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Sample records for cinnamomum cassia bark

  1. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    OpenAIRE

    Junfen Zeng; Yongbo Xue; Yongji Lai; Guangmin Yao; Zengwei Luo; Yonghui Zhang; Jinwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhi...

  2. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  3. Investigation of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cinnamomum cassia bark water extract

    OpenAIRE

    Sozer Karadagli, Sumru; Agrap, Borte; Lermioglu Erciyas, Ferzan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recently many investigations on cinnamon have focused on its powerful antioxidant activity due to its rich polyphenol content. Polyphenols have also been reported to act as pro-oxidants, causing oxidative strand breaks in DNA. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cinnamomum cassia water extract in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: Cinnamomum cassia water extract was prepared from grounded bark of cinnamon by maceration with ultra...

  4. Antifungal activity of different extracts of the bark of Cinnamomum cassia used in traditional medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kebir Boucherit; Salima Merghache; Zahia Boucherit-Atmani; Djamila Merghache

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections due to Candida albicans has dramatically increased since 25 years. The amphotericin B remains the best treatment despite its severe toxicity. Our work is inscribed in the frame of findi ng of new natural antifungals agents from a condiment widely used in our diet: the Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia).This study is focused in first time, to the qualitative determination of different families of secondary metabolites from the bark of Cinnamon. ...

  5. Antifungal activity of different extracts of the bark of Cinnamomum cassia used in traditional medicine

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    Kebir Boucherit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of invasive fungal infections due to Candida albicans has dramatically increased since 25 years. The amphotericin B remains the best treatment despite its severe toxicity. Our work is inscribed in the frame of findi ng of new natural antifungals agents from a condiment widely used in our diet: the Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia.This study is focused in first time, to the qualitative determination of different families of secondary metabolites from the bark of Cinnamon. On the other time, assessing the antifungal activity of some extracts of Cinnamon. The plant material was extracted by exhaustion using increased polarity solvents (hexane, diethyl ether, methanol/water and water. We have made five exhaustions for each solvent, each one was tested separately. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids and polyphenols represented mainly by flavonoids. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the various extracts was carried out against references yeasts strains Candida albicansATCC10231 and Candida albicans 444IP. Results showed that in the exception of aqueous extracts, all other extracts have an interesting activity, with inhibition zone diametersbetween 10 mm and 58 mm for the diethyl ether extract.Similar results were obtained for the hexane extracts. Indeed, extracts obtained from low or medium polarity solvents are the most active. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of the first fraction of the hexane extract were respectively 1,9 µg/ml and 3,9 µg/ml against C.albicansATCC10231 and C. albicans 444IP. They remain comparable than those of amphotericin B against the same strains.

  6. Identification of Compounds from the Water Soluble Extract of Cinnamomum cassia Barks and Their Inhibitory Effects against High-Glucose-Induced Mesangial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Luo; Yong-Xian Cheng; Qing Lu; Shu-Mei Wang; Qi Luo

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In...

  7. Three new compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Three new compounds, including two new diterpenoids, named epianhydrocinnzeylanol (1) and cinnacasiol H (2), and one hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R,4S,6R)-4,6-dihydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), together with five known diterpenoids (4-8) and two known phenolic glycosides (9-10) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells and the compounds showed weak inhibition activities. PMID:26498626

  8. [Chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    Various column chromatography, such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analysis, together with the comparison with literature data. Fifteen compounds were isolated from the 85% aqueous ethanol extract of C. cassia, and their structures were identified as (2R, 3R)-5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavan-3-ol( 1), (2R, 3R)-5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol (2), coumarin (3), cinnamic acid (4), (E)-2-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid cinnamoyl ester (5), 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrahydroxy biphenyl (6), methylstictic acid (7), epi-boscialin (8), (1R,2S,3S,4S)-2,3-epoxy-1, 4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-5-cyelohexene (9), 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl cyclohex-2-enone (10), cis-4-hydroxymellein (11), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamaldehyde (12). Compounds 5-11 were obtained from this genus plants for the first time. PMID:26983207

  9. Identification of Compounds from the Water Soluble Extract of Cinnamomum cassia Barks and Their Inhibitory Effects against High-Glucose-Induced Mesangial Cells

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    Jie Luo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In this study, we isolated three new phenolic glycosides, cinnacassosides A–C (1-3, together with fifteen known compounds from the water soluble extract of Chinese cinnamon. The structures of the new compounds were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic evidence. Eleven compounds (6-9, 11, 13-18 were isolated from this spice for the first time, despite extensive research on this species in the past, which added new facets for the chemical profiling of this spice. These isolates were purposely evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL-6 and extracellular matrix production in mesangial cells which are definitely implicated in DN. The results showed that compounds 4-8 could inhibit over secretion of IL-6, collagen IV and fibronectin against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells at 10 mM, suggesting that Chinese cinnamon could be used as a functional food against DN.

  10. Identification of compounds from the water soluble extract of Cinnamomum cassia barks and their inhibitory effects against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Wang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Qing; Luo, Jie; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In this study, we isolated three new phenolic glycosides, cinnacassosides A-C (1-3), together with fifteen known compounds from the water soluble extract of Chinese cinnamon. The structures of the new compounds were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic evidence. Eleven compounds (6-9, 11, 13-18) were isolated from this spice for the first time, despite extensive research on this species in the past, which added new facets for the chemical profiling of this spice. These isolates were purposely evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL-6 and extracellular matrix production in mesangial cells which are definitely implicated in DN. The results showed that compounds 4-8 could inhibit over secretion of IL-6, collagen IV and fibronectin against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells at 10 mM, suggesting that Chinese cinnamon could be used as a functional food against DN. PMID:24013407

  11. An investigation of the effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark extracts on oxidative DNA damage and possible cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in transformed/untransformed cell lines from Type 1 diabetic patients, in vitro.

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    Ferzan Lermioglu Erciyas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM had increased level of oxidative DNA damage and decreased efficacy of DNA repair. These changes were implicated in the increased cancer risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cinnamon bark extracts have diverse biological activities including antidiabetic and anti-tumor properties. Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia is a common used cinnamon species present in commercial cinnamon preparations. We aimed to investigate the effects of cinnamon extracts prepared from C. cassia bark on endogenous and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage, as well as cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in this study. Type 1 diabetic (T1DM lymphocytes (GM02765, GM01838 and fibroblasts (GM01837 were obtained from NIGMS Human Genetic Cell Repository of Coriell Institute, New Jersey, USA. Cytotoxicity analysis were performed by using a tetrazolium salt, 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl 2-(4-nitrophenyl 2H-5-tetrazolio] 1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1. The effects of extracts on endogenous and H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage were studied using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; Comet Assay, a technique allowing DNA damage in a single cell. Apoptotic activities of extracts were investigated by TUNEL and Annexin V/PI assays. using flow cytometry. IC50 and IC20 values of the extracts varied and the effects on endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage were different regarding cell lines and extracts. Although their protective effects at some doses against to H2O2-induced oxidative damage, our results suggested DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of cinnamon bark extracts on Type 1 diabetic cell lines, in vitro.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of Cinnamomum cassia Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Yeh Chuang; Rong-Xian Li; Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves) of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values were 6.789–...

  13. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Kianpour Rad; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Sri Nurestri Abd Malek; Guan Serm Lee; Chung Yeng Looi; Won Fen Wong

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells ...

  14. Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.

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    Zada, Wahid; Zeeshan, Sara; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the traditional use of Cinnamomum cassia against depression. The standardised methanolic extract of the bark of C. cassia was evaluated for antidepressant activity using various behavioural tests, i.e. tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test. The serotonergic and noradrenergic modulation was assessed using 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches and yohimbine potentiation tests, respectively. The fluoxetine and phenelzine were used as positive controls in the study. The C. cassia extract significantly decreased the immobility time in TST (maximum effective dose tested was 50 mg/kg) while no effect was observed in FST and locomotor activity test. The extract significantly increased the 5-HTP-induced head twitches while yohimbine-induced lethality remained unaltered. The aforementioned results are similar to that caused by fluoxetine. The standardised methanolic extract of C. cassia demonstrated antidepressant activity that can be attributed to rise in serotonin levels. PMID:26134381

  15. Investigation of the protective effect of Cinnamomum cassia bark extract against H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sözer Karadağlı, Sumru; Agrap, Borte; Lermioğlu Erciyas, Ferzan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cinnamon, one of the most widely used spices in the world, has been shown tohave various biological functions including antidiabetic and antitumor activities. Its antidiabeticand antitumor effects were linked with its strong antioxidant activity. In the presentstudy we aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity and possible protective effect of Cinnamomumcassia bark water extract against H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage.Viability of lymphocytes was determined by Trypan Blue test...

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of Cinnamomum cassia Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

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    Li-Yeh Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values were 6.789–58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039–335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031–1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW and 2.030–3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151–2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313–9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of Cinnamon barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from C. cassia.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Jung-Chun Liao; Jeng-Shyan Deng; Chuan-Sung Chiu; Wen-Chi Hou; Shyh-Shyun Huang; Pei-Hsin Shie; Guang-Jhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels p...

  18. Rapid Extraction and Analysis of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum Cassia Presl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; WANG Zi-ming; LI Tie-chun; ZHOU Xin; DING Lan; ZHANG Han-qi

    2008-01-01

    An improved solvent-free microwave extraction(ISFME) was used for the extraction of essential oil from dried Cinnamomum cassia Presl. Two kinds of solid microwave absorption media[carbonyl iron powder(C/P) and graphite powder(GP)] were used. When ISFME was applied, the heating rate was enhanced and the extraction time was obviously shorter than that consumed in conventional solvent-free microwave extraction(CSFME). Twenty-eight kinds of compounds in the essential oil were identified, and the total content fractions of the compounds obtained by CIP-ISFME, GP-ISFME, CSFME, and hydrodistillation(HD) were 96.65%, 96.06%, 97.22%, and 96.29%, respectively.The compounds in the essential oil obtained from Cinnamomum cassia Presl. by ISFME, CSFME, and HD were compared and the quantity of the essential oil was almost the same. The ISFME has been proved to be a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried samples, and there are several obvious advantages in ISFME over those of liD and CSFME, for example, shorter extraction time(30 min) and lower energy consumption.

  19. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Cinnamomum cassia and Its Nanoparticles Against H7N3 Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Munazza; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf; Amraiz, Deeba; Afzal, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have wide-scale applications in various areas, including medicine, chemistry, electronics, and energy generation. Several physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants provide advantages over other methods as it is easy, efficient, and eco-friendly. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as potential antimicrobials to target pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Their applications recently extended to development of antivirals to inhibit viral infections. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) and evaluated their activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H7N3. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UVVis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cinnamon bark extract and its nanoparticles were tested against H7N3 influenza A virus in Vero cells and the viability of cells was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. The silver nanoparticles derived from Cinnamon extract enhanced the antiviral activity and were found to be effective in both treatments, when incubated with the virus prior to infection and introduced to cells after infection. In order to establish the safety profile, Cinnamon and its corresponding nanoparticles were tested for their cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. The tested concentrations of extract and nanoparticles (up to 500 μg/ml) were found non-toxic to Vero cells. The biosynthesized nanoparticles may, hence, be a promising approach to provide treatment against influenza virus infections. PMID:26403820

  20. Antiplasmodial compounds from Cassia siamea stem bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ashidi, J S; Okpako, L C; Houghton, P J; Wright, C W

    2008-02-01

    Cassia siamea L. (Fabaceae) was identified from the southwest Nigerian ethnobotany as a remedy for febrile illness. This led to the bioassay-guided fractionation of stem bark of the plant extract, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay and multi-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1) for assessing the in vitro antimalarial activity. Emodin and lupeol were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopy, co-spotting with authentic samples and comparison with literature data. Both compounds were found to be the active principles responsible for the antiplasmodial property with IC(50) values of 5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:17705142

  1. Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Shih; Shih-Lan Hsu; Yu-Che Lin; Chen-Tien Chang; Su-Tze Chou; Wen-Lun Chang

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of t...

  2. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cinnamomum cassia derived phenolic phytochemicals, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B-H; Racicot, K; Pilkenton, S J; Apostolidis, E

    2014-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) are believed to have anti-hyperglycemic potential via stimulation of insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of cinnamon PACs. Five grams of cinnamon bark powder were extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (CAE) (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature and in 100 mL deionized water for 30 min at 90 °C (CWE). PACs were purified from CAE using LH-20 (CAE-PAC) to be further evaluated. PAC contents were evaluated by 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay and yielded 795, 177 and 123 mg/g, for CAE-PAC, CAE and CWE respectively. The total phenolic contents of CAE and CWE were determined to be 152 and 134 mg/g respectively. All extracts were adjusted to the same PAC content (180, 90, 45 and 20 μg) and the inhibitory activity against rat α-glucosidase was determined. The CAE-PAC fraction had very low rat α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, CAE had the highest (IC50 0.474 mg/mL total phenolic (TP) basis) followed by CWE (IC50 0.697 mg/mL TP basis). The specific maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities were determined and CAE (IC50 0.38 and 0.10 mg/mL TP basis) had higher inhibition than CWE (IC50 0.74 and 0.37 mg/mL TP basis). Results suggest that the observed bioactivity is not PAC dependent and that CAE has a higher anti-hyperglycemic potential than CWE via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:24706251

  3. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from barks of Cinnamomum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    SWETHA, Valya Parambil; PARVATHY, Viswanath Alambath; SHEEJA, Thotten Elampillay; Bhaskaran SASIKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum Blume), the cinnamon of commerce, is an important aromatic tree spice having wide applications in perfumery, flavoring, beverages, and medicine. Adulteration of cinnamon with the cheaper and inferior barks of C. aromaticum and C. malabatrum is a problem. Morphological distinction of the barks is difficult; in the case of powdered barks, the situation is even worse. DNA-based molecular tools are preferred under these circumstances. Isolation of high q...

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 and carrageenan (Carr-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB, and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  5. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley N. Hoehn; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average ov...

  6. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  7. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L.) STEM BARK

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF) stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p.) and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o.) were used as reference drugs for comparison....

  8. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells

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    Chinjarernpan Pannee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia oil (CO from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC 50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages.

  9. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  10. Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

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    Ying Shih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06% and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%. CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS levels and restored glutathione (GSH and catalase activity in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy.

  11. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L. STEM BARK

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    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p. and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o. were used as reference drugs for comparison. The extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic (normo-hyperglycaemic rats orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The glucose tolerance results showed significant (p<0.05 improved at the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. of ethanolic extract respectively. On the Other hand, the analgesic activity of extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose level were produced 45% and 62% writhing inhibitory response but diclofenac was observed 82% of that when compared to control group. The plant's extract produced dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05 analgesic effects against chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. were present in the plant which has antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties. However a glucose tolerance hypoglycemic test is comparable to diabetic control group and effect is a dose dependent. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Cassia fistula stem-bark ethanolic extract possesses analgesic and antihyperglycemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment and/or management of painful, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. BIOSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS (Cd+2, Pb+2 AND Cu+2 FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA BARK

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    MADHAVI G MULGUND,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous ill effects of heavy metals on the environment and public health is a matter of serious concern. Biosorption is emerging as a sustainable effective technology. The aim of this present study was to investigate the removal of heavy metals (Cd+2, Pb+2 and Cu+2 using Cassia angustifolia bark. The objective was to evaluate the biosorbent for its metal uptake and study its batch equilibrium. The batch mode was carried out at varying initial pH (5 to 9, emperature (300C to 450C, metal ion concentration (20mg to 140mg/L and contact time (5 min to 240 min and desorption studies from pH 1 to 11. The equilibrium data obtained fit well in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results of the investigations show the efficacy of Cassia angustifolia bark as a low cost promising biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters.

  13. [AMWFA method applied to research on changes of essential components and extractive ratioes of herbal pair Cinnamomum cassia and Poria cocos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Xian-Qin; Yu, Xiao-Min; Wei, Tao; Li, Yan-Xia

    2008-09-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, chemometric resolution method-Alternative movingwindow factor analysis that were proposed recently and the Kovats retention index were used to analyze the essential components of herbal pair Cinnamomum cassia Presl and Poria cocos (CCP-PC) and compare them with those of single herbal Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CCP). 46 and 42 essential components in essential oil of CCP and CCP-PC have been identified individually. Results shows that the number of essential components of CCP and CCP-PC were almost the same, but extractive ratioes of them have changed significantly, some of them were increased obviously, most of them were declined notably instead and even several ingredients of CCP-PC were disappeared due to CCP PC's interaction probably. The main pharmacodynamic ingredients of CCP-PC, 3-phenyl-2-propenal and Cinnamaldehyde were obviously higher contents than that of single CCP. It suggested that there exist certain interactions of the chemical ingredients in compound medicine rather than their sum effect of single medicines. There is a litter difference in quality and quantity between single medicines and pair medicines, so the application of pair medicines can expand single medicine's adaptive disease and has a good clinical referenced valuation. PMID:19160782

  14. Investigation of Solidifying Volatile Oil from Cinnamomum cassia with Porous Starch%多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁青; 蒋艳荣; 张振海; 贾晓斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate properties of solidifying volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia with porous starch. Method: Volatile oil from C. cassia was solidified by porous starch, Effect of different dosages of porous starch on yield of cinnamaldehyde, in vitro dissolution and thermal stability; Physical characterization of solidified powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) and differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) . Result: Yield of cinnamaldehyde was up to 92. 6% , when solidification ratio of porous starch to volatile oil was 2:1; Dissolution rate of cinnamaldehyde increasesd and its thermal stability improved after volatile oil from C. cassia was solidified. Conclusion: Production technology of solidifying volatile oil from C. cassia by porous starch was simple and convenient operation with high application value.%目的:评价多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油的特性.方法:采用多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油,考察多孔淀粉用量对桂皮醛收率、体外溶出度和受热稳定性的影响;采用差示扫描量热法和扫描电镜法对固化粉末进行物相表征.结果:多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油质量比2∶1,桂皮醛收率达92.6%;肉桂挥发油被固化后,桂皮醛体外溶出速率加快,受热稳定性提高.结论:多孔淀粉固化肉桂挥发油的生产工艺简单、操作方便,具有较高的应用价值.

  15. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds. PMID:22687781

  16. Antiproliferative Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents and Effects of Pifithrin-Alpha on Their Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Hep G2 Cells

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    Lean-Teik Ng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde (Cin, cinnamic acid (Ca and cinnamyl alcohol (Cal, major constituents of Cinnamomum cassia, have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and other activities. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of these compounds in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells and examine the effects of pifithrin-alpha (PFTα; a specific p53 inhibitor on their apoptotic signaling transduction mechanism. The antiproliferative activity was measured by XTT assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blotting. Results showed that at a concentration of 30 μM, the order of antiproliferative activity in Hep G2 cells was Cin > Ca > Cal. Cin (IC50 9.76 ± 0.67 μM demonstrated an antiproliferative potency as good as 5-fluorouracil (an anti-cancer drug; IC50 9.57 ± 0.61 μM. Further studies on apoptotic mechanisms of Cin showed that it downregulated the expression of Bcl-XL, upregulated CD95 (APO-1, p53 and Bax proteins, as well as cleaving the poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in a time-dependent pattern. PFTα pre-incubation significantly diminished the effect of Cin-induced apoptosis. It markedly upregulated the anti-apoptotic (Bcl-XL expression and downregulated the pro-apoptotic (Bax expression, as well as effectively blocking the CD95 (APO-1 and p53 expression, and PARP cleavage in Cin-treated cells. This study indicates that Cin was the most potent antiproliferative constituent of C. cassia, and its apoptotic mechanism in Hep G2 cells could be mediated through the p53 induction and CD95 (APO-1 signaling pathways.

  17. Differentiating parts of Cinnamomum cassia using LC-qTOF-MS in conjunction with principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Yu, Jhe-Wei; Lu, Fen-Ling; Lin, Mei-Chih; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2016-09-01

    Cinnamon bark (Rou Gui in Chinese), cinnamon twig (Gui Zhi) and shaved cinnamon bark (Gui Sin) have been widely used as spices and in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. On-going issues related to quality and authenticity necessitate the development of analytical methods capable of providing an objective evaluation of samples. In this study, chemical fingerprints of cinnamon bark, cinnamon twigs and shaved cinnamon bark were established using liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA). From 125 samples of cinnamon, we identified the following eight compounds and their the detection ratios: coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Of these, 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde presented the largest variations in detection ratio, making up 64.0, 97.4 and 50.0% in cinnamon bark, cinnamon twig, and shaved cinnamon bark, respectively. The quantities of cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin and cinnamaldehyde also varied between the three parts of the plant. Chemical fingerprints of the three cinnamon samples were established using principal component analysis, the results of which indicate that cinnamon bark and shaved cinnamon bark could be easily differentiated, despite a marked similarity in outward appearance. Cinnamon twig was also shown to depart from the other clusters. The proposed method provides a fast and efficient means of identifying cinnamon herbs for quality control purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26873449

  18. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

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    Nyadjeu Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg. For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%, total cholesterol (32.1% and LDL-cholesterol (75.3% while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4% with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group. Conclusion MECZ

  19. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-01

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii. PMID:23627682

  20. Quantification of flavoring constituents in cinnamon: high variation of coumarin in cassia bark from the German retail market and in authentic samples from indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Abraham, Klaus; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika

    2010-10-13

    Coumarin is a flavoring which can cause hepatotoxicity in experimental animals and in a proportion of the human population. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) may be exceeded in consumers with high intake of cinnamon containing high levels of coumarin. The objective of this study was to determine these levels in cinnamon samples and to identify possible factors influencing them. A HPLC method to quantify coumarin and related constituents (cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol) in a single run was used. Results found in 47 cinnamon powder samples obtained from the German retail market confirmed high levels of coumarin in cassia cinnamon. A huge variation was observed in stick samples from two packages (range from below the limit of detection to about 10000 mg/kg). Cassia bark samples of five trees received directly from Indonesia were analyzed additionally. Interestingly, a high variation was observed in one of the trees, whereas no coumarin was detected in the samples of two other trees. In conclusion, coumarin levels in cassia cinnamon can vary widely even within a single tree. PMID:20853872

  1. Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl bark essential oil in cream-filled cakes and pastries

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    M. Vazirian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food poisoning has been always a major concern in health system of every community and cream-filled products are one of the most widespread food poisoning causes in humans. In present study, we examined the preservative effect of the cinnamon oil in cream-filled cakes. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Cinnamon bark essential oil was examined against five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium to investigate its potential for use as a natural preservative in cream-filled baked goods. Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For evaluation of preservative sufficiency of the oil, pathogens were added to cream-filled cakes manually and 1 μL/mL of the essential oil was added to all samples except the blank.  Results: Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and twenty five components were identified where cinnamaldehyde (79.73%, linalool (4.08%, cinnamaldehyde para-methoxy (2.66%, eugenol (2.37% and trans-caryophyllene (2.05% were the major constituents. Cinnamon essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in vitro and the minimum inhibitory concentration values against all tested microorganisms were determined as 0.5 μL/disc except for S. aureus for which, the oil was not effective in tested concentrations. After baking, no observable microorganism was observed in all susceptible microorganisms count in 72h stored samples.  Conclusion: It was concluded that by analysing the sensory quality of the preserved food, cinnamon oil may be considered as a natural preservative in food industry, especially for cream-filled cakes and pastries.

  2. Cinnamomum cassia bark in two herbal formulas increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegansvia insulin signaling and stress response pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Beob Yu; Laura Dosanjh; Lixing Lao; Ming Tan; Bum Sang Shim; Yuan Luo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings: In this ...

  3. Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala

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    Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamon barks extracts have been reported to regulate immune function; however, the component(s in cinnamon barks responsible for this effect is/are not yet clear. The aim of this study is to find out the possible component(s that can be used as therapeutic agents for immune-related diseases from cinnamon bark. In this study, the immunosuppressive effects of fraction (named CT-F and five procyanidin oligomers compounds, cinnamtannin B1, cinnamtannin D1 (CTD-1, parameritannin A1, procyanidin B2, and procyanidin C1, from Cinnamomum tamala or Cinnamomum cassia bark were examined on splenocytes proliferation model induced by ConA or LPS. Then, the effects of activated compound CTD-1 on cytokine production and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response were detected to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of CTD-1. It was found that CT-F and CTD-1 significantly inhibited the splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA or LPS. CTD-1 dose-dependently reduced the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 and intensively suppressed DNFB-induced DTH responses. These findings suggest that the immunosuppressive activities of cinnamon bark are in part due to procyanidin oligomers. CTD-1 may be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases.

  4. Neolignans with a Rare 2-Oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one Motif from the Stem Bark of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yongji; Liu, Tingting; Sa, Rongjian; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Yonghui; Yao, Guangmin

    2015-07-24

    Two pairs of racemic spirodienone neolignans with a rare 2-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one motif, named (±)-subaveniumins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum subavenium. The chiral separation of the (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers was accomplished via high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral column. Their structures were elucidated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroic spectra. The (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values of 17.9, 5.6, 15.1, and 4.3 μM, respectively. PMID:26087384

  5. Óleos essenciais de cascas e folhas de canela (Cinnamomum verum Presl cultivada no Paraná The bark and leaf essential oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl grown at Parana, Brazil

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    Midori KOKETSU

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais de cascas e folhas de canela do Ceilão (Cinnamomum verum Presl, sin. C. zeylanicum Bl. cultivada na Estação Experimental de Morretes do IAPAR foram analisados por CGAR e CGAR-EM. As cascas e folhas foram provenientes de 12 árvores submetidas à adubação apenas com matéria orgânica (MO ou associada com adubo químico (C. Análises do "headspace" foram utilizadas na caracterização das amostras individuais e no agrupamento para fins de extração por arraste a vapor e coobação. O rendimento médio de óleo essencial foi de 0,2% nas cascas e 2,0% nas folhas. O teor de aldeído cinâmico nos óleos essenciais das cascas foi de 54,7% (MO e 58,4% (C. Os óleos essenciais de folhas apresentaram 94,1% (5 árvores - MO e 95,1% (5 árvores - C de eugenol. Entretanto, a composição dos óleos essenciais das folhas de duas árvores distintas, uma de cada tipo de tratamento, foi diferente da maioria das árvores estudadas, apresentando 58,7% (MO e 55,1% (C de eugenol, com teor elevado de safrol (29,6% e 39,5%, respectivamente. Não foram observadas diferenças na composição ou nos teores dos componentes em função do tipo de adubação.The bark and leaf essential oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl, syn. C. zeylanicum Bl. grown at IAPAR (Experimental Station of Morretes were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The barks and leaves were collected from a group of 12 trees submitted to single organic manuring (MO or conjugated with chemical fertilization (C. Samples from the individual trees were compared by headspace analysis, gathered and subjected to steam distillation. The average yields of the essential oils were 0.2% (barks and 2.0% (leaves. The cinnamaldehyde content of the bark essential oils was 54.7% (MO and 58.4% (C. The eugenol content of the leaf essential oils was 94.1% (5 trees - MO and 95.1% (5 trees - C. However the leaf essential oil compositions of a single tree from each treatment were different from

  6. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition. PMID:25381741

  7. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the root bark extract of the African laburnum “Cassia sieberiana” and its effect on the anti-oxidant defence system in rats

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    Nartey Edmund T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widespread use of roots of Cassia sieberiana in managing several health conditions including gastric ulcer disease, there is little scientific data to support the rational phytotherapeutics as an anti-ulcer agent. This paper reports an evaluation of the in vivo anti-oxidant properties of an aqueous root bark extract of C. sieberiana in experimental gastric ulcer rats in a bid to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Fisher 344 (F344 rats received pretreatment of C. sieberiana root bark extract (500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days after which there was induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol. The mean ulcer index (MUI was calculated and serum total anti-oxidant level determined. Gastric mucosal tissues were prepared and the activity level of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and myeloperoxidase (MPO were measured together with the level of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO. Statistical difference between treatment groups was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc t test. Statistical significance was calculated at P Results The administration of ethanol triggered severe acute gastric ulcer and pretreatment with C. sieberiana root bark extract significantly and dose dependently protected against this effect. The root bark extract also dose dependently and significantly inhibited the ethanol induced decrease in activity levels of the enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx. The extract also inhibited the ethanol-induced decrease in level of serum total anti-oxidant capacity. The increase in ethanol-induced LPO level and MPO activity were also significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the root bark extract. Conclusions The gastro-cytoprotective effect, inhibition of decrease in activity of gastric anti-oxidant enzymes and MPO as well as the inhibition of gastric LPO level suggests that one of the anti-ulcer mechanisms of

  8. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Athapol NOOMHORM

    2012-01-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts’ yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave metho...

