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Sample records for cinnamic acid derivatives

  1. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

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    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  2. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

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    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  3. Natural Cinnamic Acids, Synthetic Derivatives and Hybrids with Antimicrobial Activity

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    Juan David Guzman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  4. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited

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    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P.

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR).

  5. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

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    Rogério Barbosa Lima

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1 cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2 cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S content; 3 when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H, cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4 when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL, p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  6. Additive-free decarboxylative coupling of cinnamic acid derivatives in water: synthesis of allyl amines.

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    Park, Kyungho; Lee, Sunwoo

    2015-03-06

    The first example of an additive-free decarboxylative coupling of cinnamic acid derivatives with formaldehyde and amines to afford the corresponding allyl amines is reported. This reaction is highly environmentally friendly because it was conducted in H2O and without any additives, releasing only CO2 and H2O as byproducts. This reaction showed a broad substrate scope including cyclic and acyclic amines and high functional group tolerance. Moreover, phenyl dienoic acid participated in this type of decarboxylative coupling reaction.

  7. De novo biosynthesis of trans-cinnamic acid derivatives in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Gottardi, Manuela; Knudsen, Jan Dines; Prado, Lydie; Oreb, Mislav; Branduardi, Paola; Boles, Eckhard

    2017-06-01

    The production of natural aroma compounds is an expanding field within the branch of white biotechnology. Three aromatic compounds of interest are cinnamaldehyde, the typical cinnamon aroma that has applications in agriculture and medical sciences, as well as cinnamyl alcohol and hydrocinnamyl alcohol, which have applications in the cosmetic industry. Current production methods, which rely on extraction from plant materials or chemical synthesis, are associated with drawbacks regarding scalability, production time, and environmental impact. These considerations make the development of a sustainable microbial-based production highly desirable. Through steps of rational metabolic engineering, we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial host to produce trans-cinnamic acid derivatives cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, and hydrocinnamyl alcohol, from externally added trans-cinnamic acid or de novo from glucose as a carbon source. We show that the desired products can be de novo synthesized in S. cerevisiae via the heterologous overexpression of the genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase 2 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAL2), aryl carboxylic acid reductase (acar) from Nocardia sp., and phosphopantetheinyl transferase (entD) from Escherichia coli, together with endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases. This study provides a proof of concept and a strain that can be further optimized for production of high-value aromatic compounds.

  8. Analysis of benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives of some medicinal plants in Serbia

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    Đurđević L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural phenolics, which are ubiquitously distributed in plants, have been reported as functional factors in phytotherapy. We have examined phenolic compounds in the leaves and inflorescences of five significant medicinal plants of different plant families: Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae; Achillea clypeolata (Asteraceae; Nymphaea alba (Nymphaeaceae; Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae and Allium ursinum (Alliaceae. The examined species were rich in total phenolics (up to 30.88 mg/g dry weight. According to their total phenolics contents, the plants can be arranged in the following order: A. clypeolata>N. alba>S. officinalis>R. acetosella>A. ursinum. Free phenolics prevailed in all species in comparison to the bound forms (63.72-82.68% of total phenolics. The highest content of total free phenolics was measured in the tissues of A. clypeolata and N. alba, and the lowest in A. ursinum. Five phenolic acids were isolated and measured. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids as derivatives of cinnamic acid prevailed in the leaves of R. acetosella and A. ursinum (up to 4.81%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  9. Analyses of chlorogenic acids and related cinnamic acid derivatives from Nicotiana tabacum tissues with the aid of UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS based on the in-source collision-induced dissociation method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ncube, EN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are a class of phytochemicals that are formed as esters between different derivatives of cinnamic acid and quinic acid molecules. In plants, accumulation of these compounds has been linked to several physiological responses...

  10. Bioactivity and structure-activity relationship of cinnamic acid esters and their derivatives as potential antifungal agents for plant protection.

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    Zhou, Kun; Chen, Dongdong; Li, Bin; Zhang, Bingyu; Miao, Fang; Zhou, Le

    2017-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid esters and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antifungal activities in vitro against four plant pathogenic fungi by using the mycelium growth rate method. Structure-activity relationship was derived also. Almost all of the compounds showed some inhibition activity on each of the fungi at 0.5 mM. Eight compounds showed the higher average activity with average EC50 values of 17.4-28.6 μg/mL for the fungi than kresoxim-methyl, a commercial fungicide standard, and ten compounds were much more active than commercial fungicide standards carbendazim against P. grisea or kresoxim-methyl against both P. grisea and Valsa mali. Compounds C1 and C2 showed the higher activity with average EC50 values of 17.4 and 18.5 μg/mL and great potential for development of new plant antifungal agents. The structure-activity relationship analysis showed that both the substitution pattern of the phenyl ring and the alkyl group in the alcohol moiety significantly influences the activity. There exists complexly comprehensive effect between the substituents on the phenyl ring and the alkyl group in the alcohol moiety on the activity. Thus, cinnamic acid esters showed great potential the development of new antifungal agents for plant protection due to high activity, natural compounds or natural compound framework, simple structure, easy preparation, low-cost and environmentally friendly.

  11. Bioactivity and structure-activity relationship of cinnamic acid esters and their derivatives as potential antifungal agents for plant protection.

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    Kun Zhou

    Full Text Available A series of cinnamic acid esters and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antifungal activities in vitro against four plant pathogenic fungi by using the mycelium growth rate method. Structure-activity relationship was derived also. Almost all of the compounds showed some inhibition activity on each of the fungi at 0.5 mM. Eight compounds showed the higher average activity with average EC50 values of 17.4-28.6 μg/mL for the fungi than kresoxim-methyl, a commercial fungicide standard, and ten compounds were much more active than commercial fungicide standards carbendazim against P. grisea or kresoxim-methyl against both P. grisea and Valsa mali. Compounds C1 and C2 showed the higher activity with average EC50 values of 17.4 and 18.5 μg/mL and great potential for development of new plant antifungal agents. The structure-activity relationship analysis showed that both the substitution pattern of the phenyl ring and the alkyl group in the alcohol moiety significantly influences the activity. There exists complexly comprehensive effect between the substituents on the phenyl ring and the alkyl group in the alcohol moiety on the activity. Thus, cinnamic acid esters showed great potential the development of new antifungal agents for plant protection due to high activity, natural compounds or natural compound framework, simple structure, easy preparation, low-cost and environmentally friendly.

  12. Multitarget molecular hybrids of cinnamic acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peperidou, Aikaterini; Kapoukranidou, Dorothea; Kontogiorgis, Christos; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to synthesize potential new multitarget agents, 11 novel hybrids incorporating cinnamic acids and paracetamol, 4-/7-hydroxycoumarin, benzocaine, p-aminophenol and m-aminophenol were synthesized...

  13. Synthesis of Amide and Ester Derivatives of Cinnamic Acid and Its Analogs: Evaluation of Their Free Radical Scavenging and Monoamine Oxidase and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

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    Takao, Koichi; Toda, Kazuhiro; Saito, Takayuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid derivatives, amides (1-12) and esters (13-22), were synthesized, and structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activity, and monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were analyzed. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds 1-10, 12-18, and rosmarinic acid (23), which contained catechol, o-methoxyphenol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 9-11, 15, 17-22 showed potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity. Compound 20 was the most potent inhibitor of MAO-B. Compounds 18 and 21 showed moderate BChE inhibitory activity. In addition, compound 18 showed potent antioxidant activity and MAO-B inhibitory activity. In a comparison of the cinnamic acid amides and esters, the amides exhibited more potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity, while the esters showed stronger inhibitory activities against MAO-B and BChE. These results suggested that cinnamic acid derivatives such as compound 18, p-coumaric acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester, and compound 20, p-coumaric acid phenethyl ester, may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel MAO-B inhibitors and candidate lead compounds for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Two related cinnamic Acid derivatives from Brazilian honey bee propolis, baccharin and drupanin, induce growth inhibition in allografted sarcoma S-180 in mice.

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    Mishima, Satoshi; Ono, Yosuke; Araki, Yoko; Akao, Yukihiro; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2005-06-01

    Honey bee propolis is rich in cinnamic acid derivatives. Baccharin and drupanin from Brazilian honey bee propolis are cinnamic acid derivatives that contain prenyl moieties. We previously isolated these two compounds and demonstrated that they induce an apoptotic event in several tumor cell lines. In this study, we examined the tumoricidal activity of baccharin and drupanin in mice allografted with sarcoma S-180 and also studied the genotoxic effects on normal splenocytes using the alkaline single cell gel (comet) assay. We found that both baccharin and drupanin effectively suppressed growth of the tumor. Furthermore, these compounds induced a significant genotoxic effect on the tumor cells in comparison with normal splenocytes. Thus, baccharin and drupanin are potent tumor suppressive components of honeybee propolis.

  15. Cinnamic Acid Derivatives Enhance the Efficacy of Transarterial Embolization in a Rat Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Wilkins, Luke R., E-mail: lrw6n@virginia.edu [University of Virginia Health Systems, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (United States); Brautigan, David L., E-mail: db8g@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology (United States); Wu, Hanping, E-mail: hanpingwumd@gmail.com [University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Radiology (United States); Yarmohammadi, Hooman, E-mail: yar.hooman@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Kubicka, Ewa, E-mail: emk6d@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology (United States); Serbulea, Vlad, E-mail: vs9ck@virginia.edu; Leitinger, Norbert, E-mail: nl2q@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Pharmacology (United States); Liu, Wendy, E-mail: wendy.liu@uhhospitals.org [University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Pathology (United States); Haaga, John R., E-mail: john.haaga@uhhospitals.org [University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-03-15

    IntroductionWe hypothesize that the combination of transarterial embolization (TAE) plus inhibition of lactate export will limit anaerobic metabolism and reduce tumor survival compared to TAE alone. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsRat N1-S1 hepatoma cells were assayed in vitro using the Seahorse XF analyzer to measure extracellular acidification (lactate excretion) comparing effects of the addition of caffeic acid (CA) or ferulic acid (FA) or UK-5099 with control. Monocarboxylate transporter Slc16a3 was knocked down by RNAi. N1S1 tumors were orthotopically implanted in rats and 4 groups evaluated: (1) Control, (2) TAE-only, (3) TAE plus CA, and (4) TAE plus FA. Tumor size was determined by ultrasound and analyzed by repeated measures statistics. Tumors harvested at 4 weeks were examined by microscopy.ResultsSeahorse assays showed that CA and FA caused a significant reduction by >90% in lactate efflux by N1S1 tumor cells (p < 0.01). Knockdown of Slc16a3 prevented inhibition by CA. In vivo tumors grew 30-fold in volume over 4 weeks in untreated controls. By comparison, TAE resulted in near cessation of growth (10% in 4-week time period). However, both TAE + CA and TAE + FA caused a significant reduction of tumor volumes (87 and 72%, respectively) compared to control and TAE (p < 0.05). Pathologic evaluation revealed residual tumor in the TAE group but no residual viable tumor cells in the TAE + CA and TAE + FA groups.ConclusionAddition of CA or FA enhances the effectiveness of TAE therapy for HCC in part by blocking lactate efflux.

  16. A green Hunsdiecker reaction of cinnamic acids

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    Sodre, Leonardo R.; Esteves, Pierre M.; Mattos, Marcio C. S. de, E-mail: pesteves@iq.ufrj.br, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica

    2013-02-15

    Tribromo- and trichloroisocyanuric acids react with cinnamic acids in NaOH/H{sub 2}O/Et{sub 2}O at room temperature to produce (E)-2-halostyrenes regioselectively in 25-95% yield. Mechanism studies using Hammett correlations and DFT (density functional theory) calculations have shown that this reaction has as rate determining step the electrophilic addition of chlorine atom to the double bond. (author)

  17. Accumulation of cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplant root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contents of cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplant root exudates and soil were determined by HPLC. The results showed that cinnamic acid and vanillin might remain in soil after the root of eggplant is released. With the extending growth stage and planting year of eggplant, the contents in root exudates, rhizosphere and ...

  18. Synthesis, characterization, quantum chemical calculations and evaluation of antioxidant properties of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives including 2- and 3-methoxy cinnamic acids

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    Gür, Mahmut; Muğlu, Halit; Çavuş, M. Serdar; Güder, Aytaç; Sayıner, Hakan S.; Kandemirli, Fatma

    2017-04-01

    A series of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives including 2- and 3-methoxy cinnamic acids were synthesized, and their structures were elucidated by the UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The UV and IR calculations of the molecules were performed by using B3LYP, HF and MP2 methods with selected 6-311++G(2d,2p), 6-311++G(3df,3pd) and cc-pvtz basis sets. Dipole moment, polarizability, chemical hardness/softness and electronegativity were also calculated and analyzed. Experimental FT-IR spectra and UV-Vis spectrum of the compounds were compared with theoretical data. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of the compounds were practised via different test methods such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPHrad), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPDrad +), and 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTSrad +) scavenging activity assays. When compared with standards (BHA-Butylated hydroxyanisole, RUT-Rutin, and TRO-Trolox), it was observed that especially XIII and XIV which include methoxy groups at the o- and m-positions, respectively, had effective activities.

  19. Aloin, cinnamic acid and sophorcarpidine are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase.

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    Tan, Cheng; Zhu, Wenyuan; Lu, Yan

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of aloin, cinnamic acid and 15 other kinds of natural chemicals on the activity of tyrosinase, in order to provide lightening agents in the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders and cosmetic additives. Tyrosinase activity was estimated by measuring the oxidation rate of L-dopa. Inhibition of the enzyme was deduced according to the Lineweaver-Burk plots compared to the control. Cadabine, paeonal, farrerol, evodin, cinnamic acid, aloin and sophorcarpidine had different levels of inhibition of tyrosinase. The inhibitory rates of cinnamic acid (2 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L), aloin (2 mmol/L) and the rest were significantly higher than that of hydroquinone (0.5 mmol/L) (P aloin and sophorcarpidine, of which sophorcarpidine functions as an uncompetitive inhibitor, compared to aloin and cinnamic acid, which are mixed-type inhibitors.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of non-radiolabelled cinnamic compounds in analytes derived from human skin absorption and metabolism experiments.

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    Smith, C K; Cheung, C; Elahi, E N; Hotchkiss, S A

    2001-07-15

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the quantification of the skin sensitisers trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic alcohol, and their cinnamic metabolites. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) between the gradients of eight sets of standard curves were 2.8, 3.1 and 1.9% for cinnamic alcohol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, respectively. Sample analytes were derived from two series of experiments: in vitro full-thickness human skin absorption and metabolism studies and metabolism studies using human skin homogenates, with non-radiolabelled cinnamic compounds. Skin absorption and metabolism experiments were performed in the absence and presence of the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, pyrazole. Samples from full-thickness skin absorption studies were analysed without extraction; cinnamic compounds from within skin were extracted into methanolic solutions using newly developed methods. The intra-assay RSDs ranged from 0.17 to 2.52% for cinnamic alcohol, 0.24 to 9.14% for cinnamaldehyde and 0.26 to 6.43% for cinnamic acid. The inter-assay RSDs for cinnamic alcohol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, respectively, as determined from n=20 HPLC runs, were 2.10, 4.16 and 2.26%.

  1. Kinetics of non-isothermal decomposition of cinnamic acid

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    Zhao, Ming-rui; Qi, Zhen-li; Chen, Fei-xiong; Yue, Xia-xin

    2014-07-01

    The thermal stability and kinetics of decomposition of cinnamic acid were investigated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry at four heating rates. The activation energies of this process were calculated from analysis of TG curves by methods of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Doyle, Distributed Activation Energy Model, Šatava-Šesták and Kissinger, respectively. There are only one stage of thermal decomposition process in TG and two endothermic peaks in DSC. For this decomposition process of cinnamic acid, E and log A[s-1] were determined to be 81.74 kJ mol-1 and 8.67, respectively. The mechanism was Mampel Power law (the reaction order, n = 1), with integral form G(α) = α (α = 0.1-0.9). Moreover, thermodynamic properties of Δ H ≠, Δ S ≠, Δ G ≠ were 77.96 kJ mol-1, -90.71 J mol-1 K-1, 119.41 kJ mol-1.

  2. Hydroxy Cinnamic Acid Derivatives as Partial PPARγ Agonists: In silico Studies, Synthesis and Biological Characterization Against Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line (K562).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hardik; Marulkar, Kavita; Gota, Vikram; Ramaa, C S

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of many genes relevant to carcinogenesis. By analogy to selective estrogen receptor modulator for treatment of cancer, selective or partial PPARγ agonists are considered clinically important for chemotherapy of cancer. In this study we have rationally modified the structure of existing p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, which would selectively activate PPARγ and exert their anti-proliferative effect at lower dose as compared to natural phytoconstituents. A series of p-coumaric (3a-3y) and ferulic acid (4a-4y) derivatives were designed as docked and virtually studied for their molecular properties using suitable software. Synthesized derivatives were assessed to check their effect on non-transformed hepatocytes using MTT assay. The final products, 3a-3y and 4a-4y, substituted 4- hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and ferulic acid derivatives respectively were synthesized by stirring compound 1a or 1b with compounds 2a-2y (molar ratio- 1:2) for 24 hours, in presence of K2CO3, using dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the solvent. Synthesized molecules were characterized by 1HNMR, 13C NMR, Mass and elemental analysis. Synthesized molecules were studied for their antiproliferative activity by SRB assay. Compounds were screened further evaluated for PPARγ activating assay, cell cycle analysis (propidium iodide) and westernblot analysis. Molecules 3c, 3m, 4c and 4m were found to have GI50 value less than 50μM. These molecules were found to block G0/G1 phase of cell cycle in dose dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that these molecules inhibit proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that these molecules could play a role as a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic myeloid leukemia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. In vitro characterization of polyesters of aconitic acid, glycerol, and cinnamic acid for bone tissue engineering.

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    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Chen, Cong; Smoak, Mollie; Hogan, Katie; Scherr, Thomas; Aita, Giovanna; Hayes, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel class of polyesters of glycerol, aconitic acid, and cinnamic acid were synthesized along with their hydroxyapatite (HA) composites, and studied for their potential application in bone defect repair. An osteogenic study was conducted with human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) to determine the osteoinductive ability of aconitic acid-glycerol (AG) polyesters, AG:HA (80:20), aconitic acid-glycerol-cinnamic acid (AGC) polyesters, and AGC:HA (80:20) to serve as bone scaffolds. The results indicate that AGC scaffolds have the highest mechanical strength in comparison to AG, AG:HA (80:20), and AGC:HA (80:20) scaffolds due to its low porosity. It was determined by cytotoxicity and osteogenesis experiments that hASCs cultured for 21 days on AG:HA (80:20) scaffolds in stromal medium exhibited a greater number of live cells than control PCL:HA composites. Moreover, hASCs cultured on foamed AG:HA (80:20) scaffolds resulted in the highest levels of mineralization, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression, and the greatest osteocalcin (OCN) expression after 21 days. Overall, AG:HA (100:0 and 80:20) scaffolds had higher mechanical strength and cytocompatibility than the PCL:HA control. In vitro osteogenic study demonstrated that AG:HA (100:0 and 80:20) synthesized using sugarcane industry by-products hold potential as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Production of Cinnamic and p-Hydroxycinnamic Acids in Engineered Microbes

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    Vargas-Tah, Alejandra; Gosset, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The aromatic compounds cinnamic and p-hydroxycinnamic acids (pHCAs) are phenylpropanoids having applications as precursors for the synthesis of thermoplastics, flavoring, cosmetic, and health products. These two aromatic acids can be obtained by chemical synthesis or extraction from plant tissues. However, both manufacturing processes have shortcomings, such as the generation of toxic subproducts or a low concentration in plant material. Alternative production methods are being developed to enable the biotechnological production of cinnamic and (pHCAs) by genetically engineering various microbial hosts, including Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas putida, and Streptomyces lividans. The natural capacity to synthesize these aromatic acids is not existent in these microbial species. Therefore, genetic modification have been performed that include the heterologous expression of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities, which catalyze the conversion of l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) and l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) to cinnamic acid and (pHCA), respectively. Additional host modifications include the metabolic engineering to increase carbon flow from central metabolism to the l-Phe or l-Tyr biosynthetic pathways. These strategies include the expression of feedback insensitive mutant versions of enzymes from the aromatic pathways, as well as genetic modifications to central carbon metabolism to increase biosynthetic availability of precursors phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate. These efforts have been complemented with strain optimization for the utilization of raw material, including various simple carbon sources, as well as sugar polymers and sugar mixtures derived from plant biomass. A systems biology approach to production strains characterization has been limited so far and should yield important data for future strain improvement. PMID:26347861

  5. Cross-sensitization patterns in guinea pigs between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, H; Hansen, J; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1989-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) were performed with cinnamon substances. There was a certain degree of cross-reactivity between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid as animals sensitized to cinnamaldehyde reacted to the challenge with the three substances. Animals sensitized...... to cinnamyl alcohol reacted to cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde, but not to cinnamic acid. Cinnamic acid did not sensitize guinea pigs. Compared to the challenge concentration for cinnamaldehyde, approximately a 15 times higher concentration of cinnamyl alcohol and a 25 times higher concentration...... of cinnamic acid were required to give positive reactions in animals sensitized to cinnamaldehyde. This could not be explained by differences in permeability properties, as the penetration profiles of the three substances through guinea pig skin in vitro showed permeability coefficients of the same order...

  6. A Novel Approach in Cinnamic Acid Synthesis: Direct Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids from Aromatic Aldehydes and Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in the Presence of Boron Tribromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onciu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acids have been prepared in moderate to high yields by a new direct synthesis using aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic carboxylic acids, in the presence of boron tribromide as reagent, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4-DMAP and pyridine (Py as bases and N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP as solvent, at reflux (180-190°C for 8-12 hours.

  7. New Umami Amides: Structure-Taste Relationship Studies of Cinnamic Acid Derived Amides and the Natural Occurrence of an Intense Umami Amide in Zanthoxylum piperitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Neirynck, Nathalie; Cayeux, Isabelle; Yuan, Yoyo Hui-Juan; Yuan, Yong-Ming

    2015-08-19

    A series of aromatic amides were synthesized from various acids and amines selected from naturally occurring structural frameworks. These synthetic amides were evaluated for umami taste in comparison with monosodium glutamate. The effect of the substitution pattern of both the acid and the amine parts on umami taste was investigated. The only intensely umami-tasting amides were those made from 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The amine part was more tolerant to structural changes. Amides bearing an alkyl- or alkoxy-substituted phenylethylamine residue displayed a clean umami taste as 20 ppm solutions in water. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a high quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC/MS) was subsequently used to show the natural occurrence of these amides. (E)-3-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)acrylamide was shown to occur in the roots and stems of Zanthoxylum piperitum, a plant of the family Rutaceae growing in Korea, Japan, and China.

  8. Cinnamic acid amides from Tribulus terrestris displaying uncompetitive α-glucosidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong Hun; Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Park, Chanin; Son, Minky; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Yuk, Heung Joo; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2016-05-23

    The α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Tribulus terrestris extracts has been reported but as yet the active ingredients are unknown. This study attempted to isolate the responsible metabolites and elucidate their inhibition mechanism of α-glucosidase. By fractionating T. terristris extracts, three cinnamic acid amide derivatives (1-3) were ascertained to be active components against α-glucosidase. The lead structure, N-trans-coumaroyltyramine 1, showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.42 μM). Moreover, all active compounds displayed uncompetitive inhibition mechanisms that have rarely been reported for α-glucosidase inhibitors. This kinetic behavior was fully demonstrated by showing a decrease of both Km and Vmax, and Kik/Kiv ratio ranging between 1.029 and 1.053. We progressed to study how chemical modifications to the lead structure 1 may impact inhibition. An α, β-unsaturation carbonyl group and hydroxyl group in A-ring of cinnamic acid amide emerged to be critical functionalities for α-glucosidase inhibition. The molecular modeling study revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to π-π interaction as well as hydrogen bond interaction between enzyme and inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Radical scavenging activity of lipophilized products from lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids.

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    Choo, Wee-Sim; Birch, Edward John

    2009-02-01

    Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids using an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the lipophilized products as model systems for enhanced protection of unsaturated oil. The lipophilized products were identified using ESI-MS. Free radical scavenging activity was determined using the DPPH radical method. The polarity of the solvents proved important in determining the radical scavenging activity of the substrates. Ferulic acid showed much higher radical scavenging activity than cinnamic acid, which has limited activity. The esterification of cinnamic acid and ferulic acid with triolein resulted in significant increase and decrease in the radical scavenging activity, respectively. These opposite effects were due to the effect of addition of electron-donating alkyl groups on the predominant mechanism of reaction (hydrogen atom transfer or electron transfer) of a species with DPPH. The effect of esterification of cinnamic acid was confirmed using ethyl cinnamate which greatly enhances the radical scavenging activity. Although, compared to the lipophilized cinnamic acid product, the activity was lower. The radical scavenging activity of the main component isolated from lipophilized cinnamic acid product using solid phase extraction, monocinnamoyl dioleoyl glycerol, was as good as the unseparated mixture of lipophilized product. Based on the ratio of a substrate to DPPH concentration, lipophilized ferulic acid was a much more efficient radical scavenger than lipophilized cinnamic acid.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Effects of Cinnamic Acid, Amygdalin, Glycyrrhizic Acid and Liquiritin on Ephedra Alkaloids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinghong; Zheng, Mengkai; Chen, Yu-Lin; Chen, Jianzhen; He, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Ephedra alkaloids, including ephedrine (EP), pseudoephedrine (PEP) and methylephedrine (MEP), are sympathomimetic compounds with known toxicities but many Ephedra (Ephedrae herba) preparations, such as Ephedra decoction, have been clinically applied for centuries. In order to explore the possible detoxification mechanism of Ephedra alkaloids, four representative compounds in Ephedra decoction (cinnamic acid, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin) were studied for their pharmacokinetic effects on Ephedra alkaloids in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were randomly divided into six groups, with six rats in each. Rats were treated orally with EP-PEP-MEP (20 mg/kg EP + 20 mg/kg PEP + 20 mg/kg MEP) and different combinations of cinnamic acid (3.03 mg/kg), amygdalin (56.97 mg/kg), glycyrrhizic acid (12.42 mg/kg), liquiritin (3.79 mg/kg) with EP-PEP-MEP, and 20 mg/kg EP + 20 mg/kg PEP + 20 mg/kg MEP + 3.03 mg/kg cinnamic acid + 56.97 mg/kg amygdalin + 12.42 mg/kg glycyrrhizic acid + 3.79 mg/kg liquiritin. Blood samples (0.5 mL) were taken from the orbital sinus venous plexus into heparinized tubes at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min (6 rats per time point in each group) following single administration. The concentrations of Ephedra alkaloids in rat plasma were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 360 min (AUC0-t ) of EP, PEP and MEP were 666.99, 650.76 and 632.37 µg·min/mL, respectively. Maximum plasma concentration (C max) of EP, PEP and MEP were 4.15, 4.08 and 3.59 μg/mL, respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) of EP, PEP and MEP were 197.00, 173.97 and 183.87 min, respectively, when the rats were treated with EP-PEP-MEP. Cinnamic acid increased the AUC0-t of EP while decreased C max of EP, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid increased C max and AUC0-t of EP and PEP, while liquiritin decreased AUC0-t of EP and PEP. The

  11. An effective strategy to develop active cinnamic acid-directed antioxidants based on elongating the conjugated chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Dai, Fang; Jin, Xiao-Ling; Ma, Meng-Meng; Wang, Yi-Hua; Ren, Xiao-Rong; Zhou, Bo

    2014-09-01

    To optimize antioxidant activity and lipophilicity of cinnamic acid derivatives (CAs) including ferulic acid, sinapic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, four analogs bearing an additional double bond between their aromatic ring and propenoic acid moiety were designed and synthesized based on the conjugated chain elongation strategy. The antioxidant performance of the CAs were investigated by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, cyclic voltammetry, DNA strand breakage-inhibiting and anti-haemolysis activity assays. It was found that CAs with elongation of conjugated chains display increased DPPH-scavenging, DNA strand breakage-inhibiting and anti-haemolysis activities as compared to their parent molecules, due to their improved hydrogen atom-donating ability and lipophilicity. Overall, this work highlights an effective strategy to develop potential CA-directed antioxidants by elongating their conjugated chain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid from cortex cinnamon essential oil against Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fei; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Guanglu; Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-12-01

    Utilization of chemical pesticide to control monogenean diseases is often restricted in many countries due to the development of pesticide resistance and concerns of chemical residues and environmental contamination. Thus, the use of antiparasitic agents from plants has been explored as a possible way for controlling monogenean infections. Extracts from Cinnamomum cassia were investigated under in vivo conditions against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The two bioactive compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The 48 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) for these compounds against D. intermedius were 0·57 and 6·32 mg L(-1), respectively. The LD(50) of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were 13·34 and 59·66 mg L(-1) to goldfish in 48 h acute toxicity tests, respectively. These data confirm that cinnamaldehyde is effective against D. intermedius, and the cinnamaldehyde exhibits potential for the development of a candidate antiparasitic agent.

  14. Effect of the Propolis Components, Cinnamic Acid and Pinocembrin, on Apis Mellifera and Ascosphaera Apis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voigt Kathrin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The value of propolis as a disinfectant agent in the bee hive is considerable. We investigated the fungistatic effect of cinnamic acid and pinocembrin on the pathogen Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in bee colonies in the laboratory with an agar diffusion test on malt extract agar. The minimal fungicide inhibitory concentration was 0.5% for cinnamic acid and 1.5% for pinocembrin (MIC -values. Both substances were tested by individual application for adult bee tolerance in a range of dosages and for brood tolerance (L1 - L5 referring to the MIC values. The dermal toxicity of adult bees for cinnamic acid and pinocembrin was low, a maximum of 3.3% even in the highest dosage of 1000 μg (concentration 20% and 250 μg (concentration 5% per bee, respectively. The mortality rates showed no significant differences to the controls (z-test, p≤0.05. First results on brood tolerability after application of test substances resulted in larval mortality but primarily in the group of young larvae. The mortality reduced simultaneous with the increasing larval weight. The total larval mortality 72 hours after the application over all stages was 28.7% for cinnamic acid and 13.1% for pinocembrin (positive control group 24.8%; negative control group 15.4%. The test groups showed no significant increased mortality compared to the control groups (z-test, p≥0.05. Both substances have in vitro fungicide potential and can be considered as potential active agents against A. apis in honey bee drugs. The results provide high tolerance of adult bees and an indication for larval tolerability most notably in elder larvae.

  15. Aryl-acetic and cinnamic acids as lipoxygenase inhibitors with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Pontiki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acids have been identified as interesting compounds with cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Lipoxygenase pathway, catalyzing the first two steps of the transformation of arachidonic acid into leukotrienes is implicated in several processes such as cell differentiation, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Development of drugs that interfere with the formation or effects of these metabolites would be important for the treatment of various diseases like asthma, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and blood vessel disorders. Till now, asthma consists of the only pathological case in which improvement has been shown by lipoxygenase LO inhibitors. Thus, the research has been directed towards the development of drugs that interfere with the formation of leukotrienes. In order to explore the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of antioxidant acrylic/cinnamic acids a series of derivatives bearing the appropriate moieties have been synthesized via the Knoevenagel condensation and evaluated for their biological activities. The compounds have shown important antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and very good inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase while some of them were tested for their anticancer activity.

  16. [Effects of cinnamic acid and vanillin on grafted eggplant root growth and physiological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Li; Zhou, Bao-Li; Lin, Shan-Shan; Li, Xia; Ye, Xue-Ling

    2010-06-01

    Choosing Solanum torvum as rootstock and cultivated Xi'anlü eggplant as scion, a pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of autotoxic substances (cinnamic acid and vanillin) on the root growth, antioxidase activity, and osmoregulation substances content of grafted eggplant, own-rooted eggplant, and rootstock eggplant. Cinnamic acid and vanillin had allelopathic effects on the root system of test eggplants, with low concentration promoting and higher concentration inhibiting the root growth and physiological metabolism. For own-rooted eggplant, the critical concentration of cinnamic acid and vanillin for promotion or inhibition was 0.1 mmol x kg(-1) and 0.5 mmol x kg(-1), respectively; whereas for grafted and rootstock eggplants, it was 0.5 mmol x kg(-1) and 1 mmol x kg(-1), respectively. The root resistance to autotoxic substances was in the order of root-stock eggplant > grafted eggplant > own-rooted eggplant. Higher concentration cinamic acid (0.5-4 mmol x kg(-1)) and vanillin (1-4 mmol x kg(-1)) enhanced the SOD enzyme activity and the proline and soluble sugar contents of grafted eggplant root by 8.50%-24.50%; 9.39%-27.64%, and 12.77%-81.81%, respectively, compared with own-rooted eggplant. The soluble protein content, fresh mass, dry mass, and root activity of grafted eggplant roots were significantly higher than those of own-rooted eggplant, suggesting that grafted eggplant had a strong resistance of rootstocks to autotoxic substances, which alleviated the negative effect of autotoxic substances on root growth.

  17. Metal-Free Domino One-Pot Decarboxylative Cyclization of Cinnamic Acid Esters: Synthesis of Functionalized Indanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi Krishna Reddy, Alavala; Satyanarayana, Gedu

    2016-12-16

    Trifluoroacetic acid promoted unprecedented domino reaction for the synthesis of diverse indanes starting from simple cinnamic acid esters is described. Their formation can be explained via acid triggered decarboxylation of cinnamic acid esters and subsequent inter/intramolecular cyclization. Overall process involves in the intramolecular cleavage of two σ-bonds (C-O and C-C) and inter/intramolecular construction of two/one C-C σ-bond(s). Significantly, this protocol was successful without the aid of any metal salts.

  18. Electrochemical destruction of trans-cinnamic acid by advanced oxidation processes: kinetics, mineralization, and degradation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelly; Thiam, Abdoulaye; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi

    2017-03-01

    Acidic solutions of trans-cinnamic acid at pH 3.0 have been comparatively treated by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). The electrolytic experiments were carried out with a boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion cell. The substrate was very slowly abated by AO-H2O2 because of its low reaction rate with oxidizing (•)OH produced from water discharge at the BDD anode. In contrast, its removal was very rapid and at similar rate by EF and PEF due to the additional oxidation by (•)OH in the bulk, formed from Fenton's reaction between cathodically generated H2O2 and added Fe(2+). The AO-H2O2 treatment yielded the lowest mineralization. The EF process led to persistent final products like Fe(III) complexes, which were quickly photolyzed upon UVA irradiation in PEF to give an almost total mineralization with 98 % total organic carbon removal. The effect of current density and substrate concentration on all the mineralization processes was examined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of electrolyzed solutions allowed identifying five primary aromatics and one heteroaromatic molecule, whereas final carboxylic acids like fumaric, acetic, and oxalic were quantified by ion exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From all the products detected, a degradation route for trans-cinnamic acid is proposed.

  19. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  20. The reaction of cinnamaldehyde and cinnam(oyl derivatives with thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Autelitano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the alleged relevance of the thia-Michael reaction in the bioactivity of various classes of cinnam(oyl natural products and by the development of a quick NMR assay to study this reaction, we have carried out a systematic study of the “native” reactivity of these compounds with dodecanethiol and cysteamine as models, respectively, of simple thiols and reactive protein thiols that can benefit from iminium ion catalysis in Michael reactions. Cinnamoyl esters and amides, as well as cinnamyl ketones and oximes, did not show any reactivity with the two probe thiols, while cinnamaldehyde (1a reacted with cysteamine to afford a mixture of a thiazoline derivative and compounds of multiple addition, and with aliphatic thiols to give a single bis-dithioacetal (6. Chalchones and their vinylogous C5-curcuminoid derivatives were the only cinnamoyl derivatives that gave a thia-Michael reaction. From a mechanistic standpoint, loss of conjugation in the adduct might underlie the lack of a native Michael reactivity. This property is restored by the presence of another conjugating group on the carbonyl, as in chalcones and C5-curcuminoids. A critical mechanistic revision of the chemical and biomedical literature on cinnamaldehyde and related compounds seems therefore required.

  1. Cinnamic acid, from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, regulates glucose transport via activation of GLUT4 on L6 myotubes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Baddireddi Subhadra; Sujatha, Sundaresan; Anand, Singaravelu; Sangeetha, Kadapakkam Nandhabalan; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Katiyar, Chandrakanth; Kanaujia, Anil; Duggar, Rajeev; Singh, Yogendra; Srinivas, Konasubrahmanya; Bansal, Vinay; Sarin, Simi; Tandon, Ruchi; Sharma, Suchitra; Singh, Suchita

    2009-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (Family: Lauraceae) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant used traditionally for the treatment of a number of diseases, including diabetes. The hypoglycemic effect of this plant has been established in vivo. However, the effects of cinnamic acid, isolated from C. cassia, on the insulin signaling cascade in an in vitro model have not been elucidated. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of cinnamic acid on glucose transport by L6 myotubes. The mechanism of action of cinnamic acid was determined using specific targets in the insulin signaling pathway, including protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and the glucose transporter GLUT4. After differentiation of myoblast to myotubes, the cells were serum deprived for 5 h and then treated with 1 ng/mL cinnamic acid and 50 μmol/L rosiglitazone for 18 h and 100 nmol/L insulin for 20 min for gene expression studies. Expression of GLUT4 mRNA was increased following treatment of L6 myotubes with 1 ng/mL cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid inhibited PTP1B activity (by 96.5%), but had no significant effect on PI3-K activity. On the basis of the results of the present study, we postulate that cinnamic acid isolated from the hydro-alcoholic extract of Cinnamomum cassia activates glucose transport by a PI3-K-independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of action requires further analysis.

  2. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of cinnamate-pullulan and tosylate-pullulan polysaccharide derivative thin films for pharmaceutical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, M. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic) and Faculty of Biomedical Engineering CVUT, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: jelinek@fzu.cz; Cristescu, R. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125 Bucharest (Romania); Axente, E. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125 Bucharest (Romania); Kocourek, T. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Dybal, J. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Remsa, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Plestil, J. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mihaiescu, D. [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Albulescu, M. [Institute for Chemical-Pharmaceutical R and D, 112 Vitan, 74373 Bucharest 3 (Romania); Buruiana, T. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 6600 (Romania); Stamatin, I. [3Nano-SAE Research Center, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125 Bucharest (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Material Science, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)

    2007-07-31

    We have demonstrated the successful thin film growth of two pullulan derivatives (cinnamate-pullulan and tosylate-pullulan) using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Our MAPLE system consisted of a KrF* laser, a vacuum chamber, and a rotating target holder cooled with liquid nitrogen. Fused silica and silicon (1 1 1) wafers were used as substrates. The MAPLE-deposited thin films were characterized by transmission spectrometry, profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The deposited layers ranged from 250 nm to 16.5 {mu}m in thickness, depending on the laser fluence (0.065-0.5 J cm{sup -2}) and number of pulses applied for the deposition of one structure (1500-13,300). Our results confirmed that MAPLE was well-suited for the transfer of cinnamate-pullulan and tosylate-pullulan.

  3. Thermodynamic Solubility Profile of Carbamazepine-Cinnamic Acid Cocrystal at Different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramatnia, Fatemeh; Shayanfar, Ali; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-08-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystal formation is a direct way to dramatically influence physicochemical properties of drug substances, especially their solubility and dissolution rate. Because of their instability in the solution, thermodynamic solubility of cocrystals could not be determined in the common way like other compounds; therefore, the thermodynamic solubility is calculated through concentration of their components in the eutectic point. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of an ionizable coformer in cocrystal with a nonionizable drug at different pH. Carbamazepine (CBZ), a nonionizable drug with cinnamic acid (CIN), which is an acidic coformer, was selected to prepare CBZ-CIN cocrystal and its thermodynamic solubility was studied in pH range 2-7. Instead of HPLC that is a costly and time-consuming method, a chemometric-based approach, net analyte signal standard addition method, was selected for simultaneous determination of CBZ and CIN in solution. The result showed that, as pH increases, CIN ionization leads to change in CBZ-CIN cocrystal solubility and stability in solution. In addition, the results of this study indicated that there is no significant difference between intrinsic solubility of CBZ and cocrystal despite the higher ideal solubility of cocrystal. This verifies that ideal solubility is not good parameter to predict cocrystal solubility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric acids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrait, Ghislain; Jarrige, Jean-François; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Erick; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Alric, Monique

    2006-04-19

    trans-Cinnamic acid (CIN) and p-coumaric acid (COU) are ingested by humans in their diet. While the metabolism and health benefits of CIN have been widely documented, little is known about its absorption sites, and there have been few studies dedicated to COU. The gastrointestinal sac technique demonstrated that CIN and COU are absorbed by all digestive organs in rats and partially transported via MCT-mediated carrier. Absorption was lowest in the stomach. Regardless of the organs that were studied, CIN was more efficiently absorbed than COU. After their individual oral administration to rats, CIN and COU were excreted in 0-24 h urine (0.3% and 23% of ingested CIN and COU, respectively). This suggests that COU was less metabolized than CIN. CIN and COU are absorbed across the digestive epithelium and subsequently interact with target tissues. Despite its lower gastrointestinal absorption, COU may have greater health benefits because it seems to be less metabolized than CIN.

  5. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  6. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  7. Nonsulfated, cinnamic acid-based lignins are potent antagonists of HSV-1 entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jay N; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Desai, Umesh R

    2010-05-10

    In an effort to discover macromolecular mimetics of heparan sulfate (HS), we previously designed sulfated lignins (Raghuraman et al. Biomacromolecules 2007, 8, 1759-1763). To probe the relevance of sulfate groups of HS in viral entry, lignins completely devoid of sulfate moieties, and yet possessing an electrostatic surface equivalent to that of HS, were designed. Two carboxylated lignins based on a 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid scaffold were synthesized using enzymatic oxidative coupling in high yields, fractionated according to their sizes, and tested in cellular assays of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. The two carboxylated lignins were found to not only inhibit HSV-1 entry into mammalian cells (IC(50) = 8-56 nM), but were more potent than sulfated lignins. In addition, shorter carboxylated lignins were found to be as active as the longer chains, suggesting that structural features, in addition to carboxylate groups, may be important. It can be expected that carboxylated lignins also antagonize the entry of other enveloped viruses, for example, HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus, and hepatitis C virus, that utilize HS to gain entry into cells. The results present major opportunities for developing lignin-based antiviral formulations for topical use.

  8. Melatonin Has the Potential to Alleviate Cinnamic Acid Stress in Cucumber Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanqi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid (CA, which is a well-known major autotoxin secreted by the roots in cucumber continuous cropping, has been proven to exhibit inhibitory regulation of plant morphogenesis and development. Melatonin (MT has been recently demonstrated to play important roles in alleviating plant abiotic stresses. To investigate whether MT supplementation could improve cucumber seedling growth under CA stress, we treated cucumber seeds and seedlings with/without MT under CA- or non-stress conditions, and then tested their effects on cucumber seedling growth, morphology, nutrient element content, and plant hormone. Overall, 10 μM MT best rescued cucumber seedling growth under 0.4 mM CA stress. MT was found to alleviate CA-stressed seedling growth by increasing the growth rates of cotyledons and leaves and by stimulating lateral root growth. Additionally, MT increased the allocation of newly gained dry weight in roots and improved the tolerance of cucumber seedlings to CA stress by altering the nutrient elements and hormone contents of the whole plant. These results strongly suggest that the application of MT can effectively improve cucumber seedling tolerance to CA stress through the perception and integration of morphology, nutrient element content and plant hormone signaling crosstalk.

  9. Using experimental studies and theoretical calculations to analyze the molecular mechanism of coumarin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and cinnamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tiane-Jye; Su, Chia-Ching; Chen, Chung-Yi; Liou, Chyong-Huey; Lu, Li-Hwa

    2005-05-01

    Three natural products, Coumarin ( 1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 2), trans-cinnamic acid ( 3) were isolated from the natural plant of indigenous cinnamon and the structures including relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. Their sterochemical structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The p-hydroxybenzoic acid complex with water is reported to show the existence of two hydrogen bonds. The two hydrogen bonds are formed in the water molecule of two hydrogen-accepting oxygen of carbonyl group of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The intermolecular interaction two hydrogen bond of the model system of the water- p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated. An experimental study and a theoretical analysis using the B3LYP/6-31G* method in the GAUSSIAN-03 package program were conducted on the three natural products. The theoretical results are supplemented by experimental data. Optimal geometric structures of three compounds were also determined. The calculated molecular mechanics compared quite well with those obtained from the experimental data. The ionization potentials, highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, energy gaps, heat of formation, atomization energies, and vibration frequencies of the compounds were also calculated. The results of the calculations show that three natural products are stable molecules with high reactive and various other physical properties. The study also provided an explicit understanding of the sterochemical structure and thermodynamic properties of the three natural products.

  10. Cinnamic acid pretreatment mitigates chilling stress of cucumber leaves through altering antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Yu, Bin; Gao, Yang; Dai, Ai-Hua; Bai, Ji-Gang

    2011-06-15

    To elucidate the physiological mechanism of chilling stress mitigated by cinnamic acid (CA) pretreatment, a cucumber variety (Cucumis sativus cv. Jinchun no. 4) was pretreated with 50 μM CA for 2d and was then cultivated at two temperatures (15/8 and 25/18 °C) for 1d. We investigated whether exogenous CA could protect cucumber plantlets from chilling stress (15/8 °C) and examined whether the protective effect was associated with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. At 2d, exogenous CA did not influence plant growth, but induced the activities of some antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.6.4.2) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) in cucumber leaves, and it also elevated the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA). When CA was rinsed and the CA-pretreated seedlings were exposed to different temperatures, the antioxidant activities in leaves at 3d had undergone additional change. Chilling increased the activities of CAT, GSH-PX, APX, GSH and AsA in leaves, but the combination of CA pretreatment and chilling enhanced the antioxidant activities even more. Moreover, chilling inhibited plant growth and increased the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O₂⁻) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in cucumber leaves, and the stress resulted in 87.5% of the second leaves being withered. When CA pretreatment was combined with the chilling stress, we observed alleviated growth inhibition and decreased contents of MDA, H₂O₂ and O₂⁻ in comparison to non-pretreated stressed plants, and found that the withered leaves occurred at a rate of 25.0%. We propose that CA pretreatment increases antioxidant enzyme activities in chilling-stressed leaves and decreases lipid peroxidation to some extent, enhancing the tolerance of cucumber leaves to chilling stress. Copyright

  11. Novel chemo-enzymatic oligomers of cinnamic acids as direct and indirect inhibitors of coagulation proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monien, Bernhard H; Henry, Brian L; Raghuraman, Arjun; Hindle, Michael; Desai, Umesh R

    2006-12-01

    Thrombin and factor Xa, two important procoagulant enzymes, have been prime targets for regulation of clotting through the direct and indirect mechanism of inhibition. Our efforts on exploiting the indirect mechanism led us to study a carboxylic acid-based scaffold, which displayed major acceleration in the inhibition of these enzymes [J. Med. Chem.2005, 48, 1269, 5360]. This work advances the study to chemo-enzymatically prepared oligomers of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids, DHPs, which display interesting anticoagulant properties. Oligomers, ranging in size from tetramers to pentadecamers, were prepared through peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative coupling of caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acids, and sulfated using triethylamine-sulfur trioxide complex. Chromatographic, spectroscopic, and elemental studies suggest that the DHPs are heterogeneous, polydisperse preparations composed of inter-monomer linkages similar to those found in natural lignins. Measurement of activated thromboplastin and prothrombin time indicates that both the sulfated and unsulfated derivatives of the DHPs display anticoagulant activity, which is dramatically higher than that of the reference polyacrylic acids. More interestingly, this activity approaches that of low-molecular-weight heparin with the sulfated derivative showing approximately 2- to 3-fold greater potency than the unsulfated parent. Studies on the inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin indicate that the oligomers exert their anticoagulant effect through both direct and indirect inhibition mechanisms. This dual inhibition property of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid-based DHP oligomers is the first example in inhibitors of coagulation. This work puts forward a novel, non-heparin structure, which may be exploited for the design of potent, dual action inhibitors of coagulation through combinatorial virtual screening on a library of DHP oligomers.

  12. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  13. The Cinnamon-Derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Thomas Wondrak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA, the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29 and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC, CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit. CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  14. Effect of Cinnamic Acid for Controlling Gray Mold on Table Grape and Its Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanquan; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2015-09-01

    Cinnamic acid (CA) is an organic acid and is widely used in food industry as a common food additive. Previous studies showed that CA has the antimicrobial activity in vitro, but little is known about the effect of CA on controlling the fruit decay in vivo. In present study, we showed that application of CA was significantly effective on controlling the gray mold of table grape caused by Botrytis cinerea. CA can directly inhibit the mycelial growth of B. cinerea on potato dextrose agar plates. The mechanisms by which CA inhibited fungal growth were assayed by staining the spores with fluorescent dyes propidium iodide and 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively. The results indicated that CA can damage the integrity of plasma membrane and induce the intracellular reactive oxygen species level of B. cinerea which were responsible for the reduction of growth rate. Meanwhile, CA treatment significantly stimulated the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase which were closely related to the resistance of plant. Taken together, this study suggested that CA was effective on controlling the gray mold of table grape in postharvest period by inhibiting the growth of pathogen and inducing the resistance of host.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Zn-Ti layered double hydroxide intercalated with cinnamic acid for cosmetic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Tang, Liping; Ma, Xinxu; Wang, Xinrui; Zhou, Wei; Bai, Dongsheng

    2017-08-01

    The use of sunscreen is recently growing and their efficacy and safety must be taken into account since they are applied on the skin frequently. In this work, an organic ultraviolet (UV) ray absorbent, cinnamic acid (CA) was intercalated into Zn-Ti layered double hydroxide (LDH) by anion-exchange reaction. ZnTi-CA-LDH, a new type of host-guest UV-blocking material has been synthesized. Detailed structural and surface morphology of ZnTi-CA-LDH were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and TEM. ZnTi-CA-LDH exhibits a superior UV blocking ability compared to pure CA and ZnTi-CO3-LDH. The thermal stability of the intercalated ZnTi-CA-LDH was investigated by TG-DTA, which showed that the thermostability of CA was markedly enhanced after intercalation into ZnTi-CO3-LDH. The EPR data showed greatly decreased photocatalytic activity compared to common inorganic UV blocking agents TiO2 and ZnO. Furthermore, the sample was formulated in a sunscreen cream to study the matrix protective effect towards UV rays.

