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Sample records for cinetique des radioisotopes

  1. Kinetics of heterogeneous systems; La cinetique des milieux heterogenes

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    Deniz, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    In this report, a general transport theory treatment is presented for the kinetics study as applied to finite heterogeneous systems. The theory is applicable to experiments near the critical point as well as to pulsed neutron experiments on multiplying or non-multiplying lattices. The general method is also applied to exponential experiments on infinite non-diverging lattices. The particularity of the present study is the explicit introduction of heterogeneity in the formulation and the search for the dependence of the parameters on the buckling of the finite medium. As a result of this, the finite medium parameters are in the first place expressed in terms of the corresponding infinite medium ones through the buckling and the anisotropic migration areas, and in the second place all the parameters are expressed as integrals only over an unit cell instead of over the whole pile. A preliminary less detailed study is first made in order to distinguish clearly between what are called 'dynamic parameters' and 'static parameters', and to define the meanings given in this report to these two terms. In the appendices are given approximate one-group treatments for the study of the dynamic fine structure, the time constant in infinite lattices, and the anisotropic diffusion coefficients in non-multiplying lattices. (author) [French] On presente dans ce rapport une methode generale, utilisant la theorie du transport pour l'etude de la cinetique des milieux finis heterogenes. La theorie est applicable aussi bien aux experiences pres de la criticite qu'aux experiences par sources pulsees de neutrons sur des reseaux multiplicateurs ou non-multiplicateurs. La methode generale est aussi appliquee aux experiences exponentielles sur des reseaux infinis non-divergents. La particularite de l'etude est l'introduction explicite de l'heterogeneite dans la formulation et la recherche de la dependance des parametres par rapport au laplacien du reseau fini. Il en resulte d'une part que les

  2. Application of radioisotopes to the investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of reactions of some inorganic complex compounds; Application des radioisotopes a l'etude de la cinetique et du mecanisme des reactions de certains complexes inorganiques; Primenenie radioizotopov k issledovaniyam kinetiki i mekhanizma reaktsij nekotorykh neorganicheskikh slozhnykh soedinenij; Aplicacion de los radioisotopos al estudio de la cinetica y del mecanismo de las reacciones de algunos complejos inorganicos

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    Harris, Gordon M [Department of Chemistry, University of Buffalo, Buffalo 14, NY (United States)

    1962-03-15

    cyanide is an important end-product. (author) [French] Les radioisotopes sont particulierement precieux dans l'etude de nombreux types de reactions de chimie minerale, notamment de reactions ou interviennent des ions complexes en solution aqueuse. Les recherches sur la vitesse et le mecanisme des echanges isotopiques constituent un aspect important de ces applications. C'est ainsi qu'on a fait une serie d'etudes sur l'echange entre du carbonate ''libre'' marque au carbone-14 et le carbonate qui joue le role de coordinafc dans les ions complexes octaedriques du type CoA{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup +}, ou A represente le 2NH{sub 3}, ou l'ethylene-diamine (en), ou la propylene-diamine (pn) ou la trimethylene-diamine (tn). Grace aux etudes ainsi effectuees, on connait assez exactement la nature de ces reactions par substitution de coordinate, ainsi que le role joue par les coordinais amines qui ne participent pas a l'echange. Des etudes analogues sur l'echange entre oxalates dans les complexes tri-oxaliques de forme M (C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}{sup 3-}, ou M=Co (III), Cr (III), ou Rh (III), n'ont pas ete moins fecondes en resultats. Une autre technique, applicable seulement lorsqu'on utilise des radioisotopes de faible poids atomique comme le carbone-14, consiste a observer les effets d'equilibre ou les effets cinetiques que les isotopes exercent sur la reaction etudiee. C'est ainsi qu'il a ete possible d'interpreter des differences dans le mecanisme d'echange du coordinat carbonate dans le Coen{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup +} et le Cotn{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup +}, par mesure de l'effet isotopique a l'etat d'equilibre dans la reaction d'echange des carbonates. De meme, des donnees sur l'effet isotopique cinetique dans l'hydratation avec catalyseur acide de l'ion Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}CO{sub 3}{sup +} ont confirme les deductions faites en ce qui concerne l'etape a laquelle se rompt la liaison, etape qui determine la vitesse de ces reactions. Enfin, la determination des positions successives de

  3. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

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    Gourisse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  4. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  5. MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE CHIMIQUE DANS LA REDUCTION DES OXYDES D4AZOTE PAR DECHARGE COURONNE.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHDI, Sarah ines

    2015-01-01

    CE TRAVAIL DE recherche rentre dans le cadre général de modélisation de la réduction des oxydes d'azote . l'utilisation des réacteurs a plasma froid non-thermique généré par des décharges couronnes est actuellement l'une des techniques les puis promettre .ses pour la destruction des oxydes d'azote .en effet , le traitement des gaz pollués par les décharges couronnes est notamment rendu possible par la multiplication des décharges Électriques .

