate content) and higher DM yield. However, the low levels of crude protein at this time would make protein supplementation a necessity for proper rumen fermentation. No differences in CH4 kinetic parameters were found with advancing maturity or preservation method (hay or silage). PMID:25049959

  4. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability).

  5. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  6. 芳樟型樟树叶精油减压连续精馏分离芳樟醇的工艺模拟%Process simulation of separating linalool from Cinnamomum camphora leaf essential oil by continuous vacuum distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡女丹; 覃引; 朱金秋

    2015-01-01

    In order to study process conditions of separating high-quality linalool, and investigate the relationship between purity of linalool and energy consumption, the equilibrium relationship of linalool and the other main components in Cinnamomum camphora leaf essential at the pressures of 1 kPa was analyzed by Aspen Plus software, separating models of single-tower and double-tower were established, and separating process of linalool from C. camphora leaf essential oil was simulated. The productions with 95.4%and 99%of linalool were obtained, and heat duty of double-tower distillation was 2.6 times as much as that of single-tower distillation. The results showed that camphor content in linalool products was the key factor affecting the distillation process parameters.%为了研究精馏分离高品质芳樟醇的工艺条件,考察芳樟醇产品纯度与能耗的关系,应用Aspen Plus软件分析了芳樟醇与芳樟型樟树叶精油其他主要成分的二元系统在1 kPa下相平衡的关系,并建立单塔精馏和双塔精馏分离模型,对芳樟型樟树叶精油分离芳樟醇的工艺进行了模拟,结果分别得到了含天然芳樟醇95.4%和99%的产品,双塔精馏的塔底热负荷之和为单塔精馏的2.6倍。模拟结果表明,芳樟醇产品中的樟脑含量是影响精馏工艺参数的关键因素。

  7. An investigation of the effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark extracts on oxidative DNA damage and possible cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in transformed/untransformed cell lines from Type 1 diabetic patients, in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferzan Lermioglu Erciyas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM had increased level of oxidative DNA damage and decreased efficacy of DNA repair. These changes were implicated in the increased cancer risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cinnamon bark extracts have diverse biological activities including antidiabetic and anti-tumor properties. Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia is a common used cinnamon species present in commercial cinnamon preparations. We aimed to investigate the effects of cinnamon extracts prepared from C. cassia bark on endogenous and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage, as well as cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in this study. Type 1 diabetic (T1DM lymphocytes (GM02765, GM01838 and fibroblasts (GM01837 were obtained from NIGMS Human Genetic Cell Repository of Coriell Institute, New Jersey, USA. Cytotoxicity analysis were performed by using a tetrazolium salt, 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl 2-(4-nitrophenyl 2H-5-tetrazolio] 1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1. The effects of extracts on endogenous and H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage were studied using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; Comet Assay, a technique allowing DNA damage in a single cell. Apoptotic activities of extracts were investigated by TUNEL and Annexin V/PI assays. using flow cytometry. IC50 and IC20 values of the extracts varied and the effects on endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage were different regarding cell lines and extracts. Although their protective effects at some doses against to H2O2-induced oxidative damage, our results suggested DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of cinnamon bark extracts on Type 1 diabetic cell lines, in vitro.

  8. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792981

  9. Tratamento do feno de braquiária pelo fungo Pleurotus ostreatus Pretreatment effects on fiber degradation of brachiaria hay by Pleurotus ostreatus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação de forragens com fungos lignocelulolíticos é uma opção para melhorar a qualidade destas sem adição de produtos químicos. O tratamento do substrato influencia a ação do fungo e a qualidade final do produto. Neste experimento, aplicaram-se quatro tratamentos (compostagem do feno inteiro, compostagem do feno picado, hidratação do feno em água fria e hidratação do feno em água quente a um feno de Brachiaria decumbens. Aos tratamentos seguiu-se inoculação com o fungo Pleurotus ostreatus e incubação por 35 dias, sob temperatura controlada. Usou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e medidas repetidas. Amostras foram colhidas semanalmente para acompanhar a degradação do substrato, mediante a análise química do feno. Observou-se aumento linear, com o decorrer do tempo, no teor de proteína bruta (PB e na proporção de lignina na parede celular (LIG-FDN, e decréscimo linear nos valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, celulose e hemicelulose. Não se observou efeito de tratamento no teor de FDA. Os tratamentos com compostagem apresentaram maiores valores de PB, lignina e LIG-FDN e menores de FDN e hemicelulose. Não se observou diferença entre os tratamentos com hidratação. O tratamento do feno de braquiária com o fungo propiciou degradação da fração fibrosa e aumento no teor de PB, com efeito mais intenso nos tratamentos que usaram compostagem. A ação do fungo foi mais efetiva sobre a hemicelulose que sobre os demais componentes da fibra.The innoculation of forages with lignocellulolytic fungi is an option for improving quality without adding chemical products. Substrate quality influences fungal activity and endproduct quality. The effects of four treatments (composting of whole hay, composting of chopped hay, soaking in cool water and soaking in hot water on a Brachiaria decumbens hay were evaluated. The treatments were followed by innoculation with Pleurotus ostreatus

  10. Indicating Function of Different Organs of Cinnamomum camphora to Heavy Metals in Air%香樟不同器官对空气中重金属的指示作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 林匡飞; 赵建华; 刘曦子; 苏禄晖; 杨意; 沙妙清; 杨明华; 朱丽红

    2016-01-01

    Taking Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl. on both sides of road in traffic busy area (pollution plot) and relatively clean area(the control plot) as research objects, contents of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, As and Ni in different organs including trunk, old bark, biennial branch, annual branch, leaf and fruit were determined, and cumulative amount and pollution index and their distribution proportion of six heavy metal elements in different organs of Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl. at pollution plot were analyzed.The results show that heavy metal element contents in the body C. camphoraa appear different change regulation because of differences in sampling plots, organs and elements, and there are obvious differences in cumulative amount and its distributionproportion, pollution index and its distribution proportion of 6 heavy metal elements at pollution plot because of differences in organs and elements. Overall, contents of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, As and Ni in each organ at pollution plot are all higher than those at the control plot with significant difference (P<0.05). Compared among 6 heavy metal elements, content of Zn is the highest, content of Cu is the second, while the contents of Pb、As、Ni are lower. And the content of same heavy metal element in different organs also has obvious difference, content of Pb, Cu and As in biennial branch are the highest. Cd and Ni in old bark are the highest, content of Zn in annual branch is the highest. Cumulative amount and its distribution proportion of 6 heavy metal elements are the highest in leaf, secondly in old bark, lower in fruit and annual branch, while the pollution index Pb and Zn its distribution proportion are the highest in old bark, the pollution index of other 4 heavy metal elements are the highest in leaf. It is indicated that the organs of C.camphoraa all have a certain absorption capacity to heavy metal elements in air, and absorption capacities of leaf and old bark both are obviously better than those of other organs . Leaf

  11. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  12. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  13. Types of oilseed and adipose tissue influence the composition and relationships of polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products in steers fed a grass hay diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Rolland, D C; Basarab, J A; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Proctor, S D; Dugan, M E R

    2014-03-01

    The current study evaluated the composition and relationships of polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products (PUFA-BHP) from the perirenal (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) of yearling steers fed a 70 % grass hay diet with concentrates containing either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS). Analysis of variance indicated several groups or families of structurally related FA, and individual FA within these were affected by a number of novel oilseed by fat depot interactions (P adipose tissue differences, therefore, present unique opportunities to differentially enrich a number of PUFA-BHP which seem to have positive health potential in humans (i.e., t11-18:1, c9,t11-18:2 and c9,t11,c15-18:3).

  14. ¿Revelarse o no revelarse? Hay una autofiguración de filiación española o suramericana en la escritura bellatiniana

    OpenAIRE

    Cassia Procknov, Rafaela

    2011-01-01

    El escritor mexicano Mario Bellatin persigue obsesivamente la representación de sí mismo. Por ello, echa mano de una estrategia ficcional que desafía los paradigmas de la autobiografía no recurriendo al compromiso de revelar la verdad al lector, acercándose así a aquello que la crítica literaria nombra como ¨autofiguración¨. El crítico español Manuel Alberca en el ensayo ¿“Existe la autoficción hispanoamericana?”, plantea si hay una autofiguración, género muy sintomático de lo contemporáneo, ...

  15. Consumo e digestibilidades aparentes total e parciais do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Intake, total and partial apparent digestibilities of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se sete carneiros, sem raça definida, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, para avaliar o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL e hemicelulose (HCEL do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis. Os animais receberam apenas feno de S. guianensis mais sal mineral como componentes da dieta. O fornecimento do feno foi ad libitum, sendo a quantidade calculada para permitir sobras de 20%. Utilizou-se óxido crômico como indicador para estimar a produção de fezes e o fluxo de digesta no duodeno. Os consumos de MS e MO do S. guianensis foram 67,71 e 64,70 g/kg0,75, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO, PB, FDN e FDA foram 49,2, 51,3, 61,2, 42,0 e 42,7%, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminais da MS, MO, FDN e FDA foram 75,8, 84,7, 89,6 e 90,6%, respectivamente, em função do total digerido. A digestibilidade ruminal da PB foi 21,3%. Concluiu-se que o feno de S. guianensis, colhido em estádio de maturidade avançada, pode ser indicado para ruminantes, pois seu consumo é capaz de atender às necessidades energéticas de mantença já que seus valores, apesar de sua digestibilidade não ser elevada, são ligeiramente maiores do que os de outras forrageiras tropicais.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs were used to evaluate the intake and the total and the partial apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL and hemicellulose (HCEL of the Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The diet was composed by the hay of S. guianensis plus mineral salt. The hay was offered ad libitum with the refusals estimated for being 20%. Chromium oxide was used as an external marker, to estimate fecal production and digesta

  16. Effects of pistachio by-products in replacement of alfalfa hay on populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation and fermentative parameters in the rumen of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, M H; Tahmasbi, A-M; Khorvash, M; Naserian, A-A; Ghaffari, A H; Valizadeh, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sundried pistachio by-products (PBP) as a replacement of alfalfa hay (AH) on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation (BH) in Baluchi sheep. Four adult male Baluchi sheep (41 ± 1.3 kg, BW) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) control, (ii) 12% PBP (0.33 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP), (iii) 24% PBP (0.66 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP) and (iv) 36% PBP (all of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP). The basal diet was 360 g/kg dry matter (DM) alfalfa hay, 160 g/kg DM wheat straw and 480 g/kg DM concentrate. The trial consisted of four periods, each composed of 16 days adaptation and 4 days data collection including measurement of blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and population of bacteria. No differences were observed in rumen pH among the treatments, while rumen ammonia-N concentrations were decreased (p< 0.05) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM of the diets. Using of 36% PBP in the diet reduced (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportion of acetate, while the concentration of propionate, butyrate and acetate to propionate ratio were similar to all other treatments. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreased (p < 0.01) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM in the diets of sheep. However, other blood metabolites were not affected by the experimental diets. It was concluded that PBP in replacement of AH had no effects on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in relation to the control diet.

  17. Examining Communities at Risk: Physical and Socioeconomic Impacts of an Earthquake Scenario on the Hayward Fault (The HayWired Scenario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, L.; Wein, A. M.; Johnson, L. A.; Jones, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research led by the U.S. Geological Survey aims to inform and stimulate the development of plans and policies in disaster management and hazard mitigation that will help improve the capacity of residents, businesses and communities to rebound from disasters. As was evidenced in the 1994 Northridge earthquake, "ghost towns" emerged in neighborhoods with high concentrations of damaged rental housing. Also, rental properties that served predominantly lower income households had more difficulty financing repairs which led to blight and other long-term community recovery challenges. Our approach is to develop a framework for identifying and spatially analyzing communities at risk of long-term displacement and recovery challenges for an earthquake scenario. The HayWired scenario postulates a M7.05 earthquake on the Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area with surface fault rupture, liquefaction, landslides, and fires, as well as subsequent aftershocks. The analytical framework relies on the literature and prior disaster experience to identify and systematically combine physical and socioeconomic impacts of the earthquake sequence with pre-existing socioeconomic conditions to identify areas where housing and building damage, lifeline service disruption, and socioeconomic challenges intersect and can potentially lead to long-term displacements of people, businesses, and jobs. Hazus analyses estimate $46 billion in building damage from the HayWired main shock, which increases by 10-25% due to aftershocks. Heavy damage to large apartment buildings exceeds many other housing types, and preliminary analyses identify neighborhoods where these damage concentrations also intersect with concentrations of low income households. Also, in some counties, the estimated population displaced from severely damaged housing far exceeds the number of vacant housing units, which means residents may be forced to move well away from former neighborhoods and even outside the region

  18. Analysis of main component and the essential oil chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora in Guangxi%广西樟树精油的主成分分析及其化学型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 莫建光; 周翔

    2013-01-01

    Through the 64 essential oil samples from different areas of Guangxi principal component analysis,five principal extracted components of major interrelated changes in chemical composition were evaluated, α-pinene and terpinen-4-ol played main role in the first main component,nerolidol and α-caryophyllene played main role in the second main component,eucalyptol and α-terpineol played main role in the third main component,camphor and linalool played main role in the fourth main component, and myrcenet played main role in the fifth main component.Combined with GC-MS analysis results, selected the Ward' s method and the squared Euelidean distance method for clustering analysis.The results showed that the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphorastem in Guangxi were clustered into five chemotypes( Num = 22): linalool type, nerolidol type, eucalyptol type, camphor type and the pinene-terpineol type.The linalool type were distributed most widely and linalool contented were the highest.%通过对64份广西不同产地樟树枝叶精油样品的主成分分析,提取出五个主成分评价原主要化学成分间的相关变化.第一主成分中主要起作用的是α-蒎烯和4-萜烯醇,第二主成分中主要起作用的是橙花叔醇和α-律草烯,第三主成分中主要起作用的是α-松油醇和桉叶油素,第四主成分中主要起作用的是樟脑和芳樟醇,第五主成分中主要起作用的是月桂烯.结合GC-MS分析结果,选取欧氏距离平方距离测度法和离差平方和的聚类方法对樟树精油主成分进行聚类分析,结果表明,当聚类水平为22时,将广西樟树分为五种化学类型:芳樟醇型、橙花叔醇型、桉叶油素型、樟脑型和蒎烯-萜烯醇型.其中芳樟醇型分布最广泛,芳樟醇含量占绝对优势.