  16. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg−1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80% at 30 mg kg−1 b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38 μg and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4 μg mL−1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE. DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4 μg was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5 g kg−1 b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50% and gallic (46% phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity.

  17. Nonradiative Decay Route of Cinnamate Derivatives Studied by Frequency and Time Domain Laser Spectroscopy in the Gas Phase, Matrix Isolation FTIR Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Takayuki

    2017-06-01

    The nonraddiative dececy route involving trans → cis photo-isomerization from the S_1 (ππ*) state has been investigated for several trans-cinnamate derivatives, which are known as sunscreen reagents. We examined two types of substitution effects. One is structural isomer such as ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxy-methylcinnmate (o-, m-, p-HMC). The S_1 lifetime of p-HMC is less than 8 ps at zero-point level, and it undergoes rapid S_1 → ^1nπ* → T_1 decay via multiple conical intersections. Finally, the trans → cis isomerization proceeds in the T_1 state. On the other hand, both o- and m-HMC show very slow decay. Their S_1 lifetimes are in the order of 100 ps even at the excess energy of 2000-3000 \\wn. The other is the effect of the complexity of ester group in para-subsitituted species, such as para-methoxy-methyl, -ethyl and -2ethylhexyl cinnamate (p-MMC, p-MEC, p-M2EHC). p-MMC and p-MEC show sharp S_0 → S_1 (ππ*) vibronic bands, while p-M2EHC shows only broad structureless feature even under the jet-cooled condition. In addition, we found that the S_0 → ^1nπ* absorption appears at 1000 \\wn below the S_0 → S_1 (ππ*) transition in p-MEC and p-M2EHC, but not in p-MMC. Thus, the complexity of the ester group is very important for the appearance of the ^1nπ* state.

  18. Quantitative Structure–Property Relationship (QSPR Models for a Local Quantum Descriptor: Investigation of the 4- and 3-Substituted-Cinnamic Acid Esterification

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    Cláudio E. Rodrigues-Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the theoretical description of the 4- and 3-substituted-cinnamic acid esterification with different electron donating and electron withdrawing groups was performed at the B3LYP and M06-2X levels, as a two-step process: the O-protonation and the nucleophile attack by ethanol. In parallel, an experimental work devoted to the synthesis and characterization of the substituted-cinnamate esters has also been performed. In order to quantify the substituents effects, quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR models based on the atomic charges, Fukui functions and the Frontier Effective-for-Reaction Molecular Orbitals (FERMO energies were investigated. In fact, the Fukui functions, ƒ+C and ƒ−O, indicated poor correlations for each individual step, and in contrast with the general literature, the O-protonation step is affected both by the FERMO energies and the O-charges of the carbonyl group. Since the process was shown to not be totally described by either charge- or frontier-orbitals, it is proposed to be frontier-charge-miscere controlled. Moreover, the observed trend for the experimental reaction yields suggests that the electron withdrawing groups favor the reaction and the same was observed for Step 2, which can thus be pointed out as the determining step.

  19. Fluorescent studies on the interaction of DNA and ternary lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid-phenanthroline and antibacterial activities testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-Juan; Wang, Ai-Ling; Chu, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Yong-Liang

    2015-03-01

    Twelve lanthanide complexes with cinnamate (cin(-) ) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized and characterized. Their compositions were assumed to be RE(cin)3 phen (RE(3+)  = La(3+) , Pr(3+) , Nd(3+) , Sm(3+) , Eu(3+) , Gd(3+) , Tb(3+) , Dy(3+) , Ho(3+) , Tm(3+) , Yb(3+) , Lu(3+) ). The interaction mode between the complexes and DNA was investigated by fluorescence quenching experiment. The results indicated the complexes could bind to DNA and the main binding mode is intercalative binding. The fluorescence quenching constants of the complexes increased from La(cin)3 phen to Lu(cin)3 phen. Additionally, the antibacterial activity testing showed that the complexes exhibited excellent antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli, and the changes of antibacterial ability are in agreement with that of the fluorescence quenching constants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Optimization of reaction conditions and stabilization of phenylalanine ammonia lyase-containing Rhodotorula glutinis cells during bioconversion of trans-cinnamic acid to L-phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batal, Ahmed I

    2002-01-01

    Studies were performed to elucidate the optimal reaction conditions (pH, temperature, ammonia concentration and biocatalyst loading) for bioconversion of trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA) to L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) by L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) containing Rhodotorula glutinis cells. All treatments with permeabilizing agents stimulated L-Phe production and also enhanced instability of the catalyst, except Triton X-100 which gave a superior (56%) increase in conversion as compared to the control and a significant stabilization of PAL enzyme. Inclusion of several activity modifiers and stabilizer additives in reaction mixtures were shown to enhance the yield of L-Phe and maintained PAL stability over several successive incubations during the bioconversion process. Maximum stabilization of PAL and enhancement of L-Phe production was achieved with addition of 20% polyhydric alcohol (glycerol). The production of L-Phe continued to the fifth cycle and the total yield increased 2.3 times compared to the yield produced by the control (without glycerol addition) during the repeated batch process. Reducing agents such as 2-mercaptoethanol and thioglycolic acid were added to the bioconversion mixture in order to reduce the effects of oxygen on PAL catalyst life. Production of L-Phe by addition of 400 mgL(-1) of thioglycolic acid was maximized over the control by 55%. When both 20% glycerol and 400 mgL(-1) thioglycolic acid were simultaneously present in the reaction mixture, reuseability and stability of biocatalyst (PAL) were extended to eight consecutive cycles and conversion rate and overall productivity of L-Phe were higher than that of the control. These results may lead to improvements in the production of the essential amino acid L-Phe.

  1. Analysis of benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives of some medicinal plants in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđević L.; Gajić Gordana; Jarić Snežana; Kostić Olga; Mitrović Miroslava; Pavlović P.

    2013-01-01

    Natural phenolics, which are ubiquitously distributed in plants, have been reported as functional factors in phytotherapy. We have examined phenolic compounds in the leaves and inflorescences of five significant medicinal plants of different plant families: Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae); Achillea clypeolata (Asteraceae); Nymphaea alba (Nymphaeaceae); Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae) and Allium ursinum (Alliaceae). The examined species were rich in total phenolics (up to 30.88 mg/g dry w...

  2. Detection of Amine Impurity and Quality Assessment of the MALDI Matrix α-Cyano-4-Hydroxy-Cinnamic Acid for Peptide Analysis in the amol Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechthaler, Justyna; Pittenauer, Ernst; Schaub, Tanner M.; Allmaier, Günter

    2013-05-01

    We have studied sample preparation conditions to increase the reproducibility of positive UV-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of peptides in the amol range. By evaluating several α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix batches and preparation protocols, it became apparent that two factors have a large influence on the reproducibility and the quality of the generated peptide mass spectra: (1) the selection of the CHCA matrix, which allows the most sensitive measurements and an easier finding of the "sweet spots," and (2) the amount of the sample volume deposited onto the thin crystalline matrix layer. We have studied in detail the influence of a contaminant, coming from commercial CHCA matrix batches, on sensitivity of generated peptide mass spectra in the amol as well as fmol range of a tryptic peptide mixture. The structure of the contaminant, N, N-dimethylbutyl amine, was determined by applying MALDI-FT-ICR mass spectrometry experiments for elemental composition and MALDI high energy CID experiments utilizing a tandem mass spectrometer (TOF/RTOF). A recrystallization of heavily contaminated CHCA batches that reduces or eliminates the determined impurity is described. Furthermore, a fast and reliable method for the assessment of CHCA matrix batches prior to tryptic peptide MALDI mass spectrometric analyses is presented.

  3. Analysis of the herbicidal mechanism of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid ethyl ester using iTRAQ and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyue; Liu, Ce; Yang, Juan; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lihui; Dong, Jingao

    2017-04-21

    Absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) is the latest development in the new quantitative proteomics technology for high-throughput identification and quantitation of proteins. The mechanisms underlying the 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid ethyl ester treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. Deficiency-induced changes in the protein profile of A. thaliana caused by this compound were analyzed using iTRAQ and quantitative real-time PCR. A total of 2909 proteins were quantified, of which 49 and 34 proteins were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in the experimental plants compared with the controls. Treatment results showed that numerous proteins were involved in photosystemII, energy metabolism, and cell structure formation. Based on the upregulated and downregulated proteins, high amount of AT4G21280 protein acted on the oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3-1, while low amount of AT1G10340 protein affected the catabolic process of the photosystemII-associated light-harvesting complex II. We selected these proteins to preliminarily verify the expression of proteins using quantitative real-time PCR to provide a reliable basis for further studies after proteomics analysis. Results show that the combined use of iTRAQ and quantitative real-time PCR provides an effective method to study proteins, leading to the determination of a new herbicide mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Binding, tuning and mechanical function of the 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid chromophore in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.A. van der; Arents, J.C.; Kort, R.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial photoreceptor protein photoactive yellow protein (PYP) covalently binds the chromophore 4-hydroxy coumaric acid, tuning (spectral) characteristics of this cofactor. Here, we study this binding and tuning using a combination of pointmutations and chromophore analogs. In all photosensor

  5. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Zakrzewski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolylphosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix.

  6. Stimulatory effect of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamic acid on angiogenesis through up-regulation of VEGF and Flk-1/KDR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Do-Young; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Ko, Jeong-Min; Woo, Hyunsu; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Dong-Suk

    2009-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine, Cinnamomum cassia is one of the medicinal plants that have been used to improve various diseases caused by insufficient blood circulation. However, relatively little work has been carried out on the angiogenic responses of C. cassia and its active compound cinnamic acid (CA), despite its excellent pharmacological action. In this study, we study the effect of the ethanol extract of C. cassia (CCE) and its active compound CA, on angiogenic processes in in vitro and in vivo. In the Matrigel plug assay in vivo, CCE and CA dose dependently increased von Willebrand Factor (vWF) antigen expression, and hemoglobin contents, whose elevation paralleled the onset of angiogenesis and was considered an early indicator of endothelial activation. CCE and CA induced endothelial cells proliferation, migration and tubule-like structure in vitro. The 25-50% increase observed with CCE (at low doses of 1 or 10 ng/ml) in HUVEC and BAEC proliferation was similar to that observed with CA. The migration and tubule-like structure effect were observed with HUVEC and BAEC. However, the effect of CCE, CA and VEGF on cell proliferation, migration and tubule-like structure in HUVEC were bigger than the effect of CCE, CA and VEGF in BAEC. In addition, CCE and CA each induced 2.2-fold and 2.5-fold increases the production of VEGF, the mRNA expression of VEGF and Flk-1/KDR, the receptor involved in proliferation, migration, and tubule-like structure of endothelial cells. These data suggest that CCE and its active compound CA induce angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, and this pathway is related with VEGF and Flk-1/KDR expression of endothelial cells.

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant Ability In Vitro and Bioavailability of trans-Cinnamic Acid Nanoparticle by Liquid Antisolvent Precipitate

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    Wengang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TCD is a kind of organic acid that is isolated from cinnamon bark or benzoin. TCD has significant antioxidant activity and is widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food additives. But TCD has shortcomings of low bioavailability due to poor water solubility. Therefore, we use ethanol as a solvent, deionized water as antisolvent, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC as the surfactant to prepare TCD nanoparticle powder. The optimum preparation conditions were determined as follows: TCD-ethanol solution concentration was 170 mg/mL, the volume ratio of antisolvent was 4 times that of solvent, and the amount of the surfactant was 0.3% stirred for 10 min by 2500 rpm; TCD nanoparticle with a mean particle size (MPS of 130±12.5 nm is obtained under the optimum conditions. SEM, FT-IR, LC-MS/MS, XRD, and DSC were used to characterize the TCD nanoparticle. The results showed that the chemical structure of TCD nanoparticle was not changed, but the crystallization was significantly reduced. Solubility, dissolution rate, antioxidant activity, the in vitro transdermal penetration, and bioavailability of TCD nanoparticles were all much better than these of the raw TCD. These results suggested that TCD nanoparticle might have potential value to become a new oral or transdermal TCD formulation with high bioavailability.

  8. DNA Photolithography with Cinnamate Crosslinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lang (Inventor); Chaikin, Paul Michael (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to cinnamate crosslinkers. Specifically, the present invention relates to gels, biochips, and functionalized surfaces useful as probes, in assays, in gels, and for drug delivery, and methods of making the same using a newly-discovered crosslinking configuration.

  9. Enzymatic Synthesis of Enantiopure α- and β-Amino Acids by Phenylalanine Aminomutase-Catalysed Amination of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Bian; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wietzes, Pieter; Wildeman, Stefaan de; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    The phenylalanine aminomutase (PAM) from Taxus chinensis catalyses the conversion of alpha-phenylalanine to beta-phenylalanine, an important step in the biosynthesis of the N-benzoyl phenylisoserinoyl side-chain of the anticancer drug taxol. Mechanistic studies on PAM have suggested that

  10. amino acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VENU KANDULA

    tor ligands in small libraries of flavone derivatives synthesized by solution phase combinatorial chemistry. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 249 481. 8. Hoult J R S, Moroney M A and Paya M 1994. Actions of flavonoids and coumarins on lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase Methods. Enzymol. 234 443. 9. Parmar V S ...

  11. Prenylated cinnamate and stilbenes from Kangaroo Island propolis and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Koolaji, Nooshin; Duke, Rujee K; Tran, Van H; Duke, Colin C

    2012-05-01

    A prenylated cinnamic acid derivative as well as six prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of propolis that originated from Kangaroo Island, Australia. Furthermore, six known stilbenes and two known flavanones were also identified from the same sample. Stilbenes are not common in propolis; therefore, Kangaroo Island propolis is considered a unique type of propolis that is rich in prenylated stilbenes. Stilbene propolis from Kangaroo Island showed a stronger scavenging activity towards DPPH free radical than Brazilian green propolis. This strong activity can be explained by the presence of large number of stilbenes, most of them showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products-A gamma radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology (Austria); Solar, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology (Austria); Reznicek, Gottfried [Department of Pharmacognosy, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH{sub 3} by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Determination of Abraham model solute descriptors for the monomeric and dimeric forms of trans-cinnamic acid using measured solubilities from the Open Notebook Science Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Jean-Claude; Abraham, Michael H.; Acree, William E.; Lang, Andrew SID; Beck, Samantha N; Bulger, David A; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Condron, Lacey N; Costa, Stephanie T; Curtin, Evan M; Kurtu, Sozit B; Mangir, Mark I; McBride, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background Calculating Abraham descriptors from solubility values requires that the solute have the same form when dissolved in all solvents. However, carboxylic acids can form dimers when dissolved in non-polar solvents. For such compounds Abraham descriptors can be calculated for both the monomeric and dimeric forms by treating the polar and non-polar systems separately. We illustrate the method of how this can be done by calculating the Abraham descriptors for both the monomeric and dimeri...

  14. Derivado cinamoílico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substâncias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Carbonezi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1 along with the inactives iryelliptin (2 and (7R,8S,1'S-delta8'-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3 were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF FLAVANONE-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Mardjan, Muhammad Idham Darussalam; Ambarwati, Retno; Matsjeh, Sabirin; Wahyuningsih, Tutik Dwi; Haryadi, Winarto

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of flavanone-6-carboxylic acid derivatives had been conducted via the route of chalcone. The synthesis was carried out from salicylic acid derivative, i.e. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, via esterification, Fries rearrangement, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and 1,4-nucleophilic addition reactions. Structure elucidation of products was performed using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrometers. Reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol catalyzed with sulfuric acid produced methyl 4-h...

  16. Assessment of anticlastogenic activity of cinnamic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and mitotic index (MI) were used as a sensitive short term genotoxic bioassays. The results obtained showed that low doses (1/32 LD50 and 1/16 LD50) decreased the percentage of PCE significantly compared with that of the positive control and closer to that of the negative ...

  17. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid.

  18. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide ...

  19. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Fmoc group is base-labile and a ninhydrin test indicated that some deprotection of a dry sample had occurred after three weeks of storage in a refrigerator. As indicated in the introduction, synthesizing trishomocubane amino acid derivatives (such as 8 and 9) suitable for peptide synthesis, is a worthwhile goal. However ...

  20. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The synthesis of four novel trishomocubane amino acid derivatives is described. The hydantoin precursor and bis-Boc protected hydantoin (>95% yield) were previously reported. A mild hydrolysis of the bis-Boc hydantoin with lithium hydroxide at room temperature quantitatively yielded the corresponding novel cage amino ...

  1. Novel cajaninstilbene acid derivatives as antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jing; Huang, Mei-Yan; An, Lin-Kun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Sun, Ping-Hua; Ye, Wen-Cai; Chen, Wei-Min

    2015-07-15

    Discovery of novel antibacterial agents with new structural scaffolds that combat drug-resistant pathogens is an urgent task. Cajaninstilbene acid, which is isolated from pigeonpea leaves, has shown antibacterial activity. In this study, a series of cajaninstilbene acid derivatives were designed and synthesized. The antibacterial activities of these compounds against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as nine strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are evaluated,and the related structure-activity relationships are discussed. Assays suggest that some of the synthetic cajaninstilbene acid derivatives exhibit potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacterial strains and MRSA. Among these compounds, 5b, 5c, 5j and 5k show better antibacterial activity than the positive control compounds. The results of MTT assays illustrate the low cytotoxicity of the active compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of azido derivatives of mucobromic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mbebe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucobromic acid is a highly reactive multicentered molecule. It was converted to its corresponding but unstable diazido derivative by reaction with two equivalents of sodium azide. The resultant 3,4-diazido-5-hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one was obtained in moderate yield (42% but decomposed readily even at low temperatures. Its more stable analogue 3,4-diazido-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one was obtained in excellent yield after reacting 5-methoxy-3,4-dibromofuranone with two equivalents of sodium azide. The 4,5-dibromopyridazinones which are in effect masked mucobromic acid derivatives, underwent nucleophilic substitution reactions with various nucleophiles, including azides and afforded corresponding azidopyridazinones in good yields. The synthesized azido-furanone and pyridazinone derivatives are earmarked for click reactions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.17

  3. SYNTHESIS OF FLAVANONE-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idham Darussalam Mardjan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavanone-6-carboxylic acid derivatives had been conducted via the route of chalcone. The synthesis was carried out from salicylic acid derivative, i.e. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, via esterification, Fries rearrangement, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and 1,4-nucleophilic addition reactions. Structure elucidation of products was performed using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrometers. Reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol catalyzed with sulfuric acid produced methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in 87% yield. The acid-catalyzed-acetylation of the product using acetic anhydride gave methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in 75% yield. Furthermore, solvent-free Fries rearrangement of methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in the presence of AlCl3 produced 3-acetyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the acetophenone derivatives in 67% yield. Then, Claisen-Schmidt condensation of the acetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives of p-anisaldehyde and veratraldehyde in basic condition gave 2'-hydroxychalcone-5'-carboxylic acid derivatives  in 81 and 71 % yield, respectively. Finally, the ring closure reaction of the chalcone yielded the corresponding flavanone-6-carboxylic acids in 67 and 59% yield, respectively.

  4. Enhanced anti-inflammatory potential of cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewoyin M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malik Adewoyin,1 Sumaiyah Megat Nabil Mohsin,2 Palanisamy Arulselvan,1 Mohd Zobir Hussein,2 Sharida Fakurazi1,3 1Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 2Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology Unit, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Cinnamic acid (CA is a phytochemical originally derived from Cinnamomum cassia, a plant with numerous pharmacological properties. The intercalation of CA with a nanocarrier, zinc layered hydroxide, produces cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide (ZCA, which has been previously characterized. Intercalation is expected to improve the solubility and cell specificity of CA. The nanocarrier will also protect CA from degradation and sustain its release. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intercalation on the anti-inflammatory capacity of CA.Methods: In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of ZCA was investigated and compared with that of nonintercalated CA. Evaluations were based on the capacity of ZCA and CA to modulate the release of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, the expression of proinflammatory enzymes, ie, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, were examined.Results: Although both ZCA and CA downregulated nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1ß, and IL-6, ZCA clearly displayed better activity. Similarly, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were inhibited in samples treated with ZCA and CA. The two compounds effectively inactivated the transcription factor NF-κB, but the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was significantly upregulated by ZCA only.Conclusion: The present findings suggest that ZCA possesses

  5. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    , their concentrations in the plasma and the absorption profiles differed between cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives. Cinnamic acids derivatives such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid had maximum plasma concentration of 82 ± 20 and 200 ± 7 nM, respectively, and their absorption profiles differed depending on the diet...... consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism......The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    1996-01-01

    usage concentrations in different kind of cosmetics. 72% (13/18) developed eczema in the use test performed with an alcoholic solution of cinnamic aldehyde on healthy upper arm skin. 6 of the 13 use-test-positive subjects (46%) reacted later than day 7, indicating that the standard exposure period of 7......Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  8. High yield synthesis of some phosphonic acid derivatives as surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient synthesis of novel 6-(2-bromo-2-methyl propanoyloxy)hexyl phosphonic acid, dodecane di-phosphonic acid, 6-(thiophene-3-carbonyloxy)hexyl phosphonic acid, octadecyl phosphonic acid and such other derivatives are reported here. These derivatives have a potential application as tethers to nanoparticle ...

  9. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of resveratrol or an oligomeric or glycosidically-bound derivative thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A recombinant micro-organism producing resveratrol by a pathway in which phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) produces trans-cinnamic acid from phenylalanine, cinnamate 4- hydroxylase (C4H) produces 4-coumaric acid from said trans- cinnamic acid, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) produces 4- coumaroyl Co...

  10. Deodorants: an experimental provocation study with cinnamic aldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary dermatitis is common and overrepresented in individuals with contact allergy to fragrances. Many individuals suspect their deodorants to be the incriminating products. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the significance of cinnamic aldehyde in deodorants for the developmen...

  11. Ferulic acid derivatives from Ligusticum chuanxiong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Han, Bing; Feng, Zi-Ming; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Four new ferulic acid derivatives ligusticumacid A-C (1-3) and ligusticumaldehyde A (4), one new dimer ligusticumacid D (5), and two novel 8-8' lignans ligusticumacid E-F (6-7) were isolated from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. In particular, compounds 1-2, 5 were rarely phenylpropanoid phenolic acid dimers through different polymerization action in natural products. Their structures were established using UV, IR, HRESIMS, NMR data. The absolute configurations of 3 was determined by quantum ECD calculation and 4, 6-7 were determined by the ECD exciton chirality method. In addition, all compounds were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell injury induced by H 2 O 2 . Compound 2 had a moderate neuroprotective activity and 7 had a weak neuroprotective activity on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell injury induced by H 2 O 2 respectively . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Yeast Expression of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase from Ornithogalum saundersiae Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OSW-1, isolated from the bulbs of Ornithogalum saundersiae Baker, is a steroidal saponin endowed with considerable antitumor properties. Biosynthesis of the 4-methoxybenzoyl group on the disaccharide moiety of OSW-1 is known to take place biochemically via the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, but molecular biological characterization of the related genes has been insufficient. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11, catalyzing the hydroxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, plays a key role in the ability of phenylpropanoid metabolism to channel carbon to produce the 4-methoxybenzoyl group on the disaccharide moiety of OSW-1. Molecular isolation and functional characterization of the C4H genes, therefore, is an important step for pathway characterization of 4-methoxybenzoyl group biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for C4H, designated as OsaC4H, was isolated according to the transcriptome sequencing results of Ornithogalum saundersiae. The full-length OsaC4H cDNA is 1,608-bp long, with a 1,518-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 505 amino acids, a 55-bp 5′ non-coding region and a 35-bp 3'-untranslated region. OsaC4H was functionally characterized by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shown to catalyze the oxidation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, which was identified by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The identification of the OsaC4H gene was expected to open the way to clarification of the biosynthetic pathway of OSW-1.

  13. Selective growth inhibitor toward human intestinal bacteria derived from Pulsatilla cernua root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Beon, M S; Kim, M K

    2001-10-01

    Among 21 medicinal plants, the growth-inhibiting activity of Pulsatilla cernua root-derived materials toward human intestinal bacteria was examined by using an impregnated paper disk method. The biologically active components of P. cernua roots were characterized as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid by spectroscopic analysis. The activity was compared with that of six commercially available cinnamic acid derivatives trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, 2-methoxycinnamic acid, 3-methoxycinnamic acid, and 4-methoxycinnamic acid. The growth responses varied with each bacterial strain tested. Two isolated compounds revealed a potent inhibition against Clostridium perfringens, and moderate to weak activity against Escherichia coli was exhibited by 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid. Weak or no inhibitory activity was obtained against the bifidobacteria or Lactobacillus acidophilus. The inhibitory effect was much more pronounced in C. perfringens and E. coli as compared to B. adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. fragilis, B. longum, or L. acidophilus. Cinnamaldehyde exhibited a strong growth-inhibiting activity, but no inhibition was observed from treatments with trans-cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, 2-methoxycinnamic acid, 3-methoxycinnamic acid, and 4-methoxycinnamic acid. These results may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of P. cernua root.

  14. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives | Govender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acid fluoride is required for activation of the cage amino acid in SPPS. Esterification of the sterically hindered trishomocubane amino acid is also reported, indicating sufficient reactivity of the acid function for potential use in SPPS. Keywords: Trishomocubane amino acid, hydantoin, Fmoc protection, t-Boc protection, ...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid...

  16. Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Vegetables by Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞMUŞ, Zeynep; ÇETİN, Sevil Müge

    2014-01-01

    Determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in garlic, green pepper and chestnut was performed by derivative spectrophotometry without using any pre-separation or background correction techniques. The method is based on the measurement of the distances between two extremum values (peak-to-peak amplitudes) in second and third order derivative spectra of the extracts. Ten percent trichloroacetic acid was found to be the most suitable extraction solution. In the second order derivative spectru...

  17. Synthesis of 5'-deoxy-5'-nucleosideacetic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    Several new 5'-deoxy-5'-nucleosideacetic acid derivatives have been synthesized by the reactions of alkoxycarbonylmethylene triphenylphosphoranes with nucleoside 5'-aldehydes. The oligomerization of adenine derivatives IIa, IIIa, IV, V and guanine derivatives IIc and IIIc in aqueous solution was studied using a water-soluble carbodiimide as a condensing agent. It is found that the saturated acid (IV) tends to cyclize to the lactone, while IIa and unsaturated acids (IIIa and V) oligomerized efficiently, especially in the presence of poly (U) as a template.

  18. Tetranortriterpenoids and Dihydrocinnamic Acid Derivatives from Hortia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez Luis E. Cuca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel tetranortriterpenoid and two dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives were obtained from the wood of Hortia colombiana. Their structures were elucidated by detailed NMR investigations and the relative configurations established by Difference NOE experiments. In addition, alloxanthoxyletin, nerolidol, epoxynerolidol, three known dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives and two amides were isolated. Detailed analysis of NMR data of Hortiolide A, whose structure was previosly established by X ray, are also provided.

  19. Magnesium cinnamate complex, [Mg(cinn)2(H2O)2]n; structural, spectroscopic, thermal, biological and pharmacokinetical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puszyńska-Tuszkanow, Mariola; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Grabowski, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Maciejewska, Gabriela; Adach, Anna; Kucharska-Ziembicka, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Cieślak-Golonka, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The composition and structure of the magnesium complex with cinnamic acid, [Mg(cinn)2(H2O)2]n(1), were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction data, IR, NMR spectroscopies, thermal and mass spectrometry analysis. Magnesium cinnamate complex, like the isostructural cobalt(II) species reported in the literature, appears to belong to the group of coordination polymers forming layered solids with pseudooctahedral coordination around the metal centre and Osbnd Csbnd O bridging units. The vibrational assignments of the experimental spectra of the complex (1) were performed on the basis of the DFT results obtained for the [Mg(cinn)4(H2O)2]2- ion, serving as a model. The complex was found to exhibit a very low cytotoxicity against neoplastic: A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), P388 (murine leukemia) and normal BALB3T3 (mouse fibroblasts) cell lines. In silico pharmacokinetical parameter calculations for (1) and seven known magnesium complexes with carboxylic acids: lactic, malic, glutamic, hydroaspartic and aspartic allowed for comparison of their potential bioavailability. Magnesium cinnamate complex appeared to exhibit a superior lipophilic property that suggests an optimal pharmacokinetics profile.

  20. Quest for steroidomimetics: Amino acids derived steroidal and nonsteroidal architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagufta; Ahmad, Irshad; Panda, Gautam

    2017-06-16

    The chiral pool amino acids have been utilized for the construction of steroidal and non-steroidal architectures in the quest for steroidomimetics. Chirality derived from amino acid-based architectures provides new and easy to incorporate chiral chemical space, which is otherwise very difficult to introduce and comprised of several synthetic steps for asymmetric steroids. The different and exciting ligand-receptor interactions may arise from the use of each amino acid enantiomer that was introduced into the chiral steroidal backbone. The A and D rings of steroidal architectures can be mimicked by the phenyl group of the amino acid tyrosine. The Mitsunobu reaction, nucleophilic substitution and elimination, etc. were utilized for constructing diverse tri- and tetracyclic steroidal skeletons as well as benzofused seco-steroids from amino acids. These benzofused, amino acid-derived steroidal and nonsteroidal molecules had promising biological activity in hormonal related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  2. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  3. Acid-catalyzed rearrangements of flavans to novelbenzofuran derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; Weiling Peng; Anthony H. Conner; Petrus J. Steynberg; Jan P. Steynberg

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to define reactions that occur when proanthocyanidins and their derivatives are reacted in the presence of acid catalysts. Pure compounds (either as the free phenols, the methyl ether, or the methyl ether-acetate derivatives) were isolated by a variety of chromatographic methods. Proof of their structure was based mainly on 2D-NMR, as...

  4. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimabi Wahidullah

    Full Text Available As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl with salicylic acid (3-8 were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12, metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13 and β-carbolines, norharman (14, harman (15 and methyl derivative (16, which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  5. The weak-acid preservative sorbic acid is decarboxylated and detoxified by a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase, PadA1, in the spoilage mold Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Andrew; Stratford, Malcolm; Lowe, Kenneth C; Archer, David B

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to sorbic and cinnamic acids is mediated by a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (PadA1) in Aspergillus niger. A. niger DeltapadA1 mutants are unable to decarboxylate sorbic and cinnamic acids, and the MIC of sorbic acid required to inhibit spore germination was reduced by approximately 50% in DeltapadA1 mutants.

  6. The Weak-Acid Preservative Sorbic Acid Is Decarboxylated and Detoxified by a Phenylacrylic Acid Decarboxylase, PadA1, in the Spoilage Mold Aspergillus niger▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Plumridge, Andrew; Stratford, Malcolm; Lowe, Kenneth C.; Archer, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to sorbic and cinnamic acids is mediated by a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (PadA1) in Aspergillus niger. A. niger ΔpadA1 mutants are unable to decarboxylate sorbic and cinnamic acids, and the MIC of sorbic acid required to inhibit spore germination was reduced by ∼50% in ΔpadA1 mutants.

  7. The Weak-Acid Preservative Sorbic Acid Is Decarboxylated and Detoxified by a Phenylacrylic Acid Decarboxylase, PadA1, in the Spoilage Mold Aspergillus niger▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Andrew; Stratford, Malcolm; Lowe, Kenneth C.; Archer, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to sorbic and cinnamic acids is mediated by a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (PadA1) in Aspergillus niger. A. niger ΔpadA1 mutants are unable to decarboxylate sorbic and cinnamic acids, and the MIC of sorbic acid required to inhibit spore germination was reduced by ∼50% in ΔpadA1 mutants. PMID:18039817

  8. Neuroprotective Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from the Flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Feng, Zi-Ming; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2017-04-28

    Three new caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chrysanthemorimic acids A-C (1-3), and 11 known compounds (4-14) were isolated and characterized from the flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic data as well as by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Chrysanthemorimic acids A-C possess a rare 8-oxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one ring that is formed through a [5+2] cycloaddition of caffeoylquinic acid with a d-glucose derivative. Compounds 1-3, 6-8, 12, and 13 displayed significant effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells at 10 μM.

  9. Impacts of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors generated in the pretreatment and hydrolysis of corn stover and corn cob were identified. In general, they inhibited cell growth, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid production but with less or no adverse effect on alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol production in batch fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were highly toxic at 0.5-1 g L(-1), while formic and acetic acids at less than 4 g L(-1) and levulinic acid at 10 g L(-1) were not toxic. Among the phenolic compounds at 1 g L(-1), trans-cinnamic acid and syringaldehyde had the highest toxicity while syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were not toxic. Although these inhibitors were present at concentrations much lower than their separately identified toxic levels, lactic acid fermentation with the hydrolysates showed much inferior performance compared to the control without inhibitor, suggesting synergistic or compounded effects of the lignocellulose-degraded compounds on inhibiting lactic acid fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of gallic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of gallic acid derivatives (1–33 was synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and fungal strains by the tube dilution method. Results of antimicrobial screening indicated that compound 6 was the most active antimicrobial agent (pMICam = 1.92 μM/mL. The results of QSAR studies demonstrated that antibacterial, antifungal and overall antimicrobial activities of synthesized gallic acid derivatives were governed by the electronic parameters, cosmic total energy (Cos E. and nuclear energy (Nu. E..

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Antimycobacterial Activity of Novel Theophylline-7-Acetic Acid Derivatives With Amino Acid Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakov, Georgi; Valcheva, Violeta; Voynikov, Yulian; Philipova, Irena; Atanasova, Mariyana; Konstantinov, Spiro; Peikov, Plamen; Doytchinova, Irini

    2016-03-01

    The theophylline-7-acetic acid (7-TAA) scaffold is a promising novel lead compound for antimycobacterial activity. Here, we derive a model for antitubercular activity prediction based on 14 7-TAA derivatives with amino acid moieties and their methyl esters. The model is applied to a combinatorial library, consisting of 40 amino acid and methyl ester derivatives of 7-TAA. The best three predicted compounds are synthesized and tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All of them are stable, non-toxic against human cells and show antimycobacterial activity in the nanomolar range being 60 times more active than ethambutol. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Functional Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Poplar (Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides) Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Dae Kyun; Mah, Nancy; Ellis, Brian E.; Douglas, Carl J.

    2001-01-01

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), a member of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase superfamily, plays a central role in phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin biosynthesis and possibly anchors a phenylpropanoid enzyme complex to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A full-length cDNA encoding C4H was isolated from a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) young leaf cDNA library. RNA-blot analysis detected C4H transcripts in all organs tested, but the gene was most highly expressed in developing xylem. C4H expression was also strongly induced by elicitor-treatment in poplar cell cultures. To verify the catalytic activity of the putative C4H cDNA, two constructs, C4H and C4H fused to the FLAG epitope (C4H::FLAG), were expressed in yeast. Immunoblot analysis showed that C4H was present in the microsomal fraction and microsomal preparations from strains expressing both enzymes efficiently converted cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid with high specific activities. To investigate the subcellular localization of C4H in vivo, a chimeric C4H-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was engineered and stably expressed in Arabidopsis. Confocal laser microscopy analysis clearly showed that in Arabidopsis the C4H::GFP chimeric enzyme was localized to the ER. When expressed in yeast, the C4H::GFP fusion enzyme was also active but displayed significantly lower specific activity than either C4H or C4H::FLAG in in vitro and in vivo enzyme assays. These data definitively show that C4H is localized to the ER in planta. PMID:11351095

  13. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  14. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catal, Tunc [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Fan, Yanzhen; Liu, Hong [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Li, Kaichang [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Bermek, Hakan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains. (author)

  15. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Velasco B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biotransformación de ácido trans-cinámico mediante células completas del hongo fitopatógeno nativo colombiano Colletotrichum acutatum. Inicialmente, se evaluó la fungitoxicidad de este compuesto contraC. acutatum; el ácido trans-cinámico exhibió una toxicidad moderada a débil contra el microorganismo y aparentemente se presentó un mecanismo de detoxificación. Luego, para estudiar tal mecanismo y explorar la capacidad de este hongo para biotransformar el ácido trans-cinámico en productos con valor agregado, el microorganismo se incubó con el sustrato usando tres medios de cultivo diferentes (Czapeck-Dox, Sabouraud y PDB a condiciones ambientales. Usando el medio Czapeck-Dox, los cultivos completos de C.acutatum redujeron el ácido trans-cinámico, primero a aldehídos (transcinamaldehido y 3-fenilpropanal, luego a alcoholes (alcohol cinamílico y 3-fenil-1-propanol. Posteriormente, estos alcoholes fueron transformados a los correspondientes ésteres de acetilo. Sin embargo, algunos de estos productos estuvieron ausentes o presentes a una concentración diferente cuando se cambió el medio de cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un mecanismo de detoxificación en el cual el sistema carbonílico α,β-insaturado es afectado.Por otra parte, los productos metabólicos formados son compuestos útiles usados como fragancias y sabores. Por consiguiente, el metabolismo del ácido trans-cinámico usando C. acutatum puede proporcionar nuevos blancos metabólicos para controlar C. acutatum así como también una forma simple y eficiente para obtener sabores y perfumes, tales como el alcohol cinamílico y el 3-fenil-1-propanol, y sus ésteres de acetilo.

  16. The Synthesis and Evaluation of Arctigenin Amino Acid Ester Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, En-Bo; Yang, Li-Min; Jia, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Zhao, Yan; Li, Wei; Song, Xing-Zhuo; Zheng, Man-Ling

    2016-10-01

    The use of arctigenin (ARG), a traditional medicine with many pharmacological activities, has been restricted due to its poor solubility in water. Five amino acid derivatives of ARG have been synthesized using glycine, o-alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, which have t-butyloxy carbonyl (BOC) as a protective group. In this study, we examined the effects of removing these protective groups. The results showed that the amino acid derivatives have better solubility and nitrite-clearing ability than ARG. Among the compounds tested, the amino acid derivatives without protective group were the best. Based on these results, ARG and its two amino acid derivatives without protective group (ARG8, ARG10) were selected to evaluate their anti-tumor activity in vivo at a dosage of 40 mg/kg. The results indicated that ARG8 and ARG10 both exhibit more anti-tumor activity than ARG in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The tumor inhibition rates of ARG8 and ARG10 were 69.27 and 43.58%, which was much higher than ARG. Furthermore, the mice treated with these compounds exhibited less damage to the liver, kidney and immune organs compared with the positive group. Furthermore, ARG8 and ARG10 improved the serum cytokine levels significantly compared to ARG. In brief, this study provides a method to improve the water solubility of drugs, and we also provide a reference basis for new drug development.

  17. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core ...

  18. Synthesis of azido derivatives of mucobromic acid | D. Jumbam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucobromic acid is a highly reactive multicentered molecule. It was converted to its corresponding but unstable diazido derivative by reaction with two equivalents of sodium azide. The resultant 3,4-diazido-5-hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one was obtained in moderate yield (42%) but decomposed readily even at low temperatures.

  19. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of betulinic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Dariana Pimentel Gomes; de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Menezes, Camila Braz; Senger, Franciane Rios; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Baggio Gnoatto, Simone Cristina; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-12-01

    Caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral STD worldwide. Currently, metronidazole and tinidazole are the only drugs approved for treatment of the condition. However, problems such as metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis isolates and allergic reactions have been reported. Based on data previously published by our group, structural changes in betulinic acid (1) were performed, generating three new compounds that were tested for in vitro anti-T.vaginalis activity in this study. Whereas derivative 2 did not demonstrate anti-T. vaginalis activity, derivatives 3 and 4 reduced trophozoite viability by 100%, with MIC values of 50μM. The structural difference of two compounds was performed only on the C-28 position. Derivative 3 showed low cytotoxicity against Vero cells in 24h; however, derivative 4 was highly cytotoxic, but efficient when associated with metronidazole in the synergism assay. ROS production by neutrophils was reduced, and derivative 3 showed anti-inflammatory effect. Collectively, the results of this study provide in vitro evidence that betulinic acid derivatives 3 and 4 are potential compounds with anti-T. vaginalis activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  1. Hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives as peroxynitrite scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubková, Beáta; Veliká, Beáta; Birková, Anna; Guzy, Juraj; Mareková, Mária

    2014-10-01

    A social challenge of the 21(st) century is to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. A balanced diet rich in polyphenols could contribute to reduce the risk and to the prevention of diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's diseases and cataract(1). Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA) and their derivatives, which are one of the substances responsible for these beneficial properties, are known mainly due to their antioxidant properties(2). They are effective scavengers of free radicals and reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is resulting from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, causes lipid peroxidation and subsequent cellular damage and is responsible for the inactivation of many enzymes, activation of stress signalling pathways, release of proapoptotic factors, as well as cardiovascular dysfunction in septic schock(3). In this study we have tested 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, acetylsalicylic acid, 4-HBA methyl and propyl esters, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 2,5-DHBA, 2,4-DHBA, 2,6-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA, 3,4-DHBA, gallic acid and caffeic acid, by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The best ability to scavenge peroxynitrite was observed for gallic acid, 2,4-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA and caffeic acid. Improved comprehension of the complex relationship between the antioxidant properties of substances and their structure is important to understand their proper use in the prevention and treatment of diseases and for the detection of pathological processes. Monitoring and improved understanding of the antioxidant properties of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are important due to their frequent use in modern medical nutrition therapies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects: results and methodological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patc...

  4. Benzoylsalicylic acid derivatives as defense activators in tobacco and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatham, Samuel; Pallu, Reddanna; Pasupulati, Anil Kumar; Singh, Surya Satyanarayana; Gudipalli, Padmaja

    2017-11-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long lasting inducible whole plant immunity often induced by either pathogens or chemical elicitors. Salicylic acid (SA) is a known SAR signal against a broad spectrum of pathogens in plants. In a recent study, we have reported that benzoylsalicylic acid (BzSA) is a SAR inducer in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Here, we have synthesized BzSA derivatives using SA and benzoyl chlorides of various moieties as substrates. The chemical structures of BzSA derivatives were elucidated using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) and High-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) analysis. The bioefficacy of BzSA derivatives in inducing defense response against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was investigated in tobacco and SA abolished transgenic NahG Arabidopsis plants. Interestingly, pre-treatment of local leaves of tobacco with BzSA derivatives enhanced the expression of SAR genes such as NPR1 [Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes 1], PR and other defense marker genes (HSR203, SIPK, WIPK) in systemic leaves. Pre-treatment of BzSA derivatives reduced the spread of TMV infection to uninfected areas by restricting lesion number and diameter both in local and systemic leaves of tobacco in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, pre-treatment of BzSA derivatives in local leaves of SA deficient Arabidopsis NahG plants induced SAR through AtPR1 and AtPR5 gene expression and reduced leaf necrosis and curling symptoms in systemic leaves as compared to BzSA. These results suggest that BzSA derivatives are potent SAR inducers against TMV in tobacco and Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anacardic acid derivatives from Brazilian propolis and their antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.S.S.; Lima, S.G. de; Lopes, J.A.D.; Chaves, M.H.; Cito, A.M.G.L. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: gracito@ufpi.br; Oliveira, E.H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia; Reis, F.A.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Propolis is a sticky, gummy, resinous substance collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from various plant sources, which has excellent medicinal properties. This paper describes the isolation and identification of triterpenoids and anacardic acid derivatives from Brazilian propolis and their antibacterial activity. Their structures were elucidated by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including uni- and bidimensional techniques; in addition, comparisons were made with data from academic literature. These compounds were identified as: cardanols (1a + 1b), cardols (2a + 2b), mono ene anacardic acid (3), alpha-amirine (4), beta-amirine (5), cycloartenol (6), 24-methylene-cycloartenol (7) and lupeol (8). The determination of the position of the double bond after a reaction with Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is described for the phenol derivatives. The ethanolic extract was tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity by using the disc diffusion method and it showed significant results against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella spp. (author)

  6. Anacardic acid derivatives from Brazilian propolis and their antibacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. S. S.; De Lima, S. G.; Oliveira, E. H.; Lopes, J. A. D.; Chaves, M. H.; Reis, F. A. M.; Citó, A. M. G. L.

    2008-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky, gummy, resinous substance collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from various plant sources, which has excellent medicinal properties. This paper describes the isolation and identification of triterpenoids and anacardic acid derivatives from Brazilian propolis and their antibacterial activity. Their structures were elucidated by ¹H and 13C NMR, including uni- and bidimensional techniques; in addition, comparisons were made with data from academic literature. These co...

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of monoaromatic derivatives of pulvinic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habrant, Damien; Poigny, Stéphane; Ségur-Derai, Muriel; Brunel, Yves; Heurtaux, Benoît; Le Gall, Thierry; Strehle, Axelle; Saladin, Régis; Meunier, Stéphane; Mioskowski, Charles; Wagner, Alain

    2009-04-23

    The natural mushroom pigment Norbadione A and three other pulvinic acids were shown by our group to display very efficient antioxidant properties by comparison with a collection of potent molecules including catechols, flavonoids, stilbenes, or coumarins. Despite numerous publications on robust and straightforward synthetic access to pulvinic acids by us and others, no report has been made to unravel the structure-activity relationships that govern the striking antioxidant activity. Herein is presented the synthesis of 18 diverse pulvinic acid derivatives and the study of their radical scavenging capacities by four different assays. The influence of each of the two phenyl rings, of their substituents and of the lateral chain on the antioxidant properties, was explored to reveal a simplified structure of excellent activity. These results, along with the absence of cytotoxicity, make the synthesized compounds interesting to evaluate for several biological activities and especially for anti-inflammatory effects and skin protection against UV induced oxidative stress.

  8. Synthesis and properties of synthetic fulvic acid derived from hematoxylin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Valentina A.; Minaev, Boris F.; Baryshnikov, Gleb V.

    2015-04-01

    A model fulvic acid (FA) was synthesized from a natural dye, hematoxylin, in a slow oxidative polymerization/condensation reaction catalysed by OH- at pH ca. 12. The resulting dark-brown product, acidified to pH ca. 2, did not precipitate from the reaction solution. It was isolated and purified by cation-exchange resin. Its physicochemical and spectroscopic properties, as determined by means of elemental analysis, molecular weight analyses, Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, showed a close resemblance to natural FA. The similarity and differences between synthetic fulvic acids derived from hematoxylin and the natural fulvic acids substances are discussed. Quantum-chemical calculations of the supposed primary oxidation products of hematoxylin are performed and compared with observations.

  9. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  10. Lactic acid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars using lactic acid bacteria: overview and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-12-20

    Lactic acid is an industrially important product with a large and rapidly expanding market due to its attractive and valuable multi-function properties. The economics of lactic acid production by fermentation is dependent on many factors, of which the cost of the raw materials is very significant. It is very expensive when sugars, e.g., glucose, sucrose, starch, etc., are used as the feedstock for lactic acid production. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock for lactic acid production considering its great availability, sustainability, and low cost compared to refined sugars. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of lignocellulose for lactic acid production is still problematic. This review describes the "conventional" processes for producing lactic acid from lignocellulosic materials with lactic acid bacteria. These processes include: pretreatment of the biomass, enzyme hydrolysis to obtain fermentable sugars, fermentation technologies, and separation and purification of lactic acid. In addition, the difficulties associated with using this biomass for lactic acid production are especially introduced and several key properties that should be targeted for low-cost and advanced fermentation processes are pointed out. We also discuss the metabolism of lignocellulose-derived sugars by lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Stolaříková, Jiřina

    2017-03-15

    Twenty-four 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid (rhodanine-3-acetic acid)-based amides, esters and 5-arylalkylidene derivatives were synthesized, characterized and evaluated as potential antimicrobial agents against a panel of bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. All of the derivatives were active against mycobacteria. N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide demonstrated the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 8-16μM. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were the most susceptible to 2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acids (MIC values ⩾32μM). The highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exhibited 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetate (MIC⩾15.62μM). Several structure-activity relationships were identified. The activity against Gram-negative and fungal pathogens was marginal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of some bis- and mono-2-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives and the determination of their acidity constants

    OpenAIRE

    KATARINA M. PENOV GASI; MIRJANA M. POPSAVIN; GYONGYI GY. VASTAG; TEREZIA M. SURANYI; Djurendic, Evgenija A.

    2000-01-01

    Several bis- and mono-2-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate with some alcohols (diols, polyols and amino alcohols) and their acidity constants were determined in 60 % aqueous ethanol by the potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that the biochemical behaviour of these compounds is greatly dependent on their acidity. It appears that the ester derivatives are weaker acids than the amide derivatives and, therefore, can be poten...

  13. Copper(I) mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived organozinc reagents with acid chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Tanner, David Ackland

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a straightforward experimental protocol for copper-mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived beta-amido-alkylzinc iodides 1 and 3 with a range of acid chlorides. The present method uses CuCN center dot 2LiCl as the copper source and for organozinc reagent...... 1 the methodology appears to be limited to reaction with more stable acid chlorides, providing the desired products in moderate yields. When applied to organozinc reagent 3, however, the protocol is more general and provides the products in good yields in all but one of the cases tested....

  14. Synthesis and antifungal activity of new salicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodnicka Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple one-step procedure for synthesis of 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates and 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl 2-[(1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yloxy]benzoates by reaction of salicylic acid with several methyl 2-bromoalkanoates was developed. The reactions were carried out in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. Conditions for regioselective synthesis of target compounds were established. The developed procedure could be easily applied in the industrial production process. The new salicylic acid derivatives were obtained with satisfactory yields and were characterized by MS and 1H NMR spectra. The fungicidal activity of the prepared compounds was tested in vitro against seven species of plant pathogenic fungi. The best results were observed for 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates which showed moderate or good activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani.

  15. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of propionic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of Schiff bases (1–17 and esters (18–24 of propionic acid was synthesized in appreciable yield and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by tube dilution method. Results of antimicrobial screening indicated that besides having good antibacterial activity, the synthesized compounds also displayed appreciable antifungal activity and compound 10 emerged as the most active antifungal agent (pMICca and pMICan = 1.93. The results of QSAR studies demonstrated that antibacterial, antifungal and overall antimicrobial activities of synthesized propionic acid derivatives were governed by the topological parameters, Kier’s alpha first order shape index (κα1 and valence first order molecular connectivity index (1χv.