  6. Kinetic ion exchange studies in ultramarines by the radioactive tracer method; Etudes cinetiques d'echanges d'ions dans les outremers par la technique des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S; Goenvec, H; Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The possibility of ion exchanges in various ultramarines has been studied in the aqueous phase. The kinetics of the exchange reactions is followed by studying the behaviour of a radioactive ion, either in the solution of the exchanging salt or in the ultramarine itself. The sodium in the make-up of the ultramarine, is found to exchange with various ions in solution. The reaction speeds appear to be governed by a diffusion process inside the grains of ultramarine. The diffusion coefficients and the activation energies are determined for the exchanges studied. Several exchange studies were carried out in an organic medium. The kinetics of ion exchange is also investigated in ultramarines from which most of the constituent sulphur has been eliminated. The results obtained in these ultramarines are compared with the exchange kinetics of the same ions in ordinary ultramarine. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'echanges ioniques dans differents outremers, en phase aqueuse. L'etude cinetique des reactions d'echanges est suivie en etudiant le comportement d'ion radioactif, soit dans la solution du sel echangeant, soit dans l'outremer lui-meme. C'est le sodium de constitution de l'outremer qui s'echange avec differents ions en solution. Les vitesses de reactions semblent etre controlees par un processus de diffusion a l'interieur des grains d'outremer. Les coefficients de diffusion et les energies d'activation sont determines pour les echanges etudies. Quelques etudes sont realisees en milieu organique ou quelques echanges ont ete etudies. La cinetique d'echange d'ions est egalement etudie dans des outremers dans lesquels la majorite du soufre de constitution a ete eliminee. On compare les resultats obtenus dans ces outremers avec les cinetiques d'echanges des memes ions dans l'outremer ordinaire. (auteur)

  7. CINETIQUE DES IONS PHOSPHORIQUES H2PO4- ET HPO4-2 EN MILIEU GYPSEUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacène BOUZIANE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de la fixation des ions H2PO4- et HPO4-2 par les divers types de gypse (tassé ; feuilleté ; fibreux. Donne une réaction positive quelle que soit la solution phosphaté et le type de gypse utilisé. Il convient de noter que l’adsorption est beaucoup plus forte pour les ions H2PO4- que celle des ions HPO4-2 et qu’elle varie d’un type de gypse à l’autre.                 L’étude de l’influence du temps, de la granulométrie et de la concentration des solutions montrent en effet que : plus le diamètre du grain est petit, plus l’adsorption est forte. La fixation se produit même pour une solution phosphatée à très faible concentration ; il se produit toujours une réaction avec précipitation et non un équilibre d’adsorption. La réaction des ions phosphatés augment rapidement dans les premières minutes quel que soit le type de gypse et la concentration utilisée. Nous avons abouti à la formation d’un gel phosphaté, visqueux et non soluble. L’analyse chimique de ce gel donne les résultats suivants : PO4=54,20% ,Ca=11,30% , K=32,94%; si l’on compare ces résultats avec les résultats calculés pour K3CaH,(PO42=PO4=54,59%, Ca=11,19%, K=33,62%, nos valeurs sont très voisines de celles-ci. Il s’agit donc du même sel sur lequel aucun travail sur la formation de K3CaH(PO42 à partir de CaSO42H2O ne semble avoir été publié.

  8. Kinetic study of the alkaline metals oxidation by dry oxygen; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation des metaux alcalins par l'oxygene sec

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    Touzain, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The oxidation of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and sodium-potassium alloys by dry oxygen is studied at several temperatures and in the oxygen pressure range 40 to 400 mmHg. One distinguishes three different oxidation behaviours (inflammation, ignition and slow combustion) whose zones are precised in function of the temperature. The slow oxidation kinetic laws, the composition of oxides and the motive of oxides colorations are determined. At least, the experimental data are construed theoretically. (author) [French] L'oxydation du lithium, du sodium, du potassium, du rubidium, du cesium et des alliages sodium-potassium par l'oxygene sec est etudiee a diverses temperatures et a des pressions comprises entre 40 et 400 mmHg d'oxygene. On distingue trois processus d'oxydation differents (l'inflammation, l'ignition et la combustion lente) dont les domaines en fonction de la temperature sont precises. Les lois cinetiques d'oxydation lente, la nature des oxydes formes ainsi que les causes des colorations de ces oxydes sont determinees. Enfin les resultats obtenus sont interpretes theoriquement. (auteur)

  9. Kinetic study of the alkaline metals oxidation by dry oxygen; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation des metaux alcalins par l'oxygene sec

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    Touzain, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The oxidation of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and sodium-potassium alloys by dry oxygen is studied at several temperatures and in the oxygen pressure range 40 to 400 mmHg. One distinguishes three different oxidation behaviours (inflammation, ignition and slow combustion) whose zones are precised in function of the temperature. The slow oxidation kinetic laws, the composition of oxides and the motive of oxides colorations are determined. At least, the experimental data are construed theoretically. (author) [French] L'oxydation du lithium, du sodium, du potassium, du rubidium, du cesium et des alliages sodium-potassium par l'oxygene sec est etudiee a diverses temperatures et a des pressions comprises entre 40 et 400 mmHg d'oxygene. On distingue trois processus d'oxydation differents (l'inflammation, l'ignition et la combustion lente) dont les domaines en fonction de la temperature sont precises. Les lois cinetiques d'oxydation lente, la nature des oxydes formes ainsi que les causes des colorations de ces oxydes sont determinees. Enfin les resultats obtenus sont interpretes theoriquement. (auteur)