  19. Inhibition effects of crude extracts from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum burmannii against Peronophythora litchi%两种植物粗提物对荔枝霜疫霉菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令达; 叶妙宁; 张思伟; 黄建昌

    2012-01-01

    采用化学提取法获得大蒜(Allium sativum)、阴香(Cinnamomum burmannii)两种植物粗提物,并就粗提物对荔枝霜疫霉菌(Peronophythora litchii)的抑菌效果及其在不同pH和温度条件下的稳定性进行了研究.结果显示,大蒜和阴香粗提物对荔枝霜疫霉菌生长的抑制率分别为85.89%和95.39%,对荔枝霜疫霉菌孢子囊萌发的抑制率分别为65.72%和87.34%;在一定pH和温度范围内,大蒜粗提物对荔枝霜疫霉的抑菌效果不受pH和温度的影响,阴香粗提物适宜抑菌pH为9,适宜温度为40℃.%Two crude extracts were obtained by chemical extraction from Allium sativum and Cinnamo- mum burmannii, and the inhibition effect of the crude extracts against Peronophythora litchi and stability of the crude extracts to pH and temperature were researched. The results indicated that the inhibition rate of A. sativum and C. burmannii against P. litchi were respectively 85.89 and 95.39%, and that the inhibition rate against the sporangia' s germination of P. litchi were respectively 65.72% and 87. 34%. The antibacterial effect of A. sativum' s crude extracts would not be affected by certain pH value or tem- perature. The optimal antibacterial pH of C. burmannii was 9, and the optimal temperature was 40℃.

  20. Effect of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells%宜宾油樟的化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓骛远; 罗通; 郑田喜

    2011-01-01

    利用油樟水浸提液作用蚕豆根尖研究了油樟化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.结果表明:油樟对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用和浸提液浓度、作用时间有密切关系.在实验设计的范围内,随油樟水浸提液浓度的加大,蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数显著减小,而细胞微核率显著提高;油樟浸提液作用48 h时,对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用最强;油樟水浸提液诱导蚕豆根尖细胞产生染色体断片和滞后染色体等多种畸变染色体,并使有丝分裂各时期的分裂相减少.说明油樟化感物质抑制了细胞的有丝分裂,促进微核的产生,从而影响蚕豆根尖的生长和细胞的遗传稳定性.%The effect of Youzhang [Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble), N.Chan]allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells was studied with Youzhang water extracts acting Vicia faba root tips.The result shows the allelopathy has a close relation to the extract concentration and treating time.Within designed range of the experiment, the mitosis index of Vicia faba root tip cells decreases obviously, and the micronucleus frequency rises remarkably along with the increase of Youzhang extract concentrations.When acting time comes to 48 hours, the allelopathy of Youzhang extracts on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells is the strongest.Youzhang water extracts induce a variety of aberrant chromosomes, such as chromosome fregments and delaying chromosomes, and inhibit mitosis different phases.It is implied that Youzhang's allelopthy matter inhibits cell mitosis, and promotes micronucleus generation of cells, and finally affects the growth of Vicia faba root tips and the genetic stability of cells.

  1. 肉桂水提物对大鼠肠道梭菌属IV簇细菌和拟杆菌的影响%Effect of aqueous Cinnamomum cassia extracts on gastrointestinal Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroides in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽珠; 詹宏林; 王聪; 彭喜春; 张宁; 刘柳

    2012-01-01

    目的:肉桂水提物对大鼠结肠和直肠梭菌属IV簇和拟杆菌的影响。方法:给SD大鼠灌胃一个月后分别取结肠和直肠内容物,针对肠道梭菌属IV簇和拟杆菌的16SrRNA基因应用末端限制性片段多态性分析技术对这两类菌的多样性及分布进行分析。结果:研究发现肉桂水提物能降低梭菌属IV簇细菌在结肠和直肠中的数量,增加拟杆菌属细菌在结肠和直肠中的数量;该水提物对结肠和直肠的结构均产生影响,但影响并不相同,其中对直肠的影响更大。结论:肉桂水提物对大鼠肠道菌群的这种影响可能与肉桂治疗肥胖和糖尿病有功效有关。%Objective:To explore the impact of aqueous Cinnamomum cassia(C.cassia) extracts on gut microbiota.Methods:The colon and rectal contents were sampled after rats had been orally administrated the aqueous extracts for one month.Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroides in the samples were analyzed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism(tRFLP) method based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and nucleotide sequencing.Result:The aqueous C.cassia extracts could down-regulate the amount of microbiota of Clostridium cluster IV in rat gut,along with the increase of microbiota of Bacteroides.Various effects were exerted by the extracts on microbiota in colon and rectum,and the impact presented heavier in rectum.Conclusion:These variations of rat gut microbiota induced by the aqueous C.cassia extracts may reflect the functions of anti-obese and anti-dyspepsia of C.cassia.

  2. Effect of salicylic acid on cold tolerance of Cinnamomum camphora seedling under low temperature stress%低温胁迫下水杨酸对香樟幼苗抗寒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩浩章; 王晓立; 张丽华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on cold tolerance of Cinnamomum camphora seedling was studied under low temperature stress in order to provide references for introducing C. Camphora to Northern China. [Method]One year old potted C. Camphora seedlings were used as test material. After spraying SA in different concentra-tions, the test materials were treated with low temperature stress (5t). The parameters such as conductivity, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, activity of antioxidative enzymes, MDA content and soluble sugar content were assayed. [Result] SA was found to reduce chlorophyll degradation, MDA content and plant tissue conductivity, while its application improved the photosynthetic rate and SOD and POD activity. The application of 2 mmol/L SA showed the best effects on C. Camphora seedlings, while 5 mmol/L SA had inhibitory effect on the growth of C. Camphora seedlings. [Conclusion] It has been concluded that SA in appropriate concentration can slow down the effect of low temperature and support nor-mal growth and development of C. Camphora.%[目的]研究外源水杨酸(SA)对低温胁迫下香樟幼苗抗寒性的影响,为香樟在我国北方地区的引种工作提供参考.[方法]以一年生盆栽香樟幼苗为试材,叶面喷施不同浓度的SA后,再进行低温胁迫处理,测定其电导率、光合速率、叶绿素含量、保护酶活性以及丙二醛(MDA)和可溶性糖含量.[结果]外源施用SA能够抑制香樟幼苗叶片中叶绿素的降解、提高光合速率及超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性、降低MDA含量和植物组织电导率;2mmol/L的SA处理对香樟幼苗施用效果最好;而5 mmol/L的SA对香樟叶片的正常生长发育可能存在抑制作用.[结论]适宜浓度的外源SA能够减弱低温对香樟正常生长发育的影响.

  3. 不同化学型樟树对 SO2吸收的比较分析%Analysis of Different Chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora on SO2 Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞炎

    2013-01-01

      在密闭条件下,采用静态熏气法研究不同化学型(芳樟型、脑樟型)樟树1年生苗木、枝条在 SO2伤害阈值时(0.5 g/m3×4 h)对 SO2的吸收能力及熏气后的恢复能力,结果表明,芳樟型1年生苗木对 SO2吸收量为450.6 mg/m2,芳樟型枝条对 SO2吸收量为451.8 mg/m2;脑樟型1年生樟树苗对 SO2吸收量为597.6 mg/m2,脑樟型枝条对 SO2吸收量为809.4 mg/m2。芳樟型樟树1年生苗木、枝条与脑樟型樟树1年生苗木、枝条熏气后恢复能力无显著差异。%The resistance and absorbency to gaseous SO2 of linalool­type and camphor­type Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl were studied under airtight conditions. The results showed that the linalool­type of one year old camphor tree absorbed SO2 450.6 mg/m2, the linalool­type of camphor tree branches absorbed SO2 451.8 mg/m2; the camphor­type of one year old camphor tree absorbed SO2 597.6 mg/m2, the camphor­type of camphor tree branches absorbed SO2 809.4 mg/m2. There were not significantly differences between resistance of linalool­ type and of camphor­type C. camphora (L.).

  4. 城市污泥好氧堆肥肥料对绿化土壤特性和香樟树生长的影响%Effects on Properties of Green Areas Soil and Growth of Cinnamomum Hupehanum after Application of Aerobic Compost Fertilizer with Sewage Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海星; 沈伟

    2011-01-01

    采用温室盆栽试验的方法,研究了城市污泥好氧堆肥对绿化土壤化学特性、香樟树生长、重金属含量的影响.试验共设6个处理过程,CK代表对照处理(供试土壤),施用10%、15%、20%、25%、30%的污泥.结果表明:随着污泥比例的增加,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷明显增加,pH值明显降低.空白处理中含有的铜、锌、铬、铅随着污泥添加量的增加而逐步升高,锌和铜的含量增加最为明显.香樟在污泥25%、30%比例时,叶绿素含量、株高达最大值.香樟树对锌元素有较强的富集作用,对铜的吸收仅低于锌.总体而言,污泥施用后,可明显提高绿化土壤有机质及全氮全磷含量.%An experiment using pots in greenhouse was conducted to study the effects of sewage sludge (MSS) on soil chemical properties, growth of cinnamomum hupehanum and heavy metal contents in cinnamomum hupehanum. The experiment made six treatments:Control (no application of MSS), percentage of MSS as follows: 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %, respectively. Results showed that with the increase of MSS, soil organic carbon, TN and TP were significantly increased, while pH was significantly decreased. Cu, Zn, Cr and Rb increased with the increasing of MSS dosage, in which Zn and Cu increased significantly. Chlorophyll contents in leaves and growth height of cinnamomum hupehanum reaches the maximum at 25 % and 30% sewage sludge content. The enrichment of heavy metals in cinnarnomum hupehanum first is Zn,then Cu. In a word, the results indicats that the application of MSS can obviously increase soil organic carbon and the contents of TN and TP.

  5. Valor nutritivo e utilização do feno de Desmodium ovalifolium em substituição ao feno de alfafa para coelhos em crescimento Nutritional feeding value and use of Desmodium ovalifolium hay replacing alfafa hay for rabbits in growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    1999-11-01

    nutritional feeding value and the performance of rabbits fed with diets including desmodium hay (Desmodium ovalifolium. The digestibility trial used 14 male New Zealand White rabbits, with 50 days of age, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and seven replications. A reference diet and a test in which desmodium hay replaced 25% of the reference diet on DM basis were used. Digestible dry matter, digestible protein and digestible energy contents of desmodium hay, based on the total dry matter, were respectively, 17.97% and 4.77%, and 821kcal/kg. In the performance trial, 72 New Zealand White rabbits were used, 36 males and 36 females, 40 to 90 days old, alloted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments, six replications and two animals per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a reference diet and other five diets where Desmodium ovalifolium hay replaced 15%, 30%, 45%, 60% or 75% of the alfafa hay, on crude fiber basis. The daily feed intake and weight gain during the period of 40 to 90 and 70 to 90 days old and the feed conversion in the period of 70 to 90 days old, as well as the final weight and carcass weight at 90 days, showed better result for the animals fed with desmodium diet. Excluding the diet reference, the regression analysis, according to the levels of alfalfa hay substitution, showed that not only the performance but also rabbits carcass traits were similar during the experimental period. The results showed that desmodium hay at those inclusion levels replaced efficiently alfalfa hay in rabbits rations.

  6. 干旱胁迫对香樟幼树生长及光合特性的影响%Effects of drought stress on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cinnamomum camphora saplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义; 胡庭兴; 胡红玲; 陈洪; 王彬; 李晗

    2014-01-01

    通过盆栽和持续干旱研究了干旱胁迫(以2d为一个处理间隔,持续干旱0-16 d)对香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)幼树生长及光合特性的影响.结果显示:(1)干旱胁迫下香樟幼树的地径、树高生长量受到了抑制.轻度、中度干旱处理(干旱时间2-8 d)叶片含水量和叶片相对含水量与对照差异均不显著,重度干旱处理(干旱时间>10 d)下显著低于对照(P<0.01);(2)干旱胁迫影响了香樟叶片光合作用的日变化进程,妨碍了其有机物质积累;(3)干旱胁迫下香樟叶片光合色素总量先升高后降低,在干旱第8天达到最高.所有干旱处理的净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)均受到不同程度的抑制.气孔因素和非气孔因素共同作用影响香樟幼树的光合作用,在干旱初期(干旱时间2-8 d)气孔因素起主导作用,干旱后期(干旱时间>10 d)非气孔因素起主导作用;(4)干旱胁迫下香樟幼树叶片的表观量子效率(AQY)、RuBP羧化速率(CE)、光补偿点(LCP)、光饱和点(LSP)及CO2补偿点(CCP)均显著降低,表明干旱会降低香樟幼树对环境中光照和CO2的利用及适应能力.综上,干旱胁迫下香樟幼树的水分生理状况变差,光合能力及光合日变化进程受到影响,对环境中光照和CO2的利用及适应能力也明显降低,最终香樟幼树的形态生长受到抑制.%Cinnamomum camphora is a broad-spectrum tree species wildly distributed in south China.However,the effects of drought stress on growth and photosynthesis of C.camphora are poorly understood.This paper aimed to study the response of young C.camphora trees to drought stress to provide theoretical reference for water management of C.camphora plantations.The experiment was conducted in greenhouse in Aug.2013.Twenty-nine pots (27 cm in diameter and 25 cm in height) of C.camphora were treated with drought stress for continuously 0 d,2 d...16 d with a time interval of 2 d,respectively.After 16 d

  7. Geophysical delineation of the freshwater/saline-water transition zone in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Travis and Hays Counties, Texas, September 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.D.; Kress, W.H.; Shah, S.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Smith, B.A.; Hunt, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    During September 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barton Springs/Edwards Aquifer Conservation District, conducted a geophysical pilot study to determine whether time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) sounding could be used to delineate the freshwater/saline-water transition zone in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer in Travis and Hays Counties, Texas. There was uncertainty regarding the application of TDEM sounding for this purpose because of the depth of the aquifer (200-500 feet to the top of the aquifer) and the relatively low-resistivity clayey units in the upper confining unit. Twenty-five TDEM soundings were made along four 2-3-mile-long profiles in a study area overlying the transition zone near the Travis-Hays County boundary. The soundings yield measurements of subsurface electrical resistivity, the variations in which were correlated with hydrogeologic and stratigraphic units, and then with dissolved solids concentrations in the aquifer. Geonics Protem 47 and 57 systems with 492-foot and 328-foot transmitter-loop sizes were used to collect the TDEM soundings. A smooth model (vertical delineation of calculated apparent resistivity that represents an estimate [non-unique] of the true resistivity) for each sounding site was created using an iterative software program for inverse modeling. The effectiveness of using TDEM soundings to delineate the transition zone was indicated by comparing the distribution of resistivity in the aquifer with the distribution of dissolved solids concentrations in the aquifer along the profiles. TDEM sounding data show that, in general, the Edwards aquifer in the study area is characterized by a sharp change in resistivity from west to east. The western part of the Edwards aquifer in the study area shows higher resistivity than the eastern part. The higher resistivity regions correspond to lower dissolved solids concentrations (freshwater), and the lower resistivity regions correspond to