  9. Effect of cinnamon bark oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) on the preventation of streptococcosis in sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Supamattaya, K.; Subhadhirasakul, S.; Khongpradit, R.; Suanyuk, N.; Kanghear, H.

    2005-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentration of cinnamon bark oil extract against pathogenic Streptococcus sp. was 250 ppm. An analysis of the extract by gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometer showed three active substances, cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O) at 83.1 %, coumarin (C9H6O2) at 12.6 % and cinnamic acid (C9H8O2) at 2.2 %.An effect of cinnamon bark oil extract on growth and resistance to Streptococcus sp. in sex-reversed red tilapia after feeding the extract-supplemented diets for 8 week was in...

  10. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. PMID:25605550

  11. Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Samit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. Methods The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS. Results Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Cinnamon could be used as a potent chemopreventive drug in cervical cancer.

  12. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  13. Pengaruh Waktu Destilasi Terhadap Kadar Minyak Atsiri pada Kulit Kayu Manis (Cassia Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Hanny Wahyuni Syahputri

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon is a spice plant which is also an essential oil that is widely used community. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of essential oils obtained by variation of time of distillation cinnamon bark. Samples derived from cinnamon bark that is available in the laboratory commodity vegetable oils and spices UPTD. Certification and Testing Center for Product Quality (BPSMB) field. Essential oils of cinnamon (Cassia Indonesian) obtained by using the method of distillation. Th...

  14. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. PMID:25913274

  15. Comparative Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Effects of Different Parts of Cassia fistula Linn, a Southeast Asian Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilking Einstein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole parts of Cassia fistula in both normoglycemic and streptozotocin-nictotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Acute toxicity, oral glucose tolerance test and glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm were performed in normal rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by the administration of streptozotocin-nictotinamide (50, 110 mg/kg b.w., resp. intraperitoneally. Different extracts of Cassia was administered to diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Biochemical parameters like blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and serum marker enzymes were determined. The methanolic extract of the bark and leaves were show more effective in causing hypoglycemia in normoglycemic rats. Diabetic rats showed increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, reduced levels of plasma insulin, were significantly reverted to near normal after oral administration of the bark and leaf methanolic extracts. Glucose uptake studies in isolated rat hemidiaphragm have shown enhanced peripheral utilization of glucose. Chronic treatment of Cassia remarkably restored the normal status of the histopathological changes observed in the selected tissues. Dose dependent anti-diabetic effects with the cohorts receiving the methanolic extract of bark followed by leaves of Cassia was revealed.

  16. Environ: E00650 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ohol [CPD:C00556], Salicylaldehyde [CPD:C06202], Benzaldehyde [CPD:C00261] Cinnamomum cassia [TAX:119260] Sa...me as: D06713 Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum cassia the dried leaves, twigs, and bark Obtained by stea

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CASSIA FISTULA LINN. LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan Neelam; Bairwa Ranjan; Sharma Komal; Chauhan Nootan

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminoseae), commonly known as the Golden Shower, Indian Laburnum. Cassia fistula trees as leguminous plants are popularly grown in Thailand. It is native to India, the Amazon and Sri Lanka and diffused in various countries including Mexico, China, Mauritius, South Africa, East Africa, and West Indies. The antibacterial activities of the petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyle acetate, methanolic and 50% (v/v) hydro alcoholic successive extracts of Cassia fistula (L) fruit...

  18. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  19. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew R.; Aina Ramsay; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M; Helena Mejer; Peter Nejsum; Irene Mueller-Harvey; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated tha...

  20. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment. PMID:21324598

  1. Taxonomic revision of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuu-Kuang, Soh

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six species of Cinnamomum are recognised in Borneo. Seventeen species are endemic to Borneo. Fifteen species names are newly reduced to synonymy. The species nomenclature, description, distribution, ecology, vernacular names and uses are given.

  2. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinna...

  3. Differentiation of the Four Major Species of Cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) Using a Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Ford, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS techniq...

  4. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Haddad, Renato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2005-11-15

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF ANTHRAQUINONES FROM CASSIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rizwan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal problem mainly constipation is the major disorder in human beings in almost all regions. The present work aimed to study exclusively on various seeds of Cassia species for exploration and phytochemical estimation of anthraquinones and for its laxative activity. Three species of Cassia namely C. fistula, C. angustifolia,, C. siamea have been taken for the study in which three varieties of Cassia fistula has been taken viz. C. fistula seed marketed, C. fistula seed collected and C. fistula pod. The process was carried out in which initially the samples of different varieties were extracted by four methods namely maceration, percolation, decoction and Soxhlation. The crude extract obtained was subjected for qualitative and quantitative estimation of anthraquinones. The content of total anthraquinone glycoside in the crude extract prepared by each extraction method was determined by U.V. spectrophotometry. The extract prepared by maceration method (Cassia siamea exhibit highest content of anthraquinone glycoside of followed by extract of percolation method, Soxhlation and decoction method. The investigation reviles that seed of C. siamea and C. angustifolia possess maximum amount of anthraquinone glycoside in majority of extraction processes.

  6. Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2015-08-01

    The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73.4 microg/mL) and a high phenolic content (192.0%), while the leaf oil inhibited oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid with an inhibition value of 65.5 μg/mL. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition were assessed and the results showed that C. macrocarpun bark oil exhibited significant activity with inhibition values of 55.8% and 66.1%, respectively at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. PMID:26434143

  7. Constituyentes de Cassia corymbosa Larn. (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    López de Ruiz, Rosa Evelia; Fusco, María del Rosario; Ruiz, Sohar Osvaldo

    1992-01-01

    Cassia corymbosa Lam. (Leguminosae) es una especie vegetal ampliamente usada en la medicina popular como catártico, en tanto que a las hojas se le atribuyen propiedades emolientes, siendo usadas las mismas en cataplasmas. Del extracto alcohólico se han aislado dos antraquinonas con propiedades purgantes: el crisofanol y la aloemodina. En el mismo extracto se constata la presencia de dos flavonoides: la penduletina y la quercetina

  8. A new flavonoid glucoside from Cassia angustifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ping Wu; Zhu Ju Wang; Li Ying Tang; Mei Hong Fu; Yan He

    2009-01-01

    A new flavonoid glucoside with a known one was isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. Based on the spectral analysis,including MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1HCOSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOSEY, their chemical structures were determined as kaempferol-3-O-[(6"-O-trans-sinnapoyl)-B-D-glucopyranosyl (1 -6)]-B-D-glucopyranoside 1 and apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside 2.

  9. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Das Chandan; Dash Sujit; Sahoo Durga Charan; Mohanty Arnabaditya; Rout Dolley

    2011-01-01

    Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint,...

  10. Profile of urinary and fecal proanthocyanidin metabolites from common cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed a suspension of the whole bark. The metabolites include ten mono-, di-, and tri- conjugated (epi)catechin phase II metabolites and more than 20 small phenolic acids from intestinal microbial fermentation. Some of these are sulfated conjugates. Feces contain intact (epi)catechin and dimers. This suggests that free radical scavenging species are in contact with the intestinal walls for hours after ingestion of cinnamon. The phenolic metabolite profile of cinnamon bark in urine is consistent with a mixture of proanthocyanidins that are depolymerized into their constitutive (epi)catechin units as well as cleaved into smaller phenolic acids during their transit along the intestinal tract, with subsequent absorption and conjugation into bioavailable metabolites. PMID:22383303

  11. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    OpenAIRE

    Bandar E Al-Dhubiab

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been dem...

  12. Antimicrobial Activities of Various Medicinal and Commercial Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    ATEŞ, D. Ayfer; Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2003-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the alcohol, ethyl acetate, acetone and chloroform extracts of 5 plant species were studied. The extracts of Pimpinella anisum (L.) (anise, aniseed) (seed), Coriandrum sativum (L.) (coriander, cilantro) (seed), Glycyrrhiza glabra (L.) (liquorice) (root), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (cassia bark, Chinese cinnamon) (bark), and Juniperus oxycedrus (L.) (juniper) (seed) were tested in vitro against 13 bacterial species and strains by the agar diffusion method. Bacillus...

  13. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  14. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Chandan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint, dysentery and anthelmentic. Various other activities like antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antifungal & antimicrobial, hyperlipemia & hypotensive have also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits.

  15. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect. PMID:17966976

  16. PHYTOCHEMICALANALYSIS OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA OF LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Solanki

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomoum tamala is found in tropical and sub tropical Himalaya and in some other places. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Cinnamomum tamala is the member of Lauraceae family and its leaves are most popularly used as spice in Insian food. Along with spice, it is associates with many medicinal value such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antifungal etc. The phytochemicals are important in human health this is because ...

  17. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  18. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Bechan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  19. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Mehmet; Ergene, Emel; Unlu, Gulhan Vardar; Zeytinoglu, Hulya Sivas; Vural, Nilufer

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against 21 bacteria and 4 Candida species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on ras active (5RP7) and normal (F2408) fibroblasts were examined by MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC(50) values less than 20 μg/mL for both cell lines. 5RP7 cells were affected stronger than normal cells. Morphological observation of apoptotic cells indicated the induction of apoptosis at the high level of the oil, especially in 5RP7 cells. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections and neoplasms. PMID:20828600

  20. Observations of the Biology and Ecology of the Black-Winged Termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Termitidae: Isoptera), in Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur G. Appel; Xing Ping Hu; Jinxiang Zhou; Zhongqi Qin; Hongyan Zhu; Xiangqian Chang; Zhijing Wang; Xianqin Liu; Mingyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the biology and ecology of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined in a grove of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L.), located at the Fruit and Tea Institute, Wuhan, China. Of the 90 trees examined, 91.1% had evidence of termite activity in the form of exposed mud tubes on the bark. There was no relationship between tree diameter and mud tube length. Mud tubes faced all cardinal directions; most (60%) trees had multiple tubes at all directions. H...

  1. THE NEW WORLD SPECIES OF CINNAMOMUM TREW (LAURACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The American species of Phoebe Nees are relegated to Cinnamomum Trew; the reasons for this transfer are discussed. To retain nomenclatural stability the new combinations which have become necessary are presented, in anticipation of a general revision of  the   genus   Cinnamomum;   68   new   combinations   and   names   are presented.

  2. THE NEW WORLD SPECIES OF CINNAMOMUM TREW (LAURACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    The American species of Phoebe Nees are relegated to Cinnamomum Trew; the reasons for this transfer are discussed. To retain nomenclatural stability the new combinations which have become necessary are presented, in anticipation of a general revision of  the   genus   Cinnamomum;   68   new   combinations   and   names   are presented.

  3. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; M. Y. Ahmad-Mudzaqqir; W.A. Wan-Nurdiyana

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinn...

  4. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA TORA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Ashwini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of a potential antioxidant molecule is gaining importance in the recent years as it plays an important role, in preventing or delaying the onset of certain pathological consequences such as hepatotoxicity, heart diseases and cancer. Cassia tora Linn. (Family :Fabaceae is an annual herb growing in Asian countries. The plant is reported to have medicinal value as an antimicrobial, antidiuretic, antidiarrheal and antihepatotoxic. In the present study, antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia tora leaves was investigated using three in vitro assays, viz., total antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method, DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferric ion reducing assay. L-Ascorbic acid was used as a reference antioxidant. The extract showed strong antioxidant activities in all the three assays, indicating that Cassia tora ethanolic extract functions as an efficient antioxidant to scavenge free radicals and reduces free radical induced cellular damage.

  5. Bark beetle management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is designed to provide a background to bark beetle management practices consistent with the British Columbia Forest Practices Code, as well as specific practices for managing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), and Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). It describes their general biology and distribution in British Columbia, their life cycles and population dynamics, and symptoms of bark beetle attack. General management strategies presented include prevention (a long-term approach), suppression, holding actions, and salvage. Strategies appropriate to specific bark beetles include aerial surveys, ground detection, baiting, harvesting, and use of insecticides. The guidebook includes brief mention of other bark beetles (Scolytids and other Dendroctonus species) and a glossary.

  6. Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  7. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CASSIA SOPHERA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavan Chetan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognostical parameters for the all three parts of Cassia sophera L were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physicochemical constants, extractive values of dry powder and its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents were studied. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analyses of this species.

  8. Two new glycosides from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Zhang; Gui Liu Li; Yong Qing Xiao; Li Li; Zhen Pang

    2009-01-01

    Two new glycosides,nor-rubrofusarin-6-O-β-D-(6'-O-acetyl)glucopyranoside(1)and l-desmethylaurantio-obtusin-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(2)were isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia and their structures were established by chemical and spectral evidences.

  9. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi; Eliane Moretto

    1995-01-01

    Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores

  10. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar E Al-Dhubiab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE, Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis, Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii.

  11. Analysis of total flavonoids and phenolics in different species of Cassia

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Veerachari; .A.K.Bopaiah

    2013-01-01

    Cassia species are medicinally useful and has innumerable traditional therapeutic applications. Natural antioxidants such as dietary plant phenolics and flavonoids are increasingly attracting attention. Cassia is one such most important plant which is a source of antioxidants i.e phenolics and flavonoids. Quantitative determination of phenols and flavonoids in the leaves of 12 species of Cassia was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. Gallic Acid and Quercetin reagents were used as s...

  12. Echoes of Bark Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…

  13. Amate Bark Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  14. Treatments to break the dormancy of Cassia fistula L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Alexandre Fernandes Rodrigues de Melo; Edilson Guedes da Costa; Sueli da Silva Santos-Moura; Edna Ursulino Alves; Roberta Sales Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae – Caesalpinioidea) is a forest species that is propagated by seeds. To promote the production of seedlings of C. fistula it is necessary to break the natural dormancy of its seeds, which is caused by the seed tegument that is impermeable to water. The goal of this study was to establish a pre-germination treatment for germinating C. fistula seeds. The seeds were subjected to the following treatments: control – intact seeds (T1); mechanical scarification with sandpa...

  15. Environ: E00118 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00118 Cinnamomum burmannii bark Crude drug Cinnamomum burmannii [TAX:119261] Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinn...amomum burmannii bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Lauraceae (laurel family) E00118 Cinnamomum burmannii bark ...

  16. Environ: E00052 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00052 Cinnamomum obtusifolium bark Crude drug Cinnamomum obtusifolium [TAX:397101]... Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum obtusifolium bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Lauraceae (laurel family) E00052 Cinnamomum obtusifolium bark ...

  17. Environ: E00183 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00183 Cinnamomum sieboldii bark Crude drug Cinnamomum sieboldii [TAX:119266] Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinn...amomum sieboldii bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Lauraceae (laurel family) E00183 Cinnamomum sieboldii bark ...

  18. Differentiation of the four major species of cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Ford, Paul

    2014-03-26

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied. PMID:24628250

  19. Pyrolysis of Barks from Three Japanese Softwood

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Aki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Kounosu, Taku; Orihashi, Ken; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Along with Japanese cedar bark, fir bark and Japanese larch bark were pyrolyzed to estimate the possibility of utilizing these softwood barks as resources for fine chemicals by comparing the pyrolysis product compositions. The three softwood barks contained higher ash content and yielded lower amount of volatiles when compared with cedar heartwood. The major pyrolysis products from their barks were similar to those previously reported from softwood trunks. Levoglucosan was a major pyrolysis p...

  20. Macro-microscopic examination of leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burm. f.) Blume sold as Tamalapatra

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar, K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae) commonly known as ‘Tamalapatra’ is a highly reputed commodity in drug and spice trade. Its adulteration with other leaf species belonging to genus Cinnamomum is found to be a common practice in India and other parts of the world. Thorough macroscopic and microscopic investigations are essential to differentiate them. Survey of South Indian crude drug markets revealed that in place of C. tamala some other leaves of Cinnamomum species are so...

  1. Registro de Acromyrmex disciger Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae no Município de Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pikart

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae is cultivated for production of leaves, bark and roots, due to its aromatic and spice proprieties. But despite being a resistant plant, C. zeylanicum is subject to attack by various insects and mites during their development, and these pests are responsible for considerable reduction in crop yields. The aim of this study was to record and characterize the attack by leaf-cutting ants in plants of C. zeylanicum in Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between January and March 2010. Damage were characterized by cutting young leaves and shoots of plants of C. zeylanicum with height between 1.0 to 1.5 m and total defoliation of plants less than 1.0 m. The attack in adult plants was not observed. This is the first record of leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex disciger Mayr damaging plants of C. zeylanicum in Brazil.

  2. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinnamon essential oil contains high cinnamaldehyde content which is the main component in cinnamon. The percentage of cinnamaldehyde in essential oil from steam distillation was about 90% and 62-73% from Soxhlet extraction. Cinnamon essential oil has high antimicrobial properties which formed clear zone when tested with gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis s.p and a gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. It also showed antimicrobial properties with two unknown bacteria with unknown characteristics. Cinnamaldehyde contains high antibiotic quality since it is the main compound in cinnamon.

  3. Isolasi Sinamaldehida Dari Kulit Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum Burmanii)

    OpenAIRE

    Marnaek Nainggolan

    2008-01-01

    Minyak sinamon telah diisolasi dari kulit tumbuhan Kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii) melalui proses destilasi uap. Kulit Kayu manis yang telah dihaluskan menjadi tepung sebanyak 20,50 kg didestilasi uap selama 12 jam ternyata dapat menghasilkan 19, 75 g ( 0,0963 %) minyak sinamon Kayu manis Analisis kandungan kimia minyak sinamon Kayu manis dengan GC-MS menunjukkan kadar sinamaldehida sebesar 82,83 %. Pemisahan sinamaldehida dari minyak sinamon Kayu manis menggunakan teknik kromatografi kol...

  4. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    HAQUE RABIUL; MONDAL SUBHASISH; GHOSH PARAG

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic...

  5. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinu John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora L. leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic property using the Indian adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma as a model. Among the earthworms the ethyl acetate fraction was potent. The results were compared with a standard drug, albendazole. The phytochemical analysis of both extracts showed the presence of phenolics like flavonoids and tannins as well as anthraquinones, which may be the active principle. The present study confirms the ethno-medicinal report of the plant as an anthelmintic drug.

  6. Hypolipidemic Activity of Cassia tora Seeds in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, Vishnu Kumar; Mahdi, Farzana; Chander, Ramesh; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjana; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The hypolipidemic activity of Cassia tora (Chakvat, Chakunda) (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) seeds extract have been studied in two models of hyperlipidemia in rats. In an acute model, hyperlipidemia was induced by injecting a single dose of Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg, b.w.) intraperitonially in rats. Feeding with C. tora seed extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg, b.w. exerted significant lipid lowering effect as assessed by the reversal of plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerid...

  7. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Akter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Nees. The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala have shown good antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ascorbic acid used as a standard. The IC50 value of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 13.55 μg/ml while the IC50 value of ascorbic acid was 5.35 μg/ml. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and vincristine sulphate used as a standard. In this assay, the LC50 value of the ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 17.82μg/ml whereas LC50 value of vincristine sulphate was 5.24μg/ml. Therefore, these results suggest that leaves extract of Cinnamomum tamala has antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

  8. Purification and Characterization of Ionically Unbound Polyphenol oxidase from Cinnamomum tamala syn. Cinnamomum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Diwakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (EC. 1.10.3.1 PPO an ionically unbound and thermostable enzyme was extracted from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. The enzyme was purified 2.63-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 25 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 25 kD. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50oC temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0–9.0 and temperature (30–90oC. From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-80oC, the half-life (t1/2 values of the enzyme ranged from 19 to 72 min. The inactivation energy (Ea value of PPO was estimated to be 94.5 kJ mol-1. It showed higher specificity with substrate catechol (Km=6.8mM. Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu2+ indicating its role as cofactors, Fe2+, Hg2+, protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K+, Mg2+, Co2+, kojic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, urea, sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  9. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  10. Phytochemical and Chromatographic Fingerprint Studies on Chloroformic Extracts of Cassia tora L.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Sahadeo; Wankhade Sushilkumar; Somkuwar Dipali; Kamble Vilas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To lay down the chromatographic profile of chloroform extracts of Cassia tora L. by HPTLC technique. Methods: Chloroformic extracts prepared from leaf, flower and seed of Cassia tora L. using Soxhlet apparatus. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC analysis was carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with automatic TLC sampler IV, TLC scanner 3, REPROSTAR 3 with 12 bit CCD camera for photo documentation, winCATS Planer Chromatography software. Results: The re...

  11. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Cassia auriculata in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    P. Uma Devi; Selvi, S; Suja, S.; K. Selvam; Chinnaswamy, P.

    2006-01-01

    Several reports have shown the various effects of Cassia auriculata flower extract such as hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hypotensive effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic efficacy of various parts (root, stem, leaves and flowers) of Cassia auriculata on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In the in vivo experiments, alloxan induced diabetic wistar strains of male albino rats were randomized into 7 groups. It includes 1) Control 2)...

  12. Essential oil constituents and their biological activities from the leaves of Cassia fistula growing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prabodh Satyal; Noura S Dosoky; Ambika Poudel; William N. Setzer

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae) fruit is used traditionally in Nepal as an antipyretic and to treat constipation, while the leaves are used to treat jaundice, piles, rheumatism, ulcers, insect bites, facial paralysis and skin eruptions. C. fistula leaves are important ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of C. fistula leaves and to evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia f...

  13. The Effect of Butanolides from Cinnamomum tenuifolium on Platelet Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yi Chen; Sheue-Jiun Chen; Hui-Ming Wu; Huei-Ping Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of isotenuifolide and tenuifolide B from the stems of Cinnamomum tenuifolium on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced human platelet aggregation. Treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (1 and 2 μg/μL) and tenuifolide B (1, 2 and 4 μg/μL) did not have any significant effect on human platelet aggregation in vitro, however, treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (4 μg/μL) resulted in an inhibitory effect on platelet aggr...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of oil from the root of Cinnamomum porrectum

    OpenAIRE

    Arunporn Itarat; Sopa Kummee; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Ladda Nilrat

    2007-01-01

    The steam-distilled oil from the root of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for its antimicrobial activity against human pathogens including bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. It exhibited strongestactivity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC 0.01 mg/ml) followed by Candida albicans and dermatophytes (0.5-1.0 mg/ml), Bacillus subtilis (2 mg/ml), and susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus (4-16 mg/ml).It showed moderate activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 16-64 mg/ml) but no activi...

  15. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities; Sesquiterpenos produzidos pelo fungo endofitico Phomopsis cassiae com atividade antifungica e inibidora de acetilcolinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Lisineia M.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Silva, Dulce H. Siqueira; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Silva, Geraldo H. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Teles, Helder L. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Young, Maria Claudia M., E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seccao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2012-07-01

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  16. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Akter; Md. Ashraf Ali; Ranjan Kumar Barman; Bytul Mokaddesur Rahman; Mir Imam Ibne Wahed

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Nees). The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala have shown good antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ascorbic acid used as a standard. The IC50 value of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 13.55 μg/ml while the IC50 value of ascorbic acid was 5.35 μg/ml. Cytotoxic...

  17. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, D.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14. CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a {sup 60}Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  18. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  19. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  20. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum

    OpenAIRE

    Reji, R.; Maheswari Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial assay of acetone and ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum was performed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial culture. (E.coli, P.mirabilis and K.pneumoniae) the acetone extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, ethanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi and acetone extract of Syzygium aromaticum were selected to evaluate the synergistic activity. The activities were combined in the ratio of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 (Trachyspermum am...

  1. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride, serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes.

  2. PEMANFAATAN MINUMAN SERBUK INSTAN KAYU MANIS (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR KOLESTEROL TOTAL DARAH TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang sering digunakan sebagai bumbu dapur, namun juga memiliki fungsi kesehatan, yakni menurunkan kadar kolesterol dalam darah. Telah dilakukan penelitian “Pemanfaatan Minuman Serbuk Instan Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) untuk Menurunkan Kadar Kolesterol Total Darah pada Tikus (Rattus norvegicus)”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan minuman serbuk instan kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii B...

  3. Barking And Havering Lifestyle Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, S

    1994-01-01

    The South East Institute of Public Health has been commissioned by the Barking and Havering Health Authority to undertake an independent review of health promotion Activity in smoking, sensible drinking, physical activity and healthy eating amongst Organisations/agencies in the district and to make recommendations.

  4. Antileukemic activity of lignans and phenylpropanoids of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adfa, Morina; Rahmad, Rizki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yudha S, Salprima; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of fractions and isolated constituents from Cinnamomum parthenoxylon woods against human leukemia HL-60 and U937 cells. The n-Hex, EtOAc, and MeOH-H2O fractions of the woods inhibited cell proliferation in both cell lines. Our phytochemical investigation of the n-Hex and EtOAc fractions led to the isolation of lignans and phenylpropanoids, whose chemical structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antileukemic activity; especially, hinokinin and cubebin exhibited strong inhibition toward U937 cell proliferation. Morphological observation indicated that these cytotoxic actions were mediated by apoptosis. Our findings suggested that an oxygenated functional group at the C-9 position in dibenzylfuran skeleton contributed their potency. In addition, these results enhanced the ethnopharmacological value of C. parthenoxylon. PMID:26774581

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S. L.; Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2009-10-01

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important branch of nanotechnology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth as the reducing agent is reported. The morphology of the particles formed consists of a mixture of gold nanoprisms and spheres with fcc (1 1 1) structure of gold. At lower concentrations of the extract, formation of prism shaped Au particles dominates, while at higher concentrations almost spherical particles alone are observed. Good crystallinity of the nanoparticles with fcc phase is evident from XRD patterns, clear lattice fringes in the high resolution TEM image and bright circular rings in the SAED pattern. Au nanoparticles grown are observed to be photoluminescent and the intensity of photoemission is found to increase with increase in leaf broth concentration. The ability to modulate the shape of nanoparticles as observed in this study for gold nanoparticles opens up the exciting possibility of developing further synthetic routes employing ecofriendly sources.

  6. Chemical composition of the underutilized legume Cassia hirsuta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, V; Janardhanan, K

    2000-01-01

    Seven accessions of the underutilized legume, Cassia hirsuta L., seeds collected from seven different agroclimatic regions of Tamil Nadu, India, were analyzed for proximate composition, total proteins, protein fractions, mineral profiles and selected antinutritional factors. Crude protein ranged from 15.52 to 20.74%, crude lipid 3.77-7.04%, crude fiber 4.68-6.92%, ash 3.98-6.42% and carbohydrates 62.45-70.16%. Energy values of the seeds were 1549-1634 kJ/100 g (DM), which are comparable to those of other legumes. Data on seed protein fractions revealed that globulins constituted the bulk of the seed protein as in most legumes. Mineral contents of the seeds showed greater variation. Potassium was the most abundant mineral (1029-1786 mg/100 g), whereas manganese was low (2.1-2.2 mg/100 g). Antinutritional factors such as total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA and lectins were analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that the accessions of C. hirsuta seeds collected from Tamil Nadu, India, could be good sources of some important nutrients for humans. PMID:11086879

  7. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Goldson Barnaby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications.

  8. Anti-cancer activity of compounds from Cassia garrettiana heartwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeya Yuenyongsawad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Cassia garrettiana heartwood showed marked inhibitory activity against several cancer cell lines including HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7 and KB cells. Therefore, its extract and compounds were investigated for their anticancer effect using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. The ethanol extract of C. garrettiana heartwood was separated to give five compounds which are chrysophanol (1, piceatannol (2, aloe-emodin (3, emodin (4 and cassigarol E (5. Of the tested samples, chrysophanol (1 showed the highest anti-cancer activity against KB cells (IC50 = 0.045 g/mL, aloe emodin (3 was the most active against HT-29 (IC50 = 0.29 g/mL, emodin (4 was against HeLa cells (IC50 = 0.82 g/mL, and cassigarol E (5 was active against MCF-7 (IC50 = 0.021 g/mL, whereas piceatannol (2 was inactive in all tested cell lines. This is the first report of anti-cancer effect against HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7 and KB cells of C. garrettiana heartwood.

  9. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:26876518

  10. Hypolipidemic Activity of Cassia tora Seeds in Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vishnu Kumar; Mahdi, Farzana; Chander, Ramesh; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjana; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The hypolipidemic activity of Cassia tora (Chakvat, Chakunda) (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) seeds extract have been studied in two models of hyperlipidemia in rats. In an acute model, hyperlipidemia was induced by injecting a single dose of Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg, b.w.) intraperitonially in rats. Feeding with C. tora seed extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg, b.w. exerted significant lipid lowering effect as assessed by the reversal of plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglyceride and reactivation of post heparin lipolytic activity. In the chronic model, hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding with cholesterol rich-HFD in rats. The treatment with seeds extract of C. tora (500 mg/kg, b.w.) simultaneously for 15 days also caused lowering of lipid levels in plasma and liver following reactivation of plasma post heparin lipolytic activity and hepatic lipoprotein lipase activity in animals. The hypolipidemic activity of C. tora seeds was compared with a standard drug guggulipid (200 mg/kg, b.w.) in both models. PMID:25646045

  11. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  12. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Sung; Im Chang-Rok; Ko Byoung; Jeon Won; Ryu Jae-Ha; Sahoo Anupama; Lee Choong-Gu; So Jae-Seon; Hwang Ji-Sun; Kwon Ho-Keun; Park Zee; Im Sin-Hyeog

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation ...