  10. Radioisotopes in sedimentology; Emploi des radioelements en sedimentologie

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    Courtois, G [CEA, Centre d' etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1967-05-15

    infirmation de theses de transport, recherches des phenomenes fondamentaux de transport associees a des experiences en canaux. Apres avoir evoque les possibilites des traceurs naturels, ou dus a des retombees radioactives ou a des rejets d'effluents radioactifs, l'auteur aborde les aspects techniques de l'utilisation des traceurs artificiels: le choix du radioisotope, le marquage superficiel et massique avec mention particuliere du probleme des vases, les appareils d'immersion et de detection, les problemes de navigation et de reperage topographique . Dans la partie concernant l'exploitation des resultats, le probleme de l'obtention de resultats quantitatifs est traite et les methodes proposees decrites; l'auteur fait egalement etat des tentatives actuelles tres louables en vue de relier les tres nombreuses theories de transport de sediments aux parametres mesures sur le terrain au moyen de traceurs radioactifs. Il developpe egalement quelques aspects lies aux problemes de securite. Les methodes decrites peuvent etre egalement appliquees a des problemes voisins et fort interessants: les problemes d'erosion des sols, de stabilisation des terrains, de deplacement des dunes. Quelques indications succinctes sont donnees sur ce sujet. En conclusion, l'auteur indique aussi clairement que possible le potentiel actuel de la methode, ses limitations et les travaux souhaitables pour I'ameliorer. -Mesures en continu de la turbidite. Le transport solide en suspension etant en general beaucoup plus important que le charriage de fond, il importe de pouvoir le mesurer de facon continue; l'auteur donne quelques exemples de l'utilite d'un tel renseignement. Une telle mesure peut etre faite par des jauges decrites dans les ouvrages publies et dont on donne les principes et performances en fonction de la bibliographie connue. L'auteur donne egalement les resultats susceptibles d'etre obtenus en mesurant la turbidite par la radioactivite naturelle d'un sediment en suspension et compare les deux

  11. General problems arising from the analogical resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors (1961); Problemes generaux poses par la resolution analogique des equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires (1961)

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    Caillet, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The author reviews precisely the analogical techniques used for the resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors. Prior to this, he recalls the reasons which oblige physicians and engineers, even today, to use electronic machines in this domain. The author then considers the technological problems posed by the range of values which the various nuclear parameters adopt. In each case, he shows that a compromise is possible allowing an optimum precision. He compares the results to those obtained by arithmetic calculation and uses the examples chosen in a critical analysis of the present possibilities of the two methods of calculation. (author) [French] L'auteur cherche a faire un point aussi exact que possible des techniques analogiques utilisees pour resoudre les equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires. Il rappelle auparavant les raisons pour lesquelles physiciens et ingenieurs sont obliges, encore aujourd'hui, de faire appel aux machines electroniques dans ce domaine. Puis il etudie les problemes technologiques que souleve le champ des valeurs prises par les differents parametres nucleaires. Dans chacun des cas, il montre l'existence d'un compromis qui permet d'atteindre une precision optimum. Il compare les resultats obtenus a ceux provenant de calculateurs arithmetiques et profite des exemples choisis pour faire une analyse critique des possibilites actuelles offertes par les deux modes de calcul. (auteur)

  12. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ↔ NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux

  13. Concentration transients in a gaseous diffusion plant (1961); Cinetique des concentrations dans une usine de separation isotopique (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, R; Bilous, O [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Concentration transients are examined in the case of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium isotope separation. An application is made for a plant built with two rectifying cascades of different sizes and a stripping cascade. Transients are calculated for a change in the feed concentration, the transport and also for shutdown of a group of separating stages in one of the cascades. (authors) [French] On examine l'evolution des concentrations dans une usine de separation isotopique de l'uranium basee sur le procede de diffusion gazeuse et formee de cascades carrees. Une application est faite pour une installation formee de deux cascades enrichissantes de tailles differentes et d'une cascade appauvrissante. On calcule en particulier les regimes transitoires apres variation de la concentration d'alimentation, du transport et apres mise hors circuit d'un groupe d'etages dans l'une des cascades. (auteurs)

  14. New applications of radio-isotopes in France; Quelques nouvelles applications des radioelements en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P; Hours, R; Martinelli, P; May, S; Sandier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Brillant, J [Societe Soletanche (France)

    1958-07-01

    unite de celui du metal de base. L'ition de ciment dans les forages a pour but la consolidation et l'impermeabilisation des sols dans une certaine zone. L'extention de cette zone est etudiee en marquant le ciment et en envoyant dans les forages voisins non injectes une sonde Geiger-Muller qui decele si le ciment a ou non atteint ces forages. On peut ainsi controler l'extension de la zone injectee. La cinetique des echanges d'ions entre differents outremers et des solutions acqueuses est etudiee en suivant un ion radioactif, soit dans la solution, soit dans l'outremer lui-meme. Differentes valeurs de coefficients de diffusion et d'energies d'activation sont donnees par les echanges etudies. (auteur)

  15. Influence of diffusion on extraction kinetics in porous bodies. The case of uranium oxides; Influence de la diffusion sur la cinetique d'extraction dans un corps poreux. Cas des oxydes de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinturier, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-12-01