  8. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2, 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3 and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4. The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001 higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001 also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.3 kg. The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05 higher than those reared in the control (T1 (54.0 g/goat/day and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4 had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good

  9. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  10. 天竺桂挥发油与几种常用食品保鲜剂对肉保鲜效果的研究%Cinnamomum pedunculatum volatile oil and several common food preservative effect on the preservation of meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建秀; 陈永新

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Extracted volatile oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum pedunculatum to compare preservation with tea polyphenols and potassium sorbate in the chilled meat refrigerated(4 ℃ or so).Methods:On the color,odor,elastic sensory score;H 2 S test whether the deterioration with pH testing sample;sample PH changes;with Coomassie brilliant blue meat-like changes in protein content.Result:Cinnamomum pedunculatum has significant preservation effect with tea polyphenols and potassium sorbate.%通过从天竺桂叶子里提取挥发油,然后研究比较天竺桂挥发油与两种常用的防腐保鲜剂茶多酚、山梨酸钾在冷却肉冷藏(4℃)中的保鲜效果。方法:测定肉样菌落总数;对肉色、气味、弹性进行感官评分;H2S试验测定肉样是否变质;用pH计测肉样pH的变化;用考马斯亮蓝法测定肉样中蛋白质含量的变化。结果表明天竺桂挥发油有着不错的综合保鲜效果,与茶多酚、山梨酸钾相比,在抑制细菌生长、保持肉色、气味、弹性以及维持蛋白质含量稳定、酸价等方面均有显著的效果。

  11. Sin chivo expiatorio, no hay grupo: el caso de las administraciones públicas (No scapegoat, no group: the case of public administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu Bingen Fernández Alcalde

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Con base en Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, o la Sociología Clínica se analiza la posición de “Chivo Expiatorio” como suceso universal en los procesos de desarrollo de grupos y equipos. Una etapa esperable y gestionable de su evolución; no un accidente a evitar ni un motivo para desmantelar los equipos laborales puestos en marcha. Sin chivo expiatorio no hay grupo, ni regeneración grupal. Toda grupalidad vive cíclicamente “el destronamiento” de una figura anterior de liderazgo con algún tipo de violencia sacrificial. Tal acontecimiento cierra una fase de conflicto importante e inaugura una renormalización grupal. Por ello, propone incluirla como fase propia en los modelos generales de desarrollo grupal.ABSTRACTBased on Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, or Clinical Sociology analyzes the position of "Scapegoat" as a universal event in the development processes of groups and work groups. An expected and manageable stage of its evolution, not an accident to avoid nor a reason for dismantling the set up work teams. No scapegoat no group, no regeneration group. All groups lives cyclically "the dethronement" of an earlier figure of leadership with some sort of sacrificial violence. This event closes a major conflict phase and inaugurates a renormalization group. It is therefore proposed to include itself as a phase in the generic models of group development.

  12. The seasonal symptoms of hyposensitized and untreated hay fever patients in relation to birch pollen counts: correlations with nasal sensitivity, prick tests and RAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viander, M; Koivikko, A

    1978-07-01

    A 2 year prospective study of thirty-eight birch pollen-sensitive hay fever patients under specific immunotherapy and of nineteen untreated control patients showed a significant correlation between the total seasonal symptom scores of the patients and their clinical sensitivities assessed by the RAST and a graded nasal test. The agreement between a positive nasal test and a positive RAST was 74%. In the early season with low pollen counts the onset of symptoms was significantly associated with high sensitivity of the patients, while many patients showed symptoms in the late season irrespective of their nasal and RAST sensitivity. About 90% of both the treated and the untreated patients reported mild symptoms when the pollen count exceeded 80/m(3) in the early season. 80% of them still had symptoms when the count was below 30/m(3) in the late pollen season. Although hyposensitization therapy had no effect on the occurrence of the mild symptoms, the treated patinets had severe symptoms significantly less often than the untreated ones on days with high pollen counts.

  13. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Buri

    Full Text Available Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES. We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1 first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES; 2 first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3 first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing. Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year and cumulative (from one year to the following positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  14. Molecular comparative assessment of the microbial ecosystem in rumen and faeces of goats fed alfalfa hay alone or combined with oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Hamid; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Abecia, Leticia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the biomass and community structure of bacteria, protozoa and archaea communities in samples of rumen and faeces of goats and to what extent the diet (alfalfa hay with or without supplemented oats) offered to them exert an influence. Four cannulated adult goats fistulated in the rumen were used in a cross over design experiment in two experimental periods of 26 days, consisting in 14 days of adaptation, 7 days of sampling rumen contents and 5 days of digestibility measurement. Bacterial, protozoa and archaeal biomass and the communities' structure was assessed by real time PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The numbers of archaea and bacteria in both rumen and faeces were higher and lower, respectively, in animals fed AH diet (P oats led to a decrease in the similarity between sites in the rumen and faeces: similarity indexes for bacteria (57 and 27%), archaea (26 and 9%) and protozoa (62 and 22%) in animals fed AH and AHO diets, respectively.

  15. Use of ostrich faeces as alternative inoculum to caecal content to study the in vitro digestibility of alfalfa (green, dehydrated and hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Meo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to find an alternative source of inoculum to caecal content for studying the in vitro feed digestibility in domesticated ostriches, caecal content and faeces of 4 male birds were used as inocula for an in vitro gas production trial. Three alfalfa (hay, AH; green , GA; dehydrated, DA were used as substrates. Caecal content and faeces, diluted respectively 1:2 (CI and 1:4 (FI with an anaerobic medium and were used as inocula. Gas production was recorded 22 times up to 120 h of incubation and fermentation characteristics (e.g. degraded organic matter, OMd; potential gas production, A; maximum fermentation rate, Rmax; volatile fatty acid, VFA were studied by inoculum and substrate. CI showed a higher OMd (67.90 vs 64.60 %, respectively for CI and FI, P < 0.01 but lower A (200.6 vs 212.6 ml/g, respectively for CI and FI, P < 0.01 and Rmax (5.94 vs 6.56 ml/h, respectively for CI and FI, P < 0.05 than FI. No differences were found in tVFA production. The significant higher value of branched chain proportion [(isovaleric + isobutyrate/tVFA] for CI (0.039 vs 0.032 respectively for CI and FI, P < 0.05 indicate a higher degradation protein for this inoculum.

  16. The Response of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Leaves of Cinnamomum camphora chvar.Borneol to Different Fertilization Levels%龙脑樟叶片光合特性对氮磷钾肥的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈周琴; 张露; 李燕山; 苏恒; 彭招兰; 曹福亮; 郁万文; 杨亮

    2015-01-01

    通过“3414”不完全正交回归设计,研究氮磷钾肥对龙脑樟矮林光合特性的影响,以确定其生长发育最佳的施肥处理。结果表明随着氮磷钾肥单一施肥量的增加,龙脑樟叶片的叶绿素含量(Chl)、净光合速率(Pn)和胞间CO2浓度(Ci)均呈现“先增大后减小”的变化趋势;适宜的氮(N100 g/株)、磷(P2O5140 g/株)、钾(K2O 60 g/株)用量及其配施能够明显增加龙脑樟的Chl和Pn,其中Pn受氮肥施用量的影响更大;氮、磷、钾肥之间交互效应不明显。通过龙脑樟光响应曲线拟合分析可知,在一定范围内,随着施肥量增加,龙脑樟的最大净光合速率(Amax)、光饱和点(LSP)和表观量子效率(AQY)均升高,而光补偿点(LCP)和暗呼吸速率(Rd)均降低,有利于龙脑樟叶片光合产物的积累,加快龙脑樟的生长发育。%Based on “3414” incomplete orthogonal regression design, the effects of fertilization of N, P and K on photosynthetic characteristics of Cinnamomum camphora chvar were investigated so as to determine the optimal fertilization mode for its growth.Borneol coppice leaves were studied.The results showed that with the increase of the single fertilization of N,P and K,Chl content,Pn and Ci tended to increase first decrease later.The Chl content and Pn could significantly be improved by applying the appropriate amounts of N(N100g per plant),P(P2O5140 g per plant) and K(K2O 60 g per plant),or their combination.The study found Pn to be most affected by nitrogen levels.No obvious interaction effect was found between nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium,phosphorus and potassium,respectively.Photoresponse curves fitting analysis showed under definite fertilizer supply,Amax,LSP and AQY increased,LCP and Rd decreased with the fertilizer sup-ply rising by photoresponse curves fitting analysis.

  17. Application of acetochlor in the field cuttage grafting of Cinnamomum camphora chvar. Borneol%乙草胺在龙脑樟大田扦插育苗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕山; 易敏; 张露; 杨亮; 彭招兰; 曹福亮

    2015-01-01

    龙脑樟大田扦插育苗是龙脑樟良种快繁的主要途径,但因圃地杂草繁生,影响龙脑樟扦插成活率并提高生产成本。本研究以龙脑樟当年生穗条为材料,研究除草剂乙草胺对龙脑樟扦插圃地的除草效果以及对插穗生根及生长的影响,结果表明:对圃地土壤表面喷雾2000倍乙草胺50%乳油剂并覆盖2 cm厚黄心土的除草效果要显著优于仅用2000倍乙草胺50%乳油剂不覆土以及直接在圃地扦插这两个处理,90 d后其除草率仍达到91.6%;另外,喷洒乙草胺并覆土的处理还显著的提高了插穗的生根率及生长速度,90 d后生根率由不做任何处理的46.3%提高到93%,100 d后苗高由不做任何处理的8.67 cm提高到17 cm。说明该方法不仅可以有效解决圃地杂草,而且还使龙脑樟插穗的生根率及生长速度得到提高,为龙脑樟的快速育苗开辟了新途径。%Field cuttage grafting of Cinnamomum camphora chvar. Borneol is the main way of its seed rapid-propagation, but because the nursery weed multiplication affected the cuttage survival rate and increase the production cost. Taking the year spike of C. camphora chvar. Borneol as material, weeding effects of acetochlor on cuttage nursery of C. camphora chvar. Borneol and its effect on the rooting and growth were studied, the results showed that: the effect of treatment of spraying 2 000 times acetochlor + 50% insectcides on the soil surface of nursery and covered with 2 cm thick yellow soil was significantly better than other two treatment of only 2 000 times acetochlor + 50% insectcides and not covered soil, as well cutting directly in the garden, the rate of weeding still reached 91.6%after 90 d. In addition, treatment of spraying acetochlor and covered with soil also significantly improved the rooting rate and growing rate, after 90 d, rooting rate is increased from without any treatment of 46.3%to 93%, after 100 d, seedling height is

  18. Phytocoenological Features of a Rare and Endangered Plant Cinnamomum japonicum var.chinii%珍稀濒危植物普陀樟的群落学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄水文

    2013-01-01

    根据11块样地的野外调查材料,分析了浙江省舟山群岛普陀樟群落的植物区系成分、种类组成、群落结构特征、群落外貌.结果表明:该群落共有维管束植物55种,分属31科48属,其中以热带分布的属占绝对优势,占总属数的52.08%;其生活型中高位芽植物占72.73%,叶级中中型叶与小型叶各占47.27%、45.45%,叶型中单叶占81.82%,复叶占18.18%,叶质中纸质叶与革质叶各占50.91%、41.82%,说明该群落具有显著的热带特征;该群落中灌木层、乔木层、草本层的物种多样性、丰富度、均匀度均偏低,但优势度相对较高;群落垂直结构层次明显,可分为乔木层、灌木层和草本层,但层间植物极度缺乏.%According to the investigation data from 11 typical sampling plots in Zhoushan Islands of Zhejiang Province,the floristie element,the floristie composition,the structure features of community and the physiognomy of Cinnamomum japonicum var.chinii were analyzed.The results showed that the community was composed of 55 vascular plant species belonging to 31 families and 48 genera.The tropic genus was the main genus,which accounts for 52.08% of total genera.In the community,phanerophytes accounts for 72.73% of dominant life form; middle size leaf and small size leaf accounts for 47.27% and 45.45% of dominant leaf size,respectively; single leaf and herbaceous leaf accounts for 81.82% and 18.18% of dominant leaf form,respectively; papery leaf and coriaceous leaf accounts for 50.91% and 41.82%,respectively.Therefore,the community has significant tropic characters.The tree layer,shrub layer and herb layer in the community had relatively lower degree in diversity,abundance and uniformity of species,but had relatively higher degree in dominance.The community vertical structure could be divided into tree layer,shrub layer and herb layer,but interlayer plants extremely lack.

  19. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55

  20. El Sueño como personaje alegórico en dos autos de Calderón: La siembra del Señor (antes de 1655) y Sueños hay que verdad son (1670)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    International audience Este artículo analiza la ambigüedad del personaje alegórico de Sueño en dos autos sacramentales de Calderón, La siembra del señor y Sueños hay que verdad son. En el primero, la figura de Sueño, connotada como 'acto de dormir', se alia con la Culpa para contrarrestar la instauración de la Edad de Gracia. Pero con la muerte de Emanuel y la llegada de la Ley Nueva, el personaje se vuelve la voz anunciadora del advenimiento de la Edad de Gracia. En Sueños hay que verdad ...

