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Sample records for cinnabar

  1. Mercury in traditional medicines: Is cinnabar toxicologically similar to common mercurials?

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    Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Zheng; Yu, Li-Mei; Goyer, Robert A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury is a major toxic metal ranking top in the Toxic Substances List. Cinnabar (contains mercury sulfide) has been used in traditional medicines for thousands years as an ingredient in various remedies, and 40 cinnabar-containing traditional medicines are still used today. Little is known about toxicology profiles or toxicokinetics of cinnabar and cinnabar-containing traditional medicines, and the high mercury content in these Chinese medicines raises justifiably escalations of public conc...

  2. Adsorption of I- ions on cinnabar for 129I waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of I- ions on natural cinnabars, whose localities are Spain, USA, and Mexico, have been studied by batch method. Only Spain cinnabar (S-cinnabar) was found to have relatively high adsorptivity to I- ions even in the presence of Cl- ions. The value of distribution ratio (Kd) is 103 ml/g under the conditions of initial [I-] = 1.0 x 10-6 M (1 M = 1 mol/dm3), pH 6.0, and solution/S-cinnabar = 100 ml/g. It was found that the adsorptivities of S-cinnabar to I- ions increase with an increase in the specific surface area and a decrease in pH, that the adsorption of I- ions on S-cinnabar is irreversible, and that S-cinnabars heated at temperatures higher than 100 C decrease the adsorptivities to I- ions. Furthermore, I- ions were found to be not adsorbed on HgS reagent which is the main component of cinnabar. From these results, the adsorption of I- ions on S-cinnabar is considered to be due to the reaction between I- ions and certain species in the surface, which are thermally unstable and minor component. (orig.)

  3. Cinnabar alteration in archaeological wall paintings: an experimental and theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Madeleine Kegelman; Balonis, Magdalena; Kakoulli, Ioanna

    2015-11-01

    The red mineral pigment known as cinnabar (HgS) was commonly employed in Roman fresco wall paintings. Fresco artists of the period favored this pigment for its striking red color. However, upon excavation and exposure to air and light, cinnabar-pigmented surfaces recovered from archaeological contexts often proved to be unstable. Mural paintings colored with cinnabar that have been exposed in the open air frequently demonstrate a disfiguring, irreversible darkening of the surface. Traditionally, scholars have attributed this alteration to a light-induced phase change from red α-cinnabar to black β-cinnabar (meta-cinnabar). While this transformation has not been totally excluded, the prevailing view among conservation scientists is that chlorine plays a key role in the darkening process through the formation of light-sensitive mercury chloride compounds, or as a catalyst in the photochemical redox of Hg(II)S into Hg(0) and S(0). Using laboratory-based experiments and thermodynamic modeling, this paper attempts to further clarify the mechanism(s) and kinetics of cinnabar alteration in fresco applications, especially the role of light, humidity, and chlorine ions. Additionally, it explores possible pathways and preventive as well as remedial conservation treatments during or immediately following excavation, to inhibit or retard darkening of cinnabar-pigmented fresco surfaces.

  4. Cinnabar-Induced Subchronic Renal Injury Is Associated with Increased Apoptosis in Rats

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    Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of apoptosis in cinnabar-induced renal injury in rats. To test this role, rats were dosed orally with cinnabar (1 g/kg/day for 8 weeks or 12 weeks, and the control rats were treated with 5% carboxymethylcellulose solution. Levels of urinary mercury (UHg, renal mercury (RHg, serum creatinine (SCr, and urine kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1 were assessed, and renal pathology was analyzed. Apoptotic cells were identified and the apoptotic index was calculated. A rat antibody array was used to analyze expression of cytokines associated with apoptosis. Results from these analyses showed that UHg, RHg, and urine KIM-1, but not SCr, levels were significantly increased in cinnabar-treated rats. Renal pathological changes in cinnabar-treated rats included vacuolization of tubular cells, formation of protein casts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increase in the number of apoptotic tubular cells. In comparison to the control group, expression of FasL, Fas, TNF-α, TRAIL, activin A, and adiponectin was upregulated in the cinnabar-treated group. Collectively, our results suggest that prolonged use of cinnabar results in kidney damage due to accumulation of mercury and that the underlying mechanism involves apoptosis of tubular cells via a death receptor-mediated pathway.

  5. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  6. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity potential of cinnabar-containing An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan, a patent traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Liang, Shi-Xia; Miao, Jia-Wei; Shi, Jing-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2011-07-01

    An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) is a patent traditional Chinese medicine for brain disorders. It contains 10% cinnabar (HgS). Hg is known to produce toxicity to the kidney, brain and liver. Is AGNH safe? Liver is a major organ for drug metabolism, whether the long-term use of AGNH would affect hepatic P450 enzymes is unknown. To address these concerns, mice were given orally cinnabar (300mg/kg), cinnabar-containing AGNH daily for 44days, and liver toxicity was examined and compared with that of methylmercury (MeHg, 2.6mg/kg) and mercuric chloride (HgCl(2), 32mg/kg). Serum aminotransferases were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2) only. Histopathology showed more severe liver damage in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice than in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Accumulation of Hg in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice was 96- and 71-fold higher than controls, respectively, but was only 2-fold after cinnabar and AGNH administration. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for Hg toxicity, were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2,) but were not altered in cinnabar- and AGNH-treated mice. Expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes, such as Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp4a10 was increased only after MeHg and HgCl(2), and the expressions of Cyp3a11and Cyp3a25 were increased by all treatments, indicating the potential Hg-drug interactions after long-term use of cinnabar-containing traditional medicines. Taken together, the results demonstrate that AGNH is much less hepatotoxic than common mercurials, and that the use of total Hg content to evaluate the toxicity of cinnabar-containing traditional Chinese medicines appears to be inappropriate. PMID:21435368

  7. [Dissolution, absorption and bioaccumulation in gastrointestinal tract of mercury in HgS-containing traditional medicines Cinnabar and Zuotai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-yuan; Li, Cen; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Hong-xia; Geng, Lu-jing; Li, Lin-shuai; Du, Yu-zhi; Wei, Li-xin

    2015-06-01

    α-HgS is the main component of traditional Chinese medicine cinnabar, while β-HgS is the main component of Tibetan medicine Zuotai. However, there was no comparative study on the dissolution and absorption in gastrointestinal tract and bioaccumulation in organs of mercury in Cinnabar, Zuotai, α-HgS and β-HgS. In this study, the dissolution process of the four compounds in the human gastrointestinal tract was simulated to determine the mercury dissolutions and compare the mercury dissolution of different medicines and the dissolution-promoting capacity of different solutions. To explore the absorption and bioaccumulation of cinnabar and Zuotai in organisms, mice were orally administered with clinical equivalent doses cinnabar and Zuotai. Meanwhile, a group of mice was given α-HgS and β-HgS with the equivalent mercury with cinnabar, while another group was given β-HgS and HgCl2 with the equivalent mercury with Zuotai. The mercury absorption and bioaccumulation capacities of different medicines in mice and their mercury bioaccumulation in different tissues and organs were compared. The experimental results showed a high mercury dissolutions of Zuotai in artificial gastrointestinal fluid, which was followed by β-HgS, cinnabar and α-HgS. As for the mercury absorption and bioaccumulation in mice, HgCl2 was the highest, β-HgS was the next, and a-HgS was slightly higher than cinnabar. The organs with the mercury bioaccumulation from high to low were kidney, liver and brain. This study is close to clinical practices and can provide reference for the clinical safe medication as well as a study model for the safety evaluation on heavy metal-containing medicines by observing the mercury dissolution, absorption, distribution and accumulation of mercury-containing medicines cinnabar and zuotai. PMID:26591542

  8. Chronic mercury exposure in Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic populations in Portugal from the cultural use of cinnabar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Steven D.; Brasso, Rebecka; Patterson, William P.; Carlos Valera, António; McKenzie, Ashley; Maria Silva, Ana; Gleason, James D.; Blum, Joel D.

    2015-10-01

    Cinnabar is a natural mercury sulfide (HgS) mineral of volcanic or hydrothermal origin that is found worldwide. It has been mined prehistorically and historically in China, Japan, Europe, and the Americas to extract metallic mercury (Hg0) for use in metallurgy, as a medicinal, a preservative, and as a red pigment for body paint and ceramics. Processing cinnabar via combustion releases Hg0 vapor that can be toxic if inhaled. Mercury from cinnabar can also be absorbed through the gut and skin, where it can accumulate in organs and bone. Here, we report moderate to high levels of total mercury (THg) in human bone from three Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic (5400-4100 B.P.) sites in southern Portugal that were likely caused by cultural use of cinnabar. We use light stable isotope and Hg stable isotope tracking to test three hypotheses on the origin of mercury in this prehistoric human bone. We traced Hg in two individuals to cinnabar deposits near Almadén, Spain, and conclude that use of this mineral likely caused mild to severe mercury poisoning in the prehistoric population. Our methods have applications to bioarchaeological investigations worldwide, and for tracking trade routes and mobility of prehistoric populations where cinnabar use is documented.

  9. Exposure to Low Dose of Cinnabar (a Naturally Occurring Mercuric Sulfide (HgS Caused Neurotoxicological Effects in Offspring Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fa Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnabar, a naturally occurring mercuric sulfide (HgS, has long been used in Chinese mineral medicine for more than 2000 years. Although mercury is well-known for its toxicity, whether cinnabar induces neurotoxicity, especially in infants and children, is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the neurotoxic effects of low-dose of cinnabar (10 mg/kg/day on developing mice. The results revealed neurobehavioral defects in F1-C-Cin group, which were associated with Hg accumulation, increased NOx levels in whole blood, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in brain tissues. F1- and F2-Cin-V groups were found to increase brain Hg contents and prominent neurobehavioral defects compared with F1-C-V group, suggesting that the fetal brain was more susceptible to irreversible effects for cinnabar-induced damage. Moreover, F1- and F2-Cin-Cin groups had severely neurobehavioral dysfunctions, closely correlated with the further alteration of NOx levels and Na+/K+-ATPase activities than F1- and F2-C-Cin groups. Effects in F2-Cin-Cin group were more significant than those in F1-Cin-Cin group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to low-dose of cinnabar during the perinatal and developmental stages results in irreversible and severe injuries of the neurotoxicity in offspring, and NOx and Na+/K+-ATPase activities may exist potential and useful biomarkers for neurotoxicity-induced by low-doses of mercuric compounds.

  10. Iodide retention by cinnabar (HgS) and chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Balsley, S.D.; Brady, P.V.

    1995-07-01

    Sorption of iodide (I{sup {minus}}) on cinnabar (HgS) and chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) was examined as a function of pH at 25{degrees}C in a series of batch experiments. Calculated distribution ratios (K{sub d}) far exceed those reported for other minerals; maximal K{sub d}`s of 1375 cc/g (Cu{sub 2}S) and 3080 c/g (HgS) were observed between pH 4-5, but wre substantial at all pH`s measured (4 < pH < 10). Iodide sorption apparently occurs by the formation of an insoluble surface solid solution with exposed Hg and Cu sites. Surface solid solution formation is favored at low pH due to the lessened electrostatic repulsion of the iodide ion by the sulfide surfaces.

  11. Chemical ecology of the cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae ) on a newly recorded host Senecio adonidifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Klaas

    2006-09-01

    The cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae, Arctiidae) normally feeds on Senecio jacobaea in the field. For the first time, naturally occurring populations of T. jacobaeae have been found thriving on Senecio adonidifolius, even though the moth's preferred host, S. jacobaea, is available within 50-400 m. In the laboratory, the cinnabar moth has been shown to feed on and develop on S. adonidifolius despite its different leaf morphology, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profile and a large taxonomic distance to S. jacobaea. Here I examined whether T. jacobaeae has adapted to this new host in the field using adult oviposition behavior and plant acquired defense chemistry in pupae as criteria. Choice tests indicated local adaptation to this newly recorded host. T. jacobaeae reared on S. adonidifolius hosts laid more egg batches and total eggs on it than T. jacobaeae from S. jacobaea. The egg batches were smaller on S. adonidifolius possibly due to highly pinnate thread-like structure of its leaves. The bouquet of plant acquired PAs and the insect metabolized callimorphine in pupae differed widely between pupae collected from the two hosts. T. jacobaeae pupae taken from S. adonidifolius hosts contained more of the insect metabolized callimorphine than pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts, but they did not differ in total PA concentration. Pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts contained more unmetabolized plant PA's than pupae from S. adonidifolius hosts. Additionally, 10% of T. jacobaeae larvae taken from S. adonidifolius in Biausse were infested with Carcelia dubia, a parasitic and rare tachinid fly that typically attacks arctiid moths.

  12. Mercury in soils and plants in an abandoned cinnabar mining area (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Murciego, A; Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Regina, I Santa; Rodríguez-González, M A

    2009-09-15

    An abandoned cinnabar mining area located in the South-West of Spain has been studied with the aim of assessing its mercury pollution level and enhancing the knowledge about the Hg soil/plant relationship. To do so, soils and plants were sampled near an inactive smelter and around two mining sites present in this area. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the close environs of pollutant sources. These also show high levels of elemental Hg (up to 8 mg kg(-1)), but quite low exchangeable Hg contents (0.008-0.038 mg kg(-1)). Most plant specimens display in their aboveground tissues Hg concentrations comprised in the range 0.1-10 mg kg(-1), with a great proportion (50%) showing critical levels. Greater Hg contents were found in plant specimens growing in soils with higher elemental Hg concentrations. The plant species displaying the greatest Hg levels are either perennial species of small-medium size and/or showing medium-highly corrugated leaves, or annual plants of small size. Marrubium vulgare L., Bromus madritensis L. and Trifolium angustifolium L. are the plant species with the highest Hg contents (37.6, 12.7 and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively). Leaf specific surface seems an important feature in the atmospheric Hg uptake by plants. PMID:19345007

  13. Formation of cinnabar--estimation of favourable conditions in a proposed Swedish repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Margareta; Düker, Anders; Allard, Bert

    2006-08-25

    A deep repository for permanent storage of mercury will be designed and built in Sweden. The preferred chemical state for mercury in such a repository would be the sulphide HgS (cinnabar), which is a highly insoluble and the dominating natural mercury mineral. The possible formation of HgS from HgO or Hg(0) by reaction with a sulphur source (S, FeS or FeS(2)) is discussed from thermodynamic considerations, and pe-pH-diagrams are constructed by using the computer code MEDUSA to illustrate under which conditions HgS would dominate. Calculations of the speciation (PHREEQE) under varying conditions (S/Hg-ratios, presence of chloride) are given. Long-term laboratory experiments are performed, where the formation of HgS from the basic components is demonstrated (after mixing under various conditions and storage at room temperature for up to 3 years). The feasibility of HgS-formation with time in a geologic repository under conditions representative of deep granitic bedrock (calcium-bicarbonate buffered to pH 7-8.5) is discussed, as well as effects of alkaline conditions (concrete environment, pH 10.5-12.5). Formation of soluble polysulphides is not expected as long as the S/Hg mole ratio is within 1-1.3 and pH is below 10.5-11. Concrete should be used with caution. Suitable ballast materials could be introduced that would reduce porewater-pH that otherwise would be above 12. PMID:16504396

  14. Cinnabar, arsenian pyrite and thallium-enrichment in active shallow submarine hydrothermal vents at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Marianna; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Magganas, Andreas; Baltatzis, Emmanouil; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos

    2015-04-01

    We herein report the discovery of active cinnabar-depositing hydrothermal vents in a submarine setting at Paleochori Bay, within the offshore southeastern extension of the Milos Island Geothermal Field, South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc. Active, low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting through volcaniclastic material has led to a varied assemblage of sulfide and alteration mineral phases in an area of approximately 1 km2. Our samples recovered from Paleochori Bay are hydrothermal edifices composed of volcaniclastic detrital material cemented by pyrite, or pure sulfide (mainly massive pyrite) mounts. Besides pyrite and minor marcasite, the hydrothermal minerals include cinnabar, amorphous silica, hydrous ferric oxides, carbonates (aragonite and calcite), alunite-jarosite solid solution and Sr-rich barite. Among others, growth textures, sieve-textured pyrite associated with barite, alunite-jarosite solid solution and hydrous ferric oxides rims colloform-banded pyrite layers. Overgrowths of arsenian pyrite layers (up to 3.2 wt. % As and/or up to 1.1 wt. % Mn) onto As-free pyrite indicate fluctuation in As content of the hydrothermal fluid. Mercury, in the form of cinnabar, occurs in up to 5 μm grains within arsenian pyrite layers, usually forming distinct cinnabar-enriched micro-layers. Hydrothermal Sr-rich barite (barite-celestine solid solution), pseudocubic alunite-jarosite solid solution and Mn- and Sr-enriched carbonates occur in various amounts and closely associated with pyrite and/or hydrous ferric oxides. Thallium-bearing sulfides and/or sulfosalts were not detected during our study; however, hydrous ferric oxides show thallium content of up to 0.5 wt. % Tl. The following scenarios may have played a role in pyrite precipitation at Paleochori: (a) H2S originally dissolved in the deep fluid but separated upon boiling could have reacted with oxygenated seawater under production of sulphuric acid, thus causing leaching and dissolution of primary iron

  15. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  16. Cinnabar and realgar in traditional chinese medicines:remedies or poisons?%含朱砂、雄黄的中成药,是药还是毒?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 陆远富; 时京珍; 张锋; 吴芹

    2011-01-01

    朱砂(96% HgS)和雄黄(90% As4S4)与其它中药配伍应用于临床已有上千年历史.但由于朱砂含汞,雄黄含砷,其安全性近年来引起了越来越多的关注.一般认为把已知的金属毒物用于医药中不可取,但也有不同的意见认为朱砂和雄黄有长期用药历史,临床有效,其毒副作用可耐受.含朱砂、雄黄的中药是药还是毒?本文就含朱砂和雄黄的中成药的研究进展作一综述,并提出(1)以总砷和总汞为标准进行评价含朱砂、雄黄中药的安全性不妥,(2)朱砂和雄黄的用药量和用药时间决定其毒性反应,(3)朱砂和雄黄是中药复方中的有效成分之一,应作深入研究来决定其取舍.%Cinnabar( 96 % of HgS)and realgar( 90 % of As4S4)have been used in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years.Both mercury ( Hg) and arsenic ( As)are well-known toxic substances and the safety of cinnabar-and realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines is of concern.It is presumed that any intentional use of known toxic metals in medicine is an unacceptable risk,hut an opposing opinion holds that cinnabar and realgar have a long history of clear pharmacological utility with tolerable side effects.Are cinnabar-and/or realgar-containing Chinese medicines remedies or poisons? This chapter summarizes recent progress of toxicological and pharmacological studies on this issue and highlights that( 1 ) the use of total Hg and As for risk evaluation of cinnabar and realgar is inappropriate,(2) the right dose and duration of cinnabar and realer administration differentiate a remedy from a poison,and( 3 )cinnabar and realgar are active ingredients in Chinese medicines.The well-designed studies are needed to support or to reject their existence in traditional remedies.