  13. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  14. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  15. Hypoglycemic activities of A- and B-type procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts from different Cinnamon barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaolian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Rui; Wu, Ximin; Wu, Yingchun; Huang, Caiguo; Li, Yiming

    2011-02-15

    Procyanidin oligomers in Cinnamon are thought to be responsible for the biological activity in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify types of procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species and investigate their different effects, the present study investigated procyanidin oligomers in polyphenolic oligomer-rich extracts of three Cinnamon samples by LC-MS methods, and their hypoglycemic activities were detected in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that two of the three samples from Cinnamomum cassia were rich in B-type procyanidin oligomers, and the other sample was rich in A-type procyanidin oligomers. The Cinnamon extracts were administered at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice for 14 days. The results showed that blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased in all Cinnamon extract groups compared with the control group (pCinnamon extracts significantly increased the consumption of extracellular glucose in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and normal HepG2 cells compared with the control group. These results suggest that both A- and B-type procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species have hypoglycemic activities and may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 DM. PMID:20851586

  16. Barking up the Right Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  17. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts. PMID:26867378

  18. Molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark against Lymnaea acuminata snails was studied. The toxicity of different bark preparations was both time and dose dependent. The 24-h LC50 of the lyophilized aqueous extract of bark was 34.5 mg/l whereas that of lyophilized boiled water extract was 42.5 mg/l. Low concentrations of vacuum-dried ethanolic extract (24-h LC50: 4.9 mg/l and purified bark (24-h LC50: 0.87 mg/l were effective in killing the test snails.

  19. Phytochemical and Chromatographic Fingerprint Studies on Chloroformic Extracts of Cassia tora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Sahadeo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To lay down the chromatographic profile of chloroform extracts of Cassia tora L. by HPTLC technique. Methods: Chloroformic extracts prepared from leaf, flower and seed of Cassia tora L. using Soxhlet apparatus. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC analysis was carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with automatic TLC sampler IV, TLC scanner 3, REPROSTAR 3 with 12 bit CCD camera for photo documentation, winCATS Planer Chromatography software. Results: The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids, but absence of saponins. HPTLC determination of leaf extract showed the presence of 10 components with Rf values ranging from 0.33 - 0.92; seed revealed the presence of 8 components with Rf values in the range of 0.35 – 0.91; flower extract displayed presence of 11 components with Rf values in the range of 0.33 – 0.94. Conclusion: The presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloid in Cassia tora L. increase the probable role in biological activities and their use in medicine. The HPTLC finger printing of Cassia tora L. may be useful in differentiating the species and act as a biochemical marker for this plant.

  20. Anthraquinones and flavonoids of Cassia tora leaves ameliorate sodium selenite induced cataractogenesis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Cassia tora leaves, an edible plant traditionally used for eye ailments, in preventing experimental cataractogenesis. Cataract is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide characterized by the cloudiness or opacification of the lens due to the disturbance of even distribution of lens proteins and lipids. A significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of herbal medicine in the prevention of cataract by maintaining lens architecture. The study was conducted in neonatal rat pups of 8-10 days old with an ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora leaves (ECT) administered by gastric intubation. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and various parameters such as redox status and gene expressions were evaluated in lenses. ECT administration caused a significant decrease in the onset and maturation of cataract, potentiated antioxidant defense and normalized lens crystallin expression against cataract induced animals. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of flavonoids and anthraquinones. Thus, the present study indicates the therapeutic potential of Cassia tora leaves in preventing cataract and the effect is endorsed by the presence of antioxidants in Cassia tora leaves. PMID:26786764

  1. Biological control potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides for coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from a greenhouse-grown seedling of coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis) and evaluated as a mycoherbicide for that weed. Host range tests revealed that coffee senna, wild senna (C. pilosa),and sicklepod (C. obtusifolia) were also affected...

  2. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  3. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Ho, Cheng-Kuen; Chang, Shu-Hwa

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae (Hayata), the first to be completely sequenced of Lauraceae family, is presented in this study. The total genome size is 152,700 bp, with a typical circular structure including a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/b) of 20,107 bp of length separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 93,642 bp and 18,844 bp of length, respectively. The overall GC content of the genome is 39.1%. The nucleotide sequence shows 91% identities with Liriodendron tulipifera in the Magnoliaceae. In total, 123 annotated genes consisted of 79 coding genes, eight rRNA genes, and 36 tRNA genes. Among all 79 coding genes, seven genes (rpoC1, atpF, rpl2, ndhB, ndhA, rps16, and rpl2) contain one intron, while two genes (ycf3 and clpP) contain two introns. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. kanehirae chloroplast genome is closely related to Calycanthus fertilis within Laurales order. PMID:26053940

  4. Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Cassia sophera linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D H Nagore

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia sophera from the family caesalpiniaceae is being used in local traditional medicine for asthma and bronchitis. Powdered leaves of C. sophera was extracted with ethanol and subjected for sequential fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol respectively. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of flavonoids and antraquinone glycosides in all of the fractions. In the present study, antiasthmatic activity of parent ethanol extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions of C. sophera were evaluated. For the evaluation, carrageenan induced paw edema, histamine induced bronchoconstriction, clonidine and haloperidol induced catalepsy, milk induced leukocytosis, and eosinophilia and passive paw anaphylaxis has performed. The paw edema significantly (p< 0.05 inhibited by the parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fraction at 4th hr with the percent inhibition 54.2%, 50.4%, 44.3%, 60.7% respectively. In the present study C. sophera significantly (P< 0.05 protected the bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs against histamine-induced bronchospasm. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions showed 62.7%, 60%, 55% and 64% protection at 4th hour respectively. The clonidine induced catalepsy was found to be inhibited significantly (P< 0.05 by parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fraction at 120 min (144.00±4.830, 150.50±9.773 175.33, ±13.990, 142.50 ±4.233 sec. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions failed to revert the haloperidol induced catalepsy. In milk induced leukocytosis, milk treated group showed 4575.0 ±117.44 per cu mm leukocyte. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions reduced leukocyte count (1550.0±78.528, 2083.3±35.746, 2750.0±73.030, 1266.7±72.648 per cu mm resp. and eosinophil count (38.333±2.216, 82.333±2.1246, 2.500±1.057, 40.500±2.078 per cu mm resp. where milk treated group

  5. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Nyctanthes arbortristis bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Ashokrao Nirmal; Subodh Chandra Pal; Subhash Chandra Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study detailed Pharmacognosy of the bark of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn (Oleaceae), an important plant in Indian system of medicine. Methods: the macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical testing of powder of the plant bark and other WHO recommended methods for the standardization was done. Results: Trunk bark consists of two distinct regions i.e. outer bark and inner bark. Outer bark consists of broad periderm of a wide phellem and inner phelloderm regions. Inner bark is broader than the outer part and it includes all the secondary phloem tissues. It can be distinguished into 2 zones viz. collapsed secondary phloem and non-collapsed secondary phloem regions. Collapsed secondary phloem region consist of thick blocks of phloem sclereids and radially oblique dark streaks of crushed sieve tubes and dilated axial parenchyma cells. Non-collapsed secondary phloem region is the conducting part of the phloem where the sieve elements are intact. It consists of intact sieve tube members, companion cells, axial parenchyma cells and narrow undilated ray. Calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in collapsed phloem region. Conclusions: it can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of N. arbortristis bark is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  6. Effects of simulated rainfall on disease development and weed control of the bioherbicidal fungi Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum are virulent pathogens of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), and hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), respectively, under favorable environmental conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the effects of simulated rainfall on pathogenesis and mortality of these ...

  7. Protective effect of Cassia glauca Linn. on the serum glucose and hepatic enzymes level in streptozotocin induced NIDDM in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farswan, Mamta; MAZUMDER, PAPIYA MITRA; Percha, V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia glauca leaf extracts on normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats. The study was further carried out to investigate the effect of different fractions of the active extract of Cassia glauca, on normal and NIDDM rats, and the effect of active fraction on the blood glucose and hepatic enzymes level. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) ...

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  9. In vitro studies to evaluate the protective effects of Cassia fistula on electron beam radiation induced damages in human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is increasingly used for medical and occupational purposes and is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. Cassia fistula, a member of the Leguminosae family, it is used as a traditional medicine specially to treat the skin diseases. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the changes induced by different doses of Electron Beam radiation on Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDF) and protective effects of Cassia fistula on the same. Aqueous, methanolic and ethonolic extracts of Cassia fistula were prepared. In vitro biochemical assays like DPPH radical scavenging assay, Ferric Anion Reducing Potential using TPTZ, Nitric Oxide scavenging assay. Total antioxidant determination assay, Super Anion Radical Scavenging assays were carried out to study the antioxidant properties. HDF cells were standardized and treated with the Cassia fistula MTT assay was performed. Cells were irradiated and MTT, Micronucleus (MN) assays were performed then compared with control and non-irradiated cells. Cells were treated with Cassia fistula and irradiated; MTT and MN were performed. On comparison with the standard Ascorbic acid, ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula was showing 90% activity. The ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula is having high EC50 value. On comparison to the standard the alcoholic extracts of Cassia fistula has shown a higher FRAP value. Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula has minimum Nitric oxide scavenging property compared to alcoholic extracts. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Cassia fistula has shown 38-40% of Superoxide Radical Scavenging property in 500 μg/mL concentration. Also ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula has remarkable antioxidant property. Hence these concentrations were selected for further studies. Human Dermal Fibroblast cells were treated with the 500 μg/ mL of alcoholic Cassia fistula extracts which showed a protection against irradiated groups. (author)

  10. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum) supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baraa Mohamed,; F. A. Huseen; O. T. Jawad

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum) in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate). The results showed significant (P

  11. Leaf anatomy of Cinnamomum schaeffer (Lauraceae) with special reference to oil and mucilage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.; Schaaf, van der P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and mucilage cells in the leaf of 150 species of Cinnamomum are described. Idioblasts are always present in the palisade and the spongy parenchyma. Usually both oil and mucilage cells occur; in some species either oil or mucilage cells are present. Bot

  12. Caracterización y estudio fitoquímico de Cassia alata L. Characterization and phytochemical study of Cassia alata L.

    OpenAIRE

    Yinet Barrese Pérez; María Elena Hernández Jiménez; Oscar García Pulpeiro

    2005-01-01

    Se realizó estudio fitoquímico de los extractos alcohólico, etéreo y acuoso de la Cassia alata L. con el propósito de contribuir al conocimiento, con base científica, de los componentes presentes en ellos, de utilidad para la posible elaboración de productos farmacéuticos. Se realizó, además, la caracterización del extracto fluido y la droga cruda para establecer sus indicadores de calidad. Para la obtención de las muestras se realizaron extracciones sucesivas con solventes de distintas polar...

  13. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanion L. Jothy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Lai Ngit Shin; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Yee Ling Lau; Yeng Chen; Zuraini Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary...

  14. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Haidry, Muhammad Tahir; Malik, Arif

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L.) in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride conce...

  15. A Novel Cassia fistula (L.)-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Barkat Ali Khan; Naveed Akhtar; Abder Menaa; Farid Menaa

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae), is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L.) crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation) were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract) for assessment of the...

  16. ACUTE TOXICITY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF CASSIA ALATA LINN

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy SY; Lamu FW; Rhoda AS; Adati RG; Maspalma ID; Askira M

    2012-01-01

    Cassia alata Linn is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental flowering plant that has diverse reported medicinal values. This study focused on the evaluation of the phytochemical components, antibacterial as well as acute toxicity studies. The leaves of the plant were collected, dried, ground and extracted using 95% ethanol and water. The extracts were used for acute toxicity study, phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay using cup-plate method. The result from this stud...

  17. Exploration of the anticandidal mechanism of Cassia spectabilis in debilitating candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Torey, Angeline; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Subramanion L. Jothy; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the mo...

  18. Development of the pericarp, septa and zone of dehiscence in the fruit of Cassia tora L.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, K S; Y. S. Dave

    2014-01-01

    The pod of Cassia tora is the product of a single carpel consisting of 20-30 seeds enclosed one in each compartment formed by the ingrowth of the endocarpic tissue. There are three distinct histological zones of the pericarp Epicarp (a), Mesocarp (b) and Endocarp (c). The paracytic stomata and uniseriate multicellular trichomes are found only in the outermost layer of the epicarp. The epicarp is single layered. The outer mesocarp in later stages of its development has many collenchyma, partic...

  19. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  20. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    F Kalantary

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Trans- cinnamaldehyde was found to be the main constituent of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO), followed by methyl eugenol, δ- cadinene and γ- cadinene. The major c...

  1. Wound Healing Activity of Carallia brachiata Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, B; Neeharika, V; Venkatesh, S; Padmavathy, R; Reddy, B Madhava

    2009-09-01

    The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats. PMID:20502583

  2. Wound Healing Activity of Carallia brachiata Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, B.; V Neeharika; Venkatesh, S; R Padmavathy; Reddy, B. Madhava

    2009-01-01

    The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats.

  3. Wound healing activity of Carallia brachiata bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaveni B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats.

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTI-OXIDANT AND ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA LINN LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy P; K.R.Srinath; D Yoganand Kumar; Pooja Chowdary C

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to focus on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum tamala Linn, with special reference to its curative and protective role in streptozotocin- induced diabetic animal model. Attempts were further made to study the antioxidant properties of Cinnamomum tamala Linn. leaves. The efficacy of 50% ethanolic extract of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala showed significant decrease in the blood glucose level and increase in the antioxidant efficacy in streptozotocin indu...

  5. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. PMID:26718058

  6. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS. PMID:25421162

  7. Quantum non-barking dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  8. Quantum non-barking dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems. (paper)

  9. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Paz Lima; Maria das Graças B. Zoghbi; Eloisa Helena A. Andrade; Tatiana Maria D. Silva; Carlos Sousa Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%). Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%), alfa-felandreno (9,2%), p-cimeno (6,2%), limoneno (7,9%), ...

  10. Aspectos químicos, biológicos e etnofarmacológicos do gênero Cassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Viegas Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of Cassia are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world, and have been extensively investigated chemically and pharmacologically.They are known to be a rich source of phenolic derivatives, most of them with important biological and pharmacological properties. Some Asian, African and Indian tribes use these species as a laxative, purgative, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent. Among a number of other classes of secondary metabolites, such as anthracene derivatives, antraquinones, steroids and stilbenoids, biologically active piperidine alkaloids are an especially important bioactive class of compounds that showed to be restricted to a small group of Cassia species. In this paper we present an overview of the chemical, biological and ethnopharmacological data on Cassia piblished in the literature.

  11. Development of an effective and efficient DNA isolation method for Cinnamomum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhau, B S; Gogoi, G; Baruah, D; Ahmed, R; Hazarika, G; Ghosh, S; Borah, B; Gogoi, B; Sarmah, D K; Nath, S C; Wann, S B

    2015-12-01

    Different species of Cinnamomum are rich in polysaccharide's and secondary metabolites, which hinder the process of DNA extraction. High quality DNA is the pre-requisite for any molecular biology study. In this paper we report a modified method for high quality and quantity of DNA extraction from both lyophilized and non-lyophilized leaf samples. Protocol reported differs from the CTAB procedure by addition of higher concentration of salt and activated charcoal to remove the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Wide utility of the modified protocol was proved by DNA extraction from different woody species and 4 Cinnamomum species. Therefore, this protocol has also been validated in different species of plants containing high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA showed perfect amplification when subjected to RAPD, restriction digestion and amplification with DNA barcoding primers. The DNA extraction protocol is reproducible and can be applied for any plant molecular biology study. PMID:26041191

  12. Seasonal variations of Cinnamomum camphora leaf aroma volatiles in greenhouse condition of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Hetka, Nelly; Rogovoy, Pavel; Subach, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Buvo tiriama kokybinė ir kiekybinė introdukuoto augalo Cinnamomum camphora džiovintuose lapuose esančių lakiųjų aromatinių medžiagų sudėtis. Šie augalai buvo auginami šiltnamio sąlygomis Baltarusijos nacionalinės mokslų akademijos Botanikos sodo šiltnamiuose. Birželio mėnesį visai vasarai augalai buvo išnešami į lauką, o žiemą, gruodžio mėnesį, tiriami chromatografu Model 5090. Buvo nustatyta kamparo, kuris yra pagrindinė Cinnamomum camphora lapų aromatinių medžiagų sudedamoji dalis, dalis pr...

  13. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Reji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial assay of acetone and ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum was performed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial culture. (E.coli, P.mirabilis and K.pneumoniae the acetone extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, ethanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi and acetone extract of Syzygium aromaticum were selected to evaluate the synergistic activity. The activities were combined in the ratio of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 (Trachyspermum ammi: Cinnamonum zeylancum: Syzygium aromaticum. Phytochemical analysis was carried out for the ethanol and acetone extract of Cinnamonum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum, to check the present of carbohydrate, proteins, sterioids, resins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and quinines.

  14. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shradha Bisht; Sisodia, S S

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally) for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose t...

  15. Sintesis Nanopartikel Perak Menggunakan Ekstrak Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum sp.) Sebagai Bioreduktor

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Jamaludin

    2015-01-01

    Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa nanopartikel perak dapat disintesis dengan metode reduksi menggunakan ekstrak kayu manis (Cinnamomum sp.). Semakin lama waktu kontak semakin bertambah nanopartikel perak yang terbentuk. Distribusi rata-rata ukuran sintesis nanopartikel perak tanpa pengadukan sebesar 40,2 nm, dengan pengadukan sebesar 42,8 nm, dan dengan penambahan PAA 0,5% sebesar 32,3 nm.

  16. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Georgiana Anghel; Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Mariana Chirea; Valentina Grumezescu; Gabriel Socol; Florin Iordache; Alexandra Elena Oprea; Ion Anghel; Alina Maria Holban

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer...

  17. An Antimicrobial Compound Isolated from Cinnamomum Iners Leaves with Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Mahsufi Mansor; Marina Shah; Sabariah Ismail; Jayant Indurkar; Fazlina Mustaffa

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum iners standardized leave methanolic extract (CSLE), its fractions and isolated compounds. CSLE and fractions were subjected to disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests using different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and yeast. Within the series of fractions tested, the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active, particularly against methicil...

  18. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm) cultivated in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Caren D. Frizzo; Santos, Ana C; Natalia Paroul; Luciana A. Serafini; Eduardo Dellacassa; Daniel Lorenzo; Patrick Moyna

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae), known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the...

  19. Leaf anatomy of Cinnamomum schaeffer (Lauraceae) with special reference to oil and mucilage cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.; Schaaf, van der, Martijn

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and mucilage cells in the leaf of 150 species of Cinnamomum are described. Idioblasts are always present in the palisade and the spongy parenchyma. Usually both oil and mucilage cells occur; in some species either oil or mucilage cells are present. Both types of idioblasts possess a suberized wall layer. The idioblasts vary between species in size/ shape, stainability and number. Variations in the distribution pattern can partly be explained by ...

  20. Radical Scavenging Activity, Total Phenol Content and Antifungal Activity of Cinnamomum Iners Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Zurida Anis; Othman Sulaiman,; Rokiah Hashim; Sayed Hasan Mehdi; Raza Murad Ghalib

    2012-01-01

    The study was done to investigate the antioxidant, total phenol content and antifungal characteristics of phenolics compounds of extracts from Cinnamomum iners (Reinw. ex Blume-Lauraceae) wood. Radical scavenging activity method of DPPH was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Four fungus, namely white fungi (Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes versicolor, Fomitopsis palustris) and brown fungi (Gleophyllum trabeum) were used to determine the antifungal activity of the Cinnamomu...

  1. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Man-Gang Lee; Su-Yu Kuo; Shih-Yu Yen; Hsia-Fen Hsu; Chung-Hang Leung; Dik-Lung Ma; Zhi-Hong Wen; Hui-Min David Wang

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts ha...

  2. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibi...

  3. Antihyperglycemic activity of various fractions of Cassia auriculata linn. in alloxan diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surana S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p< 0.001 in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids.

  4. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    OpenAIRE

    Killedar, Suresh G.; Nale, Ashwini B; Harinath N. More; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properti...

  5. Characterization of Natural Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists from Cassia Seed and Rosemary

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiaki Amakura; Morio Yoshimura; Masashi Takaoka; Haruka Toda; Tomoaki Tsutsumi; Rieko Matsuda; Reiko Teshima; Masafumi Nakamura; Hiroshi Handa; Takashi Yoshida

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have suggested that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) reduces immune responses, thus suppressing allergies and autoimmune diseases. In our continuing study on natural AhR agonists in foods, we examined the influence of 37 health food materials on the AhR using a reporter gene assay, and found that aqueous ethanol extracts of cassia seed and rosemary had particularly high AhR activity. To characterize the AhR-activating substances in these samples, the chemi...

  6. 2{sup -}Ethyl-furanoflavone derivatives from the stems of Cassia fistula and their cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue-Mei, Gao; Xiang-Zhong, Huang; Li-Ying, Yang; Li-Dan, Shu; Gan-Peng, Li, E-mail: ganpeng_li@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities, Yunnan (China); Yan-Qiong, Shen; Qiu-Fen, Hu, E-mail: huqiufena@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities, Yunnan (China); Key Laboratory of Tobacco Chemistry of Yunnan Province, Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Yunnan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Two new 2{sup -}ethyl-furanoflavones named fistulaflavones A and B together with six known furanoflavones were isolated from the stems of Cassia fistula. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D, 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) techniques, and comparison with literature data. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. One of the compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against SHSY5Y and MCF7 cells with IC{sub 50} values of 2.7 and 2.6 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -1}, respectively (author)

  7. 2-Ethyl-furanoflavone derivatives from the stems of Cassia fistula and their cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new 2-ethyl-furanoflavones named fistulaflavones A and B together with six known furanoflavones were isolated from the stems of Cassia fistula. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D, 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) techniques, and comparison with literature data. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. One of the compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against SHSY5Y and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 2.7 and 2.6 μmol L-1, respectively (author)

  8. Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Chen; Yang Yang; Pulong Yuan; Yifu Yang; Kaixian Chen; Qi Jia; Yiming Li

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon barks extracts have been reported to regulate immune function; however, the component(s) in cinnamon barks responsible for this effect is/are not yet clear. The aim of this study is to find out the possible component(s) that can be used as therapeutic agents for immune-related diseases from cinnamon bark. In this study, the immunosuppressive effects of fraction (named CT-F) and five procyanidin oligomers compounds, cinnamtannin B1, cinnamtannin D1 (CTD-1), parameritannin A1, procyani...

  9. 决明子降低血清胆固醇机制的探讨%Investigation of mechanism of cassia obtusifolia reaucmg serum cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何菊英; 刘松青; 陈泽莲; 唐敏

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate mechanism of cassia obtusifolia reducing terol.METHODS: Liver cell of the rats were cultured in vitro.14C-cholesterol synthesized in liver cells wers measured with Lowry methodand scintillation counting apparatus.RESULTS:Extract of cassia obtusifoliacaninhibit synthesis of 14C-cholesterol but Cassiaside B didn't affectcholesterol syntbesis.CONCLUSION: One of the mechanism of cassia ob-tusifolia reducing blood cholesterol is nihibiting synthesis of cholesterol tosome extent,while casiaside B reducing is not by inhibiting synthesis of cholesterol.

  10. Characterization of natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists from cassia seed and rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Takaoka, Masashi; Toda, Haruka; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Nakamura, Masafumi; Handa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have suggested that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) reduces immune responses, thus suppressing allergies and autoimmune diseases. In our continuing study on natural AhR agonists in foods, we examined the influence of 37 health food materials on the AhR using a reporter gene assay, and found that aqueous ethanol extracts of cassia seed and rosemary had particularly high AhR activity. To characterize the AhR-activating substances in these samples, the chemical constituents of the respective extracts were identified. From an active ethyl acetate fraction of the cassia seed extract, eight aromatic compounds were isolated. Among these compounds, aurantio-obtusin, an anthraquinone, elicited marked AhR activation. Chromatographic separation of an active ethyl acetate fraction of the rosemary extract gave nine compounds. Among these compounds, cirsimaritin induced AhR activity at 10-10² μM, and nepitrin and homoplantagenin, which are flavone glucosides, showed marked AhR activation at 10-10³ μM. PMID:24747651

  11. Characterization of Natural Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists from Cassia Seed and Rosemary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Amakura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have suggested that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR reduces immune responses, thus suppressing allergies and autoimmune diseases. In our continuing study on natural AhR agonists in foods, we examined the influence of 37 health food materials on the AhR using a reporter gene assay, and found that aqueous ethanol extracts of cassia seed and rosemary had particularly high AhR activity. To characterize the AhR-activating substances in these samples, the chemical constituents of the respective extracts were identified. From an active ethyl acetate fraction of the cassia seed extract, eight aromatic compounds were isolated. Among these compounds, aurantio-obtusin, an anthraquinone, elicited marked AhR activation. Chromatographic separation of an active ethyl acetate fraction of the rosemary extract gave nine compounds. Among these compounds, cirsimaritin induced AhR activity at 10–102 μM, and nepitrin and homoplantagenin, which are flavone glucosides, showed marked AhR activation at 10–103 μM.

  12. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Laxmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of whole plant of Cassia occidentalis were orally tested at the dose of 200 mg/kg for hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract-treated diabetic rats, were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathological observations during 21 days treatment were also evaluated. Results : Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Apart from aqueous extract, petroleum ether extract showed activity from day 14 and chloroform extract showed activity from 7 days. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride, serum protein, and changes in body weight by aqueous extract treated-diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by extract which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion : Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. They also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and serum lipid profiles as well as histopathological studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment.

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGAR DAWADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  14. Pathogens, promising candidates for bark beetle control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wegensteiner, R.; Weiser, Jaroslav

    Georgetown: International Union of Forestry Research Organizations., 2003. s. 35. [Integrated Control of Scolytid Bark Beetles.. 29.09.2003-02.10.2003, Georgetown] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Rhizopoda * Sporozoa Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  15. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  16. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  17. Caracterización y estudio fitoquímico de Cassia alata L. Characterization and phytochemical study of Cassia alata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinet Barrese Pérez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó estudio fitoquímico de los extractos alcohólico, etéreo y acuoso de la Cassia alata L. con el propósito de contribuir al conocimiento, con base científica, de los componentes presentes en ellos, de utilidad para la posible elaboración de productos farmacéuticos. Se realizó, además, la caracterización del extracto fluido y la droga cruda para establecer sus indicadores de calidad. Para la obtención de las muestras se realizaron extracciones sucesivas con solventes de distintas polaridades; en el caso del extracto fluido se utilizó etanol al 30 % como menstruo; la droga cruda se obtuvo mediante la trituración en molino de cuchilla y martillo de las hojas secas de la planta. Para realizar el tamizaje fitoquímico se emplearon técnicas simples, rápidas, que requirieron un mínimo de equipamiento y selectivas para determinados compuestos. En la caracterización se aplicaron los ensayos descritos en la Norma Ramal del Ministerio de Salud Pública. Se comprobó la presencia de taninos en el extracto acuoso y de quinonas en el extracto alcohólico. Los indicadores de calidad para la droga cruda y el extracto fluido se ubicaron dentro de los rangos establecidos para drogas vegetales y pueden servir de referencia para aquellas plantas que sean recolectadas en condiciones similares a las de este estudio. Se comprobó la alta diversidad de compuestos químicos presentes en la guacamaya francesa, lo que fundamenta su empleo en la cura de diversas afecciones.A phytochemical study of alcoholic, ethereal and aqueous extracts from Cassia alata L. was performed to expand the scientific knowledge about the components of these extracts that may be useful for possible manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Additionally, the characterization of the fluid extract and the raw drug was made to set their quality indexes. For obtaining the samples, consecutive extractions using solvents of different polarities were made; in the case of fluid extract

  18. Protective effect of Cassia glauca Linn. on the serum glucose and hepatic enzymes level in streptozotocin induced NIDDM in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farswan Mamta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia glauca leaf extracts on normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in rats. The study was further carried out to investigate the effect of different fractions of the active extract of Cassia glauca, on normal and NIDDM rats, and the effect of active fraction on the blood glucose and hepatic enzymes level. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ at a dose of 90mg/kg, i.p. in neonates. Different extracts of cassia glauca (100mg/kg, p.o. were administered to the diabetic rats. Acetone extract was found to lower the serum glucose level significantly in diabetic rats. Further, the acetone extract was subjected to column chromatography and four fractions were obtained on the basis of TLC. All the four fractions (100mg/kg, p.o. were administered to the diabetic rats. Fraction 1 (F1 caused the maximum reduction in the blood glucose level. The results of the test were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (5mg/kg, p.o.. Results: Fraction 1 of acetone extract caused a significant reduction in the levels of hepatic enzyme Aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: Improvement in the blood sugar level and normalization of liver functions by Cassia glauca indicates that the plant has hepatoprotective potential, along with antidiabetic activity, and it provides a scientific rationale for the use of Cassia glauca as an antidiabetic agent.