  1. Valor nutritivo do feno de braquiária amonizado com uréia ou inoculado com Pleurotus ostreatus Nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens hay ammoniated with urea or innoculated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se, mediante análises de composição química e ensaio de digestibilidade com ovinos, o efeito dos tratamentos químico (amonização com uréia e biológico (inoculação com o fungo Pleurotus ostreatus sobre o valor nutritivo do feno de Brachiaria decumbens. Ambos os tratamentos duraram 42 dias; após esse período, o feno foi seco e moído para fornecimento aos animais. As dietas experimentais foram: feno não tratado (FNT; feno não tratado + uréia (FNT + U; feno inoculado com fungo + uréia (FTB + U; e feno amonizado + feno não tratado (FTQ + FNT. As dietas FNT + U, FTB + U e FTQ + FNT foram isonitrogenadas. Tanto o tratamento químico como o biológico causaram mudanças na composição química do feno. A amonização elevou os teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e reduziu os teores de hemicelulose (HEM e a proporção de hemicelulose na parede celular (HEM-FDN. Já o tratamento biológico tendeu a aumentar o teor de PB; elevou os teores de FDA, lignina (LIG, a proporção de celulose na parede celular (CEL-FDN e a proporção de lignina na parede celular (LIG-FDN; e reduziu os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, HEM e HEM-FDN. Entretanto, diminuiu a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, FDN, celulose (CEL e FDA, mas aumentou o consumo, provavelmente em decorrência do menor teor de FDN e menor tamanho médio de partículas, o que causou maior velocidade de passagem. Os tratamentos biológico e químico são alternativas importantes no incremento do valor nutritivo de materiais lignocelulósicos, todavia, os resultados obtidos neste ensaio não foram satisfatórios.The effect of a chemical treatment (ammoniation with urea or a biological treatment (innoculation with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on the nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens hay was evaluated by means of chemical analyses and a digestibility trial with sheep. Both treatments lasted 42 days, and thereafter the hay was dried

  2. The Optimization and Simulation of the Six-Shaft Hay Baler's Parameter%六杆式干草压捆机的参数优化及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿波; 蒋鹏鹏; 罗华; 赵匀

    2012-01-01

    建立了六杆式压捆机的运动学和动力学模型,用序列求解法对其进行了求解,并验证了建立的模型和求解方法的正确性.基于遗传算法运用Matlab编制了六杆式压相机压缩机构的优化程序,对各杆件长度进行了优化,获得了最优参数.在相同工况下,把曲柄滑块式和六杆式压捆机在Adams环境中的运动学和动力学仿真结果进行了对比,验证了同样工况下六杆式压捆机具有省力的特点.%The kinematics and dynamics model of the six-shaft hay baler has been established, solving them through sequence method, and validates the correctness of the model. The paper has compiled the six-shaft hay baler's optimization program in Matlab based on genetic algorithm, optimized the rod length and has obtained the optimal parameters completing the simulation of dynamics and kinematics of the slider crank baler and the six-shaft hay baler in Adams situation. In the same condition, compared with the slider crank baler, the result is that the six-shaft hay baler needs smaller power than the slider crank baler.

  3. A NEW BORNEAN SPECIES OF CINNAMOMUM SCH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a. j. g. h. kostermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbor ramulis strictis perdense minutissime griseo tomentellis foliis oppositis coriaceis ellipticis acuminatis basi aeutis supra laevia glabra nervo mediano cum nerviis basalibus (acumine attingentibus filiformis prominulis subtus dense subadpresse sublanuginoso-tomentellis pilis per-gracilis glabrescentibus nervo mediano nerviisque basalibus prominentibus venis secundariis horizontalis parallelis prominulis venis submarginalis adest petiolis bene evolutis paniculis pseudo-terminalis perdense minute griseo tomentellis laxis strictis foliis aequilongis floribus sat magnis dense pilosis filamentis pilosis glandulis stipitatis ovario glabro.

  4. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  5. Changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of a hay-based ration offered once or twice daily to dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mantovani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of the total mixed ration (TMR based on hay as the main forage component (“dry” TMR and distributed once (7.00 am or twice (7.00 am and 1.00 pm daily to 32 lactating cows. The trial was divided in two periods of 14 days each. Diet (DM=53.7% was formulated in order to assure the nutritional requirements of cows producing 24 kg/d of milk (crude protein=14.4% DM; NDF=40.9% DM; milk FU=0.88/kg DM and additional amounts of concentrates were distributed using automatic feeders. Four TMR samples were collected daily (7.00 am, 10.00 am, 1.00 pm, 4.00 pm for six days during each experiment period for a total number of 48 feed samples. Each feed sample was subjected to the estimation of the particle size distribution using the separator of Pennsylvania State University composed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm and a collector on the bottom, and to the determination of the chemical composition. Changes of all three particle size fractions for TMRs were observed during the day with distributions of the TMR both once and twice daily. With the once daily distribution, the large particles fraction increased linearly (P<0.001 from 19.7 to 23.4, 32.2, and 35.1%, while the finest particle fraction decreased (from 60.1 to 58.3, 50.0, 47.8%. According to particle size changes, the chemical composition varied significantly at the different times of sampling when TMR was distributed once daily. Significant variations of DM were detected for TMR with a linear (P<0.001 increase (from 54.4 to 57.9, 60.7, 61.5%. Considering once TMR distribution, the values of NDF and starch showed an opposite trend with an increase of 6.5 and a decrease of 8.3 points from 7.00 am to 4.00 pm (i.e., 9 hrs after distribution. Correlations were estimated between chemical and physical characteristics of TMRs. NDF content was positively and significantly correlated to

  6. Anatomia e cinética de degradação do feno de Manihot glaziovii = Anatomy and kinetics of degradation of Manihot glaziovii Hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Araújo de França

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição química, o teor de compostos secundários, adegradabilidade in situ, a anatomia e a degradabilidade dos tecidos do feno de maniçoba, a partir de plantas em início de frutificação, oriundas de uma vegetação de caatinga em Ibimirim, Estado do Pernambuco. O caule apresentou células com variados graus de lignificação, destacando-se a presença de fibras gelatinosas, parênquima medular lignificado e espessas paredes celulares no xilema. As folhas se destacam pela presença da estrutura girder, caracterizam-se pela grande quantidade de mesofilo, constituído por células com paredes delgadas, contribuindo para a degradabilidade de matéria seca. Idioblastos contendo drusas de oxalato foram encontrados nos tecidos vasculares, na nervura principal da folha. Eles funcionam como mecanismos de defesa do vegetal contra herbívoros e podem afetar a disponibilidade de minerais para o animal. O feno demaniçoba, apesar de obtido de planta em avançado estágio de maturidade (início da frutificação, possui adequada composição química e baixos teores de ácido cianídrico e taninos. Os principaislimitantes à degradabilidade são o espessamento e a lignificação das paredes celulares, especialmente nos tecidos do caule. Adicionalmente, os diversos aspectos aqui relatados induzem à continuidade de pesquisas em diversos focos e visam ao melhoramento e à utilização desta espécie como forrageira.This study the structural components of cell wall with its degradability, chemical composition, secondary compounds, in situ degradability, anatomy and tissue degradability of the hay of “maniçoba” (wild cassava from plants in early fruiting, from savanna vegetation in Ibimirim, Pernambuco. The stem showed cells with varied degrees of lignification, highlighting the presence of gelatinousfibers, lignified pith parenchyma and thick cell walls inside the xylem. The leaves were highlighted by the presence of a girder

  7. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (pAsparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets.

  8. Intake and digestibility of silages containing pineapple pulp and coast-cross hay with or without urea and markers recovery in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribeiro Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and digestibility of silages containing pineapple pulp and coast-cross hay, with or without addition of urea, and the recovery of the markers chromium oxide (Cr2O3, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF, indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF, and indigestible dry matter (iDM, in a digestibility assay, in sheep. Treatments were as follows: two levels of pineapple pulp (818 and 758 g kg−1 and two levels of urea (with and without urea, in a completely randomized design. Twelve sheep (three per treatment were used, kept in metabolic cages. Fecal excreta were determined by total collection or estimated by using the markers. Marker samples were obtained in morning and afternoon collections, with mean concentrations obtained for both daily activities. The level of silage pulp did not affect intake, while addition of urea increased the intake of crude protein (CP, but did not influence the intakes of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber. The digestibility coefficients of all afore-mentioned fractions increased with the increase in pulp, the same happening with the addition of urea. The internal marker with lowest variability among the internal markers was iADF, with mean values near 100%. Mean recovery of Cr2O3 was approximately 107%, but with lower variability among treatments. Inclusion of pineapple pulp in silage does not influence intake, while addition of urea only increases the intake of CP. The levels of pineapple pulp in silage with or without urea increase the digestibility of the silage. Indigestible acid detergent fiber is the marker with lowest variability of recovery, with mean recovery for the four silages used very close to 100%.

  9. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (pAsparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. PMID:22741923

  10. Subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M Petri

    Full Text Available Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH or red clover silage (RC, and either sunflower-seed (SS or flaxseed (FS, providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05 subcutaneous trans (t-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05 for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid.

  11. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Ferlay, Anne; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Based on the potential benefits to long-term human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. The impact of plant oil supplements to diets containing different forages on caprine milk fatty acid composition was examined in two experiments using twenty-seven Alpine goats in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with 28 d experimental periods. Treatments comprised of no oil (control) or 130 g/d of sunflower-seed oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) supplements added to diets based on grass hay (H; experiment 1) or maize silage (M; experiment 2). Milk fat content was enhanced (P<0.01) on HSO, HLO and MLO compared with the corresponding H or M control diets, resulting in 17, 15 and 14% increases in milk fat secretion, respectively. For both experiments, plant oils decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0-16:0 and odd- and branched-chain fatty acid content and increased 18:0, trans-Delta(6-9,11-14,16)-18:1 (and their corresponding Delta-9 desaturase products), trans-7, trans-9-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-8, cis-10-CLA concentrations. Alterations in the distribution of cis-18:1, trans-18:1, -18:2 and CLA isomers in milk fat were related to plant oil composition and forage in the diet. In conclusion, plant oils represent an effective strategy for altering the fatty acid composition of caprine milk, with evidence that the basal diet is an important determinant of ruminal unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the goat. PMID:18554428

  12. ¿Hay o no hay conflicto armado en Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nieto Navia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca demostrar que, no obstante que el Gobierno piense otra cosa, en Colombia existe un conflicto armado nterno. De esa consideración no se pueden derivar consecuencias tales como que se trate de grupos armados “beligerantes” con subjetividad internacional. Esos grupos son, además, terroristas y, como no reúnen las condiciones que el derecho internacional exige, no pueden ser reconocidos como sujetos.

  13. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH3-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  14. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  15. Proteic supplements with and without sulfur sources on intake behavior of steers fed with low quality haySuplementos proteicos com e sem fontes de enxofre sobre o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conduct to study the effects of proteic supplementation and different sulfur sources added to supplements on the intake behavior, for cattle. Seven Holstein steers, weighing 442 kg ± 59 kg of live weight. The statistical design was a Latin square 7 x 7, and treatments consisted of the supplements use or no with addition or no of different sulfur sources: hay + supplement without sulfur (SWS, hay + sulfur 70S (S70, hay + sulfur 98S (S98, hay + calcium sulfate hemi-hydrated (CSH, hay + calcium sulfate di-hydrated (CSD, hay + ammonium sulfate (SFA and hay without supplement (FSS. The Supplements affected in a positive way the feeding, chewing and resting activities. Steers without supplement (HWS showed shorter total time of feeding, lower total time of chewing, and resting than steers with supplements. They had shorter meals and spent more time for rumination chewing per ruminal bolus, had lower efficiency of feeding (g DM/hour and lower rumination efficiency (g of DM/hour and g of NDF/hour as well as of the lower intake. SWS showed higher total time of rumination then supplements with different sulfur sources. The animals that had consumed supplements with sulfur, had presented lower number of rumination chews per day and per bolus, but they had not different to feeding efficiency and rumination.O presente experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da suplementação proteica e de diferentes fontes de enxofre adicionadas aos suplementos, sobre o comportamento ingestivo de bovinos consumindo feno de baixa qualidade. Foram utilizados sete bovinos, machos, castrados, da raça Holandesa Preto e Branco com 442 kg ± 59 kg de peso vivo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 7 x 7, e os tratamentos consistiram na utilização ou não de suplementos com adição ou não de diferentes fontes de enxofre, conforme segue: feno + suplemento sem enxofre (SSE, feno + enxofre 70S (E70, feno + enxofre

  16. Hay otras fotos del peronismo

    OpenAIRE

    James, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    En esta conferencia se brindará una visión panorámica de la historia de las historias del peronismo, de las etapas de los análisis académicos del peronismo. Luego, se hablará sobre nuevas tendencias en los análisis académicos, intelectuales, sobre el peronismo, siempre sobre la primera época, no sobre toda la historia del peronismo. Finalmente, se revisarán algunos caminos nuevos, interesantes, que se están abriendo actualmente en algunos trabajos de la Argentina y de afuera.

  17. Hay huellas en el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bertone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente reseña introduce y comenta el libro de los compiladores Victoria D`hers y Eduardo Galak “Estudios sociales sobre el cuerpo: prácticas, saberes, discursos en perspectiva”; el cual surge en el marco de las “VI Jornadas de Sociología de la UNLP” y consta de un prólogo realizado por Adrián Scribano y Lucas Aimar, y once artículos producidos por jóvenes investigadores en relación a los Cuerpos y las Emociones.Los autores proponen recorrer un mapeo y ensayar lecturas sobre las conexiones entre prácticas corporales, afecciones y emociones. La escritura y el modo de presentación del libro reflejan la textura de la temática y la complejidad del espacio de reflexión. Desde una sociología de los cuerpos y las emociones es posible hallar pistas que nos conduzcan a comprender el sentido que los actores dan a sus prácticas; identificar nodos conflictuales que emergen en esas comprensiones cotidianas; y dar cuenta de cómo la sociedad que se hace cuerpo, puede ser rastreada a partir del análisis de determinadas emociones sociales. Desde el título podemos reconocer que el libro deja huellas para comprender que el propio cuerpo es discusión del presente y del futuro inmediato.