  17. Experimental Study on the Use of Cinnabar During Pregnancy%朱砂妊娠用药的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 肖敏; 李飞艳; 冯传平; 李辉; 刘杰

    2013-01-01

      目的:比较孕兔、幼兔、成年兔和新生兔(实验中孕兔所产)血汞含量,探讨不同兔对朱砂中汞的吸收情况。方法:用朱砂定时定量灌胃,用吹气富集-冷原子吸收法测定孕兔、幼兔、成年兔和新生兔血汞含量,并对实验数据进行统计学分析与比较。结果:血汞浓度:孕兔>幼兔>成年兔;新生兔血汞浓度显著高于孕兔给药前的血汞浓度。结论:实验表明朱砂中汞能透过孕兔胎盘屏障进入新生兔体内。鉴于汞的巨大毒性,提出《中国药典》在中药妊娠禁忌药中应增列朱砂。%Objectives: To investigate the absorption of the mercury in Cinnabarr by different rabbits, the blood mercury concentrations in pregnant rabbits, young rabbits, adult rabbits and newborn rabbits (the neonatal of the pregnant rabbits used in the experiment) were compared. Methods: The rabbits were given Cinnabar by intragastric administration quantitatively at regular intervals. The blood mercury concentrations in the pregnant rabbits, young rabbits, adult rabbits and newborn rabbits were measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry, and the experiment data has been analyzed. Results: Blood mercury concentrations were in the series as follows: pregnant rabbits > young rabbits > adult rabbits; The newborn rabbits had significantly higher blood mercury concentrations than that of adult rabbits. Conclusions: Experimental results indicated that the mercury in Cinnabar could through the placental barrier of pregnant rabbits to pass into the fetal rabbit. Considering the severe toxicity of mercury, Cinnabar should be added to the list of the contraindicated traditional Chinese medicines during pregnancy in Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

  18. Bioaccessibility as well as absorption and excretion of mercury in cinnabar%朱砂中汞的生物可接受性及其吸收与排泄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍韬光; 王海宇; 林欣然; 畅蓓; 李维凯; 杨卉蕾; 张颖花; 姜泓

    2012-01-01

    研究了朱砂中汞的生物可接受性及其在体内的吸收与排泄.采用体外消化透析法测定了朱砂中汞的生物可按受性;计算了大鼠灌胃给予临床剂量(50 mg/kg)朱砂后汞的药动学参数;测定了给予临床剂量的朱砂后大鼠粪样中汞的排泄量.结果表明,朱砂中汞的溶出率为0.011%,生物可接受率为0.003 3%.大鼠灌胃给予临床剂量的朱砂后,汞的药动学参数为:最高血药浓度(Pmax)为(6.3±1.3)μg/L,达峰时间(tmax)为(1.3±0.4)h,半衰期(t1/2)为(4.2±0.5)h,血药浓度-时间曲线下面积(AUC)为(54.7±8.7) μg·h·L-1.给予朱砂12 h后汞在粪便中排泄量最大,96 h后在粪样中仍可检测到少量汞.朱砂中汞的生物可接受性较低,在体内吸收少,滞留时间较长,排泄缓慢,长期服用可在体内蓄积,产生毒性.%The bioaccessibility and absorption and excretion of mercury in cinnabar were studied. The bioaccessibility of mercury in cinnabar was evaluated by adopting in vitro digestion and dialysis method to simulate the conditions of gastric compartment and intestinal compartment of mercury. The pharmacokinetic parameters of mercury with respect to intragastric administration of cinnabar at a clinical dosage of 50 mg/kg for rats were calculated) and the excretion fraction of mercury in the fecal sample of the rats after intragastric administration of cinnabar at a clinical dosage was determined. Results indicate that, in the gastric compartment, the solubility of mercury from cinnabar is 0. 011%; and the bioaccessibility of mercury in the intestinal compartment is 0. 003 3%. The time-course pharmacokinetic parameters of mercury when the rats are intragastrically given cinnabar at a clinical dosage of 50 mg/kg are determined as the maximum concentration in blood Cmax(6.3 ± 1.3) μg/L, time to reach the maximum concentration tmax(l. 3 ± 0. 4) h, half-time period t1/2(4. 2 ± 0. 5) h, and area under the concentration-time curve AUC (54. 7

  19. Theoretical studies of the pressure-induced zinc-blende to cinnabar phase transition in CdTe and thermodynamical properties of each phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescence of CdTe quantum dots embedded in ZnTe is quenched at pressure of about 4.5 GPa in the high-pressure experiments. This pressure-induced quenching is attributed to the “zinc-blende–cinnabar” phase transition in CdTe, which was confirmed by the first-principles calculations. Theoretical analysis of the pressure at which the phase transition occurs for CdTe was performed using the CASTEP module of Materials Studio package with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). The calculated phase transition pressures are equal to about 4.4 GPa and 2.6 GPa, according to the GGA and LDA calculations, respectively, which is in a good agreement with the experimental value. Theoretically estimated value of the pressure coefficient of the band-gap luminescence in zinc-blende structure is in very good agreement with that recently measured in the QDs structures. The calculated Debye temperature, elastic constants and specific heat capacity for the zinc-blend structure agree well with the experimental data; the data for the cinnabar phase are reported here for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge. - Highlights: • Quenching of luminescence of CdTe quantum dots embedded in ZnTe is theoretically explained. • The theoretical calculation of elastic and thermodynamic properties of CdTe by two types of ab-initio methods. • Theoretical calculations of some optical properties of CdTe under pressure in zinc-blende and cinnabar phases

  20. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg and arsenic (As, accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n=10 were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p<0.05, PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p<0.05, PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3.

  1. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3). PMID:26788513

  2. 朱砂灌胃给药后汞在孕大鼠脏器内的分布和排泄途径研究%Study on Distribution in Organs and Excretion Pathway of Mercury in Pregnant Rats after Administration of Cinnabar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤家铭; 米金霞; 吴文斌; 谷颖敏; 李咏梅; 夏晶; 张甦; 曹帅; 季申

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution and excretion pathway of mercury in pregnant rats after administration of cinnabar. Methods; Compared with the reproductive toxicity test, the female SD rats after mating were randomly divided into high (1 000 mg/kg) , medium (300 mg/kg) , and low-dose (100 mg/kg) cinnabar groups, and negative control group (0.5% CMC-Na) , with ten rats in each group. The rats in different dose cinnabar groups were administered intragastrically with cinnabar from the sixth day to the fifteenth day after pregnancy, and all the rats were sacrificed on the twentieth day of pregnancy. The main organs (including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain and uterus) , blood, placentae, fetuses and urine of the pregnant rats were obtained to detect the mercury concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( ICP-MS) ; the feces were taken at different time points to determine the mercury concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) ; the distribution in different organs and the excretion pathway of mercury were analyzed. Results: The mercury concentrations of the heart, liver, kidney and uterus of the rats in different dose cinnabar groups were higher than those of the rats in negative control group, and the concentration increased with the enhanced dose; there was no statistical difference on the mercury concentrations of the brain, placentae and fetuses between different dose cinnabar groups and negative control group. There were large amount of mercury in the feces on the second day after administration, and the mercury excretion accounted for 38. 2% ~ 50.4% of HgS intake; while the mercury excretion accounted for72.2% -86.6% on the tenth day after administration; The a-mount of HgS discharged in the feces decreased rapidly on the fourth day after drug discontinuation. Only extreme trace of mercury excreted from urine with dose-dependent pattern, and the mercury excretion maintained the high

  3. Ochre decor and Cinnabar Residues in Neolithic Pottery from Vin\\u{c}a, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Mioc, Ubaska B.; Colomban, Philippe; Sagon, Gérard; Stojanovic, M.; Rosic, A.

    2007-01-01

    The prehistoric site of Vin\\u{c}a, on the right bank of the River Danube, the territory of the City of Belgrade, first excavated by Dr Miloje Vasi\\'c; (1931-1934) provides Neolithic pottery dating back to 5200 - 4200 B.C. Shards excavated in 1998 (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts) have a yellow coating on the external (convex) and red deposit on the internal (concave) side. Raman, IR and X-ray identification prove that yellow-to-red decor deposited on the external faces of pottery is made...

  4. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  5. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equipment Inorganic mercury can be found in: Batteries Chemistry labs Some disinfectants Folk remedies Red cinnabar mineral ... the lungs Medicine to remove mercury and heavy metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury ...

  6. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  7. Linear and mass attenuation coefficient for CdTe compound of X-rays from 10 to 100 keV energy range in different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Full Potential Linear Muffin Tin Orbitals method within the density functional theory has been utilized to calculate structural and electronic properties of the CdTe compound. We have checked that the CdTe has two phase-transitions from zinc-blend to cinnabar and from cinnabar to rocksalt. We have found that the rigidity, the energy and the nature of the gap change according to the phase change, so we can predict that a CdTe detector may have different behaviors in different phase conditions. In order to investigate this behavior change, the linear and the mass attenuation coefficients of X-ray in rocksalt, zinc-blend and cinnabar structures are calculated from 10 keV to100 keV, using the XCOM data. We have found that when CdTe undergoes a phase transition from zinc-blend to cinnabar, its linear attenuation coefficient decreases down to a value of about 100 times smaller than its initial one, and when it undergoes a transition from cinnabar to rocksalt it increases up to a value about 90 times larger than its initial one

  8. Edoylerite, Hg32+Cr6+O4S2 a new mineral from the Clear Creek claim, San Benito County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erd, Richard C.; Roberts, Andrew C.; Bonardi, M.; Criddle, A.J.; Le, Page Y.; Gabe, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Edoylerite is a rare constituent of a small prospect near the long-abandoned Clear Creek mercury mine, New Idria district, San Benito County, California. It is most closely associated with cinnabar, from which it is a primary alteration product, in a host rock composed predominantly of quartz, chalcedony and ferroan magnesite. Edoylerite typically occurs as acicular to stellate crystal groups on and around corroded masses of cinnabar. The mineral is canary yellow to orangish yellow, and possesses a yellow streak and an adamantine luster. The crystallographic, physical and optical properties of edoylerite are described. -after Authors

  9. Isotopic Variability of Mercury in Ore, Mine-Waste Calcine, and Leachates of Mine-Waste Calcine from Areas Mined for Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Stetson, Sarah J.; Gray, John E.; Wanty, Richard B.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    The isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) was determined in cinnabar ore, mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), and leachates obtained from water leaching experiments of calcine from two large Hg mining districts in the U.S. This study is the first to report significant mass-dependent Hg isotopic fractionation between cinnabar ore and resultant calcine. Data indicate that δ202Hg values relative to NIST 3133 of calcine (up to 1.52‰) in the Terlingua district, Texas, are as much as 3.24‰ heavier th...

  10. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on mercury, a mineral commodity used in industrial and small-scale gold mining applications. Mercury has been reported to be used for amalgamation with gold since the Roman times. Mercury from cinnabar from Almadén, Spain has been used by Romans and has been continued to be used through the Middle Ages and the Colonial era.

  11. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  12. Inferring Ancient Technology and Practices of the Elite Maya Kingship Through the Application of Materials Engineering Characterization Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kristina Alyssa

    This project focuses on the characterization of materials from burial offerings and painted decoration in a royal Maya tomb at El Zotz, Guatemala, and their association with mortuary rituals. Archaeological findings included vessels, jade masks, organic materials (wood, cord, and textiles), specular hematite cubes, shells with powdered cinnabar, green (malachite) painted stucco assumed to have decorated the wooden bier where the king was resting, and caches of lip-to-lip Aguila Orange bowls containing human phalanges. This paper describes findings from non-invasive and non-destructive analytical techniques including XRF, VPSEM-EDS, and XRD, emphasizing the potential of these combined technologies in the identification of organic and inorganic markers to infer burial customs. The nature and location of the findings, the evidence of pigment coloration on the bones employing hematite and cinnabar, and the indication of exposure of the bones to high temperatures suggest highly complex, even protracted mortuary practices of Maya elite.

  13. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rajinder K; Gupta Deepika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabar...

  14. Attenuation by methyl mercury and mercuric sulfide of pentobarbital induced hypnotic tolerance in mice through inhibition of ATPase activities and nitric oxide production in cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Huang, Zih-Ning; Yu, Hsun-Hsin; Chang, Liang-Hao [College of Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Institute of Biotechnology, Tainan (China); Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn [College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Institute of Pharmacology, Taipei (China)

    2008-06-15

    This study is aimed at exploring the possible mechanism of hypnosis-enhancing effect of HgS or cinnabar (a traditional Chinese medicine containing more than 95% HgS) in mice treated with pentobarbital. We also examined whether the effect of HgS is different from that of the well-known methyl mercury (MeHg). After a short period (7 days) of oral administration to mice, a nontoxic dose (0.1 g/kg) of HgS not only significantly enhanced pentobarbital-induced hypnosis but also attenuated tolerance induction; while a higher dose (1 g/kg) of HgS or cinnabar exerted an almost irreversible enhancing effect on pentobarbital-hypnosis similar to that of MeHg (2 mg/kg) tested, which was still effective even after 10 or 35 days cessation of administration. To study comparatively the effects of different mercury forms from oral administration of MeHg and HgS on membrane ATPase activities of experimental mice, analysis of the Hg content in the cerebral cortex revealed that correlated with the decrease of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Furthermore, NO levels of blood but not that of cerebral cortex were also decreased by mercuric compounds. Although pentobarbital alone enhanced cytochrome p450-2C9 in time dependent manner, all of mercurial compounds tested had no such effect. All of these findings indicated that the mercurial compounds including cinnabar, HgS and MeHg exert a long-lasting enhancing hypnotic activity without affecting pentobarbital metabolism, which provides evidence-based sedative effect of cinnabar used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years. The nontoxic HgS dosing (0.1 g/kg/day) for consecutive 7 days is perhaps useful for delaying or preventing pentobarbital-tolerance. (orig.)

  15. Estimation of bioaccessibility and potential human health risk of mercury in Chinese patent medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Yu; Yun, Zhaojun; He, Bin; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), mainly in cinnabar species, has been used in medicine for thousands of years in China, and worldwide concern has been raised on its toxicity. In this work, the amount of bioaccessible mercury in 16 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) was measured by using an in vitro simulated digestion system, consisting of simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, to investigate the bioavailability of mercury in CPMs and evaluate its potential risk to human health. Total mercury and mercury in the gastrointestinal extracts were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The levels of total Hg in 16 CPMs ranged from not detected to 11.89 mg/g, with a mean value of 1.13 mg/g, while the extractable Hg ranged from not detected to 4.37 μg/g, with a mean value of 0.42 μg/g. Mercury bioaccessibility varied significantly in the investigated CPMs, depending on the ingredient. Compared to the CPMs without cinnabar (2.5%-30.9%), the percentage of mercury in the gastrointestinal supernatants for CPMs with cinnabar was quite a bit lower (0.037%). By comparing with the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (FAO/WHO) safety guideline, the average daily intake dose (ADD) of Hg in the medicines was then calculated to access the risk of mercury to human health from taking CPMs. PMID:26899642

  16. Integration of μ-XRF, and u-Raman techniques to study ancient Islamic manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, N. M.; Alawadhi, H.; Jisrawi, N.

    2012-07-01

    Systematic characterizations of inks used in three ancient Arabic manuscripts were performed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and RAMAN spectroscopy. Spatially resolved element distributions obtained by area scans in addition to spot analysis provided detailed information about the manuscripts. RAMAN spectroscopy, on the other hand provided decisive information about the compounds used in various color pigments. Different compounds were found in the red ink in each manuscript: HgS (cinnabar) in one manuscript, red lead Pb304 (minium) in the second, and a mixture of the two in the third manuscript. The green pigment was Cu based and it is probably malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2), while the black ink pigment in the three manuscripts is iron gall (Fe2SO4 plus gallottanic acid). Analytical results and the context of the manuscripts were used to extract information about the authenticity and origin of the manuscripts. For example, the use of cinnabar as a red ink pigment found in the third manuscript reveals that this manuscript attributed to Al-Gazali (11th century) is probably a copy from a later period, because cinnabar was first introduced in the 16th century.