  16. A novel polymeric herbicide based on phenoxyacetic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimol Klaichim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel polymeric herbicide based on phenoxyacetic acid derivatives was prepared by the reaction of epoxidised liquid natural rubber (ELNR with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D or 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid(MCPA. The liquid natural rubber (LNR was firstly obtained from the degradation of natural rubber latex with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The epoxidised liquid natural rubber was prepared from thereaction of LNR with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide at 50oC for 6 hrs. The reaction of epoxidised liquid natural rubber with 2,4-D or MCPA using triethylamine as a catalyst in toluene was performed at 70, 80, and 90oC for 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24hrs. The polymeric herbicides obtained were characterized and the grafting percentage of 2,4-D or MCPA onto liquid natural rubber were also determined by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the grafting percentage increased with increasing amount of reactants, temperature, and reaction time. The release of 2,4-D and MCPA from polymeric herbicides was investigated in pH 6, 7, and 8 buffers at room temperature. The results show that the slowest release of 2,4-D and MCPA was found to be constant at pH 7 for 14 and 10 days, respectively.

  17. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid-base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for (1)H, and (31)P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3-40min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤6.7kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100-800μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, kinetic mechanism and docking studies of vanillin derivatives as inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to discover the extent of contribution to antityrosinase activity by adding hydroxy substituted benzoic acid, cinnamic acid and piperazine residues to vanillin. The study showed the transformation of vanillin into esters as shown in (4a-4d), (6a-6b), and (8a-8b). In addition, the relationship between structures of these esters and their mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity was explored. The kinetics of inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase by these esters was also investigated. It was found that hydroxyl substituted benzoic acid derivatives were weak inhibitors; however hydroxy or chloro substituted cinnamic acid and piperazine substituted derivatives were able to induce significant tyrosinase inhibition. The mushroom tyrosinase (PDBID 2ZWE) was docked with synthesized vanillin derivatives and their calculated binding energies were compared with experimental IC50 values which provided positive correlation. The most potent derivative 2-(4-formyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-2-oxoethyl (2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate (6a) possesses hydroxy substituted cinnamic acid scaffold having IC50 value 16.13 μM with binding energy of -7.2 kcal/mol. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of (6a) is comparable with standard kojic acid. Kinetic analysis indicated that compound 6a was mixed-type tyrosinase inhibitor with inhibition constant values Ki (13 μM) and Ki' (53 μM) and formed reversible enzyme inhibitor complex. The active vanillin analog (6a) was devoid of toxic effects as shown in cytotoxic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. GABA analogues derived from 4-aminocyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine E S; Johnston, Graham A R; Allan, Robin D

    2009-10-01

    The incorporation of extra binding groups onto known ligands is a powerful tool for the development of more potent and selective agents at target sites such as the GABA receptors. In the present work we have attempted to build on the activity of the know potent GABA(A) agonist 4-ACP-3-CA and its cis and trans saturated analogues CACP and TACP. We have investigated reactions to add thiol substituents to the alpha,beta-unsaturated system of 4-ACP-3-CA. The reaction was successful with a limited number of thiols but gave products of mixed stereochemistry. The resultant thioether amino acids were screened for activity at human recombinant alpha(1)beta(2) gamma(2L) GABA(A) receptors. The most interesting derivative was the benzylthioether which acted as an antagonist with an IC(50) of 42 microM for the inhibition of a GABA EC(50) dose (50 microM). This study has shown that GABA analogues derived by thiol addition to 4-aminocyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid display interesting antagonist activity at the alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L) GABA(A) receptor.

  1. Bioimaging of hyaluronic acid derivatives using nanosized carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Eun Ji; Kim, Ki Su; Kim, Yi Rang; Jung, Ho Sang; Beack, Songeun; Kong, Won Ho; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2012-08-13

    Fluorescent nanosized carbon dots (Cdots) are an emerging bioimaging agent with excellent chemical inertness and marginal cytotoxicity in comparison to widely used semiconductor quantum dots. In this work, we report the application of Cdots for real time bioimaging of target specific delivery of hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine-capped Cdots were synthesized by the pyrolysis of citric acid in a hot solvent. The synthesized Cdots showed strong fluorescence under UV excitation with emission properties dependending on the excitation wavelength. HA-Cdot conjugates were synthesized by amide bond formation between amine groups of Cdot and carboxylic groups of HA. After confirmation of the negligible cytotoxicity of Cdots and HA-Cdot conjugates, in vitro bioimaging was carried out for target specific intracellular delivery of the HA-Cdot conjugates by HA receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, in vivo real-time bioimaging of Cdots and HA-Cdot conjugates exhibited the target specific delivery of HA-Cdot conjugates to the liver with abundant HA receptors. Taken together, we could confirm the feasibility of HA derivatives as a target-specific drug delivery carrier for the treatment of liver diseases and Cdots as a promising bioimaging agent.

  2. Highly efficient conductivity modulation of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Huiyong; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Yue; Guo, Zhongjia

    2014-12-11

    A new class of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids was synthesized and characterized, and these ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains showed a remarkable increase in ionic conductivity under UV light irradiation in aqueous solutions.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of salicylic acid derivatives with 2-aminobenzotiyazol derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    İlkimen, Halil; Yenikaya, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    In thisstudy, mixed ligand transitionmetal complexes of Cu(II)have been prepared between salicylic acid derivatives [salicylic acid (H2sal) or acetylsalicylic acid (Hasal)] and 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives[2-aminobenzothiazole (abt) or 2-amino-6-chlorobenzothiazole (Clabt) or2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole (Meabt)]. The structures of amorphous metalcomplexes have been proposed by evaluating the data obtained from elementalanalysis, ICP-OES, FT-IR, UV-Vis, thermal analysis, magnetic suscepti...

  4. A density functional theory study on the molecular mechanism of the cycloaddition between (E)-methyl cinnamate and cyclopentadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais Universidade Federal do Para, CP 11101, 66075-110, Belem, Para (Brazil)]. E-mail: nahum@ufpa.br; Camilo, F.F. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, 05513-970 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Gruber, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, 05513-970 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Silva, A.B.F. da [Departamento de Quimica e Fisica Molecular, Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos SP (Brazil)

    2004-11-15

    The molecular mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction between (E)-methyl cinnamate and cyclopentadiene has been characterized by means of density functional theory method at the B3LYP/6-31G* theory level. Stationary points for two reactive channels, endo-cis and exo-cis, on potential energy surfaces, have been characterized. Three Lewis acids, boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}), aluminum trichloride (AlCl{sub 3}) and catechol boron bromide (CBB), have been used as catalysts taking into account the formation of a complex between the boron or aluminum atom and the carbonyl oxygen of (E)-methyl cinnamate. The molecular mechanism of the uncatalyzed reaction corresponds to a concerted process. In the presence of BF{sub 3} and AlCl{sub 3}, enhancement of both the asynchronicity and charge transfer between diene and the dienophile, with small decreased energy barriers, were obtained. With CBB, the molecular mechanism changes and the reaction takes place along a stepwise mechanism. The inclusion of the CBB catalyst drastically decreases the energy barrier associated with the carbon-carbon bond formation of the first step relative to the concerted process. The results obtained in this work are compared with experimental data and AM1 semiempirical calculation.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and AntibacterialActivity of Azomethine Derivatives Derived from 2-Formylphenoxyacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Weaver

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of eight new azomethine derivatives were synthesized by reacting 2-formylphenoxyacetic acid with aromatic amines. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by means of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The compounds were assayed by the disc diffusion method for antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Among the compounds tested, 2a, 2b, 2e, 2g and 2h exhibited good antibacterial activity, almost equal to that of Ciprofloxacin used as standard.

  6. Four New Dicaffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L. and Their Antioxidative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yong Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four new dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives and two known 3-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were isolated from methanol extracts using the aerial parts of Salicornia herbacea. The four new dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives were established as 3-caffeoyl-5-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-5-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, 3-caffeoyl-4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, and 3,5-di-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester. Their chemical structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS. In addition, the presence of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives in this plant was reconfirmed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The isolated compounds strongly scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and inhibited cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide formation during rat blood plasma oxidation induced by copper ions. These results indicate that the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives may partially contribute to the antioxidative effect of S. herbacea.

  7. Three new amino acid derivatives from edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Jie; Feng, Bao-Min; Chen, Shao-Fei; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2017-12-01

    Three new amino acid derivatives, oxalamido-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (1), oxalamido-L-leucine methyl ester (2), and lumichrome hydrolyzate (3), together with nine known compounds (4-12), were isolated from the solid culture of edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by the chiral synthesis and confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) analysis of their total synthesis products and natural isolates. All new compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activities, and cytotoxic activity. Compounds 1-3 showed weak antifungal activities against Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 500 μg/ml.

  8. TWO BIOACTIVE FERULIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM EREMOSTACHYS GLABRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Two ferulic acid derivatives, hexacosyl-(E-ferulate [1] and leucosceptoside A [2], have been isolated from the rhizomes of Eremostachys glabra. The chemical structures of these compounds have been elucidated by UV, ESIMS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses, and also by comparing experimental data with respective literature data. The free radical scavenging activity and general toxicity of these compounds have been assessed. While none of these compounds has shown any significant general toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LD50>1 mg/mL, compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (RC50 = 0.0976 mg/mL and 0.0148 mg/mL, respectively.

  9. A new helvolic acid derivative from an endophytic Fusarium sp. of Ficus carica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xi-Ai; Ma, Yang-Min; Zhang, Hong-Chi; Liu, Rui

    2016-11-01

    A new helvolic acid derivative named helvolic acid methyl ester (1), together with two known helvolic acid compounds, helvolic acid (2) and hydrohelvolic acid (3), were isolated from the fermentation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. in Ficus carica leaves. Their structures were elucidated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-3 showed potent antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  10. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mono- and bissalicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurendić Evgenija A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthesis of mono- and bis-salicylic acid derivatives 1-10 by the transesterification of methyl salicylate (methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate with 3-oxapentane-1,5-diol, 3,6- dioxaoctane-1,8-diol, 3,6,9-trioxaundecane-1,11-diol, propane-1,2-diol or 1-aminopropan- 2-ol in alkaline conditions is reported. All compounds were tested in vitro on three malignant cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and one non-tumor cell line (MRC- 5. Strong cytotoxicity against prostate PC-3 cancer cells expressed compounds 3, 4, 6, 9 and 10, all with the IC50 less than 10 μmol/L, which were 11-27 times higher than the cytotoxicity of antitumor drug doxorubicin. All tested compounds were not toxic against the non-tumor MRC-5 cell line. Antioxidant activity of the synthesized derivatives was also evaluated. Compounds 2, 5 and 8 were better OH radical scavengers than commercial antioxidants BHT and BHA. The synthesized compounds showed satisfactory scavenger activity, which was studied by QSAR modeling. A good correlation between the experimental variables IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH and MTI (molecular topological indices molecular descriptors and CAA (accessible Connolly solvent surface area for the new compounds 1, 3, and 5 was observed.

  11. Chlorogenic acid versus amaranth's caffeoylisocitric acid - Gut microbial degradation of caffeic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Maren; Schröter, David; Esders, Selma; Neugart, Susanne; Farquharson, Freda M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Schreiner, Monika; Louis, Petra; Maul, Ronald; Rohn, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    The almost forgotten crop amaranth has gained renewed interest in recent years due to its immense nutritive potential. Health beneficial effects of certain plants are often attributed to secondary plant metabolites such as phenolic compounds. As these compounds undergo significant metabolism after consumption and are in most cases not absorbed very well, it is important to gain knowledge about absorption, biotransformation, and further metabolism in the human body. Whilst being hardly found in other edible plants, caffeoylisocitric acid represents the most abundant low molecular weight phenolic compound in many leafy amaranth species. Given that this may be a potentially bioactive compound, gastrointestinal microbial degradation of this substance was investigated in the present study by performing in vitro fermentation tests using three different fecal samples as inocula. The (phenolic) metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were carried out to study the influence on the microbiome and its composition. The in vitro fermentations led to different metabolite profiles depending on the specific donor. For example, the metabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was observed in one fermentation as the main metabolite, whereas 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was identified in the other fermentations as important. A significant change in selected microorganisms of the gut microbiota however was not detected. In conclusion, caffeoylisocitric acid from amaranth, which is a source of several esterified phenolic acids in addition to chlorogenic acid, can be metabolized by the human gut microbiota, but the metabolites produced vary between individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of bis-thiourea having amino acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Imran; Yamin, Bohari M.; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2016-11-01

    In this article four new symmetric bis-thiourea derivatives having amino acid linkers were reported with good yield. Isophthaloyl dichloride was used as spacer and L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, L-phenylalanine and L-glutamic acid were used as linkers. Bis-thiourea derivatives were prepared from relatively stable isophthaloyl isothiocyanate intermediate. Newly synthesized bis-thiourea derivatives were characterized by FTIR, H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CHNS-O elemental analysis techniques. Characterization data was in good agreement with the expected derivatives, hence confirmed the synthesis of four new derivatives of bis-thiourea having amino acids.

  13. Cloning and characterization of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene from Rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkuma; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which leads a variety of secondary metabolites to participate in differentiation and protection of plant against environmental stresses. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA of the C4H gene from a black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the RocC4H gene contained a 1,515 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 504 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 57.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 9.1. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that RocC4H gene had three exons and two introns. By multiple sequence alignment, RocC4H protein was highly homologous with other plant C4Hs, and the cytochrome P450-featured motifs, such as the heme-binding domain, the T-containing binding pocket motif (AAIETT), the ERR triad, and the tetrapeptide (PPGP) hinge motif, were highly conserved. Southern blot analysis revealed that RocC4H is a single copy gene in R. occidentalis.

  14. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... derivative. 721.430 Section 721.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  16. Synthesis of some bis- and mono-2-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives and the determination of their acidity constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARINA M. PENOV GASI

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bis- and mono-2-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate with some alcohols (diols, polyols and amino alcohols and their acidity constants were determined in 60 % aqueous ethanol by the potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that the biochemical behaviour of these compounds is greatly dependent on their acidity. It appears that the ester derivatives are weaker acids than the amide derivatives and, therefore, can be potentially more involved in the processes of metal ions transport in plants, whereas the introduction of –OH and –CH3 groups has a very small effect on the biochemical properties.

  17. Glutamic acid and its derivatives: candidates for rational design of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Wani, Waseem A; Haque, Ashanul; Saleem, Kishwar

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the history of human civilizations, cancer has been a major health problem. Its treatment has been interesting but challenging to scientists. Glutamic acid and its derivative glutamine are known to play interesting roles in cancer genesis, hence, it was realized that structurally variant glutamic acid derivatives may be designed and developed and, might be having antagonistic effects on cancer. The present article describes the state-of-art of glutamic acid and its derivatives as anticancer agents. Attempts have been made to explore the effectivity of drug-delivery systems based on glutamic acid for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Moreover, efforts have also been made to discuss the mechanism of action of glutamic acid derivatives as anticancer agents, clinical applications of glutamic acid derivatives, as well as recent developments and future perspectives of glutamic acid drug development have also been discussed.

  18. GLC and TLC analysis of isopropylidene derivatives of isomeric polyhydroxy acids derived from positional and geometrical isomers of unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R

    1967-05-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) were used to investigate the isomeric positional geometrical isopropylidene derivatives of nine isomeric dihydroxy esters, four isomeric methyl 9,10-12-trihydroxystearates, and eight isomeric methyl 9,10-12,13-tetrahydroxystearates prepared from unsaturated fatty acids. The isopropylidenes derived fromcis andtrans monounsaturated fatty acids were easily separated on both polar and nonpolar columns. Positional isopropylidenes derived from positional isomers of monounsaturated fatty acids were not separated on either liquid phase but were resolved by TLC.Four of the eight isomeric isopropylidenes derived from the four geometrical isomers of linoleic acid were resolved on the polar column; the other four isomers eluted as a single peak. The four isomeric isopropylidene-trifluoroacetate derivatives derived from ricinoleic and ricinelaidic acids were also resolved on the polar column. GLC analyses were carried out with liquid phases of ethylene glycol succinate methyl silicone polymer (EGSS-X) and methyl silicone polymer (SE-30) packed columns. Isopropylidenes, in addition to their applicability for the resolution of polyhydroxy acid mixtures, are particularly useful for the determination of double bond positions and geometrical configurations of fatty acids without cleavage.

  19. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  20. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to ibuprofen and other arylpropionic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-López, N; Pérez-Alzate, D; Andreu, I; Doña, I; Agúndez, J A; García-Martín, E; Salas, M; Miranda, M Á; Torres, M J; Cornejo-García, J A; Blanca, M; Canto, G

    2016-07-01

    Although ibuprofen and other arylpropionic acid derivatives (APs) are the most common medicines involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs) to NSAIDs, no patient series studies have been performed regarding immediate selective reactions (SRs) to these drugs. To characterize patients with immediate selective HDRs to ibuprofen and other APs through clinical history and challenge. Subjects who developed an HDR to APs less than 1 h after drug intake were included. Tolerance to aspirin was assessed and challenge was performed with ibuprofen in all cases, and additionally with the culprit drug (if different) in those patients that tolerated ibuprofen. Serum tryptase levels and tryptase immunohistochemical staining in skin biopsies were also assessed in some patients with a positive DPT to ibuprofen. From a total of 245 patients with a confirmed history of HDRs to APs, 17% were classified as selective immediate hypersensitivity reactors by both clinical history and challenge. A selective response to naproxen and dexketoprofen with tolerance to ibuprofen was found in 16 of 20 cases. Significant differences in serum tryptase levels were observed between 2 and 24 h in the 11 cases that were studied further. Within the group of patients with HDRs to NSAIDs, APs can induce immediate SRs. Within this group, selective responses to a single drug or responders to several APs may exist, suggesting potential immunological cross-reactivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. New sesquiterpene acid and inositol derivatives from Inula montana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayev, Elnur; Herbette, Gaëtan; Di Giorgio, Carole; Chiffolleau, Philippe; Roux, David; Sallanon, Huguette; Ollivier, Evelyne; Elias, Riad; Baghdikian, Béatrice

    2017-07-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of leaves and flowers of Inula montana L. led to the isolation of one new sesquiterpene acid called Eldarin (1) and four new inositol derivatives, Myoinositol,1,5-diangelate-4,6-diacetate (2), Myoinositol,1,6-diangelate-4,5-diacetate (3), Myoinositol-1-angelate-4,5-diacetate-6-(2-methylbutirate) (4), Myoinositol-1-angelate-4,5-diacetate-6-isovalerate (5) isolated for the first time, along with eleven known compounds described for the first time in Inula montana, 1β-Hydroxyarbusculin A (6), Artemorin (7), Santamarin (8), Chrysosplenol C (9), 6-Hydroxykaempferol 3,7-dimethyl ether (10), Reynosin (11), Calenduladiol-3-palmitate (12), Costunolide (13), 4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzenemethanol (14), 9β-Hydroxycostunolide (15) and Hispidulin (16). Structural elucidation has been carried out by spectral methods, such as 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV and HR-ESI-MS. These compounds have been tested in vitro for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity on macrophages RAW 264.7. As a result, compounds 2, 3, 7, 13, 14, 15 and 16 showed a release of NO with IC50 value <30μM on macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antifungal, Mosquito Deterrent, and Larvicidal Activity of N-(benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic Acid Hydrazide Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    cyclohexylpropionic acid hydrazide (3), N-(4-bromobenzylidene)-3-cyclohexyl- propionic acid hydrazide (4), N-(4-florobenzylidene)-3- cyclohexylpropionic...for supplying Ae. aegypti eggs. References Agarwal N, Kumar R, Srivastva C, Dureja P, Khurana JM (2010) Synthesis of nalidixic acid hydrazones as...ORIGINAL RESEARCH Antifungal, mosquito deterrent, and larvicidal activity of N- (benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic acid hydrazide derivatives

  3. Simultaneous derivative spectrophotometric analysis of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride and folic Acid in combined dosage forms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pathak, A; Rajput, S J

    2008-01-01

    Two UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed, based on first derivative spectrophotometry for simultaneous estimation of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and folic acid in tablet formulations...

  4. Obesity is positively associated with arachidonic acid-derived 5- and 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Charles Austin; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Zhang, Chen; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2017-05-01

    Oxylipids are oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites that are responsible for the onset and resolution of the inflammatory response. Enzymatic oxygenation through the lipoxygenase (LOX) or cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways can form oxylipids that have either proinflammatory or proresolving functions depending on the type of PUFA substrate and degree of metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine how PUFA substrates and their corresponding oxylipids are associated with obesity. Plasma non-esterified FA and oxylipids were isolated from 123 Caucasian males using solid phase extraction and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included linear regressions and polytomous logistic regressions, and the responses were body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and serum leptin, total adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-peptide. Models were adjusted for age and smoking, and p-values were corrected for false discovery per Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni. We report that BMI, WC, and several serum cytokines were highly associated arachidonic acid (ARA)-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), and vicinal diols (i.e., alcohols on adjacent carbon atoms) derived from several PUFAs. There was a significant linear relationship between BMI, WC, and serum leptin, and ARA-derived 5-, 11-, and 15-HETE. Specifically, BMI and WC were positively associated with proinflammatory 5- and 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), even after normalization to ARA concentrations and false discovery p-value correction. Individuals with 5-HETE concentrations >5.01nmol/L or 11-HETE concentrations and >0.89nmol/L were over 5 times more likely to be obese compared to those with ≤1.86nmol/L and ≤0.39nmol/L, respectively. Vicinal diols from linoleic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid were inversely associated with obesity. Across all statistical

  5. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange of cross-linkable α-amino acid derivatives in deuterated triflic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Sakihama, Yasuko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report here a hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/D exchange) of cross-linkable α-amino acid derivatives with deuterated trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOD). H/D exchange with TfOD was easily applied to o-catechol containing phenylalanine (DOPA) within an hour. A partial H/D exchange was observed for trifluoromethyldiazirinyl (TFMD) phenylalanine derivatives. N-Acetyl-protected natural aromatic α-amino acids (Tyr and Trp) were more effective in H/D exchange than unprotected ones. The N-acetylated TFMD phenylalanine derivative afforded slightly higher H/D exchange than unprotected derivatives. An effective post-deuteration method for cross-linkable α-amino acid derivatives will be useful for the analysis of biological functions of bioactive peptides and proteins by mass spectrometry.

  6. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  7. A Derivative Spectrometric Method for Hydroquinone Determination in the Presence of Kojic Acid, Glycolic Acid, and Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Moldovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and sensitive spectrometric method was developed for hydroquinone (HQ determination in the presence of other depigmenting agents (kojic acid (KA, glycolic acid (GA, and ascorbic acid (AA, commonly introduced in skin lightening products. The method is based on the oxidation of the depigmenting agents by potassium dichromate in sulfuric acid medium and subsequent measurement of the amplitude of the first-order derivative absorption spectrum at 268 nm. By applying the zero-crossing method, at this wavelength, the oxidation products of KA, AA, and GA do not interfere in the indirect determination of HQ. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 0.22–22 μg·mL−1 HQ, with a detection limit of 0.07 μg·mL−1. The developed method was applied with good results for the first time to the rapid determination of HQ in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures, thus proving that it could represent an effective tool for various skin lightening products analyses.

  8. Amino acids as modulators of endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoki, Masao; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Edgell, Cora-Jean S; Maeda, Nobuyo; Smithies, Oliver; Mattson, David L

    2006-08-01

    To examine the mechanisms whereby amino acids modulate nitric oxide (NO) production and blood flow in the renal vasculature, chemiluminescence techniques were used to quantify NO in the renal venous effluent of the isolated, perfused rat kidney as different amino acids were added to the perfusate. The addition of 10(-4) or 10(-3) M cationic amino acids (l-ornithine, l-lysine, or l-homoarginine) or neutral amino acids (l-glutamine, l-leucine, or l-serine) to the perfusate decreased NO and increased renal vascular resistance. Perfusion with anionic amino acids (l-glutamate or l-aspartate) had no effect on either parameter. The effects of the cationic and neutral amino acids were reversed with 10(-3) M l-arginine and prevented by deendothelialization or NO synthase inhibition. The effects of the neutral amino acids but not the cationic amino acids were dependent on extracellular sodium. Cationic and neutral amino acids also decreased calcimycin-induced NO, as assessed by DAF-FM-T fluorescence, in cultured EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Inhibition of system y(+) or y(+)L by siRNA for the cationic amino acid transporter 1 or the CD98/4F2 heavy chain diminished the NO-depleting effects of these amino acids. Finally, transport studies in cultured cells demonstrated that cationic or neutral amino acids in the extracellular space stimulate efflux of l-arginine out of the cell. Thus the present experiments demonstrate that cationic and neutral amino acids can modulate NO production in endothelial cells by altering cellular l-arginine transport through y(+) and y(+)L transport mechanisms.

  9. Glycerol Containing Triacetylborate Mediated Syntheses of Novel 2-Heterostyryl Benzimidazole Derivatives: A Green Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Taduri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A very simple, mild, efficient, and novel green methodology has been developed for the syntheses of some 2-hetero/styryl-benzimidazoles. Title compounds were synthesized by the condensation of o-phenylenediamine with cinnamic acids at 150–180°C for 5-6 h using glycerol containing triacetylborate (10–20 mol% as the reaction medium. In an alternative approach, condensation of 2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives with aromatic aldehydes was done using glycerol containing triacetylborate (10–20 mol% as the reaction medium.

  10. Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Their Derivatives: Cosmeceutical Significance, Challenges and Future Perspectives, a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oludemi Taofiq; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Maria Filomena Barreiro; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from natural sources, due to their widely-recognized benefits, have been exploited as cosmeceutical ingredients. Among them, phenolic acids emerge with a very interesting potential. In this context, this review analyzes hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives as multifunctional ingredients for topical application, as well as the limitations associated with their use in cosmetic formulations. Hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives display antioxidant, anti-collage...

  11. Sophorolipid-derived unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides as plasticizers for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides were synthesized from the omega and omega-1 hydroxy fatty acids derived from sophorolipids (SLs) prepared by fermentation from glucose:soybean oil and glucose:oleic acid, respectively. These estolides were utilized as additives in solution-cast poly(3-hydro...

  12. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  13. Novel extractants for the recovery of fermentation derived lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Leeman, M.; Vossebeld, F.; Visser, T.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive liquid–liquid extraction is a promising technology for the removal of lactic acid directly from fermentation media. For over five decades, tertiary amines (e.g. trioctyl amine) have been the state-of-the-art extractants for carboxylic acid extraction. However, to make fermentative

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Gyu; Tran, Phuong Thao; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Jeong Ah

    2017-11-09

    Ten caffeic acid derivatives (1-10) were isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza by using various chromatographic methods and their chemical structures were spectroscopically elucidated. The absolute configurations of chiral centers were determined by comparison with reported coupling constants, optical rotation values, and CD techniques. Anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition assays, and by determining the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Two new caffeic acid derivatives, 8-epiblechnic acid 9-methyl ester (4) and 8-epiblechnic acid 9'-methyl ester (5), and eight known derivatives, caffeic acid methyl ester (1), shimobashiric acid B (2), rosmarinic acid methyl ester (3), salvianolic acid C (6), methyl salvianolate C (7), lithospermic acid monomethyl ester (8), lithospermic acid dimethyl ester (9), and dimethyl lithospermate B (10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of S. miltiorrhiza. All caffeic acid derivatives were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on NO production. Compounds 2 and 3 inhibited NO production with IC50 values of 1.4 and 0.6 μM, respectively. These compounds also strongly inhibited the production of iNOS and COX-2. In addition, compound 3 induced the expression HO-1 in a concentration-dependent manner at 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM.

  15. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of camphorsulfonic acid derived imidazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikláš R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of homochiral imidazolium salts bearing hydrophobic camphor derived moiety and ester or amide functional group were synthesized and characterized. The novel imidazolium bromides were tested as antimicrobial and antifungal agents and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was evaluated and compared to clinically used benzalkonium bromide (BAB and carbethopendecinium bromide. The MIC values of amide derivatives 2a and 2b were slightly smaller than those for BAB, indicating their good activity. None of the prepared salts was more effective than carbethopendecinium bromide. The biocidal efficacy of amide derivatives was much higher compared to the ester analogues.

  16. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; De; Naik, C.G.

    sources and mass cultured in the laboratory using organic media. Fatty acids were quantified as methyl esters using gas chromatography (GC), using WICHROM software and data collector. This efficient approach using a computer modelled software program...

  17. Pyrazine Carboxylic Acid Derivatives of Dichlorobis(Cyclopentadienyltitanium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra Dixit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of dichlorobis(cyclopentadienyltitanium(IV with pyrazine carboxylic acids viz. 2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (2-PzCH, 5-methyl-2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (MPzCH and 2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic acid (2,3-PzDCH2 were carried out in different stoichiometric ratios. Complexes of the type Cp2Ti(2-PzCCl , Cp2Ti(2-PzC2 ,Cp2Ti(MPzCCl,Cp2Ti(MPzC2, Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCHCl and Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCH2 were obtained. These newly synthesized complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral data.

  18. Biotransformation of coal derived humic acids by Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Low energetic coals and wastes of coal industry are promising sources for biologically active compounds including humic acids (HA). Aside from evident advantages of biocatalytic approaches for coal slime conversion such as environmental safety and cost efficiency they also could be used for the improving of HAs biological activity [1, 2]. The aim of the present study was to provide molecular characterization of the HAs formed during biotransformation of coal slime by Basidiomycetes under different cultivation conditions. Materials and methods Biotransformation of brown coal from Solncevskoe deposit (Sakhalin, Russia) was performed by liquid surface cultivation of pure culture Coriolus hirsutus 075 (Wulf. Ex. Fr.) Quel. with rich (contained glucose as a carbon source) and poor (without readily available carbon source) nutrition medium. After 30 days of cultivation coal HAs were separated by alkaline extraction followed by dialysis desalting and drying at 50C. HAs derived were characterized using size-exclusion chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results and discussion Molecular weight distribution of HA was not significantly affected by Basidiomycetes under all cultivation conditions studied in comparison to HAs extracted from non-conversed coal. FTIR spectra of HA obtained were typical for HAs. Biotransformation of coal did not result in appearance of new functional groups. The exception was observed under rich media conditions where absorbance at 1700 cm-1 was determined related to carbonyl groups of carboxyl and ketonic fragments. Therefore, the revealed phenomena could be explained with additional formation of the above carbonyl groups in the course of biotransformation process. Quantification of 13C NMR spectra revealed decrease of aromatic structures in HA extracted from coal after biotransformation under poor media conditions. Also a significant increase in carboxylic fragments content was observed. So

  19. Co2 chemosorption by functionalized amino acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid.......The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid....

  20. Nocturnal inhibition of lipolysis in man by nicotinic acid and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, W; Kruse, W; Raetzer, H; Heuck, C C; Oster, P; Schellenberg, B; Schlierf, G

    1979-08-01

    The effect of nicotinic acid and several derivatives on the nocturnal level of free fatty acids was studied in 12 healthy young women and men. Free fatty acids are an important precursor of plasma triglycerides and their concentration is highest at night. The drugs used were nictinic acid, beta-pyridyl-carbinol, mesoinositol hexanicotinate and xantinol nicotinate. The highest plasma nicotinic acid level was observed with beta-pyridyl-carbinol, but significant reduction in free fatty acids during the entire night was only achieved with inositolhexanicotinate and xantinol nicotinate. There was no correlation between the plasm levels of free fatty acids and nicotinic acid at any sampling time. If prolonged reduction in free fatty acid concentration is desired in the therapy of hyperlipidemias, the inositol and xantinol esters of nicotinic acid appear to be superior to the other preparations.

  1. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Gu, Yunpeng; Liu, Zhenjun; Qi, Yue; Ma, Gui E.; Kang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34− when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs. PMID:26106426

  2. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34− when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs.

  3. Azorhodanine derivatives as inhibitors for acidic corrosion of nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S; Al-Sarawy, Ahmed A; Omar, Tark M

    2005-01-01

    Azorhodanine derivatives (HL1-HL5) were tested as corrosion inhibitors for nickel in 2M HNO3 solution using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The results showed that these derivatives act as inhibitors for nickel in this medium. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. Polarization measurements indicated that these compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors, but the cathode is more polarized when an external current was applied. This means that these compounds retard the rate of hydrogen evolution and the rate of dissolution of the metal. Results showed that azorhodanine derivatives are adsorbed on the nickel surface following Temkin's adsorption isotherm. The activation energy and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and discussed at different temperatures (30-45 degrees C).

  4. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Technetium radiodiagnostic fatty acids derived from bisamide bisthiol ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alun G.; Lister-James, John; Davison, Alan

    1988-05-24

    A bisamide-bisthiol ligand containing fatty acid substituted thiol useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic imaging agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the heart for diagnosis of myocardial disfunction.

  6. Formation of Amino Acid Derived Cheese Flavour Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), among them Lactococcus lactis, are often used for the fermentation of milk into various products, such as cheeses. For their growth and maintenance LAB metabolise milk sugar, protein and fat into various low molecular compounds, which sometimes have strong flavour

  7. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC4 Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Death via Oncosis and Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Dongjun; Ni, Qing; Ji, Anlai; Gu, Wen; Wu, Junhua; Jiang, Chunping

    2016-01-01

      Aim. QC4 is the derivative of rosin's main components dehydroabietic acid (DHA). We investigated the cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells and revealed the mechanisms beneath the induction of cell death...

  8. Synthesis and biological testing of certain 2-(5-substituted-2-thienylthio)benzoic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, A S; el-Subbagh, H I; el-Ashmawy, M B; el-Emam, A A

    1989-12-01

    The syntesis of a number of 2-(5-substituted-2-thienylthio)benzoic acid derivatives is described. The synthesized compounds were screened for their muscle relaxant and parasympatholytic activities and the results are reported.

  9. Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivates in Hieracium pilosella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova-Jan, Larisa; Fransson, Dick; Claeson, Per; Burman, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Hieracium pilosella L. is a medicinal plant encountered in Europe in traditional herbal medicinal products. Caffeoylquinic (ortho-dihydroxycinnamic) acid derivatives are characteristic constituents used as analytical markers in the quality control of the herbal material. Until now, the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives have been assayed using a colorimetric method according to the French Pharmacopoeia. To develop an HPLC-method for quantification of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in H. pilosella. Samples were prepared by methanol extraction of H. pilosella, dried herb. An HPLC method suitable for analysis was developed and validated. The content of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives was determined and expressed as chlorogenic acid. Individual substances in the samples were identified by analyses of UV-MS/MS spectra and by comparisons with spectra and chromatographic retention times of authentic reference substances. Validation showed that the chromatographic method has good selectivity with no interfering peaks. Sensitivity, linearity, repeatability and accuracy were shown to be adequate. In analyses of several batches of H. pilosella, contents of caffeoylquinic acids ranging from 0.7 to 1.9% were found. Compared to the colorimetric method, this newly developed HPLC method is more specific and results in detection of nominally lower amounts of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. A new acceptance limit of 1.0% instead of 2.5% caffeoylquinic acid, expressed as chlorogenic acid, for H. pilosella, is proposed when using this HPLC-method. A newly developed HPLC method is shown to be appropriate for quantitative determination of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in H. pilosella. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of propionic acid derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Pradeep; Marwaha, Rakesh Kumar; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    A series of Schiff bases (1–17) and esters (18–24) of propionic acid was synthesized in appreciable yield and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by tube dilution method. Results of antimicrobial screening indicated th...

  11. Solution- and solid-phase synthesis and anti-HIV activity of maslinic acid derivatives containing amino acids and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Andres; Rivas, Francisco; Lopez, Pilar E; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Martinez, Antonio; Albericio, Fernando; Marquez, Nieves; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    Maslinic acid (1) has been coupled at C-28 with several alpha- and omega-amino acids by using solution- and solid-phase synthetic procedures. Twelve derivatives (2-13) with a single amino acid residue were prepared in solution phase, whereas a dipeptide (14), a tripeptide (15), and a series of conjugate dipeptides (16-24) were synthesized in solid phase. The anti-HIV activity of these compounds was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase gene as a reporter. While in maslinic acid (1) were present both cytotoxic and antiviral activities, only the derivatives 13 and 24 showed anti-HIV-1 activity and therefore represent a novel class of anti-HIV-1 compounds.

  12. Chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acids: privileged Brønsted acid organocatalysts for C-C bond formation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Alexandru; Schenker, Sebastian; Freund, Matthias; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2010-12-07

    BINOL-derived phosphoric acids have emerged during the last five years as powerful chiral Brønsted acid catalysts in many enantioselective processes. The most successful transformations carried out with chiral BINOL phosphates include C-C bond formation reactions. The recent advances have been reviewed in this article with a focus being placed on hydrocyanations, aldol-type, Mannich, Friedel-Crafts, aza-ene-type, Diels-Alder, as well as cascade and multi-component reactions.

  13. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids by first derivative spectrometry in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogić, Dunja

    1993-03-01

    A multicomponent first derivative UV spectrometric procedure for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid in the solution containing 1 % (w/v) of citric acid in some pharmaceutical preparations is presented. The method is based on the use of the first derivative minimum spectrometric measurements at 286 nm for aspirin and at 318 nm for salicylic acid. Four kinds of cmmercial Aspirin tablets were assayed without a long pretreatment of the pharmaceuticals from the tablet additives. Beer's law is obeyed from 13.62-68.1 μg ml -1 of aspirin and from 2.723-13.616 μg ml -1 of salicylic acid. Detection limits at the 0.05 level of significance were calculated to be 1.24 and 0.25 μg ml -1 with relative standard deviations of 1.09 % and 1.2 % of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively.

  14. A novel trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative from Meyer lemon (Citrus meyeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Ito, Chihiro; Itoigawa, Masataka

    2012-12-15

    Isolation and structural elucidation of a new trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative from Meyer lemon (Citrus meyeri hort. ex Y. Tanaka) was carried out. The derivative exhibited the antioxidative activity by ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay and was found in the flavedo and alvedo of Meyer lemon peel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two New Cholic Acid Derivatives from the Marine Ascidian-Associated Bacterium Hasllibacter halocynthiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of secondary metabolites in liquid cultures of a recently discovered marine bacterium, Hasllibacter halocynthiae strain KME 002T, led to the isolation of two new cholic acid derivatives. The structures of these compounds were determined to be 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-ketocholanic acid (1 and 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-deoxycholanic acid (2 through HRFABMS and NMR data analyses.

  16. Modification of oligo-Ricinoleic Acid and Its Derivatives with 10-Undecenoic Acid via Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claudia Montiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipases were employed under solvent-free conditions to conjugate oligo-ricinoleic acid derivatives with 10-undecenoic acid, to incorporate a reactive terminal double bond into the resultant product. First, undecenoic acid was covalently attached to oligo-ricinoleic acid using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (CAL at a 30% yield. Thirty percent conversion also occurred for CAL-catalyzed esterification between undecenoic acid and biocatalytically-prepared polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR, with attachment of undecenoic acid occurring primarily at free hydroxyls of the polyglycerol moiety. The synthesis of oligo-ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl- structured triacylglycerols comprised two steps. The first step, the 1,3-selective lipase-catalyzed interesterification of castor oil with undecenoic acid, occurred successfully. The second step, the CAL-catalyzed reaction between ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl structured TAG and ricinoleic acid, yielded approximately 10% of the desired structured triacylglycerols (TAG; however, a significant portion of the ricinoleic acid underwent self-polymerization as a side-reaction. The employment of gel permeation chromatography, normal phase HPLC, NMR, and acid value measurements was effective for characterizing the reaction pathways and products that formed.

  17. Diastereodivergent Synthesis of Fluorinated Cyclic β(3)-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, Isabel; Guerola, Marta; Dialer, Clemens; Simón-Fuentes, Antonio; Sánchez-Roselló, María; del Pozo, Carlos; Fustero, Santos

    2015-11-06

    The ability of 2-p-tolylbenzyl carbanions to behave as a source of chiral benzylic nucleophiles has been shown in its reaction with fluorinated imines. The process takes place with high levels of stereocontrol, rendering the corresponding amines as single diastereoisomers. Subsequent cross-metathesis followed by intramolecular aza-Michael reaction makes the synthesis of fluorinated homoproline derivatives bearing three stereogenic centers possible. Furthermore, the selectivity of the cyclization process can easily be tuned up in a diastereodivergent manner simply by changing the reaction conditions.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following a switchover of therapy between two fibric acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaliah, M D; Sanjay, L D

    2001-08-01

    Drug induced myopathy has been reported with the use of fibric acid derivatives, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and nicotinic acid. Over the last three decades, hypolipemiants like fibric acid derivatives and statins have been increasingly recognised as causes of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure especially during combination therapy and in the presence of underlying renal impairment. We report two cases of bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with underlying coronary artery disease and pre-existing renal impairment. Both patients developed rhabdomyolysis leading to acute renal failure soon after their hyperlipidaemia treatment was changed from gemfibrozil to bezafibrate. There were no intercurrent illnesses or co-administration of other lipid lowering drugs in both patients. Even though both drugs belong to the same fibric acid derivatives group, these patients developed the complication only after a switchover of therapy.

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast to Produce Fatty Acid-derived Biofuels: Bottlenecks and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan eSheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  20. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H-, 13C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  1. Formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy J; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    Fermented foods are valued for their rich and complex odour and taste. The metabolic activity of food-fermenting microorganisms determines food quality and generates odour and taste compounds. This communication reviews the formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations. Pathways of the generation of taste compounds are presented for soy sauce, cheese, fermented meats, and bread. Proteolysis or autolysis during food fermentations generates taste-active amino acids and peptides; peptides derived from proteolysis particularly impart umami taste (e.g. α-glutamyl peptides) or bitter taste (e.g. hydrophobic peptides containing proline). Taste active peptide derivatives include pyroglutamyl peptides, γ-glutamyl peptides, and succinyl- or lactoyl amino acids. The influence of fermentation microbiota on proteolysis, and peptide hydrolysis, and the metabolism of glutamate and arginine is well understood, however, the understanding of microbial metabolic activities related to the formation of taste-active peptide derivatives is incomplete. Improved knowledge of the interactions between taste-active compounds will enable the development of novel fermentation strategies to develop tastier, less bitter, and low-salt food products, and may provide novel and "clean label" ingredients to improve the taste of other food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antenna elicitation and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, to allyl cinnamate

    OpenAIRE

    Giner Gil, Marta; Balcells Fluvià, Mercè; Avilla Hernández, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Female sex pheromones have been used in pest control since the 90s; attracting males to baited traps (mass-trapping and monitoring) or avoiding (or reducing) mating in fields under mating disruption. By contrast, little is done among the use of male sex pheromones in pest control. Allyl cinnamate was evaluated as potential oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) behaviour modifier, after recording positive electroantenographical responses in both male and fe...

  3. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Synthesis and pharmacology of N-alkylated derivatives of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Dumpis, M A; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Three amino-alkylated derivatives of the naturally occurring excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor agonist ibotenic acid (Ibo) have been synthesized and tested pharmacologically. N-Methyl-Ibo (1a) and N-ethyl-Ibo (1b) were shown to be agonists at NMDA receptors (EC50 = 140 and 320 microM, respecti......Three amino-alkylated derivatives of the naturally occurring excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor agonist ibotenic acid (Ibo) have been synthesized and tested pharmacologically. N-Methyl-Ibo (1a) and N-ethyl-Ibo (1b) were shown to be agonists at NMDA receptors (EC50 = 140 and 320 micro......-c and the potent NMDA agonist 2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)acetic acid (AMAA) in order to elucidate the observed structure-activity data....

  5. Microbial production of amino acids and derived chemicals: synthetic biology approaches to strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-12-01

    Amino acids are produced at the multi-million-ton-scale with fermentative production of l-glutamate and l-lysine alone being estimated to amount to more than five million tons in the year 2013. Metabolic engineering constantly improves productivities of amino acid producing strains, mainly Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli strains. Classical mutagenesis and screening have been accelerated by combination with intracellular metabolite sensing. Synthetic biology approaches have allowed access to new carbon sources to realize a flexible feedstock concept. Moreover, new pathways for amino acid production as well as fermentative production of non-native compounds derived from amino acids or their metabolic precursors were developed. These include dipeptides, α,ω-diamines, α,ω-diacids, keto acids, acetylated amino acids and ω-amino acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Compounds from Valeriana wallichii and Identification of a Novel Nepetolactone Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Glaser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Valeriana wallichii (V. wallichii rhizomes was investigated to elucidate the structures responsible for reported antileishmanial activity. Besides bornyl caffeate (1, already been reported by us previously, bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in two additional cinnamic acid derivatives 2–3 with moderate leishmanicidal activity. The structure of a novel nepetolactone derivative 4 having a cinnamic acid moiety was elucidated by means of spectral analysis. To the best of our knowledge villoside aglycone (5 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The bioassay-guided fractionation yielded two new (compounds 6–7 and two known valtrates (compounds 8–9 with leishmanicidal potential against Leishmania major (L. major promastigotes. In addition, β-bisabolol (10, α-kessyl alcohol (11, valeranone (12, bornyl isovalerate (13 and linarin-2-O-methylbutyrate (14 were identified. This is the first report on the isolation of 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin (15, podophyllotoxin (16 and pinoresinol (17 in V. wallichii. In total thirteen known and four new compounds were identified from the extract and their cytotoxic and antileishmanial properties were evaluated.

  7. Antisense and sense expression of cDNA coding for CYP73A15, a class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, leads to a delayed and reduced production of lignin in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, K.; Choi, J. W.; O'Connell, A. P.; Jupe, S. C.; Schuch, W.; Lewis, N. G.; Bolwell, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    A number of plant species contain the class II of genes encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP73, the cognate protein of which cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, is the second enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In order to begin to determine possible functionality, tobacco has been transformed with a truncated French bean class II cinnamate hydroxylase (CYP73A15) in the sense and antisense orientations. Signals for C4H protein could be detected in vascular tissue from wild-type plants using heterologous probes. The transformed plants showed a normal phenotype, even though detectable C4H protein was much reduced in tissue prints. Young propagated transformants displayed a range of reduced C4H activities, as well as either reduced or no phloroglucinol-stainable lignin. However, all mature tobacco plants showed the accumulation of lignin, even though its deposition was apparently delayed. This was not due to induction of tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity, which was not detected, but instead it is presumed due to sufficient C4H residual activity. Analysis of the lignin content of the plants showed reductions of up to 30% with a slightly reduced syringyl to guaiacyl ratio as compared to wild type. This reduction level was favourable in comparison with some other targets in the lignification pathway that have been manipulated including that of class I cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. It is proposed that the class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase might also function in lignification in a number of species including French bean and tobacco, based on these data.

  8. Structure-activity relationship study on benzoic acid part of diphenylamine-based retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kiminori; Kawachi, Emiko; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Based on structure-activity relationship studies of the benzoic acid part of diphenylamine-based retinoids, the potent RXR agonist 4 was derivatized to obtain retinoid agonists, synergists, and an antagonist. Cinnamic acid derivatives 5 and phenylpropionic acid derivatives 6 showed retinoid agonistic and synergistic activities, respectively. The difference of the activities is considered to be due to differences in the flexibility of the carboxylic acid-containing substituent on the diphenylamine skeleton. Compound 7, bearing a methyl group at the meta position to the carboxyl group, was an antagonist, dose-dependently inhibiting HL-60 cell differentiation induced by 3.3 × 10(-10)M Am80. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Docosapentaenoic acid derived metabolites and mediators - The new world of lipid mediator medicine in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten-H

    2016-08-15

    Recent years have seen the description and elucidation of a new class of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators. The arachidonic acid (AA)-derived compounds in this class are called lipoxins and have been described in great detail since their discovery thirty years ago. The new players are mediators derived from fish oil omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Taken together, these mediators are also called specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs). As compared to the AA/EPA/DHA-derived compounds, research regarding mediators formed from the n-3 and n-6 docosapentaenoic acids (DPAn-3 and DPAn-6) is sparse. However, mono- di- and trihydroxy derivates of the DPAs have anti-inflammatory properties as well, even though mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory action have not been fully elucidated. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the DPA-derived SPMs and their actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sinapic acid or its derivatives interfere with abscisic acid homeostasis during Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Baodi; Tang, Jingliang; Han, Shuang; Guo, Jinggong; Miao, Yuchen

    2017-06-06

    Sinapic acid and its esters have broad functions in different stages of seed germination and plant development and are thought to play a role in protecting against ultraviolet irradiation. To better understand the interactions between sinapic acid esters and seed germination processes in response to various stresses, we analyzed the role of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of sinapic acid esters involved in seed germination and early seedling growth. We found that exogenous sinapic acid promotes seed germination in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that exogenous sinapic acid increased the sinapoylcholine content of imbibed seeds. Furthermore, sinapic acid affected ABA catabolism, resulting in reduced ABA levels and increased levels of the ABA-glucose ester. Using mutants deficient in the synthesis of sinapate esters, we showed that the germination of mutant sinapoylglucose accumulator 2 (sng2) and bright trichomes 1 (brt1) seeds was more sensitive to ABA than the wild-type. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants deficient in either abscisic acid deficient 2 (ABA2) or abscisic acid insensitive 3 (ABI3) displayed increased expression of the sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT) and sinapoylcholine esterase (SCE) genes with sinapic acid treatment. This treatment also affected the accumulation of sinapoylcholine and free choline during seed germination. We demonstrated that sinapoylcholine, which constitutes the major phenolic component in seeds among various minor sinapate esters, affected ABA homeostasis during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Our findings provide insights into the role of sinapic acid and its esters in regulating ABA-mediated inhibition of Arabidopsis seed germination in response to drought stress.