  18. Drought Resistance of Cinnamomum camphora Seedlings Inoculated with Different AM Fungi in Karst Soil%喀斯特土壤上香樟幼苗接种不同AM真菌后的耐旱性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何跃军; 钟章成

    2011-01-01

    Drought resistance of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings inoculated with different AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum and G. Lamellosum) under drought stress in Karst soil was studied in this paper. The 80 d-old seedlings were exposed to four drought stress treatments of 60 days; severe (35% -45% of field capacity, FC) , moderate (50% -60% of FC), mild (65% -75% of FC) and well watered (80% -90% of FC). Biomass accumulation of individual plants and osmoregulation in the leaves were measured in this paper. The results showed that :( 1 ) Biomass of seedlings significantly increased after the AM fungus inoculation. The order of effects on biomass showed moderate > mild > well watered > severe in all water treatments, G. Etunicatum > G. Lamellosum as well. There were significant differences in seedlings biomass between well watered condition and severe water stress but not between moderate and mild water stress. (2) It represented a better mycorrhizal dependency of plants under moderate water stress compared with all the other water conditions while differences in dependency were significant under severe stress but the others were not, mycorrhizal dependency of C. Camphora in-oculted G. Etunicatum was higher than G. Lamellosum in all water treatments. ( 3 ) Compared with non-inoculated plants, concentration of soluble sugar, soluble protein and proline were higher while malondialdehyde was lower in leaves of inoculated plants. There was a tendency of G. Lamellosum > G. Etunicatum > ck for soluble sugar, soluble protein and proline in leaves under well watered condition, however it changed G. Etunicatum > G. Lamellosum >ck while water decreased. The concentration difference in malondialdehyde was not significant. However,it decreased rapidly in G. Etunicatum compared to G. Lamellosum while enhancing water stress. The ranks of ma-londialdehyde contents were G. Etunicatum < G. Lamellosum < ck with the enhancement of water stress. There were significant differences among three

  19. 氧化亚氮对樟树幼苗生长及光合作用的影响%Effects of NO2 on Cinnamomum camphora seedlings growth and photosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓梅; 陈英旭; 杜国坚

    2009-01-01

    采用开顶式人工熏气装置,对1年生樟树幼苗进行了为期2个月不同体积分数NO2(0.1、0.5和4.0 μl·L-1)熏气试验,研究其对幼苗生长及光合作用的影响.结果表明:0.5和0.1 μl·L-1 NO2处理促进了樟树幼苗生长,而4.0 μl·L-1 NO2处理则抑制其生长.各处理樟树幼苗叶片净光合速率(Pn)日变化呈不对称的双峰型曲线,存在光合"午休"现象;在光合日进程中,0.5 μl·L-1 NO2处理使叶片Pn提高,最大值达8.542 μmol CO2·m-2s-1,4.0 μl·L-1 NO2处理的大多数时段使Pn降低,而0.1 μl·L-1 NO2处理对Pn的影响则依时段而不同;0.5和4.0 μl·L-1 NO2处理提高了叶片气孔导度(Gs)和胞间CO2浓度(Ci)的最大值和最小值,0.1 μl·L-1 NO2处理提高了Ci的最大值和最小值,降低了Gs的最大值和最小值.熏气处理中、后期,0.5 μl·L-1 NO2处理叶片的日均净光合速率显著高于其他处理.在熏气处理前期,0.5和4.0 μl·L-1 NO2处理使叶片最大PSⅡ的光能转换效率(Fv/Fm)显著下降;在熏气处理后期,4.0 μl·L-1 NO2处理的叶片Fv/Fm仍显著低于对照.%A 2-month fumigation experiment was conducted with opened top chambers to study the effects of different concentration (0.1, 0.5, and 4.0 μl·L-1) NO2 on the growth and photosynthesis of 1-year Cinnamomum camphora seedlings. Fumigation with 0.1 and 0.5 μl NO2·L-1 promoted the growth of the seedlings, while with 4.0 μl NO2·L-1 was in adverse. The diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) presented two-peaks, with an obvious depression in midday. 0.5 μl NO2·L-1 increased the Pn, the maximum of Pn reached 8.542 μmol CO2·m-2s-1; 4.0 μl NO2·L-1 decreased the Pn in most period of time; while the effect of 0.1 μl NO2·L-1 varied with time period. Fumigation with 0.5 and 4.0 μl NO2·L-1 increased the maximal and minimal values of stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), while 0.1 μl NO2·L-1 increased the maximal and minimal

  20. DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE DO FENO DE Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle SCHWEICKERDT APÓS A COLHEITA DE SEMENTES APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF Brachiaria humidicola (RENDLE SCHWEICKERDT HAY AFTER SEED HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benir de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivando avaliar a composição química e a digestibilidade aparente de feno de Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickerdt, após a colheita de sementes, foi realizado um experimento nas dependências do Departamento de Zootecnia da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás. Utilizou-se quatro carneiros adultos, castrados, sem raça definida, com bolsas coletoras de fezes e alojados em gaiolas individuais de metabolismo durante 17 dias, sendo 7 de adaptação e 10 de coleta. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (53,64% concorda plenamente com o resultado encontrado "in vitro" (53,37%. Na base de matéria seca, o feno apresentou 53,40% de N.D.T., baixo nível de proteína bruta (3,03% com baixo coeficiente de digestibilidade (11,88%. Nas condições do presente experimento conclui-se que a fenação da Brachiaria humidicola, após a colheita mecânica das sementes, prejudicou o valor nutritivo do feno, principalmente, a proteína bruta e sua digestibilidade.

    A trial to study the apparent digestibility of Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickerdt, grass, was carried out at the Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Goiás. The seeds of B.humidicola have a good commercial value and the farmers utilized a grass of bad quality after mechanical harvest. Four adult lambs, castrated males, of unknown race, were used and placed in metabolical individual cages during 17 days, 7 for adaptation and 10 for collection period. The apparent digestibility of dry matter was 53.64% and ";in vitro"; 53.37%. On dry matter-basis the hay has 53.40% of TND value, a poor crude protein (3.03% value with low coefficient of digestibility (11 .88%.

  1. Geologic framework, hydrostratigraphy, and ichnology of the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Golab, James A.; Morris, Robert E.

    2016-09-13

    This report presents the geologic framework, hydro­stratigraphy, and ichnology of the Trinity and Edwards Groups in the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quad­rangles in Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas. Rocks exposed in the study area are of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group and lower part of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Lower Cretaceous Edwards Group. The mapped units in the study area are the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand, and Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group and the lower portion of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Edwards Group. The Glen Rose Limestone is composed of the Lower and Upper Members. These Trinity Group rocks con­tain the upper and middle Trinity aquifers. The only remaining outcrops of the Edwards Group are the basal nodular member of the Fort Terrett Formation, which caps several hills in the northern portion of the study area. These rocks were deposited in an open marine to supratidal flats environment. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Balcones fault zone, an extensional system of faults that generally trends southwest to northeast in south-central Texas.The hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers were mapped and described using a classification system based on fabric-selective or not-fabric-selective poros­ity types. The only hydrostratigraphic unit of the Edwards aquifer present in the study area is hydrostratigraphic unit VIII. The mapped hydrostratigraphic units of the upper Trinity aquifer are (from top to bottom) the Camp Bullis, upper evaporite, fossiliferous, and lower evaporite which are interval equivalent to the Upper Member of the Glen Rose Limestone. The middle Trinity aquifer encompasses (from top to bottom) the Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone, the Hensell Sand Member, and the Cow Creek Limestone Member of the Pearsall Formation. The Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone is subdivided into six informal hydro

  2. Effect of feed restriction with voluntary hay intake on the performance and quality of laying hen eggs=Efeito da restrição alimentar com oferta de feno sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Abe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of a quantitative feed restriction on the voluntary intake of hay, the performance of laying hens, and on egg quality. A total of 150 Hisex Brown laying hens at 51-weeks old were distributed into five treatments and five replications of six hens each. The treatments consisted of control, with supply of 100 g of feed bird-1 day-1 without hay; and the others consisting of a feed restriction of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of the diet offered to the birds in the control treatment, along with an ad libitum supply of cunhã hay (CH, leucaena leaf meal (LLM and tifton hay (TH. A linear increase was found in the hay intake with increasing level of dietary restriction. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion decreased linearly. Yolk color was affected by the treatments. Birds with 20% feed restriction presented the greatest yolk pigmentation. In conclusion, laying hens can be subjected to a 5% feed restriction with supply of hay ad libitum.O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre a ingestão voluntária de feno, o desempenho das aves e a qualidade dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 150 poedeiras da linhagem Hisex Brown com 51 semanas de idade. As aves foram distribuídas em cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições de seis aves cada. O tratamento controle consistiu no fornecimento de 100 g de ração ave-1 dia-1 sem oferta de feno e os demais na oferta de 95, 90, 85 e 80 g de ração ave-1 dia-1, que corresponderam, respectivamente, às restrições de 5, 10, 15 e 20% da quantidade de ração, com o fornecimento de feno à vontade. Foram utilizados os fenos de cunhã, das folhas de leucena e de tifton. Com o aumento no nível de restrição, houve aumento no consumo diário de feno, redução na produção, na massa de ovo, no peso médio das aves e piora na conversão alimentar. Em relação às características de qualidade dos ovos, apenas a coloração da gema variou

  3. Efect of urea levels on the nutritional value of Tanzania-grass hay/ Efeito de níveis de uréia sobre o valor nutricional do feno de capim-Tanzânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Jesus Ferreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of the urea addition on the nutritional value of the Tanzânia-grass hay (Panicum maximum, Jacq cv. Tanzânia. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four treatments: T1 – only hay, T2 – hay with 1.0% of urea, T3 – hay with 2.0% of urea and T4 – hay with 3.0% of urea, with base in the dry matter, and ten replicates per treatment. There was positive linear effect of the urea levels on the crude protein (CP, being the largest level providing increases of four percentile points in relation to the control treatment. This treatment provided, also, reduction in neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicelulose (HEM, through a negative lineal effect. The values obtained by the regression equation in the highest dose were 62.37, 38.74 and 23.66%, to NDF, ADF and HEM values, respectively. There was positive linear effect for the digestibility with the addition of the urea levels providing medium increases of 53.93% in the control to 63.96% in the dose of 3.0%. The urea use is efficient in promoting increment in the quality of the Tanzânia-grass hay.O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da adição de uréia em doses crescentes, sobre o valor nutritivo do feno de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum, Jacq cv. Tanzânia. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos: T1 – somente feno, T2 – feno mais 1,0% de uréia, T3 – feno mais 2,0% de uréia e T4 – feno mais 3,0% de uréia, com base na matéria seca, e dez repetições por tratamento. Houve efeito linear positivo dos níveis de uréia sobre o teor de proteína bruta (PB, com o maior nível proporcionando aumentos de quatro pontos percentuais em relação ao tratamento testemunha. O tratamento com uréia proporcionou, também, redução no teor da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose (HEM, por meio

  4. En diálogo con los artículos del dossier psicoanálisis y filosofía. ¿Hay un diálogo posible?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    A partir de la pregunta que anima este número de la revista ¿hay un diálogo posible entre el psicoanálisis y la filosofía? el presente artículo tiene como cometido realizar un dialogo con algunos autores del Dossier, tomando como punto de referencia los trabajos en los cuales está presente cierta problematización del psicoanálisis a través de los trabajos de Foucault. The main question that brings about this new issue of the Journal is about the possible or impossible dialog between psycho...

  5. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juvenal Kanani; Dirk Philipp; Kenneth PCoffey; Elizabeth BKegley; Charles PWest; Shane Gadberry; John Jennings; Ashley NYoung; Robert TRhein

    2014-01-01

    Background:The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminal y cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets:low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal col ection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results:Forage DMI was affected by diet (P=0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P<0.05) than from L. Apparent DMD tended (P=0.08) to differ among diets while FO (P=0.20) was not affected by diet treatments. Average ADL recovery (1.16) was greater (P<0.05) than that of ADIA (1.03) and APL (1.06), but ADIA and APL did not differ (P=0.42). Estimates of FO and DMD derived using APL and ADIA were not different (P≥0.05) from total fecal collection while those using ADL differed (P<0.05). There was no diet by marker interaction (P≥0.22) for either FO or DMD. Conclusion:Acid-detergent insoluble ash and APL accurately predicted FO and DMD of cattle fed bermudagrass hay of varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary

  6. Comparason on Anatomical Structure and FTIR Spectra between Cinnamomum camphora and Phoebe zhennan Woods%樟和楠木的木材解剖结构特征和红外光谱比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓明; 谢春平; 孙小苗; 南程慧

    2016-01-01

    【目的】以樟科的珍贵木材的樟木和楠木作为研究对象,探讨2种结构相近木材的有效识别方法。【方法】通过光学显微镜和傅立叶红外光谱对二者的解剖结构、红外光谱特征分别进行了比较研究。【结果】2种木材样本的显微结构特征较为相似,差异主要体现在樟木半散孔至散孔材,楠木为散孔材;樟木与楠木管孔平均弦径为(114.5293±31.5645)μm、(106.3788±19.6872)μm,樟木作为半散孔材平均弦径变化范围比楠木广。通过对6个木材样本的红外光谱比较,产地对樟木和楠木2种木材的红外光谱区域的指纹图谱有一定影响;2种木材的一维红外图谱峰形和出峰位置差异较小,仅在表征纤维素和半纤维素中C-O伸缩振动区域有所区别,樟木在波数1055 cm-1和1039 cm-1处形成了峰强度不等的双峰,楠木该位置只形成了波数1054 cm-1的一个不对称单峰;以1510 cm-1峰作为内标峰,与1595 cm-1(樟木)、1599 cm-1(楠木)的比值分别为1.1612和0.9969,说明樟木的木素中愈疮木基比例较高;樟和楠木的木材在波数800~1800 cm-1范围内的二阶导数谱差异明显,主要体现在吸收峰的数量和形状上,樟木的吸收峰可以分为17组峰簇,而楠木为17个独立吸收峰,全图谱的匹配度只有37.5。【结论】分析产地因素,波数900~3400 cm-1区域为木材图谱特征稳定的区域,可用于2种木材的图谱区分;在1055 cm-1和1039 cm-1范围内吸收峰的形状、1595 cm-1(樟木)和1599 cm-1(楠木)和1510 cm-1峰的相对强度比,可以作为2种木材一维图谱的种间识别特征;2种木材的二阶导数图谱差别较大,可用于2种木材的区分。%Objective]The aim of the this paper was to establish an identification method for 2 woods (Cinnamomum camphora and Phoebe zhennan) with similar structure.[Method]Optical microscope and fourier transform

  7. Quality Standard of Essential Oil from D-linalool Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm Presl Leaves in Ji'an of Jiangxi Province%江西吉安右旋芳樟醇型黄樟鲜枝叶油的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗忠生; 蒋志茵; 龙光远; 黄恒辉

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil in leaves of d-linalool Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm can be extracted by steam distillation. Control by its main component, samples of different woodland condition were analyzed by GC method and the formulation of quality standard can be sett, the d-linalool was more than 90%and the camphor was less than 1.5%.%用水蒸汽蒸馏提取d-芳樟醇型黄樟鲜枝叶油。用芳樟油对其进行主成分对照,并采用气相色谱测定不同立地条件的精油主成分,提出右旋芳樟醇型黄樟鲜枝叶油的质量标准建议,黄樟鲜枝叶油芳樟醇含量大于90%,樟脑含量小于1.5%。

  8. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  9. Rendimento, composição tecidual e musculosidade da carcaça de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com diferentes níveis de feno de flor-de-seda na dieta Yield, tissue composition and carcass muscularity of Santa Inês lambs fed diets with different ratios of forage sorghum hay to silk flower hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valéria Mello de Souza Marques