  19. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn.) SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lucineudo Oliveira de Freire; Gilberto Marinho de Sousa Filho; José Romilson Paes de Miranda; Patrícia Carneiro Souto; Lúcio Valério Coutinho de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica) and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach). The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum), four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil), 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1) and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergenc...

  20. Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho-Yiu; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Yang, Shu-mei; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Chang, Chen-Mei; Yao, Belen T; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26676220

  1. Discovery of a novel anti-cancer agent targeting both topoisomerase I and II in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamomum verum has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in the DNA content in sub G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis. 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against Hep 3B cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity, inflammatory responses involving COX-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26707867

  2. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Paz Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%. Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%, alfa-felandreno (9,2%, p-cimeno (6,2%, limoneno (7,9%, linalol (10,6%; os sesquiterpenos alfa-copaeno (3,3%, (beta -cariofileno (6,7%, óxido de cariofileno (3,1% e os alilbenzenos (E-cinamaldeído (7,8% e acetato de (E-cinamila (9,7%.The essential oils of the leaves and branches "of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, collected at Manaus, state of Amazonas, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, of which eugenol, was the major (60%. Thirty-six components were identified in the branch oil, among them the monoterpenes alpha-pinene (9.9 %, beta-pinene (3.5 %, alpha phellandrene (9.2 %, p-cymene (6.2%, limonene (7.9%, linalool (10.6% were the most abundant, followed by the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (3.3%, (beta-caryophyllene (6.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.1% and the allybenzenes (E-cinnamaldehyde (7.8%, (E-cinnamyl acetate (9.7%.

  3. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Faixová Zita; Faix Štefan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03) supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetherole...

  4. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ping Chen; Kai Yang; Chun Xue You; Ning Lei; Rui Qi Sun; Zhu Feng Geng; Ping Ma; Qian Cai; Shu Shan Du; Zhi Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%), linalool (22.92%), cineo...

  5. Reproductive biology of Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees. from wet evergreen forest of Western Ghats in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    D. Shivaprasad; C. N. Prasannakumar; R. K. Somashekar, et al.

    2015-01-01

    In Cinnamomum sulphuratum the initiation of the buds occurred after the leaf initiation during October and initiation of buds started during November last week. Inflorescence is an axillary panicle with 62.48±7.01 floral buds that took 13±1.41 days to bloom. Flower offer both pollen and nectar as a floral reward to the pollinators. Foragers include honeybees, butterflies, wasps, flies and ants. The flowers are self-compatible, pollinate both by self and cross pollination. In Allogamy (Hand cr...

  6. Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using broth of Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xin; Li Qingbiao, E-mail: kelqb@xmu.edu.cn; Wang Huixuan; Huang Jiale; Lin Liqin; Wang Wenta; Sun Daohua; Su Yuanbo; Opiyo, James Berya; Hong Luwei; Wang Yuanpeng; He Ning; Jia Lishan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (China)

    2010-06-15

    The development of dependable, environmentally benign processes for the synthesis of nanoscale materials is an important aspect of nanotechnology. In the present study, we report one-pot biogenic fabrication of palladium nanoparticles by a simple procedure using broth of Cinnamomum camphora leaf without extra surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The mean size of palladium nanoparticles, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 nm, could be facilely controlled by merely varying the initial concentration of the palladium ions. The polyols components and the heterocyclic components were believed to be responsible for the reduction of palladium ions and the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala in rats

    OpenAIRE

    NagaRaju, Bandaru; Ch, S.Vidhyadhara; Kumar, Aruna; Vikas, S.

    2016-01-01

                         The present study was designed to scientifically evaluate the cardio protective potential of Ethanolic Extract of dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Family: Lauraceae) (EECT), against doxorubicin induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats. Myocardial infarction was produced in rats with 15mg/kg of doxorubicin administered intraperitoneally (i.p), in six divided doses for two weeks. Effect of oral treatment of EECT at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight), bot...

  8. Protective effect of Cassia glauca Linn. on the serum glucose and hepatic enzymes level in streptozotocin induced NIDDM in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farswan Mamta; Mazumder Papiya; Percha V

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia glauca leaf extracts on normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats. The study was further carried out to investigate the effect of different fractions of the active extract of Cassia glauca, on normal and NIDDM rats, and the effect of active fraction on the blood glucose and hepatic enzymes level. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (S...

  9. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  10. Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial communit...

  11. Essential oil constituents and their biological activities from the leaves of Cassia fistula growing in Nepal

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    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae fruit is used traditionally in Nepal as an antipyretic and to treat constipation, while the leaves are used to treat jaundice, piles, rheumatism, ulcers, insect bites, facial paralysis and skin eruptions. C. fistula leaves are important ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of C. fistula leaves and to evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia fistula collected from Biratnagar, Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, were determined using the microbroth dilution technique, in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells was determined using the MTT method. C. fistula leaf oil was composed of only seven components, all of which were identified: eugenol (25.0%, (E-phytol (21.5%, camphor (13.5%, limonene (11.0%, salicyl alcohol (10.4%, linalool (9.9%, and 4- hydroxybenzyl alcohol (8.7%. The leaf oil showed antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 78 μg/mL and C. albicans (MIC = 313 μg/mL, but only marginal cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (19.63 ± 11.89% kill at 100 μg/mL. All of the individual essential oil components were screened for activity. Eugenol exhibited antifungal properties (MIC on A. niger = 78 μg/mL and limonene and phytol were cytotoxic (IC50 = 74.7 and 54.3 μg/mL, respectively.

  12. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi Singh; Sayyada Khatoon; Shweta Singh; Vivek Kumar; Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat; Shanta Mehrotra

    2010-01-01

    Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteri...

  13. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faixová Zita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03 supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetheroleum of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calendula a.s., Nová L'ubovña, Slovakia. Continuous lighting and water and feed ad libitum were provided throughout the trial. The addition of cinnamon to the diets caused a significantly lower plasma glucose level and the effects of cinnamon on plasma glucose levels tended to be dose-dependent. Dietary intake of 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon reduced serum ALT and plasma potassium levels. Ingestion of cinnamon, however, resulted in no significant changes in circulating calcium, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol and cholesterol levels. It was concluded that cinnamon could be used not only for flavor and taste in food preparation but it had an additional role in glucose metabolism in broiler chickens.

  14. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    Shradha Bisht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed before starting the experiment and blood glucose level was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences [SPSS] version 10.0 and student′s ′t′- test (Sigma Plot version 8.0. The values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results : Treatment of diabetic animals with Cinnamomum tamala extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level, and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters towards near normal range. Conclusion : The extract exhibited antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effect. Further, chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of this extract and to isolate the active principles responsible for these effects.

  15. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. - Highlights: • Samples of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) were studied by TL and PSL methods. • The cinnamon was detected as irradiated at a dose of 500 Gy using PSL. • TL method shows an excellent linear response for doses lesser than 500 Gy. • A proximate chemical analysis was carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber. • The TL and PSL responses can be used for dose control in commercial cinnamon

  16. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren D. Frizzo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae, known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the Hon-Sho.Os óleos essenciais de duas variedades da árvore canforeira (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae, conhecidas como Hon-Sho e Ho-Sho cultivadas em canteiros experimentais no sul do Brasil foram estudados. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos das folhas e ramos de plantas jovens por hidrodestilação. A identificação dos componentes foi feita por GC, GC/MS e índices de retenção nas fases metil silicone e carbowax. Os principais componentes foram linalol no Ho-Sho e cânfora no Hon-Sho.

  17. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

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    Dimitrios N. Avtzis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi. Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava. A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel

  18. Toxicidade de sementes de fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis L. para frangos de corte Toxicity of coffee weed (Cassia occidentalis L. seeds to broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gonzales

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três ensaios com o objetivo de se determinar o nível de toxicidade da contaminação de sementes de Cassia occidentalis na alimentação de frangos de corte. Nos dois primeiros ensaios foram utilizadas 640 aves de 1 dia de idade. Os níveis de adição da semente no primeiro ensaio foram, 0; 2; 4 e 6%, obtendo-se 5,77; 84,62; 100 e 100% de mortalidade, respectivamente. No segundo ensaio, os níveis utilizados foram 0; 0,5; 1 e 2%, obtendo-se 0; 3,29; 15,73 e 89,47% de mortalidade, respectivamente. No terceiro ensaio, utilizou-se 960 aves de 3 dias de idade. Adicionou-se a ração inicial (4-31 dias de idade e final (32-52 dias sementes moídas de fedegoso aos níveis de 0; 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 e 0,5%. O peso médio final das aves foi 2,01; 1,95; 1,95; 1,90; 1,77 e 1,58 kg, respectivamente, observando-se diferença significativa (P Three experiments were carried out in order to determine toxic levels of Cassia occidentalis seeds added to broiler feed. On the first two experiments 640 one day-old sexed broiler chicks were used. The level of inclusion in starter feed of the first trial were 0; 2; 4 and 6% and the mortality rates obtained were 5.77; 84.62; 100 and 100%, respectively. In the second trial, levels utilized were 0; 0.5; 1 and 2% and the mortality rates were 0; 3.29; 15.73 and 89.47%, respectively. 960 3-day-old sexed chicks were used in the third experiment. In the starter (4 to 31 days of age and finisher (32 to 52 days experimental rations the seeds were added at 0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4 and 0.5%. The final body weights were 2.01; 1.95; 1.95; 1.90; 1.77 and 1.58 kg, respectively, being the three highest level groups different from the control. Feed consumption (4.33; 4.32; 4.32; 4.28; 4.08 and 3.80 kg, respectively and feed conversion (2.15; 2.21; 2.22; 2.25; 2.31 and 2.41, respectively were significantly different at 0.4 and 0.5% of seed inclusion comparing to the control group. Histologic aspects of birds that were fed

  19. Phylogenetic information reveals the peculiarity of Caryedon serratus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) feeding on Cassia sieberiana DC (Caesalpinioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sembène, M.; Kébé, K.; Delobel, A.; Rasplus, Jean Yves

    2010-01-01

    Studies over the past 20 years on natural populations indicated that sympatric speciation may be far more common and widespread among plants and animals than previously thought. By using molecular phylogenetics (on a combined data set of two genes), the relationships between Caryedon serratus native forms and forms feeding on groundnut was investigated. The specific objectives were to clarify the taxonomic status of C. serratus feeding on Cassia sieberiana DC. Morphological analysis was condu...

  20. Determination of Pharmacologically Active Compounds in Root Extracts of Cassia alata L. by use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Fernand, Vivian E.; Dinh, David T.; Washington, Samuel J.; FAKAYODE, SAYO O.; Losso, Jack N.; van Ravenswaay, Rick O.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of six phenolic compounds, five anthraquinones (rhein, aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) and a flavonoid (kaempferol), in root extracts from Cassia alata L. Solid-phase extraction, using C18 cartridges, was used to remove interfering substances from the root extracts. The extracts were analyzed on a C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of acetonit...

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis L. methanolic leaf extract on Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum and its acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    John N. Kateregga; Maria Nabayunga; Patrick Vudriko; James G. Ndukui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia occidentalis is traditionally used to treat helminth infestations in poultry. We investigated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of this plant against Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli worms and its acute toxicity. Methods: Leaves of the plant were air dried, ground into powder and extracted with 70% methanol, filtered and dried at 50℃ into a dark green semi-solid mass. The worms were isolated from fresh intestines of local chi...

  2. Aromatic Plants growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn.) Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuff O. Kamil; Akinwunmi A. Ayodele; Ridwan A. Azeez; O. Omikorede; Pier L. Cioni; Guido Flamini; Isiaka A. Ogunwande

    2010-01-01

    The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn.) Roxb., (Fabaceae) were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%), β-caryophyllene (1...

  3. Dessication tolerance of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness SeedsTolerância à dessecação de sementes de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Matos Barroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, submitted to different levels of drying, the fruits of dark brown and fully mature were collected and washed by hand, then the seeds were exposed to drying, on paper towel, under laboratory conditions. Treatments consisted of sampling for the determination of water content, germination and vigor tests at the beginning of the experiment and after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds each. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression. Cinnamon seeds are dispersed with high water content (39.43% and viability is compromised when dehydrated, the germination capacity as well as its speed decreases with dehydration, characterizing the recalcitrant behavior of seeds, with water content 34.82% less than both the percentage and the speed of germination are reduced. The seeds of C. zeylanicum tolerate desiccation to 12 hours without significant loss of vigor. Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness submetidas a diferentes níveis de secagem, os frutos de coloração marrom escura e completamente maduros foram coletados e despolpados manualmente, em seguida, as sementes foram expostas para a secagem, sobre papel toalha, em condições de laboratório. Os tratamentos consistiram na amostragem para a determinação do teor de água, testes de germinação e vigor no início do experimento e após 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. As sementes de canela são dispersas com alto teor de água (39,43% e tem a viabilidade comprometida quando desidratadas; a capacidade de germinação bem como a sua

  4. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  5. Direct Analysis in Real Time by Mass Spectrometric Technique for Determining the Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Vineeta Singh; Atul Kumar Gupta; Singh, S.P.; Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals pre...

  6. Xanthones from the bark of Garcinia Xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two novel xanthones, 1,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyxanthone (1) and 1,5,6-trihydroxy-7,8-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (2) were isolated from the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus by normal phase and reverse phase silica gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR techniques.(C) 2007 Guang Zhong Yang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. INORGANIC STATUS OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Dattatraya Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus marsupium is well known for its sugar lowering potential. In the present examination different bark samples (Apical bark, middle bark and mature inner bark of Pterocarpus marsupium were screened for inorganic status. The levels of macro-minerals Nitrogen (1.50-3.13%, Phosphorus (0.023-0.163%, Calcium (0.60-1.848%, and Magnesium (0.21-0.339%, levels of trace minerals Copper (0.68-3.2mg/100g, Zinc (1.98-3.62mg/100g, Manganese (2.0-4.94mg/100g and Iron (11.38-44.34mg/100g and heavy metals Chromium (2.08-3.94mg/100g and Nickel (0.32-1.26mg/100g were evaluated in the present study. Cadmium and Lead were found to be absent in all the bark samples analyzed.

  8. Sensorial effects of gamma radiation processing on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, Debora C.; Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados]. E-mails: villavic@ipen.br; dcsalum@ipen.br; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Food irradiation is the processing of food products by ionizing radiation in order, among other things, to control food borne pathogens, reduce microbial load and insect infestation, inhibit the germination of root crops, and extend the durable life of perishable products. Irradiation of dried food ingredients, particularly herbs and spices, has a great application potential, and has already been implemented in many countries. Spice irradiation is performed to increase the hygienic quality and used as decontamination processes instead of fumigation methods. European Community approves irradiation processing as an effective residue-free alternative. The present paper evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties of cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans). The samples have been irradiated in multipurpose irradiator of {sup 60}Co in the doses: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 kGy. (author)

  9. Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baraa Mohamed,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding graded levels (0, 1.0 and 1.5% of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum in the basal diet on the intestinal bacterial population of the Japanese quail. Sixty Japanese quail were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Each treatment contained four replicates (5 birds/replicate. The results showed significant (P<0.05 improvement in lactobacillus of birds fed 1.5% cinnamon. Total bacterial count, coli form and fungi count was significantly (P<0.05 lower compared to the control. In conclusion, 1.5% level of cinnamon may be used for antimicrobial balance in gut for Japanese quail.

  10. Responses of Soil Organic Carbon to Long-Term Understory Removal in Subtropical Cinnamomum camphora Stands

    OpenAIRE

    Yacong Wu; Zhengcai Li; Caifang Cheng; Rongjie Liu

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study on a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the subtropics of China, by removing understory gradually and then comparing this treatment with a control (undisturbed). This study analyzed the content and storage soil organic carbon (SOC) in a soil depth of 0–60 cm. The results showed that SOC content was lower in understory removal (UR) treatment, with a decrease range from 5% to 34%, and a decline of 10.16 g·kg−1 and 8.58 g·kg−1 was noticed in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm l...

  11. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiale [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li Qingbiao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun Daohua [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lu Yinghua [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Su Yuanbo [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Huixuan [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Yuanpeng [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shao Wenyao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); He Ning [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hong Jinqing [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Cuixue [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2007-03-14

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

  12. Characterization of the leaf essential oils of an endemic species Cinnamomum perrottetii from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramavaratharajan, Venkatraman; Sudha, Veerappan; Murugan, Ramar

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from the leaf of Cinnamomum perrottetii Meissn. collected from three distinct populations in the southern Western Ghats, India were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 56 volatile constituents representing 92.2-96.3% of the oils were identified. Variations in the chemical constituents of the oils were found. Only three major components namely, α-pinene (5.1-6.6%), tau-cadinol (8.7-20.5%) and α-cadinol (7.3-13%) out of 10 were found in all three samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical compositions of leaf essential oil of C. perrottetii. PMID:26453373

  13. Seasonal course of CO{sub 2} exchange and carbon balance in fruits of Cinnamomum camphora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Takano, Y. [Dept. of Forestry, Fukuoka Pref., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    CO{sub 2} exchange in fruits of Cinnamomum camphora was studied over a growing season. Dark respiration was exponentially related to temperature. Light dependence on CO{sub 2} photosynthetic refixation was approximated by the hyperbolic function. Seasonal variation in maximum CO{sub 2} refixation capacity ranged between 52 and 174 per cent, with maximum capacity in early August. Daily photosynthetic CO{sub 2} refixation ranged between 17 and 51 per cent over the growth period. Seasonal variation translocation rate to the fruit was determined, and the results used to develop a simple carbon flow model of fruit development. The relationship between dry weight increment in the fruit and translocation rate was also derived. It was found to be approximated by a linear function. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. PMID:26133665

  15. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiale; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Daohua; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Yuanbo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Huixuan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Shao, Wenyao; He, Ning; Hong, Jinqing; Chen, Cuixue

    2007-03-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

  16. SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND IMMUNOMODULATORY POTENTIAL OF A MEDICINAL PLANT, CINNAMOMUM TAMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeyasree* and P. Dasarathan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum tamala is found in tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas and in some other places. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Antimicrobial activity of this plant extract was investigated by Kirby-Bayer methodology against four pathogenic organisms: K. Pneumonae,E. coli, S. aureus, and P.aeroginosa. The plant Butanol extract showed inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms and it has enhanced immunomodulatory activity also. Butanol extracts containing remarkable positive results for phytochemicals compared to other solvent extracts. The higher concentration (100mg/ml of butanol extracts shows maximum inhibition. Proliferation and activation of lymphocytes was also identified. The study scientifically validates the use of plant in traditional medicine.

  17. Sensorial effects of gamma radiation processing on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is the processing of food products by ionizing radiation in order, among other things, to control food borne pathogens, reduce microbial load and insect infestation, inhibit the germination of root crops, and extend the durable life of perishable products. Irradiation of dried food ingredients, particularly herbs and spices, has a great application potential, and has already been implemented in many countries. Spice irradiation is performed to increase the hygienic quality and used as decontamination processes instead of fumigation methods. European Community approves irradiation processing as an effective residue-free alternative. The present paper evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties of cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) and nut meg (Myristica fragans). The samples have been irradiated in multipurpose irradiator of 60Co in the doses: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 kGy. (author)

  18. Reproductive biology of Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees. from wet evergreen forest of Western Ghats in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shivaprasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Cinnamomum sulphuratum the initiation of the buds occurred after the leaf initiation during October and initiation of buds started during November last week. Inflorescence is an axillary panicle with 62.48±7.01 floral buds that took 13±1.41 days to bloom. Flower offer both pollen and nectar as a floral reward to the pollinators. Foragers include honeybees, butterflies, wasps, flies and ants. The flowers are self-compatible, pollinate both by self and cross pollination. In Allogamy (Hand cross pollination, highest mean percentage of fruit set was observed as 71 and 75% respectively for the period 2012-13 and 2013-14.

  19. Potential Use of Cinnamomum burmanii Essential Oil-based Chewing Gum as Oral Antibiofilm Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutma Inna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral biofilm contributed to oral problem since it cause oral and teeth diseases such as caries, calculus, gingivitis and pe-riodontitis. Actions for overcoming these problems are needed. Currently, formation of oral biofilm is usually prevented by using mouthwash or toothpaste derived from synthetic materials. Increasing research on the use of natural resources has led to the innovation of finding antibiofilm product. Cinnamon is one of herb plants originated from Indonesia that has been known for its antibacterial and antibiofilm activities. These activities are owned by its essential oil. This review fo-cused on potential use of Cinnamomum burmanii’s essential oil as oral antibiofilm agent and looking at the possibility of its usage in chewing gum.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i3.40

  20. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. PMID:27084445

  1. [From willow bark to acetylsalicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith

    2009-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Its ancestry the salicylates, including salicin and salicylic acid, are found in the bark and leaves of the willow and poplar trees. The ancient Sumerians and Egyptians, as well as Hippocrates, Celsus, Pliny the Elder, Dioscorides and Galen used these natural products as remedies for pain, fever and inflammation. In the Middle Ages these remedies were used for fever and rheumatism by Hildegard of Bingen and Henrik Harpestreng. The first "clinical trial" was reported by Edward Stone in 1763 with a successful treatment of malarial fever with the willow bark. In 1876 the antirheumatic effect of salicin was described by T. MacLagan, and that of salicylic acid by S. Stricker and L. Riess. Acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized by Charles Gerhardt in 1853 and in 1897 by Felix Hoffmann in the Bayer Company. The beneficial effect of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) on pain and rheumatic fever was recognized by K. Witthauer and J. Wohlgemuth, and the mechanism of action was explained in 1971 by John Vane. Today the antithrombotic effect of acetylsalicylic acid and new aspects of ongoing research demonstrates a still living drug. PMID:20509453

  2. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Cassia uniflora Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She S Chaudhari; Sanjay R Chaudhari; Machindra J Chavan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of leaves of Cassia uniflora (C. uniflora) Mill. Methods: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of C. uniflora (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) was screened for analgesic (Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing), anti-inflammatory (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and anti-arthritic (Complete Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritis). In Complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling, body weight, and biochemical parameters and supported by radiological analysis. Results: Treatment with extracts of C. uniflora showed significant (P<0.05) and dose dependant increase in paw licking time in Eddy's hot plate method. In writhing test, extracts were significantly reduced the number of writhes. A dose dependant and significant inhibition of edema was observed in carrageenan induced paw edema. Petroleum ether extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed most potent and significant activity which is supported by the results of body weight, biochemical parameters and radiological analysis in complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model. Conclusion:The extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  3. Studies on the antibacterial and nucleic acid degradation property of Cassia alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangomathavan Ramaraj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to screen preliminary phytochemical profile of the leaf extract of Cassia alata (L,one of the ethnomedicinal plants used by the Kani tribes of the Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, India. To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of multiple solvent based crude leaf extracts of the selected plant species C. alataagainst the few target human pathogenic microorganisms.Multiple solvents were used for the extraction of allelochemicals from thedried leaf material. Crudeextracts were subjected to evaluate their efficacy in controlling the target microorganism’s growth at in vitrolevel. Variation in the total nucleic acid content was also assessed in both control and treated bacterial samples. C. alata leaf extract chemical profile revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like tannins, phlobatanins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and alkaloids. Crude extracts prepared in the Soxhlet apparatus ceased the growth of Salmonella typhi andPseudomonas aeruginosa. Proteus vulgaris andKlebsiella pneumoniaewere resistant even while fortified with 3 mg/ml extract concentration. Extract treated bacteria lack the total nucleic acid content, which proves and supports the presence of antimicrobial potential. Multiple solvent based C. alata leaf crude extracts have the potential to control one ofthe most important human pathogens S. typhi. This plant could be exploited further for the analysis of active principles towards the optimization of drug, as an evidence for sustainable utilization of the traditional knowledge on medicinal plants used by the Kani tribes herbal healers.

  4. Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of Cassia sopherain streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple-organ failure is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is responsible for major diabetic complications, including multiple-organ failure. Medicinal plants possessing antioxidant activity may reduce oxidative stress and improve the functions of various organs affected by hyperglycemia. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Aqueous Extract of Cassia sophera (AECS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: AECS (200 mg/kg body weight (bw and the standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kgbw were administered orally by gavaging for 28 days. Results: Oral administration of AECS inhibited STZ-induced increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver of diabetic rats. Significant increase in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and a reduced level of glutathione (GSH, were observed in the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis on AECS treatment. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that AECS is not only useful in controlling blood glucose, but also has antioxidant potential to protect the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis against damage caused by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone. Conclusions: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

  6. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  7. Structure elucidation and DNA binding specificity of natural compounds from Cassia siamea leaves: A biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Mehtab; Ahmad, Faheem; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Khan, Mohd Sohrab; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Tabish, Mohammad; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira

    2016-06-01

    A novel isoflavone, 5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (1) along with a known pyranocoumarin, Seselin (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia siamea (Family: Fabaceae). Compound 1 has been reported for the first time from any natural source and has not been synthesized so far. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences viz. elemental analysis, UV, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. Structure of compound (1) was further authenticated by single-crystal X-ray analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A multi-technique approach employing UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, KI quenching studies, competitive displacement assay, circular dichroism and viscosity studies have been utilized to probe the extent of interaction and possible binding modes of isolated compounds (1-2) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Both the compounds were found to interact with DNA via non-intercalative binding mode with moderate proficiencies. Groove binding was the major interaction mode in the case of compound 2 while compound 1 probably interacts with DNA through electrostatic interactions. These studies provide deeper insight in understanding of DNA-drug (natural products) interaction which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability for therapeutic purposes. PMID:27085054

  8. Simultaneous separation of three isomeric sennosides from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) using counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sait Byul; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-10-01

    Senna leaf is widely consumed as tea to treat constipation or to aid in weight loss. Sennoside A, A1 , and B are dirheinanthrone glucosides that are abundant and the bioactive constituents in the plant. They are isomers that refer to the (R*R*), (S*S*), and (R*S*) forms of protons on C-10 and C-10' centers and it is difficult to refine them individually due to their structural similarities. The new separation method using counter-current chromatography successfully purified sennoside A, A1 , and B from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) while reversed-phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography yielded sennoside A only. n-Butanol/isopropanol/water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was selected as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography operation, and the partition coefficients were carefully determined by adding different concentrations of formic acid. High-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were performed to verify the chemical properties of the compounds. PMID:26255810

  9. Assimilatory potential of Helicoverpa armigera reared on host (Chickpea) and nonhost (Cassia tora) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; Gupta, Vidya S; Slade, Susan E; Giri, Ashok P

    2011-11-01

    Adaptation to plant allelochemicals is a crucial aspect of herbivore chemical ecology. To understand an insect ecology, we studied an effect of nonhost Cassia tora seed-based diet (Ct) on growth, development, and molecular responses in Helicoverpa armigera. We employed a comparative approach to investigate the proteomic differences in gut, hemolymph, and frass of H. armigera reared on a normal (chickpea seed-based, Cp) and Ct diet. In this study, a total of 46 proteins were identified by nano-LC-MS(E). Among them, 17 proteins were up-regulated and 29 proteins were down-regulated when larvae were exposed to the Ct diet. Database searches combined with GO analysis revealed that gut proteases engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification were down-regulated in the Ct fed larvae. Proteins identified in H. armigera hemolymph were found to be involved in defense mechanisms. Moreover, proteins found in frass of the Ct fed larvae were observed to participate in energy metabolism. Biochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of selected candidate proteins showed differential gene expression patterns and corroborated with the proteomic data. Our results suggest that the Ct diet could alter expression of proteins related to digestion, absorption of nutrients, adaptation, defense mechanisms, and energy metabolism in H. armigera. PMID:21936543

  10. VARIATION IN β - SITOSTEROL CONTENT FROM CASSIA FISTULA L. FRUIT PULP COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shailajan*, M. Yeragi, A. Matani and D. Gurjar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae fruits are reported to possess a wide range of therapeutic properties. In the present work, an HPTLC method has been developed and validated for estimation of β-sitosterol content in C. fistula fruit collected from different geographical regions in and outside India and its polyherbal formulation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on HPTLC plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 using toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (7:1:0.5, v/v/v as a mobile phase. A compact spot of β-sitosterol at Rf value of 0.46 ± 0.02 was observed in all the samples of C. fistula by derivatizing the HPTLC plate with 10 % methanolic sulphuric acid reagent followed by its densitometric scanning using CAMAG TLC scanner 4 at 366 nm. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Finding of the present work can be used as a routine quality control tool for the assessment of C. fistula fruits in terms of its β-sitosterol content.