  11. Theophylline-7-acetic acid derivatives with amino acids as anti-tuberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voynikov, Yulian; Valcheva, Violeta; Momekov, Georgi; Peikov, Plamen; Stavrakov, Georgi

    2014-07-15

    A series of amides were synthesized by condensation of theophylline-7-acetic acid and eight commercially available amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides. Consecutive hydrolysis of six of the amido-esters resulted in the formation of corresponding amido-acids. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity varied depending on the amino acid fragments and in seven cases exerted excellent values with MICs 0.46-0.26 μM. Assessment of the cytotoxicity revealed that the compounds were not cytotoxic against the human embryonal kidney cell line HEK-293T. The theophylline-7-acetamides containing amino acid moieties appear to be promising lead compounds for the development of antimycobacterial agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New Biocompatible Polyesters Derived from α-Amino Acids: Hydrolytic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoshua Katzhendler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New polymers were synthesized from α-hydroxy acids derived from the natural amino acids Ile, Leu, Phe, and Val, combined with lactic acid, glycolic acid and 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid by direct condensation. The toxicity was determined and the degradation process of these polyesters was investigated under physiological conditions by analyzing the composition of the degraded polymers and the oligomers cleaved in the buffer medium. The polymers were found to be non toxic to two cell lines. Polymers displayed a biphasic degradation behavior. In most cases, a linear relationship was found between the weight loss constant and the hydrophobicity of the polymers, Log P. Regarding the second stage of weight loss, it is apparent that polymers derived from α-hydroxy(Lisoleucine ((LHOIle and α-hydroxy(LValine ((LHOVal degraded much faster than those derived from α-hydroxy(Lleucine ((LHOLeu and α-hydroxy(Lphenylalanine ((LHOPhe, probably due to different spatial orientation of the side chains. Copolymers of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid displayed slow degradation rates as expected, whereas the degradation profile of copolymers of lactic acid was similar to the other homopolymers. These new polyesters may serve as potential biocompatible materials for medical applications.

  13. Adipose-derived stem cells on hyaluronic acid-derived scaffold: a new horizon in bioengineered cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espandar, Ladan; Bunnell, Bruce; Wang, Guo Yong; Gregory, Paula; McBride, Christine; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of human adipose-derived stem cells (h-ASCs) to survive and differentiate in corneal stroma. Our experiment consisted of 2 phases. First, we cultured h-ASCs in different types of hyaluronic acid (HA)-derived synthetic extracellular matrixes (sECMs) to determine the capability of proliferation and survival of the cells in hydrogels. Second, h-ASCs were grown in plastic flasks, labeled with an intracytoplasmic membrane fluorescent molecule, transferred onto different types of sECMs or the native HA product, and then inserted into the corneal stroma of the rabbits. After 10 weeks, we assessed the viability of the stem cells and the expression of cornea-specific proteins. The in vitro study showed that the HyStem-HP hydrogel had the highest yield of cells (1.1 × 10(6)/mL) compared with other types of HA-derived sECMs culture media, and the cells grown in the HyStem-HP hydrogel appeared more elongated and fibroblastlike. The in vivo study demonstrated that the labeled h-ASCs could be identified in the stroma with any type of sECM. The HA-derived sECMs, particularly the HyStem-HP hydrogel, showed better survival and cell morphologic features compared with pure HA. Immunostaining of keratocan, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and type I collagen revealed that the stem cells had expressed human cornea-specific proteins. Human adipose-derived stem cells can be successfully grown on HA-derived sECMs in vivo and can express human cornea-specific proteins. Human ASCs on an HA-derived scaffold may be used as a source of keratocytes to regenerate extracellular matrix-like material in situations where the cornea stroma has been compromised.

  14. An improved solvent-free synthesis of flunixin and 2-(arylamino) nicotinic acid derivatives using boric acid as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhosseini, Mahsa; Javanshir, Shahrzad; Dolatkhah, Zahra; Dekamin, Mohammad G

    2017-12-01

    A simple solvent-free protocol for the preparation of flunixin, a potent non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is reported using boric acid as catalyst. Its salt, flunixin meglumine are then prepared under reflux in EtOH. This sustainable method are then extended for the synthesis of a series of 2-(arylamino) nicotinic acid derivatives. The present protocol combines non-hazardous neat conditions with associated benefits like excellent yield, straightforward workup, and use of readily available and safe catalyst in the absence of any solvent, which are important factors in the pharmaceutical industry. The pathway for catalytic activation of 2-chloronicotic acid with boric acid was also investigated using Gaussian 03 program package.

  15. Development of Octyl Methoxy Cinnamates (OMC/Silicon Dioxide (SiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Emulsion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pey-Shiuan Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although octyl methoxy cinnamates (OMC is the most used Ultraviolet B (UVB filter in sunscreen, it has poor light stability in emulsion system. In this study, OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via sol-gel emulsion method. Tetraethoxy silane (TEOS was used as the silica source to encapsulate OMC. Modification of experimental parameters such as stirring speed of condensation reaction and emulsion condition, pH value of acid-catalyzed, surfactant and different percentage of TEOS and OMC, adding of OMC and surfactant to different phase may affect the particle size, and yield and entrapment efficiency in preparation process of OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles. Concluding all the parameter, we found that when condensation reaction and emulsion conditions are at 1000 rpm, pH 1.5, Span 80/Tween 20, TEOS/OMC ratios 1:1, OMC and surfactants added in oil phase, resulting in smaller particle sizes 476.5 nm, higher yield 95.8%, and higher entrapment efficiency 61.09%. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis demonstrated that OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles were successfully prepared. In vitro release profile supposed that OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles can delay OMC releasing and had 60.83% decreasing of cumulative amount. Therefore, the OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles have the potential to develop as new sunscreen materials in the use for cosmetics field in the future.

  16. Environmental Method to Determine Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Simultaneously via Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Zohry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many various methods were applied to determine dopamine and ascorbic acid simultaneously using hazardous materials and complex procedures. Derivative absorption spectra can give safely and five sensitive derivative equations that are used for the simultaneous determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid in the UV region, using first and second derivative spectroscopy with high precision at pH value of 9.2. Dopamine and ascorbic acid can be detected in the ranges of 0.375–9.45 mg L−1 and 0.352–5.28 mg L−1, respectively. These obtained methods could be used to determine both reagents in real and synthesized samples.

  17. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Novel Benzaldehyde-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives from Kaurenoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília M. A. de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of new thiosemicarbazones derived from natural diterpene kaurenoic acid were synthesized and tested against the epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi to evaluate their antitrypanosomal potential. Seven of the synthesized thiosemicarbazones were more active than kaurenoic acid with IC50 values between 2-24.0 mM. The o-nitro-benzaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone derivative was the most active compound with IC50 of 2.0 mM. The results show that the structural modifications accomplished enhanced the antitrypanosomal activity of these compounds. Besides, the thiocyanate, thiosemicarbazide and the p- methyl, p-methoxy, p-dimethylamine, m-nitro and o-chlorobenzaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone derivatives displayed lower toxicity for LLMCK2 cells than kaurenoic acid, exhibing an IC50 of 59.5 mM.

  18. Electrochemical Coupling of Biomass-Derived Acids: New C8Platforms for Renewable Polymers and Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linglin; Mascal, Mark; Farmer, Thomas J; Arnaud, Sacha Pérocheau; Wong Chang, Maria-Angelica

    2017-01-10

    Electrolysis of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C 6 for biofuels and renewable materials production. Kolbe coupling of biomass-derived levulinic acid is used to obtain 2,7-octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process-intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7-octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, whereas intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high-octane, cellulosic gasoline. Analogous electrolysis of an itaconic acid-derived methylsuccinic monoester yields a chiral 2,5-dimethyladipic acid diester, another underutilized monomer owing to lack of availability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Weakening of salmonella with selected microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Aura, Anna-Marja; Helander, Ilkka M; Nohynek, Liisa; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Saarela, Maria

    2007-05-16

    Gram-negative bacteria are important food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Their unique outer membrane (OM) provides them with a hydrophilic surface structure, which makes them inherently resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus hindering their control. However, with permeabilizers, compounds that disintegrate and weaken the OM, Gram-negative cells can be sensitized to several external agents. Although antimicrobial activity of plant-derived phenolic compounds has been widely reported, their mechanisms of action have not yet been well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of selected colonic microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds in the weakening of the Gram-negative OM. The effect of the agents on the OM permeability of Salmonella was studied utilizing a fluorescence probe uptake assay, sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release. Our results show that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (3,4-diHPP), 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid efficiently destabilized the OM of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis as indicated by an increase in the uptake of the fluorescent probe 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). The OM-destabilizing activity of the compounds was partially abolished by MgCl2 addition, indicating that part of their activity is based on removal of OM-stabilizing divalent cations. Furthermore, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-diHPP increased the susceptibility of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains for novobiocin. In addition, organic acids present in berries, such as malic acid, sorbic acid, and benzoic acid, were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of Salmonella as shown by an increase in the NPN uptake assay and by LPS release.

  20. Acrylic acid derivatives of group 8 metal carbonyls: a structural and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Kyran, Samuel J; Yeung, Andrew D; Bengali, Ashfaq A; Darensbourg, Donald J

    2013-05-06

    The synthesis, spectroscopic, and X-ray structural studies of acrylic acid complexes of iron and ruthenium tetracarbonyls are reported. In addition, the deprotonated η(2)-olefin bound acrylic acid derivative of iron as well as its alkylated species were fully characterized by X-ray crystallography. Kinetic data were determined for the replacement of acrylic acid, acrylate, and methylacrylate for the group 8 metal carbonyls by triphenylphosphine. These processes were found to be first-order in the concentration of metal complex with the rates for dissociative loss of the olefinic ligands from ruthenium being much faster than their iron analogues. However, the ruthenium derivatives afforded formation of primarily mono-phosphine metal tetracarbonyls, whereas the iron complexes led largely to trans-di-phosphine tricarbonyls. This difference in behavior was ascribed to a more stable spin crossover species (3)Fe(CO)4 which undergoes rapid CO loss to afford the bis phosphine derivative. The activation enthalpies for dissociative loss of the deprotonated η(2)-bound acrylic acid ligand were found to be larger than their corresponding values in the protonated derivatives. For example, for dissociative loss of the protonated and deprotonated acrylic acid derivatives of iron(0) the ΔH(‡) values determined were 28.0 ± 1.2 and 34.1 ± 1.5 kcal·mol(-1), respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) computations of the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) in these acrylic acids and closely related complexes were in good agreement with enthalpies of activation for these ligand substitution reactions, supportive of a dissociative mechanism for olefin displacement. Processes related to catalytic production of acrylic acid from CO2 and ethylene are considered.

  1. AMINOMETHANESULPHONIC ACIDS AND ITS N-DERIVATIVES ARE COMPONENTS OF N. GOODS BUFFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Khoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of pH measuring the temperature dependence of the second ionization constant (pK2 are set for aminomethansulfonic acid (AMSA and its N-derivatives. It was found that the area of  effective buffering of AMSK and its N-benzyl derivative allows to maintain the pH of acid-compatible with life. The absolute values  of the coefficients in the equation pK2 = -Ai+ Bi/T for the aminosulfonic acids correlated with their molar masses. A simultaneous change in values  DpH /DT and Bicoefficient for the studied acids QSAR method are stayed. The values  of the distribution coefficients in the octanol – water (Pow and molar refraction are calculated. In the future the data obtained in this study will be used to predict the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of the compounds studied.

  2. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine in pharmaceutical formulation by first derivative synchronous fluorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohammad Mainul; Jeon, Chi Wan; Lee, Hyun Sook; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak; Choi, Jong Ha; Jin, Seung Oh; Das, Ajoy Kumar

    2006-09-01

    A sensitive, rapid, and specific assay has been developed for the simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine in commercial tablets based on their natural fluorescence. The mixture of these drugs was resolved by first derivative synchronous fluorimetric technique using two scans. At Deltalambda=106 nm, using first derivative synchronous scanning, only acetylsalicylic acid yields a detectable signal at 316 nm (peak to zero method) which is unaffected by caffeine. At Deltalambda=30 nm, the signal of caffeine at 288 nm (peak to zero method) is not affected by acetylsalicylic acid. The range of application is between 0.021 and 41.62 microg ml(-1) (correlation coefficient, R=0.9995) for acetylsalicylic acid and between 0.4486 and 44.86 microg ml(-1) (correlation coefficient, R=0.99786) for caffeine. The recovery range of 98.40-102% for acetylsalicylic acid and 90-100.5% for caffeine from their synthetic mixture was reported. Overall recovery of both compounds about 97-99% for acetylsalicylic acid and 97-98% for caffeine was obtained from real sample analysis. The detection limits are 0.0013 microg ml(-1) and 0.0306 microg ml(-1) for acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine, respectively. The relative standard deviation (n=10) for 20 microg ml(-1) of acetylsalicylic acid is 2.75% and for 2.2 microg ml(-1)of caffeine is 1.7%.

  4. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the myrsinoic acid A from Myrsine coriacea and the semi-synthetic derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carmen de Melo Burger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe antimicrobial activity of the myrsinoic acid A isolated from Myrsine coriacea (Sw. R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Primulaceae, and a two semi-synthetics derivatives was tested against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration during evaluation of the antimicrobial activity. The myrsinoic acid A showed no activity against the selected microorganisms but the hydrogenated and acetylated derivatives were active against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

  6. Novel self-associative and multiphase nanostructured soft carriers based on amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne; Vaccaro, Andrea; Delie, Florence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the physicochemical properties in aqueous media of amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives obtained by reaction of HA’s hydroxyl groups with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The self-associative properties of the resulting octenyl succinic...... anhydridemodified hyaluronic acid (OSA-HA) derivatives were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy using Nile Red as fluorophore. The morphology, size and surface charge of the OSA-HA assemblies were determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and by measuring their electrophoretic...

  7. New derivatives of CNC-amino acids and -oligopeptides: experimental antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, W J

    1986-01-01

    The experimental antitumor activity of a series of new nitrosoureas is described in which the chloroethylnitrosocarbamoyl (CNC) group is attached to different carrier molecules: amino acids and oligopeptides. Of a group of 10 CNC-amino acid amide derivatives the majority displayed high therapeutic activity in L 5222 leukemia. Some compounds, especially the proline and sarcosine derivatives, showed favorable therapeutic ratios; 12 CNC-oligopeptides displayed a more or less pronounced therapeutic activity in L 1210 leukemia. Compounds bearing a free carboxy group were less active than the corresponding unsubstituted or N-methyl substituted amides.

  8. Metal-Free, Acid-Catalyzed ortho-Directed Synthesis of Anthranilic Acid Derivatives Using Carbodiimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culf, Adrian S; Čuperlović-Culf, Miroslava; Ouellette, Rodney J; Decken, Andreas

    2015-06-05

    One-pot syntheses of fluorescent o-aminobenzoates, o-aminopyridine carboxylates, and a 2'-amino-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid are described. Carbodiimides are used as the source of the 2-amino function which inserts onto an aromatic ring using S(N)Ar reaction conditions. This method proceeds regiospecifically with a range of 2-fluoroaromatic acids or esters bearing further aryl fluorine, trifluoromethyl, and cyano substituents.

  9. Remote meta C-H bond functionalization of 2-phenethylsulphonic acid and 3-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Anirban; Watile, Rahul; Mukherjee, Semanti; Maiti, Debabrata

    2016-11-24

    This discovery illustrates selective meta C-H bond activation from multiple non-equivalent C-H bonds present in medicinally relevant arylethanesulfonic acid and the 2-arylpropanoic acid moiety using weakly coordinating nitrile as a directing group. Transformation of the meta olefinated compounds to important organic molecules has been demonstrated. Efforts were made to obtain mechanistic detail of the meta C-H bond functionalization reaction.

  10. Inhibitory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester derivatives on replication of hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported as a multifunctional compound. In this report, we tested the effect of CAPE and its derivatives on hepatitis C virus (HCV replication in order to develop an effective anti-HCV compound. CAPE and CAPE derivatives exhibited anti-HCV activity against an HCV replicon cell line of genotype 1b with EC50 values in a range from 1.0 to 109.6 µM. Analyses of chemical structure and antiviral activity suggested that the length of the n-alkyl side chain and catechol moiety are responsible for the anti-HCV activity of these compounds. Caffeic acid n-octyl ester exhibited the highest anti-HCV activity among the tested derivatives with an EC50 value of 1.0 µM and an SI value of 63.1 by using the replicon cell line derived from genotype 1b strain Con1. Treatment with caffeic acid n-octyl ester inhibited HCV replication of genotype 2a at a similar level to that of genotype 1b irrespectively of interferon signaling. Caffeic acid n-octyl ester could synergistically enhance the anti-HCV activities of interferon-alpha 2b, daclatasvir, and VX-222, but neither telaprevir nor danoprevir. These results suggest that caffeic acid n-octyl ester is a potential candidate for novel anti-HCV chemotherapy drugs.

  11. Oleanolic Acid and Its Derivatives: Biological Activities and Therapeutic Potential in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Betty Ayeleso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for natural products as an alternative therapy for chronic diseases has encouraged research into the pharmacological importance of bioactive compounds from plants. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the therapeutic potential of oleanolic acid (OA in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Oleanolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in plants, including fruits and vegetables with different techniques and chromatography platforms being employed in its extraction and isolation. Several studies have demonstrated the potential therapeutic effects of OA on different diseases and their symptoms. Furthermore, oleanolic acid also serves as a framework for the development of novel semi-synthetic triterpenoids that could prove vital in finding therapeutic modalities for various ailments. There are recent advances in the design and synthesis of chemical derivatives of OA to enhance its solubility, bioavailability and potency. Some of these derivatives have also been therapeutic candidates in a number of clinical trials. This review consolidates and expands on recent reports on the biological effects of oleanolic acid from different plant sources and its synthetic derivatives as well as their mechanisms of action in in vitro and in vivo study models. This review suggests that oleanolic acid and its derivatives are important candidates in the search for alternative therapy in the treatment and management of chronic diseases.

  12. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  13. The Effect of the Serum Amino Acid Levels Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives and its Metal Complexes on Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karatepe, Mustafa; Kaman, Dilara

    2013-01-01

    Advers biological activities of Thiosemicarbazone (TSC) and Schiff base (SB) derivatives have been widely studied in rats and in other animal species using different doses, times and routes of administration. To date, no attempt has been made to study alterations occurring in the amino acid profile in the effects of the thiosemicarbazone derivative and its metal complexes on the rats. At this study, the rats were injected subcutaneously with a new thiosemicarbazone and its LH-Zn and LH-Cu com...

  14. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  15. Overexpression of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Transgenic Roots of Coleus blumei Alters Growth and Rosmarinic Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Fulgosi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most natural phenolic compounds in plants are derived from trans-cinnamic acid, formed by the nonoxidative deamination of L-phenylalanine by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24. Although a strict line between primary and secondary metabolism cannot be drawn, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase is considered to play a pivotal role in channelling carbon flux from primary metabolism to phenolic synthesis. The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity on phenolic production in Coleus blumei. Transgenic roots of C. blumei, harbouring the Arabidopsis thaliana PAL1 gene, under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, along with empty vector and wild-type roots, were regenerated. Transgenic root lines had disparate phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities ranging from 67 to 350 %, compared to wild-type roots. Growth rates significantly differed, with the lowest in transgenic roots exerting augmented phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity. Transgenic roots with high phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity had lower growth rates, lower amounts of total phenolics, rosmarinic acid (the major phenolic compound in C. blumei and chlorogenic acid, but increased amounts of caffeic acid. There was no increase in total phenolics and rosmarinic acid content after feeding transgenic roots with casein enzymatic hydrolysate and L-tyrosine. This shows that augmented phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity inhibits growth and phenolic metabolism, and the probable regulator of these processes is trans-cinnamic acid.

  16. Anticancer mechanisms of action of two small amphipathic β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives derived from antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausbacher, Dominik; Svineng, Gunbjørg; Hansen, Terkel; Strøm, Morten B

    2012-11-01

    We have recently discovered that small antimicrobial β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives (Mw<500) also display activity against cancer cells. To explore their drug potential, we have presently investigated the mechanisms of action of two derivatives BAA-1 (IC(50) 8.1μg/ml) and BAA-2 (IC(50) 3.8μg/ml) on Ramos human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Studies using annexin-V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry revealed essential mechanistic differences, which was confirmed by screening for active caspases, investigation of mitochondrial membrane potential, and electron microscopy studies. Our results indicated that BAA-1 killed Ramos cells by destabilizing the cell membrane, whereas BAA-2 caused apoptosis by the mitochondrial-mediated pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Benzoic acid derivatives: Evaluation of thermochemical properties with complementary experimental and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry and Department “Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter”, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zaitsau, Dzmitry H. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Emeĺyanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Department “Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter”, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Stepurko, Elena N. [Chemistry Faculty and Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Belarusian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Zherikova, Kseniya V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-20

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Sublimation enthalpies were derived and compared with the literature. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Contradiction between available enthalpies of sublimation was resolved. • Pairwise interactions of substituents on the benzene ring were derived. - Abstract: Molar sublimation enthalpies of the methyl- and methoxybenzoic acids were derived from the transpiration method, static method, and TGA. Thermochemical data available in the literature were collected, evaluated, and combined with own experimental results. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available enthalpy data and to recommend sets of sublimation and formation enthalpies for the benzoic acid derivatives. Gas-phase enthalpies of formation calculated with the G4 quantum-chemical method were in agreement with the experiment. Pairwise interactions of the methyl, methoxy, and carboxyl substituents on the benzene ring were derived and used for the development of simple group-additivity procedures for estimation of the vaporization enthalpies, gas-phase, and liquid-phase enthalpies of formation of substituted benzenes.

  18. Versatile phosphoramidation reactions for nucleic acid conjugations with peptides, proteins, chromophores, and biotin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Pin; Chiou, Yi-Jang; Chen, Yi; Wang, Eng-Chi; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Ko, Chun-Han

    2010-09-15

    Chemical conjugations of nucleic acids with macromolecules or small molecules are common approaches to study nucleic acids in chemistry and biology and to exploit nucleic acids for medical applications. The conjugation of nucleic acids such as oligonucleotides with peptides is especially useful to circumvent cell delivery and specificity problems of oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents. However, current approaches are limited and inefficient in their ability to afford peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs). Here, we report an effective and reproducible approach to prepare POCs and other nucleic acid conjugates based on a newly developed nucleic acid phosphoramidation method. The development of a new nucleic acid phosphoramidation reaction was achieved by our successful synthesis of a novel amine-containing biotin derivative used to systematically optimize the reactions. The improved phosphoramidation reactions dramatically increased yields of nucleic acid-biotin conjugates up to 80% after 3 h reaction. Any nucleic acids with a terminal phosphate group are suitable reactants in phosphoramidation reactions to conjugate with amine-containing molecules such as biotin and fluorescein derivatives, proteins, and, most importantly, peptides to enable the synthesis of POCs for therapeutic applications. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to study incorporation of biotin or fluorescein-tagged DNA primers into the reaction products demonstrated that appropriate controls of nucleic acid phosphoramidation reactions incur minimum adverse effects on inherited base-pairing characteristics of nucleotides in nucleic acids. The phosphoramidation approach preserves the integrity of hybridization specificity in nucleic acids when preparing POCs. By retaining integrity of the nucleic acids, their effectiveness as therapeutic reagents for gene silencing, gene therapy, and RNA interference is ensured. The potential for POC use was demonstrated by two-step phosphoramidation reactions to

  19. Evolution in caffeoylquinic acid content and histolocalization during Coffea canephora leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Buatois, Bruno; Talansier, Emeline; de Kochko, Alexandre; Campa, Claudine

    2006-07-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids are cinnamate conjugates derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. They are generally involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress and one of them, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-CQA), is an intermediate in the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Caffeoylquinic acids, and particularly 5-CQA, are accumulated in coffee beans, where they can form vacuolar complexes with caffeine. Coffea canephora beans are known to have high caffeoylquinic acid content, but little is known about the content and diversity of these compounds in other plant parts. To gain new insights into the caffeoylquinic acid metabolism of C. canephora, caffeoylquinic acid content and in situ localization were assessed in leaves at different growth stages. HPLC analyses of caffeoylquinic acid content of leaves was conducted in conjunction with detailed histochemical and microspectrofluorometrical analysis. HPLC analyses revealed that caffeoylquinic acid content was 10-fold lower in adult than in juvenile leaves. The most abundant cinnamate conjugate was 5-CQA, but dicaffeoylquinic acids (particularly in juvenile leaves) and feruloylquinic acids were also present. Using specific reagents, histochemical and microspectrofluorometrical analysis showed that caffeoylquinic acids (mono- and di-esters) were closely associated with chloroplasts in very young leaves. During leaf ageing, they were found to first accumulate intensively in specific chlorenchymatous bundle sheath cells and then in phloem sclerenchyma cells. The association with chloroplasts suggests that caffeoylquinic acids have a protective role against light damage. In older tissues, their presence in the leaf vascular system indicates that they are transported via phloem and confirms their involvement in lignification processes. In accordance with the hypothesis of a complex formation with caffeine, similar tissue distribution was observed for alkaloids and this is further discussed.

  20. Monitoring of the fermentation media of citric acid by the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the organic acids formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassempour, Alireza; Nojavan, Saeed; Talebpour, Zahra; Amiri, Ali Asghar; Najafi, Nahid Mashkouri

    2004-10-20

    In this approach, a derivatization method is described for monitoring of organic acids in fermentation media without any separation step. The aqueous phase of fermentation media was evaporated and heated in a silylation reagent to form trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The silylated compounds are analyzed by 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 29Si NMR can qualitatively monitor the components produced in the Krebs cycle. Quantification of these compounds is investigated by using selected ion monitoring mode of mass spectrometry. In this mode, mass to charge (m/z) values of their [M - 15]+ ions, which are 465, 275, 247, 221, 335, 251, and 313 of TMS derivatives of citric, alpha-ketoglutaric, succinic, fumaric, l-malic, oxaloacetic, and palmitic (as an internal standard), acids, respectively, are used. The limit of detection and the linear working range for derivatized citric acid were found to be 0.1 mg L(-1) and 10-3 x 10(4) mg L(-1). The relative standard deviation of the method for five replicates was 2.1%. The average recovery efficiency for citric acid added to culture media was approximately 97.2%. Quantitative results of GC-MS are compared with those obtained by an ultraviolet-visible method. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  1. Aggregation behavior of cholic acid derivatives in organic solvents and in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis various cholic acid derivatives are reported that display aggregation in water or in organic solvents. Spontaneous aggregation of single molecules into larger, ordered structures occurs at the borderline of solubility. Amphiphilic compounds, or surfactants, which possess a

  2. Developmental toxicity study of vegetable oil-derived stanol fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slesinski, R.S.; Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In a standard developmental toxicity study, a mixture of vegetable oil- derived stanol fatty acid esters was administered in the diet to groups of 28 mated female HsdCpb:WU Wistar rats at concentrations that provided 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% total stanols (equivalent to 0, 1.75, 4.38, and 8.76% plant

  3. Regulation of aspartate-derived amino-acid metabolism in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Smit, B.A.; Hartmans, S.; Schure, ter E.G.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the growth inhibitory effect of threonine, the regulation of the aspartate-derived amino-acid metabolism in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, an important yeast for the flavor development in soy sauce, was investigated. It was shown that threonine inhibited the growth of Z. rouxii by blocking

  4. Silica Sulfuric Acid: An Eco-Friendly and Reusable Catalyst for Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica sulfuric acid (SiO2-OSO3H as an eco-friendly, readily available, and reusable catalyst is applied to benzimidazole derivatives synthesis under reflux in ethanol. The procedure is very simple and the products are isolated with an easy workup in good-to-excellent yields.

  5. Polycarboxylate derivative of α-amino acid as growth modifier of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-molecular-weight chiral polycarboxylate ligands derived fromnaturally occurring -\\alpha-amino acids have been used asmodel systems to study the effect of small organic matrix on crystal growth modification. The sulphide minerals are characterized by PXRD, FT–IR and SEM. Furthermore, the optical properties of ...

  6. Tracking of Drug Release and Material Fate for Naturally Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Keith M; Artzi, Natalie; Beck, Moshe; Beckerman, Rita; Moodie, Geoff; Albergo, Theresa; Conroy, Suzanne; Dale, Alicia; Corbeil, Scott; Martakos, Paul; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted on omega-3 fatty acid-derived biomaterials to determine their utility as an implantable material for adhesion prevention following soft tissue hernia repair and as a means to allow for the local delivery of antimicrobial or antibiofilm agents. Naturally derived biomaterials offer several advantages over synthetic materials in the field of medical device development. These advantages include enhanced biocompatibility, elimination of risks posed by the presence of toxic catalysts and chemical crosslinking agents, and derivation from renewable resources. Omega-3 fatty acids are readily available from fish and plant sources and can be used to create implantable biomaterials either as a stand-alone device or as a device coating that can be utilized in local drug delivery applications. In-depth characterization of material erosion degradation over time using non-destructive imaging and chemical characterization techniques provided mechanistic insight into material structure: function relationship. This in turn guided rational tailoring of the material based on varying fatty acid composition to control material residence time and hence drug release. These studies demonstrate the utility of omega-3 fatty acid derived biomaterials as an absorbable material for soft tissue hernia repair and drug delivery applications.

  7. [The identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on textiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, A V; Shabalina, A E; Rassinskaya, L A

    Thus article was designed to report a few cases of the identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on the clothes and other textiles. The data presented give evidence that barbiturates are capable of persisting in dry blood stains during rather a long period. The authors emphasize the necessity of mandatory control investigations to avoid obtaining the false positive results.

  8. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with humic acid anions and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabova, I.N. [Kazakh Academy of Science, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

    2008-01-15

    Complexation of Ni(II) and Cu(II) in aqueous solutions with anions of humic acids, extracted from naturally oxidized coal, and with their hydroxymethyl derivatives is studied spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically. The complexation stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes are determined.

  9. Synthesis of N-acylurea derivatives from carboxylic acids and N,N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of N-acylurea derivatives from carboxylic acids and. N,N -dialkyl carbodiimides in water. ALI RAMAZANIa,∗, FATEMEH ZEINALI NASRABADIb, ARAM REZAEIa,. MORTEZA ROUHANIc, HAMIDEH AHANKARd, PEGAH AZIMZADEH ASIABIa,. SANG WOO JOOe,∗. , KATARZYNA SLEPOKURAf and TADEUSZ LISf.

  10. Mycophenolic acid derivative 118 improves outcome of skin grafts by suppressing IL-17 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fang-yuan; Chen, Wei; He, Shi-jun; Lin, Ze-min; Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yang, Xiao-qian; Zhu, Feng-hua; Tong, Xian-kun; Zhou, Yu; Tang, Wei; Duan, Wen-hu; Zuo, Jian-ping

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of 118, a novel derivative of mycophenolic acid, in a murine allogeneic skin graft model. Skin grafts were conducted by grafting BALB/c donor tail skin into C57BL/6 skin beds (allograft) or by grafting female C57BL/6 donor tail skin into female C57BL/6 skin beds (syngraft). The mice were treated with the derivative 118 (40 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 13 d (3 d before and 10 d after transplantation). Skin grafts, splenocytes and graft-infiltrated lymphocytes were isolated and examined ex vivo. The effects of the derivative 118 on naive CD4(+) T cell differentiation were examined in vitro. Treatment with the derivative 118 dramatically increased the survival rate of murine allogeneic skin grafts. Flow cytometric analysis and H&E staining showed that the derivative significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration into the grafts. The levels of the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL7, and CCL2 were reduced in the derivative 118-treated grafts. Additionally, the derivative 118 significantly suppressed the IL-17 levels in the grafts but did not affect the differentiation of systemic helper T cells in the murine allogeneic skin graft model. Furthermore, IL-23p19 expression was suppressed in the grafts from the derivative 118-treated group, which might be due to decreases in TLR4 and MyD88 expression. Finally, the derivative 118 did not exert direct influences on helper T cell differentiation in vitro. Treatment with the mycophenolic acid derivative 118 improves murine allogeneic skin grafts by decreasing IL-23 expression and suppressing local IL-17 secretion in the grafts, rather than directly inhibiting Th17 differentiation.

  11. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of gallic acid derivatives in aluminum hydroxide gel-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives are added to most of the pharmaceutical preparations to prevent them from deterioration throughout their shelf life. Literature reveals that the common synthetic preservatives have many limitations, such as development of microbial resistance (in due course of time and several serious side-effects. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out new preservatives synthesized from natural sources, which may have better efficiency than the existing synthetic preservatives. The derivatives of naturally occurring gallic acid were subjected for their preservative efficacy study. Their preservative efficiency was evaluated and compared with the standard parabens. Materials and Methods: The selected amide, anilide and ester derivatives of gallic acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, {aluminum hydroxide gel-USP (United States Pharmacopoeia} against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. Results: The selected derivatives were found to be effective against all selected strains and showed preservative efficacy comparable to that of standard and even better in case E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. The 8-hydroxy quinoline ester derivative showed better preservative efficacy than standard as well as other derivatives. Conclusion: The newly synthesized gallic acid preservatives were found to be effective in the proposed pharmaceutical preparation (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel - USP. Also, the synthesized preservatives have shown comparative and even better efficacy than the existing parabens and hence they have potential for use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of p-coumaric acid derivatives in aluminium hydroxide gel-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deterioration of pharmaceutical preparations due to growth of microorganisms is a great challenge and need of preservation becomes very important. Literature reports about various problems associated with the existing synthetic preservatives such as development of microbial resistance (in due course of time and several serious side effects. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find out new preservatives synthesized from natural sources, which may have better efficiency than the existing synthetic preservatives. The derivatives of naturally occurring p-coumaric acid were subjected for their preservative efficacy study. Their preservative efficiency was evaluated and compared with the standard parabens. Materials and Methods: The selected amide, anilide and ester derivatives of p-coumaric acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, (aluminium hydroxide gel-USP against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. Results: The selected derivatives were found to be effective against all selected strains and showed preservative efficacy comparable to that of standard and even better in case E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. The 8-hydroxy quinoline ester derivative showed better preservative efficacy than standard as well as other derivatives. Conclusion: The newly synthesized p- coumaric acid preservatives were found to be effective in the proposed pharmaceutical preparation (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel - USP. Also, the synthesized preservatives have shown comparative and even better efficacy than the existing parabens and hence they have potential for use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  13. Semi-Empirical Predictions on the Structure and Properties of ent-Kaurenoic Acid and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Isagani B. Janairo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of ent- kaurenoic acid model derivatives, which possibly influence its therapeutic application, were calculated. Results revealed that the molecule possess favourable attributes which renders it possible to be considered as a drug lead only that its very hydrophobic nature can result to poor bioavailabilty, low absorption and poor systemic circulation. In silico simulations revealed that this setback can be overcome by introduction of hydroxyl group to the tertiary carbon of ent-kaurenoic acid employing m-CPBA catalyzed hydroxylation, thus, unleashing its full drug potency. Moreover, molecular similarity analyses derived from semi-empirical calculations between ent-kaurenoic acid and a set of kaurane diterpenoids showed differences in hydrophobic complementarity, size and electronic properties despite possessing nearly identical molecular frameworks, thus, arriving in a generalization for their observed mechanistic differences on acting on different targets.

  14. Search for novel histone deacetylase inhibitors. Part II: design and synthesis of novel isoferulic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we described the discovery of potent ferulic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with halogeno-acetanilide as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). In order to improve the affinity and activity of these HDACIs, twenty seven isoferulic acid derivatives were described herein. The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, IF5 and IF6 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.73 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. Especially, IF6 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate with IC50 value of 3.91 ± 0.97 μM against HeLa cells. The results indicated that these isoferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic study of Langmuir films of different amino acid derivatives on several subphases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Románszki L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Langmuir trough, we studied the formation and the behaviour upon compression of Langmuir films of 1 α-hexadecyl derivative of tert-butoxycarbonylated glycine, respectively α-octadecyl derivative of tert-butoxycarbonylated glycine methyl ester on l- and d-amino acid subphases with/without Cu2+ ions, and 2 N-hexadecanoyl derivatives of four l-amino acids (Ala, Ser, Glu, and Phe on pure water subphase. The films were characterized by their Ac and A0 molecular areas, Πc collapse pressure, C−1 compression modulus, and the ΠCmax−1${\\Pi _{C_{\\max }^1}}$ surface pressure at maximum compression modulus. In this contribution, the found peculiarities of the different amphiphile–subphase pairs and the drawn conclusions about the structure of the films and the interactions of the amphiphiles with the subphases are presented.

  17. Suppression effect of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived component on nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoi-Seon; Kim, Byung-Su; Kim, Moo-Key

    2002-12-18

    The inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived material on nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells was determined through the evaluation of NO production and expression of inducible nitric oxide and compared to the effects of three commercially available compounds, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, and eugenol. The biologically active constituents of C. cassia extract were characterized as trans-cinnamaldehyde by spectral analysis. The inhibitory effects varied with both chemical and concentration used. Potent inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde against NO production were 81.5 and 71.7% at 1.0 and 0.5 microg/microL, respectively, and a 41.2% inhibitory effect was revealed at 0.1 microg/microL. However, little or no activity was observed for cinnamic acid and eugenol. Suppression effects of cinnamaldehyde on inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were revealed by Western blot analysis. As a naturally occurring therapeutic agent, trans-cinnamaldehyde could be useful for developing new types of NO inhibitors.

  18. [Stereoselective synthesis of polyhydroxylated amines using (S)-pyroglutamic acid derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikota, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring polyhydroxylated amines such as (+)-1-deoxynojirimycin, polyoxamic acid, anisomycin, (-)swainsonine, and alexine stereoisomers, which have interesting biological activities including glucosidase- and mannosidase-inhibitory activity, immunoregulatory activity, and antibacterial effects, were synthesized stereoselectively starting from (S)-pyroglutamic acid derivatives. α,β-Unsaturated lactams ((S)-5-hydroxymethyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline derivatives), α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone ((S)-4-amino-2-penten-5-olide derivative), and E-olefin ((S,E)-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxypent-2-enoate derivative) from (S)-pyroglutamic acid derivatives were dihydroxylated using OsO4 in the presence of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMO) to afford various chiral building blocks with different configurations. The stereoselectivity of cis-dihydroxylation for α,β-unsaturated lactams and α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone was very high, while the stereoselectivity was low for E-olefin. Therefore, the double asymmetric induction of E-olefin using K2OsO4 with chiral ligands was successively applied to yield high stereoselectivity. (2R,3S)-2-Hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxypyrrolidine and Gaissman-Weiss lactone, important intermediates for the preparation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, were synthesized from a (3R,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-2-pyrrolidinone derivative derived from α,β-unsatulated lactam. (+)-1-Deoxynojirimycin was synthesized from a (2S,3R,4R)-methyl 4-amino-2,3,5-trihydroxypentanoate derivative of E-olefin. (-)-Swainsonine and its stereoisomers were synthesized from (2R,3S,4R)- or (2R,3R,4R)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine derivatives of α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone or α,β-unsaturated lactam. The key reaction was diastereoselective allylation of the aldehyde derived from the corresponding 2-hydroxymethylpyrrolidine derivatives with various allylation reagents. The high diastereoselectivity could be explained by cyclic chelate formation between metals and the

  19. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))

    1991-05-01

    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  20. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma B. Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shells (CNS, which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  1. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fatma B.; Mubofu, Egid B.

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  2. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  3. 2,5-PRODAN Derivatives as Highly Sensitive Sensors of Low Solvent Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra H. Yoon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two 5-acyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene derivatives, one with a propionyl group and the other with a fused cyclohexanone ring, are investigated as sensors of H-bond-donating ability in protic solvents of low solvent acidity. Their fluorescence is highly quenched in protic solvents, and the quenching order of magnitude is linearly related to the H-bond-donating ability of the solvent as quantified by the solvent acidity (SA scale. As the solvent acidity increases from 0.15 to 0.40, the fluorescence for both is quenched by more than a factor of ten; thus, they are extremely sensitive sensors of the hydrogen-bond-donating ability in this weakly acidic range. Preferential solvation studies suggest that quenching occurs from a doubly H-bonded excited state.

  4. Two glucosylated abscisic acid derivates from avocado seeds (Persea americana Mill. Lauraceae cv. Hass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Refugio Ramos, María; Jerz, Gerold; Villanueva, Socorro; López-Dellamary, Fernando; Waibel, Reiner; Winterhalter, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of avocado seed material (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) resulted in the isolation of two glucosylated abscisic acid derivates. One of these was not known as a natural product and can be regarded as a potential 'missing link' in abscisic acid metabolism in plants. After fractionation by high-speed countercurrent chromatography, and multiple steps of column chromatography, structures were elucidated by 1D-, 2D-NMR, electrospray-MS to be the novel beta-d-glucoside of (1'S,6'R)-8'-hydroxyabscisic acid, and (1'R,3'R,5'R,8'S)-epi-dihydrophaseic acid beta-d-glucoside. Absolute configuration was determined by circulardichroism, optical rotation, and by NOE experiments.

  5. Synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid derivatives designed as novel PPARgamma agonists and antidiabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshimasa; Murota, Itsuki; Yoshikai, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    To discover novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists that could be used as antidiabetic agents, we designed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derivatives (2 and 3), which have a hydrophilic substituent at the C4-position, based on the crystal structure of the ligand-binding pocket of PPARgamma. These compounds were synthesized via iodolactone as a key intermediate. We found that both DHA derivatives (2 and 3) showed PPARgamma transactivation higher than, or comparable to, that of pioglitazone, which is a TZD derivative used as an antidiabetic agent. DHA derivatives related to these potent compounds 2 and 3 were also synthesized to study structure-activity relationships. Furthermore, 4-OH DHA 2, which shows strong PPARgamma transcriptional activity, was separated as an optically pure form.

  6. Carboxylic Acid Fullerene (C60) Derivatives Attenuated Neuroinflammatory Responses by Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shefang; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Keman; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Yange; Jiang, Yuanqin; Yang, Peiyan

    2015-12-01

    Fullerene (C60) derivatives, a unique class of compounds with potent antioxidant properties, have been reported to exert a wide variety of biological activities including neuroprotective properties. Mitochondrial dynamics are an important constituent of cellular quality control and function, and an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell dysfunctions. This study aimed to assess the effects of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives (C60-COOH) on mitochondrial dynamics and elucidate its associated mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cell model. Using a cell-based functional screening system labeled with DsRed2-mito in BV-2 cells, we showed that LPS stimulation led to excessive mitochondrial fission, increased mitochondrial localization of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), both of which were markedly suppressed by C60-COOH pretreatment. LPS-induced mitochondria reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were also significantly inhibited by C60-COOH. Moreover, we also found that C60-COOH pretreatment resulted in the attenuation of LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that carboxylic acid C60 derivatives may exert neuroprotective effects through regulating mitochondrial dynamics and functions in microglial cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of the neuroprotective properties of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives.

  7. Antiparasitic evaluation of betulinic acid derivatives reveals effective and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Cássio Santana; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with several biological properties already described, including antiparasitic activity. Here, the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of betulinic acid and its semi-synthetic amide derivatives (BA1-BA8) was investigated. The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and selectivity were enhanced in semi-synthetic derivatives, specially on derivatives BA5, BA6 and BA8. To understand the mechanism of action underlying betulinic acid anti-T. cruzi activity, we investigated ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural studies showed that trypomastigotes incubated with BA5 had membrane blebling, flagella retraction, atypical cytoplasmic vacuoles and Golgi cisternae dilatation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that parasite death is mainly caused by necrosis. Treatment with derivatives BA5, BA6 or BA8 reduced the invasion process, as well as intracellular parasite development in host cells, with a potency and selectivity similar to that observed in benznidazole-treated cells. More importantly, the combination of BA5 and benznidazole revealed synergistic effects on trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BA5 compound is an effective and selective anti-T. cruzi agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anticancer activity of small amphipathic β²,²-amino acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Terkel; Ausbacher, Dominik; Zachariassen, Zack G; Anderssen, Trude; Havelkova, Martina; Strøm, Morten B

    2012-12-01

    We report the anticancer activity from screening of a series of synthetic β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives that were prepared to confirm the pharmacophore model of short cationic antimicrobial peptides with high anti-Staphylococcal activity. The most potent derivatives against human Burkitt's lymphoma (Ramos) cells displayed IC(50) values below 8 μM, and low toxicity against human red blood cells (EC(50) > 200 μM). A more than 5-fold preference for Ramos cancer cells compared to human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells) was also obtained for the most promising β(2,2)-amino acid derivative 3-amino-N-(2-aminoethyl)-2,2-bis(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)propanamide (5c). Screening of 5c at the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA) confirmed its anticancer potency and revealed a very broad range of anticancer activity with IC(50) values of 0.32-3.89 μM against 59 different cancer cell lines. Highest potency was obtained against the colon cancer cell lines, a non-small cell lung cancer, a melanoma, and three leukemia cell lines included in the NCI screening panel. The reported β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives constitute a promising new class of anticancer agents based on their high anticancer potency, ease of synthesis, mode-of-action, and optimized pharmacokinetic properties compared to much larger antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atiyeh, R.M.; Lee, S.; Edwards, C.A.; Arancon, N.Q.; Metzger, J.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Soil Ecology Lab.

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates. (author)

  10. [Cerebroprotective effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives in experimental diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2013-01-01

    We studied an effect of original domestic derivatives of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) on changes in the cellular composition of cortical and diencephalic structures in the rat brain in relation to the hyperglycemia severity in rats with alloxan diabetes. The effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives was compared with the results of alpha-lipoic acid treatment. We determined that administration of 14 optimal doses of any medication in this study prevented the decrease in neuronal count in the primary somatosensory cortex (Par1 field). This effect was particularly evident after treatment with 3-oxypyridine derivatives (emoxipine and mexidol). Additionally, a two-week administration of emoxipine and mexidol led to a decreased percentage of lipofuscin-positive neurons in the neocortex and field CA1 of the hippocampus. Concurrently, emoxipine and mexidol increased the number of basket neurons as well as oligodendrocytes and microglia in the studied structure of the Ammon's horn. Moreover, these two substances prevented the decrease in the number of astrocytes in the somatosensory cortex and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The cerebroprotective activity of reamberin and alpha-lipoic acid in alloxan diabetes was less effective than that of 3-oxypyridine derivatives. Also, reamberin and alpha-lipoic acid induced undesirable side-effects manifested in the decreased number of pyramid neurons in field CA1 in the hippocampus and the increased number of lipofuscin-positive neurons in the somatosensory cortex and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Changes in the cellular composition of cortical and diencephalic structures resulting from administration of medications used in this study did not depend on the ability of these substances to restrain the hyperglycemia in alloxan diabetes.

  11. Deriving environmental quality standards for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related short chain perfluorinated alkyl acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Sara; Conti, Daniela; Crebelli, Riccardo; Polesello, Stefano; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Carere, Mario; Lucentini, Luca; Ferretti, Emanuele; Balzamo, Stefania; Simeone, Maria Gabriella; Aste, Fiorella

    2017-02-05

    The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced the Italian government to establish a Working Group on Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFAA in order to include some of them in the list of national specific pollutants for surface water monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The list of substances included perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and related short chain PFAA such as perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), which is a substitute of perfluorooctanesulfonate. For each of them a dossier collects available data on regulation, physico-chemical properties, emission and sources, occurrence, acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic species and mammals, including humans. Quality standards (QS) were derived for the different protection objectives (pelagic and benthic communities, predators by secondary poisoning, human health via consumption of fishery products and water) according to the European guideline. The lowest QS is finally chosen as the relevant EQS. For PFOA a QS for biota was derived for protection from secondary poisoning and the corresponding QS for water was back-calculated, obtaining a freshwater EQS of 0.1μgL(-1). For PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA and PFBS threshold limits proposed for drinking waters were adopted as EQS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory activity of novel kojic acid derivative containing trolox moiety on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soo Mi; Rho, Ho Sik; Baek, Heung Soo; Joo, Yung Hyup; Hong, Yong Deog; Shin, Song Seok; Park, Young-Ho; Park, Soo Nam

    2011-12-15

    A novel kojic acid derivative containing a trolox moiety, (±)-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl methyl 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylate (3a), was synthesized. The two biologically active compounds, namely, kojic acid and trolox, were conjugated via an ester bond as they are expected to behave synergistically. The antioxidant activity and the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of this novel kojic acid derivative on melanogenesis were evaluated. Compound 3a exhibited potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity and radical scavenging activity. Limited structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigations indicated that the tyrosinase inhibitory activities may originate from the kojic acid moiety, and the radical scavenging activity may be due to the phenolic hydroxyl group of trolox. Compound 3a also exhibited potent depigmenting activity in a cell-based assay. The limited SAR investigations revealed that the depigmenting activity of 3a may be due to the synergistic activities of kojic acid and its trolox moiety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transformation of cellulose and its derived carbohydrates into formic and lactic acids catalyzed by vanadyl cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchen; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Yanliang; Zhu, Enze; Wan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2014-06-01

    The transformation of cellulose or cellulose-derived carbohydrates into platform chemicals is the key to establish biomass-based sustainable chemical processes. The systems able to catalyze the conversion of cellulose into key chemicals in water without the consumption of hydrogen are limited. We report that simple vanadyl (VO(2+)) cations catalyze the conversions of cellulose and its monomer, glucose, into lactic acid and formic acid in water. We have discovered an interesting shift of the major product from formic acid to lactic acid on switching the reaction atmosphere from oxygen to nitrogen. Our studies suggest that VO(2+) catalyzes the isomerization of glucose to fructose, the retro-aldol fragmentation of fructose to two trioses, and the isomerization of trioses, which leads to the formation of lactic acid under anaerobic conditions. The oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds in the intermediates caused by the redox conversion of VO2(+)/VO(2+) under aerobic conditions results in formic acid and CO2. We demonstrate that the addition of an alcohol suppresses the formation of CO2 and enhances the formic acid yield significantly to 70-75 %. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains.

  15. D-Lactic acid biosynthesis from biomass-derived sugars via Lactobacillus delbrueckii fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixing; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2013-12-01

    Poly-lactic acid (PLA) derived from renewable resources is considered to be a good substitute for petroleum-based plastics. The number of poly L-lactic acid applications is increased by the introduction of a stereocomplex PLA, which consists of both poly-L and D-lactic acid and has a higher melting temperature. To date, several studies have explored the production of L-lactic acid, but information on biosynthesis of D-lactic acid is limited. Pulp and corn stover are abundant, renewable lignocellulosic materials that can be hydrolyzed to sugars and used in biosynthesis of D-lactic acid. In our study, saccharification of pulp and corn stover was done by cellulase CTec2 and sugars generated from hydrolysis were converted to D-lactic acid by a homofermentative strain, L. delbrueckii, through a sequential hydrolysis and fermentation process (SHF) and a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF). 36.3 g L(-1) of D-lactic acid with 99.8 % optical purity was obtained in the batch fermentation of pulp and attained highest yield and productivity of 0.83 g g(-1) and 1.01 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. Luedeking-Piret model described the mixed growth-associated production of D-lactic acid with a maximum specific growth rate 0.2 h(-1) and product formation rate 0.026 h(-1), obtained for this strain. The efficient synthesis of D-lactic acid having high optical purity and melting point will lead to unique stereocomplex PLA with innovative applications in polymer industry.