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a inclusão de níveis crescentes de feno de flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera SW (FFS em substituição ao feno de sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor, L. (FSF na dieta e seus possíveis efeitos sobre os rendimentos verdadeiro, biológico e comercial, a perda ao resfriamento, o rendimento dos cortes, a composição tecidual e a musculosidade da carcaça de cordeiros Santa Inês. Foram utilizados 24 cordeiros (machos não-castrados distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com quatro tratamentos (relações FSF:FFS: 100:0, 66:33, 33:66 e 0:100. Os animais foram abatidos com 30,0 (±0,4 kg ou aos 70 dias de experimento. Não houve efeito das relações FSF:FFS na dieta sobre os rendimentos biológico, verdadeiro e comercial, sendo obtidos valores médios de 53,17; 45,97 e 44,34%, respectivamente. Foram observadas diferenças significativas no peso vivo ao abate, no peso de corpo vazio, nos pesos de carcaça quente e de carcaça fria, no rendimento dos cortes, na composição tecidual e na musculosidade da carcaça. À exceção dos cortes paleta e perna, as variáveis apresentaram valores mais elevados quando fornecidos os menores níveis de FFS na dieta. O feno de flor-de-seda pode ser utilizado na alimentação de cordeiros para produção de carne em proporções de até 16,5% da dieta (33% da fração volumosa, pois não ocasiona prejuízo à qualidade da carcaça.This study evaluated the effects of different dietary ratios of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L hay (FSH to silk flower hay (Calotropis procera SW (SFH on true, biological, and retail carcass yields, carcass cooling losses, retail cut yields, tissue composition and carcass muscularity of Santa Inês lambs. Twenty-four intact male lambs were assigned to one of the following four treatments: 100:0 FSH:SFH, 66:33 FSH:SFH , 33:66 FSH:SFH, or 0:100 FSH:SFH in a completely randomized design (six animals/treatment. Animals were slaughtered at 30.0±0.4 kg of

  10. Influence of branched-chain fatty acid supplementation on voluntary intake, site and extent of digestion, ruminal fermentation, digesta kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Broesder, J T; Barton, R K

    1990-09-01

    Four heifers (British x British; average BW 372 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and consuming a grass hay (fescue-orchardgrass) diet were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and supplemented with four levels (0, 20, 40, and 60 g.head-1.d-1) of supplemental four- and five-carbon VFA (BCFA). Forage OM, ADF, NDF and N intakes and digestibilities were not affected (P greater than .10) by BCFA supplementation. Likewise, duodenal N (microbial, feed and ammonia) flows and microbial efficiency were not altered (P greater than .10) by BCFA supplementation. Neither particulate and fluid passage rate nor in situ rate of NDF digestion was affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Ruminal pH, ammonia concentrations and total VFA concentrations were similar (P greater than .10) among treatments. Ruminal proportions of acetate and propionate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment; however, butyrate responded in a cubic (P less than .05) fashion to BCFA, with the lowest proportion of butyrate at the 40 g BCFA feeding level. A time x treatment interaction (P less than .05) was noted for isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate proportions; they were increased as a function of BCFA dosage at 2 to 8 h postdosing. Supplemental four- and five-carbon VFA had no effect on digestion and fermentation of grass hay. Supplementation of low-quality roughages with BCFA is not justified.

  11. Avaliação de fontes de urease na amonização de fenos de Brachiaria brizantha com dois teores de umidade Evaluation of urease sources in the ammoniation of Brachiaria brizantha hays with two moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da amonização com uréia (5,0% matéria seca do feno de Brachiaria brizantha, com dois teores de umidade (15 ou 30% de umidade, associado a três fontes de urease (feno de capim Brachiaria decumbens, capim-elefante [Pennisetum purpureum] e leucena [Leucaena leucocephala], foi avaliado. Foram determinados os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fração solúvel (A, frações de proteína verdadeira solúvel e insolúvel em borato fosfato (B1 e B2, fração de proteína potencialmente degradável (B3 e fração da proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido (C. Avaliaram-se os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 10 tratamentos (dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, sem uréia e sem urease; dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, com uréia e sem urease; seis combinações de fontes de urease e conteúdo de umidade e três repetições. A amonização dos fenos com diferentes conteúdos de umidade, associados a fontes de urease, aumentou os teores de PB e da fração A, mas não afetou B1 e B2. Contudo, as frações B3 e C diminuíram em reposta à amonização. A aplicação de uréia nos fenos de 30% de umidade, associados ou não a fontes de urease, diminuiu os teores de FDN. A adição de fontes de urease não alterou os teores dos constituintes da parede celular, quando comparada aos tratamentos amonizados com uréia. Os tratamentos aplicados não proporcionaram efeitos consistentes sobre os teores de FDA e de CEL dos fenos e não afetaram os teores de LIG. A aplicação de uréia associada a 15 ou 30% de umidade foi favorável para aumentar o nitrogênio solúvel do feno de Brachiaria brizantha e diminuir o nitrogênio indisponível para o ruminante.The urea ammoniation (5.0% dry matter effects in Brachiaria brizanta hay baled with two

  12. Energy use and sustainability in hay production in a intensive system of milk production; Uso de energia e sustentabilidade na producao de feno em sistema intensivo de producao de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir; Navarine, Franciele Clenice [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), M.C. Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the energy balance and the sustainability in the hay production through seven years data from a Intensive System of Milk Production, located in the region of Coronel Pacheco/MG Brazil. To the energy matrix determination, the categories of direct and indirect energy were considered. The energy inputs occurred in the implanting and establishing of the crop were distributed in the years considered as useful life. The direct energy, relative to the inputs, had larger participation that the indirect one, being the percentiles found of 93.05 and 6.95, respectively. The main consumer of indirect energy was the tractor, which turns on all the implements, followed by the irrigation system. The estimated energy efficiency by the process was of 3.19. Most of the used direct energy was that derived from fossil resources, in the form of fuel (diesel). The use of organic fertilizer, of poultry litter, promoted a relative reduction in the consumption of energy originated from fertilizer derived from fossil resources. With the obtained results, it was concluded that, despite of the several sources of energy consumption, the production of alfalfa hay is sustainable and efficient in the energy conversion. (author)

  13. Apparent digestibility of diets with combinations of soybean hulls and coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay offered to ram lambs Digestibilidade aparente de dietas com combinações de casca de soja e feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. oferecidas para cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Canonenco de Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SH are an alternative fiber source that may be used to maintain neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration while increasing the energy concentration of ruminant diets. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay NDF by SH NDF on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance of Santa Inês ram lambs. Twenty-four animals (42.5 ± 3.6 kg of body weight and six months old were placed in metabolism crates and assigned in a randomized complete block design defined by body weight (BW. Experimental diets provided a similar concentration of NDF (52% and crude protein (15%. Hay NDF from a 70% roughage-based diet was replaced with SH NDF by 33%, 67%, and 100%, resulting in 0, 25, 52, and 77% of SH in the dietary dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a linear increase (p 0.05 on water intake when SH replaced hay. The SH can replace forage and may be included up to 77% in the dietary DM of ram lambs with satisfactory values of nutrient digestibilities.A casca de soja (CS é uma fonte de fibra alternativa que visa manter o teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e aumentar a concentração energética da dieta de ruminantes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição da FDN de feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. pela FDN da CS sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros Santa Inês. Vinte e quatro animais (42,5 ± 3,6 kg de peso vivo e seis meses de idade foram colocados em gaiolas para ensaio de digestibilidade e arranjados em delineamento blocos completos casualizados definidos pelo peso vivo (PV. As dietas isonitrogenadas (15% de proteína bruta continham concentrações semelhantes de FDN (52%. O tratamento controle foi composto de 70% de feno na matéria seca (MS da dieta, sendo a FDN proveniente do feno substituída em 33%, 67% e 100% pela FDN proveniente da CS, correspondendo a 0, 25, 52 e 77% de

  14. 元谋干热河谷区海狮苏丹草引种与适应研究%Introduction and Adaptability Evaluation of Sorghum sudanense (Hay-King) Stapf. in Hot Arid Valley of Yuanmou County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光熊; 史亮涛; 张明忠; 邰建辉; 龙会英; 闫帮国; 金杰; 沙毓沧; 纪中华

    2011-01-01

    对云南干热河谷典型区元谋引人的海狮苏丹草[Sorghumsudanense(Hay—King)Stapf.]进行适应性评价。结果表明:海狮苏丹草生育期95d,种子黑亮,平均株高220.0cm,再生能力强;刈割后分蘖数增多,可达58个,具褐色中脉特性;在元谋干热气候粗放管理条件下,年可刈割3~4次,平均鲜草产量达81.16t/hm2,干草产量达19.03t/hm2;营养价值高,粗蛋白含量达17.64%;适口性好,可用于牛羊鱼等草食动物饲养。总之,元谋干热气候条件在一定程度上影响其产量.但其优良功能性状及生态功能在试验区具有较大发展潜力。%The present study was intended to bring a new grass named Sorghum sudanense (Hay-King) Stapf. into Yuanmou country, a typically place which was dry and hot arid zone, and evaluate it's adaptability. The results showed that S. sudanense (Hay-King) Stapf. growth period is 95 days and has regeneration ability, seed is black and produced at an average height of 220 cm; tillers increased after cutting, the number can be up to 58, characteristic by brown midrib; with extensive management in the conditions of hot dry climate, it can be mowed annually 3-4 times and the average fresh yield is 81 162.54 kg/hm2 and hay yield 19 033.21 kg/hm2; the grass has a great nutritional value, the content of crude protein (CP) is up to 17.64%; the grass is palatable and can be used for rearing herbivores such as cattle and sheep even fish. In summary, to a certain extent the yield is affected by hot and dry weather, but its good functional traits and ecological function showed a great development potential in the tested area.

  15. Substituição do feno de "Coastcross" (Cynodon sp. por casca de soja na alimentação de borregas confinadas Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in ewe lambs diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Barreto de Morais

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e oito borregas da raça Santa Inês (23,1kg de peso vivo e 124 dias de idade foram utilizadas para avaliar os efeitos da substituição do feno de "Coastcross" por casca de soja (CS no desempenho em confinamento. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos completos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. As dietas experimentais foram isonitrogenadas e continham a mesma quantidade de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. A casca de soja foi incluída nas proporções de 0; 12,5; 25 e 37,5% da matéria seca das dietas correspondendo aos tratamentos experimentais 0CS, 12,5CS, 25CS e 37,5CS, respectivamente. A FDN da CS substituiu 0; 25; 50 e 75% da FDN do feno. Houve efeito linear crescente (PForty-eight Santa Ines ewe lambs (23.1kg BW and 124 days old were used to evaluate the replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls on feedlot performance. Animals were assigned to a complete randomized block design with four diets and six replicates. All diets were isonitrogenous and contained the same amount of NDF. Soybean hulls replaced hay at 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 37.5% on DM basis, corresponding to the experimental treatments OCS, 12.5CS, 25CS and 37.5CS, respectively. Soybean hulls NDF replaced hay NDF at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. There was a linear increased response (P<0.01 on dry matter intake (0.95, 1.02, 1.08 and 1.20kg day-1 and average daily gain (113, 137, 150 and 187g day-1 and a linear improvement (P<0.01 on feed conversion (8.55, 7.20, 7.11 and 6.25kg of DM kg of gain-1 when soybean hulls were added to the diet. When soybean hulls are added to the diet (up to 37.5%, DM basis there is an improvement on animal performance and the ewe lambs attain breeding weight faster.

  16. Volatile metabolites analysis and molecular identification of endophytic fungi bn12.from Cinnamomum camphora chvar, borneol%龙脑樟中内生真菌bn12分子鉴定及挥发性代谢产物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美兰; 杨立; 李琴; 申业; 邵爱娟; 林淑芳; 黄璐琦

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To identify endophytic fungi bnl2 from Cinnamomum camphora chvar. Borneol and analysis its volatile metabolites. Method: The endophytic fungi bnl2 was identified by morphological observation, volatile metabolites of endophytic fungi bnl2 was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrography (GC-MS). Result: Volatile metabolites of endophytic fungi bnl2 contain borneol and much indoles. The ITS sequence of endophytic fungi bnl2 is most similar to the ITS sequence of pleosporaceae fungus, particularly C. Nisikadoi. Conclusion; Endophytic fungi bnl2 is belong to pleosporaceae fungus. It has the ability of producing brone-oL%目的:对龙脑樟中内生真菌bn12菌种进行鉴定,并对其的挥发性代谢产物进行分析.方法:采用形态学结合ITS序列分析法对菌种进行鉴定,采用GC-MS对挥发油成分进行分析.结果:内生真菌bn12的ITS序列与格孢菌目Pleosporales中格孢菌科Pleosporaceae的真菌相似度最大,并且与Cochliobolusnisikadoi ITS序列同源性比较高;龙脑樟内生真菌bn12的挥发性代谢产物中含有龙脑以及大量的吲哚类物质.结论:内生真菌bn12属于座囊菌纲的格孢菌科真菌,具有产生龙脑的能力.