  11. SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE LEAF EXTRACTS OF CASSIA TORA ON UTI PATHOGENS

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    M. P. SINHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effect of crude methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Cassia tora against pathogenic bacteriaE. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and K. pneumoniae isolated from patients of U.T.I, were investigated using agarwell diffusion method. Among the various concentration tested (ranging from 0.0625 to 6.0 mg/mL, 1.0 -2.0 mg/mL of methanolic extract was found to be the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for almost all the testorganisms while aqueous extract showed MIC at > 6.0 mg/mL. P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were resistantto aqueous extract. Methanolic extract was more effective over aqueous extract producing larger zone of inhibitionranging between 12-24mm. The traditional claims of leaves of C. tora as an antibacterial ability have beenconfirmed as the extracts displayed activity against the pathogens associated with UTI. This study indicates thatthe leaves of C. tora can be used as a source for new broad spectrum oral drug.

  12. The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminium chloride for the decolorization of reactive dyeing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng Yuan Shing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a new environmental-friendly coagulant that can partially replace conventional polyaluminium chloride (PAC which was shown to be toxic to aquatic environment, gum extracted from seeds of Cassia fistula Linn. (CF was investigated in decolorization of reactive dyes Blue 19 (RB19 and Black 5 (RB5 using jar-test experiments. The optimal results showed that crude CF gum (at pH 10, initial dye concentrations (IDC of 100 and 50 mg L-1, gum dosages 200 and 300 mg L-1, reaction time 30 and 45 min, and agitation speed 60 rpm did not achieve high degrees of decolorization in RB5 and RB19 (55.7 and 62.0 %, respectively as compared with PAC coagulant (97.2 and 94.4 %, respectively at the same IDC and reaction time. Whereas when CF gum was used in combination with PAC, decolorization efficiencies of both dyes reached over 92 % at 40 % volume fraction of gum. These results indicated the potential of using CF gum as a “green” coagulant or as a contributing factor to color removal of textile wastewater.

  13. Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat Madhulika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of Cassia occidentalis (whole plant via alcoholic, hydro-alcoholic, and aqueous extracts against eight human cancer cell lines from six different tissues and four bacterial strains. Material and Methods : In vitro cytotoxicity against the human cancer cells, cultured for 48h in presence of different concentrations C. occidentalis extracts and percentage of cell viability, was evaluated using the sulforhodamine-B (SRB assay. The antibacterial activity was performed using the standard protocol against bacterial strains. Results : It was observed that aqueous extract of C. occidentalis (whole plant had more potential than hydro-alcoholic and alcoholic extracts against HCT-15, SW-620, PC-3, MCF-7, SiHa, and OVCAR-5 human cancer cell lines at 100, 30, and 10 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. The hydro-alcoholic extract showed potential against Bacillus subtillis. Conclusion : The plant can be explored for the possible development of lead molecules for drug discovery.

  14. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Santiago; Chris Fitchett; Munro, Murray H. G.; Juriyati Jalil; Jacinta Santhanam

    2012-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The b...

  15. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kuen-daw Tsai; Yi-Heng Liu; Ta-Wei Chen; Shu-Mei Yang; Ho-Yiu Wong; Jonathan Cherng; Kuo-Shen Chou; Jaw-Ming Cherng

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mit...

  16. Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Manaf A; Tjandrawinata RR; Malinda D

    2016-01-01

    Asman Manaf,1 Raymond R Tjandrawinata,2 Desi Malinda1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas, Dr M Djamil Padang Hospital, Padang, 2Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences (DLBS), Cikarang, Indonesia Background: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DLBS3233, a novel bioactive fraction derived from Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa, in improving insulin resistance and preserving β-cell performance in pa...

  17. A Comparative Study on the Anatomy and Development of Different Shapes of Domatia in Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIDA, SACHIKO; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; NOZAKI, Masumi

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Domatia are small organs usually found in the axils of major veins on the underside of leaves and, although they have received wide attention from ecologists, few detailed reports exist on their anatomy or development. This study is focused on the domatia of Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and is the first comparative study on the anatomy and development of the different shapes of domatia within a single plant.

  18. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS DE MELIA AZEDARACH, SYZGIUM AROMATICUM Y CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM CON EFECTO INHIBITORIO SOBRE BACTERIAS Y HONGOS

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón Márquez, Beatriz; Oranday Cárdenas, Azucena; Rivas Morales, Catalina; Verde Star, María Julia

    2003-01-01

    Se hicieron preparaciones de extractos, pruebas microbiológicas contra ocho microorganismos y caracterización de los compuestos activos de seis extractos obtenidos por dos métodos de extracción, de Melia azedarach, Syzygium aromaticum y Cinnamomum zeylanicum, teniendo como objetivos comparar la eficacia de las técnicas de extracción, y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de estas plantas, partiendo del antecedente de que son utilizadas como remedios caseros. Se obse...

  19. In vitro biological evaluation of eight different essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi, with emphasis on Cinnamomum verum essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Camila Maria O; Santos, Thalita Gilda; Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales; Soares, Maurilio José

    2014-01-01

    Background Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against trypanosomatid protozoa. Thus, we analyzed the biological activity of different EOs on Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. Methods The following EOs were evaluated on T. cruzi epimastigote forms: Cinnamomum verum, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon nardus, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus...

  20. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  1. Development of a validated HPLC method for the determination of sennoside A and B, two major constituents of Cassia obovata Coll.

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    Ghassemi-Dehkordi Nasrollah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cassia obovata Coll is the only Senna species which grows wild in Iran. In the present study, an optimised reverse High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC validated method was established for quantification of sennosides A and B, the major constituents of C. obovata with a simple and accurate method. Methods: HPLC analysis was done using Waters 515 pump on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 × 150 mm. Millennium software was used for the determination of the sennoside A and B in Cassia species and processing the information. The method was validated according to USP 32 requirements. Results: The solvent impact on the selectivity factor and partition coefficient parameters evaluated. Using a conventional RP-18 L1 column, 3.9 × 150 mm, the mobile phase was selected after several trials with different mixtures of water and acetonitrile. Sennosides A and B were determined using the external standard calibration method. Using USP 35-NF 30, the LOD and LOQ were calculated. The reliability of the HPLC-method for analysis of sennoside A + B was validated through its linearity, reproducibility, repeatability, and recovery. Fina1ly ethanol:water (1:1 extracts of Cassia obovata and Cassia angustifolia were standardized by assay of sennoside A and B through above HPLC validated method. Conclusion: Through the above method, determination of sennosides in Cassia species are completely possible. Moreover, through comparing the results, even though sennosides are rich in Cassia angustifolia but, the results shows that C. obovata could be considered as an alternative source for sennosides A and B.

  2. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, S.M.; Singh, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract...

  3. Methods for harvesting and breaking the dormancy of Cassia ferruginea seeds
    Método de colheita e superação de dormência na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Cassia ferruginea

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Martinelli-Seneme; Carla Gomes Machado; Cibele Chalita Martins; Claudemir Zucareli

    2012-01-01

    The harvesting method of fruits of tree species should be adequate to obtain seeds of maximum physiological quality. When present, the dormancy of Cassia ferruginea seeds is due to seed coat impermeability to water. This research work viewed to find the best methods both for the harvesting and for the breaking of dormancy of seeds of that species. The experiment was conducted during two years. In the first, fruits shed from the mother plant and laying on the ground were picked and their seeds...

  4. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792981

  5. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

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    Shu-Dong Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  6. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

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    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  7. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Dong Wei; Hai-Chao Zhou; Yi-Ming Lin; Meng-Meng Liao; Wei-Ming Chai

    2010-01-01

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidi...

  8. A New Abietane Diterpenoid from the Barks of Taxus yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structure of a new abietane diterpenoid,taxayunnin (1),from the barks of Taxus yunnanensis,was determined by spectroscopic analysis.A known abietane diterpenoid,taxamairin C (2),was also isolated.

  9. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  10. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Legault; Karl Girard-Lalancette; Dominic Dufour; André Pichette

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native American...

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water...

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and w...

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACACIA CONCURRENS BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbekar, Tulsidas; Wanjari, Bhumesh; Patil, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study showed that the ethanolic extracts from the bark of Acacia concurrens exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of bark, the EtOAc soluble fraction exhibited the best antioxidant performance. Furthermore, the amounts of total phenolic compound were determined from the ethanolic extracts. Therefore, Acacia concurrens could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  14. A Novel Cassia fistula (L.-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

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    Barkat Ali Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae, is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L. crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract for assessment of their effects on human skin aging. Healthy adult male volunteers (n = 13 with a mean age of 31 ± 5.5 years (range: 24–47 years were enrolled after informed written consent. For 12 consecutive weeks, the subjects were directed to use a patch containing the active emulsion on one of their forearms as well as a patch containing the placebo on their other forearm. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration (SH and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were performed on both sides of their respective cheeks at time 0 (baseline values, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th weeks. Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS was taken at time 0 (baseline values or after 1, 2 and 3 months. Topical application of C. fistula extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in stratum corneum hydration level, a significant enhancement in its water-holding function as well as in its barrier function. Further, significant (p < 0.005 ameliorations of skin aspects were observed (i.e., less roughness, less dryness, less wrinkles. Taken together, our results strongly suggest therapeutic and esthetic potential of C. fistula pod’s extracts to prevent or delay human skin aging.

  15. Exploration of the anticandidal mechanism of Cassia spectabilis in debilitating candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torey, Angeline; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the morphological changes on C. albicans cells were studied along with cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity result indicated that the extract is nontoxic as was clearly substantiated by a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 59.10 μg/mL. The treated cells (C. spectabilis extract) demonstrated potassium leakage of 1039 parts per million (ppm) compared to Amphotericin B (AmpB)-treated cells with a released potassium value of 1115 ppm. The effects of the extract on the cell wall proteins illustrated that there were three major types of variations in the expression of treated cell wall proteins: the presence of new proteins, the absence of proteins, and the amount of expressed protein. The activities of two enzymes, α-glucosidase and proteinase, were determined to be significantly high, thereby not fully coinciding with the properties of the antifungal reaction triggered by C. spectabilis. The morphology of C. albicans cells treated with the C. spectabilis extract showed that the cells had abnormalities and were damaged or detached within the microcolonies. Our study verifies C. spectabilis leaf extract as an effective anti-C. albicans agent. PMID:26870686

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 μg/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs. PMID:26276645

  17. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  18. INCORPORATION OF BARK AND TOPS IN EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS WOOD PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bark and the tops of E. globulus trees were considered for kraft pulping under industrial conditions. Pulping experiments included wood, bark, tops, and composite samples. Top wood had an average chemical composition most similar to that of wood but with somewhat lower cellulose content (52.8% vs. 56.9% and higher lignin content (18.8% vs. 17.8%. There was also a small difference between tops and wood for non-polar extractives, which were higher for tops (2.0% vs. 1.4%. Bark had a less favorable chemical composition with more extractives, especially polar extractives (5.3% vs. 1.6% and 1% NaOH solubility (19.9% vs. 12.2%, pentosans (23.7% vs. 21.3%, and ash (2.9% vs. 1.0%, although the fiber length was higher (1.12 mm vs. 0.98 mm. The kraft pulps obtained using bark showed significantly lower yield, delignification degree, and strength properties but had a quicker response to refining. The incorporation of tops and bark in the wood pulping in levels below or similar to a corresponding whole-stem, however, had a limited effect on pulp yield, kappa number, refining, and pulp strength properties. These additional raw-materials, which were estimated to be 26% of the commercial stem wood (14% bark and 12% tops, may therefore be considered in enlarging the eucalypt fiber feedstock in kraft pulping.

  19. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  20. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  1. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE PATÓGENOS FÚNGICOS CAUSANTES DEL ATIZONAMIENTO EN LLUVIA DE ORO (Cassia fistula L. EN CORRIENTES, ARGENTINA Identification of fungal pathogens causing blighting on Golden-shower (Cassia fistula L. in Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cabrera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo fue llevado a cabo para determinar el agente causal de enfermedades en lluvia de oro (Cassia fistula L. en invernáculos de Corrientes, Argentina. Como resultado de la enfermedad, se observó defoliación severa y lesiones necróticas de hojas y ramas. Se aislaron dos especies de Colletotrichum. El aislamiento y el estudio de hongos se realizó de acuerdo a técnicas de rutina. La inoculación se llevó a cabo siguiendo los postulados de Koch y confirmó a C. lindemuthianum y a C. gloeosporioides como agentes de la enfermedad. Esta es la primera información de la enfermedad en Argentina.This work was carried out to determine the causal agent of diseases on golden shower (Cassia fistula L. in greenhouses of Corrientes, Argentina. As a result of the disease, severe defoliation and necrotic lessions of leaves and stems were observed. Two Colletotrichum species were isolated. The isolation and the study of fungus were performed according to the routine techniques. The inoculation was conducted followings Koch’s postulates confirming C. lindemuthianum and C. gloeosporioides as the agents of disease. This is the first report of the disease in Argentina.

  2. Efficient dewatering of bark in heated presses. Survey and pilot-scale trials; Effektivare avvattning av bark i vaermda pressar. Problemkartering samt foersoek i pilotskala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Martin; Stenstroem, Stig (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Dewatering and drying of biofuels such as bark and GROT have received increased importance due to an increased interest to use these products as energy sources. In Sweden there are about 30 bark presses installed, however the amount of available information is very limited about dewatering of bark. The goal with this work is to increase the knowledge about dewatering of bark. Two separate goals have been defined in the project: A. Survey about problems related to dewatering of bark and compilation of operating experiences at Swedish mills. B. Study how different parameters affect bark dewatering at pilot scale experiments. Study different techniques for heating bark and the bark pressing process. The results will mainly be of interest for mills which are handling bark, for municipal power plants who buy wet forest residues (bark, GROT etc.) and for manufacturers of industrial bark pressing equipment. The results show that the dry matter content for birch- and pine bark normally are so high that pressing does not result in dewatering of the barks. Both dry and wet debarking is used and these bark fractions should be pressed separately. On line measurement of the dry matter content for the bark should be used as a standard tool on the bark press. This will facilitate improved control of the bark press during the year. Other conclusions are that smaller bark particles result in an increased dry matter content, large bark- and wood pieces decrease the dewatering in the bark press and that the total residence time in the press nip should be at least 30 seconds. The most common method to take care of bark water is to send it to the evaporators or to the water purification plant. Maintenance of the bark press appears not to be a big problem. Hot pressing can be accomplished in different ways, either the bark press can be heated or the bark can be heated in different ways. The alternatives that have been studied in this project are steaming the bark, heating the bark using

  3. Cinnamomum loureirii Extract Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Ameliorates Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288

  4. Responses of Soil Organic Carbon to Long-Term Understory Removal in Subtropical Cinnamomum camphora Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study on a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the subtropics of China, by removing understory gradually and then comparing this treatment with a control (undisturbed. This study analyzed the content and storage soil organic carbon (SOC in a soil depth of 0–60 cm. The results showed that SOC content was lower in understory removal (UR treatment, with a decrease range from 5% to 34%, and a decline of 10.16 g·kg−1 and 8.58 g·kg−1 was noticed in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm layers, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05. Carbon storage was reduced in UR, ranging from 2% to 43%, with a particular drastic decline of 15.39 t·hm−2 and 11.58 t·hm−2 in 0–10 cm (P<0.01 and 10–20 cm (P<0.01 layers, respectively. Content of SOC had an extremely significant (P<0.01 correlation with soil nutrients in the two stands, and the correlation coefficients of CK were higher than those of UR. Our data showed that the presence of understory favored the accumulation of soil organic carbon to a large extent. Therefore, long-term practice of understory removal weakens the function of forest ecosystem as a carbon sink.

  5. Anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon. For this, tests were conducted to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and the action of C. zeylanicum EO on fungal cell wall of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei strains. The composition of the was analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Significant antifungal activity of the EO was observed on the strains tested, with 87.5% and 62.5% of them sensitive, respectively at a MIC of 312.5 µg/mL and MFC of 2500 µg/mL. In the presence of sorbitol, the MIC was 625 µg/mL against all the strains, showing a possible action of the EO on fungal cell wall. Eugenol (73.27% and trans-β-caryophyllene (5.38% were found in higher concentrations. The results indicated anti-Candida activity of the EO analyzed and suggested that it occurred due to the action on fungal cell wall.

  6. Removal of copper(II) ions by a biosorbent-Cinnamomum camphora leaves powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao, E-mail: chenhao2212@sohu.com [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China); Dai Guoliang; Zhao Jie; Zhong Aiguo; Wu Junyong; Yan Hua [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China)

    2010-05-15

    In the present study, Cinnamomum camphora leaves powder (CLP) was investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. The biosorbents before and after adsorption were measured by EDS and FT-IR. Kinetic data and sorption equilibrium isotherms were carried out in batch process. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that there are three stages in the whole adsorption process. It was found that Cu(II) adsorption onto CLP for different initial Cu(II) concentrations all followed pseudo-second order kinetics and were mainly controlled by the film diffusion mechanism. Batch equilibrium results at different temperatures suggest that Cu(II) adsorption onto CLP can be described perfectly with Langmuir isotherm model compared to Freundlich and D-R isotherm models, and the characteristic parameters for each adsorption isotherm were also determined. Thermodynamic parameters calculated show that the adsorption process has been found to be endothermic in nature. The analysis for the values of the mean free energies of adsorption (E{sub a}), the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup 0}) and the effect of ionic strength all demonstrate that the whole adsorption process is mainly dominated by ion-exchange mechanism, accompanied by a certain amount of surface complexation which has been verified by variations in EDS and FT-IR spectra and pH value before and after adsorption. Regeneration studies show CLP possesses an excellent reusability.

  7. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  8. Toxicity Study of Antidiabetics Functional Drink of Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGA SAFITHRI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii formulations is known to be a new diabetes functional drink. Thus, its toxicological profile needs to be studied. At present, the formulation was evaluated for the repeated dose toxicity study. The Sprague dawley albino rats were treated with P. crocatum and C. burmannii formulations (0, 630, 1260, and 1890 mg/kg and administered orally for a period of 28 days in albino rats. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical biochemistry as well as histology were studied. There were no significant differences in the body weight, organ weights and feeding habits between control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups. There were no significant changes that occurred in the blood chemistry analysis including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, SGPT, and SGOT in experimental animals. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The formulation of P. crocatum and C. burmannii was found safe in repeated dose toxicity studies.

  9. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%, linalool (22.92%, cineole (11.26%, and 3,7,11-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-6,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (4.50%. Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of D-camphor and linalool. D-camphor and linalool showed strong fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 2.36 and 18.04 mg/L air, resp. and contact toxicity (LD50 = 13.44 and 12.74 μg/adult, resp. against L. serricorne. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. camphora and its active compounds had the potential to be developed as natural fumigants and insecticides for control of L. serricorne.

  10. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana Anghel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization.

  11. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24h were 40.8 microg/ml (LC(90)=81.7 microg/ml) and 46.5 microg/ml (LC(90)=83.3 microg/ml), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. albopictus larvae were below 50 mug/ml. In addition, cinnamaldehyde type leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde have also exhibited great larvicidal performance against Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that alpha-methyl cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:18396039

  12. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice. PMID:25612221

  13. Derivado cinamoílico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substâncias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae) DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Carbonezi; Márcia Nasser Lopes; Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva; Ângela Regina Araújo; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani; Maria Claudia Marx Young; Marcelo Rogério da Silva

    2004-01-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactives iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-delta8'-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time.

  14. DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae); Derivado cinamoilico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substancias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araujo, Angela Regina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Silva, Marcelo Rogerio da [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2004-04-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactive iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-{delta}{sup 8'}-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neoli= gnan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time. (author)

  15. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    OpenAIRE

    Milene Aparecida Andrade; Maria das Graças Cardoso; Luís Roberto Batista; Aline Cristina Teixeira Mallet; Samísia Maria Fernandes Machado

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar quimicamente e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus), canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) e gengibre (Zingiber officinale). A obtenção do óleo essencial foi realizada utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação por meio do aparelho de Clevenger modificado e a identificação e quantificação dos constituintes pelas análises em CG/EM e CG-DIC. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada por...

  16. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  17. Impact of gamma radiations on phytochemistry of senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassia angustifolia (senna) is native to India, and is cultivated mainly in India and Pakistan. The parts of this plant used medicinally are the leaves Senna is also known by the names Alexandrian Senna and and the pods. The leaves have a purging quality, but afterwards may have a binding effect. Both the leaves and pods are used in many over-the-counter pharmaceutical laxative preparations. People in northern Africa and southwestern Asia have used Senna as a natural laxative for centuries. Senna is a powerful cathartic used primarily in the treatment of constipation, working through a stimulation of intestinal peristalsis. The primary chemical Constituents of Senna include anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides, aloe-emodin, rhein), beta-sitosterol, flavones, tartaric acid, mucin, essential oil, mucilage, tannin and resin. The sennosides are irritating to the large intestine lining, causing peristaltic action and bowel evacuation. Senna is often combined with aromatic, carminative herbs such as cardamom, ginger root, peppermint and fennel to increase its palatability. Other historical applications of this herb have included support for inflammatory skin conditions, hypertension and weight control. Although the biological effects of large doses of ionizing radiation are predominantly harmful, low-to-intermediate doses have been observed to enhance growth and survival, augment the immune response, and increase resistance to the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of further irradiation in plants, bacteria, insects, and mammals. The existence of these stimulatory, or adaptive responses implies that the dose-response relationships for genetic and carcinogenic effects of radiation may be similarly biphasic or hermetic in nature. The leaflets of this plant constitute the principal raw material, is an excellent source of sennosides. To investigate the effect of mutagenic treatments on phytochemical characteristics, the dry seeds of senna were treated with different doses of

  18. Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Roopashree

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In view of increasing resistance to existing antimicrobial agents, herbal drugs are being looked as very importance source for discovery of new agents for treating various ailments related to bacterial infections. Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Momordica charantia are well known plants in Asia including India which posses wide range of pharmacological activities. These drugs have been used in India as  folk remedy in the form of decoctions and infusions to treat bacterial infections and also claimed to be an effective against variety of skin conditions like psoriasis, acne, wounds etc. The present investigation was carried out to study the unexplored area of these drugs towards their antibacterial activity with respect to their traditional use as antipsoriatic agents. The herbs were subjected to successive extraction using different solvents and the extracts were subjected to antibacterial evaluation against both gram positive and gram negative organisms by cup plate technique. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts were found to be more effective against all the bacteria. Staphyllococcus aureus was more susceptible to the aqueous extracts among the tested organisms.   Industrial relevance: The selected herbs have been used traditionally for treating skin diseases like psoriasis, for which there is no complete cure till date. Though exact mechanism of these herbs for their effectiveness in psoriasis is not understood, according to American academy of dermatology antibacterial therapy could also be used for treating psoriasis. In view of this study of antibacterial activity was carried out. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts exhibited highest activity especially against S. aureus which has been one of the organisms which aggravate conditions like psoriasis. As the aqueous extracts have shown excellent activity, these extracts could be formulated individually or in combination as external or internal dosage forms

  19. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  20. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanga Ranasinghe; Sanja Perera; Mangala Gunatilake; Eranga Abeywardene; Nuwan Gunapala; Sirimal Premakumara; Kamal Perera; Dilani Lokuhetty; Prasad Katulanda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 a...

  1. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Kayu Manis ( Cinnamomum burmanii ) Dengan Cara GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Daniel Freddy

    2011-01-01

    Has been isolated from the leaf essential oil of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum burmanii ) through the distillation process Stahl. Cinnamon leaf distilled Stahl for ± 7-8 hours to produce the essential oil of cinnamon leaves at 0.41% (v / w). Data analysis results obtained, data from the GC chromatogram of volatile oil from cinnamon leaf steam distillation results were as many as 16 peaks with MS chromatogram data of 10 compounds were analyzed based on the percentage of chemical terbesar.Chemical comp...

  2. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD) were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts) were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC) of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day) were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p ...

  3. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  5. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  6. Pharmacognostic evaluation of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Om Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the pharmacognostic study of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre (P. pinnata) stem bark. Method: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The bark consisting of channelled, recurved, slightly quilled, usually 0.2-1 cm thick, lenticellate pieces with outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured having unpleasant odour and bitter taste. The main microscopic characterstics of the bark include phellem (5-20 or more layers of cork), phellogen (2-3 layered) followed by 10-15 layered phelloderm. Among other microscopic components were phloem parenchyma, phloem fibre and stone cells, traversed by wavy medullary rays. Further, physicochemical analysis of the bark power showed total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and sulphated ash as 10.94, 1.96, 1.47 and 15.8 % w/w respectively. The alcohol and water soluble extractives values of the stem bark were 9.6 and 18.4 %w/w respectively. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study helps in botanical identification and standardization of P. pinnata L. in crude form.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  8. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  9. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  10. Possible Mechanism of Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala With Reference to Antioxidants Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Smerq

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are one of the most important nutraceutical compounds that have emerged from the recent decades of research in food science. The advances in this field have allowed a better understanding of the free radical damage of cellular constituents, such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Antioxidants and radical scavengers have a crucial role in the treatment or prevention of several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Restrictions on the use of synthetic antioxidants are being imposed because of their toxic properties. The present study is the continuation of a program aimed at investigation on antioxidant activity of extracts from medicinal plants and to identify alternative natural and safe sources of food antioxidant especially from plant origin. In this report the anti-peroxidative effect of alcoholic extract of Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala have been studied in rat liver homogenate where ferrous sulphate has been used as inducer to induce lipid per oxidation. On the basis of results, it could be concluded that TBARS production in normal condition group is very slow and it is very high in FeSO4 treated groups. Results further revealed that at lower doses, the rate of formation of TBARS is slow but grows as the level of dose is increased. Significant and moderate results were found from 0.40 mM to 0.80 mM of ferrous sulphate. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects may be related to the antioxidant effects of the polyphenols resulting in decreased free radical production.

  11. Characteristics of water relations in seedling of Machilus yunnanensis and Cinnamomum camphora under soil drought condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tian-tian; ZHAO Lin-sen

    2006-01-01

    The soil drought stress experiment in different durations (no watering within 3d, 6d, 9d, 11d individually) was conducted to study the drought-resistant capacity of one-year-old seedlings for the native tree species (Machilus yunnanensis) in Yunnan Province and the introduced tree species (Cinnamomum camphora). The leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, proline content and plasma membrane permeability for two species seedlings were measured in different soil drought conditions. The results showed that, on the 9th day of drought stress, the leaf water potential of two species decreased obviously, whereas the free proline content and plasma membrane permeability increased sharply. On the 11th day, the leaf water potential of C. camphora seedlings was lower than that of M. yunnanensis seedlings; the plasma membrane permeability in C. camphora seedling leaves increased much more than that in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves, which showed that the injury to the former by soil drought stress was more severe than that to the latter. The free proline content in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves continued to increase on the 11th day, but that in the C. camphora seedling leaves started to drop obviously, indicating that the reduction of osmotic regulation substance in C. camphora seedling leaves after the 11th day was unable to maintain the osmotic balance between the plasma system and its surroundings and the water loss occurred inevitably. Comprehensively, M. yunnanensis seedlings enhanced the drought-resistance in the course of soil drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential and by increasing osmotic regulation substance to promote cell plasma concentration and maintain membrane structure integrity so as to reduce water loss. The subordination function index evaluated with fuzzy mathematic theory also showed that the drought-resistant capacity ofM. yunnanensis seedlings was stronger than that of C. camphora seedlings.

  12. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  13. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  14. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments... Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... electronic bark control collars. The complaint names as respondent Sunbeam Products, Inc. d/b/a...

  15. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... importation of certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic bark control collars that infringe claims...