  17. Mercury dispersion in soils of an abandoned lead-zinc-silver mine, San Quintín (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José Maria; Martín-Crespo, T.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Monescillo, C. I.; Lorenzo, S.; Higueras, P.

    2010-05-01

    The mine considered on this work, namely San Quintín, is a filonian field with hydrothermal ores exploited during almost fifty years (1887-1934), producing 550.000Tm of galena, 550Tm of silver and 5.000 of sphalerite. Some rewashing works of tailings muds was achieved in recent times (1973-1985), including flotation tests of cinnabar ore from Almadén mines. The main problems remaining on the site are an active acid mine drainage (with pH ~ 2) and heavy metal dispersion on soils including gaseous mercury emissions. We present here results of a survey including soils sampling with mercury analysis and other pedological parameters, as well as determinations of mercury inmission in the atmosphere, using a common sampling grid. Analysis of soils samples has been carried out using an atomic absorption spectrometer AMA254, while air determinations were made by the same technique, using a Lumex RA-915+. The maps have been obtained by means of SURFER 8 software, as well as by ArcGIS software, and puts forward dispersion of mercury from cinnabar ore dump (108 ?g×g-1) to nearby soils (0.3 ?g×g-1 at 700 m of distance). The dispersion of mercury vapor exceed WHO level for chronic exposure (200 ng×m-3) in a small area (250 meters from cinnabar dump).

  18. Integration of μ-XRF, and u-Raman techniques to study ancient Islamic manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic characterizations of inks used in three ancient Arabic manuscripts were performed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and RAMAN spectroscopy. Spatially resolved element distributions obtained by area scans in addition to spot analysis provided detailed information about the manuscripts. RAMAN spectroscopy, on the other hand provided decisive information about the compounds used in various color pigments. Different compounds were found in the red ink in each manuscript: HgS (cinnabar) in one manuscript, red lead Pb304 (minium) in the second, and a mixture of the two in the third manuscript. The green pigment was Cu based and it is probably malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2), while the black ink pigment in the three manuscripts is iron gall (Fe2SO4 plus gallottanic acid). Analytical results and the context of the manuscripts were used to extract information about the authenticity and origin of the manuscripts. For example, the use of cinnabar as a red ink pigment found in the third manuscript reveals that this manuscript attributed to Al-Gazali (11th century) is probably a copy from a later period, because cinnabar was first introduced in the 16th century.

  19. Sulphur isotope geochemistry of the ores and country rocks at the Almadén mercury deposit, Ciudad Real, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupé, Francis; Arnold, Michel

    1992-10-01

    Seventy-four new S isotope analyses of ore minerals and country rocks are given for the Hg deposit of Almadén. The spread of the cinnabar δ34S is narrow within each of the three orebodies, but the δ34S average values differ sufficiently between them (mean δ34S: San Nicolas = 0.2 ± 1.1 %., San Francisco = 8.1 ± 0.7%., San Pedro = 5.9 ± 1.0%.) to indicate three different mineralization episodes and possibly processes. The unweighted mean for all cinnabar samples is 5.6%. and the S source is considered to be the host-rocks, either the Footwall Shales ( δ34S = 5.5%.) or the spilites ( δ34 S = 5.1 ± 1.3%.). For geometric and chronologic reasons, the former seem the best potential source. However, the high δ34 S values of the San Francisco cinnabar cannot be explained without addition of heavy S from reduction of seawater sulphate. Orderly distributions of the δ34S values are observed in all three orebodies: (1) their increase from the stratigraphic bottom to the top in the San Pedro orebody is explained by a Rayleigh process, and (2) the maxima in the centres of the San Francisco and San Nicolas orebodies are explained by mixing of the S transporting hydrothermal fluids with seawater within the sediments. Associated pyrite and cinnabar were deposited under isotopic disequilibrium, probably because the low solubility of cinnabar caused rapid precipitation of cinnabar. The different morphological pyrite types have their own isotopic δ34S signatures. The spilites are notably enriched in S ( n = 3; average S content = 0.56%) compared to normal basalts (1000 ppm) and have an average δ34S = 5.1 ± 1.3%.. The linear relationship between the δ34S and the S content of the spilites is interpreted as a mixing line between mantle S and a constant S source, probably an infinite open reservoir. An incomplete basalt-seawater reaction at nearly constant temperature is the best explanation for this relation. The S (predominantly pyrite) of the black shales ( n = 3; δ34S

  20. SEM/EDS analysis of soil and roasting vessels fragments from ancient mercury ore roasting sites at Idrija area

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Teršič

    2011-01-01

    Numerous roasting vessels fragments can be found at ancient roasting site areas in the surroundings of Idrija town, which were used for ore roasting in the first 150 years of Hg production in Idrija. The earthen vessels fragments lay just below the surface humus layer and in some parts they stretch more than 1 meter deep; they arecovered with red (cinnabar) or black (metacinnabar) coatings.SEM/EDS analysis of roasting vessels fragments and soil samples from roasting site areas P{enk and Frbej...

  1. First-principles study of structural and electronic properties of different phases of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi, H. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: harabi@birjand.ac.ir; Pourghazi, A. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadian, F. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourbakhsh, Z. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of structural and electronic properties of the four known structural phases of GaAs (zinc-blende, sc16, cinnabar and Cmcm). We used the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, within local density approximation, and also within generalized gradient approximation for the exchange correlation potential. The lattice constants, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are calculated for each of the four phases. The data obtained for the transition pressures between different phases are presented. Band structures and densities of states of the four phases are also given. The results are compared with previous calculations and with experimental results.

  2. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces; La metalurgia del mercurio en Almaden: desde los hornos de aludeles a los hornos Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  3. Amalgamation and small-scale gold mining in the ancient Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, William E.; Schwörbel, Gabriela; Castillo, Luis Enrique

    2013-01-01

    In 1532, the volume of gold provided by Atahualpa, the Inka king, as ransom for his release from the Spanish was hard evidence for the efficient small-scale gold mining that took place before European contact and the number of gold occurrences in the Andes. At Huancavelica, Perú, mercury occurs as a native metal and as cinnabar [HgS], which was used for pigments, funeral preparations, and retorted to obtain mercury. Using Inductively Coupled Plasma analysis (ICP), an average of 15 ppm (parts...

  4. ПОНЯТИЕ И СПОСОБЫ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ КРАСНОГО В КИТАЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Богушевская, В.

    2005-01-01

    It is ascertained, that the colour term «red» (equally with «black» and «white») is included into the classic triangle of verbal colour terms and colour symbols of different nations' rituals and mythology. The very first stem, which stood for «red» in the ancient Chinese language, was chi, meaning «the colour of fire, the colour of sun». Later there appeared the stem zhu, standing for «bright red», and dan, having transformed from its' original meaning «cinnabar». The quantity of synonyms enl...

  5. BASIC CONCEPTS TO BE RECKONED IN A PROPER HISTORY OF ALCHEMY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Use of simple synthetic drug called Chin – Yeh, Gold – plus – plant juice or red colloidal gold. Gold made body everlasting and the herbal principle, as soul, increased life-span. Dialectally it was called Kim – Iya. Arabicized as Al – Kimiya it finally appeared as Alchemy. Chin – Yeh as drug was only brick – red when mercury, and sulphur – with traces of gold were sublimated there resulted Chin – Tan, Gold – plus – cinnabar. It was blood – red and with redness as soul it became the ideal dru...

  6. Photoassisted carbon dioxide reduction and formation of twoand three-carbon compounds. [prebiological photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmann, M.; Aurian-Blajeni, B.; Bloch, S.

    1981-01-01

    The photoassisted reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide in the presence of naturally occurring minerals is investigated as a possible abiotic precursor of photosynthesis. Aqueous carbon dioxide saturated suspensions or surfaces of the minerals nontronite, bentonite, anatase, wolframite, molybdenite, minium, cinnabar and hematite were irradiated with high-pressure mercury lamps or sunlight. Chemical analyses reveal the production of formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol and methane, and the two and three-carbon compounds glyoxal (CHOCHO) and malonaldehyde (CH2(CHO)2). It is suggested that such photosynthetic reactions with visible light in the presence of semiconducting minerals may provide models for prebiological carbon and nitrogen fixation in both oxidized and reduced atmospheres.

  7. Outline of the beginnings of alchemy and its antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1984-01-01

    There had been a long use of Simples as drugs of longevity. Among these red substances predominated, red ochre and cinnabar as minerals, ephedra bearing red berries and pomegranate and peach as vegetable products. In China herbalism became a cult of longevity with its legendary founder as Emperor Shen Nung and with the god of longevity finally emerging from the peach as Shou-Sing. To excell simple drugs of longevity the first synthetic drug was prepared as brick red colloidal gold. It was called Chin-I. Gold-cum-herbal juice. Dialectally it was pronounced Kim-Iya, whence Alkimiya in Arabic, and finally alchemy. Chin-I was Herbo-golden drug and also gold-making-juice, a miraculous substance. But it was not blood-red. Now came Chin-Tan, Cinnabar-gold, red like blood. Its redness equalled blood and as such was soul, gold as its acceptor had an everlasting body. Chin-Tan was designed as the ideal drug of longevity. Alchemy started by making red gold but degenerated, trying to make bullion gold. PMID:6388307

  8. Thermal Treatment of Mercury Mine Wastes Using a Rotary Solar Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption, by a rotary kiln of mercury contaminated soil and mine wastes, has been used in order to volatilize mercury from the contaminated medium. Solar thermal desorption is an innovative treatment that uses solar energy to increase the volatility of contaminants, which are removed from a solid matrix by a controlled air flow system. Samples of soils and mine wastes used in the experiments were collected in the abandoned Valle del Azogue mine (SE, Spain, where a complex ore, composed mainly of cinnabar, arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment and stibnite, was mined. The results showed that thermal treatment at temperatures >400 °C successfully lowered the Hg content (2070–116 ppm to <15 mg kg−1. The lowest values of mercury in treated samples were obtained at a higher temperature and exposition time. The samples that showed a high removal efficiency (>99% were associated with the presence of significant contents of cinnabar and an equivalent diameter above 0.8 mm.

  9. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2015-09-25

    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  10. Mediaeval cantorals in the Valladolid Biblioteca: FT-Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H G; Farwell, D W; Rull Perez, F; Medina Garcia, J

    2001-03-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies of three mediaeval cantorals in the Biblioteca of the University of Valladolid has revealed information about the pigments used on these large manuscripts. Although executed in a simple colour palette, very pure cinnabar was used as the major colourant, offsetting the carbon black of the verses and script. A dark blue colour was achieved using a mixture of azurite (basic copper carbonate) and carbon, whereas a light blue colour was azurite alone. A grey colour was achieved using azurite, carbon particles and a calcareous 'limewash'. A yellow pigment, used sparely in the cantorals was ascribed to saffron; unusually, there was no evidence for the presence of the yellow mineral pigments orpiment, realgar and massicot. In several regions of the vellum specimens, evidence for biodeterioration was observed through the signatures of hydrated calcium oxalate. We report for the first time the Raman spectra of pigment in situ on a vellum fragment, which also shows evidence of substrate bands; comparison of black and red pigmented regions of vellum specimens has shown the presence of calcium oxalate in the black pigmented script but not in the red pigment regions, which suggests that the cinnabar in the red-pigmented regions acts as a toxic protectant for the vellum substrate against biological colonisation processes.

  11. Mercury at the Oat Hill Extension Mine and James Creek, Napa County, California: Tailings, Sediment, Water, and Biota, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowey, Aaron J.; Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The Oat Hill Extension (OHE) Mine is one of several mercury mines located in the James Creek/Pope Creek watershed that produced mercury from the 1870's until 1944 (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965). The OHE Mine developed veins and mineralized fault zones hosted in sandstone that extended eastward from the Oat Hill Mine. Waste material from the Oat Hill Mine was reprocessed at the OHE Mine using gravity separation methods to obtain cinnabar concentrates that were processed in a retort. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management requested that the U.S. Geological Survey measure and characterize mercury and other chemical constituents that are potentially relevant to ecological impairment of biota in tailings, sediment, and water at the OHE Mine and in the tributaries of James Creek that drain the mine area (termed Drainage A and B) (Figs. 1 and 2). This report summarizes such data obtained from sampling of tailings and sediments at the OHE on October 17, 2003; water, sediment, and biota from James Creek on May 20, 2004; and biota on October 29, 2004. These data are interpreted to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential ecological impact of the mine on the James Creek watershed. The mine tailings are unusual in that they have not been roasted and contain relatively high concentrations of mercury (400 to 1200 ppm) compared to unroasted waste rock at other mines. These tailings have contaminated a tributary to James Creek with mercury primarily by erosion, on the basis of higher concentration of mercury (780 ng/L) measured in unfiltered (total mercury, HgT) spring water flowing from the OHE to James Creek compared to 5 to 14 ng/L HgT measured in James Creek itself. Tailing piles (presumably from past Oat Hill mine dumping) near the USBLM property boundary and upstream of the main OHE mine drainage channel (Drainage A; Fig. 2) also likely emit mercury, on the basis of their mercury composition (930 to 1200 ppm). The OHE spring water is likely an

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO3, NH3, SO4, and PO4. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation

  13. Modeling CO{sub 2}-Brine-Rock Interaction Including Mercury and H{sub 2}S Impurities in the Context of CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spycher, N.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses modeling and simulation approaches to investigate the impacts on injectivity of trace amounts of mercury (Hg) in a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stream injected for geologic carbon sequestration in a sandstone reservoir at ~2.5 km depth. At the range of Hg concentrations expected (7-190 ppbV, or ~ 0.06-1.6 mg/std.m{sup 3}CO{sub 2}), the total volumetric plugging that could occur due to complete condensation of Hg, or due to complete precipitation of Hg as cinnabar, results in a very small porosity change. In addition, Hg concentration much higher than the concentrations considered here would be required for Hg condensation to even occur. Concentration of aqueous Hg by water evaporation into CO{sub 2} is also unlikely because the higher volatility of Hg relative to H{sub 2}O at reservoir conditions prevents the Hg concentration from increasing in groundwater as dry CO{sub 2} sweeps through, volatilizing both H{sub 2}O and Hg. Using a model-derived aqueous solution to represent the formation water, batch reactive geochemical modeling show that the reaction of the formation water with the CO{sub 2}-Hg mixture causes the pH to drop to about 4.7 and then become buffered near 5.2 upon reaction with the sediments, with a negligible net volume change from mineral dissolution and precipitation. Cinnabar (HgS(s)) is found to be thermodynamically stable as soon as the Hg-bearing CO{sub 2} reacts with the formation water which contains small amounts of dissolved sulfide. Liquid mercury (Hg(l)) is not found to be thermodynamically stable at any point during the simulation. Two-dimensional radial reactive transport simulations of CO{sub 2} injection at a rate of 14.8 kg/s into a 400 m-thick formation at isothermal conditions of 106°C and average pressure near 215 bar, with varying amounts of Hg and H{sub 2}S trace gases, show generally that porosity changes only by about ±0.05% (absolute, i.e., new porosity = initial porosity ±0.0005) with Hg predicted to readily

  14. 宋人笔记中饮食养生史料研究%Study on Health Food History in Song Notes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛芳芸

    2012-01-01

    宋人笔记中关于日常饮食养生史料的记载非常丰富,如崇尚素食菜羹,反对滥杀生灵;追求节食养生,反对纵欲任性;注重药膳调补,反对妄服丹砂等,这些具有时代特征的养生思想和方法,对现代人们的修身养性和延年益寿具有一定的指导和借鉴意义.%The song in the notes about the daily health food of the historical record is very rich, such as advocates vegetarian food soup, oppose killing creatures; The pursuit of diet health preservation, against orgies willfulness. Pay attention to medicinal food adjusting and mending, against false suit cinnabar, etc., these has certain guidance and reference significance for modern people.