  17. Substituição do feno de coastcross por casca de soja na alimentação de cabras em lactação Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a resposta de cabras em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross. Trinta e seis cabras (38±5 dias em lactação; 2,1±0,4 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados e confinadas por oito semanas. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e com o mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross em 0, 33, 67 ou 100% da matéria seca (MS. O consumo de matéria seca e a eficiência alimentar apresentaram resposta quadrática aos teores de casca de soja na dieta. A produção de leite e a variação do peso corporal não foram alteradas, porém a concentração de gordura e lactose do leite aumentou e os tempos gastos com ruminação e mastigação decresceram com a inclusão da casca de soja na dieta. A casca de soja pode substituir totalmente o feno de coastcross em dietas para cabras em lactação, pois essa substituição não prejudica a produção de leite e aumenta o teor de gordura e lactose do leite. Em comparação ao feno picado de coastcross, a casca de soja apresenta menor efetividade em estimular a ruminação e a mastigação.The objective of this experiment was to verify the response of lactating goats fed diets with different levels (content of soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay (Cynodon sp. on performance. Thirty-six lactating Saanen goats (38±5 days of lactation; 2.1±0.4 kg/day were assigned to a randomized complete blocks design and housed for 8 weeks. Goats were fed diets of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, but with the same amount of neutral detergent fiber. Soybean hulls replaced hay by 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the dry matter (DM. Dry matter and NDF intake and feed efficiency showed a quadratic response to the levels of soybean hulls in the diet. Milk yield and body weight variations did not change; however, milk fat

  18. Feno de maniçoba em dietas para ovinos: consumo de nutrientes, digestibilidade aparente e balanço nitrogenado Maniçoba hay in diets for sheep: intake, apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divan Soares da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade da MS, MO e dos nutrientes (PB, EB, FDN, FDA, CT, CNF e EE e o balanço de nitrogênio de dietas contendo feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg.. Vinte quatro cordeiros Santa Inês com média de 28,62 kg PV foram distribuídos em um delinemento completamente casualizado e alimentados com rações contendo 20, 40, 60 ou 80% de feno de maniçoba. Os consumos médios de MS, MO, PB e CT foram 1,24; 1,12; 0,20 e 0,82 kg/dia, respectivamente, e os consumos médios de EM, FDN, FDA, EE e CNF foram, respectivamente, 2,78 mcal/dia; 401,01; 215,50; 83,42; 426,62; e 126,10 g/dia. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, PB e EB foram, respectivamente, 60,22; 56,16 e 61,90%, e os de FDN, FDA, CT e CNF, 44,73; 54,63; 61,50 e 78,41%, respectivamente. O balanço nitrogenado foi positivo, com média de 7,20 g N/kg MS/dia, e o nitrogênio aparentemente retido representou 21,45% do N ingerido. A inclusão de 80% de feno de maniçoba na dieta não afetou o consumo de MS, no entanto, reduziu a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta.The objective was to determine the voluntary intake and digestibility of DM, OM and nutrients (CP, GE, NDF, ADF, CT, NSC and EE. And nitrogen balance of diets containing maniçoba maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. hay Twenty-four Santa Ines lambs, average 28.62 kg LW were allotted to a completely randomized design and fed diets containing 20, 40, 60 e 80% of maniçoba hay.The mean intakes of DM, OM, CP and CT were 1.24, 1.12; 0.20; and 0.827 kg/d, respectively, and the mean intakes of ME, NDF, ADF, EE and NSC were, respectively, 2.78 mcal/kg, 401.01, 215.50, 83.42, 426.62, and 126.10 g/d. The apparent digestibility for DM, CP, and CE were respectively, 60.22, 61.28, 56.16, 61.90, and for NDF, ADF CT and NSC were, respectively, 44.73, 54.63, 61.50, and 78.41. The nitrogen balance was positive, with mean of 7.20 g N/kg DM/d, and the apparently

  19. Reverse design of non-circular gear-crank slider hay baler mechanism%非圆齿轮—曲柄滑块压捆机构反求设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷昌毅; 陈建能; 李鹏鹏; 王英

    2012-01-01

    为满足压捆机构的理想运动特性要求,该文提出了一种非圆齿轮—曲柄滑块式新型压捆机构,建立了该新型机构的运动学分析模型,并以理想速度曲线为目标反求得到了满足工作要求的非圆齿轮节曲线.通过实例计算比较,该新型机构与传统曲柄滑块式压捆机构相比,在一个工作循环中压缩时间增加30%,能实现小阻力阶段快速压缩、大阻力阶段则以恒定的低速压缩,且所需最大输入功率可降低28.6%.%In order to meet the requirements of the ideal kinematics characteristic, a new non-circular gear-crank slider hay baler mechanism was proposed, the ideal kinematics characteristic of the hay baler was analyzed, and the equation of ideal speed curve was built in this paper. The dynamics model of this new mechanism was built to carry out the reverse design of the pitch curve of non-circular gear that could meet the working requirements for the purpose of getting the ideal speed curve. Compared with the traditional slider crank baler mechanism, through example calculation, compression time of the new mechanism increased by 30% in one working cycle, the new mechanism could compress rapidly in small resistance stage while at a constant low-speed in big resistance stage, and the maximum input power decreased by 28.6%.

  20. Determinación de hongos y bacterias termofílicas en heno y paja en criaderos de caballos criollos chilenos Fungi and thermophilic bacteria found in hay and straw from chilean horse breeding grounds

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    L. ZAROR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (COPD del equino es una alteración alérgica del tracto respiratorio bajo, con obstrucción de las vías aéreas y una bronquiolitis mucopurulenta, desencadenada por diversos alergenos. Es una patología de distribución mundial, geográficamente es más común en países templados donde los equinos se alimentan en base a heno y se mantienen estabulados por largos períodos. En Chile, la enfermedad ha sido descrita y se presenta especialmente en primavera. En el presente estudio se analizaron 99 muestras de paja, heno mixto y heno de alfalfa provenientes de 19 criaderos de caballos chilenos de las provincias de Valdivia y Osorno con el objeto de determinar la presencia de hongos y bacterias termofílicas. Los hongos más aislado fueron A. fumigatus. De las bacterias termofílicas se aisló escasamente Thermoactinomyces vulgaris y S. rectivirgulaChronic obstructive pulmonar disease (COPD of horses is an alergic alteration of lower respiratory tract with obstruction of aerovias and a mucupurolent bronchiolitis, developped by an amount of alergenics. It is disease of world wide distribution, being more common in warm countries where horses are feeded chiefly with hay & stay stabulated for long periods. In Chile it has been described being more ofter in springtime. In the present study 99 samples were analysed being of straw, mixed hay & alfalfa coming from 19 Chilean horse breeding grounds of the Valdivia & Osorno provinces in order to determinate the presence of thermophilic fungus & bacteria. The most isolated fungi were A. fumigatus, Mucor hiemalis & A. niger. Thermophilic bacteria were scarsely. Thermoactinomyces vulgaris & S. rectivirgula

  1. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

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    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  2. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

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    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior

  3. Analysis on Pentosan Content in Machilus pauhoi Kanehira Wood%刨花楠木聚戊糖的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓腊云; 覃族; 陈茜文; 何洪城

    2013-01-01

    刨花楠木中含有大量聚戊糖,具有很高的经济利用价值.该文建立了用硫代硫酸钠滴定法测定刨花楠木粉中戊糖含量的方法.主要对木材原木粉、经苯乙醇抽提后的木粉、经1%盐酸加热提取后的木粉、经热水抽提后的木粉等样品进行戊糖测定,对各种方法处理的木粉原料中的戊糖含量进行了比较.该方法操作简单,对于粗测刨花楠木粉中戊糖含量有重要意义.

  4. Ruminal variables in steers fed with Tifton 85 (Cynodon Spp hay with different particle sizes / Variáveis ruminais em novilhos alimentados com feno de Tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partículas

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    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 concentration and the pH were determined with the objective of evaluating the effect of different particle sizes (5, 7, 10mm and whole of Tifton 85 hay in the diet of Holstein steers, with average live weight of 300kg and age of 20 months. A completely randomized design, with four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement was used. The plots were the experimental treatments (5, 7, 10mm and whole hay and the subplots were the times of collection (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h. The use of diets including hay with particle sizes of 5mm and whole, did not affect (P>0,05 the ruminal pH; average values were 6.14 and 6.61, respectively. A linear reduction in the ruminal pH was verified in the steers fed on diets constituted by 10mm particles. For the diets including Tifton hay with particle size of 7mm, it was observed a quadratic effect, where the minimum pH (5.39 was observed 8:00 h after the feed was furnished. Concentrations of N-NH3 were affected by collection time in a quadratic way. Maximum concentrations of N-NH3, 15.55, 15.83, 18.32, 12.0 mg/100 mL, were observed at 4:28, 3:58, 2:99 and 2:80h after feeding, for the diets including Tifton 85 hay with 5, 7, 10mm and whole particle sizes, respectively. It was concluded that all diets allowed normal nycterohemeral patterns of fermentation.As concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 e pH foram determinadas objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de feno de Tifton 85 (5, 7, 10mm e inteiro na dieta de novilhos holandeses, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300kg e idade média de 20 meses. As determinações das concentrações de amônia ruminal (N-NH3 e o pH foram analisadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcela subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tratamentos experimentais (5, 7, 10mm e feno inteiro e nas sub-parcelas os tempos de coleta (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h, com quatro repetições. A utilização de dietas constituídas com

  5. Performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed corn silage and oat hay/ Desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias alimentados com silagem de milho e feno de aveia

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    Adriana Pereira da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives to evaluate the performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed with different roughage sources in confinement. Thirty animals out of Corriedale ewes mated to Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk rams, were used. After weaning the animals were fedlot and distributed in one of the following treatments: T1 – Corn silage + concentrate; T2 – Corn silage and oat hay (50% each + concentrate; and T3 – Oat hay + concentrate. It was used a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio, dry matter basis. At the beginning of the experiment the animals weighed 11.51, 12.46 and 12.33 kg (P>0.05, and after nine weeks of feedlot the weights were 17.53, 19.34 and 19.35 kg (P>0.05, respectively, for T1, T2 e T3. Average daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05 among treatments. It was not observed differences (P>0.05 in weights and weight gains among the genetic groups. However, male lambs presented greater average daily weight gain than female lambs (0.120 x 0.091 kg. There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments, however, animals from the T2 had greater dry matter intake. It can be concluded that either corn silage or oat hay can be used for feeding weaned lambs.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias e alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 30 animais oriundos de cruzamentos entre ovelhas Corriedale e carneiros Hampshire Down, Ile de France e Suffolk. Logo após o desmame os animais foram confinados, sendo distribuídos para receberem um dos tratamentos: T1 – Silagem de milho mais concentrado; T2 – Silagem de milho e feno de aveia (50% do volumoso cada mais concentrado; e T3 – Feno de aveia mais concentrado. A proporção volumoso:concentrado utilizada foi de 60:40, base seca. Os pesos médios dos animais no início do experimento foram de 11,51; 12,46 e 12,33 kg (P>0,05 e os pesos finais, após nove semanas de

  6. Metabolismo de nutrientes em ovinos alimentados com casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross Nutrient metabolism in sheep fed soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay

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    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição do feno de coastcross (Cynodon sp. por casca de soja sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, os parâmetros ruminais e o metabolismo de nitrogênio. Dezesseis borregos (PV = 40,0±5 kg foram individualmente alojados em gaiolas metálicas para ensaio de metabolismo em delineamento experimental do tipo blocos completos casualizados. O experimento teve duração de 14 dias, sendo 10 dias para adaptação dos animais às rações experimentais e 4 para coleta das amostras. Os animais foram alimentados com dietas compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado com mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross em 0, 33, 67 ou 100% da matéria seca. Os teores de casca de soja na dieta tiveram efeito quadrático sobre os consumos de matéria seca e FDN. Contudo, observou-se aumento da digestibilidade da MS e FDN, enquanto a concentração de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta, acetato e propionato não se alteraram e o pH ruminal e a concentração de N-amoniacal diminuíram. A substituição parcial do feno de coastcross por casca de soja aumenta o consumo de matéria seca e diminui o pH ruminal sem prejudicar a digestibilidade da MS e FDN.The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing coastcross hay (Cynodon sp. by soybean hulls on nutrient apparent digestibility, ruminal measures and nitrogen metabolism. Sixteen ram lambs (40±5 kg of body weight were housed individually in metabolism crates and assigned to a randomized completely block design. The experimental period consisted of 14 days; the first 10 days were used to adapt lambs to treatments and 4 other days for data collection. Animals were fed diets containing 50% concentrate and 50% roughage, both with the same amount of neutral detergent fiber (NDF. Soybean hulls replaced coastcross hay by 0, 33, 67 or 100% in the dry matter. Dry matter (DM

  7. Composição química e digestibilidade de fenos tratados com amônia anidra ou uréia Chemical composition and digestibility of the ammoniated hays

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    Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para se avaliarem as alterações na composição química e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS dos fenos de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf, colhidos no estádio de maturação das sementes e tratados com amônia anidra (3,0% MS ou uréia (5,4% MS. A análise dos dados demonstra que a amonização diminuiu os conteúdos de FDN e hemicelulose com a mesma eficiência. Os tratamentos químicos não alteraram os teores de FDA, celulose e lignina. Observou-se aumento nos teores de compostos nitrogenados, como N total e N insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA em resposta à amonização. A relação NIDA/NT diminuiu com a amonização, aumentando a quantidade de N disponível para a digestão. A DIVMS aumentou em resposta às alterações observadas na composição química da fração fibrosa e incremento no conteúdo de N prontamente digestível dos fenos tratados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes on the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf, jaragua (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf hays, harvested following the seed ripening stage and treated with anhydrous ammonia (3.0% DM or urea (5.4% DM. The data showed that anhydrous ammonia and urea decreased NDF and hemicellulose contents with the same efficiency. The treatments did not change ADF, cellulose, and lignin contents. It was observed an increase in the nitrogen as compounds, TN and ADIN due to the ammoniation. The ADIN/TN ratio was reduced due to the ammoniation. The IVDMD increased due to the changes observed in the chemical composition of the fiber, and the increase of the readily digestible nitrogen of the hays.

  8. 油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对家兔自然感染皮肤真菌病的疗效观察%Curative effect of the emulsion in water from volatile oil of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves on treating rabbits with dermatophytosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范静; 汪开毓; 殷中琼; 魏琴; 周黎军; 贾仁勇; 耿毅; 杜永华

    2012-01-01

    从患皮肤真菌病家兔的皮屑、被毛中分离病原真菌,并进行病原鉴定;分别用5、10、30mL/L油樟叶挥发油水乳剂通过皮肤涂擦法进行治疗试验,以观察油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对家兔皮肤真菌病的疗效。结果显示,分离得到的2种病原真菌经培养特性、菌落性状、菌丝形态和孢子性状特征等鉴定,为须毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌;3种剂量组的油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对家兔皮肤真菌病均有较好的疗效,其中以10mL/L油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对于家兔自然感染皮肤真菌病的疗效最好。试验表明油樟叶挥发油水乳剂对兔自然感染的皮肤真菌病具有一定的疗效。%The pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from scurf and coat of diseased rabbits.After identification of the pathogenic microorganism,the rabbits with dermatophytosis were treated with three different dosages of emulsion(5 mL/L,10 mL/L,30 mL/L) in water from volatile oil of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves by skin iatraliptics to observe the curative effect of the emulsion on treating rabbits with dermatophytosis.Result showed that two kinds of pathogenic microorganism were isolated,which were identified as Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes,according to colony morphology,hypha and spore morphology,culture character,and the pathogenic experiments of the bacteria isolates.All of the three different dosages of emulsion had good antifungal effects and the emulsion containing 10 mL/L volatile oil showed a preferable curative effect on treating rabbits with dermatophytosis.Therefore,the emulsion in water from volatile oil of C.longepaniculatum leaves had good antifungal effect against dermatophytosis.