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MICROBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaysing Hari Patil,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bactericidal potential of methanolic extract of stem bark (Apical bark, middle bark and Mature bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was evaluated with respect to pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoneae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Micrococcus sp. The methanolic extract of apical stem bark was effective than the middle bark and mature bark in inhibiting the growth of all bacteria. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive among all the bacterial species studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides,flavonoids, flavonols, phenols and terpenoids. Saponins were absent in all the bark samples.The concentrations of these phytoconstituents was higher in the apical stem bark than the middle and mature stem bark. The percent extract yield was maximum in apical stem bark. Thus, in the pharmacological point of view, it is important to study the biochemistry of apical bark in order to isolate and screen the new pharmacological active principals which can be useful in designing of new drugs active against various infectious micro- rganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses etc.

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ALBIZIA ODORATISSIMA BARK POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Amrish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drugs powder is done by using the different botanical parameters in order to evaluate the quality and purity of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles, physical and chemical standards. This article reports on pharmacognostic evaluation or standardization of the crude drug powder of Albizia odoratissima bark powder. Albizia odoratissima bark powder has been standardized on the basis of organoleptic properties, physical characteristics, and physico‐chemical properties and phytochemical investigation. In the phytochemical investigation flavonoids, tannin, carbohydrate, saponin, triterpenoids are found to be present.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Cassia angustifolia as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Mahfudli Fadli, Ulfa; Bayu Prasada, Ashari

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) is one of the electric cells photochemical consisting of photoelectrode, dye, counter electrode, and electrolyte. The aims of the research to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of the extract Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Cassia angustifolia. The study is also aimed to determine the effect of natural dyes extract to increase the efficiency of solar cells based DSSC. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode platinum (Pt). Dye extraction process is performed by stirring for 1 hour and then allowed to stand for 24 hours. Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two-point probes Elkahfi 100, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The results showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.160% at Dye Pandanus amaryllifolius.

  19. Aromatic Plants growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff O. Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb., (Fabaceae were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%, β-caryophyllene (19.1% and caryophyllene oxide (12.7%. Limonene (5.2%, germacrene D (5.5% and α-selinene (5.4% constituted the other significant compounds present in the oil. T he sunflower oil, Helianthus annuus L., (Asteraceae was rich in α-pinene (16.0%, germacrene D (14.4%, sabinene (9.4% and 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (9.0%.

  20. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia occidentalis for bone tissue engineering and regeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Santhosh Kumar; T Hemalatha; R Deepachitra; R Narasimha Raghavan; P Prabu; T P Sastry

    2015-02-01

    Research on traditional herbs is gaining momentum owing to their potent medical properties, among which Cassia occidentalis (CO) is a promising herb, with osteogenic potential. The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. Prepared bone implants were characterized physico-chemically using FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX. The implants were analysed further for mechanical and biological properties. The results revealed that CO extract-incorporated bone implants possessed better compression strength and it was able to induce proliferation and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity in SaOS-2 cells. The implant proves to be promising for bone tissue engineering, and hence it demands further in vivo evaluation.

  1. Semen cassiae attenuates myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in high-fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng; Tian, Fei; Zhou, Heping; Lv, Weifeng; Tie, Ru; Ji, Lele; Li, Rong; Shi, Zhenwei; Yu, Liming; Liang, Xiangyan; Xing, Wenjuan; Xing, Jinliang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Hailong; Zhang, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by hyperglycemia, are liable to more severe myocardial infarction. Semen Cassiae is proven to reduce serum lipid levels. This study investigated whether the Semen Cassiae extract (SCE) reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury with or without diabetes and the underlying mechanisms. The high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) rat model was created as a T2DM model. Normal and DM rats received SCE treatment orally (10 mg/kg/day) for one week. Subsequently these animals were subjected to MI/R. Compared with the normal animals, DM rats showed increased plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG), and more severe MI/R injury and cardiac functional impairment. SCE treatment significantly reduced the plasma TC and TG, improved the instantaneous first derivation of left ventricle pressure and reduced infarct size, decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, and apoptosis index at the end of reperfusion in diabetic rats. Moreover, SCE treatment increased the antiapoptotic protein Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels. Pretreatment with a PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 not only blocked Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation respectively, but also inhibited the cardioprotective effects of SCE. However, SCE treatment did not show any effects on the MI/R injury in the normal rats. Our data suggest that SCE effectively improves myocardial function and reduces MI/R-induced injury in diabetic but not normal animals, which is possibly attributed to the reduced TC/TG levels and the triggered cell survival signaling Akt and ERK1/2. PMID:24467537

  2. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  3. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  4. The usability of tree barks as long term biomonitors of atmospheric radionuclide deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belivermis, Murat, E-mail: belmurat@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilic, Onder, E-mail: okilic@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cotuk, Yavuz, E-mail: cotukyav@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Sayhan, E-mail: sayhantopcuoglu@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kalayci, Guelsah, E-mail: gulsahkalayci@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Pestreli, Didem, E-mail: didempestreli@hotmail.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the lower radionuclide activities of moss and lichen, tree barks can be used as biomonitors of radioactive contamination, regardless of the contribution of soil uptake. The present study was conducted to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in the barks of pine (Pinus nigra) and oak (Quercus petraea) trees collected from the Thrace region in Turkey. By considering the previous studies carried out in the same region, it is noticed that among lichen, moss, oak bark and pine bark, oak bark is the best accumulator of {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides.

  5. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. PMID:26771244

  6. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) bark composition and degradation by fungi: potential substrate for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Lara; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Willför, Stefan; Hemming, Jarl; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari; Tuomela, Marja

    2010-04-01

    The composition of Scots pine bark, its degradation, and the production of hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated during 90 days of incubation with Phanerochaete velutina and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The aim was to evaluate if pine bark can be a suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation applications. The original pine bark contained 45% lignin, 25% cellulose, and 15% hemicellulose. Resin acids were the most predominant lipophilic extractives, followed by sitosterol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fungi degraded all main components of bark, specially cellulose (79% loss by P. velutina). During cultivation on pine bark, fungi also degraded sitosterol, produced malic acid, and oxidated unsaturated fatty acids. The most predominant enzymes produced by both fungi were cellulase and manganese peroxidase. The results indicate that Scots pine bark supports enzyme production and provides nutrients to fungi, thus pine bark may be suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation. PMID:20005699

  7. A new diterpenoid from the stem bark of Populus davidiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Feng Zhang; Xiang Li; Byung Sun Min; Ki Hwan Bae

    2008-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, named populusol A (1), was isolated from the methanolic extraction of the stem bark of Populus davidiana. The structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HRFAB-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  8. Clerodane diterpenes from bark of Croton urucurana baillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Brighente, Ines M.C.; Zuchinalli, Analice; Carvalho, Francieli K., E-mail: moacir.pizzolatti@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Qumica; Candido, Ana C. S.; Peres, Marize T.L.P. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Hidraulica e Transportes

    2013-04-15

    The new clerodane diterpene methyl 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoate was isolated from the stem barks of Croton urucurana together with the known diterpene methyl 12-epibarbascoate. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. The obtainment of crystals allowed the crystallographic analysis of X-ray diffraction of diterpenes, thus confirming the proposed structures. (author)

  9. The Bark Myxomycetes--Their Collection, Culture and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique for isolating slime molds from tree bark and outlines projects for working with slime molds in the laboratory. Diagrams of 26 of the more common British species and a key to the Orders of Myxomcetes are given. (CS)

  10. Relationship between tree bark surface temperature and selected meteorological elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Středa, Tomáš; Litschmann, Tomáš; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    The results were obtained by measurements in 2014 and 2015 in an apple orchard in Starý Lískovec and Těšetice (South Moravia, Czech Republic, Central Europe) into fertile planting of apple trees. The results show that the bark surface temperature during the year slightly differs from the surrounding air temperature. In addition, it is in average a few tenths of a °C higher in the period before the onset of the vegetation and several tenths of a degree lower during vegetation. Causes of these differences appear to be associated with the flow of sap as well as with foliage. Although it can be reasonably assumed that the temperature of the bark surface on the south side will be significantly affected by the global radiation, our measurements did not demonstrate this dependency. It appears that the wind speed had significantly larger influence on the temperature differences in the non-vegetation period as at speeds over 3.5 m s-1, the drop of temperature is so significant that the bark surface is colder than the surrounding air. Comparison of the development of sums of daily and hourly effective temperatures above 10 °C has shown that where daily values do not show significant differences, hourly values differed so prominently that the calculated date of emergence of adult codling moth in the bark surface was approximately one week earlier than with the use of data for air temperatures.

  11. A new chromanone acid from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ly Ha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz; Pham, Hung D.; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa D.

    2012-01-01

    A new chromanone acid, calodryobalanoic acid, along with six known compounds, apetalic acid, isoblancoic acid, lupeol, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, and 5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone, was isolated from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides collected in Vietnam. The...

  12. [Removing the bark from the cinnamon cane] 790

    OpenAIRE

    W L H Skeen and Co

    2003-01-01

    279 x 211 mm. Showing four men seated in a row on the ground in front of a bungalow, with piles of cinnamon beside them from which they are stripping the bark. Annotated '790' on bottom left hand corner of the photograph. Date approximate.

  13. Cytotoxic Coumarins from the Bark of Mammea siamensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Ngoc Trang Nhu; Nguyen, Vy Thuy; Vo, Hoa Van; Vang, Ole; Duus, Fritz; Ho, Thuy-Duong Huynh; Pham, Hung Dinh; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2010-01-01

    A new geranylated coumarin, (E)-4-(1-hydroxypropyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-8-(3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)coumarin (named surangin D), was isolated from the bark of Mammea siamensis collected in Vietnam, along with four known coumarins, surangins B and C, and theraphins B and C, and...

  14. New Diarylheptanoid from the Barks of Alnus japonica Steudel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new diarylheptanoid glycoside, 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptane-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with nine known diarylheptanoids (2-10) were isolated from the fresh bark of Alnus japonica which is a species of the genus Alnus species, growing throughout Korea.

  15. Clerodane diterpenes from bark of Croton urucurana baillon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new clerodane diterpene methyl 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoate was isolated from the stem barks of Croton urucurana together with the known diterpene methyl 12-epibarbascoate. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. The obtainment of crystals allowed the crystallographic analysis of X-ray diffraction of diterpenes, thus confirming the proposed structures. (author)

  16. Productivity of the study of secondary metabolites of Cassia alata L. (Caesalpinaceae) by the techniques of in vitro culture was associated gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaves explants of Cassia alata L. has been radiated to the gamma radiance to the doses of 1; 2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 Gy and cultivated on the Middle MS. The gotten results revealed that the callogenesis of Cassia alata decreases with the increase of the irradiation dose. The yield of secondary metabolites is superior at the calli of explants radiated to 5 Gy (25.37% for the chloroformics extracts and 35.9% for the aqueous extracts) in relation to the yield gotten at the calli of explants radiated to other doses however no and at the original plant. An antibacterial activity (on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli); and antifongic (on Candida albicans) has been observed.

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, diuretic properties and total phenolic content of Cinnamomum tamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala are aromatic, carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, lactagogue, and deobstruent. Other parts of the plant are also used as traditional remedies for various diseases. Aim: The aim of our study was to carry out the evaluation of the preliminary phytochemical and some pharmacological properties including cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity, total phenolic content, clot lysis and diuretic potential of the leaves of C. tamala. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract was carried out by standard chromogenic reagents and total phenolic content was estimated in term of gallic acid equivalent by using Folin Ciocalteu′s reagent. Brine shrimp lethality assay method was used to determine the degree of cytotoxicity. Antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity test was performed using disc diffusion method in agar medium and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by micro dilution method. Clot lysis and diuretic potential were compared with streptokinase and furosemide, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically interpreted using Student′s " t" test. Results: The extract contained alkaloids, steroids, tannins and reducing sugars. Total phenolic content was found to be 276 gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. In brine shrimp lethality assay, it showed moderate toxicity (LC 50 = 40 μg/ml and LC 90 = 160 μg/ml. The extract inhibited growth of tests bacteria and fungi with significant zones of inhibition. Highest activity was observed against the bacteria Salmonella typhi and the fungus Aspergillus niger. In-vitro clot lysis action of extract was comparable with streptokinase (48.22 ± 2.98% and maximum effect (24.75 ± 1.27% was found at a dose of 10 mg/ml. The extract showed diuretic activity which responded 29.16% and 37.50% diuretic activity in comparison with control (water which indicates the plant mild

  18. In Vitro Reversible and Time-Dependent CYP450 Inhibition Profiles of Medicinal Herbal Plant Extracts Newbouldia laevis and Cassia abbreviata: Implications for Herb-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ekow Thomford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of Newbouldia laevis and Cassia abbreviata extracts on CYP450 enzyme activity. Recombinant CYP450 enzyme and fluorogenic substrates were used for evaluating inhibition, allowing the assessment of herb–drug interactions (HDI. Phytochemical fingerprinting was performed using UPLC-MS. The herbal extracts were risk ranked for HDI based on the IC50 values determined for each CYP enzyme. Newbouldia laevis inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 enzyme activities with Ki of 2.84 µg/mL, 1.55 µg/mL, and 1.23 µg/mL, respectively. N. laevis exhibited a TDI (4.17 effect on CYP1A2 but not CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 enzyme activities. Cassia abbreviata inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 enzyme activities showing a Ki of 4.86 µg/mL, 5.98 µg/mL, and 1.58 µg/mL, respectively. TDI potency assessment for Cassia abbreviata showed it as a potential TDI candidate (1.64 for CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 (1.72. UPLC-MS analysis showed that Newbouldia laevis and Cassia abbreviata possess polyphenols that likely give them their therapeutic properties; some of them are likely to be responsible for the observed inhibition. The observations made in this study suggest the potential for these herbal compounds to interact, especially when co-administered with other medications metabolized by these CYP450 enzymes.

  19. Quelques vertus médicinales de Cassia occidentalis L. (Césalpiniacées en basse Cóte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aké Assi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available SOME MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS  L. (CAESALPINIACEAE IN THE LOWER IVORY COAST About 40 species of Cassia, a great number of which have been introduced, grow in different parts of intertropical Africa, in all types o f vegetation. The 14 species in the Ivory Coast are herbs, shrubs or trees. The local pharmacopoeia uses six of these species for various therapeutic preparations. The currently most used species is Cassia occidentalis L. commonly called Faux Kinkéliba. In the forest area of the Lower Ivory Coast, 11 medical preparations made from different parts of the plant are used. With its considerable ability to spread, this South American plant has become a pantropical one. It is found chiefly in the vicinity of villages. C. occidentalis is used for the relief and treatment of a variety of pains and diseases, for example as a cicatrizant, abortifacient, febrifuge, diuretic, laxative or cholagogue and tonic, and in cases of asthma, cataract, jaundice and kwashiorkor.

  20. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  1. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng DS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daw-Shyong Perng,1 Yu-Hsin Tsai,2 Jonathan Cherng,3 Jeng-Shing Wang,4 Kuo-Shen Chou,5 Chia-Wen Shih,6 Jaw-Ming Cherng7 1Department of Gastroenterology, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Sierra College, Rocklin, CA, USA; 3Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Antai Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital, Pingtung, 5Department of Family Medicine, Saint Mary’s Hospital Luodong, 6Department of Pathology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Mary’s Hospital Luodong, Yilan, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA, a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and

  2. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Active Components in Essential Oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gamma irradiation is one of the methods utilized to reduce microbial contamination of medicinal herbs. Since irradiation may also affect active compounds of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on active compounds in essential oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl by using GC-MS. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy does not significantly affect active components in essential oils such as alpha-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-copaene, benzaldehyde, linalool, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-0l, alpha-terpineol, benzylacetaldehyde, Z-cinnamaldehyde, E-cinnamaldehyde, and cinnamic acid

  3. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kalantary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Trans- cinnamaldehyde was found to be the main constituent of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO, followed by methyl eugenol, δ- cadinene and γ- cadinene. The major components of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO were limonene, caryophyllene oxide, α-ionone, germacrene– D, γ- terpinene, β- pinene and terpinene-4-ol. For evaluating antifungal activities of CZEO and OVEO, A. flavus PTCC: 5006, was inoculated in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB and tomato paste, then 0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm of essential oils were added to each sample and incubated at 25±0.5oC for 30 and 60 days, respectively. The antifungal activity was measured by Agar Dilution method. The EOs at all tested concentrations had inhibitory effect against A. flavus growth. 200 ppm of CZEO and 500 ppm of OVEO completely inhibited A. flavus growth in culture media, while in tomato paste 300 ppm of CZEO and 200 ppm of OVEO had the same effect. Test panel evaluations were carried out in tomato ketchup base and samples with 100 and 200 ppm CZEO were accepted by panelists. The results may suggest the potential replacement of antifungal chemicals by CZEO as natural inhibitor to control A. flavus growth in tomato paste.

  4. Effects of hawthorn, Semen cassiae and compatibility on blood lipid levels%山楂、决明子及其配伍的降血脂作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦振峰; 李官浩; 郑昌吉; 梁成云; 孙美玲; 杨震; 金海莉

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of hawthorn, Semen cassiae and compatibility of hawthorn and Semen cassiae in sausage on organ coefficient and blood lipid levels of mice, fed mouse with basic feed and basic feed added with 30% ordinary sausage, sausage containing 3% hawthorn crude extract, 2% Semen cassiae crude extract, compatibility of 3% hawthorn and 2% Semen cassiae crude extract, respectively. The results showed that the sausage which was added cassia, hawthorn and their combination were all significantly reduced mice kidney index (P< 0.05), reduce the liver index (P<0.01), reduce low density lipoprotein cholestein(LDL-C) content (P<0.01), and increase high density lipoprotein cholestein (HDL-L) content(P<0.01); the sausage which was added Hawthorn can significantly reduce total cholesterol (TC) content, added combination can significantly reduce triglyceride (TG) content. But the sausage which was added hawthorn, cassia seed and its compatibility had no significant (P>0.05) effects on mice cardiac index, spleen index and abdominal fat weight. So the addition of hawthorn, cassia seed and their combination in sausage can reduce fat deposition in the liver and kidney, lower the level of blood lipid and the combination in sausage had the excellent effect.%为研究山楂、决明子及其配伍加入香肠中对小鼠脏器指数和血脂水平的影响,以小鼠为研究对象,饲喂基础饲料及分别添加了30%的普通香肠、山楂香肠(3%山楂粗提液)、决明子香肠(2%决明子粗提液)、配伍香肠(3%山楂粗提液+2%决明子粗提液)的饲料.结果表明:香肠中添加山楂、决明子及其配伍均能显著(P<0.05)降低小鼠的肾脏指数,极显著(P<0.01)降低小鼠的肝脏指数;极显著(P<0.01)降低低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)含量,极显著(P<0.01)升高高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)含量;香肠中添加山楂能显著(P<0.05)降低总胆固醇(TC)的含量,香肠

  5. In Vitro, Free radical scavenging activity of Cordia rothi bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj B. Nariya, V.J.Shukla, R.N.Acharya & R.G. Warma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was under taken to evaluate methanolic and butanol extracts of Cordia rothi bark for possible of natural antioxidant potential. This was done by different spectroscopic method. The extracts were evaluated for their phenolic content, ferrous reducing power & scavenging activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent & was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of both extract was measured by 1, 1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay & was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu et al. In the present study three in vitro models were used for evaluate of antioxidant activity. The second methods was for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity & remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed the C. rothi bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  6. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  7. Hypoglycemic activity of the bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. kurz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mondal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes, the most prevailing metabolic disorder is attracting present research attention towards it. In the present study, the various extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Family: Rubiaceae was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity on adult Wistar albino rats at dose levels of 300 mg/kg p.o. each using normoglycaemic, glucose loaded and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats. Glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg was used as reference standard for activity comparison. Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract was found to produce promising results that is comparable to that of the reference standard glibenclamide. The preliminary phytochemical examination of the methanol extract revealed presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The present work justifies the use of the bark in the folklore treatment in diabetes.

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOT BARK OF DELONIX REGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Sama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been of age long remedies for human diseases since they contain valuable components. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicine have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various diseases. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of Delonix regia root bark was carried out by using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, methanol, and water. The methanol and water extracts indicates the presence of major bioactive compounds compare to other extracts. The Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates and sterols. The results suggest that the phytochemical properties of the root bark can be used for curing various ailments.

  9. A Potential Tool for Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) Conservation: Individuality of Long-Range Barking Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2003-01-01

    in Canada and extirpated, endangered, or threatened in parts of the United States. The barking sequence is a long-range vocalization in the species' vocal repertoire. It consists of a series of barks and is most common during the mating season. We analyzed barking sequences recorded in a standardized...... context from 20 captive individuals (3 females and 17 males) housed in large, single-pair enclosures at a swift fox breeding facility. Using a discriminant function analysis with 7 temporal and spectral variables measured on barking sequences, we were able to correctly classify 99% of sequences to the...... correct individual. The most important discriminating variable was the mean spacing of barks in a barking sequence. Potential applications of such vocal individuality are discussed....

  10. Singular Fibers in Barking Families of Degenerations of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Okuda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Takamura established a theory on splitting families of degenerations of complex curves. He introduced a powerful method for constructing a splitting family, called a barking family, in which there appear not only a singular fiber over the origin but also singular fibers over other points, called subordinate fibers. In this paper, for the case of degenerations of elliptic curves, we determine the types of these subordinate fibers.

  11. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE BARK OF PARKINSONIA ACULEATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Saha,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Parkinsonia aculeata (fam. Leguminosae was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards. The results of organoleptic study offer a scientific basis for the use of P. aculeata which possess characters like brown colour, characteristic odour and slightly bitter taste. The fluorescence analysis under visible light & under UV light by treatment with different chemical reagents showed different colour changes. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and reducing sugars was confirmed during preliminary phytochemical screening.

  12. Acoustic cues to identity and predator context in meerkat barks

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Simon; Charlton, Benjamin; Manser, Marta B.

    2014-01-01

    Formants, the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract, are the key acoustic parameters underlying vowel identity in human speech. However, recent work on nonhuman animal communication systems has shown that formant variation provides potentially important information to receivers about static and dynamic attributes of callers. Meerkats, Suricata suricatta, produce broadband noisy bark vocalisations, lacking a clear fundamental frequency and harmonic structure, when they detect aerial or terr...

  13. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOT BARK OF DELONIX REGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Sama; Xavier vergeese raja A

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been of age long remedies for human diseases since they contain valuable components. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicine have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various diseases. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of Delonix regia root bark was carried out by using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, methanol, and water. The methan...

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Maria; Ali Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate) and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate) along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and che...

  15. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reac...

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

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    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  17. Bark frequency transform using an arbitrary order allpass filter1

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an arbitrary order stable allpass filter structure for frequency transformation from Hertz to Bark scale. According to the proposed filter structure, the first order allpass filter is causal, but the second and higher order allpass filters are non-causal. We find that the accuracy of the transformation significantly improves when a second or higher order allpass filter is designed compared to a first order allpass filter. We also find that the RMS error of the transformation monoto...

  18. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDISATION STUDY ON TOONA CILIATA M. ROEM., BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Avninder Singh; Sandhu Bharpur Singh; Dwivedi Gopal Krishna; Kaushik Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Toona ciliata M. Roem formerly called as Cedrella toona Roxb, known as Tooni in Sanskrit and Red cedar in English is a very important medicinal plant of renowned Meliaceae family. Tooni is used in our traditional system of medicine for the cure and prevention of various ailments viz. Antileprotic, bitter tonic and as anthelimintic. In the present study an attempt was made to study the pharmacognostical features of fresh and dried bark of Toona ciliata. Organoleptic (Colour, odour & taste), Ma...

  19. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  20. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exo...

  1. Effects of Pathogens and Bark Beetles on Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Goheen, D J; Hansen, E M

    1993-01-01

    This chapter addresses the varied roles that root pathogens and bark beetles play in western coniferous forests as (1) regulators of ecological structure and processes, (2) arbiters of management success and (3) agents of significant economic loss. Pathologists, entomologists, and forest managers often speak of the "impact" of fungal and insect "pests" on forest values. This terminology carries connotations of death and destruction that reflect only part of the role that these organisms play ...

  2. New sucrose derivatives from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, N; Piacente, S; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    1993-01-01

    Two new bitter principles were isolated from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata (Polygalaceae) and identified as beta-D-(3,4-disinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)g lucopyranoside and beta-D-(3-sinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)gluco pyranoside. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1H nmr (1D, 2D COSY, 2D HOHAHA), 13C-nmr, and fabms spectra. PMID:8450315

  3. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9. PMID:20657499

  4. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  5. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

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    Tripathi S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  6. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  7. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

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    Hitender Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett′s test. FNx01P < 0.05, FNx08P < 0.01, FNx18P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes.

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

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    Faramarz Zakavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P<0.0001, but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes.

  9. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION AND HPTLC FINGERPRINT OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS LINN. BARK

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    Avinash Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in herbal and other forms of traditional medicines. Herbs have long been an important source of numerous effective drugs. As per World Health Organization recommendations, there is a need for investigation of traditional medicinal plants for their potential therapeutic efficacy. The bark of Alstonia scholaris (L. R. Br. (Family: Apocynaceae locally known as ‘Sapthaparni’ or ‘Satwid’, is reported to have anticancer, antihelminthic, antidiarrhoeal, antiasthamatic, antimalarial etc. The present work embodies the study carried out for quality control of herbal drugs which comprises of macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical properties, phytochemical analysis, fluorescence analysis and HPTLC fingerprint. The anatomical markers present were found to be stone cells, sclereids, cork cells, fibers and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Methanol soluble extractive value was found to be higher than Water, Ethanol and Petroleum ether soluble extractive values. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, amino acids, fats, fixed oil, glycosides, proteins, starch and flavonoids. A unique HPTLC fingerprint for A. scholaris (L. R. Br. bark was developed. Results of the present study on pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation of A. scholaris (L. R. Br. bark will be helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification of this plant.

  10. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  11. Antioxidant Tannins from Stem Bark and Fine Root of Casuarina equisetifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Hui Lin; Shu-Dong Wei; Hai-Chao Zhou; Yi-Ming Lin; Shang-Ju Zhang; Gong-Fu Ye

    2010-01-01

    Structures of condensed tannins from the stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC analyses. The condensed tannins from stem bark and fine root consist predominantly of procyanidin combined with prodelphinidin and propelargonidin, and epicatechin is the main extension unit. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to tridecamer for stem bark and to pentadecamer for fine root. The antioxidant activities...

  12. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not y...

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Jae Ho; Park, Gwang Hun; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was...

  14. Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association

    OpenAIRE

    Santini A; Faccoli M

    2015-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham), respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence ...

  15. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata RR; Nailufar F; Arifin PF

    2013-01-01

    Raymond R Tjandrawinata1,2, Florensia Nailufar2, Poppy F Arifin11Section of Molecular Pharmacology, 2Section of Animal Pharmacology, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, IndonesiaAbstract: This study assessed the gastric acid antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from Cinnamomum burmannii. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase) activity and its gene expression were observed, and the antioxidant activity of DLBS2411 was also investigated. Treatment of DLBS2411 decreased the level...

  16. Isolasi Minyak Atsiri dari Simplisia Kulit Kayu Sintok (Cinnamomum sintoc Blume) dengan Metode Destilasi Uap dan Air serta Analisis Komponennya Menggunakan GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Kristiani

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil is volatile oil with different fragrance in accordance to the source and mixture from the physicochemical properties. Cinnamomum sintoc Blume of the family Lauraceae is one of plants that containing essential oil and widely used as traditional medicine mixture. The aim of this research was to compare the components of essential oil from steam distillation and water distillation. This research included the simplex characterization, the essential oil isolation by steam and wate...

  17. Subamolide B Isolated from Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum subavenium Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial and CHOP-Dependent Cell Death Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Yi Yang; Hui-Min Wang; Tai-Wen Wu; Yi-Ju Chen; Jeng-Jer Shieh; Ju-Hwa Lin; Tsing-Fen Ho; Ren-Jie Luo; Chung-Yi Chen; Chia-Che Chang

    2013-01-01

    Subamolide B is a butanolide isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments including carcinomatous swelling. We herein reported for the first time that subamolide B potently induced cytotoxicity against diverse human skin cancer cell lines while sparing nonmalignant cells. Mechanistic studies on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line SCC12 highlighted the involvement of apoptosis in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, as ev...

  18. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira; Ingrid Carla Guedes da Silva; Leonardo Antunes Trindade; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Hugo Lemes Carlo; Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti; Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to a...

  19. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Jiang; Jin Wang; Li Song; Xianshuang Cao; Xi Yao; Feng Tang; Yongde Yue

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in t...

  20. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Suresh; Vasudeva Neeru; Sharma Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm (Tejpat) oil (CTO) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%). CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally a...