  15. The 'pitchblende-nodule-assemblage' of Mitterberg (Salzburg, Austria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometric investigations of the presently closed copper mine of Mitterberg, Salzburg, led to the discovery of uranium mineralizations. Samples with pitchblende nodules up to two inches in size were found in old mining dumps. Altaite, bournonite, brannerite, calvaverite, cinnabar, coloradoite, galena, native gold, hessite, metacinnabar, molybdenite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite and thus far unknown mineral 'X', an alteration product of rammelsbergite, were identified by the author. U and Mo of the 'Nodule-Assemblage' are explained as mobilization products of weak, strata-bound uranium mineralizations in quartzites of the 'Violet Series', a Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary sequence cut by the main copper vein. The later uranium mineralization of presently unassessed economic potential will be discussed in another paper. Age determinations (KOEPPEL, in PETRASCHECK 1975) of the reniform pitchblende indicate a crystallization age of 90 million years. This implies that the copper mineralization of the main copper vein can be related to Upper-Cretaccous remobilization processes. (orig./HK) 891 HK

  16. Microstructural characterization of material used as supporter in pre hispanic paints; Caracterizacion microestructural de material utilizado como soporte en pinturas prehispanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva V, Y. [FIME-UANL, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Zorrilla, C.; Canetas, J.; Hernandez, R.; Aguilar F, M.; Arenas A, J. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, G. [INAH, 04000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show the characterization of pre hispanic paintings mainly of the materials that support the pigments. The samples come from three different archaeological sites, Palenque-Chiapas (two specimens), Teotihuacan-Estado de Mexico (one specimen) and Mitla-Oaxaca (one specimen); Mayan, Teotihuacan and Mixtec-Zapotec culture respectively. The samples were analyzed by Sem, EDS, Tem, XRD and IR. The results show calcite as common phase for all the samples, however exist other phases identified depending on the site as dolomite, ankerite, calcium silicon chloride, etc. The origin of the red color of the analyzed pigments were cinnabar (HgS) by a sample of Palenque and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by the other specimen, this last crystalline phase also present in the Mitla and Teotihuacan samples. By IR were identified some organic compounds in all the samples, but not copal. (Author)

  17. Non-destructive and non-invasive analyses shed light on the realization technique of ancient polychrome prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striová, Jana; Coccolini, Gabriele; Micheli, Sara; Lofrumento, Cristiana; Galeotti, Monica; Cagnini, Andrea; Castellucci, Emilio Mario

    2009-08-01

    Five polychrome prints representing famous painters, such as Albrecht Dürer, were analyzed using a non-destructive and non-invasive methodology as required by the artwork typology. The diagnostic strategy includes X-ray fluorescence (XRF), reflectance micro-infrared (microFTIR) and micro-Raman (microRaman) spectroscopy. These prints were realized with a la poupée method that involves application of the polychrome inks on a single copper plate, before the printing process. A broad range of compounds (i.e., cinnabar, red lead, white lead, umber earth, hydrated calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, amorphous carbon, and Prussian blue) was employed as chalcographic inks, using linseed oil as a binding medium. Gamboge was identified in the delicate finishing brush touches realized in watercolor. PMID:19081288

  18. ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy in the region of 500-230 cm -1 for identification of inorganic red pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahur, Signe; Knuutinen, Ulla; Leito, Ivo

    2009-08-01

    It is demonstrated that micro-ATR-FT-IR in the low wave number range (500-230 cm -1) can be well used for identification of pigments in paint samples thereby markedly extending the possibilities of pigment identification by ATR-IR spectroscopy into the realm of pigments having no absorptions in the mid-IR region. Reference spectra of pigments can be conveniently obtained by mixing them with linseed oil in approximately 1:1 mass ratio. Vermilion (or cinnabar), read lead, different red iron oxide pigments and cadmium red can be identified. In some cases the method can be used alone for pigment identification and in many cases it provides useful additional evidence for pigment identification using other instrumental techniques (electron microprobe analysis, XRF, optical microscopy).

  19. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg3S2Cl2), and mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO2 as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg2+-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg0). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested. - Highlights: • Mercury mobilization pathways from three Hg bearing minerals were studied. • Their electronic properties were analysed using quantum mechanical modelling. • Cinnabar and corderoite are not photodegradable, but mercuric chloride is. • The trend is reversed for dissolution induced by the presence of halogen couples. • Photocatalytic removal of Hg from air and

  20. A new approach to the determination of the synthetic or natural origin of red pigments through spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquelo, Maria Luisa; Perez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis

    2016-09-01

    This work suggests a way of differentiation between the natural or synthetic origin of inorganic materials that were historically used in the Cultural Heritage field. An exhaustive review of different reported procedures of synthesis of pigments was conducted, as well as a review of the accompanying minerals in case of natural pigments. The natural or synthetic origin of the pigments studied in this work was performed through the characterization of the accompanying minerals, in the case of the natural pigments, or the trace elements that are present as part of synthesis by-products or washing/purifying reagents and/or reactants that have only been partly removed in the final steps of these processes. This work characterized red pigments due to their wide variety, complexity and possibility of use in different mixtures. The following pigments were studied: cinnabar-vermilion, red lead and iron pigments. Also mixtures of these pigments between them and with red lake were also studied. Natural cinnabar was accompanied by silicon oxide (opal, chalcedony or quartz), calcite, clay minerals and, sometimes, pyrite. K together with S indicated a synthetic pigment (vermilion) obtained through the wet method. Nevertheless, K has not been found in layers containing only vermilion in our samples. The presence of Sn in some cases indicated vermilion that came from the dry process. K from the synthesis always appeared in the red lead pigment. The red natural ochre was confirmed by presence of clay minerals and iron. It should be said that Ca and S, and sometimes Al and K, were usually found in Mars red pigment. The presence of Al and Ca allowed the identification of carmine lake. PMID:27219074

  1. A new approach to the determination of the synthetic or natural origin of red pigments through spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquelo, Maria Luisa; Perez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis

    2016-09-01

    This work suggests a way of differentiation between the natural or synthetic origin of inorganic materials that were historically used in the Cultural Heritage field. An exhaustive review of different reported procedures of synthesis of pigments was conducted, as well as a review of the accompanying minerals in case of natural pigments. The natural or synthetic origin of the pigments studied in this work was performed through the characterization of the accompanying minerals, in the case of the natural pigments, or the trace elements that are present as part of synthesis by-products or washing/purifying reagents and/or reactants that have only been partly removed in the final steps of these processes. This work characterized red pigments due to their wide variety, complexity and possibility of use in different mixtures. The following pigments were studied: cinnabar-vermilion, red lead and iron pigments. Also mixtures of these pigments between them and with red lake were also studied. Natural cinnabar was accompanied by silicon oxide (opal, chalcedony or quartz), calcite, clay minerals and, sometimes, pyrite. K together with S indicated a synthetic pigment (vermilion) obtained through the wet method. Nevertheless, K has not been found in layers containing only vermilion in our samples. The presence of Sn in some cases indicated vermilion that came from the dry process. K from the synthesis always appeared in the red lead pigment. The red natural ochre was confirmed by presence of clay minerals and iron. It should be said that Ca and S, and sometimes Al and K, were usually found in Mars red pigment. The presence of Al and Ca allowed the identification of carmine lake.

  2. Mercury Methylation and Environmental Effects of Inactive Mercury Mines in the Circum-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. E.

    2001-05-01

    Mercury mines worldwide contain of some the highest concentrations of mercury on earth, and as a result of local mercury contamination, these mines represent areas of environmental concern when mine-drainage enters downstream aquatic systems. The most problematic aspect of mine site mercury contamination is the conversion of inorganic mercury to highly toxic organic mercury compounds, such as methylmercury, and their subsequent uptake by aquatic organisms in surrounding ecosystems. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in sediment and water samples collected from several inactive mercury mines in Nevada, Alaska, and the Philippines, which are part of the circum-Pacific mineral belt. The mines studied represent different mercury deposit types and sizes, and climatic settings. Geochemical data collected from these mines indicate that areas surrounding hot-springs type mercury deposits generally have lower methylmercury concentrations than silica-carbonate mercury deposits. In hot-springs mercury deposits in Nevada and Alaska, ore is dominantly cinnabar with few acid-water generating minerals such as pyrite, and as a result, mine-water drainage has near neutral pH in which there is low solubility of mercury. Conversely, silica-carbonate deposits, such as Palawan, Philippines, contain abundant cinnabar and pyrite, and the resultant acidic-mine drainage generally has higher concentrations of mercury and methylmercury. Additional factors such as the proximity of mercury mines to wetlands, climatic effects, or mine wastes containing highly soluble mercury compounds potentially enhance mercury methylation. The Palawan mercury mine may be a unique example where several adverse environmental factors produced local mercury contamination, high mercury methylation, fish contamination, and mercury poisoning of humans that consumed these contaminated fish.

  3. Distribution, speciation, and transport of mercury in stream-sediment, stream-water, and fish collected near abandoned mercury mines in southwestern Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Bailey, E.A.; Turner, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of total Hg, Hg (II), and methylmercury were measured in stream-sediment, stream-water, and fish collected downstream from abandoned mercury mines in south-western Alaska to evaluate environmental effects to surrounding ecosystems. These mines are found in a broad belt covering several tens of thousands of square kilometers, primarily in the Kuskokwim River basin. Mercury ore is dominantly cinnabar (HgS), but elemental mercury (Hg(o)) is present in ore at one mine and near retorts and in streams at several mine sites. Approximately 1400 t of mercury have been produced from the region, which is approximately 99% of all mercury produced from Alaska. These mines are not presently operating because of low prices and low demand for mercury. Stream-sediment samples collected downstream from the mines contain as much as 5500 ??g/g Hg. Such high Hg concentrations are related to the abundance of cinnabar, which is highly resistant to physical and chemical weathering, and is visible in streams below mine sites. Although total Hg concentrations in the stream-sediment samples collected near mines are high, Hg speciation data indicate that concentrations of Hg (II) are generally less than 5%, and methylmercury concentrations are less than 1% of the total Hg. Stream waters below the mines are neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 6.8-8.4), which is a result of the insolubility of cinnabar and the lack of acid- generating minerals such as pyrite in the deposits. Unfiltered stream-water samples collected below the mines generally contain 500-2500 ng/l Hg; whereas, corresponding stream-water samples filtered through a 0.45-??m membrane contain less than 50 ng/l Hg. These stream-water results indicate that most of the Hg transported downstream from the mines is as finely- suspended material rather than dissolved Hg. Mercury speciation data show that concentrations of Hg (II) and methylmercury in stream-water samples are typically less than 22 ng/l, and generally less than

  4. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the p

  5. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and a thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detector. The main objective of this work was to identify the inorganic pigments present in the paintings of the Nazca region, and to confirm the hypothesis that they worked basically with a product called cinnabar. In fact, the presence of S, Fe and Hg in the sample were determined; additionally this pigment was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing the presence of crystal with the HgS structure (cinnabar). At present, we are working on characterization of fragments of archaeological and recent pottery in order to check whether the artists of our time use the same pigments

  6. Mercury speciation on three European mining districts by XANES techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri, J. M.; Garcia-Noguero, E. M.; Guerrero, B.; Kocman, D.; Bernaus, A.; Gaona, X.; Higueras, P.; Alvarez, R.; Loredo, J.; Horvat, M.; Ávila, M.

    2009-04-01

    The mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of mercury in the environment depend on the chemical species in which is present in soil, sediments, water or air. In this work we used synchrotron radiation to determine mercury species in geological samples of three mercury mining districts: Almadén (Spain), Idria (Slovenia) and Asturias (Spain). The aim of this study was to find differences on mobility and bioavailability of mercury on three mining districts with different type of mineralization. For this porpoises we selected samples of ore, calcines, soils and stream sediments from the three sites, completely characterized by the Almadén School of Mines, Josef Stefan Institute of Ljubljana and Oviedo School of Mines. Speciation of mercury was carried out on Synchrotron Laboratories of Hamburg (HASYLAB) by XANES techniques. Spectra of pure compounds [HgCl2, HgSO4, HgO, CH3HgCl, Hg2Cl2 (calomel), HgSred (cinnabar), HgSblack (metacinnabar), Hg2NCl0.5(SO4)0.3(MoO4)0.1(CO3)0.1(H2O) (mosesite), Hg3S2Cl2 (corderoite), Hg3(SO4)O2 (schuetteite) y Hg2ClO (terlinguaite)] were obtained on transmittance mode. The number and type of the compounds required to reconstruct experimental spectra for each sample was obtained by PCA analysis and linear fitting of minimum quadratics of the pure compounds spectra. This offers a semiquantitative approach to the mineralogical constitution of each analyzed sample. The results put forward differences on the efficiency of roasting furnaces from the three studied sites, evidenced by the presence of metacinnabar on the less efficient (Almadén and Asturias) and absence on the most efficient (Idria). For the three studied sites, sulfide species (cinnabar and metacinnabar) were largely more abundant than soluble species (chlorides and sulfates). On the other hand, recent results on the mobility of both Hg and As on the target sites will be presented. These results correlate with the related chemical species found by XANES techniques.

  7. Ocre y cinabrio en el registro funerario de El Argar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Padilla, Juan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The known cases of Bronze Age Argaric stained skeletons found in the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, have been analysed. The various hypotheses proposed relating to the origin of these colorations have been evaluated in light of new data provided by SEM, XRD and RAMAN spectroscopic analysis carried out on five Argaric graves of Murcia and Alicante. The results have indicated the presence of ochre and cinnabar on some of the skeletons. Without discarding the possibility that both substances were used in dyeing fabrics, it is proposed that their main use was for face and body make-up, being higher the number of recorded cases on female skeletons compared to male.

    Se analizan los casos de esqueletos con tinciones documentados en el ámbito argárico del Sudeste de la Península Ibérica. Se evalúan las diversas hipótesis planteadas hasta el momento en relación con el origen de estas coloraciones, tomando en consideración los análisis (SEM, XRD y espectroscopía RAMAN realizados en cinco tumbas argáricas de Murcia y Alicante que han determinado la presencia de ocre y cinabrio. Sin descartar su posible uso en el teñido de tejidos, se propone su empleo en el maquillaje facial y corporal, siendo mayor el número de casos registrados sobre esqueletos de mujeres que de hombres.

  8. Scientific Investigation of the Materials in a Chinese Ming Dynasty Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuya Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the cooperation project Rescue and Conserve the Endangered Wall Paintings in the Museums of China, systematic investigations concerning the materials and techniques used in the wall paintings detached from a Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 temple, Dazhao Temple in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia of China, as well as the previous conservation intervention materials have been carried out. X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX were used for the identification of inorganic materials in the wall paintings, while Pyrolysis in combination of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS was applied for the characterization of organic materials. Pigments including cinnabar, lead white, atacamite/para-atacamite, orpiment, ochre, minium, carbon black and smalt were identified. The binding medium in the painting was determined as animal glue. Alkyd is an uncommon consolidant in the conservation of Chinese wall paintings, but it could be determined in this object, where conservation treatments were performed in the 1950s.

  9. 万山地区风化环境中汞的活动行为探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花永丰

    1985-01-01

    Studies of supergenic dispersion, migration and enrichment of mercury and other elements in stratabound ore deposits are of great importance both in theory and in practice. In special reference to the Wanshan mercury ore deposit, this paper discussed the mechanism of supergenic migration Of mercury and its associated elements lead,sine, antimony, etc. In this paper the focus of the disoussion is placed on the existing forms of mercury, the rules governing the migration and the enrichment of.mercury and its associated elements in the process of weathering and some aspects of the simulating experiment on weathering of carbonates. Three existing forms of mercury are reeognized in carbonates: cinnabar minerals,isomorphs and inelusions, and ionic forms and adsorbed colloids. The migration of mercury together with its associated elements in the process of weathering follows the sequence : SiO2→Pb→Hg→Sb→Zn. The results of the simulating experiment on weathering of carbonates show that the products of weathering contsin more mercnry and associated elements than the original rocks.

  10. Microbial isotopic signatures in calcareous tufa from Punta Mita coastal vents, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, C.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Melgarejo, J. C.; Reyes, A.

    2002-12-01

    Numerous small calcareous mounds accompanied by Ba, Hg and Tl mineralization occur in shallow submarine hydrothermal manifestations on the sea bottom, at 10 m depth, in Punta Mita (Western coast of Mexico). The formation of calcite mounds in these coastal vents provides an uncommon example of calcareous tufa deposits in a submarine hydrothermal environment. The hydrothermal activity consists in water and gas (essentially nitrogen and methane) venting at 85°C, through a 100 m fissure hosted in basaltic rocks and partially covered by unconsolidated sediments. The mounds consist of travertine-like metre-sized calcite aggregates that develop around the main submarine hot springs. Barite, sulphides (mostly pyrite and cinnabar) and phosphates (carbonate-hydroxylapatite) are also present in these mounds. Two main calcite types are texturally distinguished: firstly an earlier radial-fibrous generation, and a later fine-grained calcite generation that cements the detrital grains and fills the pore spaces. Stable isotope analyses were performed in calcite from these mounds. The δ13C measured values show a strong depletion in 13C, with values as low as -39.2 per mil (PDB). These values agree with a microbially mediated calcite mineralization process, by means of bacterial oxidation of vent derived methane. In contrast to most known cases of microbial methane oxidation, in Punta Mita this process took place under hydrothermal conditions.

  11. Effects of grinding-induced grain boundary and interfaces on electrical transportation and structure phase transition in ZnSe under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yang; Pei, Wang; Guo-Zhao, Zhang; Xiao-Xue, Zhou; Jing, Li; Cai-Long, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Interface and scale effects are the two most important factors which strongly affect the structure and the properties of nano-/micro-crystals under pressure. We conduct an experiment under high pressure in situ alternating current impedance to elucidate the effects of interface on the structure and electrical transport behavior of two ZnSe samples with different sizes obtained by physical grinding. The results show that (i) two different-sized ZnSe samples undergo the same phase transitions from zinc blend to cinnabar-type phase and then to rock salt phase; (ii) the structural transition pressure of the 859-nm ZnSe sample is higher than that of the sample of 478 nm, which indicates the strong scale effect. The pressure induced boundary resistance change is obtained by fitting the impedance spectrum, which shows that the boundary conduction dominates the electrical transport behavior of ZnSe in the whole experimental pressure range. By comparing the impedance spectra of two different-sized ZnSe samples at high pressure, we find that the resistance of the 478-nm ZnSe sample is lower than that of the 859-nm sample, which illustrates that the sample with smaller particle size has more defects which are due to physical grinding. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404133 and 11374121) and the Program of Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20140520105JH).