    'influence des parois sur la diffusion est negligeable. Les coefficients de diffusion du nitrate, du sulfate, du chlorure, de l'acetate, du perchlorate d'uranyle ont ete determines. Dans le cas de la reaction du trioxyde d'uranium avec les acides dans un corps poreux, c'est l'arrivee du reactif par diffusion qui controle la cinetique de reaction. L'attaque dans les memes conditions du bioxyde d'uranium par une solution acide contenant du fer ferrique a ete etudiee et on a trouve que la diffusion modifiait l'influence des concentrations en fer ferrique et ferreux sur la cinetique de reaction. Il en est de - meme pour l'oxyde U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Tous les resultats qui concernent ces reactions etudiees en l'absence d'influence de la diffusion doivent etre modifies pour en tenir compte quand elle intervient dans une extraction. (auteurs)

  16. Application of radioisotopes to studies of crystal imperfections; Application des radioisotopes a l'etude des imperfections des cristaux; Primenenie radioizotopov dlya izucheniya defektov v kristallakh; Aplicaciones de los radioisotopos al estudio de las imperfecciones cristalinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sproull, R L; Slack, G A; Moss, M; Pohl, R O; Krumhansl, J A [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1962-01-15

    Radioisotopes have been used in two important ways in studying imperfections in alkali halide crystals. The zone refining of the compounds has been monitored by addition of tracers, and segregation coefficients have been determined from such measurements. The other application has been to insert small concentrations of impurity ions into alkali halides in order to study the phonon scattering by such impurities or by the vacancies they introduce; these measurements are carried out at very low temperatures where the phonon mean free path is limited by lattice imperfections. The most commonly used radioisotope in this work has been Ca{sup 45}. This work is reviewed and some current and possible future applications of radioisotopes in this field are mentioned. (author) [French] Les radioisotopes ont recu deux applications importantes dans l'etude des imperfections des cristaux d'halogenures alcalins. Employes comme indicateurs, ils ont permis de controler le raffinage par zones des composes et, par suite, de determiner les coefficients de segregation. La deuxieme application a consiste a introduire dans les halogenures alcalins de faibles concentrations d'ions sous forme d'impuretes afin d'etudier la diffusion des phonons par ces impuretes ou par les lacunes que celles-ci produisent; les mesures sont effectuees a des temperatures tres basses, auxquelles le libre parcours moyen des phonons se trouve limite par les imperfections du reseau. Le radioisotope le plus frequemment employe pour ces operations a ete le {sup 45}Ca. Le memoire passe en revue ces divers travaux et signale quelques applications effectives ou possibles des radioisotopes dans le domaine considere. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han empleado radioisotopos en dos importantes campos del estudio de los cristales de haluros alcalinos. Uno de estos campos es el control de la purificacion por zonas de los compuestos y la determinacion de los coeficientes de segregacion por medida de las actividades de los

  17. Preliminary studies of the kinetics of a reactor by the probability method; Etude preliminaire de la cinetique d'un reacteur par la methode des probabilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna, J G; Brunet, J P; Clouet D' Orval, Ch; Caizergues, R; Verriere, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The {alpha} decay constant of prompt neutrons has been studied in the homogeneous plutonium-fueled, light-water-moderated reactor Alecto, by the probability method. In this method, the probability to count one, two,.... neutrons during a given time is measured. The value of {alpha} can be deduced from this measurement, for various subcritical states of the reactor. The experimental results were then compared with values obtained, for the same reactivities, by the pulsed neutron technique. (authors) [French] On a etudie sur Alecto, reacteur homogene au plutonium, modere a l'eau legere, la constante de decroissance {alpha} des neutrons prompts par la methode des probabilites. Celle-ci consiste a mesurer la probabilite de compter un, deux, etc..., neutrons pendant un intervalle de temps donne. On a pu en deduire la valeur de {alpha}, dans divers etats sous-critiques du reacteur. On a compare les resultats experimentaux a d'autres valeurs obtenues, aux memes reactivites, par la methode des neutrons pulses. (auteurs)

  18. Regulations concerning the radionuclides uses in France; Reglementation de l'utilisation des radioisotopes en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bugnard, L [Institut national d' Hygiene (France)

    1955-07-01

    The progress in the uses of radioisotopes has been conditioned by increasing the number of trained workers and researchers and developing theoretical teaching in universities since 1950 in France as well as developing a national control of the distribution and uses of radioisotopes. With the large diffusion and development of radioisotopes uses and applications, new rules and regulations came to control the importation, exportation, transport and utilization of radioisotopes. In the first part, it described the different French laws since 1934 and their successive modifications which ruled on the production, manipulation and utilization of radioisotopes. An inter-ministerial committee was created in 1952 to advise and inform of all the questions related to the preparation, importation, exportation, possession and distribution of radioisotopes. The transport regulations are in constant evolution and has got to meet with international recommendations. It distinguished three different type of transport: road, river and railway transport, postal transport and finally air transport. All the different transports have their specific packaging, maximum transportable quantity, maximum material intensity and labelling requirements. The regulations about customs duties are specified as well as the administrative formalities for non natural radioisotopes importation. Since 1950, diseases caused by irradiation to natural or artificial radioactive materials are recognised as professional diseases and a table of the actual regulations is presented. (M.P.)