  1. Comparison of Microwave-assisted Hydrodistillation with the Traditional Hydrodistillation Method in the Extraction of Essential Oils from Dwarfed Cinnamomum Camphora var. Linaolifera Fujita Leaves and Twigs

    OpenAIRE

    Linsheng Wei; Yafang Zhang; Boquan Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-Assisted Hydro Distillation (MAHD) and conventional Hydro Distillation (HD) are compared and evaluated in terms of extraction time, extraction yield, chemical composition, quality of the essential oil and operation consumption. Experiments results manifest that MAHD has no obvious advantage over traditional HD for the extraction of Dwarfed Cinnamomum Camphora var. Linaolifera Fujita (D-CCLF) twigs. Extraction of essential oils from D-CCLF leaves with MAHD is superior with regard to ...

  2. Potential of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium as Antimicrobials and Curing of Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Kamal Khder; Srwa A Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    Eighty two clinical isolates were collected from Sulaymani hospitals. The isolates show resistance to more than five antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium were proved to be the most powerful against E. coli E45 and E62 isolates, than aqueous extracts. The extracts exhibited most of the antibiotics activity against these two isolates irrespective of their antibiotic resistance behaviour. A comparative evaluation of plasmid elimi...

  3. In vitro effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon and Allium sativum on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner L.; Callait M.P.; Granier C.; Chauve C.

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils may be effective preventive or curative treatments against several flagelated poultry parasites and may become primordial either to organic farms, or as more drugs are bannished. The anti-flagellate activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon pericarps and Allium sativum bulbs was investigated in vitro on Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. On T. gallinarum, the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) at 24 hours w...

  4. Apoptosis mediated anti-proliferative effect of compound isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves against human colon cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakkirajan, M.; Prabhu, N. M.; Manikandan, R.; Beulaja, M.; Prabhu, D.; Govindaraju, K.; Thiagarajan, R.; Arulvasu, C.; Dhanasekaran, G.; Dinesh, D.; Babu, G.

    2014-06-01

    A compound was isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The in vitro anticancer effect of the compound isolated from C. auriculata was evaluated in human colon cancer cells HCT 15 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology analysis and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase. The isolated compound 4-(2,5 dichlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7 hexahydro7(4 methoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7] triazecin8(1H)-one showed 50% inhibition of HCT 15 cells when tested at 20 μg/ml after 24 h incubation. Cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assays clearly show potent anticancer activity of the isolated compound against colon cancer. Thus, the in vitro findings suggest that the compound isolated from C. auriculata leaves have potent anti-cancer properties with possible clinical applications.

  5. Diuretic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of leaves of Cassia occidentalis(Linn.) in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Théophile; Dimo; Fidèle; Ntchapda; Joseph; Barama; David; Romain; Kemeta; Azambou; Paul; Faustin; Seke; Etet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of Cassia occidentalis(C. occidentalis) leaves’ aqueous extract. Methods: Adult rats were administered with C. occidentalis leaves aqueous extract acutely(24-h) and subchronically(7 d), at doses 80, 160, 240, 320, and 400 mg/kg(per os). Negative control group received only an equivalent volume of distilled water, while the two positive control groups received the diuretic drugs furosemide(20 mg/kg, i.p.) and hydrochlorothiazide(HCTZ, 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Urinary elimination of electrolytes in response to treatments was evaluated, together with changes in concentrations of creatinine, urea, aldosterone, glucose, and albumin in urine and plasma. Various urinary indicators of kidney function and plasmatic markers of oxidative stress were also assessed. Results: The acute administration of C. occidentalis increased the urinary excretion of 107.58% at the higher dose tested, compared to negative control. The reference drugs furosemide and HCTZ induced increases of 84.27 % and 48.05 %, respectively. Acutely, the extract induced Na+ and Cl- elimination, whereas subchronically an increase in K+ elimination was also observed. The extract also improved the kidney function indexes and oxidative stress markers. These effects were dose-dependent and comparable with positive control observations. Conclusions: Our i ndings strongly suggest that C. occidentalis aqueous extract has diuretic and antioxidant activities, and deserves further studies considering the potential for the treatment of hypertension.

  6. Use of Cassia alata aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumkhachorn Parichat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of six plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Centella asiatica, Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Psidium guajava, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, an important fish pathogenic bacterium, which is responsible for economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Among the tested plant extracts, the C. alata aqueous extract had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with P. anguilliseptica was induced by intraperitoneal, the median lethal dose (LD50 was determined to be 1.59 x 105 CFU/ml. For the in vivo trial, four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of C. alata aqueous extract were used as bath treatment to remedy the infection. The effect of the extract on the infection was dose-dependent and an extract with the concentration of 100 ppm eliminated mortality of the infected fish without producing any adverse effects on the animals. This study suggests that C. alata aqueous extract has the potential to control fish disease caused by P. anguilliseptica.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Polyalthia longifolia and Cassia spectabilis Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity, and hepatoprotective activity of methanol extracts from Polyalthia longifolia and Cassia spectabilis were evaluated using established in vitro models such as ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•, hydroxyl radical (OH•, nitric oxide radical (NO• scavenging, metal chelating, and antilipidperoxidation activities. Interestingly, all the extracts showed considerable in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the standard antioxidant which verified the presence of strong antioxidant compound in leaf extracts tested. Phenolic and flavonoid content of these extracts is significantly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Since P. longifolia extract was exhibited better in vitro antioxidant activities, it was subjected for in vivo hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol-intoxicated mice. Therapy of P. longifolia showed the liver protective effect on biochemical and histopathological alterations. Moreover, histological studies also supported the biochemical finding, that is, the maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture of the liver. Results revealed that P. longifolia leaf extract could protect the liver against paracetamol-induced oxidative damage by possibly increasing the antioxidant protection mechanism in mice. Our findings indicated that P. longifolia and C. spectabilis have potential as good sources of natural antioxidant/antiaging compounds.

  8. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  9. Polyphenols of Cassia tora leaves prevents lenticular apoptosis and modulates cataract pathology in Sprague-Dawley rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-07-01

    Cataract is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide with multifactorial etiology and is a significant global health problem with increasing prevalence with age. Currently, no pharmacological measures are discovered to prevent and treat cataract and a significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of antioxidants in the prevention of cataract by scavenging free radicals and preventing lens protein derangement and lenticular cell damage. The main goal of the present study is to evaluate Cassia tora leaves; an edible leafy vegetable employed in Ayurvedic and Chinese system of medicine for eye rejuvenation in preventing selenite-induced cataract in rat pups and to identify the active components that produce the effect. ECT pre-treatment effectively restored both enzymatic and metabolic antioxidant levels, membrane integrity and reduced metal accumulation and thus down-regulate epithelial cell death. Gene expression studies also confirmed these findings. ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of chrysophanol, emodin, kaemferol, quercetin, stigmasterol and isoquercetin. The study suggests the possible role of C. tora in alleviating cataract pathology and presence of many anthraquinones and flavonoids. As it is an edible plant, the incorporation of these leaves in daily vegetables might prevent or delay the onset and maturation of cataract. PMID:27261615

  10. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Karine M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT, measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2 in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1 during the placebo treatment (p Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430

  11. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  12. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  13. Application of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis to decoding the history of environmental pollutions using tree bark and tree trunk bark pockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of trace elements in tree bark and tree trunk bark pockets were successfully determined by Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis. The sample include outer and inner tree bark, tree trunk bark pockets, cambium, xylem. Two dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis of Ca, K, Mn, Sr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Pb in these samples were made with a combination of monochromatic X-ray (14-16.5 keV) of 150 - 500 μm or ca.6 μm size and an excitation source and Si(Li)-solid state detector. From the results of the XRF imaging results, it was found that the intensity of the elements, such as Pb, Fe and Cu, in outer bark and bark pockets samples were higher than those in cambium and xylem. Moreover, trace element levels were quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results were consistent with the element distribution measured by two dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. This study has demonstrated the advantages of the SR-XRF technique in environmental pollution analysis of minute biological tissue. The XANES analysis disclosed that Pb deposited in the bark existed as Pb2+ state. (author)

  14. Methods for harvesting and breaking the dormancy of Cassia ferruginea seedsMétodo de colheita e superação de dormência na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Cassia ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martinelli-Seneme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The harvesting method of fruits of tree species should be adequate to obtain seeds of maximum physiological quality. When present, the dormancy of Cassia ferruginea seeds is due to seed coat impermeability to water. This research work viewed to find the best methods both for the harvesting and for the breaking of dormancy of seeds of that species. The experiment was conducted during two years. In the first, fruits shed from the mother plant and laying on the ground were picked and their seeds submitted to the following treatments: 1. control, 2. mechanical scarification of the seeds with sandpaper no. 220, 3. hot water for 5 minutes (initial and final temperatures of 82 and 69 ºC, respectively, 4. hot water for 15 minutes (initial and final temperatures of 82 and 51 ºC, respectively, 5. chemical scarification with H2SO4 (95% for 20, 30, 40, 50. 60, 70, and 80 minutes. In the second year, seeds were submitted to treatments 2, 3, and 4 whereas acid scarification was applied for 30, 45, and 60 minutes. The results showed that seeds picked from the ground and those taken directly from the mother plant differ in their response to the dormancy breaking procedure. The results also showed that the seeds picked from the ground are better than those harvested directly from the plant and that, when dormant, the best results are attained when seeds are either submitted to mechanical scarification or chemical scarification with sulfuric acid for periods between 30 and 60 minutesO método de colheita dos frutos deve ser adequado às características de cada espécie e permitir a obtenção de sementes com máxima qualidade. Sementes de Cassia ferruginea apresentam dormência devido à impermeabilidade do tegumento. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar os métodos de colheita e de superação de dormência mais favoráveis à qualidade fisiológica de sementes de C. ferruginea. O trabalho foi conduzido em dois anos. No primeiro ano, os frutos foram

  15. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  16. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Astier,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b and maximum binding capacity (qmax. Compared to crude barks, the derivatization of barks by oligo-carrageenans resulted in significant enhancements of qmax and b by up to x8 and x4, respectively. The results obtained from crude barks on chemically grafted carboxylic and sulfated barks are discussed and interpreted through the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB theory.

  17. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L. syn Senna tora (L. Roxb. seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Satyendra K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90% followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60% and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD of protease

  18. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  19. Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Asman Manaf,1 Raymond R Tjandrawinata,2 Desi Malinda1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas, Dr M Djamil Padang Hospital, Padang, 2Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences (DLBS, Cikarang, Indonesia Background: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DLBS3233, a novel bioactive fraction derived from Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa, in improving insulin resistance and preserving β-cell performance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT.Patients and methods: Eighty adult subjects with IGT, defined as 2-hour postprandial glucose level of 140–199 mg/dL, were enrolled in this two-arm, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled preliminary study. Eligible subjects were randomly allocated to receive either DLBS3233 at a dose of 50–100 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The study mainly assessed the improvement of homeostatic model-assessed insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, the 15-minute and 2-hour plasma insulin levels, and the oral disposition index.Results: After 12 weeks, DLBS3233 improved insulin resistance better than placebo as reflected by a reduced HOMA-IR (-27.04%±29.41% vs -4.90%±41.27%, P=0.013. The improvement of the first- and second-phase insulin secretion was consistently greater in DLBS3233 group than placebo group (-144.78±194.06 vs -71.21±157.19, P=0.022, and -455.03±487.56 vs -269.49±467.77, P=0.033, respectively. Further, DLBS3233 also significantly better improved oral disposition index than placebo. No serious hypoglycemia, edema, or cardiovascular-related adverse events were found in either groups.Conclusion: This study has shown that DLBS3233 at the dose of 50–100 mg once daily was well tolerated, and promisingly efficacious in improving insulin sensitivity as well as preserving β-cell performance in subjects with IGT. Keywords: β-cell function, Cinnamomum burmanii, DLBS3233, Lagerstroemia speciosa, impaired

  20. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II) ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB) THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Cedric Astier,; Vincent Chaleix,; Celine Faugeron,; David Ropartz,; Pierre Krausz; Vincent Gloaguen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II) adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b) and maximum ...

  1. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to bark-stripp

  2. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem-bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. A number of yohimbe products are sold in USA as dietary supplements. Hand-sections of the stem-bark were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by ligh...

  3. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration. PMID:26178179

  4. Bark content estimation in poplar (Populus deltoides L.) short-rotation coppice in Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidi, Werther; Piccioni, Emiliano; Bonari, Enrico [Land Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, via S. Cecilia 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ginanni, Marco [Centro Interdipartimentale Enrico Avanzi, Via Vecchia di Marina 6, 56010 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Differences in bark and wood content in woody biomass directly affect its quality and economic value as an energy source. In order to estimate the quality of biomass before harvesting, an allometric regression of bark percentage of total aboveground biomass and DHB (diameter at 1.30 m height) was developed in a 2-year poplar short-rotation coppice system in Central Italy. Firstly, a relationship between mean diameter and bark content percentage was established in 1 cm-wide sections belonging to all diametric classes. The model of best fit for these stem cylindrical sections was an equation y=ax{sup -b}. Following this, sample stems (of which we measured DHB) were collected and divided into sections belonging to a diameter class. Fresh and dry matter were determined for each class. Using the first equation, bark content was calculated separately for all classes. Thereafter, a second equation between bark content in the whole stem and DHB was developed. The best fitting equation for the whole stem was y=cx{sup -d}. Bark content in the whole stem ranged from 33.9-31.4% in large-sized DHB stems to 15.1-12.5% in smallest stems, depending on their moisture content. Bark content decreased rapidly in the small diametric classes until DHB reached 4 cm. Thereafter, the ratio of reduction of bark percentage dropped. (author)

  5. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Jarald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae such as petroleum ether (60-80°, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05 to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg.

  6. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-01

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India. PMID:27153296

  7. Effect Of Cassia Glauca LAMK, Leaves Extract On Cardiovascular And Renal Complications Associated With Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuber J Birajdar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the cardio-protective and nephro-protective potential of ethanolic (CGE and water extract (CGW of Cassia glauca leaves. Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of 45 mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ in male Wistar rats. Rats with fasting blood glucose levels>200mg/dl after seven days of STZ administration were randomized into different groups and were treated with CGE and CGW in graded doses for 56 days. On 52nd day, Intra peritoneal glucose tolerance (IPGTT test and serum insulin were performed and blood glucose, lipid profiles, cardiac and renal parameters were estimated. In addition, enzymatic and non-enzymatic liver antioxidant levels were also estimated. Results: Treatment with extracts increases the glucose uptake in diabetic rats suggest that the mode of action is like Rosiglitazone. The insulin levels after glucose load and HOMA values suggest that there is no insulin resistance in diabetic rats indicates that rats are under severe diabetic condition (Type1. Supplementation with both doses of CGE and CGW improved glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance suggesting that, there is an improvement in STZ-induced deleterious effects. In addition, CGE and CGW supplementation decreased oxidative stress by improving endogenous antioxidant levels. Furthermore, administration of CGE and CGW improved diabetic cardio-toxicity and nephro-toxicity. Conclusion: Treatment with CGE and CGW improved cardiac and renal profile. Taken together, these results suggest that CGE and CGW have potent anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, nephro-protective, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity.

  8. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  9. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  10. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root bark

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Nyahanga; J Isaac Jondiko; L Onyango Arot Manguro; J Atieno Orwa

    2013-09-01

    From the -hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica root bark were isolated eight compounds (1-8) which were identified on the basis of both spectroscopic and physical data as well as comparison with already published results. The crude extracts and isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D6 (chloroquine-sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The extracts and isolates also exhibited larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti and coumarins were identified as the active compounds.

  11. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark and Roots of Clausena anisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Dongo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on the stem bark and roots of the tropical shrub Clausena anisata led to the isolation and characterization three carbazole alkaloids: girinimbine, murrayamine-A and ekeberginine; two peptide derivatives: aurantiamide acetate and N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninyl-N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninate; and a mixture of two phytosterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS.

  12. Effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on bark epiphytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, P.D.

    1967-01-01

    The destructive effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on epiphytic bryophytes is seen to be due to chlorophyll degradation and the impairment of cell structure and function through plasmolysis. Morphological changes noted by Pearson and Skye (1965) in lichens were not seen, although stunting and infertility are evident in epiphyte remnants in polluted areas. The investigation of the ion exchange and buffer capacities of sycamore bark indicates a loss of both in approximate proportion to the degree of pollution. Smoke and aerosol particles are not considered to be of particular importance at the present time although they may well have been important in the past.

  13. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem bark of Caryocar villosum

    OpenAIRE

    Magid, A. A.; Voutquenne Nazabadioko, L.; Renimel, I.; Harakat, D.; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, C.

    2006-01-01

    Five triterpenoid saponins, caryocarosides II-22 (3), III-22 (4), II-23 (5), III-23 (6), and II-24 (7), have been isolated from the methanol extract of the stem bark of Caryocar villosum, along with two known saponins (1-2). The seven saponins are glucuronides of hederagenin (II) or bayogenin (III). Caryocaroside II-24 (7) is an unusual galloyl ester saponin acylated on the sugar chain attached to C-28, the 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-glueurono...

  14. Chemical constituents from bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum: cholesterol occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae-Caesapinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of valoneic acid dilactone, ellagic acid, lupeol, alkyl ferulate, four free sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol), a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The mixtures of 3-beta-hydroxysterols and fatty acids were analysed by GC/MS. (author)

  15. Calotroposide S, New Oxypregnane Oligoglycoside from Calotropis procera Root Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calotroposide S (1, a new oxypregnane oligoglycoside has been isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Calotropis procera (Ait R. Br. root bark. The structure of 1 was assigned based on various spectroscopic analyses. Calotroposide S (1 possesses the 12-O-benzoylisolineolon aglycone moiety with eight sugar residues attached to C-3 of the aglycone. It showed potent anti-proliferative activity towards PC-3 prostate cancer, A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and U373 glioblastoma (GBM cell lines with IC 50 0.18, 0.2, and 0.06 µM, respectively compared with cisplatin and carboplatin.

  16. Stem diameter and bark surface area of the fluted trunk of Balanites maughamii (Balanitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Williams

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanites maughamii Sprague (Balanitaceae is a woodland tree used and harvested for bark products in the traditional medicine trade o f South Africa. The tree has a distinctively fluted and buttressed stem, especially in mature individuals. This short communication quantifies the relationship between two diameter measurements D1 and D2 that respectively exclude and include the bark surface contained in the convolutions of the flutes at five height intervals up the stem to 2 m. Regressions show D1 to be an accurate predictor of D2 (r^ =0.97-0.99 over a range of tree sizes, hence obviating the necessity to measure both D1 and D2. The circumference and bark surface area on the stem was determined to estimate the quantity of bark that can potentially be harvested. At least 69% of the stem circumference and bark surface area was estimated to be contained within the convolutions of the flutes.

  17. In vitro Development of Callus from Node of Mimusops elengi - As Substitute of Natural Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Gami

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, results of in vitro callus development from Mimusops elengi as substitute of bark were formulated. By different auxine/cytokinine ratio from young nodal explant compact, globular and fragile types of callus were developed. Methanolic extract of all types of callus and bark were studied for extractable matter, antibacterial activity, phytochemical profiling, biouautography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC banding patterns. Results of all calluses were compared with results of natural bark of M. elengi. TLC pattern of three types of callus and bark revealed similar banding pattern, and same bioactivity was also observed in bioautography. Our results indicate that natural bark & in vitro developed callus of M. elengi posses similar chemical profiling and bioactivity regardless the type & colour of callus.

  18. Effects of NaCl Stress on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii%NaCl胁迫对普陀樟叶绿素荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李影丽; 汪奎宏; 杜国坚; 许利群; 杨华; 肖纪军

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii under NaCl stress. [Method] The seedling growth increment, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of 1-year old Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii were investigated in field experiment. [Result] Under NaCl stress, seedling growth increment reduced and the chlorophyll content decreased to a stable value; changes of Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo showed identical increasing trend and double peak type. With the aggravation of salt stress, most variations were ob- served in Fo, correlations among chlorophyll fluorescence parameters presented "rise-drop" trend (in the treatment of 7 g/L NaCl). [Condusion] Cinna-momum japonicum var. chenii is endowed with strong salt resistance and wide adaptability.

  19. The Effect of Cinnamon (Bark) Extract on Male Reproductive Physiology in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    M Modaresi; M Messripour; Rajaei, R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction and Objective: Cinnamon is a plant with the scientific name Cinnamomum zeylanicum that belongs to the Lauraceae family. This plant has many therapeutic effects one of them is the increasing of sexual desire. This study was conducted to find out the effects of Cinnamon extracts on reproductive physiology of male laboratory mice. Materials and Methods: Animals were assigned in six groups, each consisted of eight mice. The mice groups were experimental groups (1,...

  20. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

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    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  1. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  2. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  3. ANTIPATHOGENIC EFFICACY OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA (BUCH.-HAM. AND AEGLE MARMELOS (L. WITH THEIR NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMIT KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipathogenic efficacy of methanolic leaf extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham. and Aegle marmelos(L. through inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216 andProteus mirabilis (MTCC 7837 the causative pathogens of food poisoning, boils, abscesses, wound infection,pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, typhoid fever, urethitis, cystitis, pylonephritis and prostatitis has beeninvestigated. All the strains were affected by methanolic leaf extract of C. tamala and A. marmelos in agar diffusionmethod and broth dilution method. The MIC values in agar diffusion method were 2.5 mg/mL against S. aureusfor extract of both plants and 5 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL, against P. mirabilis for the extract of C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The MIC values in broth dilution method were 2.5 mg/mL against S.aureus for both plantsextract, 4 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL against P.mirabilis and 9 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL against S. typhi for C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The nutritional value, phytochemical contents and inorganic substance content of C.tamala is higher than A. marmelos.

  4. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  5. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan RAKHSHANDEHROO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.

  6. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-daw Tsai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy.

  7. Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Santiago; Lin Sun; Murray Herbert Gibson Munro; Jacinta Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods: Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results: Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  8. Elevated UV-B radiation increased the decomposition of Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca leaf litter in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xinzhang Z.; Zhang, Huiling L.; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shuquan Q. [Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). The Nurturing Station for the State Key Lab. of Subtropical Silviculture; Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems; Chang, Scott X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Peng, Changhui H. [Quebec Univ., Montreal (Canada). Inst. of Environment Sciences

    2012-03-15

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earth's surface has been increasing due to ozone depletion and can profoundly influence litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The role of UV-B radiation in litter decomposition in humid environments is poorly understood; we thus investigated the effect of UV-B radiation on litter decomposition and nitrogen (N) release in a humid subtropical ecosystem in China. We conducted a field-based experiment using the litterbag method to study litter decomposition and N release under ambient and elevated (31% above ambient) UV-B radiation, using the leaf litter of two common tree species, Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca, native to subtropical China. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly increased the decomposition rate of C. camphora and C. glauca leaf litter by 16.7% and 27.8%, respectively, and increased the N release from the decomposing litter of C. glauca but not C. camphora. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly accelerated the decomposition of litter of two native tree species and the N release from the decomposition litter of C. glauca in humid subtropical China, which has implications for soil carbon flux and forest productivity. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of In-Vitro Antibacterial Acitivity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Extract on Different Microorganisms of the Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Hussain M. H. Al-Bayaty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cinnaomum zeylanicum on different types of dental plaque microorganisms. Screening study was perforned to detect the potential antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, S. mutans, L. casei, B. fragilis, A. actinomycemtemcomitans and dental plaque pool samples. From the screening test, values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were determined. The lowest MIC value was 25 mg/ml of aqueous and 12.5 mg/ml of ethanol extract for S. aureus. The highest MIC values were seen in A. actinomycetemcomitans and dental plaque aerobic pool samples with 300 mg/ml of aqueous extract and 150 mg/ml of ethanol extract. The MIC values for aqueous extracts ranged from 25 to 300 mg/ml whereas for fixed plant concentration test, showed the strongest inhibition effect for all the organisms tested. Generally, the ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum demonstrated a stronger antibacterial activity compared to the aqueous extract. This study also compared the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine with that of the plant extracts. Chlorhexidine showed a higher antibacterial effect on the microorganisms, with almost all organisms inhibited.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

  11. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  12. In Vitro Antiophidian Properties of Dipteryx alata Vogel Bark Extracts

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    Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Dipteryx alata bark obtained with different solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol were mixed in vitro with Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu, 40 μg/mL and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt, 15 μg/mL snake venoms, and applied to a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation to evaluate the possible neutralization of venom effects. Cdt venom neurotoxic effect was not inhibited by any of the extracts, while the neurotoxic and myotoxic actions of Bjssu venom were decreased by the methanolic extract. This inhibition appears to be augmented by tannins. Dichloromethane bark extract inhibited ~40% of Bjssu venom effects and delayed blockade induced by Cdt. The methodology used to determine which extract was active allows inferring that: (i phenolic acids and flavonoids contained in the methanolic extract plus tannins were responsible mostly for neutralization of Bjssu effects; (ii terpenoids from the dichloromethane extract may participate in the anti-Cdt and anti-Bjssu venom effects; (iii a given extract could not inhibit venoms from different species even if those belong to the same family, so it is improper to generalize a certain plant as antiophidian; (iv different polarity extracts do not present the same inhibitory capability, thus demonstrating the need for characterizing both venom pharmacology and the phytochemistry of medicinal plant compounds

  13. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  14. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  15. IN VITRO ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matpal Mahesh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the different extract of bark of Ficus benghalensis, family Moraceae is a very large, fast growing, evergreen tree up to 30 meters, with spreading branches and many aerial roots. Leaves stalked, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, entire, when young downy on both sides; petiole with a broad smooth greasy gland at the apex, compressed, downy; Fruit in axillary pairs, the size of a cherry, round and downy. According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leprosy. According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulernary, maturant, lessens inflammations; useful in piles etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous, chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the bark by in vitro methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The methanolic extract at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  16. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum

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    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  17. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDISATION STUDY ON TOONA CILIATA M. ROEM., BARK

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    Mann Avninder Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Toona ciliata M. Roem formerly called as Cedrella toona Roxb, known as Tooni in Sanskrit and Red cedar in English is a very important medicinal plant of renowned Meliaceae family. Tooni is used in our traditional system of medicine for the cure and prevention of various ailments viz. Antileprotic, bitter tonic and as anthelimintic. In the present study an attempt was made to study the pharmacognostical features of fresh and dried bark of Toona ciliata. Organoleptic (Colour, odour & taste, Macroscopic (Size, shape, texture & fracture and Microscopic (Powder microscopic characteristics evaluations were performed to establish the qualitative and diagnostic features. The various physiochemical parameters (Loss on drying, foreign matter, extractive values, ash values, pH, percent crude fibres were also determined for the effective standardisation of the medicinal plant material. Beside all above mentioned conventional methods of standardisation, the powdered bark was also subjected to powder drug analysis with different chemical reagent and for fluorescence drug analysis on exposure to different wavelengths of ultraviolet light. The various determinations and analysis which were carried out in the present study will certainly help for first line identification and quality control of plant material in its crude form. Further, the authentic material can be subjected to the phytochemical investigations, isolation of phytochemicals and many more for the validation of vast traditional therapeutic potential of the plant material in terms of its in-vivo pharmacological screening.