  12. Temperature resolved reproduction of medieval luster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Pantos, E.; Smith, A. D.; Martin, C. M.; Labrador, A.

    2008-01-01

    Luster is a golden metallic-like decoration produced on glazed ceramics since early Islamic times (Iraq, 9th AD). Luster is obtained by the reaction of a luster paint and the glaze surface over which it is applied. A temperature-resolved XRD experiment was designed to study the high temperature reactions in the luster paint while the luster layer is formed. The luster paint composition has been made based on the original luster paints found during the excavation of the 13th AD workshop site at Paterna (Valencia). The sulfo-reducing atmosphere created during the decomposition of cinnabar promotes the reduction of Cu2+ containing compounds to Cu+ and the presence of Hg vapours delays the precipitation of metal silver. Moreover, evidence of the formation of a melt in which the copper and silver-containing compounds dissolve has also been obtained. The thickness of the luster paint applied results in the formation of luster layers of different hues and colours. The use of a mixture of copper and silver paint results in the formation of dark-brown luster layer similar to the ones produced in early Islamic times in Iraq and showed also the characteristic blue iridescences.

  13. Immobilization of methylene blue onto bentonite and its application in the extraction of mercury (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylene blue was immobilized onto bentonite (BNT). The modified clay (MB-BNT) was used to extract Hg2+ at pH 6.0 yielding Hg-MB-BNT. BNT, MB-BNT and Hg-MB-BNT were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectra, and elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. MB is suggested to be intercalated into the major phase of BNT; montmorillonite mineral (MMT), lying parallel to the aluminosilicate layers, with a capacity of 36 mequiv./100 g. MB-BNT shows good stability in 0.1-1 M hydrochloric or nitric acids, ammonium hydroxide, and concentrated Na+, K+ or NH4+ chlorides or iodides. It shows good selectivity towards Hg2+ with an extraction capacity of 37 mequiv./100 g in the presence of I- giving rise to a ratio of MB/Hg2+/I- 1:1:3 in the clay phase. Extracted Hg2+ could be quantitatively recovered by ammonia buffer at pH 8.5. MB-BNT was successfully applied to recover Hg2+ from spiked natural water and cinnabar mineral samples using the optimum conditions; pH 6.0, time of stirring 10 min and 10 mL of 0.05 M NH4Cl/NH4OH at pH 8.5 as eluent.

  14. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  15. SEM/EDS analysis of soil and roasting vessels fragments from ancient mercury ore roasting sites at Idrija area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous roasting vessels fragments can be found at ancient roasting site areas in the surroundings of Idrija town, which were used for ore roasting in the first 150 years of Hg production in Idrija. The earthen vessels fragments lay just below the surface humus layer and in some parts they stretch more than 1 meter deep; they arecovered with red (cinnabar or black (metacinnabar coatings.SEM/EDS analysis of roasting vessels fragments and soil samples from roasting site areas P{enk and Frbejžene trate was performed in order to characterize the solid forms of Hg in applied sampling material. Mercuric sulphide HgS was found to be the main mercury compound present in the samples. Analysis of earthen vessels fragmentsshowed abundant HgS coatings on the surface of ceramics, forming either crust-like aggregates on matrix or isolated grains. Some well-shaped grains with indicated structure and the size of up to 200 μm could also be observed. In soil HgS was present as powder-like concentrations scattered in soil samples, frequently coating silicate and quartz crystals and clay-minerals. Polycristalline, mercury- and sulphur- rich particles comprising silica, clay mineralsand Al-, Fe- and Mg-oxides that were also observed in the samples were interpreted as soil aggregates infiltrated by mercuric and sulphur vapours and by liquid mercury spilled during roasting. These particles suggest a possible presence of mercury-sulphur associations other than HgS.

  16. Analysis of High-Resolution Spectra From a Hybrid Interferometric/Dispersive Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, P; Jovanovic, I

    2015-01-01

    To more fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a mathematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex spectral patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, leading to increased spectral resolution by more than an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm) is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonproliferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.682. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isoto...

  17. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocman, D.; Horvat, M.

    2010-02-01

    Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4-417 μg g-1) and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil) alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m-2 h-1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  18. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs

  19. Non-invasive and micro-destructive investigation of the Domus Aurea wall painting decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Ciocan, Valeria; Vagnini, Manuela; Doherty, Brenda; Tabasso, Marisa Laurenzi; Conti, Cinzia; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-10-01

    The paper reports on the exploitation of an educated multi-technique analytical approach based on a wide non invasive step followed by a focused micro-destructive step, aimed at the minimally invasive identification of the pigments decorating the ceiling of the Gilded Vault of the Domus Aurea in Rome. The combination of elemental analysis with molecular characterization provided by X-ray fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopies, respectively, allowed for the in situ non-invasive identification of a remarkable number of pigments, namely Egyptian blue, green earth, cinnabar, red ochre and an anthraquinonic lake. The study was completed with the Raman analysis of two bulk samples, in particular, SERS measurements allowed for the speciation of the anthraquinonic pigment. Elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer combined with micro-fluorimetry on cross-section gave an insight into both the distribution of different blend of pigments and on the nature of the inorganic support of the red dye. PMID:21805319

  20. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques; Estudio de la Influencia de las Actividades Mineras de Mercurio en la Comarca de Almaden Aplicando Tecnicas de Teledeteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2010-11-17

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs.

  1. Quantification and speciation of mercury in soils from the Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Leonel, Liliam V.; Santos, Regis C.; De Brito, Walter [Nuclear Technology Development Centre/National Commission for Nuclear Energy, Caixa Postal 941, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Nalini, Herminio A. [Federal University of Ouro Preto, Geological Department, Morro do Cruzeiro, s/n, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Windmoeller, Claudia C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, ICEx, Chemistry Department, Antonio Carlos av., 6627, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2006-09-01

    Contents of total mercury, organic carbon, total sulfur, iron, aluminum and grain size and clay mineralogy were used along with Pearson's correlation and Hg thermal desorption technique to investigate the presence, distribution and binding behavior of Hg in soils from three depths from the Tripui Ecological Station, located near Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils studied had predominantly medium and fine sand texture (0.59-0.062 mm), acid character and Hg contents ranging from 0.09 to 1.23 {mu}g/g. The granulometric distribution revealed that Hg is associated with coarse sand (2-0.59 mm) and silt and clay (<0.062 mm) and presents similar Hg concentrations in both fractions. Mercury distribution in soil profiles showed that Hg was homogeneously distributed throughout the depths at most sites. Hg thermal desorption curves show that mercury occurs not only as Hg{sup 2+} predominantly bound to organic components in most of the samples, but also in the form of cinnabar in some. Pearson's correlation confirmed that mercury is associated with organic matter and sulfur and possibly with sulfur-bearing organic matter in most samples. (author)

  2. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  3. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  4. Mercury. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow; Quecksilber gestern, heute, morgen. Mercury 'revisited' (ein letztes Wiedersehen mit Quecksilber)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweinsberg, Fritz

    2010-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) was known in the earliest recorded civilizations. Because of its special properties, it was used in fire-gilding, as a dye in the form of its brilliant red ore cinnabar, and for cosmetic and decorative products. Until modern times, Hg was used in crafts, as in the manufacture of mirrors, by hatters in the preparation of the felt, in photography, in instruments, e.g. clinical thermometer in agriculture to preserve wood (kyanization), as a fungicide in seed grain, as a catalyst in chemical plants, and at last in cosmetics and ritualistic uses. In medicine, the use of Hg is conflicting. For centuries, Hg and its compounds were applied in the treatment of syphilis, until penicillin was discovered. Particularly in the USA calomel (HG{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) was used in high doses in 'heroic medicine' for different ailments. Calomel was also used in children in the treatment given for worms and in teething powders for half a century. Numerous children fell ill because of this treatment (Acrodynia), thousands died because of therapy. For thousands of years in traditional Asian herbal medicines Hg was added intentional and was also found as a contamination. (orig.)

  5. Soil-plant mercury concentrations in the Idrijca river terraces (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of research are mercury contents in plants and soils on river terraces in the lower reaches of the Idrijca River. Samples of averaged meadow forage and plaintain (Plantago lanceolata contain from 0.055 to 0.220 mg Hg/kg in dry matter. In comparison to samples from Idrija in the 1970's these contents are relatively low with respect to mercury in soil. They are similar to those established in the surroundings of the abandoned Podljubelj mercury mine. However, with respect to contents in non-polluted soils the contents on Idrijca river terraces are considerably above the background.Total mercury in plants is influenced only to some degree by its contents in soils. Comparison of samples on terraces at the Temnikar farm shows that the contents in soil increase discontinuously from the third towards the first terrace. But in plants these differences are small, probably owing to the large part of mercury being contained in cinnabar that is inaccessible to plants. On the first river terrace (TEM3 locality where soil contains about 55 times more Hg than on the second terrace, the average forage sample contains only 1.6 times and plantain sample 1.8 times higher Hg than the corresponding samples on the third terrace.

  6. Applicability of the Mercury Controlled Volatilization Technique in the Cerco Minero de Almadenejos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work study the case of the Cerco Minero de Almadenejos (Ciudad Real), that is an important archaeological mine site in the region. In this place, different contamination levels can be finding in the soil and installations. The recovery of this site it will be of interest for the socio-economic development of the area. A preliminary study of the site has been carried out, in order to evaluate the possibility of the application of an in situ controlled mercury volatilization process as an alternative remediation technique. In case of reaching the established legal mercury levels, it could be possible to change the land use of the site. The proposed methodology includes the possibility of control the time required for a complete treatment as a function of the initial contamination level, in this way, the soil and installations decontamination process is performed by a non-destructive way. Finally, the proposed technology respects the old metallurgical plant where cinnabar was treated and burned, having the furnaces an elevated historical value whose restoration and conservation is important for the future use of the site. (Author) 20 refs.

  7. Microstructural study of pre hispanic and colonial pigments of diverse sites of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to show some studies about the pre hispanic paintings, blue paint, green and red colors found in several archaeological sites located in the southeast and center of Mexico, also were analyzed clays samples from Sacalum mine localized in Yucatan state. The samples were analyzed by X Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and Transmission Electron Microscopy both equipped with a microprobe for chemical elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The results obtained by Sem showed that all the pre hispanic paintings are made of fiber-like structures of micrometers order. In other zones of the samples were identified irregular morphologies in which the fibers are supported. The EDS analysis identified the elements C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe. The XRD and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HREM) results showed fiber crystalline structures at nanoscopic level corresponding to paligorskite clay. Other particles were identified as calcite phase. In the red pigments were identified paligorskite fibers in some of them and another sample was identified cinnabar phase. In these last sample no was identify the paligorskite. (Author) 14 refs., 13 figs

  8. [In vitro safety evaluation study of Angong Niuhuang Wan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-mei; Zhang, Su; Wang, Mei-bo; Xia, Jing; Li, Li-min; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2015-01-01

    To study a vitro extraction method to determine soluble mercury and mercury species in Angong Niuhuang Wan and investigate a vitro safety evaluation method, the best extraction scheme was determined after a great deal of conditioning experiments focusing on how the solvent, purification, duration of extraction and purification etc impact on mercury extraction. Soluble mercury was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and mercury species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Result show that the best extraction method of soluble mercury and its species was ultrasonic extraction in artificial intestinal juice at 37 °C for 2 hours, letting it stand for 20 hours and taking the supermatant. The method was reproducible, which could simulate the human body environment to maximum extent. Methyl mercury, ethyl mercury and Hg2+ were not found in the extracts of Angong Niuhuang, although the content of soluble mercury was high. It Was concluded that the method could be applied to the vitro extraction and determination of soluble mercury and mercury species in Chinese traditional medicines containing cinnabar. Methyl mercury, ethyl mercury and Hg2+ could be taken as the targets of in vitro safety evaluation of Angong Niuhuang.

  9. Microscopic partition of pressure and elastic constants in CdTe polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Tlemcen University, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); École Préparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Franco, R.; Menéndez, J.M.; Marqués, M. [MALTA Team and Departamento de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Recio, J.M., E-mail: jmrecio@uniovi.es [MALTA Team and Departamento de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pressure ranges of stability of CdTe polymorphs are successfully computed. • A cubic B2 phase is predicted at pressures above 70 GPa. • Microscopic pressures are defined without resorting to energy partitions. • Cd shows a greater mechanical resistance than Te when pressure is applied. • Atomic equations of state are proposed for Cd and Te along the polymorphic sequence. - Abstract: Within the framework of density functional theory, first principles calculations were carried out to determine pressure stability ranges of zinc-blende (B3), cinnabar (Cinn), rock-salt (B1), orthorhombic (Cmcm), and cesium chloride (B2) phases of CdTe. In agreement with experimental observations, we found a B3→Cinn→B1→Cmcm pressure-induced sequence, and predict the B2 phase as a potential high pressure polymorph. The equations of state of all these polymorphs and the components of the elasticity tensor of the B3 phase at zero pressure were determined and microscopically analyzed in terms of atomic contributions. The concept of local pressure allows for quantifying differences in the role played by Cd and Te as regards the compressibility of CdTe phases, and suggests the existence of a general behavior under pressure for binary II–VI semiconductors.

  10. Geological structure, composition of ores and age of the Bamsk gold deposit, Amur region, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vitaly A. Stepanov

    2004-01-01

    The Bamsk gold-ore deposit is located in the Amur region, the Far East of Russia. It is confined to the Early Cretaceous volcanic-plutonic uplift of central type, located in the Stanov folded-clumpy Pre-Cambrian system. The deposit is presented by a series of gold-bearing quartz and carbonate-quartz vein-stringer zones. They are confined to the super-intrusive zone of the Nevachansk subvolcanic intrusion of sienite-porphyric composition. The mineralization is being controlled by zone of fractures developed in the autochthone ofthe Bamsk fault. Quartz, carbonates and sericite prevail in the composition of ores. The quantity of ore minerals doesn't exceed 1%~5%. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and native gold are widely spread. Sheelite, gold and silver tellurides, sulphobismuthites, acanthite, sphalerite and cinnabar are less developed. Four stages of mineralization have been distinguished. Gold-sulphide-sulphosalt ore with tellurides of gold and silver is productive for gold. The following set of elements is typomorphic for the ores of the deposit: Au, Ag, Cu, Bi,Mo, Pb and Sb (W1, Pb1, Mo) -Cu- (Ag, Bi, Sb, Mn, W1, Pb2) form the vertical series of zoning. Rocks, enclosing the mineralization are exposed to the processes of listvenitization-beresitization. The processes of gumbeization and argillization are less manifested. The age of the gold mineralization, determined by Rb-Sr method on ore-accompanying minerals, is 130.6 Ma.

  11. Microstructural study of pre hispanic and colonial pigments of diverse sites of Mexico; Estudio microestructural de pigmentos prehispanicos y coloniales de diversos sitios de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas A, J. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, M.; Fernandez, M.E.; Mondragon G, G.; Perez H, R.; Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [BUAP, A.P. J-48, 72540 Puebla (Mexico); Martinez, G. [INAH, 04000 Ex-Convento de Churubusco (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show some studies about the pre hispanic paintings, blue paint, green and red colors found in several archaeological sites located in the southeast and center of Mexico, also were analyzed clays samples from Sacalum mine localized in Yucatan state. The samples were analyzed by X Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and Transmission Electron Microscopy both equipped with a microprobe for chemical elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The results obtained by Sem showed that all the pre hispanic paintings are made of fiber-like structures of micrometers order. In other zones of the samples were identified irregular morphologies in which the fibers are supported. The EDS analysis identified the elements C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe. The XRD and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HREM) results showed fiber crystalline structures at nanoscopic level corresponding to paligorskite clay. Other particles were identified as calcite phase. In the red pigments were identified paligorskite fibers in some of them and another sample was identified cinnabar phase. In these last sample no was identify the paligorskite. (Author) 14 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Applicability of the Mercury Controlled Volatilization Technique in the Cerco Minero de Almadenejos; Aplicabilidad de Tecnicas de Volatilizacion Controlada de Mercurio en el Cerco Minero de Almadenejos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, L.; Sierra, M. J.; Millan, R.

    2013-02-01

    This work study the case of the Cerco Minero de Almadenejos (Ciudad Real), that is an important archaeological mine site in the region. In this place, different contamination levels can be finding in the soil and installations. The recovery of this site it will be of interest for the socio-economic development of the area. A preliminary study of the site has been carried out, in order to evaluate the possibility of the application of an in situ controlled mercury volatilization process as an alternative remediation technique. In case of reaching the established legal mercury levels, it could be possible to change the land use of the site. The proposed methodology includes the possibility of control the time required for a complete treatment as a function of the initial contamination level, in this way, the soil and installations decontamination process is performed by a non-destructive way. Finally, the proposed technology respects the old metallurgical plant where cinnabar was treated and burned, having the furnaces an elevated historical value whose restoration and conservation is important for the future use of the site. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. An estimation of mercury concentrations in the local atmosphere of Almadén (Ciudad Real Province, South Central Spain) during the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, José; Higueras, Pablo L; Garrido, Ignacio; Esbrí, José M; Oyarzun, Roberto; Español, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    We show the first estimations of long-term (100 years, 1900 to 2000) total gaseous mercury concentrations (TGM) in the urban area of Almadén. The estimation was carried out by comparing data on known metallic mercury production with measured TGM concentrations. The estimated diurnal background level ranges from 60 to 120 ng m(-3) and corresponds to periods when the metallurgical complex (cinnabar roasting plant) was shut down. The average TGM concentration during the period from 1900 to 2000 was about 600 ng m(-3) (with peaks above 1,200 ng m(-3)). Additionally, a 24-h-based TGM monitoring program has highlighted significant differences between the diurnal and nocturnal concentrations, particularly during the warmer months. In this regard, given that the average nocturnal to diurnal ratio is 2.12, we suggest that the average nocturnal concentrations must have exceeded 1,200 ng m(-3), and peak nocturnal concentrations could have reached levels up to 2,400 ng m(-3). Our estimations indicate that most parts of the town of Almadén were generally exposed to TGM concentrations in air that exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline for Hg (1,000 ng m(-3)) for countryside and urban areas.