  16. Simultaneous Derivative Spectrophotometric Analysis of Doxylamine Succinate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride and Folic Acid in Combined Dosage Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A.; Rajput, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Two UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed, based on first derivative spectrophotometry for simultaneous estimation of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and folic acid in tablet formulations. In method I, the concentrations of these drugs were determined by using linear regression equation. Method II is also based on first derivative spectrophotometry however simultaneous equations (Vierdot's method) were derived on derivative spectra. The first derivative amplitudes at 270.0, 332.8 and 309.2 nm were utilized for simultaneous estimation of these drugs respectively by both methods. In both the methods, linearity was obtained in the concentration range 2.5-50 μg/ml, 1-40 μg/ml and 1-30 μg/ml for doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and folic acid respectively. The developed methods show best results in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and ruggedness for standard laboratory mixtures of pure drugs and marketed formulations. The common excipients and additives did not interfere in their determinations. PMID:20046784

  17. Interactions of cytotoxic amino acid derivatives of tert-butylquinone with DNA lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilipić Jovana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of nine amino acid derivatives of tert-butylquinone with biomacromolecules were studied. SDS electrophoresis and mass spectrometry confirmed the absence of modifications of lysozyme by any of the synthesized compounds. Spectrophotometric studies demonstrated hyperchromism, i.e. existence of interactions between the quinones and CT-DNA. Determination of binding constant by absorption titration indicates weak interactions between quinone derivatives and CT-DNA. The quenching of fluorescence of intercalator ethidium bromide from EB-CT-DNA system and of minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 from H-CT-DNA system by the synthesized derivatives indicates interactions of compounds and CT-DNA. CD spectra demonstrate non-intercalative binding mode of quinone derivaties to CT-DNA. Molecular docking results confirm binding to the minor groove. Electrophoretic pattern showed no cleavage of pUC19 plasmid in the presence of any of the synthesized compounds. The ability of the derivatives to scavenge radicals was confirmed by DPPH test. All the presented results suggest that the DNA minor groove binding is the principal mechanism of action of the examined amino acid derivatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172055

  18. Bioinspired bioadhesive polymers: dopa-modified poly(acrylic acid) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Mancini, Alexis; Geman, Nathanael; Cho, Daniel; Estrellas, Kenneth; Furtado, Stacia; Hopson, Russell; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-11-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of novel bioinspired bioadhesive polymers that contain Dopa, implicated in the extremely adhesive byssal fibers of certain gastropods, is reported. The novel polymers consist of combinations of either of two polyanhydride backbones and one of three amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or Dopa, grafted as side chains. Dopa-grafted hydrophobic backbone polymers exhibit as much as 2.5 × the fracture strength and 2.8 × the tensile work of bioadhesion of a commercially available poly(acrylic acid) derivative as tested on live, excised, rat intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Creatininium cinnamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jahubar Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: 2-amino-1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium 3-phenylprop-2-enoate, C4H8N3O+·C9H7O2−, is stabilized by N—H...O hydrogen bonding. Cations are linked to anions to form ion pairs with an R22(8 ring motif. These ion pairs are connected through a C22(6 chain motif extending along the c axis of the unit cell. This crystal packing is characterized by hydrophobic layers at x ∼ 1/2 packed between hydrophilic layers at x ∼ 0.

  20. Separation of D-lysergic acid diethylamide derivatives using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, M N; Fitzpatrick, F; Houdiere, F

    2000-03-01

    By adjusting column temperature and applied electric field, a fast separation in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was developed for the separation of D-lysergic acid diethylamide derivatives. A baseline separation of nine derivatives was accomplished with a run time of less than 12 min by utilizing elevated column temperature (60 degrees C) and an applied electric field of 387 V/cm. The number of plates generated per unit time for the separations completed at elevated temperatures was significantly higher when compared to separations at the same applied electric field but at lower temperatures (20 degrees C).

  1. Humic acid batteries derived from vermicomposts at different C/N ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, R. M.; Borhan, A.; Lim, W. K.

    2017-06-01

    Humic acid is a known fertilizer derived from decomposed organic matters. Organic wastes are normally landfilled for disposal which had contributed negatively to the environment. From waste-to-wealth perspective, such wastes are potential precursors for compost fertilizers. When worms are added into a composting process, the process is termed as vermicomposting. In this work, humic acid from vermicompost derived from campus green wastes was developed into a battery. This adds value proposition to compost instead of being traditionally used solely as soil improver. This research work aimed to study the correlation between electrical potential generated by humic acid at different Carbon to Nitrogen (C/N) ratios of vermicompost at 20, 25, 30 and 35. The temperature and pH profiles of composting revealed that the compost was ready after 55 days. The humic acid was extracted from compost via alkaline extraction followed by precipitation in a strong acid. The extracted humic acid together with other additives were packed into a compartment and termed as vermibattery. Another set of battery running only on the additives was also prepared as a control. The net voltage produced by a single vermibattery cell with Zn and PbO electrodes was in the range of 0.31 to 0.44 V with compost at C/N ratio of 30 gave the highest voltage. The battery can be connected in series to increase the voltage generation. Quality assessment on the compost revealed that the final carbon content is between 16 to 23 wt%, nitrogen content of 0.4 to 0.5 wt%, humic acid yield of 0.7 to 1.5 wt% and final compost mass reduction of 10 to 35 wt%. Composting campus green wastes carries multi-fold benefits of reducing labour requirement, generating fertilizer for campus greenery and green battery construction.

  2. The use of metabolic engineering to produce fatty acid-derived biofuel and chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals have garnered attention in recent years owing to their potential to replace petroleum and plant oil-derived products. Through the metabolic engineering of the fatty acid metabolism pathway, advanced fuels and chemicals such as free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, biodiesel, fatty alcohols, alkanes/alkene, R-3-hydroxybutyric acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates and flavonoids have been produced. The robustness, high tolerance to organic solvent, good reputation in industrial fermentations and excellent availability of genetic tools make the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a suitable cell factory for fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals production. This review will describe the successful metabolic engineering strategies employed to produce the fatty acid-derived bio-products in S. cerevisiae, including the enhancement of precursors and co-factors supply, promotion of the enzyme expression and activity, elimination of competing pathways, and the improvement of strain tolerance.

  3. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium (DTPA-Gd)-conjugated polysuccinimide derivatives as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Young; Jee, Hye Won; Seo, Sung Mi; Kwak, Byung Kook; Khang, Gilson; Cho, Sun Hang

    2006-01-01

    Biocompatible polysuccinimide (PSI) derivatives conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (DTPA-Gd) were prepared as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this study, we synthesized PSI derivatives incorporating methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) as hydrophilic ligand, hexadecylamine as hydrophobic ligand, and DTPA-Gd as contrast agent. PSI was synthesized by the polycondensation polymerization of aspartic acid. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Critical micellization concentrations were determined using fluorescent probes (pyrene). Micelle size and shape were measured by electro-photometer light scattering (ELS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formed micelle size ranged from 100 to 300 nm. The T1-weighted MR images of the phantom prepared with PSI-mPEG-C16-(DTPA-Gd) were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager, and the conjugates showed a great potential as MRI contrast agents.

  4. Synthesis and antitumour activity of arctigenin amino acid ester derivatives against H22 hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Enbo; Guo, Shijie; Yang, Limin; Han, Mei; Xia, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Xiaorui; Wang, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Arctigenin (ARG) is famous in its abundant pharmacological activity. However, many researches in it entered the bottleneck period because of its poor water solubility. The derivatives of ARG have been synthesised with five amino acids which have t-Butyloxy carbonyl (BOC) as a protective group. We examined the effects of removing BOC. The results showed that the amino acid derivatives without protective group have better water solubility and nitrite-clearing ability than ARG. Based on these results, ARG6' and ARG9' were selected at a dosage of 40 mg/kg to evaluate their antitumour activity. The percentage inhibition rate of ARG6' and ARG9' were 55.87 and 51.40, respectively, which was twice as much as ARG. Furthermore, they could increase liver and kidney indexes and produce less damage in these organs. In brief, this study provides a basis for new drug development.

  5. HPLC Enantioseparation of Phenylcarbamic Acid Derivatives by Using Macrocyclic Chiral Stationary Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroboňová Katarína

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The HPLC by using chiral stationary phases based on macrocyclic antibiotics, dimethylphenyl carbamate cyklofructan 7 and β-cyclodextrin in terms of polar-organic separation mode (mobile phase methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid/triethylamine were used for enantioseparation of alkoxy derivatives of phenylcarbamic acid. The effect of the analyte structures on the efficiency of enantioseparation was investigated. The most suitable stationary phase was teicoplanin aglycone, where the separations of the enantiomers were obtained (the resolution value from 0.65 to 2.90, depending on the structure of the analyte. Significant effect on the resolution of the enantiomers has position of alkoxy substituent in the hydrophobic part of the molecule. The enantiorecognition was achieved for 3-alkoxysubstituted derivatives.

  6. Synthesis of Chiral 1,4-Disubstituted-1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives from Amino Acids

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    Morten Grøtli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A versatile method for the synthesis of chiral 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole derivatives starting from easily accessible naturally occurring D-or L-amino acids as chiral synthons is described. The amino acids were converted into azido alcohols, followed by copper catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reactions between the azido alcohols and methyl propiolate and subsequent ester aminolysis with primary and secondary amines furnished the target compounds, which were obtained in excellent yields with no racemization. Docking of selected target compounds shows that the chiral 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles derivatives has the potential of mimicking the binding mode of known purine analogues.

  7. Stereoselective Synthesis of α-Amino-C-phosphinic Acids and Derivatives

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    José Luis Viveros-Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Amino-C-phosphinic acids and derivatives are an important group of compounds of synthetic and medicinal interest and particular attention has been dedicated to their stereoselective synthesis in recent years. Among these, phosphinic pseudopeptides have acquired pharmacological importance in influencing physiologic and pathologic processes, primarily acting as inhibitors for proteolytic enzymes where molecular stereochemistry has proven to be critical. This review summarizes the latest developments in the asymmetric synthesis of acyclic and phosphacyclic α-amino-C-phosphinic acids and derivatives, following in the first case an order according to the strategy used, whereas for cyclic compounds the nitrogen embedding in the heterocyclic core is considered. In addition selected examples of pharmacological implications of title compounds are also disclosed.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Trivalent and Tetravalent Derivatives of 2- Hydroxy-1-naphthoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Joshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trivalent derivatives (B, Al, As, Sb & Fe and tetravalent derivatives (Si, Ti & Se of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid have been prepared by the interaction of their corresponding isopropoxide with letter in different molar ratio viz. 1:3 &1:4 in benzene medium. The prepared compounds generally obtained as coloured solids and amongst them those containing isopropoxy groups were found to be hygroscopic. All these compound were characterized by azeotrope and elemental analysis as well as by IR, PMR and mass spectral measurements. These spectral data have facilitated in elucidating the mode of bonding of the said metals and non-metals in these compounds with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid.

  9. Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acid derivatives: history, advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Filonenko, Georgy A; van Putten, Robbert; Hensen, Emiel J M; Pidko, Evgeny A

    2015-06-07

    The catalytic reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives has witnessed a rapid development in recent years. These reactions, involving molecular hydrogen as the reducing agent, can be promoted by heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts. The milestone achievements and recent results by both approaches are discussed in this Review. In particular, we focus on the mechanistic aspects of the catalytic hydrogenation and highlight the bifunctional nature of the mechanism that is preferred for supported metal catalysts as well as homogeneous transition metal complexes.

  10. Hypoxia enhances the antiglioma cytotoxicity of b10, a glycosylated derivative of betulinic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Fischer; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W.; Anna-Luisa Thiepold; Harter, Patrick N.; Sebastian Reichert; Donat Kögel; Reinhard Paschke; Michel Mittelbronn; Michael Weller; Steinbach, Joachim P.; Simone Fulda; Oliver Bähr

    2014-01-01

    B10 is a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid with promising activity against glioma cells. Lysosomal cell death pathways appear to be essential for its cytotoxicity. We investigated the influence of hypoxia, nutrient deprivation and current standard therapies on B10 cytotoxicity. The human glioma cell lines LN-308 and LNT-229 were exposed to B10 alone or together with irradiation, temozolomide, nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by crystal violet s...

  11. Fatty acid derivatives of clozapine: prolonged antidopaminergic activity of docosahexaenoylclozapine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldessarini, R J; Campbell, A; Webb, N L; Swindell, C S; Flood, J G; Shashoua, V E; Kula, N S; Hemamalini, S; Bradley, M O

    2001-01-01

    Stable amides of clozapine derived from fatty acids prominent in cerebral tissue might enhance the central activity of clozapine and reduce its exposure to peripheral tissues. Such derivatives might enhance the safety of this unique drug, which is the only agent with securely established superior antipsychotic effectiveness, but with a risk of potentially lethal systemic toxicity. Amide derivatives of clozapine were prepared from structurally varied fatty acid chlorides and evaluated for ability to inhibit behavioral arousal in rat induced by dopamine agonist apomorphine and to induce catalepsy. Their duration-of-action and potency were compared to free clozapine, and concentrations of clozapine were assayed in brain and blood. Selected agents were also evaluated for affinity at dopamine receptors and other potential drug-target sites. Clozapine-N-amides of linoleic, myristic, oleic, and palmitic acids had moderate initial central depressant activity but by 6 h, failed to inhibit arousal induced by apomorphine. However, the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derivative was orally bioavailable, 10-times more potent (ED(50) 5.0 micromol/kg) than clozapine itself, and very long-acting (>/= 24 h) against apomorphine, and did not induce catalepsy. DHA itself was inactive behaviorally. Clozapine showed expected dopamine receptor affinities, but DHA-clozapine was inactive at these and other potential target sites. After systemic administration of DHA-clozapine, serum levels of free clozapine were very low, and brain concentrations somewhat lower than after administering clozapine. DHA-clozapine is a long-acting central depressant with powerful and prolonged antidopaminergic activity after oral administration or injection without inducing catalepsy, and it markedly reduced peripheral exposure to free clozapine. It lacked the receptor-affinities shown by clozapine, suggesting that DHA-clozapine may be a precursor of free, pharmacologically active clozapine. Such agents may

  12. Indoleacetic acid derivatives from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Yu; Tsoi, Bun; Jin, Xiao-jie; He, Rong-Rong; Yao, Xiao-jun; Dai, Yi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    A pair of diastereoisomers, the N-glycosylated derivatives of dioxindole-3-hydroxy-3-acetic acid 1-2, and their conjugates with flavonoids 3-8, was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations were determined by circular dichroism method. Compounds 3-10 were evaluated for the antioxidant capacity, using the radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish-Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Monique; Cooley, Kieran; Knee, Christopher; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Breau, Rodney; Fergusson, Dean; Skidmore, Becky; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2017-03-01

    The use of natural health products in prostate cancer (PrCa) is high despite a lack of evidence with respect to safety and efficacy. Fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory effects and preclinical data suggest a protective effect on PrCa incidence and progression; however, human studies have yielded conflicting results. A search of OVID MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, Embase, and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) was completed for human interventional or observational data assessing the safety and efficacy of fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids in the incidence and progression of PrCa. Of 1776 citations screened, 54 publications reporting on 44 studies were included for review and analysis: 4 reports of 3 randomized controlled trials, 1 nonrandomized clinical trial, 20 reports of 14 cohort studies, 26 reports of 23 case-control studies, and 3 case-cohort studies. The interventional studies using fish oil supplements in patients with PrCa showed no impact on prostate-specific antigen levels; however, 2 studies showed a decrease in inflammatory or other cancer markers. A small number of mild adverse events were reported and interactions with other interventions were not assessed. Cohort and case-control studies assessing the relationship between dietary fish intake and the risk of PrCa were equivocal. Cohort studies assessing the risk of PrCa mortality suggested an association between higher intake of fish and decreased risk of prostate cancer-related death. Current evidence is insufficient to suggest a relationship between fish-derived omega-3 fatty acid and risk of PrCa. An association between higher omega-3 intake and decreased PrCa mortality may be present but more research is needed. More intervention trials or observational studies with precisely measured exposure are needed to assess the impact of fish oil supplements and dietary fish-derived omega-3 fatty acid intake on safety, PrCa incidence, treatment, and progression.

  14. Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Ferroceneboronic Acid and Its Derivatives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the development of electrochemical biosensors based on ferroceneboronic acid (FcBA and ferrocene (Fc-modified boronic acids. These compounds can be used to construct electrochemical biosensors because they consist of a binding site (i.e., a boronic acid moiety and an electrochemically active part (i.e., an Fc residue. By taking advantage of the unique properties of FcBA and its derivatives, electrochemical sensors sensitive to sugars, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fluoride (F− ions, and so forth have been widely studied. FcBA-based sugar sensors rely on the selective binding of FcBA to 1,2- or 1,3-diol residues of sugars through the formation of cyclic boronate ester bonds. The redox properties of FcBA-sugar adduct differ from those of free FcBA, which forms the basis of the electrochemical determination of sugars. Thus, non-enzymatic glucose sensors are now being actively studied using FcBA and Fc-modified boronic acids as redox markers. Using a similar principle, HbA1c can be detected by FcBA-based electrochemical systems because it contains hydrocarbon chains on the polypeptide chain. HbA1c sensors are useful for monitoring blood glucose levels over the preceding 8–12 weeks. In addition, FcBA and Fc-modified boronic acids have been used for the detection of F− ions due to the selective binding of boronic acid to F− ions. F−-ion sensors may be useful alternatives to conventional ion-selective electrodes sensitive to F− ion. Furthermore, FcBA derivatives have been studied to construct lectin; steroids; nucleotides; salicylic acid; and bacteria sensors. One of the limitations of FcBA-based sensors comes from the fact that FcBA derivatives are added in sample solutions as reagents. FcBA derivatives should be immobilized on the surface of electrodes for developing reagentless sensors.

  15. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Azelaic Acid to Its Derivatives by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshafira Khairudin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AzA and its derivatives have been known to be effective in the treatment of acne and various cutaneous hyperpigmentary disorders. The esterification of azelaic acid with lauryl alcohol (LA to produce dilaurylazelate using immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 is reported. Response surface methodology was selected to optimize the reaction conditions. A well-fitting quadratic polynomial regression model for the acid conversion was established with regards to several parameters, including reaction time and temperature, enzyme amount, and substrate molar ratios. The regression equation obtained by the central composite design of RSM predicted that the optimal reaction conditions included a reaction time of 360 min, 0.14 g of enzyme, a reaction temperature of 46 °C, and a molar ratio of substrates of 1:4.1. The results from the model were in good agreement with the experimental data and were within the experimental range (R2 of 0.9732.The inhibition zone can be seen at dilaurylazelate ester with diameter 9.0±0.1 mm activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis S273. The normal fibroblasts cell line (3T3 was used to assess the cytotoxicity activity of AzA and AzA derivative, which is dilaurylazelate ester. The comparison of the IC50 (50% inhibition of cell viability value for AzA and AzA derivative was demonstrated. The IC50 value for AzA was 85.28 μg/mL, whereas the IC50 value for AzA derivative was more than 100 μg/mL. The 3T3 cell was still able to survive without any sign of toxicity from the AzA derivative; thus, it was proven to be non-toxic in this MTT assay when compared with AzA.

  16. The conversion of L-phenylalanine into benzoic acid on the thylakoid membrane of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffelhardt, W; Kindl, H

    1975-05-01

    The conversion of L-phenylalanine into benzoic acid and other aromatic carboxylic acids was investigated in Nasturtium officinale (watercress), Astilbe chinensis, and Hydrangea macrophylla in vivo and in vitro. Comparative feeding experiments with radioactively labelled L-phenylalanine and cinnamic acid administered to intact leaf discs of A. chinensis indicated a rapid formation of benzoic acid from L-phenylalanine, whereas cinnamic acid was a poor precursor. Using a pulse-chase labelling technique followed by a fractionation of the tissue into subcellular components, chloroplasts could be identified as the predominant, if not exclusive, site of benzoic acid formation in A. chinensis. Experiments in vitro with chloroplasts and thylalkoids of N. officinale, H. macrophylla, and A. chinensis demonstrate the capacity of thylakoid membranes to catalyze the degradation of L-phenylalanine to benzoic acid. The results obtained upon stimultaneous incubation with [4'-3H]L-phenylalanine and [3-14C]cinnamic acid lead to the hypothesis that the reaction of L-phenylalanine to benzoic acid proceeds via a cinnamic acid pool which is different from that of soluble cinnamic acid.

  17. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Steffen; Curtius, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN) between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21-27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid-water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  18. Uptake of Acidic and Basic Sugar Derivatives in Lemna gibba G1 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Amparo; Ullrich, Cornelia I.

    1989-01-01

    The uptake of acidic and basic sugar derivatives in Lemna gibba L. was studied. Uronic acids applied to the experimental solution (50 millimolar) induced a small decrease of the membrane potential (10 ± 1 millivolt galacturonic acid, and 20 ± 4 millivolt glucuronic acid). After incubation of the plants in a 0.1 millimolar solution of these substrates, no decrease in the concentration of reducing groups in the external solution was detected. Respiration increased by 31% with 50 millimolar galacturonic acid, whereas no effect was found with the same concentration of glucuronic acid. Glucosamine caused a considerable concentration-dependent membrane depolarization. (14C)glucosamine uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics together with a linear component. Influx of this substrate was inhibited by glucose but the type of competition could not be clearly distinguished. Glucosamine, 50 millimolar, inhibited the respiration rate by 30%. The glucosamine uptake was pH-dependent, with maximum uptake at around pH 7. Lack of enhancement of uptake by low pH as well as the permanent membrane depolarization suggest a uniport mechanism for the charged species of the substrate and an electroneutral diffusion of the uncharged species. PMID:16666961

  19. Plasmodium falciparum-Derived Uric Acid Precipitates Induce Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Hoef, Diana L.; Coppens, Isabelle; Holowka, Thomas; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Branch, OraLee; Rodriguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is characterized by cyclical fevers and high levels of inflammation, and while an early inflammatory response contributes to parasite clearance, excessive and persistent inflammation can lead to severe forms of the disease. Here, we show that Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes contain uric acid precipitates in the cytoplasm of the parasitophorous vacuole, which are released when erythrocytes rupture. Uric acid precipitates are highly inflammatory molecules that are considered a danger signal for innate immunity and are the causative agent in gout. We determined that P. falciparum-derived uric acid precipitates induce maturation of human dendritic cells, increasing the expression of cell surface co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86, while decreasing human leukocyte antigen-DR expression. In accordance with this, uric acid accounts for a significant proportion of the total stimulatory activity induced by parasite-infected erythrocytes. Moreover, the identification of uric acid precipitates in P. falciparum- and P. vivax-infected erythrocytes obtained directly from malaria patients underscores the in vivo and clinical relevance of our findings. Altogether, our data implicate uric acid precipitates as a potentially important contributor to the innate immune response to Plasmodium infection and may provide a novel target for adjunct therapies. PMID:23405174

  20. Ring-extended derivatives of gramicidin S with furanoid sugar amino acids in the turn region have enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, A.D.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Grotenbreg, G.M.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2009-01-01

    (Chemical Equation Presented) A series of ring-extended gramicidin S (GS) derivatives containing furanoid sugar amino acids were evaluated. Although the extended GS derivatives have a less well-defined secondary structure as determined by NMR and CD, some derivatives show an improved biological

  1. Antioxidative properties of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and a phenylpropanoid glycoside. A pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun [Laboratory of Radiation Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Academic Sinica, Shanghai (China); Navaratnam, Suppiah [Faculty of Science and Technology, North East Wales Institute of Higher Education, Mold Road, Plas Coch, Wraxham, Clwyd (United Kingdom)

    1998-10-01

    Spectral and redox properties of the phenoxyl radicals from hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and one selected component of phenylpropanoid glycosides, verbascoside, were studied using pulse radiolysis techniques. On the basis of the pH dependence of phenoxyl radical absorptions, the pK{sub a} values for deprotonation of sinapic acid radical and ferulic acid radical are 4.9 and 5.2. The rate constants of one electron oxidation of those antioxidants by azide radical and bromide radical ion were determined at pH 7. The redox potentials of those antioxidants were determined as 0.59-0.71 V vs NHE at pH 7 with reference standard 4-methoxyphenol and resorcinol.

  2. Spectrophotometric study of the protonation processes of some indole derivatives in sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAN M. STOJKOVIC

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The protonation of 3-methylindole, D-tryptophan, 3-formylindole, 3-acetylindole and indolyl-2-carboxylic acid in sulfuric acid media was studied by UV spectro-scopy. The measurement of the absorbance at four selected wavelengths enabled the calculation of the corresponding molar absorptivities. The results were used to calculate the pKa value of the protonated form of the indole derivatives by the Hammett Method. The Hammett postulate (the slope of the plot log [c(BH+/c(B] vs. H should be equal to 1 was tested. The dissociation constants and solvent parameter m* were also obtained by applying the Excess Acidity Method. The position of the additional protons in the protonated compounds is discussed.

  3. Hybrid Compounds Strategy in the Synthesis of Oleanolic Acid Skeleton-NSAID Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the synthesis of several hybrid individuals combining a natural oleanolic acid skeleton and synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug moieties (NSAIDs. It studied structural modifications of the oleanolic acid structure by use of the direct reactivity of hydroxyl or hydroxyimino groups at position C-3 of the triterpenoid skeleton with the carboxylic function of anti-inflammatory drugs leading to new perspective compounds with high potential pharmacological activities. Novel ester- and iminoester-type derivatives of oleanolic unit with the different NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, and ketoprofen, were obtained and characterized. Moreover, preliminary research of compounds obtaining structure stability under acidic conditions was examined and the PASS method of prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate the potential biological activity of these compounds.

  4. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Microwave-assisted Acid decomposition of animal- and plant-derived samples for element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Elma Neide V M; Gonzalez, Mário H; Nogueira, Ana Rita A; Cruz, Geraldo M; Nóbrega, Joaquim A

    2002-07-17

    A single microwave-assisted acid-decomposition procedure is proposed for sample preparation of plant- and bovine-derived materials prior to multielement determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure involved sample grinding in a cryogenic mill to reduce particle sizes and increase the surface area for acid attack, followed by decomposition under high pressure and temperature. A single heating program was employed and efficiently destroyed most of the organic matrix by using small volumes of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Accuracy of the elemental analysis was indicated by the good agreement between certified and found values of elements in plant and animal samples at 95% confidence level. The sample preparation procedure was fast and reproducible, and proved to be efficient for elemental analysis in agricultural and food-related samples by a sensitive multielement technique such as ICP-OES.

  6. Silica-Supported Polyphosphoric Acid in the Synthesis of 4-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyan Ivanov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report herein an application of an α-amidoalkylation reaction, as an alternative efficient synthesis of 4-aryl- and 4-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives. The amides required for this purpose would result from reaction of aminoacetaldehyde dimethylacetal with different substituted benzenes in polyphosphoric acid, followed by acylation of the obtained amines with different acid chlorides or sulfochlorides. We compared the cyclisation step using conventional (milieu of acetic-trifluoracetic acid = 4:1 and solid supported reagents (SiO2/PPA, as recovered, regenerated and reused without loss of its activity catalyst. We found that in comparison to conventional methods, the yields of the reaction are greater and the reaction time is shorter.

  7. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of very long chain fatty acid-derived chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Wenning, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    Production of chemicals and biofuels through microbial fermentation is an economical and sustainable alternative for traditional chemical synthesis. Here we present the construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform strain for high-level production of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA......)-derived chemicals. Through rewiring the native fatty acid elongation system and implementing a heterologous Mycobacteria FAS I system, we establish an increased biosynthesis of VLCFAs in S. cerevisiae. VLCFAs can be selectively modified towards the fatty alcohol docosanol (C22H46O) by expressing a specific fatty...... acid reductase. Expression of this enzyme is shown to impair cell growth due to consumption of VLCFA-CoAs. We therefore implement a dynamic control strategy for separating cell growth from docosanol production. We successfully establish high-level and selective docosanol production of 83.5 mg l-1 in...

  8. Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Their Derivatives: Cosmeceutical Significance, Challenges and Future Perspectives, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taofiq, Oludemi; González-Paramás, Ana M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-02-13

    Bioactive compounds from natural sources, due to their widely-recognized benefits, have been exploited as cosmeceutical ingredients. Among them, phenolic acids emerge with a very interesting potential. In this context, this review analyzes hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives as multifunctional ingredients for topical application, as well as the limitations associated with their use in cosmetic formulations. Hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives display antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities, as well as ultraviolet (UV) protective effects, suggesting that they can be exploited as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory agents, preservatives and hyperpigmentation-correcting ingredients. Due to their poor stability, easy degradation and oxidation, microencapsulation techniques have been employed for topical application, preventing them from degradation and enabling a sustained release. Based on the above findings, hydroxycinnamic acids present high cosmetic potential, but studies addressing the validation of their benefits in cosmetic formulations are still scarce. Furthermore, studies dealing with skin permeation are scarcely available and need to be conducted in order to predict the topical bioavailability of these compounds after application.

  9. Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Their Derivatives: Cosmeceutical Significance, Challenges and Future Perspectives, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludemi Taofiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources, due to their widely-recognized benefits, have been exploited as cosmeceutical ingredients. Among them, phenolic acids emerge with a very interesting potential. In this context, this review analyzes hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives as multifunctional ingredients for topical application, as well as the limitations associated with their use in cosmetic formulations. Hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives display antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities, as well as ultraviolet (UV protective effects, suggesting that they can be exploited as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory agents, preservatives and hyperpigmentation-correcting ingredients. Due to their poor stability, easy degradation and oxidation, microencapsulation techniques have been employed for topical application, preventing them from degradation and enabling a sustained release. Based on the above findings, hydroxycinnamic acids present high cosmetic potential, but studies addressing the validation of their benefits in cosmetic formulations are still scarce. Furthermore, studies dealing with skin permeation are scarcely available and need to be conducted in order to predict the topical bioavailability of these compounds after application.

  10. Crystal structures of complexes of vitamin D receptor ligand-binding domain with lithocholic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuno, Hiroyuki; Ikura, Teikichi; Morizono, Daisuke; Orita, Isamu; Yamada, Sachiko; Shimizu, Masato; Ito, Nobutoshi

    2013-01-01

    The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) and its derivatives act as selective modulators of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), although their structures fundamentally differ from that of the natural hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3)]. Here, we have determined the crystal structures of the ligand-binding domain of rat VDR (VDR-LBD) in ternary complexes with a synthetic partial peptide of the coactivator MED1 (mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 1) and four ligands, LCA, 3-keto LCA, LCA acetate, and LCA propionate, with the goal of elucidating their agonistic mechanism. LCA and its derivatives bind to the same ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of VDR-LBD that 1,25(OH)2D3 binds to, but in the opposite orientation; their A-ring is positioned at the top of the LBP, whereas their acyclic tail is located at the bottom of the LBP. However, most of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions observed in the complex with 1,25(OH)2D3 are reproduced in the complexes with LCA and its derivatives. Additional interactions between VDR-LBD and the C-3 substituents of the A-ring are also observed in the complexes with LCA and its derivatives. These may result in the observed difference in the potency among the LCA-type ligands. PMID:23723390

  11. An Ursolic Acid Derived Small Molecule Triggers Cancer Cell Death through Hyperstimulation of Macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Li, Bin; Su, Xiaohui; Chen, Ge; Li, Yaqin; Yu, Linqian; Li, Li; Wei, Wanguo

    2017-08-10

    Macropinocytosis is a transient endocytosis that internalizes extracellular fluid and particles into vacuoles. Recent studies suggest that hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis can induce a novel nonapoptotic cell death, methuosis. In this report, we describe the identification of an ursolic acid derived small molecule (compound 17), which induces cancer cell death through hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis. 17 causes the accumulation of vacuoles derived from macropinosomes based on transmission electron microscopy, time-lapse microscopy, and labeling with extracellular fluid phase tracers. The vacuoles induced by 17 separate from other cytoplasmic compartments but acquire some characteristics of late endosomes and lysosomes. Inhibiting hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis with the specific inhibitor amiloride blocks cell death, implicating that 17 leads to cell death via macropinocytosis, which is coincident with methuosis. Our results uncovered a novel cell death pathway involved in the activity of 17, which may provide a basis for further development of natural-product-derived scaffolds for drugs that trigger cancer cell death by methuosis.

  12. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2015-01-01

    negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly......The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood....... The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted...

  13. Glycosylation of Capsaicin Derivatives and Phenylpropanoid Derivatives Using Cultured Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Katsuragi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformations of capsaicinoids such as capsaicin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin and phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p -coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid have been investigated using cultured plant cells. Capsain and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin were converted into the corresponding glycosides which are three glycosides respectively using the cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus . In a time-course study under sterile conditions, the changes in amounts of their reaction products were determined. Furthermore phenypropanoid, such as cinnamic acid, p -coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid have been biotransformed using the cultured cells of the Eucalyptus perriniana , and then cinnamic acid was converted into two glycosides. In addition, p -coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid were converted into four, four and three glycosides respectively. Then in time-course study under sterile conditions, the change in amounts of their reaction products were determined. Finally it was found that the cultured plant cells have the ability to glycosylate the phenolic group of capsacinoids and phenylpropanoids regioselectively.

  14. Electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295 (Japan); Takahashi, Shigehiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Anzai, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junanzai@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Recent progress in electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid (PBA) and its derivatives as recognition components is reviewed. PBAs are known to bind diol compounds including sugars to form cyclic boronate esters that are negatively charged as a result of the addition of OH{sup -} ions from solution. Based on the formation of PBA charged species, sugars and their derivatives can be detected by means of electrochemical and optical techniques. For the development of PBA-based electrochemical sensing systems or sensors, PBA is modified with a redox-active marker, because PBA itself is electrochemically inactive, and ferrocene derivatives are often employed for this purpose. Ferrocene-modified PBAs have been used as redox-active additives in solution for the electrochemical detection of sugars and derivatives. PBA-modified electrodes have also been constructed as reagentless electrochemical sensors, where PBAs are immobilized on the surface of metal and carbon electrodes through mainly two routes: as a self-assembled monolayer film and as a polymer thin film. PBA-modified electrodes can be successfully used to detect sugars and derivatives through potentiometric and voltammetric responses. In addition, PBA-modified electrodes can be used for the immobilization of glycoenzymes on an electrode surface by the formation of boronate esters with carbohydrate chains in the glycoenzymes, thus resulting in enzyme biosensors. For the development of PBA-based optical sensors, a variety of chromophores and fluorophores have been coupled with PBA. Azobenzene dyes have been most frequently used for the preparation of colorimetric sugar sensors, in which the absorption wavelength and intensity of the dye are dependent on the type and concentration of added sugars. The sensitivity of the sensors is significantly improved based on multi-component systems in which alizalin red S, pyrocatechol violet, starch-iodine complex, and cyclodextrin are employed as

  15. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-12-01

    Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C) on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight), with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves) containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g) and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g), compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toong Long Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight, with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g, compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern.

  17. Analysis of naphthenic acid mixtures as pentafluorobenzyl derivatives by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel; Vázquez-Martínez, Juan; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report for the first time the efficiency of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) for naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures derivatization, and the comparison in the optimal conditions to the most common NAs derivatization reagents, BF3/MeOH and N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Naphthenic acids are carboxylic acid mixtures of petrochemical origin. These compounds are important for the oil industry because of their corrosive properties, which can damage oil distillation infrastructure. Moreover, NAs are commercially used in a wide range of products such as paint and ink driers, wood and fabric preservatives, fuel additives, emulsifiers, and surfactants. Naphthenic acids have also been found in sediments after major oils spills in the United States and South Korea. Furthermore, the toxicity of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), product of the oil sands extraction activities in Canada's oil sands, has largely been attributed to NAs. One of the main challenges for the chromatographic analysis of these mixtures is the resolution of the components. The derivatization optimization was achieved using surface response analysis with molar ratio and time as factors for derivatization signal yield. After gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC/EIMS) analysis of a mixture of NA standards, it was found that the signal produced by PFB-derivatives was 2.3 and 1.4 times higher than the signal produced by methylated and MTBS-derivatives, respectively. The pentafluorobenzyl derivatives have a characteristic fragment ion at 181m/z that is diagnostic for the differentiation of carboxylic and non-carboxylic acid components within mixtures. In the analysis of a Sigma and a Merichem derivatized oil extract NA mixtures, it was found that some peaks lack the characteristic fragment ion; therefore they are not carboxylic acids. Open column chromatography was used to obtain a hexane and a methanol fraction of the Sigma and

  18. Correlating enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haining; Zhang, Xiaoming; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin

    2017-09-01

    Up to now, only limited research on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) has been reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. In the present study, BIC and antioxidant capacity, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Fe 2+ reducing power activity, of the MRPs derived from 12 different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated. The MRPs of cysteine (Cys), cystine, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His) showed higher BIC compared to other amino acids. Lysine (Lys)-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A 420 ) but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC and the lowest A 420 . The A 420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids, except Cys and Lys. MRPs from tyrosine (Tyr) showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared to other amino acids. Partial least squares regression analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe 2+ reducing power of MRPs from 12 amino acids with glucose or fructose, except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, whereas neutral and alkaline pH were suitable for His and Arg, respectively. Increasing both heating temperature and time over a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, whereas any further increase deteriorates their browning inhibition efficiencies. The types of amino acid, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There is no clear relationship between BIC and the antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of the Maillard

  19. Cinnamic Acid (CINN Induces Apoptosis and Proliferation in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangying Qi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: CINN is the main ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine cinnamon. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CINN on the proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods: CNE2 human NPC cells were treated with various CINN concentrations. The effects of CINN on the proliferation and apoptosis of CNE2 NPC cells were examined using the MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, western blotting was performed to analyze the expression of a number of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins. Results: The proliferation of CNE2 cells was significantly inhibited after treatment with different CINN concentrations for various lengths of time. The inhibitory effect of CINN was concentration-and time-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis showed that 2 mmol/L CINN displayed a significant apoptosis-inducing effect. The western blot analysis results showed that KLF6, Fas-L, Bax, P53 and caspase-3 protein expression was drastically increased in the CNE2 cells after treatment with 2 mmol/L CINN, whereas Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 protein expression was markedly reduced. Conclusion: CINN inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of CNE2 cells. Therefore, CINN possesses a potential anti-tumor effect.

  20. A pseudaminic acid or a legionaminic acid derivative transferase is strain-specifically implicated in the general protein O-glycosylation system of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Markus B; Janesch, Bettina; Maresch, Daniel; Windwarder, Markus; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2017-06-01

    The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins. Bioinformatic analyses provided the candidate genes Tanf_01245 (strain ATCC 43037) and TFUB4_00887 (strain UB4), encoding a putative pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase, respectively. These transferases have identical C-termini and contain motifs typical of glycosyltransferases (DXD) and bacterial sialyltransferases (D/E-D/E-G and HP). They share homology to type B glycosyltransferases and TagB, an enzyme catalyzing glycerol transfer to an N-acetylmannosamine residue in teichoic acid biosynthesis. Analysis of a cellular pool of nucleotide-activated sugars confirmed the presence of the CMP-activated nonulosonic acid derivatives, which are most likely serving as substrates for the corresponding transferase. Single gene knock-out mutants targeted at either transferase were analyzed for S-layer O-glycan composition by ESI-MS, confirming the loss of the nonulosonic acid derivative. Cross-complementation of the mutants with the nonnative nonulosonic acid transferase was not successful indicating high stringency of the enzymes. This study identified plausible candidates for a pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase; these may serve as valuable tools for engineering of novel sialoglycoconjugates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Solvent effects in optical spectra of ortho-aminobenzoic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Marcelo; Eisenhut, Jéssica Karoline; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Juliano, Luiz; Ito, Amando Siuiti

    2009-11-01

    We investigated three amino derivatives of ortho-aminobenzoic or anthranilic acid (o-Abz): a) 2-Amino-benzamide (AbzNH2); b) 2-Amino-N-methyl-benzamide (AbzNHCH3) and c) 2-Amino-N-N'-dimethyl-bezamide (AbzNH(CH3)2), see Scheme 1. We describe the results of ab-initio calculations on the structural characteristics of the compounds and experimental studies about solvent effects in their absorption and steady-state and time-resolved emission properties. Ab-initio calculations showed higher stability for the rotameric conformation in which the oxygen of carbonyl is near to the nitrogen of ortho-amino group. The derivatives present decrease in the delocalization of pi electron, and absorption bands are blue shifted compared to the parent compound absorption, the extent of the effect increasing from to Abz-NH2 to Abz-NHCH3 Abz-NH(CH3)2. Measurements performed in several solvents have shown that the the dependence of Stokes shift of the derivatives with the orientational polarizability follows the Onsager-Lippert model for general effects of solvent. However deviation occurred in solvents with properties of Bronsted acids, or electron acceptor characteristics, so that hydrogen bonds formed with protic solvents predominates over intramolecular hydrogen bond. In most solvents the fluorescence decay of AbzNH2 and AbzNHCH3 was fitted to a single exponential with lifetimes around 7.0 ns and no correlation with polarity of the solvent was observed. The fluorescence decay of AbzN(CH3)2 showed lifetimes around 2.0 ns, consistent with low quantum yield of the compound. The spectroscopic properties of the monoamino derivative AbzNHCH3 are representative of the properties presented by Abz labelled peptides and fatty acids previously studied.

  2. Studies on the production of indole-3-acetic acid with auxin-heterotrophic mutants derived from cultured crown gall cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeaki, Atsumi; Department of Biology, College of General Education, University of Tokyo

    1980-01-01

    Mutants in the indole-3-acetic acid metabolism derived from cultured crown gall cells were tested to see whether they could utilize any one of eight indolic compounds in place of indole-3-acetic acid. Two auxin-heterotrophic mutant cell lines could not utilize indolepyruvic acid, but growth recovered when there was a supplement of indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetonitril and indoleacetaldoxime inhibited the growth of mutant cell lines and their parental crown gall cells. Cultured crown gall ce...

  3. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  4. Production of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives in hairy root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Yin, Zhong-Ping; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguan, Xin-Chen; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Peng, Da-Yong

    2015-01-14

    Chlorogenic acid and its derivatives (CADs) are valuable bioactive plant secondary metabolites with many health benefits. In the present study, Stevia rebaudiana hairy root cultures were established, and the culture conditions for the production of CADs were optimized. The hairy roots were induced by coculture of S. rebaudiana leaves and Agrobacterium rhizogenes (C58C1) after infection, which were further verified by PCR detection of rolB and rolC genes. HPLC-MS and HPLC analysis showed that chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-CQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-CQA) were the major CADs in the hairy roots. Eight single roots with rapid growth rate were selected. Among them, T3 had the highest yield of CADs. B5 medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose was more suitable for the production of CADs than others. Under optimal culture conditions, the total content of these three compounds reached 105.58 mg/g and total yield was 234.40 mg/100 mL.

  5. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Münch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21–27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid–water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  6. Chemical synthesis and enzymatic testing of CMP-sialic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Saskia; Warnecke, Svenja; Ehrit, Jörg; Freiberger, Friedrich; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Meier, Chris

    2012-11-26

    The cycloSal approach has been used in the past for the synthesis of a range of phosphorylated bioconjugates. In those reports, cycloSal nucleotides were allowed to react with different phosphate nucleophiles. With glycopyranosyl phosphates as nucleophiles, diphosphate-linked sugar nucleotides were formed. Here, cycloSal-nucleotides were used to prepare monophosphate-linked sugar nucleotides successfully in high anomeric purity and high chemical yield. The method was successfully used for the synthesis of three nucleotide glycopyranoses as model compounds. The method was then applied to the syntheses of CMP-N-acetyl-neuraminic acids (CMP-Neu5NAc) and of four derivatives with different modifications at their amino functions (N-propanoyl, N-butanoyl, N-pentanoyl and N-cyclopropylcarbonyl). The compounds were used for initial enzymatic studies with a bacterial polysialyltransferase (polyST). Surprisingly, the enzyme showed marked differences in terms of utilisation of the four derivatives. The N-propanoyl, N-butanoyl, and N-pentanoyl derivatives were efficiently used in a first transfer with a fluorescently labelled trisialo-acceptor. However, elongation of the resulting tetrasialo-acceptors worsened progressively with the size of the N-acyl chain. The N-pentanoyl derivative allowed a single transfer, leading to a capped tetramer. The N-cyclopropylcarbonyl derivative was not transferred. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Compost-derived humic acids as regulators for reductive degradation of nitrobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Xi, Beidou; He, Xiaosong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Caihong; Li, Dan

    2017-10-05

    Nitrobenzene (NB) is a major class of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The current methods involved in the reductive degradation of NB suffer either cost-ineffective or slow conversion rate. Here, we investigated the mechanisms regarding compost-derived humic acids (HAs) as cost-effective regulators to enhance the reduction of NB to aniline (AN). Our results show that the compost-derived HAs, which have been reduced by a Pd-H2 catalytic system, were able to reduce NB to AN, and their redox properties were the main factors governing the reduction of NB to AN. The decreasing reduction of NB was mainly caused by the decreasing phenol content of compost-derived HAs during composting. In addition, the results reveal that the increase in the generation content of AN was mainly attributed to the increase in the quinones, aromaticity and humic-like components of compost-derived HAs. The findings demonstrate that the HAs derived from compost are effective regulators to enhance the reduction of NB to AN, and that they exert a bright application prospect for the remediation of the NB-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-Component synthesis and computational studies of three novel thio-barbituric acid carbohydrate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Stuti; Khare, Naveen K.

    2017-01-01

    The thio-barbituric acid is convenient starting compound for the preparation of fused heterocycles and its 5-substituted derivatives which are pharmacologically one of the most important classes of compounds. The fused compounds of thio-barbituric acid, 4-(1R,2S,3S,4S)-1,2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy pentyl-10-phenyl-1,3,6,8,9,10 hexahydro-2,7-dithiooxopyrido [2,3-d; 6,5'] dipyrimidine-4,5 diones (1), 4-(1S,2S,3S,4S)-1,2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy pentyl-10-phenyl-1,3,6,8,9,10 hexahydro-2,7-dithiooxopyrido [2,3-d; 6,5'] dipyrimidine-4,5 diones (2), 3-(1R,2S,3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy butyl-10-phenyl-1,3,6,8,9,10 hexahydro-2,7-dithiooxopyrido [2,3-d; 6,5'] dipyrimidine-4,5 diones (3) have been synthesized in single step by the condensation of thio-barbituric acid with sugars (L-rhamnose, L-fucose and L-arabinose) & aniline using para-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA) as an effective acid catalyst under refluxing conditions. The molecular structure and detailed spectroscopic analysis of all three novel synthesized thiones derivatives have been performed using experimental techniques like 1H, 13C NMR, 2D (COSY, HSQC, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90) as well as theoretical calculations by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP and 6-311G + (d, p) basis set. The strength and nature of weak intramolecular interactions have been studied by atom in molecule (AIM) approach. Global reactivity descriptors have been computed to predict reactivity and reactive sites in the molecule.

  10. A highly active bagasse-derived solid acid catalyst with properties suitable for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wen-Yong; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Wen-Jing; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Hong; Smith, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    A novel bagasse-based solid acid catalyst was successfully prepared through sulfonation of incompletely carbonized bagasse. A range of conditions for producing the catalyst were investigated, and the optimized catalyst, produced under carbonization at 648 K for 0.5 h and sulfonation at 423 K for 15 h, showed excellent catalytic activity and resulted in around 95 % yield of methyl oleate. Its activity was not only substantially greater than that of niobic acid and Amberlyst-15, but also comparable to or superior to that of catalysts made from pure starch or glucose, respectively. Additionally, the bagasse-derived catalyst could be repeatedly employed for at least eight cycles and still retained around 90 % of its original activity, exhibiting excellent operational stability. Furthermore, the catalyst efficiently converted waste cooking oils with 38.6 wt % free fatty acids into biodiesel and afforded a high yield of about 93.8 % within 12 h. These results clearly show that the bagasse-derived catalyst is economic, eco-friendly, and promising for biodiesel production from low-cost feedstocks and may find wide applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of ursolic acid-triazolyl derivatives as potential anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Showkat; Dar, Bilal Ahmad; Majeed, Rabiya; Hamid, Abid; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    A series of ursolic acid-1-phenyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethylester congeners have been designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent antitumor agents. A regioselective approach using Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of ursolic acid-alkyne derivative with various aromatic azides was employed to target an array of triazolyl derivatives in an efficient manner. Their structures were confirmed by using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and MS analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for anti-cancer activity against a panel of four human cancer cell lines including A-549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), HCT-116 (colon), THP-1 (leukemia) and a normal human epithelial cell line (FR-2) using sulforhodamine-B assay. The pharmacological results showed that most of the compounds displayed high level of antitumor activities against the tested cancer cell lines compared with ursolic acid. Compounds 7b, 7g, 7p and 7r were found to be the most potent compounds in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Valorizing Dairy Waste: Thermophilic Biosynthesis of a Novel Ascorbic Acid Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Pérez, Bianca; Anankanbil, Sampson; Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Ye; Gao, Renjun; Guo, Zheng

    2017-10-18

    l-Ascorbic acid (l-AA) is an essential nutrient that is extremely unstable and cannot be synthesized by the human body. Therefore, attempts have been performed to develop biologically active l-AA derivatives with improved stability. This work presents a facile, scalable, and efficient enzymatic transgalactosylation of lactose to l-AA using β-glucosidase (TN0602) from Thermotoga naphthophila RKU-10. β-Glucosidase TN0602 displays high transgalactosylation activity at pH 5.0, 75 °C, and l-AA/lactose ratio of 2:1 to form a novel l-AA derivative [2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (l-AA-Gal)] with a maximal productivity of 138.88 mmol L -1 in 12 h, which is higher than most reports of enzymatic synthesis of l-AA-α-glucoside. Synthetic l-AA-Gal retains most l-AA antioxidant capability and presents dramatically higher stability than l-AA in an oxidative environment (Cu 2+ ). In conclusion, this work reports a new way to valorize dairy waste lactose into a novel molecule l-AA-Gal, which could be a promising l-AA derivative to be used in a wide range of applications.