  19. On the Behaviour of Radioisotopes Incorporated in Glass Blocks; Le Comportement des Radioisotopes Vitrifies; O Povedenii Radioaktivnyh Izotopov, Lokalizovannyh v Steklovidnyh Blokah; Comportamiento de los Radioisotopos Vitrificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimakov, P. V.; Kulichenko, V. V.; Duhovich, F. S.; Salamatmn, B. A.

    1963-02-15

    carefully selected so as to ensure that the radioisotopes remain securely fixed in the buried blocks. In this connection, titanium compounds are especially interesting as fluxes. (author) [French] Etant donne la longue periode de certains radio- isotopes, il est necessaire de les contenir pendant un temps prolonge, en evitant toute fuite; il faut donc etudier leur comportement dans des blocs de verre lors d'une conservation de longue duree: auto-echauffement, irradiation reciproque, influence du milieu ambiant. Si l'on cherche a limiter la dimension des blocs aux fins d'enfouissement, et a reduire la volatilite des radioisotopes en cours de preparation (temperature maximum: 1200'C), on obtient des blocs de structure peu homogene. Ceux-ci se composent d'ailleurs non pas de verre veritable, mais de melanges 'vitreux'. Les proprietes de ces blocs, notamment leur aptitude a fixer d'une facon durable les produits de fission radioactifs, dependent dans une large mesure de leur composition chimique (quantite et nature des fondants), ainsi que des conditions de leur preparation et de leur conservation ulterieure. La chaleur degagee par les blocs fortement radioactifs, dans l'entrepOt souterrain, donne lieu a des modifications chimiques et physiques de leur structure et influe fortement sur la duree de la fixation des produits de fission, notamment pres de la surface des blocs. Le risque de lixiviation s'accroit, en regle generale, loisque la temperature depasse 400UC. Il est donc souhaitable d'eviter la formation de temperatures trop elevees dans les entrepots. D'aune part, la forte densite des rayonnements emis par les blocs influe sensiblement sur la transformation de la structure des blocs et, de ce fait, sur la duree de la fixation des produits de fission qui s'y trouvent. D'ailleurs, ces transformations se produisent avant tout a partir de la surface, au contact du milieu exterieur (air, eau). D'une maniere generale, le risque de lixiviation va croissant. Les experiences ont

  20. A Theory of Radioisotope Scanning Systems; Une Theorie des Systemes de Scintigraphoe au Moyen des Radioisotopes; Teoriya sistem radioizotopnogo skennirovaniya; Teoria de los Sistemas de Exploracion Radioisotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R. N. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    realized that the advantages of resolving power as a criterion of quality are largely illusory''. Borrowing from that field, the concept of ''sine wave response'' is introduced to define resolution of collimated scintillation detectors for d istributed sources. (author) [French] Le principal objet d'une theorie generale des systemes de scintigraphie est de predire et d'evaluer les performances de systemes hypothetiques concus a des fins bien determinees, par exemple pour la detectiondes tumeurs cerebrales. Une telle theorie devrait donner des responses quantitatives a des questions telles que la suivante: 'Pour la detection de tumeurs cerebrales d'une certaine dimension, profondeur, etc., faut-il utiliser un scintigraphe concu pour u'I ou pour {sup 203}Hg?' L'auteur cherche a coordonner les divers elements d'une telle theorie et a etablir des equations exprimant les rapports entre les parametres biologiques et physiques a considerer: dimension et profondeur de la tumeur, taux de fixation, sensibilite du collimateur, pouvoir de resolution, distance focale, surface du scintigramme, temps d'exploration, fiabilite, etc. L'element essentiel de cette theorie est un critere ou indice de qualite pouvant etre calcule pour n'importe quel systeme et utilise pour la comparaison de divers systemes. L'auteur discute des indices de qualite fondes sur la perception visuelle et la theorie de l'information et adopte un indice fonde sur la statistique. Cet indice est une fonction de la sensibilite et de la resolution du detecteur; l'une et l'autre sont etudiees de maniere detaillee. L'auteur analyse la reponse du collimateur pour des sources de radioactivite ponctuelles et pour des sources distribuees dans un plan ou dans l'espace. La reponse totale [E{sub t} = E(l+P+S)] d'un detecteur.collimate, dirige sur une source de grande surface, est la somme de trois composantes dues aux rayons gamma qui penetrent dans le collimateur: a)'geometriquement'ou de facon normale (E); b) a travers les

  1. The Effect of Kinetic Energy on the Reactions of Nucleogenic Carbon Atoms with Hydrocarbons; Effet de l'Energie Cinetique sur les Reactions des Atomes de Carbone Nucleogeniques avec des Hydrocarbures; Ehffekt kineticheskoj ehnergii pri reaktsiyakh atomov yadernogenichesko- go ugleroda s uglevodorodami; Efecto de la Energia Cinetica en las Reacciones de Atomos Nucleogenos de Carbono con Hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrin, J.; Rosenberg, H.; Wolfgang, R. [Sterling Chemistry Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); MacKay, C. [Haverford College, Haverford, PA (United States)