  14. The SALUT Project: Study of Advanced Laser Techniques for the Uncovering of Polychromed Works of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Snickt, G.; De Boeck, A.; Keutgens, K.; Anthierens, D.

    In order to find out whether the existing laser systems can be employed to remove superimposed layers of paint on secco wall paintings in a selective way, laser tests were carried out on three types of prepared samples simulating three stratigraphies that are frequently encountered in practice. OM, EPMA, colorimetry, μRaman, and FT-IR were used to evaluate the results. It was found that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers emitting at 1,064nm could be employed to remove unwanted layers of oil paint and limewash, but the treatment of large areas requires implementation of a computer-controlled X-Y-Z station in order to control the parameters. However, the applicability of this technique will remain limited as ablation at the established optimum parameters implied a discoloration of the pigments cinnabar, yellow ochre, and burnt sienna. Moreover, it was observed that no ablation took place when the limewash thickness exceeds 25 μm. Unwanted layers of acrylic could be removed in an efficient way with an excimer laser emitting at 193 nm.

  15. Separation of plutonium and neptunium species by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and application to natural groundwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczewski, Bernhard; Marquardt, Christian M; Seibert, Alice; Geckeis, Horst; Kratz, Jens Volker; Trautmann, Norbert

    2003-12-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was coupled to ICPMS in order to combine the good performance of this separation technique with the high sensitivity of the ICPMS for the analysis of plutonium and neptunium oxidation states. The combination of a fused-silica capillary with a MicroMist AR 30-I-FM02 nebulizer and a Cinnabar small-volume cyclonic spray chamber yielded the best separation results. With this setup, it was possible to separate a model element mixture containing neptunium (NpO2(+)), uranium (UO2(2+)), lanthanum (La3+), and thorium (Th4+) in 1 M acetic acid. The same conditions were also suitable for the separation of various oxidation states of plutonium and neptunium in different aqueous samples. All separations were obtained within less than 15 min. A detection limit of 50 ppb identical with 2 x 10(-7) M (3-fold standard deviation of a blank) was achieved. To prove the negligible disturbance of the plutonium and neptunium redox equilibria during the CE separations, plutonium and neptunium speciation by CE-ICPMS in acidic solutions was compared with the results of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and was found to be in good agreement. The CE-ICPMS system was also applied to study the reduction of Pu(VI) in a humic acid-containing groundwater at different pH values. PMID:14670034

  16. Evolución del color en el alero de la fachada del rey D. Pedro I, Real Alcázar de Sevilla. Aportaciones del estudio de materiales a la identificación de las intervenciones de restauración a lo largo de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Cruz, Olimpia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from the research carried out on the polychrome decoration of the façade of the King Pedro I Palace, which was built as part of the Alcázar of Seville between 1356 and 1366, are here explained. This building is regarded as one of the most important examples of architecture from al-Andalus in the Iberian Peninsula. The polychromy of its façade has been subject to numerous interventions throughout its history, but its general appearance remains largely unchanged, variations can be observed in details though. The predominant finishing has always been golden, on a background of reds, blues and greens. After an accuracy painstaking and sampling fieldwork, various laboratory techniques were brought together to identify and study the inorganic and organic phases that comprise the pictorial layers. Such techniques include optical microscopy with reflected and transmitted light, X-rays powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis, gas chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. At least eight polychrome decorations have been identified, corresponding to different levels carried out in different epochs. Each decoration has usually several layers: preparatory, base, and pictorial or golden foil layer, being the latter the most commonly used as finishing layer. The decorations use a wide variety of pigments: red lead, cinnabar/vermilion, lead white, natural and synthetic azurite, synthetic ultramarine, malachite, emerald green, As-Cu green, lead-tin yellow, chrome yellow, yellow litharge, and organic black. Detailed study of the textures and the precise characterization of the pigments used on the façade have enabled the successive interventions to be dated and their spatial correlation to be identified. Regarding the original pigments, remains of lead red and cinnabar were found, followed by layers of cinnabar/vermilion, azurite and malachite, these of natural origin. It was identified that in those

  17. The use of nano-particles to produce iridescent metallic effects on ancient ceramic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermo, P; Padeletti, G

    2012-11-01

    Nano-sized materials have been often used in the past to realize objects with particular characteristics. One of the most outstanding examples is represented by luster pottery, showing shining surfaces with particular optical properties. Luster was one of the most sophisticated technique for the decoration of majolicas. It consists of a thin metallic film containing silver, copper and other substances, like iron oxide and cinnabar, applied in a reducing atmosphere on a previously glazed ceramic. In such a way, beautiful iridescent reflections of different colours (in particular gold and ruby-red) are obtained. This technique, at first developed in Iraq, was introduced in Italy from Spain. In Italy the potters of the two centres of Gubbio and Deruta, in central Italy, became so expert that nowadays modern artisans are not able to reproduce the wonderful effects obtained during Renaissance. A complete characterization by means of numerous techniques has been carried out on a great number of shards and precious work of arts conserved in many important museums. This allowed to draw some correlations between the preparation technique and the obtained nano-structure. PMID:23421282

  18. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  19. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernandez-Martinez, Rodolfo [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Rodrigo [Dpto. de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, ETS de Ingenieros de Minas, C/Independencia, 13, E-33004 Oviedo (Spain); Rucandio, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.rucandio@ciemat.es [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of Leon. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300-67,000 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1} were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  20. Mercury transfer from soil to olive trees. A comparison of three different contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo L; Amorós, José Á; Esbrí, José Maria; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; García-Navarro, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Mercury contents in soil and olive tree leaves have been studied in 69 plots around three different source areas of this element in Spain: Almadén (Ciudad Real), Flix (Tarragona) and Jódar (Jaén). Almadén was the world's largest cinnabar (HgS) mining district and was active until 2003, Flix is the oldest Spanish chlor-alkali plant (CAP) and has been active from 1898 to the present day and Jódar is a decommissioned CAP that was active for 14 years (1977-1991). Total mercury contents have been measured by high-frequency modulation atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman effect (ZAAS-HFM) in the soils and olive tree leaves from the three studied areas. The average soil contents range from 182 μg kg(-1) in Flix to 23,488 μg kg(-1) in Almadén, while the average leaf content ranges from 161 μg kg(-1) in Jódar to 1213 μg kg(-1) in Almadén. Despite the wide range of data, a relationship between soil-leaf contents has been identified: in Almadén and Jódar, multiplicative (bilogarithmic) models show significant correlations (R = 0.769 and R = 0.484, respectively). Significant correlations were not identified between soil and leaf contents in Flix. The continuous activity of the Flix CAP, which remains open today, can explain the different uptake patterns for mercury, which is mainly atmospheric in origin, in comparison to the other two sites, where activity ceased more than 10 years ago and only soil uptake patterns based on the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic model curve are observed.

  1. Testing the generalist-specialist dilemma: the role of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in resistance to invertebrate herbivores in Jacobaea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianqin; Vrieling, Klaas; Mulder, Patrick P J; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (SMs) to protect them from generalist herbivores. On the other hand, specialist herbivores use SMs for host plant recognition, feeding and oviposition cues, and even sequester SMs for their own defense. Therefore, plants are assumed to face an evolutionary dilemma stemming from the contrasting effects of generalist and specialist herbivores on SMs. To test this hypothesis, bioassays were performed with F2 hybrids from Jacobaea species segregating for their pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), using a specialist flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae) and a generalist slug (Deroceras invadens). Our study demonstrated that while slug feeding damage was negatively correlated with the concentration of total PAs and that of senecionine-like PAs, flea beetle feeding damage was not affected by PAs. It was positively correlated though, with leaf fresh weight. The generalist slug was deterred by senecionine-like PAs but the specialist flea beetle was adapted to PAs in its host plant. Testing other herbivores in the same plant system, it was observed that the egg number of the specialist cinnabar moth was positively correlated with jacobine-like PAs, while the silver damage of generalist thrips was negatively correlated with senecionine- and jacobine-like PAs, and the pupae number of generalist leaf miner was negatively correlated with otosenine-like PAs. Therefore, while the specialist herbivores showed no correlation whatsoever with PA concentration, the generalist herbivores all showed a negative correlation with at least one type of PA. We concluded that the generalist herbivores were deterred by different structural groups of PAs while the specialist herbivores were attracted or adapted to PAs in its host plants.

  2. Study of matrix effects produced by inorganic species in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with several spray chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the influence of the spray chamber design on the matrix effects was investigated in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study was carried out in terms of aerosol drop size distribution and emission signal. Solutions of two inorganic acids and salts were employed to characterize the extent of the matrix effects throughout this work. Several spray chambers. a double-pass (Scott - type), a conventional cyclonic, and two low-volume cyclonic - type spray chambers (i.e., Cinnabar, and Genie) were used in order to evaluate the matrix effects produced by nitric and sulphuric acid solutions. A glass concentric pneumatic micro nebulizer (Atom Mist) was used in conjunction with all four chambers. When nitric or sulphuric acid solutions were nebulized, the double pass spray chamber registered noticeable changes in the drop size distribution. The low-volume spray chambers, in turn, afforded changes in the aerosol drop size distributions similar to the conventional cyclonic one. The matrix effects on the signal were reduced with all three cyclonic spray chambers with respect to the double pass one. Concerning the effect of inorganic salts, the results obtained with a High Efficiency Nebulizer (HEN) coupled to a double pass spray chamber and to a cyclonic type one revealed several issues: (i) the matrix effects were more severe at low liquid and gas flow rates; (ii) as for inorganic acids, the use of a cyclonic spray chamber led to a mitigation of the matrix effects with respect to a double pass spray chamber. (author)

  3. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of León. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300–67,000 mg·kg−1 were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: ► Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. ► A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. ► As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. ► As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. ► As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  4. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hagan

    Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  5. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  6. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  7. Influence of the addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment on mercury contaminated soil; Influencia de la adicion de fertilizantes y enmendantes organicos en suelos contaminados de mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, S.; Millan, R.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mercury mobilization in a soil where fertilizers and organic matter were added. The study was carried out using a soil from the mercury mining district of Almaden (Spain). This area constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the World. The soil has been classified as an Alfisol Xeralf Haploxeral (USDA taxonomy), and the total mercury content is 14,16 0,65 mg kg-1in average. The experimental work was performed in 1 L glass columns filled with 500 g of soil. It was carried out 3 different treatments. The fi rst one, a NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) that was applied at three different doses (recommended dose -by farmers, half recommended dose and double recommended dose). The second one, a peat (Sphagnum) with a ph between 5,5-7, and the third one, a liquid organic amendment (Molex). The experimental work was carried out using 21 columns in total, where 3 of them were used as a control (C). During ten consecutive weeks, the columns were irrigated with distilled water (150 ml) once a week. The contact time was two days; after that, the leachates were collected and filtered. Finally, the soil contained in glass columns at soil fi eld capacity was centrifuged to get the wilting point. Mercury was determined using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (AMA-254). Results show that mercury content in all samples was under detection limit (0,5 {mu}g L-1). It is according to the fact that mercury is mainly in a cinnabar form, which had a very low solubility. The addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment do not increase the mercury content in the leachates either in the soil solution. (Author) 102 refs.

  8. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  9. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  10. Study of Hydrothermal Particulate Matter from a Shallow Venting System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    A shallow (30 ft) hydrothermal site named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of hydrothermal fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the vent. Water samples and hydrothermal fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing hydrothermal particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the vent. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at

  11. Influence of the addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment on mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mercury mobilization in a soil where fertilizers and organic matter were added. The study was carried out using a soil from the mercury mining district of Almaden (Spain). This area constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the World. The soil has been classified as an Alfisol Xeralf Haploxeral (USDA taxonomy), and the total mercury content is 14,16 0,65 mg kg-1in average. The experimental work was performed in 1 L glass columns filled with 500 g of soil. It was carried out 3 different treatments. The fi rst one, a NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) that was applied at three different doses (recommended dose -by farmers, half recommended dose and double recommended dose). The second one, a peat (Sphagnum) with a ph between 5,5-7, and the third one, a liquid organic amendment (Molex). The experimental work was carried out using 21 columns in total, where 3 of them were used as a control (C). During ten consecutive weeks, the columns were irrigated with distilled water (150 ml) once a week. The contact time was two days; after that, the leachates were collected and filtered. Finally, the soil contained in glass columns at soil fi eld capacity was centrifuged to get the wilting point. Mercury was determined using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (AMA-254). Results show that mercury content in all samples was under detection limit (0,5 μg L-1). It is according to the fact that mercury is mainly in a cinnabar form, which had a very low solubility. The addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment do not increase the mercury content in the leachates either in the soil solution. (Author) 102 refs

  12. Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Michele; Rampazzo, Federico; Berto, Daniela; Maggi, Chiara; Mao, Andrea; Horvat, Milena; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano

    2012-11-01

    The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.

  13. Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNear, Jr., David H.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A. (UCIN); (Kentucky)

    2012-12-10

    While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a 'background' of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, Se{sup 0} and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(II) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(II) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg{sup 0} in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

  14. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities' gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard

  15. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4–417 μg g−1 and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m−2 h−1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  16. Study by micro-Raman spectroscopy of wall paints (external parts and cross-sections) from reales alcazares of Seville (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, José Luis; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Robador, María Dolores; Siguenza, Belinda; Durán, Adrián

    2013-04-01

    The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla was originally builded by the Arabic in the year 913. The Mudejar Palace was built by Christian King Pedro I between 1364 and 1366. At the end of XV century the Catholic Kings, Isabel and Fernando made important transformations especially in the Mudejar Palace. Recently, wall paints from Catholic Kings periods were found during works of conservations in the first floor of the Palace. The study of these paints by non-destructive techniques was considered of great interest in order to determine the technology of manufacture and the originality of the artwork. The main objective of this work was to apply the Raman spectroscopy technique on the surface of the wall and on the different layers of the cross-sections prepared in order to characterize the pigments and the plaster present in these wall paints. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer. In this case the dispersive integrated Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRaman HR800 system was employed. Small samples of black, red, yellow, white and green colour were taken from the artwork. The surface of the samples were directly studed by the Raman spectroscopy instrument using red (785 nm) and green (522 nm) lasers, similarly to non-invasive experimental technique. This technique showed the presence of gypsum (SO4Ca.2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) in all the studied samples However, the pigments responsible of different colours were not detected. The surface of these wall paints was covered with gypsum and calcite due to contamination. These mineras were also characterized by XRD and SEM-EDX. The presence of these compounds and the heterogeneous surface did not permit the characterization of the pigments responsible of the colour. In order to better characterization of the pigments and plaster used the study was carried out on cross-sections. The black colour was performed using carbon black. Two different red layers were detected one constituted by cinnabar and lead carbonate and

  17. CHEMICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ČEMERNICA ANTIMONITE DEPOSIT IN THE MID-BOSNIAN SCHIST MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Čemernica Sb-Zn-Hg-W quartz vein system is situated in Lower Palaeozoic metasediments formed under 3-5 kbars and 350° to 450 °C, intruded by Upper Palaeozoic rhyolites. K-Ar dating indicated three metamorphic phases. The first, 343 Ma old affected phyllite rocks, the second 120-90 Ma metamorphosed rhyolites and the third one, 46 to 37 Ma caused formation of ottrelite schist, host rocks of ore deposit. The Čemernica vein (NW-SE, 1,5 km long, and over 350 m deep, on average 0,67 m thick, is faulted in four separated parts: »Southern vein«: »Erbstollcn vein«; »Main vein* and »NW-vein«. Structures of the veins are massive, banded, rarely brecciated. Par-agenesis: quartz I (50-95% of ore mass as the main gangue mineral; antimonite I, II, sphalerite I, II. cinnabar as the main ore minerals; subordinate are chalcedony, siderite, ferberite, jamesonite.berthierite, boulangerile, plagionite, arsenopyrite, scarce arc pyrite I, II, marcasite, pyrrhotite, barite, chalcopyrite I, II, tetrahedrite and enargite, whereas accessories are galena, quartz II, realgar, gold and mineral »X«. Chemical analysis of 177 ore samples taken from old Saxon and Austrian mining works gave 4.33% Zn, 2,22% Sb and 137 gr/t Ag. Fifteen samples gave trace to 0.1% Hg and eight samples trace to 0.l gr/t Au. Untouched part ol the »Main vein« gave5.9(1% Zn, 8.93%Sb and 126 g/t Ag. Remnant ore gave 2.60-3.28% Zn, 0.69-0.73% Sb and 161 to 190 gr/t Ag. Entire proved, probable and posssible ore reserves (306.000 t have 5.9% Zn, 4.0% Sb and 114 gr/t Ag. The 34 S of antimonite is +2.6 ‰ and of sphalerite +3.7‰ indi¬cating juvenile origin of sulphur, Fluid inclusion study of quartz iden-tified three types of fluids: Variscan NaCI-KCI-H2O type related to the Late Palaeozoic granite (rhyolite megmatism, post-Variscan NaCl-CaCl2 + MgCl2-H2O type formed by admixing of hot saline connate waters originated from the Late Permian evaporite complex and meta