  18. Interaction of Quillaja bark saponins with food-relevant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezwon, Aleksandra; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2014-07-01

    The surface activity and aggregation behaviour of two Quillaja bark saponins (QBS) are compared using surface tension, conductometry and light scattering. Despite formally of the same origin (bark of the Quillaja saponaria Molina tree), the two QBS show markedly different ionic characters and critical micelle concentrations (7.7·10(-6) mol·dm(-3) and 1.2·10(-4) mol·dm(-3)). The new interpretation of the surface tension isotherms for both QBS allowed us to propose an explanation for the previous discrepancy concerning the orientation of the saponin molecules in the adsorbed layer. The effect of three food-related proteins (hen egg lysozyme, bovine β-lactoglobulin and β-casein) on surface tension of the saponins is also described. Dynamic surface tension was measured at fixed protein concentrations and QBS concentrations varying in the range 5·10(-7)-1·10(-3) mol·dm(-3). Both dynamic and extrapolated equilibrium surface tensions of the protein/QBS mixtures depend not only on the protein, but also on the QBS source. In general, the surface tension for mixtures of the QBS with lower CMC and less ionic character shows less pronounced synergistic effects. This is especially well visible for β-casein/QBS mixtures, where a characteristic maximum in the surface tension isotherm around the molar ratio of one can be noticed for one saponin product, but not for the other. PMID:24802169

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  20. Characterisation of polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna bark extract

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    Anumita Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+-catechin, (+-gallocatechin and (−-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4- O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  2. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

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    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  3. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  4. Bark harvesting systems of Drimys brasiliensis Miers in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Alexandre; Mantovani, Adelar; Reis, Maurício S dos

    2014-09-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as cataia or casca-de-anta, is a native tree species of the Atlantic Rainforest. Its bark is harvested from natural populations. This study examined the recovery capacity of the bark of D. brasiliensis under different bark harvesting methods, as well as the influence of these approaches on its population dynamics and reproductive biology. While none of these treatments resulted in changes in phenological behavior or the rate of increase of diameter at breast height and tree height, the removal of wider bark strips resulted in lower rates of bark recovery and higher rates of insect attack and diseases. Accordingly, the results recommend using strips of bark 2 cm wide and 2 m long, with 4 cm between strips, for effective rates of bark regrowth and for lower susceptibility to insect attack and diseases. From these studies, we concluded that D. brasiliensis has a high potential for sustainable management of its natural populations, demonstrating the possibility of generating an important supplementary income for farmers and contributing to the use and conservation of the Atlantic Rainforest. PMID:25119732

  5. Physiological resistance of grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) to Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ashlee H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Predators feeding on toxic prey may evolve physiological resistance to the preys' toxins. Grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) are voracious predators of scorpions in North American deserts. Two species of grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus and Onychomys arenicola) are broadly sympatric with two species of potentially lethal bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda and Centruroides vittatus) in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively. Bark scorpions produce toxins that selectively bind sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) ion channels in vertebrate nerve and muscle tissue. We previously reported that grasshopper mice showed no effects of bark scorpion envenomation following natural stings. Here we conducted a series of toxicity tests to determine whether grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to bark scorpion neurotoxins. Five populations of grasshopper mice, either sympatric with or allopatric to bark scorpions, were injected with bark scorpion venom; LD50s were estimated for each population. All five populations of grasshopper mice demonstrated levels of venom resistance greater than that reported for non-resistant Mus musculus. Moreover, venom resistance in the mice showed intra- and interspecific variability that covaried with bark scorpion sympatry and allopatry, patterns consistent with the hypothesis that venom resistance in grasshopper mice is an adaptive response to feeding on their neurotoxic prey. PMID:18687353

  6. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar quimicamente e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e gengibre (Zingiber officinale. A obtenção do óleo essencial foi realizada utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação por meio do aparelho de Clevenger modificado e a identificação e quantificação dos constituintes pelas análises em CG/EM e CG-DIC. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada por meio da técnica difusão cavidade em ágar, utilizando os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Salmonella Cholerasuis ATCC 6539 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoléico e o método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH. Nas análises cromatográficas, os constituintes majoritários encontrados no óleo essencial de C. nardus foram citronelal (47,12%, geraniol (18,56% e citronelol (11,07%, no óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foram identificados (E- cinamaldeído (77,72%, acetato de (E-cinamila (5,99% e o monoterpenóide 1,8-cineol (4,66% e, para Z. officinale os majoritários foram geranial (25,06%, neral (16,47%, 1,8-cineol (10,98%, geraniol (8,51%, acetato de geranila (4,19% e o canfeno (4,30%. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana tanto para bactérias Gram-negativas como para bactérias Gram-positivas, sendo que o óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foi o mais eficiente. A atividade antioxidante foi evidenciada pelo teste β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, respectivamente, para C. nardus, seguido de Z. officinale e C. zeylanicum, e pelo teste do DPPH foi observada apenas para C. nardus.The aims of this study were to chemically characterize and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and ginger

  7. Derivado cinamoílico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substâncias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonezi Carlos Alberto; Lopes Márcia Nasser; Silva Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araújo Ângela Regina; Bolzani Vanderlan da Silva; Young Maria Claudia Marx; Silva Marcelo Rogério da

    2004-01-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactives iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-delta8'-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time.

  8. Identifikasi Senyawa Penyusun Minyak Atsiri Kulit Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum burmannii)Dari Lubuk Pakam, Laguboti Dan Dolok Sanggul Dengan Menggunakan GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Batu, Patresia Margaret Lumban

    2015-01-01

    It had been identified components of the essential oil of Cinnamomum burmannii from Lubuk Pakam, Laguboti and Dolok Sanggul with hidrodestilation method. Through the hidrodestilation method obtained each essential oil yield as much as 1,05%(w/w); 0,9% (w/w) dan 0,75%(w/w). And then, composition of essential oil that yielded were analyzed using GC-MS. Volatile oil from Lubuk Pakam obtained 14 types of compounds with main component is cinnamaldehyd value 60,68%, eucalyptol value 4,18%, isoborny...

  9. Penentuan Komponen Senyawa/Minyak Atsiri Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Fraksi N-Heksana, Etil Asetat Dan Metanol Kulit Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum Burmanii)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricki

    2011-01-01

    Serbuk kulit kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii) diekstraksi dengan cara maserasi menggunakan pelarut n-heksana, etil asetat dan metanol yang didasarkan atas perbedaan polaritas pelarutnya. Diperoleh ekstrak fraksi n-heksana sebanyak 2,3 mL, fraksi etil asetat sebanyak 3,0 mL dan fraksi metanol sebanyak 4,0 mL. Kandungan senyawa/minyak atsiri pada masing-masing fraksi dianalisa dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Untuk fraksi n-heksana diperoleh 3 senyawa/minyak atsiri yaitu berupa sinamaldehida (79,1%), ...

  10. Co-Administration of Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics and Anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. Ameliorate Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver.

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    Lu Mei

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become a common liver disease in recent decades. No effective treatment is currently available. Probiotics and natural functional food may be promising therapeutic approaches to this disease. The present study aims to investigate the efficiency of the anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. (AC together with cholesterol-lowering probiotics (P to improve high-fat diet (HFD-induced NAFLD in rat models and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Cholesterol-lowering probiotics were screened out by MRS-cholesterol broth with ammonium ferric sulfate method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HFD and subsequently administered with AC and/or P. Lipid metabolism parameters and fat synthesis related genes in rat liver, as well as the diversity of gut microbiota were evaluated. The results demonstrated that, compared with the NAFLD rat, the serum lipid levels of treated rats were reduced effectively. Besides, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R and farnesoid X receptor (FXR were up-regulated while the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR was reduced. The expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-α protein was significantly increased while the expression of PPAR-γ and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c was down-regulated. In addition, compared with HFD group, in AC, P and AC+P group, the expression of intestinal tight-junction protein occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1 were up-regulated. Furthermore, altered gut microbiota diversity after the treatment of probiotics and AC were analysed. The combination of cholesterol-lowering probiotics and AC possesses a therapeutic effect on NAFLD in rats by up-regulating CYP7A1, LDL-R, FXR mRNA and PPAR-α protein produced in the process of fat metabolism while down-regulating the expression of HMGCR, PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and through normalizing the

  11. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK

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    Gupta Satish Chand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae.The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.

  12. Lost Books: Abbess Hildelith and the Literary Culture of Barking Abbey.

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, D

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the literary culture of Barking Abbey, a vital centre of Anglo-Saxon learning, when it was under the rule of its second abbess, Hildelith, in the late seventh and early eighth century. Particular attention is given to the intersection of lived practice at Barking and the literary record, focusing on three pieces of evidence: Bede’s account of the early history of Barking in his Ecclesiastical History, written in 731; Aldhelm’s De Virginitate (c.675-680), which was writte...

  13. Energy capacity of black wattle wood and bark in different spacing plantations

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    Elder Eloy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the energetic description of wood and bark biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in two spacing plantations: 2.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.0 m and 1.5 m, during 36 months after the planting. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Biomass (BIO, calorific value, basic density, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon content and energy density (ED of wood and bark were determined. The smallest spacing plantation presented the highest production per unit area of BIO and ED of wood and bark.

  14. Evaluation of ethanol and aqueous extracts of cinnamomum verum leaf galls for potential antioxidant and analgesic activity

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    Minakshi Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC 50 =13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml but found less than ascorbic acid (IC 50 =9.96 µg/ml. And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC 50 =237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml with the IC 50 =119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57% when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%, whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity.

  15. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  16. polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina; Santiago; Lin; Sun; Murray; Herbert; Gibson; Munro; Jacinta; Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp.fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum.Methods:Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate.This was followed by hioaclivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography.The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi.Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial,antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis,mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database.Results:Three known compounds,namely 4—hydroxymellein,4,8—dihydroxy—6—melhoxy—3—methyl—3,4-dihydro—1H-isochromen-1—one and 1—(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone,were isolated from the fungus.The polyketide compound 4—hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus sublilis(97.3%).Meanwhile.4,8—dihydroxy-6—melhoxy—3—meth) 1—3,4-dihydro—1H—isochromen—1-one,a benzopyran compound,demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(48.8%)and the fungus Aspergillus niger(56.1%).The second polyketide compound.1(2,6—dihydroxyphenyl)ethanone was inactive against the tested targets.Conclusions:These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers ol pharmacologically important compounds,including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  17. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

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    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  18. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4β?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4β?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4β?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4β?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 μL and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  19. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  20. A Trimeric Proanthocyanidin from the Bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available (–-Fisetinidol-(4α,8-[(–-fisetinidol-(4α,6 ]-(+-catechin ( 1 , a proanthocyanidin, was isolated from the bark of Acacia leucophloea . Its structure including absolute configuration was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical correlation . The 1H NMR spectrum of this compound, exhibiting exceptional complex signals attributable to rotational isomerism, and the reported data were obtained at elevated temperature in methyl ether acetate form. This work provided the 1H and 13C NMR assignments for 1 and its rotational isomer as the free phenolic form at ambient temperature for the first time. Compound 1 showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus with the IC 50 value of 102.3 μM.

  1. Influence of Metals on Lindane Adsorption onto Pine Bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some persistent pesticides, as organochlorines, are not efficiently removed from usual wastewater treatment plants, unless a tertiary treatment, commonly activated carbon adsorption, is applied. The downside of this practice rests on its high regeneration costs. This fact motivated the research for alternative processes involving the use of natural materials. Pine bark was used in this work, to remove lindane from contaminated waters. The adsorptive capabilities of this material were studied (equilibrium time, adsorption model and saturation of the adsorbent) and the interference of some metals (iron, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead) was also investigated. Results showed an excellent efficiency of adsorption (average 80,65%) and that the presence of the studied metals did not affect both efficiency and the model of the adsorption, within the range of the concentration of the pesticide studied

  2. ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SONNERATIA ALBA BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ali Milon*1, Md. Abdul Muhit , Durajan Goshwami , Mohammad Mehedi Masud and Bilkis Begum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of Sonneratia alba bark. The carbon tetrachloride, chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract and crude methanolic extract showed significant antioxidant property using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pecrylhydrazyl(DPPH scavenging assay ,of which chloroform partitionate and crude extract demonstrated highest activity with IC50 value of 12µg/ml and 14µg/ml respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, LC50 values obtained from the best fit line slope were 0.812, 14.94, 0.831 and 3.288 µg/ml for standard (Vincristine sulphate, n-Hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract respectively. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction revealed moderate activities against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae test organisms.

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Bandari Uma; Shrivastava, Shweta; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-09-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress; natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of an alcoholic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity. BO extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Administration of PCM caused a significant increase in the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. Significant enhancement in hepatic lipid peroxidation and marked depletion in reduced glutathione were observed after parac intoxication with severe alterations in liver histology. BO treatment was able to mitigate hepatic damage induced by acute intoxication of PCM and showed a pronounced protective effect against lipid peroxidation, deviated serum enzymatic variables, and maintained glutathione status toward control. The results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of BO against the toxicity induced by PCM. PMID:25263977

  4. Fungi vectored by the bark beetle Ips typographus following hibernation under the bark of standing trees and in the forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ylva; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Långström, Bo; Ohrn, Petter; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The bark beetle Ips typographus has different hibernation environments, under the bark of standing trees or in the forest litter, which is likely to affect the beetle-associated fungal flora. We isolated fungi from beetles, standing I. typographus-attacked trees, and forest litter below the attacked trees. Fungal identification was done using cultural and molecular methods. The results of the two methods in detecting fungal species were compared. Fungal communities associated with I. typographus differed considerably depending on the hibernation environment. In addition to seven taxa of known ophiostomoid I. typographus-associated fungi, we detected 18 ascomycetes and anamorphic fungi, five wood-decaying basidomycetes, 11 yeasts, and four zygomycetes. Of those, 14 fungal taxa were detected exclusively from beetles that hibernated under bark, and six taxa were detected exclusively from beetles hibernating in forest litter. The spruce pathogen, Ceratocystis polonica, was detected occasionally in bark, while another spruce pathogen, Grosmannia europhioides, was detected more often from beetles hibernating under the bark as compared to litter. The identification method had a significant impact on which taxa were detected. Rapidly growing fungal taxa, e.g. Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Ophiostoma, dominated pure culture isolations; while yeasts dominated the communities detected using molecular methods. The study also demonstrated low frequencies of tree pathogenic fungi carried by I. typographus during its outbreaks and that the beetle does not require them to successfully attack and kill trees. PMID:19444498

  5. Efeito da incorporação no solo de sementes de fedegoso (Senna obtusifolia) colonizadas por Alternaria cassiae no controle desta planta infestante Effects of soil incorporation of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) seeds colonized of Alternaria cassiae on the control this weed

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda De Simoni; Robinson Luiz Campos Machado Pitelli; Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2006-01-01

    Na última década, com o uso excessivo de herbicidas, começaram a surgir alguns problemas como a resistência de plantas daninhas e seleção de flora, além do acúmulo destes produtos contaminando mananciais hídricos e solos. Como alternativa, há uma tendência recente em se estudar e desenvolver inimigos naturais para o controle das plantas daninhas, ou seja, o controle biológico. Sementes de fedegoso colonizadas por Alternaria cassiae foram incorporadas no solo, visando o controle de plantas de ...

  6. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NOx reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO2/MJ fuel input and the NOx reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Mechanisms of Odor Coding in Coniferous Bark Beetles: From Neuron to Behavior and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae locate their hosts by means of olfactory signals, such as pheromone, host, and nonhost compounds. Behavioral responses to these volatiles are well documented. However, apart from the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs detecting pheromones, information on the peripheral olfactory physiology has for a long time been limited. Recently, however, comprehensive studies on the ORNs of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, were conducted. Several new classes of ORNs were described and odor encoding mechanisms were investigated. In particular, links between behavioral responses and ORN responses were established, allowing for a more profound understanding of bark beetle olfaction. This paper reviews the physiology of bark beetle ORNs. Special focus is on I. typographus, for which the available physiological data can be put into a behavioral context. In addition, some recent field studies and possible applications, related to the physiological studies, are summarized and discussed.

  8. STRUCTURES OF TWO NEW BENZOFURAN DERIVATIVES FROM THE BARK OF MULBERRY TREE (MORUS MACROURA MIQ.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG-GUO SUN; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    Two new benzofuran derivatives, macrourins A (1) and B (2), together with two known stilbene derivatives, were isolated from the barks of Morus macroura Miq. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence.

  9. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... behalf of Radio Systems Corporation of Knoxville, Tennessee. 78 FR 12788-89. The complaint alleges... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY:...

  10. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM LEAVES AND STEM BARK OF COCHLOSPERMUM RELIGIOSUM (L) ALSTON

    OpenAIRE

    Sasikala A; Linga Rao M; Savithramma N

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal activity of plant species. Hence the present study quantification of primary and secondary metabolites from leaves and stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum was carried out. The results showed that the leaf was rich in chlorophylls followed by lipids, proteins and carbohydrates whereas in stem bark highest amount found in chlorophylls followed by carbohydrates, proteins and lipids of primary metabolites. Cochlospermum religiosum leaf wa...

  12. Bark beetles and fire: two forces of nature transforming western forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles are chewing a wide swath through forests across North America. Over the past few years, infestations have become epidemic in lodgepole and spruce-fir forests of the Intermountain West. The resulting extensive acreages of dead trees are alarming the public and raising concern about risk of severe fire. Researchers supported by the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) are examining the complicated relationship between bark beetles and wildfire, the two most influential natural disturb...

  13. Bactericidal Effect of Aqueous Extracts of the Bark of the Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) on Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rabah Chadli; Aman Bouzid; Khadidja Bouzid; Hamida Nader

    2015-01-01

    This research concerns the study of antibacterial properties of different aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Three bacterial strains were used in this test: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella. Very interesting bactericidal properties of aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate were found on bacteria. The inhibition zones have a very large diameter up to 20 mm and the MIC and MBC are low, of the order of 0.78 mg/ml. This work ...

  14. Bark and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence are linked to wood structural changes in Eucalyptus saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Denise; Tausz, Michael; Moore, Gregory; Nicolas, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Wood structure and wood anatomy are usually considered to be largely independent of the physiological processes that govern tree growth. This paper reports a statistical relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and wood density. A relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and the quantity of wood decay in a tree is also described. There was a statistically significant relationship between the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F v/F m and wood density...

  15. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DRYING METHODS ON THE QUALITY OF STEM BARK OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshrestha Mayank Krishna; Karbhal Kamleshwar Singh

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Ayurvedic medicine by different drying conditions were studied. Stem bark of Terminalia arjuna was chosen and dried by shade, sun and oven. The dried samples were characterized by means of microscopic study, preliminary physiochemical & phytochemical studies and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) study. The aim of this study was therefore to develop an understanding of suitable conditions for the processing of stem bark of T. arjuna. The objectives of this study were to investigat...

  16. Wound healing activity of Carallia brachiata bark

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni. B; Neeharika V; Venkatesh S; Padmavathy R; Reddy B.

    2009-01-01

    The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats.

  17. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhia. K. G; Bindu. A. R

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema) at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male W...

  18. Antibacterial and radical scavenging activity of leaf and bark of Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm. (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Prashith Kekuda T.R; Vivek M. N; Yashoda Kambar; Manasa M; Raghavendra H. L

    2014-01-01

    Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm. belonging to the family Lauraceae is found in various states of Karnataka. The plant has got various traditional uses and is reported to exhibit several bioactivities. In the present study, we report antibacterial and radical scavenging potential of leaf and bark of P. macrantha. The powdered leaf and bark were extracted using methanol and the extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis. Antibacterial activity was determined by Agar well diffusion assay....

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya; Parveen Kumar; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; B R Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia...

  20. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    OpenAIRE

    Laxman Pokhrel; Bigyan Sharma; Bajracharya, Gan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’...

  1. Penguin amplitudes in B^+ to pi^+ K^*0, K^+ \\bar{K}^*0 decays

    OpenAIRE

    Zenczykowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    The question of the relative size of two independent penguin amplitudes is studied using the data on the B^+ to pi^+ K^*0, and B^+ to K^+ \\bar{K}^*0 decays. Our discussion involves a Regge-phenomenology-based estimate of SU(3) breaking in the final quark-pair-creating hadronization process. The results are in agreement with earlier estimates of the relative size of the two penguins obtained from B^+ to pi^+ K^0, K^+ \\bar{K}^0.

  2. Evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic stem bark extract of Albizzia lebbeck Linn. in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Balekar; Dinesh Kumar Jain; Pankaj Dixit; Veena Nair

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to substantiate the traditional claim of the antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extractof Albizzia lebbeck Linn. in rats. The effects of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of A. lebbeck on castor oil-induced diarrhea,castor oil magnesium sulphate-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility test using charcoal meal method wereexamined. The extract was initially assayed for its effects in castor oil-induced diarrhea at different doses (250, 500, and 100...

  3. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    OpenAIRE

    Das, S S; Monalisha Dey; Ghosh, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death t...

  4. Heartwood, sapwood and bark content of teak trees grown in Karna-taka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vindhya Prasad Tewari; K.M. Mariswamy

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated heartwood, sapwood and bark content in teak trees. A total of 27 sample plots were laid out in teak plantations raised by State Forest Department in Karnataka covering different age groups (11−36 years), density (516−2061 trees/ha) and sites. From these planta-tions, a total of 130 trees were felled for estimating the yield and bark content in relation to diameter at breast height (DBH), age and density. Bark content ranged from 22.2%−54.3%. Heartwood and sapwood con-tent were analyzed by sampling five trees each from two different planta-tions, one 30 years old at 553 trees⋅ha-1 and the other 32 years old at 911 trees⋅ha-1. The highest heartwood proportion of stem wood volume (over-bark) was 56.3%and the lowest was 37.1%. The sapwood propor-tion ranged from 12.9%−23.0%, while the bark content ranged from 27.8%−43.5%. The heartwood proportion increased with DBH, while the proportion of bark decreased. The sapwood proportion did not vary with DBH. The bark content decreased with increasing age, but increased with stand density. There was no significant difference in heartwood content with respect to age or stand density because the ages of the two stands were similar. A larger dataset from young to mature stands is needed to describe the relationships between age and stand density and heartwood, sapwood and bark content of trees.

  5. Potential Activity And Toxicity Of Methanol Extract Stem Bark Banyuru (Pterospermum Celebicum Miq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuki, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Banyuru (Pterospermum celebicum, Miq.) is one of the specific plant, a stem bark that has the potential to be developed as a source of antibacterial drugs. Research of antibacterial activity and toxicity of methanol extract Banyuru aims to determine the antibacterial activity and the level of toxicity to Artemia Salina. The method used to test the antibacterial activity is the agar diffusion method and the method used to test the toxicity Brine Shrimp Lethaly Test (BSLT). Banyuru stem bark (...

  6. Activity-guided screening of the antioxidants from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Ling Si; Shi-Chao Liu; Hai-Yan Hu; Ju-Zheng Jiang; Guo-Jing Yu; Xiao-Dan Ren; Guang-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Tree barks, as a type of forestry residues, are a rich and renewable bioresource that can produce high value-added products. Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa (PTT) has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. However, the antioxidative activity of the chemical constituents of the tree has not yet been investigated. In this study, the bark of PTT were extracted and fractioned. Then the resulting ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction, which exhibited th...

  7. Production and characterization of nanospheres of bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum from processed rice bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum, was produced in a medium consisting of rice bark pre-treated with an enzymatic pool. Rice bark was evaluated as a carbon source by complete enzymatic hydrolysis and monosaccharide composition (GC-MS of derived alditol acetates). It was treated enzymatically and then enriched with glucose up to 4% (w/v). The BC produced by static and aerated processes was purified by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH, was characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and the biosynthetic nanostructures were evaluated by Scanning Electronic (SEM), Transmission Electronic (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The BC films arising from static fermentation with rice bark/glucose and glucose are tightly intertwined, partially crystalline, being type II cellulose produced with rice bark/glucose, and type I to the produced in a glucose medium. The nanostructurated biopolymer obtained from the rice bark/glucose medium, produced in a reactor with air flux had micro- and nanospheres linked to nanofibers of cellulose. These results indicate that the bark components, namely lignins, hemicelluloses or mineral contents, interact with the cellulose forming micro- and nanostructures with potential use to incorporate drugs

  8. Production and characterization of nanospheres of bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum from processed rice bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goelzer, F.D.E. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Faria-Tischer, P.C.S. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Biopolymers, UFPR-Universidade Federal do Parana, CxP 19081, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Vitorino, J.C. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sierakowski, Maria-R. [Laboratory of Biopolymers, UFPR-Universidade Federal do Parana, CxP 19081, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Tischer, C.A. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil)], E-mail: cesarat@uol.com.br

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum, was produced in a medium consisting of rice bark pre-treated with an enzymatic pool. Rice bark was evaluated as a carbon source by complete enzymatic hydrolysis and monosaccharide composition (GC-MS of derived alditol acetates). It was treated enzymatically and then enriched with glucose up to 4% (w/v). The BC produced by static and aerated processes was purified by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH, was characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and the biosynthetic nanostructures were evaluated by Scanning Electronic (SEM), Transmission Electronic (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The BC films arising from static fermentation with rice bark/glucose and glucose are tightly intertwined, partially crystalline, being type II cellulose produced with rice bark/glucose, and type I to the produced in a glucose medium. The nanostructurated biopolymer obtained from the rice bark/glucose medium, produced in a reactor with air flux had micro- and nanospheres linked to nanofibers of cellulose. These results indicate that the bark components, namely lignins, hemicelluloses or mineral contents, interact with the cellulose forming micro- and nanostructures with potential use to incorporate drugs.

  9. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  10. Chronic treatment with bark infusion from Croton cajucara lowers plasma triglyceride levels in genetic hyperlipidemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighetti, Eliete J B; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; de Faria, Eliana C; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2004-06-01

    Aqueous infusion and preparations containing dehydrocrotonin (DHC) and essential oil from Croton cajucara bark were tested for plasma lipid-lowering effects in genetically modified hyperlipidemic mice. Two mouse models were tested: 1) primary hypercholesterolemia resulting from the LDL-receptor gene knockout, and 2) combined hyperlipidemia resulting from crosses of LDL-receptor knockout mice with transgenic mice overexpressing apolipo protein (apo) CIII and cholesteryl ester-transfer protein. Mice treated with bark infusion, DHC, essential oil, or placebos for 25 days showed no signals of toxicity as judged by biochemical tests for liver and kidney functions. The bark infusion reduced triglyceride plasma levels by 40%, while essential oil and DHC had no significant effects on plasma lipid levels. The bark infusion treatment promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among the lipoprotein fractions in combined hyperlipidemic mice. There was a marked reduction in the VLDL fraction and an increase in the HDL fraction, in such a way that the (VLDL + LDL)/HDL ratio was reduced by half. The bark infusion treatment did not modify cholesterol distribution in hypercholesterolemic mice. In conclusion, C. cajucara bark infusion reduced plasma triglycerides levels and promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins in genetically combined hyperlipidemic mice. These changes modify risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:15381962

  11. Environmental monitoring of trace elements in bark of Scots pine by thick-target PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bark samples were taken from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area near a metal plant and from a relatively non-polluted site. Thick-target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used for the analyses after different types of prepreparation of the samples. The bark samples were analysed directly by radially scanning from inner to outer bark in order to study the variability of elemental concentrations in different layers. Some clear differences were found in the chemical composition of the inner and outer bark. The lowest detection limits for the analyses of heavy metal ions were obtained by combining dry ashing at 550 deg. C with the PIXE method. More than 100 times higher concentrations were found for the heavy metal ions Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As and Pb in the bark samples from a polluted area in comparison to samples from a non-polluted area. The work demonstrated that external-beam thick-target PIXE is a sensitive and reliable method for quantitative determination of heavy metals in tree bark samples

  12. Biomagnetic monitoring of traffic air pollution in Toulouse (France) using magnetic properties of tree bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macouin, M.; Rousse, S.; Brulfert, F.; Durand, M.; Feida, N.; Durand, X.; Becaud, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples represent rapid and economic proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Toulouse (France) based on the magnetic properties of tree (Platanus acerifolia) bark. More than 250 bark samples were taken at different areas of the city. Both mass specific magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) at 1 Tesla display relationships with the traffic intensity and the distance to the road. Urban roadside tree bark exhibit significant enhancement in their values of susceptibility and IRM reflecting surface accumulation of particulate pollutants, compared with tree growing at lower traffic sites. To estimate the deposition time and accumulation on bark, we have deposited 20 "clean" bark samples from low traffic area with susceptibility inferior to 10 SI, near the city ring road. Samples were then collected during three months. Samples were imparted a 1 Tesla IRM both prior the deposition and after the resampling. Results are useful to apprehend the process of magnetic particulates accumulation and to evaluate the potential of tree bark for the air quality monitoring.

  13. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  14. A Note on the Cause of the Nuisance of Barking at Night on New Providence, The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barking dogs, both roaming and un-owned, are regarded as a nuisance throughout New Providence. With most dogs being owned for protection, either as watch or guard dogs, it is apparent that many people keep dogs specifically to bark. This observational study of 551 dogs, in 14 areas of greater Nassau, showed that confined, barking dogs constituted the single largest group of dogs (37.4% observed at night. A smaller percentage of unconfined (48.0 the confined dogs (68.5% barked at night. Almost half (45.5% of the roamers observed were unconfined. The study indicated that confined dogs constitute the majority of barking dogs and so are the major causes of the nuisance of barking at night.

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid M Alkharfy; Anwarul-Hassan Gilani; Ghulam Rasul; Ghulam Shabir; Farooq Anwar; Zahid Iqbal Sajid

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtain...

  16. Antimicrobial endophytic fungal assemblages inhabiting bark of Taxus baccata L. of Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Tayung, K.; Jha, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from inner bark of Taxus baccata L., an important source of potent anticancer drug taxol. Bark samples were collected from two locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India, part of the Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot, during two seasons i.e. monsoon and winter. Altogether 77 fungal strains representing 18 genera were isolated from T. baccata bark during the present investigation. The colonizing frequency was recorded as 38.5% and the fungal community comprised of...

  17. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were

  18. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II, using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG (Groups 1 and 2 and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4 blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05. Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05. Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001. Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001. Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  19. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080