    1965-04-15

    }, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}D, CD{sub 9}CDH{sub 2} and from various mixtures of other labelled alkanes and alkenes indicates that the removal of kinetic energy from, the C atom has little effect on the relative rate of attack at various types of C-H bonds. (author) [French] Le procede fondamental permettant d'etudier l'effet de l'energie cinetique sur les reactions des atomes de carbone produits par transformation nucleaire se fonde sur la methode bien connue du ralentissement 5 l'aide de gaz inertes. Toutefois, il peut etre combine I d'autres procedes: 1. emploi d'agents de balayage pour deceler les processus dans lesquels interviennent des radicaux de longue periode; 2, etudes de degradation qui servent a determiner la position occupee par l'atome actif; 3, etudes a l'aide d'un double indicateur, dans lesquelles un coips en reaction est partiellement marque par le deuterium et la composition isotopique des produits marques est determinee en vue d'etablir l'origine de l'hydrogene que ces produits contiennent. Les auteurs presentent des resultats nouveaux sur les rendements dans les deux systemes neon-ethylene et neon-ethane, et discutent la relation entre ces resultats et ceux d'autres travaux fondes sur des etudes de degradation et des experiences a l'aide d'un double indicateur. Pour ce qui est des resultats relatifs au systeme neon-ethylene, la discussion se fonde sur les deux mecanismes d'insertion anterieurement admis, a savoir insertion de l'atome de carbone dans la double liaison C = C et dans la liaison C-H, de maniere a donner des produits d'addition C-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Lorsque la concentration en neon augmente, on retrouve tous les produits, mais les rendements relatifs varient sensiblement. Des produits tels que l'acetylene proprement dit et le vinyl-acetylene, qui peuvent se former a partir des produits d'addition initiaux C-C{sub 2}H{sub 4} par des processus exigeant une forte energie, perdent de leur importance, tandis que le rendement en produits formes a basse

  2. Radioisotopes in the physical chemistry of corrosion processes and their inhibition; Les radioisotopes dans la chimie physique des processus de corrosion et de leur inhibition; Primenenie radioizotopov v fizicheskoj khimii protsessov korrozii i ikh tormozheniya; Los radioisotopos en la quimica fisica de los procesos de corrosion y de inhibicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartledge, G H [Chemistry Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The fundamental study of the electrochemical processes of corrosion and inhibition involves various factors, including in particular: (a) adsorption phenomena of different types; (b) ion-exchange properties of passive films; and (c) the electrochemical kinetics of both anodic and cathodic processes across the interface between a metal and its corrosive environment. The availability of radioisotopes has made possible certain studies of these phenomena that could not be made previously with conventional techniques. The element technetium, a homologue of manganese in the periodic system, has been found uniquely suited to certain of these studies by reason of its nuclear properties. The chemical properties of technetium compounds are summarized and contrasted with those of corresponding Cr{sup 51} compounds and those of molybdenum and tungsten, so much used in studies of inhibition. Selected experimental studies are given as examples of the uses to which technetium has already been put in this type of work. Among these are empirical studies of its action as a very efficient inhibitor of the corrosion of iron, together with the results of long-term observations of surface activity. Other studies with both Tc{sup 99} and I{sup 131} have demonstrated the significance of competitive adsorption of ions in the determination of the kinetics of the corrosion and inhibitory processes. Finally, the author shows how the unique properties of technetium have permitted a clear discrimination between the relative contributions of oxygen and the oxidizing inhibitor in the maintenance of passivity. (author) [French] Parmi les facteurs qui entrent en jeu dans l'etude fondamentale des processus electrochimiques de corrosion et d'inhibition on releve notamment: a) differents types de phenomenes d'adsorption; b) les proprietes d'echange ioniques des films passifs; c) la cinetique electrochimique des processus tant anodiques que cathodiques qui se produisent dans l'interface entre un metal

  3. Cinetique dans un Milieu Photochromique a Base de Thionine Selon Divers Types D'eclairement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Serge

    L'etude porte sur les changements chimiques induits par la lumiere dans un milieu photochromique constitue de thionine et de triethanolamine en solution solide dans l'alcool polyvinylique. Une reaction de photoreduction provoque le blanchiment de ce milieu. Des equations analytiques basees sur la cinetique photochimique ont ete developpees qui decrivent des reactions de photoblanchiment et de photonoircissement pour des milieux ideaux. Pour des milieux quelconques, une approximation utilisant une transformee de Laplace doit etre utilisee. Sous certaines conditions, le milieu etudie suit parfaitement la theorie. Ce milieu peut alors etre utilise pour mesurer la dimension de faisceaux gaussiens focalises. Il peut aussi etre utilise pour etudier l'enregistrement d'hologrammes. Pour cela, des equations a quatre ondes couplees ont ete resolues pour decrire l'enregistrement. Elles permettent d'expliquer le renforcement de la diffraction lorsqu'on passe d'un mode d'ecriture a un mode de lecture. Les resultats concordent avec la theorie.