  18. ZnTe结构相变、电子结构和光学性质的研究∗%Structural phase transition, electronic structures and optical prop erties of ZnTe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永金; 吴云沛; 刘国营; 罗时军; 何开华

    2015-01-01

    The equations of state and phase transition of ZnTe in zinc blende (ZB) and cinnabar (CB) structures under high pressure are investigated by the projected augmented wave method in the scheme of density functional theory. The primitive cell volumes, electronic structures and optical properties are also predicted before and after phase transition. The variations of the calculated total energy with volume, for the structures of ZB and CB, yield the information about the static equation of state and phase stability. The results show that the ZB phase of ZnTe has lower energy, and is more stable than its CB phase. The pressure-induced transition occurs along the common tangent line connecting the tangential points on the two enthalpy-volume curves. The calculations show that the phase transition pressure is 8.6 GPa from the ZB structure to the CB structure. The value is also compatible with those of other available theoretical and experimental results. Just before the ZB phase is transferred to the CB phase at about 8.6 GPa, the volume is reduced by 13.0%relative to the former volume at the ambient pressure condition. The calculated critical volumes and volume compressibilities by using two methods agree well with other results in the literature. The lattice parameters and equations of state of the two structures are also obtained. Metallization case of other similar materials such as ZnS caused by high pressure does not occur here. The CB phase has the behavior of indirect band gap with 0.98 eV along the symmetry of G → K . After phase transition, the distributions of density of states of Zn and Te atoms of the CB structure shift towards lower energy, especially in the conduction band bottom, and the band gap decreases. Energy level overlapping is more obvious in the CB structure, and orbital hybridizations still exist, that is the reason why it is the stable phase under high pressure condition. Stronger orbital hybridization helps the transitions between Te 5p and

  19. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of particle-facilitated mercury transport from New Idria and Sulphur Bank mercury mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, G.V.; Shaw, S.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) release from inoperative Hg mines in the California Coast Range has been documented, but little is known about the release and transport mechanisms. In this study, tailings from Hg mines located in different geologic settings-New Idria (NI), a Si-carbonate Hg deposit, and Sulphur Bank (SB), a hot-spring Hg deposit-were characterized, and particle release from these wastes was studied in column experiments to (1) investigate the mechanisms of Hg release from NI and SB mine wastes, (2) determine the speciation of particle-bound Hg released from the mine wastes, and (3) determine the effect of calcinations on Hg release processes. The physical and chemical properties of tailings and the colloids released from them were determined using chemical analyses, selective chemical extractions, XRD, SEM, TEM, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. The total Hg concentration in tailings increased with decreasing particle size in NI and SB calcines (roasted ore), but reached a maximum at an intermediate particle size in the SB waste rock (unroasted ore). Hg in the tailings exists predominantly as low-solubility HgS (cinnabar and metacinnabar), with NI calcines having >50% HgS, SB calcines having >89% HgS, and SB waste rock having ???100% HgS. Leaching experiments with a high-ionic-strength solution (0.1 M NaCl) resulted in a rapid but brief release of soluble and particulate Hg. Lowering the ionic strength of the leach solution (0.005 M NaCl) resulted in the release of colloidal Hg from two of the three mine wastes studied (NI calcines and SB waste rock). Colloid-associated Hg accounts for as much as 95% of the Hg released during episodic particle release. Colloids generated from the NI calcines are produced by a breakup and release mechanism and consist of hematite, jarosite/alunite, and Al-Si gel with particle sizes of 10-200 nm. ATEM and XAFS analyses indicate that the majority (???78%) of the mercury is present in the form of HgS. SB calcines also

  20. Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents in the Gulf of California: Natural Laboratories for Multidisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, M.; Hilton, D. R.; Price, R. E.; Kulongoski, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Modern and fossil examples of shallow water submarine hydrothermal vents occur throughout the Gulf of California. These sites offer important information about the processes involved in the extensional tectonics that created the Gulf of California and continue to shape the region to this day. Due to their accessibility, shallow water marine hydrothermal vents are far easier to access and study than their deeper analogs, and these settings can provide natural laboratories to study biogeochemical processes. Certain biogeochemical and biomineralizing processes occurring at shallow vents are very similar to those observed around deep-sea hydrothermal vents. In some cases, authigenic carbonates form around shallow vents. However, the hydrothermal precipitates are generally composed of Fe-oxyhydroxides, Mn-oxides, opal, calcite, pyrite and cinnabar, and their textural and morphological characteristics suggest microbial mediation for mineral deposition. Modern shallow-water hydrothermal vents also support complex biotic communities, characterized by the coexistence of chemosynthetic and photosynthetic organisms. These shallow vents are highly productive and provide valuable resources to local fishermen. Extant shallow water hydrothermal activity has been studied in Bahía Concepción, San Felipe, Punta Estrella, El Coloradito, Puertecitos, and around the Islas Encantadas. Discrete streams of gas bubbles are often discharged along with hot liquids at shallow water vents. The vent liquids generally exhibit lower salinities than seawater, and their isotopic compositions indicate that they contain meteoric water mixed with seawater. The composition of the shallow vent gas is primarily made up of CO2, but may also be enriched in N2, H2S, CH4, and other higher hydrocarbons. The geochemistry of these gases can be informative in determining the sources and processes involved in their generation. In particular, 3He/4He ratios may provide valuable information about the origin of

  1. Biomonitoring of persons living in areas with high concentrations of mercury, arsenic and antimony in soil. Goals and methods; Biomonitoring-Untersuchung bei Personen in Wohngebieten mit erhoehten Bodenwerten an Quecksilber, Arsen und Antimon. Vorstellung und Studiendesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebel, T. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Allgemeine Hygiene; Schaefer, J. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene; Beuermann, I. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene; Platen, H. von [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Dunkelberg, H. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Allgemeine Hygiene

    1995-07-01

    In the northern part of palatinate country in Germany (Nordpfaelzer Bergland; Rheinland-Pfalz) intense mercury activity had been situated beginning in the 15th century extending partly up into the 20th century. Nowadays in many cases former dump grounds of rubble caused by the mercury mining activities are used for agricultural and housing purposes. In soil material of these areas the natural background contents up to strongly elevated levels were found for mercury, arsenic and antimony. In the housing area soil concentrations (per dry matter) of less than 0,5 mg/kg up to 1364 mg/kg mercury, less than 2 mg/kg up to 605 mg/kg arsenic and less than 0,5 mg/kg up to 776 mg/kg antimony were detected. Mercury, arsenic and antimony are strongly bound to be ore in sulfidic forms of cinnabar or fahlore (gray copper) causing a bad availability. The concentration variance of the detected element levels is immense even relating to little spaces because of an inhomogenous distribution of the rubble; highly contaminated grounds can be found beneath not contaminated ground. A biomonitoring study is presented in which 219 exposed residents are involved. They are examined concerning a possible incorporation of the elements mentioned above. The proceeding of the study, the way of data collection, and the amnestical approach are discussed. This study ist compared to similar studies. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Nordpfaelzer Bergland wurde vom 15. bis teilweise ins 20. Jahrhundert intensiv Quecksilberbergbau betrieben. Vielfach befinden sich landwirtschaftlich genutzte Flaechen und Wohngebiete auf oder neben Abraumhalden des ehemaligen Quecksilberbergbaus. In diesen Regionen fand man im Boden fuer das Schwermetall Quecksilber und die metalloide Arsen und Antimon von den natuerlichen Hintergrundkonzentrationen bis hin zu stark erhoehten Werten. In Wohngebieten waren dies bei Quecksilber weniger als 0,5 mg/kg Boden (Trockensubstanz) bis zu 1364 mg/kg, bei Arsen weniger als 2 mg/kg bis zu 605 mg

  2. Mineralogy, chemistry and radioactivity of the heavy minerals in the black sands, along the northern coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Zaid, Samir M.; Moustafa, Mohammed I.; Barakat, Mohammed G.

    2016-11-01

    Three hundreds and six black sand samples have been collected from the beach areas along the northern coast of Egypt, parallel and perpendicular to the shoreline. The mineralogy and chemistry of the economic heavy minerals were studied. The grain size distribution of the studied economic minerals shows a unimodal class that mostly in the very fine sand size. The microscopic investigation indicates that the study area is enriched with six economic heavy minerals. These are ilmenite, magnetite, garnet, zircon, rutile and monazite; in addition to leucoxene, arranged in decreasing order of their abundance. The studied black sands suggest a reserve of 329, 183, 24, 21, 7, 1 and 14 thousand tons of ilmenite, magnetite, garnet, zircon, rutile, monazite and leucoxene, respectively. The spherical magnetite grains are higher in Fe2O3 than those of euhedral shaped grains. Ilmenite grains display sub-rounded to euhedral shapes. The altered ilmenite grains have higher TiO2 and lower Fe2O3 in comparison with the euhedral fresh ones. Garnet occurs as angular (49%), sub-spherical (45%), spherical (5%) and euhedral grains (1%). Garnet grains containing mineral inclusions represent 10% of their concentrate. The euhedral garnet grains have Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca that arranged in decreasing order of their abundance. The magnetic zircon fraction obtained from their bulk concentrate is particularly rich in colored grains (70%). Their common colors are red and brown with some malacons. The reddish-brown color of zircon may be due to iron oxide stains. Some magnetic zircon grains are enriched in Hf and REEs contents. Rutile grains are sub-to well rounded (70%), and rich in TiO2. Monazite is enriched in Ce, La, Nd, Th and U. Detectable inclusions of gold, copper, lead, galena, cinnabar, platinum group elements (PGES) and silver are recorded in cassiterite. The radiometric measurements revealed that the black sands of the western zone (4 km2) have high values of specific activity, absorbed

  3. Comparison of mercury sulfides with mercury chloride and methylmercury on hepatic P450, phase-2 and transporter gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S F; Wu, Q; Zhang, B B; Li, H; Xu, Y S; Du, Y Z; Wei, L X; Liu, J

    2016-09-01

    Zuotai (mainly β-HgS) and Zhusha (also called as cinnabar, mainly α-HgS) are used in traditional medicines in combination with herbs or even drugs in the treatment of various disorders, while mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) do not have known medical values but are highly toxic. This study aimed to compare the effects of mercury sulfides with HgCl2 and MeHg on hepatic drug processing gene expression. Mice were orally administrated with Zuotai (β-HgS, 30mg/kg), α-HgS (HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (33.6mg/kg), or MeHg (3.1mg/kg) for 7days, and the expression of genes related to phase-1 drug metabolism (P450), phase-2 conjugation, and phase-3 (transporters) genes were examined. The mercurials at the dose and duration used in the study did not have significant effects on the expression of cytochrome P450 1-4 family genes and the corresponding nuclear receptors, except for a slight increase in PPARα and Cyp4a10 by HgCl2. The expressions of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase were increased by HgCl2 and MeHg, but not by Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 decreased the expression of organic anion transporter (Oatp1a1), but increased Oatp1a4. Both HgCl2 and MeHg increased the expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein genes (Mrp1, Mrp2, Mrp3, and Mrp4). Zuotai and HgS had little effects on these transporter genes. In conclusion, Zuotai and HgS are different from HgCl2 and MeHg in hepatic drug processing gene expression; suggesting that chemical forms of mercury not only affect their disposition and toxicity, but also affect their effects on the expression of hepatic drug processing genes. PMID:27473830

  4. Multidisciplinary approach for the study of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): Combining imaging and spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, S.; Caruso, O.; Galeotti, M.; Iannaccone, R.; Magrini, D.; Picchi, D.; Pinna, D.; Porcinai, S.

    2015-06-01

    and silicates or a gypsum ground, overlapped by lead white. The original pigments were identified as orpiment, cinnabar and red clay, Egyptian blue and green copper based pigments. Some other pigments, such as white lead, Naples yellow, cerulean blue and azurite were only found in the restored areas.

  5. The Byzantine Church of '40 Holy Martyrs' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'St. 40 Martyrs' church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  6. Vulnerability of soils towards mining operations in gold-bearing sands in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Manuel Miguel; González, Irma; Bech, Jaume; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Pardo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    , lead, cadmium, crome, zinc, cobalt, cooper, platinum, gold, indium, tellurium, etc., and as well some traces of cerium, praseodymium, gadolinium, neodymium, samarium and lanthanum. The recurring presence of Pb, sulphur and Hg, among others, in mineral species like galena and cinnabar reveal accumulation indices, a product of the contaminating action of human beings. This is notable since no records exist of natural deposits of these minerals that can justify their presence, and records were utilized from semi-industrial exploitations for the extaction of gold where Hg is utilized in the amalgamation processes.

  7. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  8. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Kathryn L. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6

  9. Physicochemical Properties, Pharmacodynamics and Toxicity of Pharmaceutical Mercuric Sulfide%药用硫化汞理化性质及药效、毒理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一博; 陈朝军; 陆景坤; 武士奎; 马磊; 孙小燕

    2012-01-01

    We summarize species analysis of mercuric sulfide by consulting documents, also discuss how the forms of mercuric sulfide influence on the toxicity and pharmacological function. Recent evidence suggests that mercuric sulfide in cinnabar and vermilion is red crystallization of optical activity, insoluble Hg + , soluble Hg + , Hg + are storage forms of mercury sulfide in vitro, and insoluble Hg + is the main form. The main toxicity of mercuric drugs is caused by soluble mercury. Mercuric sulfide acts as main component of many tradition drugs, these drugs may exist as polysulfide. This existence form will reduce its toxicity. Pharmacological research shows that clinical dosage usually does not cause people poisoned. We should establish standards through modern analysis in order to ensure the safety of mercury-containing drugs.%对药用硫化汞的形态结构、理化性质、含量测定及药效毒理学进行了归纳,查阅了国内外文献30篇,探讨了药用硫化汞中汞元素的体内存在形态、体内含量对其毒性的影响.研究发现,朱砂、银朱等药物中的硫化汞为具旋光性的红色结晶,在体外的存在形式通常是不溶于水的Hg2+,还有一部分可溶性的Hg2+,Hg+,含汞药物产生毒性的原因主要是其中的可溶性汞,而主要成分是硫化汞的药物,如朱砂,在肠道中可能以汞与硫各种形式的配合物存在,多硫化汞配合物是其中的一种重要形式,多硫化汞的形式降低了游离汞的含量,毒性降低.药效毒理的研究发现,含汞药物的临床用量一般情况下不会引起中毒.实践表明,通过采取现代分析手段制定相应规范,可以在保证药效的基础上,提高含汞药物的安全性.

  10. Speciation methods and sample analysis of soluble mercury in traditional Chinese medicines%中成药可溶性汞形态分析方法及样品结果测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐陆正; 解清; 闫赖赖; 陈玉红; 王京宇

    2011-01-01

    建立了微波辅助提取、HPLC-ICP-MS联用分析中成药中二价汞和甲基汞的方法.分别比较了提取液中盐酸和L-半胱氨酸含量、提取温度和提取时间对提取结果的影响,得到了微波辅助提取的最优条件:体积分数为1%的盐酸10 mL和质量分数为5%的L-半胱氨酸1 mL作为提取液,控温70℃,微波辅助提取1h.该方法测得的二价汞和甲基汞的精密度分别为1.7%和4.4%,加标回收率分别为80.7%~99.5%和93.7%~95.8%.并应用该方法分析测定了20种、共49批次的含朱砂的中成药中可溶性汞的形态.%A method with microwave-assisted extraction and HPLC-ICP-MS to analyse the inorganic mercury and methyl mercury in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) has been built. The hydrochloric acid and L-cysteine concentration, the extraction temperature and extraction time have been investigated. The optimal conditions are as follows: 1% hydrochloric acid 10 ml and 5% L-cysteine 1 ml as extract, temperature control 70 ℃, and time control lh. Using this method, the inorganic mercury and methyl mercury's RSDs(relative standard deviation) are 1. 7% and 4. 4%, and the standardized recoveries are 80. 7~99. 5% and 93. 7~ 95. 8%. Then, 49 batches of 20 kinds TCMs which contain cinnabar have been determinated using this method.

  11. Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

    2011-10-01

    Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 μg g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 μg g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural

  12. Non-isothermal kinetics of the thermal desorption of mercury from a contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Félix A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain was the largest cinnabar (mercury sulphide mine in the world. Its soils have high levels of mercury a consequence of its natural lithology, but often made much worse by its mining history. The present work examines the thermal desorption of two contaminated soils from the Almadén area under non-isothermal conditions in a N2 atmosphere, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. DSC was performed at different heating rates between room temperature and 600 °C. Desorption temperatures for different mercury species were determined. The Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Coasts–Redfern methods were employed to determine the reaction kinetics from the DSC data. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for mercury desorption were calculated.El distrito minero de Almadén (Ciudad Real, España tiene la mayor mina de cinabrio (sulfuro de mercurio del mundo. Sus suelos tienen altos niveles de mercurio como consecuencia de su litología natural, pero a menudo su contenido en mercurio es mucho más alto debido a la historia minera de la zona. Este trabajo examina la desorción térmica de dos suelos contaminados procedentes de Almadén bajo condiciones isotérmicas en atmósfera de N2, empleando calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. La calorimetría se llevó a cabo a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento desde temperatura ambiente hasta 600 °C. Se determinaron las diferentes temperaturas de desorción de las especies de mercurio presentes en los suelos. Para determinar la cinética de reacción a partir de los datos de DSC se utilizaron los métodos de Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa y Coasts–Redfern. Además se calcularon las energías de activación y los factores pre-exponenciales para la desorción del mercurio.