  13. Thioctic Acid Derivatives as Building Blocks to Incorporate DNA Oligonucleotides onto Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Pérez-Rentero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates are being used as diagnostic tools and gene silencing experiments. Thiol-chemistry is mostly used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with oligonucleotides and to incorporate DNA or RNA molecules onto gold surfaces. However, the stability of such nucleic acid–gold nanoparticle conjugates in certain conditions may be a limitation due to premature break of the thiol-gold bonds followed by aggregation processes. Here, we describe a straightforward synthesis of oligonucleotides carrying thioctic acid moiety based on the use of several thioctic acid-L-threoninol derivatives containing different spacers, including triglycine, short polyethyleneglycol, or aliphatic spacers. The novel thioctic-oligonucleotides were used for the functionalization of gold nanoparticles and the surface coverage and stability of the resulting thioctic-oligonucleotide gold nanoparticles were assessed. In all cases gold nanoparticles functionalized with thioctic-oligonucleotides had higher loadings and higher stability in the presence of thiols than gold nanoparticles prepared with commercially available thiol-oligonucleotides. Furthermore, the thioctic derivative carrying the triglycine linker is sensitive to cathepsin B present in endosomes. In this way this derivative may be interesting for the cellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides as these results provides the basis for a potential endosomal escape.

  14. Induction of apoptosis by an oleanolic acid derivative in SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinfeng; Wang, Penglong; Sun, Yaogui; Jiang, Junbing; Du, Haiyuan; Wang, Zhirui; Duan, Zhibian; Lei, Haimin; Li, Hongquan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oleanolic acid derivative, a novel antitumor drug, on the growth of SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism. An MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the oleanolic acid derivative. Cell membrane integrity was assessed using fluorescence microscopy to assess the uptake of annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI). Western blotting was used to detect the apoptosis-associated proteins B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3. A spectrophotometer was used to analyze the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) expression level. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by performing the JC-1 assay. ELISA was used to evaluate the content of cytochrome c (Cyt-C). The oleanolic acid derivative reduced the cell viability of SMMC-7721 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values of the oleanolic acid derivative in SMMC-7721 cells at 24, 48 and 72 h were 26.80, 11.85, and 6.66 µM, respectively. The antiapoptotic-protein Bcl-2 was downregulated, and the proapoptotic protein Bax was upregulated following treatment with the oleanolic acid derivative for 48 h. The oleanolic acid derivative induced the cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as well as promoted annexin V-FITC/PI uptake in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with the oleanolic acid derivative induced a reduction of the intracellular ATP expression level, loss of ΔΨm and Cyt-C release from the mitochondria. The oleanolic acid derivative induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 human cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction was involved in the anticancer effects of this derivative on SMMC-7721 human cells.

  15. Arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids from the parotid gland secretions of common toad Bufo bufo-New agonists of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, D S; Ivanov, I A; Kryukova, E V; Starkov, V G; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-05-01

    Compounds activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor were isolated from the toad Bufo bufo venom as a result of chromatographic separation. Analysis of the structure of these compounds by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that they are arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids and represent suberylarginine, pimeloylarginine, and adipoylarginine.

  16. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a

  17. Development of piperic acid derivatives from Piper nigrum as UV protection agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choochana, Piyapong; Moungjaroen, Jirapan; Jongkon, Nathjanan; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Tangyuenyongwatana, Prasan

    2015-04-01

    There is a need for the discovery of novel natural and semi-synthetic sunscreen that is safe and effective. Piperine has a UV absorption band of 230-400 nm with high molar absorptivity. This compound has a high potential to be developed to sunscreen. This study develops new UV protection compounds from piperine by using chemical synthesis. Piperine was isolated from Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) fruits, converted to piperic acid by alkaline hydrolysis, and prepared as ester derivatives by chemical synthesis. The piperate derivatives were prepared as 5% o/w emulsion, and the SPF values were evaluated. The best compound was submitted to cytotoxicity test using MTT assay. Piperic acid was prepared in 86.96% yield. Next, piperic acid was reacted with alcohols using Steglich reaction to obtain methyl piperate, ethyl piperate, propyl piperate, isopropyl piperate, and isobutyl piperate in 62.39-92.79% yield. All compounds were prepared as 5% oil in water emulsion and measured its SPF and UVA/UVB values using an SPF-290S analyzer. The SPF values (n = 6) of the piperate derivatives were 2.68 ± 0.17, 8.89 ± 0.46, 6.86 ± 0.91, 16.37 ± 1.8, and 9.68 ± 1.71. The UVA/UVB ratios of all compounds ranged from 0.860 to 0.967. Cytotoxicity of isopropyl piperate was evaluated using human skin fibroblast cells and the IC50 was equal to 120.2 μM. From the results, isopropyl piperate is an outstanding compound that can be developed into a UV protection agent.

  18. A novel polyaspartic acid derivative with multifunctional groups for scale inhibition application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yin, Hongquan; Zhang, Qingshan; Li, Yunzheng; Yao, Pengjun; Huo, Hongyu

    2017-04-18

    Polyaspartic acid is a green biodegradable antiscalant and widely applied in water treatment field. However, its scale inhibition efficiency is not prominent, especially for calcium orthophosphate. So we introduced acylamino and hydroxyl groups simultaneously to prepare a novel polyaspartic-acid derivative (PASPTU) with multifunctional groups by the reaction of polysuccinimide with threonine and urea. The graft copolymer was analyzed by using nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Its scale inhibition performance for calcium orthophosphate, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate was evaluated. The findings showed that the scale inhibition rates of the graft copolymer reached up to 100% for calcium orthophosphate, 100% for calcium sulfate and 91% for calcium carbonate at certain dosages. The findings above showed that the copolymer had excellent scale inhibition efficiency for calcium salts in water treatment processes.

  19. Preparation and Physical Properties of Chitosan Benzoic Acid Derivatives Using a Phosphoryl Mixed Anhydride System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yun Chai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct benzoylation of the two hydroxyl groups on chitosan was achieved using a phosphoryl mixed anhydride system, derived from trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA, benzoic acids (BAs, and phosphoric acid (PA. The reaction is operated as a one pot process under mild conditions that does not require neither an inert atmosphere nor dry solvents. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Solubility tests on the products revealed that they were soluble in organic solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, and acetone. In the meantime, a morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM evidently indicated that the chitosan benzoates underwent significant structural changes after the benzoylation.

  20. Strecker degradation of amino acids promoted by a camphor-derived sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernanda N. N. Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A camphor-derived sulfonimine with a conjugated carbonyl group, oxoimine 1 (O2SNC10H13O, reacts with amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine to form a compound O2SNC10H13NC10H14NSO2 (2 which was characterized by spectroscopic means (MS and NMR and supported by DFT calculations. The product, a single diastereoisomer, contains two oxoimine units connected by a –N= bridge, and thus has a structural analogy to the colored product Ruhemann´s purple obtained by the ninhydrin reaction with amino acids. A plausible reaction mechanism that involves zwitterions, a Strecker degradation of an intermediate imine and water-catalyzed tautomerizations was developed by means of DFT calculations on potential transition states.

  1. Novel selective thiazoleacetic acids as CRTH2 antagonists developed from in silico derived hits. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Oystein; Grimstrup, Marie; Receveur, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Structure-activity relationships of three related series of 4-phenylthiazol-5-ylacetic acids, derived from two hits emanating from a focused library obtained by in silico screening, have been explored as CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells) antagonists....... Several compounds with double digit nanomolar binding affinity and full antagonistic efficacy for human CRTH2 receptor were obtained in all subclasses. The most potent compound was [2-(4-chloro-benzyl)-4-(4-phenoxy-phenyl)-thiazol-5-yl]acetic acid having an binding affinity of 3.7nM and functional...... antagonistic effect of 66nM in a BRET and 12nM in a cAMP assay with no functional activity for the other PGD2 DP receptor (27muM in cAMP)....

  2. New derivatives of aryl-propionic acid. Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasincu, Ioana; Apotrosoaei, Maria; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Pânzariu, Andreea Teodora; Dragostin, Oana; Lupaşcu, D; Profire, Lenuta

    2013-01-01

    To design new derivatives of aryl-propionic acid with potential antibacterial and antioxidant activity. New hydrazone of ibuprofen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid) have been synthesized by reaction of ethyl ester of ibuprofen with hydrazine hydrate and then condensation of corresponding hydrazide with various aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Sarcinalutea ATCC 9341, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). Some of them were found to have good antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity of these compounds was also tested using the total antiox idant capacity test. The chemical modulations performed on ibuprofen structure have a good influence on the biological activity of the synthesized compounds.

  3. Benzoic Acid Derivatives with Trypanocidal Activity: Enzymatic Analysis and Molecular Docking Studies toward Trans-Sialidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas, or American trypanosomiasis, remains an important public health problem in developing countries. In the last decade, trans-sialidase has become a pharmacological target for new anti-Chagas drugs. In this work, the aims were to design and find a new series of benzoic acid derivatives as trans-sialidase (TS inhibitors and anti-trypanosomal agents. Three compounds (14, 18, and 19 sharing a para-aminobenzoic acid moiety showed more potent trypanocidal activity than the commercially available drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole in both strains: the lysis concentration of 50% of the population (LC50 was <0.15 µM on the NINOA strain, and LC50 < 0.22 µM on the INC-5 strain. Additionally, compound 18 showed a moderate inhibition (47% on the trans-sialidase enzyme and a binding model similar to DANA (pattern A.

  4. Four new amide derivatives of pyridinecarboxylic acids. Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Dorota; Kubicki, Maciej; Barczyński, Piotr; Lis, Stefan; Hnatejko, Zbigniew

    2017-10-01

    This study treats about four new pyridine amide derivatives obtained by a simple and inexpensive method of synthesis which consisted in amide coupling of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid and pyridine-4-carboxylic acid chlorides and aromatic amines: methyl 2-amino-3-methylbenzoate (Ea), methyl 3-amino-2-methylbenzoate (Eb), methyl 3-amino-4-methylbenzoate (Ec). All products of synthesis: L1, L2, L3, L4 were analyzed in detail by FT-IR, 1H, 13C, COSY 2D, HSQC, HMBC NMR spectroscopy, elemental, TGA and X-ray analysis. The excitation and emission spectra for obtained amides were also registered. An exact examination of results confirmed receiving four amide compounds with higher potential ability to metal ion coordination than the substrates alone.

  5. Gut microbiota–derived short-chain fatty acids and kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lingzhi Li, Liang Ma, Ping Fu Kidney Research Institute, Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China Abstract: Gut microbiota and its metabolites play pivotal roles in host physiology and pathology. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, as a group of metabolites, exert positive regulatory effects on energy metabolism, hormone secretion, immune inflammation, hypertension, and cancer. The functions of SCFAs are related to their activation of transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and their inhibition of histone acetylation. Though controversial, growing evidence suggests that SCFAs, which regulate inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis, have been involved in kidney disease through the activation of the gut–kidney axis; however, the molecular relationship among gut microbiota–derived metabolites, signaling pathways, and kidney disease remains to be elucidated. This review will provide an overview of the physiology and functions of SCFAs in kidney disease. Keywords: gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids, kidney diseases, gut–kidney axis

  6. Papyriferic acid derivatives as reversal agents of multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Juan; Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Sekiya, Michiko; Yamagishi, Takashi; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2010-04-15

    Forty-one derivatives of papyriferic acid were prepared based on our previous finding that methyl papyriferate (3) showed potent reversing effect on cytotoxicity of colchicine against multidrug resistance (MDR) human cancer cells (KB-C2), and evaluated for their cytotoxicity and effect on reversing P-gp-mediated MDR against KB-C2 cells. 3-O-(Morpholino-beta-oxopropanoyl)-12beta-acetoxy-3alpha,25-dihydroxy-(20S,24R)-epoxydammarane (37) significantly increased the sensitivity of colchicine against KB-C2 cells by 185-fold at 5microg/mL (7.4microM), and the cytotoxicity of colchicine was recovered to nearly that of sensitive (KB) cells. The other several new amide derivatives also exhibited potent reversal activity comparable to or more potent than methyl papyriferate and verapamil. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives and Their Role in Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Camara-Lemarroy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After peripheral nerve injury, a process of axonal degradation, debris clearance, and subsequent regeneration is initiated by complex local signaling, called Wallerian degeneration (WD. This process is in part mediated by neuroglia as well as infiltrating inflammatory cells and regulated by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and the activation of transcription factors also related to the inflammatory response. Part of this neuroimmune signaling is mediated by the innate immune system, including arachidonic acid (AA derivatives such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The enzymes responsible for their production, cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases, also participate in nerve degeneration and regeneration. The interactions between signals for nerve regeneration and neuroinflammation go all the way down to the molecular level. In this paper, we discuss the role that AA derivatives might play during WD and nerve regeneration, and the therapeutic possibilities that arise.

  8. Synthesis and bio-evaluation of a new fatty acid derivative for myocardial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Anupam; Subramanian, Suresh; Mallia, Madhava B; Banerjee, Sharmila; Samuel, Grace; Sarma, Haladhar D; Venkatesh, Meera

    2008-09-01

    Development of a (99m)Tc-fatty acid analogue is of interest, as (99m)Tc is logistically advantageous over the cyclotron-produced (11)C and (123)I. Synthesis of a 16 carbon fatty acid derivative and its radiolabeling with the novel [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) core is described here. Hexadecanedioic acid was conjugated to cysteine in an overall yield of 55%. This ligand could be labeled with (99m)Tc via the [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) core, in 80% yield, as a mixture of two isomers (syn and anti). The major isomer isolated by HPLC was used for bioevaluation studies in swiss mice and compared with radioiodinated iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA), an established agent for myocardial metabolic imaging. (99m)Tc-labeled complex cleared faster from the non-target organs, namely, liver, lungs, and blood compared to that of [(125)I]-IPPA. However, the complex exhibited lower uptake and faster washout from the myocardium as compared to [(125)I]-IPPA.

  9. Metformin inhibits Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) derived ketoacidosis and promotes metabolic homeostasis in MSUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Sonnet, Davis; N O'Leary, Monique; A Gutierrez, Mark; M Nguyen, Steven; Mateen, Samiha; Hsu, Yuehmei; P Mitchell, Kylie; J Lopez, Antonio; Vockley, Jerry; K Kennedy, Brian; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-07-04

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder caused by the dysfunction in the branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) enzyme. This leads to buildup of branched-chain keto-acids (BCKA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in body fluids (e.g. keto-isocaproic acid from the BCAA leucine), leading to numerous clinical features including a less understood skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients. KIC is an inhibitor of mitochondrial function at disease relevant concentrations. A murine model of intermediate MSUD (iMSUD) shows significant skeletal muscle dysfunction as by judged decreased muscle fiber diameter. MSUD is an orphan disease with a need for novel drug interventions. Here using a 96-well plate (liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based drug-screening platform we show that Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, reduces levels of KIC in patient-derived fibroblasts by 20-50%. This Metformin-mediated effect was conserved in vivo; Metformin-treatment significantly reduced levels of KIC in the muscle (by 69%) and serum (by 56%) isolated from iMSUD mice, and restored levels of mitochondrial metabolites (e.g. AMP and other TCA). The drug also decreased the expression of mitochondrial branched chain amino transferase (BCAT) which produces KIC in skeletal muscle. This suggests that Metformin can restore skeletal muscle homeostasis in MSUD by decreasing mitochondrial KIC production.

  10. Modification of nucleic acids by azobenzene derivatives and their applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Liang, Xingguo

    2014-12-01

    Azobenzene has been widely used as a photoregulator due to its reversible photoisomerization, large structural change between E and Z isomers, high photoisomerization yield, and high chemical stability. On the other hand, some azobenzene derivatives can be used as universal quenchers for many fluorophores. Nucleic acid is a good candidate to be modified because it is not only the template of gene expression but also widely used for building well-organized nanostructures and nanodevices. Because the size and polarity distribution of the azobenzene molecule is similar to a nucleobase pair, the introduction of azobenzene into nucleic acids has been shown to be an ingenious molecular design for constructing light-switching biosystems or light-driven nanomachines. Here we review recent advances in azobenzene-modified nucleic acids and their applications for artificial regulation of gene expression and enzymatic reactions, construction of photoresponsive nanostructures and nanodevices, molecular beacons, as well as obtaining structural information using the introduced azobenzene as an internal probe. In particular, nucleic acids bearing multiple azobenzenes can be used as a novel artificial nanomaterial with merits of high sequence specificity, regular duplex structure, and high photoregulation efficiency. The combination of functional groups with biomolecules may further advance the development of chemical biotechnology and biomolecular engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Recent progress in electrochemical biosensors based on phenylboronic acid and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Jun-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This review provides an overview of recent progress made in the development of electrochemical biosensors based on phenylboronic acid (PBA) and its derivatives. PBAs are known to selectively bind 1,2- and 1,3-diols to form negatively charged boronate esters in neutral aqueous media and have been used to construct electrochemical glucose sensors because of this selective binding. PBA-modified metal and carbon electrodes have been widely studied as voltammetric and potentiometric glucose sensors. In some cases, ferroceneboronic acid or ferrocene-modified phenylboronic acids are used as sugar-selective redox compounds. Another option for sensors using PBA-modified electrodes is potentiometric detection, in which the changes in surface potential of the electrodes are detected as an output signal. An ion-sensitive field effect transistor (FET) has been used as a signal transducer in potentiometric sensors. Glycoproteins, such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), avidin, and serum albumin can also be detected by PBA-modified electrodes because they contain hydrocarbon chains on the surface. HbA1c sensors are promising alternatives to enzyme-based glucose sensors for monitoring blood glucose levels over the preceding 2-3months. In addition, PBA-modified electrodes can be used to detect a variety of compounds including hydroxy acids and fluoride (F(-)) ions. PBA-based F(-) ion sensors may be useful if reagentless sensors can be developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fish-Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Monique; Cooley, Kieran; Knee, Christopher; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G.; Breau, Rodney; Fergusson, Dean; Skidmore, Becky; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of natural health products in prostate cancer (PrCa) is high despite a lack of evidence with respect to safety and efficacy. Fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory effects and preclinical data suggest a protective effect on PrCa incidence and progression; however, human studies have yielded conflicting results. Methods. A search of OVID MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, Embase, and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) was completed for human interventional or observational data assessing the safety and efficacy of fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids in the incidence and progression of PrCa. Results. Of 1776 citations screened, 54 publications reporting on 44 studies were included for review and analysis: 4 reports of 3 randomized controlled trials, 1 nonrandomized clinical trial, 20 reports of 14 cohort studies, 26 reports of 23 case-control studies, and 3 case-cohort studies. The interventional studies using fish oil supplements in patients with PrCa showed no impact on prostate-specific antigen levels; however, 2 studies showed a decrease in inflammatory or other cancer markers. A small number of mild adverse events were reported and interactions with other interventions were not assessed. Cohort and case-control studies assessing the relationship between dietary fish intake and the risk of PrCa were equivocal. Cohort studies assessing the risk of PrCa mortality suggested an association between higher intake of fish and decreased risk of prostate cancer–related death. Conclusions. Current evidence is insufficient to suggest a relationship between fish-derived omega-3 fatty acid and risk of PrCa. An association between higher omega-3 intake and decreased PrCa mortality may be present but more research is needed. More intervention trials or observational studies with precisely measured exposure are needed to assess the impact of fish oil supplements and dietary fish-derived omega-3 fatty acid intake on safety, Pr

  13. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of acetamiprid in the presence of 6-chloronicotinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzsvány Valéria J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple first-order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of acetamiprid and 6-chloronicotinic acid (6-CNA at pH 7.0. By using the zero-crossing approach, acetamiprid was determined at 269.0 nm and 6-CNA at 216.0 nm with the detection limits of 7.19x10-7 and 8.25x10-7 mol dm-3, respectively and relative standard deviations not exceeding 1.2% in the case of model systems.

  14. N-Hydroxypyrazolyl glycine derivatives as selective N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius; Christensen, Caspar; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2008-01-01

    glycine (NHP5G) derivatives are selectively recognized by N-methyl- d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors and that the ( R)-enantiomers are preferred. Moreover, several of the compounds are able to discriminate between individual subtypes among the NMDA receptors, providing new pharmacological tools....... For example, 4-propyl NHP5G is an antagonist at the NR1/NR2A subtype but an agonist at the NR1/NR2D subtype. Molecular docking studies indicate that the substituent protrudes into a region that may be further exploited to improve subtype selectivity, thereby opening up a design strategy for ligands which can...

  15. Synthesis of Gibberellic Acid Derivatives and Their Effects on Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Xu, Yiren; Liu, Shaojin; Jin, Dingsha; Zhang, Jianjun; Duan, Liusheng; Tan, Weiming

    2017-04-26

    A series of novel C-3-OH substituted gibberellin derivatives bearing an amide group were designed and synthesized from the natural product gibberellic acid (GA₃). Their activities on the plant growth regulation of rice and Arabidopsis were evaluated in vivo. Among these compounds, 10d and 10f exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities on rice (48.6% at 100 μmol/L) and Arabidopsis (41.4% at 100 μmol/L), respectively. These results provide new insights into the design and synthesis of potential plant growth regulators.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  17. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC4 Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Death via Oncosis and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. QC4 is the derivative of rosin’s main components dehydroabietic acid (DHA. We investigated the cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells and revealed the mechanisms beneath the induction of cell death. Methods. The cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The underlying mechanisms were tested by administration of cell death related inhibitors and detection of apoptotic and oncosis related proteins. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage assay, mitochondrial function test, and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration detection. Results. QC4 inhibited cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently and destroyed cell membrane integrity, activated calpain-1 autolysis, and induced apoptotic protein cleavage in gastric cancer cells. The detection of decreased ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS accumulation, and cytosolic free Ca2+ elevation confirmed organelles damage in QC4-treated gastric cancer cells. Conclusions. DHA derivative QC4 induced the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, as a derivative of plant derived small molecule DHA, QC4 might become a promising agent in gastric cancer therapy.

  18. Syntheses of Azo-Imine Derivatives from Vanillin as an Acid Base Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of azo, imine and azo-imine derivatives from vanillin as an indicator of acid-base titration have been carried out. The azo derivative of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(phenylazobenzaldehyde 2 was produced by diazotitation reaction of vanillin in 37.04% yield. The azo product was then refluxed with aniline in ethanol to yield azo-imine derivatives, 2-methoxy-6-(phenylazo-4-((phenyliminomethylphenol 1 in 82.21% yield. The imine derivative, 2-methoxy-4-((phenyliminomethyl-phenol 3 was obtained by refluxing of vanillin and aniline mixture in ethanol solvent and produced 82.17% yield. The imine product was then reacted with benzenediazonium chloride salt. However, the products indicated hydrolyzed product of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(phenylazobenzaldehyde 2 in 22.15% yield. The 2-methoxy-4-((phenyliminomethylphenol 2 could be used as an indicator for titration of NaOH by H2C2O4 with maximum concentration of H2C2O4 0.1 M while the target compound 1 could be used as titration indicator for titration of NaOH with H2C2O4 with same result using phenolphthalein indicator.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of new chiral ketopinic acid-derived catalysts immobilized on polystyrene-bound imidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Four new chiral ketopinic acid-derived catalysts were anchored on a polystyrene-bound imidazole via non-covalent bond. The resulting heterogeneous catalysts were successfully characterized using IR, SEM, and TGA analyses.

  20. Quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and benzoic Acid derivatives after identification by LC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general method was developed for the systematic quantitation of catechins, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (mainly hydrolyzable tannins) using the UV relative mole response factors (MRRF) of the reference standard from ea...

  1. The marine sponge-derived polyketide endoperoxide plakortide F acid mediates its antifungal activity by interfering with calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakortide F acid (PFA) is a marine-derived polyketide endoperoxide exhibiting strong inhibitory activity against several clinically important fungal pathogens. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses were conducted using the model organism Sacch...

  2. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdis Goncars; Eriks Jakobsons; Kristaps Blums; Ieva Briede; Liene Patetko; Kristaps Erglis; Martins Erglis; Konstantins Kalnberzs; Indrikis Muiznieks; Andrejs Erglis

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare treatment methods of the knee joint degenerative osteoarthritis, using autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and hyaluronic acid injections and observe...

  3. Insights into the spontaneity of hydrogen bond formation between formic acid and phthalimide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Rogério V A; Moura, Gustavo L C; Lima, Nathalia B D

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated a group of phthalimide derivatives, which comprise a convenient test set for the study of the multiple factors involved in the energetics of hydrogen bond formation. Accordingly, we carried out quantum chemical calculations on the hydrogen bonded complexes formed between a sample of phthalimide derivatives with formic acid with the intent of identifying the most important electronic and structural factors related to how their strength and spontaneity vary across the series. The geometries of all species considered were fully optimized at DFT B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p), RM1, RM1-DH2, and RM1-D3H4 level, followed by frequency calculations to determine their Gibbs free energies of hydrogen bond formation using Gaussian 2009 and MOPAC 2012. Our results indicate that the phthalimide derivatives that form hydrogen bond complexes most favorably, have in their structures only one C=O group and at least one NH group. On the other hand, the phthalimide derivatives predicted to form hydrogen bonds least favorably, possess in their structures two carbonyl groups, C=O, and no NH group. The ability to donate electrons and simultaneously receive one acidic hydrogen is the most important property related to the spontaneity of hydrogen bond formation. We further chose two cyclic compounds, phthalimide and isoindolin-1-one, in which to study the main changes in molecular, structural and spectroscopic properties as related to the formation of hydrogen bonds. Thus, the greatest ability of the isoindolin-1-one compound in forming hydrogen bonds is evidenced by the larger effect on the structural, vibrational, and chemical shifts properties associated with the O-H group. In summary, the electron-donating ability of the hydrogen bond acceptor emerged as the most important property differentiating the spontaneity of hydrogen bond formation in this group of complexes.

  4. Isolation, modification, and aldose reductase inhibitory activity of rosmarinic acid derivatives from the roots of Salvia grandifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jie; Tang, Yanbo; Liu, Quan; Guo, Nan; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Zhiyan; Chen, Ruoyun; Shen, Zhufang

    2016-07-01

    To find aldose reductase inhibitors, two previously unreported compounds, grandifolias H and I, and five known compounds, including rosmarinic acid and rosmarinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Salvia grandifolia. A series of rosmarinic acid derivatives was obtained from rosmarinic acid using simple synthetic methods. The aldose reductase inhibitory activity of the isolated and synthesized compounds was assessed. Seven of the tested compounds showed moderate aldose reductase inhibition (IC50=0.06-0.30μM). The structure-activity relationship of aldose reductase inhibitory activity of rosmarinic acid derivatives was discussed for the first time. This study provided useful information that will facilitate the development of aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Some Novel Triazole Derivatives from Dehydroabietic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Walter Pertino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroabietic acid (DHA is a naturally occurring diterpene with different and relevant biological activities. Previous studies have shown that some DHA derivatives display antiproliferative activity. However, the reported compounds did not include triazole derivatives. Starting from DHA (8,11,13-abietatrien-18-oic acid, and its alcohol dehydroabietinol (8,11,13-abietatrien-18-ol, four alkyl esters were prepared. The alkyl terpenes were treated with different aromatic azides to synthesize hybrid compounds using click chemistry. Some 16 new DHA hybrids were thus synthesized and their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. The antiproliferative activity of the new compounds was assessed towards human cell lines, namely normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, lung cancer (SK-MES-1 and bladder carcinoma (J82 cells. Better antiproliferative effect was found for compound 5, with an IC50 of 6.1 μM and selectivity on SK-MES-1 cells. Under the same experimental conditions, the IC50 of etoposide, was 1.83 µM.

  6. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Furanones and Anthranilic Acid Derivatives from the Endophytic Fungus Dendrothyrium variisporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy B. Teponno

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from an endophytic fungus isolated from the roots of the Algerian plant Globularia alypum showed prominent antimicrobial activity in a screening for novel antibiotics. The producer organism was identified as Dendrothyrium variisporum by means of morphological studies and molecular phylogenetic methods. Studies on the secondary metabolite production of this strain in various culture media revealed that the major components from shake flasks were massarilactones D (1 and H (2 as well as two new furanone derivatives for which we propose the trivial names (5S-cis-gregatin B (3 and graminin D (4. Scale-up of the fermentation in a 10 L bioreactor yielded massarilactone D and several further metabolites. Among those were three new anthranilic acid derivatives (5–7, two known anthranilic acid analogues (8 and 9 and three cyclopeptides (10–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRESIMS, and the application of the modified Mosher’s method. The isolated metabolites were tested for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against various bacteria, fungi, and two mammalian cell lines. The new Metabolite 5 and Compound 9 exhibited antimicrobial activity while Compound 9 showed cytotoxicity activity against KB3.1 cells.

  8. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  9. Dimeric and monomeric surfactants derived from sulfur-containing amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Célia M C; Calado, António R T; Garcia-Rio, Luís

    2010-11-15

    Anionic urea-based dimeric (gemini) surfactants derived from the amino acids L-cystine, D-cystine and DL-cystine, as well as monomeric surfactants derived from L-cysteine, L-methionine and L-cysteic acid were synthesized and their solution properties characterized by electrical conductivity, equilibrium surface tension, and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The geminis studied showed the lowest critical micelle concentration (cmc) values, however the monomeric cysteine counterpart exhibited superior efficiency in lowering surface tension, an unusual finding that can be attributed to the free sulfhydryl group. Chirality seems to play a role in the surface active properties of the gemini surfactants, but not on micelle formation. All the surfactants studied showed a higher preference for adsorption at the air/water interface rather than to form micelles, a fact that may be related to the urea moiety. The polarity of the interfacial region, measured with the solvatochromic probe E(T)(30) (Reichardt's betaine dye), was similar to sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micelles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and Application of Phenyl Nitrone Derivatives as Acidic and Microbial Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrone has drawn great attention due to its wide applications as a 1,3-dipole in heterocyclic compounds synthesis and the bioactivities. With the special structure, nitrone can also be used as ligand in inorganic chemistry. Based on the current research, the nitrones are anticipated to be effective inhibitors against acidic and microbial corrosion. The aim of this work is to investigate the inhibitory action of nitrones. In this work, a series of phenyl nitrone derivatives (PN was synthesized and used as acidic and microbial corrosion inhibitors. The results indicate that several compounds show moderate to high inhibition efficiency (IE in 3% HCl. Accompanied with HMTA or BOZ, the IEs greatly increase, and the highest efficiency of 98.5% was obtained by using PN4 + BOZ. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oilfield microorganism shows that the nitrone derivatives can inhibit SRB, IB, and TGB with moderate to high efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes them potential to be used as bifunctional oilfield chemicals.

  11. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development of sustain......Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development...... of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode...... was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. PAMAM Dendrimers as Potential Carriers of Gadolinium Complexes of Iminodiacetic Acid Derivatives for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study describing the utilization of PAMAM dendrimers as delivery vehicles of novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The purpose of this paper was to establish the potential of G4 PAMAM dendrimers as carriers of gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives and determine imaging properties of synthesized compounds in in vivo studies. Furthermore, we examined the influence of four synthesized complexes on the process of clot formation, stabilization, and lysis and on amidolytic activity of thrombin. Biodistribution studies have shown that the compounds composed of PAMAM G4 dendrimers and gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives increase signal intensity preferably in liver in range of 59–116% in MRI studies which corresponds with the greatest accumulation of gadolinium after administration of the compounds. Synthesized compounds affect kinetic parameters of the proces of clot formation, its stabilization, and lysis. However, only one synthesized compound at concentration 10-fold higher than potential plasma concentrations contributed to the increase of general parameters such as the overall potential of clot formation and lysis (↑CLAUC and total time of the process (↑T. Results of described studies provide additional insight into delivery properties of PAMAM dendrimers but simultaneously underscore the necessity for further research.

  13. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC2 Induces Oncosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Rosin, the traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to be able to inhibit skin cancer cell lines. In this report, we investigate the inhibitory effect against HCC cells of QC2, the derivative of rosin’s main components dehydroabietic acid. Methods. MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of QC2. Morphological changes were observed by time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the cytoskeleton changes were observed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by detection of the reactive oxygen (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm. The underlying mechanism was manifested by Western blotting. The oncotic cell death was further confirmed by detection of oncosis related protein calpain. Results. Swelling cell type and destroyed cytoskeleton were observed in QC2-treated HCC cells. Organelle damage was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The detection of ROS accumulation, increased LDH release, and decreased ATP and Δψm confirmed the cell death. The oncotic related protein calpain was found to increase time-dependently in QC2-treated HCC cells, while its inhibitor PD150606 attenuated the cytotoxicity. Conclusions. Dehydroabietic acid derivative QC2 activated oncosis related protein calpain to induce the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis in HCC cells.

  14. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Humer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA and lactic acid (LA on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA or 5% LA solutions in a ratio of 1:1.2 (w/v for 5, 24, or 48 h, and analyzed for multiple mycotoxin metabolites using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method. The analyses showed that treating the feed with CA and LA lowered the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON, whereby 5% LA lowered the original DON concentration in the contaminated feed samples by half, irrespective of the processing time. Similar lowering effects were observed for the concentrations of 15Ac-DON, 5-hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research is required to determine the effect on overall toxicity and to identify the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Hydrolysis and rearrangement of phthalamic acid derivatives and assessment of their potential as prodrug forms for amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, H; Steffansen, B

    1990-01-01

    Although it is well-known that N-substituted phthalamic acid derivatives are readily hydrolyzed in acidic aqueous solution due to intramolecular catalysis by the neighbouring carboxy group, sparse information is available on the degradation behaviour in neutral solutions. A recent publication [5......] has claimed that N-(3-bromopropyl)phthalamic acid is very easily hydrolyzed in mildly alkaline solutions by an intramolecular catalytic effect of the ionized carboxy group. In this study, the degradation behaviour of N-(2-bromoethyl)phthalamic acid (I), N-(3-bromopropyl)phthalamic acid (II......) and various other N-alkyl and N-aryl substituted phthalamic acid derivatives were examined with the primary aim of assessing their degradation rate at physiological pH. Whereas the compounds I and II were indeed found to be easily degraded in neutral aqueous solutions, the degradation was not due...

  16. Diastereoselective radical addition to γ-alkyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactams and the synthesis of a chiral pyroglutamic acid derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Yajima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The cis- and trans-stereoselective radical additions to α-methylene-γ-alkyl- γ-lactams were investigated and the scope and limitation of the reaction were also revealed. This stereoselective radical reaction was used for synthesis of chiral pyroglutamic acid derivatives starting from a commercially available chiral amino acid.

  17. Semisynthesis of Derivatives of Oleanolic Acid from Syzygium aromaticum and Their Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso Rali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound widely found in plants and well known for its medicinal properties. Oleanolic acid (OA was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower buds. Semisynthesis afforded both acetate and ester derivatives. The derived compounds were monitored with thin layer chromatography and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS, Fourier infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and melting point (Mp. All these compounds were evaluated for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were noted for all OA-derived compounds. In the formalin-induced pain test, the derivatives showed better analgesic effects compared to their precursor, whereas, in the tale flick test, oleanolic acid proved to be superior in analgesic effects compared to all its derivatives with the exception of the acetyl derivative. Acute inflammatory tests showed that acetyl derivatives possessed better anti-inflammatory activity compared to the other compounds. In conclusion, semisynthesis of oleanolic acid yielded several derivatives with improved solubility and enhanced analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Structural analysis of acidic oligosaccharides derived from the methylated, acidic polysaccharide associated with coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi (lohmann) kamptner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Kamerling, J.P.; Versluis, C.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1980-01-01

    A series of acidic oligosaccharides was obtained by graded, acid hydrolysis of the methylated, acidic polysaccharide associated with the coccoliths of the alga Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Kamptner. After fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography, the structures of the oligosaccharides were

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of derivatives of 2- and 3-benzo[b]furan carboxylic acids with potential cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Jerzy; Ostrowska, Kinga; Hejchman, Elzbieta; Wolska, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Derivatives of 2- and 3-benzo[b]furancarboxylic acids were prepared and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential in the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, USA. Six compounds: 7-acetyl-6-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid (2), 6-hydroxy-7-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-3-methyl-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid (4), 5-bromo-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (6a), 6-acetyl-5-(O-ethyl-2'-diethylamino)-2-methyl-3-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (1f), 6-(O-ethyl-2'-diethylamino)-7-p-methoxycinnamoyl)-3-methyl-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester hydrochloride (4b), 5-bromo-7-(O-ethyl-2'-diethylamino)-6-methoxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (6b) showed significant cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines. In addition the crystal structures of 7-methoxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (7a) has been solved by X-ray structure analysis of single crystals.

  20. Electron spin resonance study of oriented allyl-type free radicals of butene and butadienecarboxylic acids and derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszkat, L.

    1981-10-01

    Single-crystal electron spin resonance studies of free radicals formed by ..gamma.. irradiation were performed on a series of unsaturated carboxylic acids and their derivatives. As a rule, allyl-type extended ..pi..-electron free radicals are the most persistent species observed in the butene series molecules (2- and 3-hexenedioic acids) and in the butadiene series molecules (sorbic acid, sorbamide, and dimethyl muconate).

  1. Lanthanide nitrates as Lewis acids in the one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, Juliana A.; Faustino, Wagner M., E-mail: julianadqf@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Zampieri, Davila de S.; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose A.R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sa, Gilberto F. de [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this work we report the use of lanthanide nitrates [Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}] acting as catalyst in direct one pot synthesis of 3-benzoyl- and 3-acetyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives from ketones, nitriles and nitric acid. This is the first example of one-pot synthesis of benzoyl- and acetyl 1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives preparation using acetophenones derivates with electron-donator groups. (author)

  2. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Synthesis of the Galactosyl Derivative of Gluconic Acid With the Transglycosylation Activity of β-Galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wojciechowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic acids are bioactive compounds demonstrating numerous interesting properties. They are widely produced by chemical or enzymatic oxidation of disaccharides. This paper focuses on the galactosyl derivative of gluconic acid as a result of a new method of bionic acid synthesis which utilises the transglycosylation properties of β-galactosidase and introduces lactose as a substrate. Products obtained in such a process are characterised by different structures (and, potentially, properties than those resulting from traditional oxidation of disaccharides. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of selected parameters (concentration and ratio of substrates, dose of the enzyme, time, pH, presence of salts on the course of the reaction carried out with the enzymatic preparation Lactozym, containing β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis. Research has shown that increased dry matter content in the baseline solution (up to 50 %, by mass per volume and an addition of NaCl contribute to higher yield. On the other hand, reduced content of the derivative is a result of increased pH from 7.0 to 9.0 and an addition of magnesium and manganese salts. Moreover, exceeding the β-galactosidase dose over approx. 35 000 U per 100 g of lactose also leads to reduced yield of the process. The most favourable molar ratio of sodium gluconate to lactose is 2.225:0.675. Depending on the conditions of the synthesis, the product concentration ranged between 17.3 and 118.3 g/L of the reaction mixture, which corresponded to the mass fraction of 6.64–23.7 % of dry matter. The data obtained as a result of the present study may be useful for designing an industrial process.

  4. Novel renin inhibitors containing derivatives of N-alkylleucyl-β-hydroxy-γ-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiecka, Iwona; Jaworski, Paweł; Mazurek, Aleksander Paweł; Marszałek, Dorota; Goldnik, Anna; Sokulski, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    In search for new drugs lowering arterial blood pressure, which could be applied in anti-hypertensive therapy, research concerning agents blocking of renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system has been conducted. Despite many years of research conducted at many research centers around the world, aliskiren is the only one renin inhibitor, which is used up to now. Four novel potential renin inhibitors, having structure based on the peptide fragment 8-13 of human angiotensinogen, a natural substrate for renin, were designed and synthesized. All these inhibitors contain unnatural moieties that are derivatives of N-methylleucyl-β-hydroxy-γ-amino acids at the P2-P1' position: 4-[N-(N-methylleucyl)-amino]-3-hydroxy-7-(3-nitroguanidino)-heptanoic acid (AHGHA), 4-[N-(N-methylleucyl)-amino]-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-pentanoic acid (AHPPA) or 4-[N-(N-methylleucyl)-amino]-8-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (AAHOA). The previously listed synthetic β-hydroxy-γ-amino acids constitute pseudodipeptidic units that correspond to the P1-P1' position of the inhibitor molecule. An unnatural amino acid, 4-methoxyphenylalanin (Phe(4-OMe)), was introduced at the P3 position of the obtained compounds. Three of these compounds contain isoamylamide of 6-aminohexanoic acid (ε-Ahx-Iaa) at the P2'-P3' position. The proposed modifications of the selected human angiotensinogen fragment are intended to increase bioactivity, bioavailability, and stability of the inhibitor molecule in body fluids and tissues. The inhibitor Boc-Phe(4-OMe)-MeLeu-AHGHA-OEt was obtained in the form of an ethyl ester. The hydrophobicity coefficient, expressed as log P varied between 3.95 and 8.17. In vitro renin inhibitory activity of all obtained compounds was contained within the range 10(-6)-10(-9) M. The compound Boc-Phe(4-OMe)-MeLeu-AHPPA-Ahx-Iaa proved to be the most active (IC50 = 1.05 × 10(-9) M). The compounds Boc-Phe(4-OMe)-MeLeu-AHGHA-Ahx-Iaa and Boc-Phe(4-OMe)-MeLeu-AHPPA-Ahx-Iaa are resistant to

  5. A Novel Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors with Special Boronic Acid Derivative to Detect Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We proposed and demonstrated a novel tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR label-free biosensor via a special boronic acid derivative to detect glycoprotein with high sensitivity and selectivity. TFBG, as an effective sensing element for optical sensing in near-infrared wavelengths, possess the unique capability of easily exciting the SPR effect on fiber surface which coated with a nano-scale metal layer. SPR properties can be accurately detected by measuring the variation of transmitted spectra at optical communication wavelengths. In our experiment, a 10° TFBG coated with a 50 nm gold film was manufactured to stimulate SPR on a sensor surface. To detect glycoprotein selectively, the sensor was immobilized using designed phenylboronic acid as the recognition molecule, which can covalently bond with 1,2- or 1,3-diols to form five- or six-membered cyclic complexes for attaching diol-containing biomolecules and proteins. The phenylboronic acid was synthetized with long alkyl groups offering more flexible space, which was able to improve the capability of binding glycoprotein. The proposed TFBG-SPR sensors exhibit good selectivity and repeatability with a protein concentration sensitivity up to 2.867 dB/ (mg/mL and a limit of detection (LOD of 15.56 nM.

  6. Hyaluronic acid effect on adipose-derived stem cells. Biological in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Martínez, A; Olmedillas, S; Bello, S; de Miguel, F

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) on adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in order to consider the possibility of their combined used in the treatment of knee arthrosis. The ASC cells were grown both in the presence and absence of AH, and several studies were carried out: proliferation (WST8) and cell viability studies (Alamar Blue® and Trypan Blue), possible chondrogenic differentiation (collagen type 2 expression) by RT-PCR, AH receptor expression (CD44) by flow cytometry and RT-QPCR, and expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-6, TGFß, IL-10) by RT-QPCR. The number of ASC significantly increased after 7 days with HA (158±39%, p <0.05). Additionally, the cell viability of the ASC treated with HA after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days was similar to that of the control cells, being considered non-toxic. There were no changes observed in the expression of CD44 and chondrogenic differentiation. TGFß expression was not modified after AH treatment, but there was a 4-fold decrease in IL-6 expression and IL-10 expression increased up to 2-fold compared to control cells. Hyaluronic acid favours ASC proliferation without causing cellular toxicity, and inducing an anti-inflammatory profile in these cells. Hyaluronic acid appears to be a suitable vehicle for the intra-articular administration of mesenchymal stem cells. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of bornyl salicylate, a salicylic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Renata Marcia Costa; Leite, Fagner Carvalho; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Rodrigues Mascarenhas, Sandra; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Bornyl salicylate (BS) is a salicylic derivative, obtained by sterification of salicylic acid and monoterpene (-)-borneol, and its topical use in inflammatory diseases was described in the early 20th century. It is also known that borneol presents neuroprotective, genoprotective and analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BS in experimental models of acute inflammation. The toxicity of BS was analyzed by measuring water and food intake, weight, mortality and weight of main organs. To assess its anti-inflammatory effect, BS-treated mice were challenged with carrageenan, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), bradikynin (BK) or histamine (HIS)-induced paw edema, zymosan-induced peritonitis and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed in peritoneal macrophage cultures. There was no sign of acute toxicity of BS in male and female mice. Furthermore, treatment with BS was significantly (p acetic acid were also reduced in BS-treated animals. In vitro, BS (10 µg/mL) reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These data suggest that BS has an anti-inflammatory effect, which is related, at least in part, with decrease of mediators as PGE2, NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, further studies should be done to explore its potential as an anti-inflammatory drug.

  8. Quantification of sorbic acid using the molecularly imprinted chemiluminescence method with rhodanine derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Congcong; Ge, Lei; Dai, Ping; Ge, Shenguang

    2009-11-01

    A novel molecular imprinting-chemiluminescence (MI-CL) method for the determination of sorbic acid (SA) was established, taking the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as recognition material and a novel rhodanine derivative as chemiluminescence reagent. The MIP was prepared by a self-assembly technique with SA as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. It was found that 3-o-methoxyphenyl-5-(2'-sulfono phenylazo) rhodanine (2MORASP) significantly enhanced the luminescence intensity of the SA-potassium permanganate-hydrochloride acid system. The method was proved to be selective and sensitive. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the system exhibits an excellent linear relationship over the range of 3.0 x 10(-7)-6.0 x 10(-4) g mL(-1). The detection limit of the proposed method was 2.2 x 10(-8) g mL(-1). This method was successfully applied to the determination of SA in milk and fruit juice samples.

  9. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Geisler, Carsten; Hansen, Morten; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Biagi, Elena; Andersen, Mads Hald; Brigidi, Patrizia; Ødum, Niels; Litman, Thomas; Woetmann, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly reduced the release of several pro-inflammatory chemokines including CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Additionally, butyrate and propionate inhibited the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-12p40 showing a strong anti-inflammatory effect. This work illustrates that bacterial metabolites far from the site of their production can differentially modulate the inflammatory response and generally provides new insights into host-microbiome interactions. PMID:26541096

  10. Synthesis, evaluation and molecular docking studies of amino acid derived N-glycoconjugates as antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Noorullah; Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Chander, Subhash; Jha, Prabhat Nath; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan; Sah, Ajay K

    2015-12-01

    Six amino acid derived N-glycoconjugates of d-glucose were synthesized, characterized and tested for antibacterial activity against G(+)ve (Bacillus cereus) as well as G(-)ve (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial strains. All the tested compounds exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activity against these bacterial strains. The results were compared with the antibacterial activity of standard drug Chloramphenicol, where results of A5 (Tryptophan derived glycoconjugates) against E. coli and A4 (Isoleucine derived glycoconjugates) against K. pneumoniae bacterial strains are comparable with the standard drug molecule. In silico docking studies were also performed in order to understand the mode of action and binding interactions of these molecules. The docking studies revealed that, occupation of compound A5 at the ATP binding site of subunit GyrB (DNA gyrase, PDB ID: 3TTZ) via hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions may be the reason for its significant in vitro antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A review (research and patents) on jasmonic acid and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Parang, Keykavous

    2014-04-01

    In medicinal chemistry there is a growing interest in using small molecules, including plant stress hormones. Jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile methyl ester (MJ), collectively termed jasmonates, are lipid-derived cyclopentanone compounds that occur ubiquitously and exclusively in the plant kingdom. This review covers the synthesis, usage, and biological activities of JA and its derivatives. A brief overview of the available information on JA and its features is given, followed by a detailed review of JA and its derivatives as drugs and prodrugs; the properties in plants and the synthesis in recent patents are described. This review shows the direction of long-term drug/nutraceutical safety trials and provides insights for future research in this area. Research on JA continues to be of major interest. Recent innovations offer hope for the development of new therapeutics in related fields. It is anticipated that several analogs can be advanced to preclinical and clinical studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The role of direct photolysis and indirect photochemistry in the environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vione, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Calza, P., E-mail: paola.calza@unito.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Galli, F.; Fabbri, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Santoro, V.; Medana, C. [Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The aquatic environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), one of the most used UVB filters worldwide, was studied by assessing its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformations. The role of direct and indirect photolysis was evaluated. Direct photolysis was shown to play a key role, and this process is expected to be the main attenuation route of EHMC in sunlit surface waters. In contrast, the reaction with ·OH radicals would be negligible and that with {sup 3}CDOM* would at most be a secondary process. The measurement of the quantum yield of direct photolysis and of the rate constants of reaction with photogenerated transient species (or, sometimes, the use of reasonable values for the latter) allowed the prediction of the EHMC half-life time in surface waters, by means of a validated photochemical model. The predicted EHMC lifetime is of the order of hours to a few days in fair-weather summertime, and the main factors controlling the EHMC phototransformation in sunlit surface waters would be the water depth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The formation of transformation products (TPs) was followed as well via HPLC/HRMS. Three TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVA radiation, while one additional TP was detected in the samples exposed to UVB radiation. The detected TPs comprised 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, a hydroxylated derivative and dimeric species. Through the use of heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO{sub 2}, seven additional TPs were identified, most of them resulting from the further degradation of primary TPs formed through direct photolysis and that might be detected in aquatic systems as well. The photodegradation of EHMC in the presence of TiO{sub 2} yielded more toxic TPs than the parent compound (as determined with the Vibrio fischeri Microtox assay). The increased toxicity is partially accounted for by the formation of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Study of the photolytic and photocatalytic

  13. Neutral and acidic products derived from hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of arabinotriose assessed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; da Costa, Elisabete V; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2014-04-01

    The oxidation of α-(1 → 5)-L-arabinotriose (Ara3), an oligosaccharide structurally related to side chains of coffee arabinogalactans, was studied in reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated under conditions of Fenton reaction (Fe(2+)/H2O2). The acidic and neutral oxidation products were separated by ligand exchange/size-exclusion chromatography, subsequently identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and structurally characterised by tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS). In acidic fraction were identified several oxidation products containing an acidic residue at the corresponding reducing end of Ara3, namely arabinonic acid, and erythronic, glyceric and glycolic acids formed by oxidative scission of the furanose ring. In neutral fractions were identified derivatives containing keto, hydroxy and hydroperoxy moieties, as well as derivatives resulting from the ring scission at the reducing end of Ara3. In both acidic and neutral fractions, beyond the trisaccharide derivatives, the corresponding di- and monosaccharide derivatives were identified indicating the occurrence of oxidative depolymerisation. The structural characterisation of these oxidation products by ESI-MS/MS allowed the differentiation of isobaric and isomeric species of acidic and neutral character. The species identified in this study may help in detection of roasting products associated with the free radical-mediated oxidation of coffee arabinogalactans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Toxic Effects of Ethyl Cinnamate on the Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Flow Cytometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effects of ethyl cinnamate on the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris were studied based on chlorophyll fluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Parameters, including biomass, F v/F m (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII), ФPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light), FDA, and PI staining fluorescence, were measured. The results showed the following: (1) The inhibition on biomass increased as the exposure concentration increased. 1 mg/L ethyl cinnamate was sufficient to reduce the total biomass of C. vulgaris. The 48-h and 72-h EC50 values were 2.07 mg/L (1.94–2.20) and 1.89 mg/L (1.82–1.97). (2) After 24 h of exposure to 2–4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris almost ceased, manifesting in ФPSII being close to zero. After 72 h of exposure to 4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the F v/F m of C. vulgaris dropped to zero. (3) Ethyl cinnamate also affected the cellular physiology of C. vulgaris, but these effects resulted in the inhibition of cell yield rather than cell death. Exposure to ethyl cinnamate resulted in decreased esterase activities in C. vulgaris, increased average cell size, and altered intensities of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Overall, esterase activity was the most sensitive variable. PMID:26101784

  15. Toxic Effects of Ethyl Cinnamate on the Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Flow Cytometry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of ethyl cinnamate on the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris were studied based on chlorophyll fluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Parameters, including biomass, Fv/Fm (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII, ФPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light, FDA, and PI staining fluorescence, were measured. The results showed the following: (1 The inhibition on biomass increased as the exposure concentration increased. 1 mg/L ethyl cinnamate was sufficient to reduce the total biomass of C. vulgaris. The 48-h and 72-h EC50 values were 2.07 mg/L (1.94–2.20 and 1.89 mg/L (1.82–1.97. (2 After 24 h of exposure to 2–4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris almost ceased, manifesting in ФPSII being close to zero. After 72 h of exposure to 4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the Fv/Fm of C. vulgaris dropped to zero. (3 Ethyl cinnamate also affected the cellular physiology of C. vulgaris, but these effects resulted in the inhibition of cell yield rather than cell death. Exposure to ethyl cinnamate resulted in decreased esterase activities in C. vulgaris, increased average cell size, and altered intensities of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Overall, esterase activity was the most sensitive variable.