  4. Uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation sources in biological studies in U. A. R; Utilisation des radioisotopes et des sources de rayonnement dans les etudes biologiques en RAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashish, S. E. [Radiobiology Department, U. A. R. Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo, United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    1970-01-15

    An attempt is made to give examples rather than a review of the uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation sources in biological studies in U.A.R. Studies along these lines started early in 1955 and are still progressing. The prospects of future developments and improvements are unlimited. The studies are classified according to the radio technique adopted. The techniques so far used in U.A.R. include all the techniques known elsewhere. Some detailed modifications and combinations of more than one technique have been successfully introduced. Both in basic and applied biological studies, one or more of the following techniques have been applied, namely tracer technique, isotopic dilution analysis, autoradiography, radiochromatography and electrophoresis, double or multi-bioassays, radioactivation analysis, neutron absorption analysis, and use of different radiation source for somatic and/or genetic effect studies. Mass spectrometry for stable isotopic studies in the field of biology has been recently used. Studies undertaken in the applied fields of biology e. g, in medicine (diagnosis and therapy) and agriculture (soil, plant and animal) have proved extremely valuable from the practical and developmental points of view. (author) [French] Le mémoire a pour objet d'illustrer plutôt que d'exposer systématiquement les utilisations des radioisotopes et des sources de rayonnement dans des études biologiques en République Arabe Unie. Ces études, entreprises au début de 1955, se poursuivent. Les possibilités de développement et de perfectionnement sont illimitées. Les études sont classées d'après la radiotechnique adoptée. Les techniques régulièrement utilisées jusqu' à présent en République Arabe Unie couvrent toute la gamme des techniques connues ailleurs. On a réussi à apporter des modifications de détail et à combiner plusieurs techniques. Dans les études de biologie tant fondamentale qu' appliquée, une ou plusieurs des techniques suivantes

  5. Origin, Nature, Disposal and Control of Radioactive Wastes Arising from the Use of Radioisotopes; Origine, Nature, Elimination et Controle des Dechets Radioactifs Decoulant de l'Emploi des Radioisotopes; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Origen, Naturaleza, Evacuacion y Control de los Desechos Radiactivos Producidos en la Utilizacion de Radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, A. W. [Ministry of Housing and Local Government (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-01

    The paper describes the different types of radioactive waste arising from industrial, medical and scientific uses of radioisotopes. An outline is given of methods used for waste disposal, depending on the content of radioactivity. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit les differents types de dechets radioactifs decoulant de l'utilisation de radioisotopes dans l'industrie, en medecine et dans la science. Il donne un apercu des methodes employees pour l'elimination des dechets selon leur teneur en elements radioactifs. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describen los diferentes tipos de desechos radiactivos producidos por la utilizacion industrial, medica y cientifica de los radioisotopos y se hace una exposicion de los metodos empleados para la evacuacion de desechos segun su contenido radiactivo. (author) [Russian] V doklade daetsja opisanie razlichnyh tipov radioaktivnyh othodov, voznikajushhih v rezul'tate promyshlennogo, medicinskogo i nauchnogo ispol'zovanija radioizotopov. Osobo razbirajutsja metody, ispol'zuemye dlja udalenija radioaktivnyh othodov v zavisimosti ot ih radioaktivnosti. (author)

  6. Investigations on the structure of complex compounds by radioisotope exchange. The structure of cyanonitrosyl complexes; Recherches sur la structure des complexes par echange de radioisotopes - Structure des complexes cyanonitrosyliques; Issledovanie struktury slozhnykh soedinenij pri pomoshchi radioizotopnogo obmena - struktura slozhnykh tsianonitrozilovykh soedinenij; Estudio de la estructura de complejos por intercambio radioisotopico - Estructura de los complejos cianonitrosilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowska-Trzeblatowska, B; Ziolkowski, J [University of Wroclaw (Poland)

    1962-03-15

    cyanonitrosylique est particulierement interessant en raison de sa structure et de son aptitude a former des groupes NO{sup -} ou NO{sup +}. Pour etudier la structure electronique du K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6} et du K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 5}NO, la valence du metaf et le type de liaison, des recherches ont ete faites au moyen de la methode de l'echange de radioisotopes, ainsi que par d'autres methodes physicochimiques. On a constate qu'en introduisant le groupe nitrosyle dans l'ion d'hexacyanate, la stabilite du complexe est sensiblement renforcee, a l'etat solide comme a l'etat de solution. Cette observation s'est trouvee confirmee par des recherches sur la cinetique des echanges intervenant dans les systemes suivants: (I) K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6} + KC{sup 14}N (II) K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 5}NO + KC{sup 14}N. Dans les deux cas, les reactions d'echange sont du premier ordre, mais leurs vitesses et leurs energies d'activation sout extremement differentes. L'anion Mn(CN){sub 5}NO{sub 3} etant sensible a la lumiere, la reaction d'echange est de caractere photochimique. Le rapportdes constantes de vitesse d'echange dans l'obscurite et sous eclairage normalise est de 1:100. La premiere reaction d'echange (I) se produit conformement au mecanisme d'association, tandis que la seconde (II) suit un mecanisme combine association/ dissociation. L'analyse de la distribution de l'activite, dans les groupes cyanure qui subissent un echange a l'etat d'equilibre isotopique, a revele l'existence d'au moins quatre groupes cyanure distincts. La grande stabilite du complexe nitrosylique, en comparaison de celle de l'hexacyanate, a ete prouvee par differentes methodes. Tout cela semble indiquer une structure NO{sup -} dans le complexe. Des recherches anterieures ont montre que le groupe nitrosyle est coordonne sous forme de NO{sup +}. Cela donne a penser que le complexe possede une structure de resonance, si l'on admet la resonance d'une paire d'electrons entre la couche T{sub 2g} de l'atome central et la couche p de l