  13. Fate and transport of mercury in soil systems : a numerical model in HP1 and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik

    2013-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) poses threats for human health and the environment, notably due to its persistence and its ability to bioaccumulate in ecosystems. Anthropogenic activities are major contributors of mercury release to soils. Main sources of contamination include manufacturing (chlor-alkali plants, manometer spill), mine tailings from mercury, gold and silver mining industries, wood preservation. The objective of this study was to develop a reactive transport model for simulating mercury fate and transport in the unsaturated zone, and to gain insight in the fate and transport of Hg following anthropogenic soil contamination. The present work is done in the framework of the IMaHg project, which aims at providing recommendations to improve management of sites contaminated by mercury within the SNOWMAN funding framework. A model of mercury fate and transport in soil systems was developed using the reactive transport code HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2010). The geochemical database THERMODDEM (Blanc et al., 2012) is used, augmented with some speciation data from (Skyllberg, 2012). The main processes accounted for in the model are : Hg aqueous speciation (including complexation with dissolved organic matter (DOM) - humic and fulvic acids, and thiol groups), Hg sorption to solid organic matter (SOM), dissolution of solid phase Hg (e.g. cinnabar HgS(s)), dissolution of Hg non-aqueous liquid phase (NAPL), sunlight-driven Hg(II) reduction to Hg(0), Hg(0) diffusion in the gas phase and volatilization, DOM sorption to soil minerals. Colloid facilitated transport is implicitly accounted for by solute transport of Hg-DOM complexes. Because we focused on soil systems having a high Hg contamination, some processes showing relatively smaller Hg fluxes could be neglected such as vegetation uptake and atmospheric wet and dry deposition. NAPL migration and entrapment is not modelled, as pollution is assumed to be historical and only residual NAPL to be present. Mercury methylation and

  14. Terlinguacreekite, Hg32+O2 Cl2, a new mineral species from the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Gault, Robert A.; Paar, W.H.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Burns, P.C.; Cisneros, S.; Foord, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Terlinguacreekite, ideally Hg32+O2 Cl2, has a very pronounced subcell that is orthorhombic, space-group choices Imam, Imcm, Ima2 and 12cm, with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 6.737(3), b 25.528(10), c 5.533(2) A??, V951.6(6) A??3, a:b:c 0.2639:1:0.2167, Z=8. The true symmetry, supercell unit-cell parameters, and details regarding the crystal structure are unknown. The strongest nine lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(subcell hkl)] are: 5.413(30)(011), 4.063(80)(121), 3.201(50)(080), 3.023(50)(161), 2.983(60)(240), 2.858(30)(211), 2.765(50)(002), 2.518(100b)(091, 251) and 2.026(30)(242). The mineral is found in an isolated area measuring approximately 1 ?? 0.5 m in the lower level of the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas (type locality), as mm-sized anhedral dark orange to reddish orange crusts of variable thickness on calcite, and rarely as 0.5 mm-sized aggregates of crystals of the same color. It has also been identified at the McDermitt mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A., where it occurs with kleinite and calomel in silicified volcanic rocks and sediments. Terlinguacreekite is a secondary phase, most probably formed from the alteration of primary cinnabar or native mercury. At Terlingua, most crusts are thin, almost cryptocrystalline, with no discernable forms, and are resinous and translucent to opaque. Crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length, subhedral, acicular to prismatic, elongation [001], with a maximum length-to-width ratio of 4:1. They are vitreous, transparent, and some crystals have brightly reflecting faces, which may be {010} and {110}. The streak is yellow, and the mineral is brittle with an uneven fracture, no observable cleavage, and is soft, nonfluorescent under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light. D (calc.) is 9.899 g/cm3 (empirical formula). Material from the McDermitt mine is reversibly photosensitive, and turns from vivid orange to black in strong

  15. Hanawaltite, Hg1+6Hg2+[Cl,(OH)]2O3 - A new mineral from the Clear Creek claim, San Benito County, California: Description and crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Grice, Joel D.; Gault, Robert A.; Criddle, A.J.; Erd, Richard C.

    1996-01-01

    Hanawaltite, ideally Hg1+6Hg2+O3Cl2, is orthorhombic, Pbma (57), with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a=11.790(3), b=13.881(4), c=6.450(2) A??, V=1055.7(6) A??3, a:b:c =0.8494:1:0.4647, Z=4. The strongest six lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(hkl)] are: 5.25 (80)(111), 3.164 (60)(231), 3.053 (100)(041), 2.954 (70)(141), 2.681 (50)(401), and 2.411 (50)(232,341). The mineral is an extremely rare constituent in a small prospect pit near the long-abandoned Clear Creek mercury mine, New Idria district, San Benito County, California. It was found on a single-fracture surface where it is intimately associated with calomel, native mercury, cinnabar, montroydite, and quartz. Individual crystals are subhedral to anhedral, platy to somewhat bladed, and average about 50 ??m in longest dimension. The largest known crystal is approximately 0.3??0.3 mm in size and is striated parallel [001]. Hanawaltite is opaque to translucent (on very thin edges), black to very dark brown-black in color, with a black to dark red-brown streak. Other physical properties include: metallic luster; cleavage {001} good; uneven fracture; brittle; nonfluorescent; H<5; calculated density (for the empirical formula) 9.51 g/cm3. In polished section, hanawaltite is moderately to strongly bireflectant and is pleochroic white (R1) to blue-white (R2). In reflected plane-polarized light, it is white with orange-red internal reflections in very thin grains and at grain margins. The anisotropy is strong with bright metallic blue rotation tints. Measured reflectance values, in air and in oil, are tabulated. Electron-microprobe analysis yielded Hg2O 82.46, HgO 14.27, Cl 3.33, H2O [0.34], sum [100.40], less O=Cl 0.75, total [99.65] wt. %, corresponding to Hg1+6.00H2+1.00[Cl 1.43(OH)0.57]??2.00O3.00, based on O+C1=5. After the crystal structure was determined, the original microprobe value for Hg2O, 96.2, was partitioned in a ratio of 6Hg2O:HgO and (OH) was calculated, such

  16. Las yeserías del Patio de las Doncellas del Real Alcázar de Sevilla. Avance de resultados de la caracterización de materiales y la técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero-Castillo, Ana Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the initial contributions of the plasterworks polychrome research carried out at Courtyard of the Maidens in the Alcazar of Seville. This spectacular courtyard is located within the King Pedro I Palace (1356 – 1366, which is considered one of the most representative buildings mudejar architecture. This palace has been one of the residences of the Spanish monarchs over the time, thus it is one of the oldest palaces still in use. Consequently many interventions took place in the building, especially on the polychrome decoration. As part of the field-work, samples were collected aiming to identify the different polychrome interventions and the materials used in each of them. Different techniques were used to analyse the samples (optical microscopy, electron microscopy SEM / EDX, chromatographic methods and X-ray diffraction. The results of the study confirmed that successive interventions occurred over the original work. Natural pigments, such as red lead, cinnabar, natural azurite and malachite, were found in the deeper strata (i.e. the most likely original work. Industrial pigments, such as ultramarine blue or emerald green, were identified in the upper layers (i.e. the latest interventions.Este artículo presenta un avance de resultados del estudio de la policromía de las yeserías del Patio de las Doncellas del Real Alcázar de Sevilla. Este espectacular patio es parte del Palacio de Pedro I (1356- 1366, considerado como una de las obras mudéjares de mayor relevancia y uno de los palacios más antiguos todavía en uso. Su condición continuada como residencia de los monarcas españoles, ha permitido su conservación, pero también ha supuesto numerosas intervenciones que se agudizan en las policromías de los revestimientos decorativos. Tras un completo trabajo de campo se realizó un muestreo de la zona con el objetivo de conocer la naturaleza de los materiales e identificar las intervenciones realizadas. Para ello se

  17. Biogeochemistry of mercury in soils and sediments in a mining-impacted watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Goldhaber, M. B.

    2004-12-01

    The East Davis Creek watershed, located in the California Coast Ranges, is host to historic mines that provided mercury for recovery of gold in the Sierra Nevada goldfields in the mid-to-late 1800s. Bedrock in this watershed includes marine sedimentary rock, serpentinite, and hydrothermally altered serpentinite. Cinnabar (HgS) found in the altered serpentinite is the primary ore mineral for mercury. We evaluated the hypothesis that mercury is sequestered in soil organic matter downstream from source areas, releasing a fraction as water-soluble methylmercury. Microbial biomass and the presence of sulfur-reducing bacteria implicated in mercury methylation were quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data. Methylation incubations were performed on soil and sediment inoculated with water from Davis Creek Reservoir and sealed in glass containers under an anoxic headspace for 21 days. Methylmercury was measured on extracts of the soils at the start and at the end of the incubation period. Two sources of mercury to stream sediments, a soil with an altered serpentinite parent and mine tailings, were incubated. Stream sediment, an overbank deposit soil and a wetland soil forming from these sediments were also incubated. The overbank deposit soil is periodically flooded. The wetland soil around the edge of Davis Creek Reservoir is perennially saturated with water. The altered serpentinite soil and mine tailings had the highest total mercury concentrations (170 and 150 ng Hg /g, respectively). Total mercury concentrations in stream sediments are low (¡Ü1 ng Hg/g), with higher mercury concentrations in the overbank (3 ng/g) and wetland soils (18 ng Hg/g). Mercury leached from altered serpentinite soils and mine tailings may be transported downstream and sequestered through sorption to organic matter in the overbank and wetland soils. PLFA biomarkers for Desulfobacter (10Me16:0) and Desulfovibrio (i17:1) were present in all incubated materials, with lower

  18. 安宫牛黄丸体外安全性评价方法的研究%In Vitro Safety Evaluation Study of Angong Niuhuang Wan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣美; 张甦; 王枚博; 夏晶; 李丽敏; 王柯; 季申

    2015-01-01

    To study a vitro extraction method to determine soluble mercury and mercury species in Angong Niuhuang Wan and investigate a vitro safety evaluation method ,the best extraction scheme was determined after a great deal of conditioning experi-ments focusing on how the solvent ,purification ,duration of extraction and purification etc impact on mercury extraction .Soluble mercury was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and mercury species were determined by high perform-ance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry .Result show that the best extraction method of solu-ble mercury and its species was ultrasonic extraction in artificial intestinal juice at 37 ℃ for 2 hours ,letting it stand for 20 hours and taking the supernatant .The method was reproducible ,which could simulate the human body environment to maximum ex-tent .Methyl mercury ,ethyl mercury and Hg2+ were not found in the extracts of Angong Niuhuang ,although the content of sol-uble mercury was high .It was concluded that the method could be applied to the vitro extraction and determination of soluble mercury and mercury species in Chinese traditional medicines containing cinnabar .Methyl mercury ,ethyl mercury and Hg2+could be taken as the targets of in vitro safety evaluation of Angong Niuhuang .%研究安宫牛黄丸中可溶性汞及三种毒性汞价态的体外溶出检测方法,探讨安宫牛黄丸体外安全性评价方法。通过试验研究提取溶剂、净化方式、提取、净化时间等因素对溶出的影响,确定最佳的提取方案。使用电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定可溶性汞,高效液相色谱法-电感耦合等离子体质谱法联用测定三种汞价态。安宫牛黄丸中可溶性汞及三种毒性汞价态的最佳提取方法为:用人工肠液在37℃下超声处理2 h ,提取液静置20 h后取上清液。方法重现性好,最大程度地模拟药物在体内的吸收环境。安宫牛黄丸

  19. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part I: Characterization of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Delgado, A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available European Directives consider mercury a priority hazardous substance due to its adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to environmental concerns, a microencapsulation process has been developed within the European LIFE program as a long-term storage option for mercury. This process leads to the obtainment of a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury. The final product, in the form of a solid block containing up to 30 % Hg, exhibits excellent mechanical properties (compressive strength 53-61MPa and flexural strength 7-10 MPa, low porosity (0.57 % PHe, very low total pore volume (0.63x10-2 cm3 g-1, and extremely low permeability (coefficient of water absorption by capillarity 0.07 g cm-2. Toxicity characteristic leaching tests reveal a mercury concentration in leachates well below the 0.2 mg L-1 set out in US EPA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs. The values of mercury vapor emissions of final products were lower than those of cinnabar and metacinnabar.

    Resumen Las Directivas Europeas consideran al mercurio una sustancia de peligrosidad prioritaria debido a sus efectos adversos sobre la salud humana y sobre el medio ambiente. En respuesta a estas preocupaciones ambientales, y dentro del Programa Europeo LIFE, se ha desarrollado un proceso de microencapsulación como una opción al almacenamiento a largo plazo del mercurio. Con este proceso se obtiene un material estable, tipo concreto, de matriz de azufre que permite la inmovilización del mercurio. El producto final, en forma de un bloque sólido, contiene hasta un 30 % de Hg, presenta excelentes propiedades mecánicas (resistencia a la compresión 53-61 MPa, y a la flexión 7-10 MPa, baja porosidad (0,57 % PHe, muy bajo volumen total de poro (0,63 x 10-2 cm3 g-1 y una permeabilidad extremadamente baja (coeficiente de absorción de

  20. Selection and Testing of "Getters" for Adsorption of Iodine-129 and Technetium-99: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2003-09-24

    During the last several decades considerable research effort has been expended to identify suitable "getter" materials that can immobilize or delay the transport of anionic radionuclides (such as 129I and 99TcO4) that would be released from physically and chemically degrading waste packages. Several investigators have identified a number of important performance characteristics such as adsorption potential and chemical/physical stability that getter materials should possess for effective deployment in repository environments. A review of published literature indicated that various minerals and synthetic adsorbent materials such as, oxides, hydroxides, natural and modified aluminosilicates, sulfides, carbonates, phosphates, carbon, and functionalized novel sorbents have been tested for their getter properties. Oxide/hydroxide solids and many silicate minerals have poor capacity and selectivity for iodide (Kd : 0 – 10 ml/g) and release iodide with increasing pH. A few silicate minerals such as illite exhibit better selectivity for iodide (Kd : ~30 ml/g). Significantly improved iodide selectivity (Kd : 5,000 ml/g) has been observed with organically-modified silicate minerals such as montmorillonite and vermiculite. Sulfide minerals such as cinnabar and argentite typically adsorb iodide with very high selectivity (Kd : 3,000 – 80,000 ml/g). Synthetic materials such as calcium monosulfate aluminate and hydrotalcite show moderate iodide selectivity (Kd: ~25 – 300 ml/g). A new class of specially-designed synthetic getters when tested in groundwater and simulated waste package leachate adsorbed iodide with very high specificity (Kd: 100,000 – 1,000,000 ml/g). The long-term stability of these mineral and synthetic getters in post-closure environment needs further evaluation. Under oxic conditions and in groundwater or background salt solution, many of the oxide/ hydroxide solids and silicate minerals exhibit relatively poor capacity and selectivity (Kd: <5 ml/g) for

  1. 汞和金属离子及多硫化物对木瓜蛋白酶活性的抑制作用%Inhibition of cysteine protease papain by metal ions and polysulfide complexes, especially mercuric ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜军; 杨晓达; 王夔

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Aim Cysteine proteases are closely associated with many human and non-human pathological processes and are potential targets for metal ions especially Hg2+ and the related species. In the present work, on the basis of to the general study on the effects of some metal ions on the activity of papain, a well-known representative of cysteine protease family, the inhibitory effects of Hg2+ and polysulfide complexes were studied. Results All the metal ions tested (Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag+, Au3+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Yb3+) inhibit the activity of papain anda good correlation between the inhibitory potency and softness-and-hardness was observed. Among the metals, Hg2+ was shown to be a potent inhibitor of papain with a Ki of 2 × 10-7 mol· L-1 among. Excessive amounts of glutathione and cysteine could reactivate the enzyme activity of papain deactivated by Hg2+. These evidences supported that Hg2+ might bind to the catalytic site of papain. Interestingly,Hg (Ⅱ) polysulfide complexes were for the first time found to inhibit papain with a Ki of 7 × 10-6 mol ·L-1, whose potency is close to a well known mercury compound, thimerosal (Ki=2.7 × 10-6). In addition, Hg (Ⅱ) polysulfide complexes exhibit good permeability (1.9 × 10-5cm·s-1) to caco-2 monolayer. Conclusion These results suggested that mercury polysulfide complexes might be potential bioactive species in the interaction with cysteine proteases and other- SH-content proteins, providing a new clue to understand the mechanism of the toxicological and pharmacological actions of cinnabar and other insoluble mercury compounds.%目的 半胱氨酸蛋白酶参与了很多动植物生理过程和病理过程,是Hg2+及其化合物作用的潜在靶点.木瓜蛋白酶是半胱氨酸蛋白酶家族中最具代表性、研究最为广泛深入的一种蛋白酶,本文以木瓜蛋白酶为模型,研究了汞等金属离子及其化合物对半胱氨酸蛋白酶活性的抑制作用.结果 Hg2+对木瓜蛋白酶