  9. Incorporação de uréia encapsulada em suplementos protéicos fornecidos para novilhos alimentados com feno de baixa qualidade Incorporation of coated urea in protein supplements supplied to steers fed with low quality hay

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    Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da suplementação com uréia encapsulada ou normal sobre a utilização de volumoso de baixa qualidade em novilhos. Os tratamentos foram: Feno + sal mineralizado; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia comum; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 1; Feno + suplemento protéico com uréia encapsulada fórmula 2. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. de baixa qualidade (PB: 4,62%, FDN: 83,46%. Foram realizadas medidas de digestibilidade, consumo e cinética digestiva. A relação entre o consumo de proteína degradável no rúmen e o consumo de matéria orgânica digestível foi maior (P0,05, ao comparar suplementados ou não suplementados com PDR, e da mesma forma ao comparar fontes de nitrogênio não-protéico. A suplementação de proteína degradável no rúmen não foi efetiva em alterar os parâmetros estudados, assim como as fontes de uréia encapsulada mostraram respostas semelhantes à uréia comum.A trial was accomplished with the objective to verify the effect of the coated or common urea supplementation on the utilization of low quality hay in steers. The treatments were: hay + mineral supplement; hay + protein supplement with common urea; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 1; hay + protein supplement with coated urea formula 2. Tifton (Cynodon dactylon L. hay of low quality (CP: 4.62%, NDF: 83.46% was used. The measures were: digestibility, intake and digestive kinetics. The relation between degradable intake protein and digestible organic mater intake was highest (P0.05 when compared the supplemented or not supplemented diets with DIP and in the same way, when compared the non-protein nitrogen sources. The ruminal degradable protein supplementation was not effective for modifying the studied parameters, as well as, the coated urea sources showed to be similar to the common urea.

  10. ¿Hay patria para todos? Ambivalencia de lo público y “emergencia plebeya” en la política de los nuevos gobiernos progresistas en Sudamérica

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    Marc Saint-Upéry

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available “Ahora, Venezuela es de todos”; “Brasil, um país de todos”; “La patria ya es de todos” (Ecuador. Esta semejanza entre los lemas oficiales de algunos de los nuevos gobiernos progresistas sudamericanos nos alerta sobre una posible nueva figura de lo “colectivo” y de lo “público”. Pero más allá de las controversias sobre las fronteras de la dicotomía público/privado, en las políticas públicas de estos gobiernos, hay una ambivalencia más profunda de “lo público”. El nuevo estilo de liderazgo y su conexión con la “emergencia plebeya” en Sudamérica saca a la luz una corriente subyacente de “sociabilidad polimorfa” que evoca algunos rasgos de “lo público” descritos en los trabajos de E. P. Thompson, Philippe Ariès y otros historiadores del mundo moderno preindustrial.

  11. Time change rule of contents of essential oil and its main compositions in leaves of different chemical types of Cinnamomum camphora var.linaloolifera%不同化学型芳樟叶精油及主成分含量的时间变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国防; 冯娟; 于静波; 凡辉; 张春; 黄诗晓

    2012-01-01

    对不同化学型(包括芳樟型、桉樟型和脑樟型)芳樟(Cinnamomum camphora var.linaloolifera Fujita.)叶片精油含量及精油中主成分的相对含量在一年中不同月份的变异状况进行了分析,并分析了优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量及其主成分芳樟醇的相对含量在6月份至12月份以及全天不同时段内的变化规律.结果表明:全年各月份不同化学型芳樟叶片精油含量和精油中主成分相对含量均有差异.其中,叶片精油含量的变化规律相似,即在生长季节均较高、非生长季节均较低,且在5月份和7月份至9月份都处于较高水平.精油中主成分含量的变化规律较复杂;芳樟型芳樟精油的主成分芳樟醇的相对含量在6月份最高,随后略有下降但直到12月份变化幅度均不大;脑樟型芳樟精油的主成分樟脑的相对含量在7月份最高,其他月份降低但差异不大;桉樟型芳樟精油的主成分1,8-桉叶油素的相对含量在4月份最高,随后下降,6月份后趋于平稳.在6月份至12月份间,优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量在9月份最高,12月份降至最低;而精油中芳樟醇相对含量则在9月份最低,12月份升至最高.全天不同时段优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量和芳樟醇相对含量有明显差异;叶片精油含量在早晨最低,日出后逐渐升高,在16:00至17:00时段达到最高;而芳樟醇相对含量则在早晨最高,其他时段略有降低但变化幅度不大.综合分析结果表明:芳樟叶片的适宜采收月份为8月份至9月份,每天8:00至17:00均可采收.%The variation status of essential oil content and relative content of main compositions in essential oil from leaves of different chemical types (including linalool-, cineol- and camphora-type) of Cinnamomum camphora var.linaloolifera Fujita.at different months in a whole year was analyzed, and the change rule of essential oil content and relative content of its main

  12. Interspecific Differences between Cinnamomum camphora and C. longepaniculatum in Cd Absorption and Tolerance under Two Levels of Cd Pollution%镉污染条件下香樟和油樟对镉的吸收能力和耐性差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良华; 徐睿; 杨万勤; 张健; 胡相伟; 张明锦; 高顺

    2015-01-01

    利用速生乡土木本植物修复 Cd 污染土壤日益受到重视。利用香樟( Cinnamomum camphora )和油樟( C. longepaniculatum)作为实验材料,研究镉(Cd)污染(对照(CK)0.12 mg·kg-1;处理1(T1)2.5 mg·kg-1;处理2(T2)5 mg·kg-1)对2种树种形态生长、Cd积累与分配和生理生化特征的效应,旨在比较2种树种的重金属耐受性及修复能力差异。T1和T2均没有显著影响香樟的生物量积累,但T2条件下油樟叶片和根部的生物量显著下降,仅为CK的86%和65%;T1和T2均显著增加了2种树种细根及叶片的Cd含量,油樟在T1时总积累量达最大(与香樟相当,均为0.37 mg),T2条件下油樟的生物量和耐性指数显著降低,仅为CK的85%和76%,香樟的Cd总积累量(0.48 mg)高于油樟(0.36 mg),因此认为T2条件下香樟具有更强的修复能力;油樟叶片在T1和T2时均受到氧化胁迫,但香樟叶片却并没有受到活性氧分子的显著伤害;香樟在2个污染处理时超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)(T1和T2分别为CK的1.3和1.2倍)和过氧化物酶(POD)(T1和T2分别为CK的6.3和4.0倍)的活性均显著上升,但油樟的这些抗氧化酶活性却没有显著变化。这些结果说明,香樟幼苗比油樟幼苗具有更强的Cd耐受能力和脱毒能力;从土壤修复角度讲,低水平污染土壤条件下2种树种的修复能力差异不大,但香樟更适合修复污染程度更高的土壤。%More and more attention is being paid to the methods of using fast-growing woody plants for cleaning soil polluted by heavy metals. In our study, Cinnamomum camphora and C. longepaniculatum as model species were used to detect three levels of cadmium (Cd) (CK, 0.12 mg·kg-1 soil;T1, 2.5 mg·kg-1 soil;T2, 5 mg·kg-1 soil) on morphological growth, metal accumulation and distribution, and physiological and biochemical traits. Our aim was to compare the differences in metal

  13. Retenção do fósforo de fenos de gramíneas tropicais em ovinos Phosphorus balance in sheep fed on tropical grass hays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Reis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediu-se a retenção do fósforo de quatro gramíneas tropicais, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactilon e capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, em cinco ovinos por meio de ensaios de balanço de fósforo. O experimento constou de quatro fases, cada uma com duração de 21 dias (14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias de colheita de fezes, totalizando 20 observações. A análise dos dados foi feita por polinômios ortogonais, testando-se os efeitos de tratamento, de período e de animal, e os contrastes foram comparados pelo teste F. A retenção de fósforo foi negativa nos fenos dos capins gordura, braquiária e coastcross e positiva no feno do capim-colonião. Por análise de regressão, a perda fecal do fósforo endógeno foi estimada em 15,5mg/kg PV/dia e o coeficiente médio de retenção foi de 0,37. Pela razão entre o balanço e a ingestão, estimou-se que o consumo de fósforo necessário para alcançar o equilíbrio foi de 44mg/kg PV/dia.One experiment was conducted using five adult sheep fed on four tropical grass hays to determine phosphorus (P retention. The experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days (14 days adaptation and seven days faeces collection. The treatments were: A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora, B brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens, C coastcross grass (Cynodon dactilon and D Guinea grass (Panicum maximum. Phosphorus concentrations were 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.11% and 0.18% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The effects of treatment, period and animal were evaluated by ortogonal polynomials and the contrasts by F test. Negative P balances were produced in treatments A, B and C (-13.05, -9.36 and -8.26mg/kg LW/day, respectively which were not significantly different from each other. Positive P balance of 8.14mg/kg LW/day was produced in treatment D, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than treatments A, B and C. Endogenous losses

  14. 乌珠穆沁草原枯草季可燃物量遥感监测%Remote Sensing Monitoring of the Amount of Combustible Matter in Hay Season of Wuzhumuqin Steppe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清清; 刘桂香; 都瓦拉; 萨楚拉; 陈小菲; 运向军; 哈斯巴根

    2013-01-01

    采用遥感监测和地面样地调查数据相结合的方法,利用枯草期可燃物遥感反演模型,对乌珠穆沁草原防火期,即当年秋季到翌年春季的7个月草地可燃物量的动态变化进行了监测.结果表明,2010年10月至2011年4月,整个枯草期研究区内的可燃物量在空间上表现为由东向西减少趋势.在时间上,可燃物保存率的变化可分为两个阶段:第一阶段是2010年10月到12月,这一阶段可燃物保存率降低较快,月平均递减率为25.9%;第二阶段为2011年1月到4月,这一阶段的降低幅度较小,月平均递减率为7.3%.%Using remote sense monitoring and filed experiments, the dynamic changes of combustible matter were monitored from fall to next spring in Wuzhumuqin grassland. The results showed that the a-mount of the combustible matter in hay season was declined gradually. And it decreased from east to west in space. At time scale, it can be divided into two phases: the first one was that the preservation percentage of combustible matter declines relatively fast from October 2010 to December 2010, and monthly decreasing rate was 25. 9%; the second one was from January 2011 to April 2011, and monthly decreasing rate was 7. 3%.

  15. Valores energéticos e composição bromatológica dos fenos de jureminha, feijão bravo e maniçoba para aves Energy values and chemical composition of jureminha, bravo beans and maniçoba hays for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para determinação dos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn e da composição química dos fenos de feijão-bravo (FFB, jureminha (FJ e maniçoba (FM para uso na alimentação de aves. Duzentos e oitenta pintos com 17 dias de idade foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em sete tratamentos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 1 (três tipos de feno x dois níveis de substituição da dieta-referência + dieta-referência, com quatro repetições de dez aves. Os níveis de EMA e EMAn dos fenos de jureminha, feijão-bravo e maniçoba foram 3.205 e 2.911, 2.990 e 2.648, 2.728 e 2.419, determinados com 15% de substituição da dieta-referência pelo alimento e 2.678 e 2.371, 2.875 e 2.523, 2.277 e 1.956 com substituição de 30%, respectivamente, e evidenciaram influência do nível de substituição da dieta-referência sobre os valores de EMA e EMAn das dietas. Os valores de EMA e EMAn, para aves, dos fenos de jureminha e feijão-bravo são superiores aos do feno de maniçoba.An experiment was carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn and chemical composition of bravo bean hay (HBB, jureminha hay (HJ and maniçoba hay (HM for use in birds feeding. Two hundred and eighty, 17 days old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design, into seven treatments organized in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 + 1 (three hay types x two levels of substitution of the reference diet + reference diet, with four repetitions of 10 birds each. The contents of AME and AMEn of jureminha, bravo bean and maniçoba hays were 3.205 and 2.911, 2.990 and 2.648, 2.728 and 2.419, respectively, when the ingredients test substituted 15% of the reference diet, and 2.678 and 2.371, 2.875 and 2.523, 2.277 and 1.956, respectively, when the ingredients test

  16. ¿Hay humor en Juan Montalvo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valdano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza la prosa panfletaria de Juan Montalvo desde el punto de vista del humor. Montalvo, además de dedicar muchas páginas a disertar sobre la risa, buscó con frecuencia insertar efectos humorísticos en su estilo, encaminados a ridiculizar a sus enemigos políticos. ¿Hasta qué punto un autor eminentemente moralista, un libelista cáustico como Montalvo, que echa mano del insulto, la burla y el sarcasmo, puede considerarse un humorista? Para comprender esta ambigüedad entre un Montalvo solemne y otro burlón, entre un Montalvo austero y otro irónico se analizan aquí ciertos recursos literarios que utiliza este autor y con los que provoca efectos que lindan con lo humorístico.This work analyses Juan Montalvo's pamphlet prose from a humorous perspective. To what extent can an eminently caustic moralist author as Montalvo, who uses insult, mockery and sarcasm, be considered a humorist? In order to understand this ambiguity between a solemn Montalvo and a Mocking one, between an austere and an ironic one, certain resources used by the author are analysed, resources that border on humour.

  17. Microfluidos: ¿cuánto hay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Rivas, D.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic groups many branches of Physics ranging from Fluid Dynamics to Electronics and closely linked with Biology Sciences. Its interdisciplinary character is a distinctive feature, as the times we are living today. In the last ten years, along with the development of biotechnology, microelect

  18. Rhinitis (Hay Fever): Tips to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... perform a physical exam and then most likely test you for allergies. Skin tests show the results ...

  19. Making Hay While the Sun Shines

    OpenAIRE

    Allo, Fatma

    2001-01-01

    S'ha acabat el fet que, durant el perí­ode de la guerra freda, el moviment dels països no alineats fos la veu del Sud. El Nord va crear un nou ordre econòmic mundial que ha tingut com a impacte global una marcada recessió. Un a un, els estats nacionals van començar a caure en un sistema econòmic globalitzat controlat pels Estats Units. De fet, els més rics del Nord, a les seves reunions de Davos, Suïssa i el Fòrum Econòmic i Social es dediquen, mentre sigui possible, a treure profit d'una sit...

  20. ¿Hay un nuevo management?

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallé, C. (Carlos)

    2001-01-01

    A new management configuration is analysed in three areas: access to the knowledge society, the impact of new technologies and the global revolution. The challenge is the consolidation and growth of human capital.