  16. Organic synthesis and inhibition action of novel hydrazide derivative for mild steel corrosion in acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, Zeinab A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Mohamed Ahmed, Mohamed S., E-mail: mohamedsolimanmohamedahmed@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Saleh, M.M., E-mail: mahmoudsaleh90@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-05-01

    A new derivative of hydrazide family, 2-(2-hydrazinyl-1,6-dihydro-6-oxopyrimidin-4-yl) acetohydrazide (HDOP) is synthesized and used as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel both in 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. A facial synthesis of a novel hydrazinyl hydrazide derivative is accomplished via a one-pot synthesis. Reaction of ethyl 2-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-2-thiopyrimidin-4-yl)acetate (1) with hydrazine hydrate in an ethanol refluxing produces the target hydrazinyl hydrazide derivative in a good yield. Different techniques such as IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy are used for characterization of the obtained products. The inhibition of mild steel corrosion using HDOP in different concentrations is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization measurements. The inhibition efficiency (IE) of HDOP is found to be higher in HCl than that in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. This is attributed to the stronger adsorption of Cl{sup −} on the iron surface which enables better synergism between Cl{sup −} and the protonated inhibitor. The HDOP acts mainly as a cathodic inhibitor (in both acid solutions) and an inhibition efficiency of ∼89% was obtained in the HCl solution. The free energy of adsorption obtained by applying Langmuir adsorption isotherm predicts physisorption of HDOP on the iron surface in the HCl solution. - Highlights: • One-pot synthesis of novel hydrazinyl hydrazide (HDOP) derivative is described. • Both spectral and elemental analyses are used for characterization of the HDOP. • EIS, Tafel plots, SEM and EDX are used in the corrosion study in HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  17. Structural Investigation for Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Derivatives as Partial FXR Agonists by in Silico Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimei Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three level in silico approach was applied to investigate some important structural and physicochemical aspects of a series of anthranilic acid derivatives (AAD newly identified as potent partial farnesoid X receptor (FXR agonists. Initially, both two and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (2D- and 3D-QSAR studies were performed based on such AAD by a stepwise technology combined with multiple linear regression and comparative molecular field analysis. The obtained 2D-QSAR model gave a high predictive ability (R2train = 0.935, R2test = 0.902, Q2LOO = 0.899. It also uncovered that number of rotatable single bonds (b_rotN, relative negative partial charges (RPC−, oprea's lead-like (opr_leadlike, subdivided van der Waal’s surface area (SlogP_VSA2 and accessible surface area (ASA were important features in defining activity. Additionally, the derived3D-QSAR model presented a higher predictive ability (R2train = 0.944, R2test = 0.892, Q2LOO = 0.802. Meanwhile, the derived contour maps from the 3D-QSAR model revealed the significant structural features (steric and electronic effects required for improving FXR agonist activity. Finally, nine newly designed AAD with higher predicted EC50 values than the known template compound were docked into the FXR active site. The excellent molecular binding patterns of these molecules also suggested that they can be robust and potent partial FXR agonists in agreement with the QSAR results. Overall, these derived models may help to identify and design novel AAD with better FXR agonist activity.

  18. Radioiodinated phenylalkyl malonic acid derivatives as pH-sensitive SPECT tracers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bauwens

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vivo pH imaging has been a field of interest for molecular imaging for many years. This is especially important for determining tumor acidity, an important driving force of tumor invasion and metastasis formation, but also in the process of apoptosis. METHODS: 2-(4-[(123I]iodophenethyl-2-methylmalonic acid (IPMM, 2-(4-[(123I]iodophenethyl-malonic acid (IPM, 2-(4-[(123I]iodobenzyl-malonic acid (IBMM and 4-[(123I]iodophthalic acid (IP were radiolabeled via the Cu(+ isotopic nucleophilic exchange method. All tracers were tested in vitro in buffer systems to assess pH driven cell uptake. In vivo biodistribution of [(123I]IPMM and [(123I]IPM was determined in healthy mice and the pH targeting efficacy in vivo of [(123I]IPM was evaluated in an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb apoptosis model. In addition a mouse RIF-1 tumor model was explored in which tumor pH was decreased from 7.0 to 6.5 by means of induction of hyperglycemia in combination with administration of meta-iodobenzylguanidine. RESULTS: Radiosynthesis resulted in 15-20% for iodo-bromo exchange and 50-60% yield for iodo-iodo exchange while in vitro experiments showed a pH-sensitive uptake for all tracers. Shelf-life stability and in vivo stability was excellent for all tracers. [(123I]IPMM and [(123I]IPM showed a moderately fast predominantly biliary clearance while a high retention was observed in blood. The biodistribution profile of [(123I]IPM was found to be most favorable in view of pH-specific imaging. [(123I]IPM showed a clear pH-related uptake pattern in the RIF-1 tumor model. CONCLUSION: Iodine-123 labeled malonic acid derivates such as [(123I]IPM show a clearly pH dependent uptake in tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo which allows to visualize regional acidosis. However, these compounds are not suitable for detection of apoptosis due to a poor acidosis effect.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF 3,4-DIMETHOXY ISOAMYL CINNAMIC AS THE SUNSCREEN COMPOUND FROM CLOVE OIL AND FUSEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of sunscreen compound 3,4-dimethoxy isoamyl cinnamic from clove oil and fusel oil has been done. The majoring component of clove oil that is eugenol has been isolated, followed with several chemical processes i.e. isomerization into isoeugenol, oxidation of the product to change into vanillin, then modification vanillin into veratraldehyde. From the fusel oil, we isolate isoamyl alcohol and modified by acetylation into isoamyl acetic. The final product could be produce by Claissen's condensation of isoamyl acetic and veratraldehyde to give 3,4-dimethoxy isoamyl cinnamic. All of the processes are followed with structure characterization using GC, IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The result shown that compound has 46.98% purity and potent as the UV-B sunscreen's type (lmax = 313 nm. In-vitro sunscreen's activity of the compound was tested by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and resulting a maximum Sun Protection Factor value (SPFin-vitro at low concentration, 10.25 mg/mL.   Keywords: UV absorber, sunscreen, clove oil, cinnamic esther.

  20. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through

  1. Intramolecular acyl migration and enzymatic hydrolysis of a novel monoacylated ascorbic acid derivative, 6-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Akihiro; Mori, Tasuku; Urushihara, Masaya; Ito, Hideyuki; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2010-08-15

    A stable ascorbic acid derivative, 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), exhibits vitamin C activity in vitro and in vivo after enzymatic hydrolysis to ascorbic acid. AA-2G has been approved by the Japanese Government as a quasi-drug principal ingredient in skin care and as a food additive. In order to achieve efficient action as an ascorbic acid source, a pro-vitamin C agent, on a variety of cells or tissues, we have synthesized a series of monoacyl AA-2G derivatives. Our previous studies indicate that a series of the derivatives is a readily available source of AA activity in vitro and in vivo, and suggested that intramolecular acyl migration of the derivatives might have occurred in a neutral aqueous solution. In this study, intramolecular acyl migration and enzymatic hydrolysis of a monoacyl AA-2G derivative, 6-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (6-sDode-AA-2G), were investigated. 6-sDode-AA-2G underwent an intramolecular acyl migration to yield ca. 10% of an isomer in neutral aqueous solutions, and the acyl-migrated isomer was isolated and characterized as 5-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (5-sDode-AA-2G). In some tissue homogenates from guinea pigs as well as in neutral aqueous solutions, 6-sDode-AA-2G underwent partial acyl migration to give 5-sDode-AA-2G. 6-sDode-AA-2G and the resulting 5-sDode-AA-2G were predominantly hydrolyzed with esterase to AA-2G and then with alpha-glucosidase to ascorbic acid in the tissue homogenates. The results will provide a further basis for its use as an ingredient in skin care, as an effective pharmacological agent and as a promising food additive. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioactive compounds derived from the yeast metabolism of aromatic amino acids during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Albert; Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.

  3. Self-assembly into soft materials of molecules derived from naturallyoccurring fatty-acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mohan

    The self-assembly of molecular gelators has provided an attractive route for the construction of nanostructured materials with desired functionalities. A well-defined paradigm for the design of molecular gels is needed, but none has yet been established. One of the important challenges to defining this paradigm is the creation of structure-property correlations for gelators at different distance scales. This dissertation centers on gaining additional insights in the relationship between small changes in gelator structures derived from long-chain, naturally-occurring fatty acids and the properties of the corresponding gels. This approach offers a reasonable method to probe the rational design of molecular gelators. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  4. Amino Acid Derivatives as New Zinc Binding Groups for the Design of Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Giustiniano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are important medicinal targets for conditions ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to cardiomyopathy, periodontal disease, liver cirrhosis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer invasion and metastasis, where they showed to have a dual role, inhibiting or promoting important processes involved in the pathology. MMPs contain a zinc (II ion in the protein active site. Small-molecule inhibitors of these metalloproteins are designed to bind directly to the active site metal ions. In an effort to devise new approaches to selective inhibitors, in this paper, we describe the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of amino acid derivatives as new zinc binding groups (ZBGs. The incorporation of selected metal-binding functions in more complex biphenyl sulfonamide moieties allowed the identification of one compound able to interact selectively with different MMP enzymatic isoforms.

  5. Study of a Triazole Derivative as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition by a triazole derivative (PAMT on mild steel in phosphoric acid (H3PO4 solution has been investigated by weight loss and polarization methods. The experimental results reveal that the compound has a significant inhibiting effect on the corrosion of steel in H3PO4 solution. It also shows good corrosion inhibition at higher concentration of H3PO4. Potentiodynamic polarization studies have shown that the compound acts as a mixed-type inhibitor retarding the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions with predominant effect on the cathodic reaction. The values of inhibition efficiency obtained from weight loss and polarization measurements are in good agreement. The adsorption of this compound is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Some kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as apparent activation energy, frequency factor, and adsorption free energy have been calculated and discussed.

  6. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.

  7. Asymmetric PTC C-alkylation catalyzed by chiral derivatives of tartaric acid and aminophenols. Synthesis Of (R)- and (S)-alpha-methyl amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokon; Kochetkov; Churkina; Ikonnikov; Chesnokov; Larionov; Singh; Parmar; Vyskocil; Kagan

    2000-10-20

    A new type of efficient chiral catalyst has been elaborated for asymmetric C-alkylation of CH acids under PTC conditions. Sodium alkoxides formed from chiral derivatives of tartaric acid and aminophenols (TADDOL's 2a-e and NOBIN's 3a-h) can be used as chiral catalysts in the enantioselective alkylation, as exemplified by the reaction of Schiff's bases 1a-e derived from alanine esters and benzaldehydes with active alkyl halides. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the products formed in the reaction afforded (R)-alpha-methylphenylalanine, (R)-alpha-naphthylmethylalanine, and (R)-alpha-allylalanine in 61-93% yields and with ee 69-93%. The procedure could be successfully scaled up to 6 g of substrate 1b. When (S,S)-TADDOL or (R)-NOBIN are used, the (S)-amino acids are formed. A mechanism rationalizing the observed features of the reaction has been suggested.

  8. Metabolite gene regulation of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli with indoleacetic acid and other indole derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, E L; Brown, C S; Bankaitis, V; Montefiori, D. C.; Craig, K.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of indole derivatives to facilitate RNA polymerase transcription of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli was shown to require the catabolite activator protein (CAP) as well as the araC gene product. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) was not obligatory for araBAD transcription when the cells were grown in the presence of 1 mM indole-3-acetic acid or in the presence of indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, or 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Howe...

  9. Preparation and structural characterisation of novel and versatile amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride-modified hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne Diane; Guillaumie, Fanny; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives and to study the influence of a selection of reaction parameters on the degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives. Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)–modified HA (OSA–HA) derivatives were prepared...... and structurally characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). The influence of four reaction parameters on the DS of the derivatives was studied by means of an experimental design. The results showed that the OSA/HA molar ratio, the buffer...

  10. Molecular docking, synthesis and biological screening of mefenamic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savjani, Jignasa K; Mulamkattil, Suja; Variya, Bhavesh; Patel, Snehal

    2017-04-15

    Drug induced gastrointestinal ulceration, renal side effects and hepatotoxicity are the main causes of numerous Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors discovered to decrease the gastrointestinal issues, but unfortunately, most of them are associated with major cardiovascular adverse effects. Along these lines, various new strategies and frameworks were developed wherein basic alterations of the present medications were accounted for. The aim of the study was to prepare derivatives of mefenamic acid to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity with fewer adverse reactions. In this study, molecular docking investigations of outlined derivatives were done utilizing Protein Data Bank (PDB ID-4PH9). Synthesis of heterocyclic compounds was carried out utilizing Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/4-Dimethylaminopyridine (DCC/DMAP) coupling. Acute toxicity prediction was performed using free online GUSAR (General Unrestricted Structure-Activity Relationships) software. The study indicated most of the compounds under safe category. In-vitro pharmacological assessment of heterocyclic compounds was done for COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes for the determination of selectivity. In vivo pharmacological screening for anti-inflammatory activity and ED 50 value were determined utilizing carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Gastro intestinal safety study was carried out on selected compounds and found to be devoid of any gastric ulcer toxicity. Most of the compounds indicated high scores as compared to standard during molecular modelling, analysis and displayed interactions with active amino acids of a COX-2 enzyme. The pharmacological screening uncovered that compound substituted with p-bromophenyl indicated maximum potency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel glutathione-hydroxycinnamic acid product generated in oxidative wine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzanquet, Quentin; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C; Dias, Daniel A; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2012-12-12

    This study characterizes a novel glutathione-substituted dihydroxyphenyl compound formed during the oxidation of white wine and model wine solutions, which may contribute to the synergistic role of glutathione and hydroxycinnamic acids in delaying oxidative coloration. The critical components for the formation of the compound were found to be hydroxycinnamic acids and glutathione, while ascorbic acid enabled the product to accumulate to higher concentrations. The presence of the wine components important in other wine oxidation mechanisms, (+)-catechin, ethanol and/or tartaric acid, was not essential for the formation of this new compound. Via LC-MS/MS, HR-MS and (1)H NMR (1D and 2D NMR) analyses, the major isomer of the compound formed from glutathione and caffeic acid was found to be 4-[(E)-2'-(S)-glutathionyl ethenyl]-catechol (GEC). Equivalent products were also confirmed via LC-MS/MS for other hydroxycinnamic acids (i.e., ferulic and coumaric acids). Only trace amounts of GEC were formed with the quinic ester of caffeic acid (i.e., chlorogenic acid), and no equivalent product was found for cinnamic acid. GEC was detected in a variety of white wines supplemented with glutathione and caffeic acid. A radical mechanism for the formation of the styrene-glutathione derivatives is proposed.

  12. Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin delayed-release tablet formulations by second-derivative UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, Z; Burda, K

    1998-12-01

    A rapid, simple assay procedure was developed for simultaneous analysis of aspirin (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) in aspirin delayed-release tablet formulation by 'zero crossing' second-derivative UV spectrophotometry. The zero-order absorption spectra and second derivative spectra of ASA and SA were recorded in diluting solution acetonitrile-formic acid (99:1). The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by the determination of ASA and SA in five tablets formulations (each 20 tablets of the same batch) by the described method and by high performance liquid chromatographic method, and the results were in good agreement.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a series of novel monoacylated ascorbic acid derivatives, 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids, as skin antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Itaru; Tai, Akihiro; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Sasaki, Kenji; Okazaki, Shino

    2002-01-17

    A series of novel monoacylated vitamin C derivatives were chemically synthesized with a stable ascorbate derivative, 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), and acid anhydrides in pyridine. Their solubility in organic phase, thermal stability, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro skin permeability was evaluated. These monoacylated derivatives were identified as 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids (6-Acyl-AA-2G) by UV spectra, elemental analyses, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The reactions afforded 6-Acyl-AA-2G in high yields (30-60%). 6-Acyl-AA-2G exhibited satisfactory stability in neutral solution comparable to that of a typical stable derivative, AA-2G, and also showed the radical scavenging activity. The lipid solubility of 6-Acyl-AA-2G was increased with increasing length of their acyl group. Increased skin permeability was superior to those of AA-2G and ascorbic acid (AsA). 6-Acyl-AA-2G that is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by tissue esterase and/or alpha-glucosidase produces AA-2G and AsA, which is in the skin tissues. Thus, these findings indicate that the novel vitamin C derivatives presented here, 6-Acyl-AA-2G, may be effective antioxidants in skin care and medicinal use.

  14. Coprinopsis atramentaria extract, its organic acids, and synthesized glucuronated and methylated derivatives as antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Soković, Marina

    2014-10-01

    Despite the available data regarding antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, studies dealing with the effects of their metabolites or derivatives are scarce. Therefore, the antimicrobial and demelanizing activities of Coprinopsis atramentaria extract, its organic acids, and methylated and glucuronated derivatives were evaluated. The antifungal activity was stronger than the antibacterial effects. In general, individual compounds (mostly organic acids) exhibited higher activity than the extract and even higher than the standards used in the assays. Methylated derivatives presented the highest demelanizing activity toward Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. The inclusion of methyl groups in the parental compound (CoAM1, CoAM2 and CoAM3) strongly increased antibacterial and antifungal activities of CoA, while the inclusion of acetyl groups (CoAGP) increased the antifungal activity but the antibacterial properties were maintained. For HA and CA, the inclusion of methyl groups (HAM1, HAM2, HAM3 and CAM) increased the demelanizing activity, but decreased the antimicrobial properties. The present work contributes to the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the antimicrobial properties of organic acids namely, phenolic acids, usually present in mushrooms. Organic acids, and methylated and glucuronated derivatives could be used as antimicrobial agents.

  15. Ellagic acid and its methyl-derivatives inhibit a newly found nitratase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Claude L; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Fouret, Gilles; Lauret, Céline; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette

    2010-02-01

    We have recently shown that low density lipoprotein (LDL) was able to denitrate albumin-bound 3-NO(2)-Tyr residues and to concomitantly release NO(3)(-) through a Ca(2+)-dependent process that has been ascribed to a specific protein structure. A lipophilic food component (gamma-tocopherol), which is easily loaded into LDL has been found to totally inhibit denitrating activity. We presently found that ellagic acid (EA) and its methylated derivatives, 4,4'O-methyl- and 3,3'O-methyl-ellagic acids (MeEA1 and MeEA2, respectively), amphipathic phenolic components of certain fruits and beverages, were also able to inhibit this activity, with a total inhibition for EA and a 60% inhibition for MeEA1 and MeEA2. EA exhibited the highest affinity for protein plasma, whereas a higher affinity of MeEA1 and MeEA2 (with MeEA1 > MeEA2) than EA was found for lipoprotein fractions, suggesting that the inhibition-driving property is protein affinity. As a result of this nitratase-inhibition property EA and its natural metabolite MeEA2 may have a beneficial role in special physiopathological conditions.

  16. Structural insight into the active site of mushroom tyrosinase using phenylbenzoic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Yoshimori, Atsushi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Akira; Kamiya, Takanori; Abe, Hideaki; Abe, Takehiko; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    So far, many inhibitors of tyrosinase have been discovered for cosmetic and clinical agents. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition in the active site of tyrosinase have not been well understood. To explore this problem, we examined here the inhibitory effects of 4'-hydroxylation and methoxylation of phenylbenzoic acid (PBA) isomers, which have a unique scaffold to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase. The inhibitory effect of 3-PBA, which has the most potent inhibitory activity among the isomers, was slightly decreased by 4'-hydroxylation and further decreased by 4'-methoxylation against mushroom tyrosinase. Surprisingly, 4'-hydroxylation but not methoxylation of 2-PBA appeared inhibitory activity. On the other hand, both 4'-hydroxylation and methoxylation of 4-PBA increased the inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. In silico docking analyses using the crystallographic structure of mushroom tyrosinase indicated that the carboxylic acid or 4'-hydroxyl group of PBA derivatives could chelate with cupric ions in the active site of mushroom tyrosinase, and that the interactions of Asn260 and Phe264 in the active site with the adequate-angled biphenyl group are involved in the inhibitory activities of the modified PBAs, by parallel and T-shaped π-π interactions, respectively. Furthermore, Arg268 could fix the angle of the aromatic ring of Phe264, and Val248 is supposed to interact with the inhibitors as a hydrophobic manner. These results may enhance the structural insight into mushroom tyrosinase for the creation of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antitrypanosomal Acetylene Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Á. Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas’ disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan and affects the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of the toxicity and long duration of current treatments, the discovery of novel and more efficacious drugs is crucial. In this work, the hexane extract from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi by the colorimetric MTT assay (IC50 of 65.44 μg/mL. Using chromatographic fractionation over SiO2, this extract afforded a fraction composed by one active compound (IC50 of 10.70 µg/mL, which was chemically characterized as 12,14-octadecadiynoic acid (macrocarpic acid. Additionally, two new inactive acetylene compounds (α,α'-dimacro-carpoyl-β-oleylglycerol and α-macrocarpoyl-α'-oleylglycerol were also isolated from the hexane extract. The complete characterization of the isolated compounds was performed by analysis of NMR and MS data as well as preparation of derivatives.

  18. Mechanism of Amide Bond Formation from Carboxylic Acids and Amines Promoted by 9-Silafluorenyl Dichloride Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-Ye; Zhu, Ling; Liang, Yujie; Man, Xiaoping; Bi, Siwei

    2017-09-01

    The couplings of carboxylic acids and amines promoted by dichlorosilane derivatives provide a promising tool for amide synthesis and peptide coupling, in which an unprecedented mechanism was proposed for the amide bond formation process. To investigate this mechanistic proposal and enrich the understanding of this novel reaction, a theoretical study was conducted herein. The formation and interconversion of silylamine and silyl ester intermediates were calculated to be kinetically feasible under the experiment conditions. However, the subsequent amidation via direct elimination on the AcO-Si(L)(L')-NHMe intermediate was found to involve a high energy barrier due to the formation of an unstable silanone. By contrast, the in situ generated salts can promote the amidation process by generating a silanol as the temporary product. Similarly, the anhydride formation mechanism can proceed via direct elimination or salt-assisted elimination on the AcO-Si(L)(L')-OAc intermediate but is less favorable. Finally, we found that the intermolecular nucleophilic addition on the AcO-Si(L)(L')-Cl intermediate is the most favorable mechanism among all the candidates considered. In this mechanism, carboxylic acids or bases can act as self-catalysts to promote the amide bond formation via hydrogen bonding, and the formation of the unstable silanone or anhydride is avoided.

  19. Nutrigenomics, rumen-derived bioactive fatty acids, and the regulation of milk fat synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Dale E; Harvatine, Kevin J; Lock, Adam L

    2011-08-21

    Mammary synthesis of milk fat continues to be an active research area, with significant advances in the regulation of lipid synthesis by bioactive fatty acids (FAs). The biohydrogenation theory established that diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) in the dairy cow is caused by an inhibition of mammary synthesis of milk fat by specific FAs produced during ruminal biohydrogenation. The first such FA shown to affect milk fat synthesis was trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, and its effects have been well characterized, including dose-response relationships. During MFD, lipogenic capacity and transcription of key mammary lipogenic genes are coordinately down-regulated. Results provide strong evidence for sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) and Spot 14 as biohydrogenation intermediate responsive lipogenic signaling pathway for ruminants and rodents. The study of MFD and its regulation by specific rumen-derived bioactive FAs represents a successful example of nutrigenomics in present-day animal nutrition research and offers several potential applications in animal agriculture.

  20. Antitrypanosomal Acetylene Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Á Santos, Luciana; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Tempone, Andre G; Correa, Daniela S; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Quintiliano, Natalia F; Rodrigues-Oliveira, André F; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-05-07

    Chagas' disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan and affects the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of the toxicity and long duration of current treatments, the discovery of novel and more efficacious drugs is crucial. In this work, the hexane extract from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi by the colorimetric MTT assay (IC50 of 65.44 μg/mL). Using chromatographic fractionation over SiO2, this extract afforded a fraction composed by one active compound (IC50 of 10.70 µg/mL), which was chemically characterized as 12,14-octadecadiynoic acid (macrocarpic acid). Additionally, two new inactive acetylene compounds (α,α'-dimacro-carpoyl-β-oleylglycerol and α-macrocarpoyl-α'-oleylglycerol) were also isolated from the hexane extract. The complete characterization of the isolated compounds was performed by analysis of NMR and MS data as well as preparation of derivatives.

  1. Quantitative structure-retention relationship of selected imidazoline derivatives on α1-acid glycoprotein column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipic, Slavica; Ruzic, Dusan; Vucicevic, Jelica; Nikolic, Katarina; Agbaba, Danica

    2016-08-05

    The retention behaviour of 22 selected imidazoline drugs and derivatives was investigated on α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column using Sørensen phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and 2-propanol as organic modifier. Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) models were built using extrapolated logkw values as well as isocratic retention factors (logk5, logk8, logk10, logk12, logk15 obtained for 5%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 15%, of 2-propanol in mobile phase, respectively) as dependant variables and calculated physicochemical parameters as independant variables. The established QSRR models were built by stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of the stepwise and PLS models was tested by cross-validation and the external test set prediction. The validated QSRR models were compared and the optimal PLS-QSRR model for logkw and each isocratic retention factors (PLS-QSRR(logk5), PLS-QSRR(logk8), PLS-QSRR(logk10), MLR-QSRR(logk12), MLR-QSRR(logk15)) were selected. The QSRR results were further confirmed by Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER). LSER analysis indicated on hydrogen bond basicity, McGowan volume and excess molar refraction as the most significant parameters for all AGP chromatographic retention factors and logkw values of 22 selected imidazoline drugs and derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of 10-undecenoic acid-based epithio derivatives as multifunctional additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, Gorla; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Sammaiah, Arukali; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-11-26

    Novel epithio compounds from alkyl epoxy undecanoates (n-alkyl, C1, C4, and C6; isoalkyl, C3, C4, and C8) were synthesized using an ammonium thiocyanate in ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/H2O (2:1) solvent system in 85-90% yields by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The synthesized products were characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography, and GC mass spectral (GC-MS) analyses and evaluated for their antioxidant, extreme pressure (EP), and antiwear (AW) properties in three different base oils, namely, epoxy jatropha fatty acid n-butyl esters (EJB), di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS), and mineral oil (S-105). Among the synthesized products, n-butyl epithio undecanoate exhibited superior antioxidant property (229.2 °C) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 193.8 °C) in base oil DOS and comparable performance in EJB and S-105 base oils. All of the epithio derivatives exhibited significantly enhanced weld point for the base oils EJB and DOS at 2 wt % level and displayed moderate enhancement in S-105 base oil. Methyl epithio undecanoate at 0.6% concentration exhibited considerable improvement in the wear scar of DOS base oil. The synthesized epithio derivatives have potential as multifunctional additives in lubricant formulations.

  3. Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Eric J; Kang, Yisheng; Bokinsky, Gregory; Hu, Zhihao; Schirmer, Andreas; McClure, Amy; Del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-01-28

    Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Major efforts to this end are focused on the microbial production of high-energy fuels by cost-effective 'consolidated bioprocesses'. Fatty acids are composed of long alkyl chains and represent nature's 'petroleum', being a primary metabolite used by cells for both chemical and energy storage functions. These energy-rich molecules are today isolated from plant and animal oils for a diverse set of products ranging from fuels to oleochemicals. A more scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals would be through the microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derived carbohydrates. Here we demonstrate the engineering of Escherichia coli to produce structurally tailored fatty esters (biodiesel), fatty alcohols, and waxes directly from simple sugars. Furthermore, we show engineering of the biodiesel-producing cells to express hemicellulases, a step towards producing these compounds directly from hemicellulose, a major component of plant-derived biomass.

  4. Endogenous signaling by omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid-derived mediators sustains homeostatic synaptic and circuitry integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Nicolas G; Musto, Alberto E; Knott, Eric J

    2011-10-01

    The harmony and function of the complex brain circuits and synapses are sustained mainly by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, neurotrophins, gene regulation, and factors, many of which are incompletely understood. A common feature of brain circuit components, such as dendrites, synaptic membranes, and other membranes of the nervous system, is that they are richly endowed in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main member of the omega-3 essential fatty acid family. DHA is avidly retained and concentrated in the nervous system and known to play a role in neuroprotection, memory, and vision. Only recently has it become apparent why the surprisingly rapid increases in free (unesterified) DHA pool size take place at the onset of seizures or brain injury. This phenomenon began to be clarified by the discovery of neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), the first-uncovered bioactive docosanoid formed from free DHA through 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1). NPD1 synthesis includes, as agonists, oxidative stress and neurotrophins. The evolving concept is that DHA-derived docosanoids set in motion endogenous signaling to sustain homeostatic synaptic and circuit integrity. NPD1 is anti-inflammatory, displays inflammatory resolving activities, and induces cell survival, which is in contrast to the pro-inflammatory actions of the many of omega-6 fatty acid family members. We highlight here studies relevant to the ability of DHA to sustain neuronal function and protect synapses and circuits in the context of DHA signalolipidomics. DHA signalolipidomics comprises the integration of the cellular/tissue mechanism of DHA uptake, its distribution among cellular compartments, the organization and function of membrane domains containing DHA phospholipids, and the precise cellular and molecular events revealed by the uncovering of signaling pathways regulated by docosanoids endowed with prohomeostatic and cell survival bioactivity. Therefore, this approach offers emerging targets for prevention

  5. Tumor Tissue-Derived Formaldehyde and Acidic Microenvironment Synergistically Induce Bone Cancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Han, Ying; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Duan, Bo; Xu, Tianle; Maoying, Qiliang; Tan, Huangying; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Hongmei; Liu, Fengyu; Wan, You

    2010-01-01

    Background There is current interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced bone pain. Accumulated evidence shows that endogenous formaldehyde concentrations are elevated in the blood or urine of patients with breast, prostate or bladder cancer. These cancers are frequently associated with cancer pain especially after bone metastasis. It is well known that transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) participates in cancer pain. The present study aims to demonstrate that the tumor tissue-derived endogenous formaldehyde induces bone cancer pain via TRPV1 activation under tumor acidic environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous formaldehyde concentration increased significantly in the cultured breast cancer cell lines in vitro, in the bone marrow of breast MRMT-1 bone cancer pain model in rats and in tissues from breast cancer and lung cancer patients in vivo. Low concentrations (1∼5 mM) of formaldehyde induced pain responses in rat via TRPV1 and this pain response could be significantly enhanced by pH 6.0 (mimicking the acidic tumor microenvironment). Formaldehyde at low concentrations (1 mM to 100 mM) induced a concentration-dependent increase of [Ca2+]i in the freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and TRPV1-transfected CHO cells. Furthermore, electrophysiological experiments showed that low concentration formaldehyde-elicited TRPV1 currents could be significantly potentiated by low pH (6.0). TRPV1 antagonists and formaldehyde scavengers attenuated bone cancer pain responses. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that cancer tissues directly secrete endogenous formaldehyde, and this formaldehyde at low concentration induces metastatic bone cancer pain through TRPV1 activation especially under tumor acidic environment. PMID:20422007

  6. Enhanced biofouling resistance of polyethersulfone membrane surface modified with capsaicin derivative and itaconic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gao, Xueli, E-mail: gxl_ouc@126.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Qun; Sun, Haijing; Wang, Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gao, Congjie, E-mail: gaocjie@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PES membrane was modified with a capsaicin derivative. • UV-assisted graft polymerization was carried out on membrane surface. • The capsaicin derivative modified membrane shows better antibiofouling property. - Abstract: The culprit of biofouling is the reproduction of viable microorganisms on the membrane surface. Recently, functionalization of membrane surface with natural antibacterial agents has drawn great attention. This work presents the fabrication of antibiofouling polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by UV-assisted photo grafting of capsaicin derivative (N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-acrylamide, HMBA) and itaconic acid (IA) on the surface of PES membrane. Results of FTIR-ATR, water static contact angle (WSCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed the successful grafting of HMBA and IA on the membrane surface. We investigated the antifouling and antibacterial properties of these membranes using BSA and Escherichia coli as the test model, respectively. During a 150-min test, the modified membranes show much lower flux decline (42.7% for PES-g-1H0I, 22.2% for PES-g-1H1I and 7.7% for PES-g-1H5I) when compared with the pristine membrane (flux declined by 77%). The modified membranes exhibit excellent antibacterial activity (nearly 100%) when UV irradiation time was 6 min. The morphological study suggested that the E. coli on the pristine membrane showed a regular and smooth surface while that on the modified membrane was disrupted, which validated the antibacterial activity of the modified membranes.

  7. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for l-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain ...

  8. Proliferation in culture of primordial germ cells derived from embryonic stem cell: induction by retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoolati, Zohreh; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Forouzandeh-Moghadam, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    An in vitro system that supports primordial germ cells (PGCs) survival and proliferation is useful for enhancement of these cells and efficient transplantation in infertility disorders. One approach is cultivation of PGCs under proper conditions that allow self-renewal and proliferation of PGCs. For this purpose, we compared the effects of different concentrations of retinoic acid (RA), and the effect of PGCs co-culture (Co-C) with SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant (STO) cells on the proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived PGCs. One-day-old embryoid body (EB) was cultured for 4 days in simple culture system in the presence of 5 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) (SCB group) for PGC induction. For PGC enrichment, ESCs-derived germ cells were cultured for 7 days in the presence of different doses (0-5  μM) of RA, both in the simple and STO Co-C systems. At the end of the culture period, viability and proliferation rates were assessed and expression of mouse vasa homologue (Mvh),  α6 integrin,  β1 integrin, stimulated by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8) and piwi (Drosophila)-like 2 (Piwil2) was evaluated using quantitative PCR. Also, the inductive effects were investigated immunocytochemically with Mvh and cadherin1 (CDH1) on the selected groups. Immunocytochemistry/PCR results showed higher expression of Mvh, the PGC-specific marker, in 3  μM RA concentrations on the top of the STO feeder layer. Meanwhile, assessment of the Stra8 mRNA and CDH1 protein, the specific makers for spermatogonia, showed no significant differences between groups. Based on the results, it seems that in the presence of 3 μM RA on top of the STO feeder layer cells, the majority of the cells transdifferentiated into germ cells were PGCs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Aqueous solubility study of salts of benzylamine derivatives and p-substituted benzoic acid derivatives using X-ray crystallographic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    Twenty two p-substituted benzoic acid derivates were used to prepare salts of N-methylbenzylamine (II) and N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (III), respectively. Only five salts of (II) and two salts of (III) were obtained in a crystalline state. The solubility of these salts was orders of magnitude higher...... analysis of p-hydroxybenzoic acid salt of (I), (II) and (III) suggested that the reduced number of hydrogen bonds caused the apparent higher solubility. Further analyses of seven salts of (I) were performed. It was not possible to identify any relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds...

  10. Chiral Recognition for the Two Enantiomers of Phenylalanine and Four Amino Acid Derivatives with (S)-Phenylethylamine Derived Nickel(II) Macrocyclic Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Jae; Ryoo, Jae Jeong [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The potency of new chiral selector candidate was assessed by this simple chiral discrimination test. This experiment showed that the macrocyclic molecule can be a powerful candidate as a chiral selector to obtain optically pure amino acid or amino acid derivatives, particularly phenylalanine and N-benzoyl-phenylalanine enantiomers from racemic mixtures. This study attempted to use the chiral metal organic framework (MOF), 1, as a good chiral selector candidate for the chiral discrimination of racemic phenylalanine, N-benzoyl-alanine, N-benzoyl-phenylalanine, N-benzoyl-methionine, N-CBZ-alanine. The chiral recognition ability of the chiral macromolecule, was examined by varying the molar ratio of the macromolecule and racemates.

  11. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  12. Astragalosidic Acid: A New Water-Soluble Derivative of Astragaloside IV Prepared Using Remarkably Simple TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Lin-Sen; Peng, Shu-Lin; Liang, Jian; Ding, Li-Sheng

    2017-07-31

    There is an urgent need for a water-soluble derivative of astragaloside IV for drug R&D. In the present study, a remarkably simple method for the preparation of such a water-soluble derivative of astragaloside IV has been developed. This protocol involves oxidative 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl free radical (TEMPO)-mediated transformation of astragaloside IV to its carboxylic acid derivative, which is a new compound named astragalosidic acid. The structure of astragalosidic acid was elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis. Its cardioprotective activity was investigated using an in vitro model of cardiomyocyte damage induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation in H9c2 cells. The oxidative TEMPO-mediated transformation proposed in the present study could be applied to other natural saponins, offering an effective and convenient way to develop a new compound with greatly improved structure-based druggability.

  13. Tailoring of strong neutral organic super-acids: DFT-B3LYP calculations on some fulvene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksic, Z.B.; Vianello, R. [Quantum Organic Chemistry Group, Div. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Maksic, Z.B [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics (Croatia)

    2004-07-01

    The design of new powerful neutral super-acids is of great importance in organic chemistry. It is shown by using a reliable theoretical model that cyano derivatives of fulvene provide very good candidates for potent organic super-acids. The origin of the high acidity is identified as the aromatization of the five-membered ring upon deprotonation. Their acidity is enhanced by the Lewis acid-base interaction between a -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-BX{sub 2} chain and the anionic O{sup -} center in the corresponding conjugate bases. X stands here for F, Cl and Br atoms. There are good reasons to believe that the proposed neutral organic super-acids are amenable to laboratory preparation. (authors)

  14. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  15. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for L-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain by laboratory evolution and demonstrated that it expressed lower levels of an oxidative-stress marker than wild type. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentration of a fatty acid-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain was higher than that of a glucose-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain. The novel mutation rpsA(D210Y) identified in our fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain enabled us to promote cell growth, fatty-acid utilization, and L-lysine production from fatty acid. Introduction of this rpsA(D210Y) mutation into a wild-type strain resulted in lower H₂O₂ concentrations. The overexpression of superoxide dismutase (sodA) increased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and inhibited E. coli fatty-acid utilization, whereas overexpression of an oxidative-stress regulator (oxyS) decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and promoted E. coli fatty acid utilization and L-lysine production. Addition of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger thiourea promoted L-lysine production from fatty acids and decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations. Among the ROS generated by fatty-acid β-oxidation, H₂O₂ critically affected E. coli growth and L-lysine production. This indicates that the regression of ROS stress promotes fatty acid utilization, which is beneficial for fatty acids used as raw materials in industrial production.

  16. α-Linolenic acid-derived metabolites from gut lactic acid bacteria induce differentiation of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages through G protein-coupled receptor 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohue-Kitano, Ryuji; Yasuoka, Yumiko; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kitamura, Nahoko; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Kimura, Ikuo; Kasubuchi, Mayu; Takahashi, Haruya; Li, Yongjia; Yeh, Yu-Sheng; Jheng, Huei-Fen; Iwase, Mari; Tanaka, Masashi; Masuda, Shinya; Inoue, Takayuki; Yamakage, Hajime; Kusakabe, Toru; Tani, Fumito; Shimatsu, Akira; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Jun; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Kawada, Teruo

    2017-09-13

    Among dietary fatty acids with immunologic effects, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been considered as factors that contribute to the differentiation of M2-type macrophages (M2 macrophages). In this study, we examined the effect of ALA and its gut lactic acid bacteria metabolites 13-hydroxy-9(Z),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (13-OH) and 13-oxo-9(Z),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo) on the differentiation of M2 macrophages from bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. BMDCs were stimulated with ALA, 13-OH, or 13-oxo in the presence of IL-4 or IL-13 for 24 h, and significant increases in M2 macrophage markers CD206 and Arginase-1 (Arg1) were observed. In addition, M2 macrophage phenotypes were less prevalent following cotreatment with GPCR40 antagonists or inhibitors of PLC-β and MEK under these conditions, suggesting that GPCR40 signaling is involved in the regulation of M2 macrophage differentiation. In further experiments, remarkable M2 macrophage accumulation was observed in the lamina propria of the small intestine of C57BL/6 mice after intragastric treatments with ALA, 13-OH, or 13-oxo at 1 g/kg of body weight per day for 3 d. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of M2 macrophage differentiation involving fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria and GPCR40 signaling.-Ohue-Kitano, R., Yasuoka, Y., Goto, T., Kitamura, N., Park, S.-B., Kishino, S., Kimura, I., Kasubuchi, M., Takahashi, H., Li, Y., Yeh, Y.-S., Jheng, H.-F., Iwase, M., Tanaka, M., Masuda, S., Inoue, T., Yamakage, H., Kusakabe, T., Tani, F., Shimatsu, A., Takahashi, N., Ogawa, J., Satoh-Asahara, N., Kawada, T. α-Linolenic acid-derived metabolites from gut lactic acid bacteria induce differentiation of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages through G protein-coupled receptor 40. © FASEB.

  17. Synthesis of novel {sup 68}Ga-labeled amino acid derivatives for positron emission tomography of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Dinesh [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Min, E-mail: jmjng@snu.ac.k [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Chang Hwan [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seo Young [Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Yeon; Yang, Bo Yeun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Objectives: We developed amino acid derivatives of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetic acid (DO2A) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,-triacetic acid (DO3A) that can be labeled with {sup 68}Ga, and we investigated their basic biological properties. Materials and methods: Alanine derivatives of DO2A and DO3A were synthesized by regiospecific nucleophilic attack of DO2tBu and DO3tBu on the {beta}-position of Boc-L-serine-{beta}-lactone, followed by acid hydrolysis. Also, homoalanine derivatives were synthesized by reacting with the protected bromo derivative of homoalanine, which was synthesized from N-Cbz-L-homoserine lactone. Further catalytic reduction and acid cleavage of protected groups resulted in the required products. All derivatives were labeled with {sup 68}Ga. Cell uptake assays were carried out in Hep3B (human hepatoma) and U87MG (human glioma) cell lines at 37{sup o}C. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies were performed using balb/c mice xenografted with CT-26 (mouse colon cancer). Results: All compounds were labeled with >97% efficiency. According to in vitro studies, the labeled amino acid derivatives showed significantly greater uptakes than the control ({sup 68}Ga 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) in cancer cells. Small animal PET images for labeled compounds showed high tumor uptake, as well as kidney and bladder uptakes, at 30 min postinjection. {sup 68}Ga-DO3A-homoalanine showed the highest standardized uptake value ratio (3.9{+-}0.3), followed by {sup 68}Ga-DO2A-alanine (3.1{+-}0.2), {sup 68}Ga-DO3A-alanine (2.8{+-}0.2) and {sup 68}Ga-DO2A-homoalanine (2.3{+-}0.2). Conclusion: These derivatives were found to have high labeling efficiencies, high stabilities, high tumor cell uptakes, high tumor/nontumor xenograft uptakes and low nonspecific uptake in normal organs, except for the kidneys. However, the uptake mechanism of these derivatives remains unclear, and uptake via specific amino acid

  18. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 3-[Phenyl(1,3-thiazol-2-yl-amino]propanoic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Mickevičius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New N,N-disubstituted β-amino acids and their derivatives with thiazole, aromatic, and heterocyclic substituents were synthesized from N-phenyl-N-thiocarbamoyl-β-alanine by the Hantzsch method; derivatives with hydrazone fragments were also obtained. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited discrete antimicrobial activity, and 3-[(4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl(phenylamino]propanoic acid was found to promote rapeseed growth and to increase seed yield and oil content.

  19. Scalable and chromatography-free synthesis of 2-(2-formylalkyl) arenecarboxylic acid derivatives through the supramolecularly controlled hydroformylation of vinylarene-2-carboxylic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dydio, P.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes how to prepare 2-(2-formylalkyl)-arenecarboxylic acid derivatives, common building blocks for the synthesis of various valuable chemicals (e.g., anti-obesity and Alzheimer's disease treatment pharmaceuticals), by using the fully regioselective hydroformylation of vinyl arene

  20. Amphipathic β2,2-Amino Acid Derivatives Suppress Infectivity and Disrupt the Intracellular Replication Cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiirola, Terttu M.; Strøm, Morten B.; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate in the current work that small cationic antimicrobial β2,2-amino acid derivatives (Mw Chlamydia pneumoniae at clinical relevant concentrations (pneumoniae is an atypical respiratory pathogen associated with frequent treatment failures and persistent infections. This gram-negative bacterium has a biphasic life cycle as infectious elementary bodies and proliferating reticulate bodies, and efficient treatment is challenging because of its long and obligate intracellular replication cycle within specialized inclusion vacuoles. Chlamydicidal effect of the β2,2-amino acid derivatives in infected human epithelial cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Images of infected host cells treated with our lead derivative A2 revealed affected chlamydial inclusion vacuoles 24 hours post infection. Only remnants of elementary and reticulate bodies were detected at later time points. Neither the EM studies nor resazurin-based cell viability assays showed toxic effects on uninfected host cells or cell organelles after A2 treatment. Besides the effects on early intracellular inclusion vacuoles, the ability of these β2,2-amino acid derivatives to suppress Chlamydia pneumoniae infectivity upon treatment of elementary bodies suggested also a direct interaction with bacterial membranes. Synthetic β2,2-amino acid derivatives that target C. pneumoniae represent promising lead molecules for development of antimicrobial agents against this hard-to-treat intracellular pathogen. PMID:27280777

  1. Silylaryl triflates in the formation of arynes with application in the preparation of N,N-diarylamino acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Y. Albuquerque

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Through this work we are developing our research involving the formation of arynes from 2-(trimethylsilylaryl triflates, under relatively mild reaction conditions. Thus, esters of amino acids are being subjected to the reaction with 2-(trimethylsilylaryl triflates, using cesium fluoride in acetonitrile at 80oC for 24 h, resulting in the formation of N,N-diarylamino acid derivatives, important chiral intermediates in the construction of peptides and drugs.

  2. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A; Synthese de derives de l'acide tetronique et de l'acide pulvinique. Synthese totale de la norbadione A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinger, A

    2008-11-15

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A.

  3. Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and salicylic acid in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantianos, D G; Ioannou, P C

    1996-07-01

    Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry was used to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and salicylic acid in human serum. The method is based on the intrinsic fluorescence of naproxen and salicylic acid in chloroform-1% acetic acid solution. A delta gamma of 130 nm was used for the direct measurement of salicylic acid in the binary mixture, whereas naproxen was determined from direct measurements at delta gamma = 60 nm and by means of a correction equation which incorporates the concentration of salicylic acid. The range of application is 0-14 mg l-1 for naproxen and 0-13 mg l-1 for salicylic acid. The detection limits for naproxen and salicylic acid are 0.003 and 0.01 mg l-1, respectively. Serum samples are extracted into chloroform-1% acetic acid solution prior to instrumental measurement. Analytical recoveries range from 97 to 105% (mean 102%) for naproxen and from 97 to 112% (mean 103%) for salicylic acid. The within-run precision (RSD) for the method for four naproxen-salicylic acid mixtures varied from 1.2 to 6.7% and the day-to-day precision for mixtures varied from 2.1 to 5.0%.

  4. Solution properties and emulsification properties of amino acid-based gemini surfactants derived from cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Sakato, Ayako; Esumi, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid-based anionic gemini surfactants (2C(n)diCys, where n represents an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 12, or 14 carbons and "di" and "Cys" indicate adipoyl and cysteine, respectively) were synthesized using the amino acid cysteine. Biodegradability, equilibrium surface tension, and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the properties of gemini surfactants. Additionally, the effects of alkyl chain length, number of chains, and structure on these properties were evaluated by comparing previously reported gemini surfactants derived from cystine (2C(n)Cys) and monomeric surfactants (C(n)Cys). 2C(n)diCys shows relatively higher biodegradability than does C(n)Cys and previously reported sugar-based gemini surfactants. Both critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension decrease when alkyl chain length is increased from 10 to 12, while a further increase in chain length to 14 results in increased CMC and surface tension. This indicates that long-chain gemini surfactants have a decreased aggregation tendency due to the steric hindrance of the bulky spacer as well as premicelle formation at concentrations below the CMC and are poorly packed at the air/water interface. Formation of micelles (measuring 2 to 5 nm in solution) from 2C(n)diCys shows no dependence on alkyl chain length. Further, shaking the mixtures of aqueous 2C(n)diCys surfactant solutions and squalane results in the formation of oil-in-water type emulsions. The highly stable emulsions are formed using 2C₁₂diCys or 2C₁₄diCys solution and squalane in a 1:1 or 2:1 volume ratio.

  5. Investigation of antimalarial activity, cytotoxicity and action mechanism of piperazine derivatives of betulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gloria N S; Schuck, Desirée C; Cruz, Laura N; Moraes, Miriam S; Nakabashi, Myna; Gosmann, Grace; Garcia, Célia R S; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2015-01-01

    To semisynthesise piperazine derivatives of betulinic acid to evaluate antimalarial activity, cytotoxicity and action mechanism. The new derivatives were evaluated against the CQ-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain by flow cytometry (FC) using YOYO-1 as stain. Cytotoxicity of 4a and 4b was performed with HEK293T cells for 24 and 48 h by MTT assay. The capability of compound 4a to modulate Ca(2+) in the trophozoite stage was investigated. The trophozoites were stained with Fluo4-AM and analysed by spectrofluorimetry. Effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was tested for 4a by FC with DiOC6 (3) as stain. For β-haematin assay, 4a was incubated for 24 h with reagents such as haemin, and the fluorescence was measured by FlexStation at an absorbance of 405 nm. Antimalarial activity of 4a and 4b was IC50 = 1 and 4 μm, respectively. Compound 4a displayed cytotoxicity with IC50 = 69 and 29 μm for 24 and 48 h, respectively, and 4b was not cytotoxic at the tested concentrations. Addition of 4a leads to an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) . We have measured ΔΨm after treating parasites with the compound. Data on Figure 4a show that mitochondria were not affected. The action mechanism for 4a, inhibition of β-haematin formation (17%), was lower than CQ treatment (83%; IC50 = 3 mm). Compound 4a showed excellent antimalarial activity, and its action mechanism is involved in Ca(2+) pathway(s). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A mushroom-derived amino acid, ergothioneine, is a potential inhibitor of inflammation-related DNA halogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Takashi; Wu, Xiaohong; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hisaka, Shinsuke; Harada, Etsuko; Kanno, Tomomi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-generated halogenating molecules, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), in inflammatory regions are postulated to contribute to disease progression. In this study, we showed that ergothioneine (EGT), derived from an edible mushroom, inhibited MPO activity as well as the formation of 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro. The HOBr scavenging effect of EGT is higher than those of ascorbic acid and glutathione. We initially observed that the administration of Coprinus comatus, an edible mushroom containing a high amount of EGT, inhibited the UV-B-induced inflammatory responses and DNA halogenation, suggesting that EGT is a promising anti-inflammatory agent from mushrooms.

  7. Search for genes responsible for the remarkably high acetic acid tolerance of a Zygosaccharomyces bailii-derived interspecies hybrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Roque, Filipa de Canaveira; Guerreiro, Joana Fernandes; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Queiroz, Lise; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2015-12-16

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is considered the most problematic acidic food spoilage yeast species due to its exceptional capacity to tolerate high concentrations of weak acids used as fungistatic preservatives at low pH. However, the mechanisms underlying its intrinsic remarkable tolerance to weak acids remain poorly understood. The identification of genes and mechanisms involved in Z. bailii acetic acid tolerance was on the focus of this study. For this, a genomic library from the highly acetic acid tolerant hybrid strain ISA1307, derived from Z. bailii and a closely related species and isolated from a sparkling wine production plant, was screened for acetic acid tolerance genes. This screen was based on the transformation of an acetic acid susceptible Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deleted for the gene encoding the acetic acid resistance determinant transcription factor Haa1. The expression of 31 different DNA inserts from ISA1307 strain genome was found to significantly increase the host cell tolerance to acetic acid. The in silico analysis of these inserts was facilitated by the recently available genome sequence of this strain. In total, 65 complete or truncated ORFs were identified as putative determinants of acetic acid tolerance and an S. cerevisiae gene homologous to most of them was found. These include genes involved in cellular transport and transport routes, protein fate, protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism and transcription. The role of strong candidates in Z. bailii and S. cerevisiae acetic acid tolerance was confirmed based on homologous and heterologous expression analyses. ISA1307 genes homologous to S. cerevisiae genes GYP8, WSC4, PMT1, KTR7, RKR1, TIF3, ILV3 and MSN4 are proposed as strong candidate determinants of acetic acid tolerance. The ORF ZBAI_02295 that contains a functional domain associated to the uncharacterised integral membrane proteins of unknown function of the DUP family is also suggested as a relevant tolerance determinant

  8. Structure, stability, and antiplatelet activity of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid and lipophilic esters of acetylsalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodnik, Ilya B; Lapshina, Elena; Sudnikovich, Elena; Boncler, Magdalena; Luzak, Bogusława; Rózalski, Marcin; Helińska, Magdalena; Watała, Cezary

    2009-01-01

    The anti-thrombotic activity of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been shown to be due to specific irreversible acetylation of blood platelet cyclooxygenase. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between the antiplatelet activities of derivatives of both ASA and salicylic acid (SA), as well as the structure, stability, and molecular properties of these compounds. Homologous series of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid (propionyl-, butyrylsalicylic acids, PSA, BSA) and lipophilic dodecyl (C12)-, hexadecyl (C16)-, and cholesteryl acetylsalicylates were synthesized and tested for structure-activity relationships. The molecular properties (heat of formation, molecular surface area, dipole moment) of ASA and SA derivatives obtained by theoretical calculations changed with the increasing length of the acyl or alkyl residue. The inhibition of whole blood platelet aggregation and the reduction in thromboxane (TX) generation by O-acyl derivatives were concentration-dependent and decreased along with increasing the length of acyl hain. These effects correlated with the extent of platelet reactivity and P-selectin expression inhibition in collagen-activated platelets. In contrast to ASA and O-acyl derivatives of SA, none of the lipophilic ASA derivatives had a significant inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. In conclusion, all SA and ASA derivatives studied under in vitro conditions showed much lower antiplatelet activities than ASA itself, despite their higher affinity to plasma proteins or membrane components and their equivalent ability to acetylate protein free amino groups.We suggest the significance of the carboxylic group, dipole moment, geometry, and size of these pharmaceuticals in their ability to bind to the active site of cyclooxygenase and their antiplatelet efficacy.

  9. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Amino Acid-(N'-Benzoyl Hydrazide and Amino Acid-(N'-Nicotinoyl Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N`-benzoyl- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N`-nicotinoyl hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N`-benzoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e and amino acid-(N`- nicotinoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e. These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  10. The oxanorbornene approach to 3-hydroxy, 3,4-dihydroxy and 3,4,5-trihydroxy derivatives of 2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Judith AK

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nitro oxanorbornene adduct derived from the Diels-Alder reaction of ethyl (E-3-nitroacrylate and furan provides a versatile template for the stereoselective synthesis of hydroxylated derivatives of 2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (ACHC.

  11. Identification of new sialic acids derived from glycoproteins of bovine submandibular gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Reuter, G.; Pfeil, R.; Stoll, S.; Schauer, R.; Kamerling, J.P.; Versluis, C.

    1983-01-01

    Improvements in the isolation procedure and the analytical equipment enabled the detection of seven novel sialic acids in bovine submandibular gland glycoprotein: N-acetyl-8-O-acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetyl-8,9-di-O-acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetyl-7,8,9-tri-O-acetylneuraminic acid,

  12. Long-chain fatty acids increase cellular dopamine in an immortalized cell line (MN9D) derived from mouse mesencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Alfred; Won, Lisa; Bubula, Nancy; Hessefort, Suzanne; Kurutz, Josh W; Reddy, Giridher A; Gross, Martin

    2005-03-07

    The lysate of an immortalized monoclonal cell line derived from the striatum (X61) contains a dopaminergic stimulatory activity that is capable of increasing the dopamine content of an immortalized mouse mesencephalic cell line (MN9D) which expresses a dopaminergic phenotype. Purification of an isoamyl alcohol extract of this lysate and subsequent identification by NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that the dopaminergic stimulatory activity contained within the lysate was a mixture of 80-90% cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid) and 10-20% cis-11-octadecenoic acid (cis-vaccenic acid). The effect of oleic acid on MN9D dopamine is a prolonged event. MN9D dopamine increases linearly over a 48 h period suggesting the induction of an increased dopaminergic phenotype in these dividing cells. The ability to increase MN9D dopamine by oleic and cis-vaccenic acids is shared by a number of other long-chain fatty acids including arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitoleic, and cis-13-octadecenoic acid. The possibility that oleic or other relatively innocuous fatty acids might affect dopaminergic function in primary neurons is intriguing with respect to possible therapeutic approaches to the treatment of dopaminergic cell loss and the motor sequelae of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Basic Amino Acid Residues of Human Eosinophil Derived Neurotoxin Essential for Glycosaminoglycan Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ta-Jen; Chang, Wei-Tang; Tomiya, Noboru; Lee, Yuan-Chuan; Chang, Hao-Teng; Chen, Chien-Jung; Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Fan, Tan-chi; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2013-01-01

    Human eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), a granule protein secreted by activated eosinophils, is a biomarker for asthma in children. EDN belongs to the human RNase A superfamily possessing both ribonucleolytic and antiviral activities. EDN interacts with heparin oligosaccharides and heparin sulfate proteoglycans on bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the binding of EDN to cells requires cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and the binding strength between EDN and GAGs depends on the sulfation levels of GAGs. Furthermore, in silico computer modeling and in vitro binding assays suggest critical roles for the following basic amino acids located within heparin binding regions (HBRs) of EDN 34QRRCKN39 (HBR1), 65NKTRKN70 (HBR2), and 113NRDQRRD119 (HBR3) and in particular Arg35, Arg36, and Arg38 within HBR1, and Arg114 and Arg117 within HBR3. Our data suggest that sulfated GAGs play a major role in EDN binding, which in turn may be related to the cellular effects of EDN. PMID:24065103

  14. Skin collagen reproduction increased by ascorbic acid derivative iontophoresis by frequent-reversal bipolar electric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yusuke; Akimoto, Ryuji; Hori, Akiko; Kato, Katsuhiko; Chino, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Shohei; Kamiya, Shohei; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the iontophoresis of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C; VC) derivative with frequent-reversal bipolar electric stimulation on the production of collagen in rat skin was evaluated in terms of hydroxyproline content through high-performance liquid chromatography. First, a control group was not given electrical stimulation and four groups were stimulated with a unipolar pulse for 0.5-10 min every day for one week. The hydroxyproline level in the skin was increased depending on the length of the stimulation. Second, a control group was not given any electrical stimulation, and three groups were treated with (a) VC solution without any stimulation, (b) a bipolar pulse for 10 min with saline, or (c) a bipolar pulse for 5 min with the VC solution. Significant increases were found in all the stimulation groups, although these treated with the VC solution without any stimulation did not have any effects compared to the control. Thus, in order to increase the hydroxyproline levels in skin, a VC must be delivered with bipolar stimulation as a method of iontophoresis. These results suggest that our newly developed electric stimulation is effective at increasing skin collagen content, and that bipolar stimulation is more effective on the iontophoresis of not only VC but also some medicines such as low- and high-molecular drugs directed to the target organ (7).

  15. Synthesis and in vitro biocompatibility assessment of a poly(amic acid) derived from ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padavan, Donna T; Hamilton, Amanda M; Boughner, Derek R; Wan, Wankei

    2011-01-01

    Poly(amic acid) (PAA) derived from ethylenediaminetetracetic dianhydride shows great potential as a biomaterial suitable for biomedical applications. To evaluate this polymer class further, in vitro cell toxicity (WST-1/ECS, ELISA based) and cell compatibility (cell adhesion and cell proliferation) tests were conducted to establish structure-toxicity relationships. PAAs with a number-average molecular weight ranging between 100 to 200 kg/mol were synthesized at 37°C after 24 h. Porcine radial artery cells (RACs) and descending aorta endothelial cells (ECs) were seeded independently in a 96-well cell culture plate at a cell density of 5000 cells/cm(2) to observe toxic effects. Similarly, RACs and ECs were seeded independently onto PAA coated and uncoated cover slips at a cell density of 7000 cells/cm(2) to observe growth patterns. Our results showed no toxicity after 96 h of incubation and in addition, both RACs and ECs adhered and proliferated on the PAA films, preserving their phenotype during this time. The tested synthetic material seems promising as a future biomaterial and should elicit a desired cellular response upon implantation.

  16. Isoindoline Derivatives of α-Amino Acids as Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Percino, Teresa; Trejo-Muñoz, Cynthia R; Díaz-Gandarilla, José Alfredo; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Guzmán Ramírez, José Eduardo; Cervantes, Jair; Figueroa Ortíz, Armando

    2016-03-01

    IC50 values were obtained for two series of isoindolines derived from α-amino acids over cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). In order to explain the biological activity observed, a structure-activity relationship (SAR) model was achieved for the tested compounds and 19 reference compounds with known selective inhibitory activity, through the correlation of the binding energies calculated from rigid docking of the best conformations into the catalytic sites of COX-1 and COX-2, as well as their molecular descriptors: Log P, molecular weight (MW), volume (V), and solvation energy (Esol) versus their experimental IC50 values by MLR and LS-SVM methods. The model probed whether the COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities of the isoindolines correlate with steric, hydrophobic, and thermodynamic parameters. The correlation values with MLR for COX-1 and COX-2 (r(2)  = 0.4193 and r(2)  = 0.5929) were optimized with LS-SVM until r(2)  = 0.6818 for COX-1 and r(2)  = 0.8985 for COX-2, resulting in a good predictive ability for COX-1 and -2 inhibition with this model. In conclusion, the data suggests that the physicochemical descriptors evaluated have an impact on the inhibitory activity and selectivity of isoindolines over COX-1 and COX-2. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of New Quinoxaline Derivatives of Dehydroabietic Acid as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of new quinoxaline derivatives of dehydroabietic acid (DAA were designed and synthesized as potential antitumor agents. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectra and elemental analyses. All the new compounds were screened for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, SMMC-7721 and HeLa and noncancerous human hepatocyte cells (LO2. A cytotoxic assay manifested that compound 4b showed the most potent cytotoxic activity against the three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.78 ± 0.36, 0.72 ± 0.09 and 1.08 ± 0.12 μM, respectively, and a substantially lower cytotoxicity to LO2 cells (IC50: 11.09 ± 0.57 μM. Moreover, the cell cycle analysis suggested that compound 4b caused cell cycle arrest of SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 phase. In a Hoechst 33258 staining assay, compound 4b caused considerable morphological changes of the nuclei of SMMC-7721 cells, correlated with cell apoptosis. In addition, an Annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining assay confirmed that compound 4b could induce the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  18. Multiple targets of salicylic acid and its derivatives in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Klessig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs, as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, High Mobility Group Box protein (HMGB and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions, but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms.

  19. Photoresponsive SAMs on gold fabricated from azobenzene-functionalised asparagusic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemeling, Ulrich; Bruhn, Clemens; Bretthauer, Frauke; Borg, Marta; Träger, Frank; Vogel, Florian; Azzam, Waleed; Badin, Mihaela; Strunskus, Thomas; Wöll, Christof

    2009-10-28

    We have prepared a range of azobenzene derivatives equipped with an asparagusic acid-based 1,2-dithiolane headgroup suitable for chemisorption on solid gold substrates. The formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the amide cyclo-S2C3H5-4-C(O)NH-p-C6H4-N=N-Ph (1) and the ester cyclo-S2C3H5-4-C(O)O-p-C6H4-N=N-Ph (2) on gold was monitored in situ and in real time by optical second harmonic generation (SHG). The structure and composition of these SAMs was investigated by a range of ex situ methods, viz. ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS). Reversible, but moderate, photoswitchability was observed for these one-component SAMs by ellipsometry and dynamic contact angle measurements. Use of a second 1,2-dithiolane component for lateral dilution of the photoactive terminal groups resulted in a much more pronounced photoresponse.

  20. The carnivorous Venus flytrap uses prey-derived amino acid carbon to fuel respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbender, Lukas; Maurer, Daniel; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Ines; Schulze, Waltraud X; Kruse, Jörg; Becker, Dirk; Alfarraj, Saleh; Hedrich, Rainer; Werner, Christiane; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the fate of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) derived from protein of prey caught by carnivorous Dionaea muscipula. For this, traps were fed 13 C/15 N-glutamine (Gln). The release of 13 CO2 was continuously monitored by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. After 46 h, the allocation of C and N label into different organs was determined and tissues were subjected to metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analyses. Nitrogen of Gln fed was already separated from its C skeleton in the decomposing fluid secreted by the traps. Most of the Gln-C and Gln-N recovered inside plants were localized in fed traps. Among nonfed organs, traps were a stronger sink for Gln-C compared to Gln-N, and roots were a stronger sink for Gln-N compared to Gln-C. A significant amount of the Gln-C was respired as indicated by 13 C-CO2 emission, enhanced levels of metabolites of respiratory Gln degradation and increased abundance of proteins of respiratory processes. Transcription analyses revealed constitutive expression of enzymes involved in Gln metabolism in traps. It appears that prey not only provides building blocks of cellular constituents of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula, but also is used for energy generation by respiratory amino acid degradation. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Hypoxia enhances the antiglioma cytotoxicity of B10, a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fischer

    Full Text Available B10 is a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid with promising activity against glioma cells. Lysosomal cell death pathways appear to be essential for its cytotoxicity. We investigated the influence of hypoxia, nutrient deprivation and current standard therapies on B10 cytotoxicity. The human glioma cell lines LN-308 and LNT-229 were exposed to B10 alone or together with irradiation, temozolomide, nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by crystal violet staining, clonogenicity assays, propidium iodide uptake and LDH release assays. Cell death was examined using an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification (bafilomycin A1, a cathepsin inhibitor (CA074-Me and a short-hairpin RNA targeting cathepsin B. Hypoxia substantially enhanced B10-induced cell death. This effect was sensitive to bafilomycin A1 and thus dependent on hypoxia-induced lysosomal acidification. Cathepsin B appeared to mediate cell death because either the inhibitor CA074-Me or cathepsin B gene silencing rescued glioma cells from B10 toxicity under hypoxia. B10 is a novel antitumor agent with substantially enhanced cytotoxicity under hypoxia conferred by increased lysosomal cell death pathway activation. Given the importance of hypoxia for therapy resistance, malignant progression, and as a result of antiangiogenic therapies, B10 might be a promising strategy for hypoxic tumors like malignant glioma.

  2. Microbial conversion of synthetic and food waste-derived volatile fatty acids to lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajpeyi, Shashwat; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus albidus was evaluated using mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as substrates. In general, batch growth under nitrogen limitation led to higher lipid accumulation using synthetic VFA. During batch growth, an initial COD:N ratio of 25:1mg COD:mg N led to maximum intracellular lipid accumulation (28.3 ± 0.7% g/g dry cell weight), which is the maximum reported for C. albidus using VFA as the carbon source, without compromising growth kinetics. At this feed COD:N ratio, chemostat cultures fed with synthetic VFA yielded statistically similar intracellular lipid content as batch cultures (29.9 ± 1.9%, g/g). However, batch cultures fed with VFA produced from the fermentation of food waste, yielded a lower lipid content (14.9 ± 0.1%, g/g). The lipid composition obtained with synthetic and food-waste-derived VFA was similar to commercial biodiesel feedstock. We therefore demonstrate the feasibility of linking biochemical waste treatment and biofuel production using VFA as key intermediates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual Role of a Ricinoleic Acid Derivative in the Aqueous Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

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    Isadora Dantas Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that sodium 9,10-epoxy-12-hydroxytetradecanoate (SEAR, an epoxidized derivative of ricinoleic acid, simultaneously functioned as reducing and stabilizing agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in alkaline aqueous medium. The advantage of using SEAR is its biodegradability and nontoxicity, which are important characteristics for mitigation of environmental impact upon discharge of nanoparticles into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The SEAR concentration was found to impact considerably the size distribution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. A concentration below the SEAR critical micelle concentration (CMC generated 23 nm sized AgNPs with 10 nm standard deviation, while 50 nm sized AgNPs (σ=21 nm were obtained at a concentration above the SEAR CMC. FTIR analysis revealed that the carboxylate that constitutes the SEAR hydrophilic head binds directly to the AgNPs surface promoting stabilization in solution. Finally, AgNPs turned into Ag2S upon contact with wastewater samples from Wastewater Treatment Plant at Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, Brazil, which is an interesting result, since Ag2S is more environmentally friendly than pure AgNPs.

  4. Engineering alfalfa to accumulate useful caffeic acid derivatives and characterization of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases from legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some forages crops, such as red clover, accumulate high levels of caffeic acid derivatives. Oxidation of these o-diphenols to quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and the subsequent reactions of these quinones (probably with endogenous plant proteases) result in a significant reduction ...

  5. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): Genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Krul, C.A.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  6. A general approach to quantification of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavones, flavonols, and their glycosides by UV spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general method was developed for the quantification of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavones, flavonols, and their glycosides based on the UV molar relative response factors (MRRF) of the standards. Each of these phenolic compounds contains a cinnamoyl structure and has a maximum absorban...

  7. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.; Krul, C.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  8. Harnessing Yeast Peroxisomes for Biosynthesis of Fatty-Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals with Relieved Side-Pathway Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    to peroxisomes can increase the production of fatty-acid-derived fatty alcohols, alkanes and olefins up to 700%. In addition, we demonstrate that biosynthesis of these chemicals in the peroxisomes results in significantly decreased accumulation of byproducts formed by competing enzymes. We further demonstrate...

  9. Blueberry diet derived 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (PPA) suppresses osteoblastic cell senescence to promote bone accretion in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blueberry (BB) supplemented diet has been previously shown to significantly stimulate bone formation in rapidly growing male and female rodents. Phenolic acids (PAs) are metabolites derived from polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables as a result of the actions of gut bacteria, and the levels o...

  10. Kinetic and Equilibrium Constants of Phytic Acid, Ferric and Ferrous Phytate Derived From Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inositol phosphates are metabolically derived organic phosphates that increasingly appear to be an important sink and source of phosphate in the environment. Inositol hexakis dihydrogen phosphate or phytic acid is the most common inositol phosphate in the environment. Iron is abundant in many terr...

  11. Preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives from glycosyl azides using sulfamic acid and sodium iodide in one-pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucchait, Arin; Jana, Manas; Jana, Kuladip; Misra, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-03

    Novel one-pot reaction conditions have been developed for the preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives directly from glycosyl azides mediated by a combination of sulfamic acid and sodium iodide. The reaction conditions were clean, non-toxic and the products were isolated in good to excellent yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios on the Formation of Monohydroxylated Fatty Acids in THP-1 Derived Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Keeren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA can modulate inflammatory processes. In western diets, the content of n-6 PUFA is much higher than that of n-3 PUFA, which has been suggested to promote a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of modulating the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on the formation of monohydroxylated fatty acid (HO-FAs derived from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in THP-1 macrophages by means of LC-MS. Lipid metabolites were measured in THP-1 macrophage cell pellets. The concentration of AA-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs was not significantly changed when incubated THP-1 macrophages in a high AA/(EPA+DHA ratio of 19/1 vs. a low ratio AA/(EPA+DHA of 1/1 (950.6 ± 110 ng/mg vs. 648.2 ± 92.4 ng/mg, p = 0.103. Correspondingly, the concentration of EPA-derived hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs and DHA-derived hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (HDHAs were significantly increased (63.9 ± 7.8 ng/mg vs. 434.4 ± 84.3 ng/mg, p = 0.012 and 84.9 ± 18.3 ng/mg vs. 439.4 ± 82.7 ng/mg, p = 0.014, respectively. Most notable was the strong increase of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE formation in THP-1 macrophages, with levels of 170.9 ± 40.2 ng/mg protein in the high n-3 PUFA treated cells. Thus our data indicate that THP-1 macrophages prominently utilize EPA and DHA for monohydroxylated metabolite formation, in particular 18-HEPE, which has been shown to be released by macrophages to prevent pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.

  13. Folic acid derivatives for PET imaging and therapy addressing folate receptor positive tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieferstein, Hanno

    2013-07-01

    Folic acid, also known as vitamin B9, is the oxidized form of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, which serves as methyl- or methylene donor (C1-building blocks) during DNA synthesis. Under physiological conditions the required amount of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate for survival of the cell is accomplished through the reduced folate carrier (RFC). In contrast, the supply of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate is insufficient under pathophysiological conditions of tumors due to an increased proliferation rate. Consequently, many tumor cells exhibit an (over)expression of the folate receptor. This phenomenon has been applied to diagnostics (PET, SPECT, MR) to image FR-positive tumors and on the other hand to treat malignancies related to a FR (over)expression. Based on this concept, a new {sup 18}F-labeled folate for PET imaging has been developed and was evaluated in vivo using tumor-bearing mice. The incorporation of oligoethylene spacers into the molecular structure led to a significant enhancement of the pharmacokinetics in comparison to previously developed {sup 18}F-folates. The liver uptake could be reduced by one sixth by remaining a tumor uptake of 3%ID/g leading to better contrast ratios. Encouraged by these results, a clickable {sup 18}F-labeled serine-based prosthetic group has been synthesized, again with the idea to improve the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of hydrophilic radiotracers. Therefore, an alkyne-carrying azido-functionalized serine derivative for coupling to biomolecules was synthesized and a chlorine leaving group for {sup 18}F-labeling, which could be accomplished using a microwave-assisted synthesis, a [K is contained in 2.2.2]{sup +}/carbonate system in DMSO. Radiochemical yields of 77±6% could be achieved. The promising results obtained from the FR-targeting concept in the diagnostic field have been transferred to the boron neutron capture therapy. Therefore, a folate derivative was coupled to different boron clusters and cell uptake studies were

  14. Establishment of hairy root cultures of Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Kicel, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Monika A; Kiss, Anna K; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain transformed roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides and evaluate their phytochemical profile. Hairy roots were induced from leaf explants by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. The best response (43%) was achieved by infection with A4 strain. The effects of different liquid media (WPM, B5, SH) with full and half-strength concentrations of macro- and micronutrients on biomass accumulation of the best grown hairy root line (RC3) at two different lighting conditions (light or dark) were investigated. The highest biomass (93 g L(-1) of the fresh weight after 35 days) was obtained in WPM medium under periodic light. UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(3) and HPLC-PDA analyses of 80% aqueous methanol extracts from the obtained hairy roots revealed the presence of eleven caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives and five flavonoid glycosides. The production of caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives was elevated in hairy roots grown in the light. Only light-grown hairy roots demonstrated the capability for the biosynthesis of such flavonoid glycosides as quercetagetin, quercetin, luteolin, and patuletin hexosides. Chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and a tentatively identified tricaffeoylquinic acid derivative were detected as the major compounds present in the transformed roots.

  15. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures of Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin for the Production of Biomass and Caffeic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain transformed roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides and evaluate their phytochemical profile. Hairy roots were induced from leaf explants by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. The best response (43% was achieved by infection with A4 strain. The effects of different liquid media (WPM, B5, SH with full and half-strength concentrations of macro- and micronutrients on biomass accumulation of the best grown hairy root line (RC3 at two different lighting conditions (light or dark were investigated. The highest biomass (93 g L−1 of the fresh weight after 35 days was obtained in WPM medium under periodic light. UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 and HPLC-PDA analyses of 80% aqueous methanol extracts from the obtained hairy roots revealed the presence of eleven caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives and five flavonoid glycosides. The production of caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives was elevated in hairy roots grown in the light. Only light-grown hairy roots demonstrated the capability for the biosynthesis of such flavonoid glycosides as quercetagetin, quercetin, luteolin, and patuletin hexosides. Chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and a tentatively identified tricaffeoylquinic acid derivative were detected as the major compounds present in the transformed roots.

  16. Clinically useful anticancer, antitumor, and antiwrinkle agent, ursolic acid and related derivatives as medicinally important natural product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat

    2011-10-01

    Medicinal plants are becoming an important research area for novel and bioactive molecules for drug discovery. Novel therapeutic strategies and agents are urgently needed to treat different incurable diseases. Many plant derived active compounds are in human clinical trials. Currently ursolic acid is in human clinical trial for treating cancer, tumor, and skin wrinkles. This review includes the clinical use of ursolic acid in various diseases including anticancer, antitumor, and antiwrinkle chemotherapies, and the isolation and purification of this tritepernoid from various plants to update current knowledge on the rapid analysis of ursolic acid by using analytical methods. In addition, the chemical modifications of ursolic acid to make more effective and water soluble derivatives, previous and current information regarding, its natural and semisynthetic analogs, focusing on its anticancer, cytotoxic, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, acetyl cholinesterase, α-glucosidase, antimicrobial, and hepatoprotective activities, briefly discussion is attempted here for its research perspectives. This review article contains fourteen medicinally important ursolic acid derivatives and 351 references.

  17. The use of metabolic engineering to produce fatty acid-derived biofuel and chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Liwei Chen; Jaslyn Lee; Wei Ning Chen

    2016-01-01

    Production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals have garnered attention in recent years owing to their potential to replace petroleum and plant oil-derived products. Through the metabolic engineering of the fatty acid metabolism pathway, advanced fuels and chemicals such as free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, biodiesel, fatty alcohols, alkanes/alkene, R-3-hydroxybutyric acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates and flavonoids have been produced. The robustness, high tolerance to organic solvent, good...

  18. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  19. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

  20. Design, synthesis, molecular docking, anti-Proteus mirabilis and urease inhibition of new fluoroquinolone carboxylic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammed A A; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din A A; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M N; Hassan, Heba A; Abd El-Baky, Rehab M

    2017-02-01

    New hydroxamic acid, hydrazide and amide derivatives of ciprofloxacin in addition to their analogues of levofloxacin were prepared and identified by different spectroscopic techniques. Some of the prepared compounds revealed good activity against the urease splitting bacteria, Proteus mirabilis. The urease inhibitory activity was investigated using indophenol method. Most of the tested compounds showed better activity than the reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). The ciprofloxacin hydrazide derivative 3a and levofloxacin hydroxamic acid 7 experienced the highest activity (IC50=1.22μM and 2.20μM, respectively). Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of the tested compounds to the active site of urease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Vermicompost Extract and Vermicompost-Derived Humic Acids on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievinsh Gederts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cultivars grown for industrial use have recently emerged as a sustainable alternative source of industrial fibre and bioenergy, and is a highly valuable food and animal feed resource. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost extract, vermicompost mineral nutrient composition, and vermicompost-derived humic and fulvic acids on seed germination and growth of hemp seedlings. In general, separate application of all vermicompost components stimulated seed germination and hypocotyl and radicle growth, as well as increased chlorophyll concentration in cotyledons. Effective concentration range and the degree of stimulation varied significantly between the treatments. For practical purposes, application of vermicompost and vermicompost-derived extracts for stimulation of hemp growth could be useful at concentrations 5%, 0.05 mg·mL−1 and 1%, for vermicompost extract, humic acids and fulvic acids, respectively.

  2. Structure-activity relations of rosmarinic acid derivatives for the amyloid β aggregation inhibition and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Riho; Hatayama, Koki; Takahashi, Tomohito; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sato, Yuki; Sato, Daisuke; Ohta, Kiminori; Nakano, Hiroto; Seki, Chigusa; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Uwai, Koji

    2017-09-29

    Amyloid-β aggregation inhibitors are expected to be therapeutic or prophylactic agents for Alzheimer's disease. Rosmarinic acid, which is one of the main aggregation inhibitors derived from Lamiaceae, was employed as a lead compound and its 25 derivatives were synthesized. In this study, the structure-activity relations of rosmarinic acid derivatives for the amyloid-β aggregation inhibitory effect (MSHTS assay), antioxidant properties, and xanthine oxidase inhibition were evaluated. Among the tested compounds, compounds 16d and 19 were found to the most potent amyloid aggregation inhibitors. The SAR revealed that the necessity of the presence of the phenolic hydroxyl on one side of the molecule as well as the lipophilicity of the entire molecule. The importance of these structural properties was also supported by docking simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancement of polysialic acid expression improves function of embryonic stem-derived dopamine neuron grafts in Parkinsonian mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Daniela; Ganat, Yosif; El Maarouf, Abderrahman; Studer, Lorenz; Rutishauser, Urs

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in obtaining engraftable embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived midbrain dopamine neurons for cell replacement therapy in models of Parkinson's disease; however, limited integration and striatal reinnervation of ES-derived grafts remain a major challenge for future clinical translation. In this paper, we show that enhanced expression of polysialic acid results in improved graft efficiency in correcting behavioral deficits in Parkinsonian mice. This result is accompanied by two potentially relevant cellular changes: greater survival of transplanted ES-derived dopamine neurons and robust sprouting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive processes into host tissue. Because the procedures used to enhance polysialic acid are easily translated to other cell types and species, this approach may represent a general strategy to improve graft integration in cell-based therapies.

  4. Dinitrophenyl derivatization of imino acids, spectral characteristics and HPLC analysis: application in urinary peptide-derived hydroxyproline and proline assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badadani, Mallikarjun; Babu, S V Suresh; Shetty, K Taranath

    2007-03-01

    Assay of urinary imino acids, in particular peptide derived, is of immense utility in diagnosis of collagen-related disorders. The often-used methods for hydrolysis of urinary peptides need a long time and are cumbersome, hence the need for relatively simpler, but effective methods. The method described, based on alkaline hydrolysis by autoclaving for 60 min followed by pre-column dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, demonstrates the complete hydrolysis and stability of urinary peptide derived imino acids. DNP derivatives of both imino acids had identical lambda max (380 nm) with molar epsilon of 28.224 x 10(3) and 17.036 x 10(3), respectively, for hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro). HPLC run, extending up to 18 min, resolved major components of collagen products, namely Hyp, Hyl, Gly, Pro and Lys, with retention times of 6.5, 9.8, 10.5, 11.2 and 12.55 min, respectively. The assay method conformed to linear response for individual amino acid concentrations of 0.5-4.0 nmol per injection, with goodness of fit (r(2) value) 0.99 for both Hyp and Pro, and detection limit of 0.05-4.0 nmol of DNP derivatives. The recovery of Pro and Hyp, when spiked with urine prior to hydrolysis, were found to be 95% and 92%, respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis by autoclaving and DNP derivatization of imino acids followed by HPLC provides a method for the analysis of peptide-derived Hyp and Pro in urine. Hence, it is of utility to study collagen disorders.

  5. Metabolite gene regulation of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli with indoleacetic acid and other indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, E L; Brown, C S; Bankaitis, V; Montefiori, D C; Craig, K

    1980-04-01

    The ability of indole derivatives to facilitate RNA polymerase transcription of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli was shown to require the catabolite activator protein (CAP) as well as the araC gene product. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) was not obligatory for araBAD transcription when the cells were grown in the presence of 1 mM indole-3-acetic acid or in the presence of indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, or 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. However, these indole derivatives were unable to circumvent the cAMP requirement for the induction of the lactose and the maltose operons. Catabolic repression occurred when glucose was added to cells grown in the presence of L-arabinose and 1 mM indoleacetic acid or 1 mM cAMP. This effect was reversed at higher concentrations of indoleacetic acid or cAMP. The induction and the catabolite repression phenomena were quantitated by measuring the differential rate of synthesis of L-arabinose isomerase (the araA gene product). These results indicated that indole metabolites from various living systems may regulate gene expression and may be involved in "metabolite gene regulation."

  6. New insights into the electrochemical behavior of acid orange 7: Convergent paired electrochemical synthesis of new aminonaphthol derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Shima; Nematollahi, Davood

    2017-02-06

    Electrochemical behavior of acid orange 7 has been exhaustively studied in aqueous solutions with different pH values, using cyclic voltammetry and constant current coulometry. This study has provided new insights into the mechanistic details, pH dependence and intermediate structure of both electrochemical oxidation and reduction of acid orange 7. Surprisingly, the results indicate that a same redox couple (1-iminonaphthalen-2(1H)-one/1-aminonaphthalen-2-ol) is formed from both oxidation and reduction of acid orange 7. Also, an additional purpose of this work is electrochemical synthesis of three new derivatives of 1-amino-4-(phenylsulfonyl)naphthalen-2-ol (3a-3c) under constant current electrolysis via electrochemical oxidation (and reduction) of acid orange 7 in the presence of arylsulfinic acids as nucleophiles. The results indicate that the electrogenerated 1-iminonaphthalen-2(1 H)-one participates in Michael addition reaction with arylsulfinic acids to form the 1-amino-3-(phenylsulfonyl)naphthalen-2-ol derivatives. The synthesis was carried out in an undivided cell equipped with carbon rods as an anode and cathode.

  7. Prediction of anticancer property of bowsellic acid derivatives by quantitative structure activity relationship analysis and molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Raghunath; Guru, R K; Behera, R; Nayak, B

    2015-01-01

    Boswellic acid consists of a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules that are produced by the plant Boswellia serrata. The potential applications of Bowsellic acid for treatment of cancer have been focused here. To predict the property of the bowsellic acid derivatives as anticancer compounds by various computational approaches. In this work, all total 65 derivatives of bowsellic acids from the PubChem database were considered for the study. After energy minimization of the ligands various types of molecular descriptors were computed and corresponding two-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were obtained by taking Andrews coefficient as the dependent variable. Different types of comparative analysis were used for QSAR study are multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and artificial neural network. From the study geometrical descriptors shows the highest correlation coefficient, which indicates the binding factor of the compound. To evaluate the anticancer property molecular docking study of six selected ligands based on Andrews affinity were performed with nuclear factor-kappa protein kinase (Protein Data Bank ID 4G3D), which is an established therapeutic target for cancers. Along with QSAR study and docking result, it was predicted that bowsellic acid can also be treated as a potential anticancer compound. Along with QSAR study and docking result, it was predicted that bowsellic acid can also be treated as a potential anticancer compound.

  8. Determination of amino acids in grape-derived products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Morales, M L

    2010-06-15

    The amino acids present in foods and beverages affect the quality of these products and they play an important role in enology. Amino acids are consumed by yeasts as a source of nitrogen during alcoholic fermentation and are precursors of aroma compounds. In this review various chromatographic methodologies for the determination of amino acids are described, and specific applications for the analysis of amino acid content are discussed. Amino acids usually need to be derivatized to make them more detectable. Several derivatizing reagents have been employed for the determination of amino acids in enological applications, and each has its advantages and disadvantages.

  9. A New Oleanolic Acid Derivative against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats

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    Hongjun Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel hepatoprotective oleanolic acid derivative, 3-oxours-oleana-9(11, 12-dien-28-oic acid (Oxy-Di-OA, has been reported. In previous studies, we found that Oxy-Di-OA presented the anti-HBV (Hepatitis B Virus activity (IC50 = 3.13 µg/mL. Remarkably, it is superior to lamivudine in the inhibition of the rebound of the viral replication rate. Furthermore, Oxy-Di-OA showed good performance of anti-HBV activity in vivo. Some studies showed that liver fibrosis may affiliate with HBV gene mutations. In addition, the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of Oxy-Di-OA has not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effect of Oxy-Di-OA against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. Daily intraperitoneally administration of Oxy-Di-OA prevented the development of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, which was evidenced by histological study and immunohistochemical analysis. The entire experimental protocol lasted nine weeks. Oxy-Di-OA significantly suppressed the increases of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Oxy-Di-OA could prevent expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1. It is worth noting that the high-dose group Oxy-Di-OA is superior to bifendate in elevating hepatic function. Compared to the model group, Oxy-Di-OA in the high-dose group and low-dose group can significantly reduce the liver and spleen indices (p < 0.05. The acute toxicity test showed that LD50 and a 95% confidence interval (CIs value of Oxy-Di-OA were 714.83 mg/kg and 639.73–798.73 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection in mice, respectively. The LD50 value of Oxy-Di-OA exceeded 2000 mg/kg via gavage in mice. In addition, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV method was developed and validated to study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the compound. After single-dose oral administration, time to reach peak concentration of Oxy-Di-OA (Cmax

  10. A highly selective route to linear alpha olefins from biomass-derived lactones and unsaturated acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Hakim, Sikander H; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A

    2013-08-14

    This work demonstrates the use of Lewis-acid catalysts, such as gamma-alumina and tungstated alumina, for selective production of linear alpha olefins by decarboxylation of lactones and unsaturated carboxylic acids.

  11. Adsorption of Free Fatty Acid from Crude Palm Oil on Magnesium Silicate Derived from Rice Husk

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    Pornsawan Assawasaengrat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium silicate with various silica and magnesium oxide ratios (SiO2/MgO ratios was used as the adsorbent for a study of adsorption of free fatty acid (FFA in crude palm oil (CPO. Magnesium silicate was prepared from magnesium nitrate or magnesium sulfate solution precipitated with a solution of sodium silicate derived from rice husk. SiO2/MgO ratios of the magnesium silicate synthesized from magnesium nitrate and magnesium sulfate were 3.93, 3.75, 2.74, 2.40, 1.99 and 3.96, 3.61, 3.51, 2.91, 2.69, respectively. FFA adsorption on the magnesium silicate was carried out by adding 1 gram of the adsorbent to 50 grams of CPO and shaking for 1 hour at 50oC. It was found that SiO2/MgO ratio of 1.99 had the highest adsorption capacities of 185 mg of FFA per gram of adsorbent. In addition, increasing of SiO2/MgO ratios of magnesium silicate was found to reduce the adsorption capacities due to decreasing of FFA chemisorption. The effect of dosage amount to equilibrium adsorption capacities were carried out by adding different amount of magnesium silicate (SiO2/MgO ratio of 1.99 to 50 grams of CPO. The result showed that efficiency decreased when dosage increased. The Fruendlich and Langmuir isotherm were applied to describe this absorption system. The values of maximum sorption capacity (Q0 and Langmuir's sorption affinity (b in the Langmuir equation obtained by linear-regression were minus values which were physically meanigless. Thus, FFA adsorption on magnesium silicate was both physisorption and chemisorption and well represented by the Fruenlich isotherm.

  12. Ellagic acid derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and improve response to antibiotics.

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    Cassandra L Quave

    Full Text Available Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections.This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2 rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae, a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50-200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530-1040 µg/mL. This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects.These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  13. Efficient Modulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors by Piperine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Piperine activates TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor) receptors and modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). We have synthesized a library of 76 piperine analogues and analyzed their effects on GABAAR by means of a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABAAR were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were established to identify structural elements essential for efficiency and potency. Efficiency of piperine derivatives was significantly increased by exchanging the piperidine moiety with either N,N-dipropyl, N,N-diisopropyl, N,N-dibutyl, p-methylpiperidine, or N,N-bis(trifluoroethyl) groups. Potency was enhanced by replacing the piperidine moiety by N,N-dibutyl, N,N-diisobutyl, or N,N-bistrifluoroethyl groups. Linker modifications did not substantially enhance the effect on GABAAR. Compound 23 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dipropyl-2,4-pentadienamide] induced the strongest modulation of GABAA (maximal GABA-induced chloride current modulation (IGABA-max = 1673% ± 146%, EC50 = 51.7 ± 9.5 μM), while 25 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dibutyl-2,4-pentadienamide] displayed the highest potency (EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.8 μM, IGABA-max = 760% ± 47%). Compound 23 induced significantly stronger anxiolysis in mice than piperine and thus may serve as a starting point for developing novel GABAAR modulators. PMID:24905252

  14. Selective immediate responders to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tolerate penicillin derivative administration after confirming the diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-Lopez, N; Perez-Alzate, D; Ruano, F; Garcimartin, M; de la Torre, V; Mayorga, C; Somoza, M L; Perkins, J; Blanca, M; Canto, M G; Torres, M J

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of patients show immediate selective hypersensitivity reactions to clavulanic acid (CLV) and amoxicillin (AX), probably due to their increased prescription. The maintenance of this response should be established. To assess that the immediate hypersensitivity selective response to AX or to CLV is maintained after repeated administration of penicillin G (PG)/penicillin V (PV) and AX. Patients with proven immediate hypersensitivity to AX (Group A) or CLV (Group B) were included. Diagnosis was performed using skin tests with major and minor determinants of PG (PPL/MDM), AX and CLV and by drug provocation test (DPT) if required. Selectivity was established by confirming tolerance to PG/PV (Group A) and to PG/PV and AX (Group B). The maintenance of the selective response was verified by repeating DPT, 15 days after the initial investigation, with the same procedure. Of 51 patients, 78% belonged to Group A and 22% to Group B. Most had anaphylaxis. In Group A, 72% were skin test positive; 28% required DPT. In Group B, 63% were skin test positive; 37% required DPT. Only two AX-selective cases developed positive responses after re-provocation with PG/PV. No cases selective for CLV developed a positive response to PG, PV or AX. The selective response to AX appears consistent, and a response to penicillin determinants only develops in a minority of cases. For the case of CLV, the selective response appears not to be modified by exposure to penicillin determinants, meaning that patients with CLV allergy can take penicillin derivatives safely. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modulation of the activities of neuronal ion channels by fatty acid-derived pro-resolvents

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    Geunyeol Choi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress of inflammation depends on the balance between two biological mechanisms: pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving processes. Many extracellular and intracellular molecular components including cytokines, growth factors, steroids, neurotransmitters, and lipidergic mediators and their receptors contribute to the two processes, generated from cellular participants during inflammation. Fatty acid-derived mediators are crucial in directing the inflammatory phase and orchestrating heterogeneous reactions of participants such as inflamed cells, innate immune cells, vascular components, innervating neurons, etc. As well as activating specific types of receptor molecules, lipidergic mediators can actively control the functions of various ion channels via direct binding and/or signal transduction, thereby altering cellular functions. Lipid mediators can be divided into two classes based on which of the two processes they promote: pro-inflammatory, which includes prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and pro-resolving, which includes lipoxins, resolvins, and maresins. The research on the modulations of neuronal ion channels regarding the actions of the pro-inflammatory class has begun relatively earlier while the focus is currently expanding to cover the ion channel interaction with pro-resolvents. As a result, knowledge of inhibitory mechanisms by the pro-resolvents, historically seldom found for other known endogenous modulators or pro-inflammatory mediators, is accumulating particularly upon sensory neuronal cation channels. Diverse mechanistic explanations at molecular levels are being proposed and refined. Here we overviewed the interactions of lipidergic pro-resolvents with neuronal ion channels and outcomes from the interactions, focusing on transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels. We also discuss unanswered hypotheses and perspectives regarding their interactions.

  16. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Diols and Dicarboxylic Acids: From Polyesters to Poly(ester amides

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    Angélica Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(alkylene dicarboxylates constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amides derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed.

  17. Computational and electrochemical investigation for corrosion inhibition of nickel in molar sulfuric acid by dihydrazide derivatives. Part II

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    H. Shokry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Correlation of the efficiency of some dihydrazide derivatives, namely malonic acid (MAD, succinic acid (SAD and adipic acid (AAD dihydrazide, against the corrosion of nickel in 1 M sulfuric acid solution is discussed using electrochemical polarization method and quantum chemical calculations based on the ab initio method. The quantum chemical parameters calculated are, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, the gap energy (ΔE, the dipole moment (μ, the softness (σ and the total energy (TE. The relations between the inhibition efficiency and some quantum parameters are discussed and correlations are proposed. The protection efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices. Dihydrazide inhibitor (AAD exhibited the highest inhibition efficiency.

  18. The development and amino acid binding ability of nano-materials based on azo derivatives: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xuefang; Du, Jinge; Yang, Wancai; Liu, Yun; Fu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Xiaofang; Yan, Ruifang; Yao, Ningcong; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jinlian; Xu, Xiufang

    2014-05-01

    Two nano-material-containing azo groups have been designed and developed, and the binding ability of nano-materials with various amino acids has been characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence titrations. Results indicated that two nano-materials showed the strongest binding ability for homocysteine among twenty normal kinds of amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, glycine, serine, threonine, asparagine, phenylalanine, histidine, tryptophan, proline, lysine, glutamine, tyrosine and homocysteine). The reason for the high sensitivity for homocysteine was that two nano-materials containing an aldehyde group reacted with SH in homocysteine and afforded very stable thiazolidine derivatives. Theoretical investigation further illustrated the possible binding mode in host-guest interaction and the roles of molecular frontier orbitals in molecular interplay. Thus, the two nano-materials can be used as optical sensors for the detection of homocysteine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Market Available Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh basil leaves contain chicoric acid, the principal phenolic compound of Echinacea purpurea and purportedly the active ingredient in its dietary supplements. Our group discovered and first reported chicoric acid in basil. This following study examined the distribution of chicoric acid within the...

  20. Highly functionalized 1,2-diamino compounds through reductive amination of amino acid-derived β-keto esters.

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    Paula Pérez-Faginas

    Full Text Available 1,2-Diamine derivatives are valuable building blocks to heterocyclic compounds and important precursors of biologically relevant compounds. In this respect, amino acid-derived β-keto esters are a suitable starting point for the synthesis of β,γ-diamino ester derivatives through a two-step reductive amination procedure with either simple amines or α-amino esters. AcOH and NaBH(3CN are the additive and reducing agents of choice. The stereoselectivity of the reaction is still an issue, due to the slow imine-enamine equilibria through which the reaction occurs, affording mixtures of diastereoisomers that can be chromatographically separated. Transformation of the β,γ-diamino esters into pyrrolidinone derivatives allows the configuration assignment of the linear compounds, and constitutes an example of their potential application in the generation of molecular diversity.