  7. Regulations concerning the radionuclides uses in France; Reglementation de l'utilisation des radioisotopes en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bugnard, L. [Institut national d' Hygiene (France)

    1955-07-01

    The progress in the uses of radioisotopes has been conditioned by increasing the number of trained workers and researchers and developing theoretical teaching in universities since 1950 in France as well as developing a national control of the distribution and uses of radioisotopes. With the large diffusion and development of radioisotopes uses and applications, new rules and regulations came to control the importation, exportation, transport and utilization of radioisotopes. In the first part, it described the different French laws since 1934 and their successive modifications which ruled on the production, manipulation and utilization of radioisotopes. An inter-ministerial committee was created in 1952 to advise and inform of all the questions related to the preparation, importation, exportation, possession and distribution of radioisotopes. The transport regulations are in constant evolution and has got to meet with international recommendations. It distinguished three different type of transport: road, river and railway transport, postal transport and finally air transport. All the different transports have their specific packaging, maximum transportable quantity, maximum material intensity and labelling requirements. The regulations about customs duties are specified as well as the administrative formalities for non natural radioisotopes importation. Since 1950, diseases caused by irradiation to natural or artificial radioactive materials are recognised as professional diseases and a table of the actual regulations is presented. (M.P.)

  8. A Scintillation Camera for Kinetic Studies of the Distribution of Radioactive Nuclides in the Brain; Chambre a Scintillation pour des Etudes sur la Cinetique de la Repartition des Radionucleides dans le Cerveau; Stsintillyatsionnaya kamera dlya kineticheskogo issledovaniya raspredeleniya radioaktivnykh izotopov v tkani mozga; Camara de Centelleo para Estudiar la Cinetica de la Distribucion de Radionuclidos en el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, W. [Radiological Research Laboratory, Department Of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Schlesinger, E. B.; De Boves, S. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    1964-10-15

    A scintillation camera specifically designed for the study of the kinetics of the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the brain has been developed. This device employs two banks of 3/4 in x 1 in sodium iodide-thallium activated crystals, 63 crystals per bank arranged in a 7 x 9 close-packed array on 1-in centres. These banks can be placed so that both lateral views or one lateral and one P-A or A-P view can be obtained simultaneously. The field of view of each crystal is limited by a collimator consisting of nineteen tapered holes whose axes are all parallel. This design gives a response of nearly equal full-width at half height to a simulated tumour source at all distances up to 4 in from the front of the collimator. This response is sufficiently wide to avoid significant ''dead'' areas and yet narrow enough to permit accurate observation of the activity distribution within a very few minutes using normal tracer doses of iodine-131. Each crystal is optically coupled to its own photomultiplier in an integral package. The output pulses of the photomultipliers are analysed by discriminators and the information stored in digital form in a quarter of the memory of a 512-channel pulse-height analyser. Time coincident pulses from the various detectors can be accepted by this equipment so that losses are negligible. Read-out in several forms is available. In digital form either a typewritten record or punched paper tape can be obtained. The latter may be read back into the equipment for review. Analogue read-out is made on a large screen oscilloscope. The scope beam is defocused and two 63 point display rasters generated to correspond to the spatial location of the scintillation counters. Intensity modulation of the oscilloscope beam as well as background erasure is used to assist in visualizing the activity distribution. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont mis au point une chambre a scintillation specialement concue pour des etudes sur la cinetique de la repartition

  9. Contribution to the study of protein deficiency: Use of radioisotope techniques; Contribution a l'etude des etats de malnutrition proteique utilisation de méthodes isotopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, J.; Colard, J.; Vis, H. L. [Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Centre d' étude de l' énergie nucléaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1970-01-15

    Research methods based on the use of radioisotopes have already been used for some time to study the physiopathogenesis of malnutritional and denutritional conditions in childhood. Two very specific aspects of malnutrition are studied primarily by means of these techniques: plasma protein metabolism proper and hydroelectrolytic disorders, which are an integral part of the physiopathogenetic picture of the disease. The authors have attempted, in so far as is possible, to define the clinical condition of children from along Lake Kivu, in the east of Kivu Province, who are suffering from protein and calorie deficiency. (author) [French] Les méthodes d'investigation à l'aide de radioisotopes ont été, depuis un certain temps déjà, utilisées pour l'étude de la physiopathogénie des états de malnutrition et de dénutrition de l'enfance. Deux aspects bien particuliers de la malnutrition sont surtout étudiés à l'aide de ces méthodes: le métabolisme propre des protéines plasmatiques et les troubles hydro-électrolytiques qui font partie intégrante du tableau physiopathogénique de l'affection. Les auteurs ont essayé de définir, le mieux possible, l'état clinique des enfants de l'est de la province du Kivu, le long du lac Kivu, souffrant de malnutrition protéo-calorique. (author)

  10. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  11. Kinetic equations for an unstable plasma; Equations cinetiques d'un plasma instable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laval, G; Pellat, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this work, we establish the plasma kinetic equations starting from the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy of equations. We demonstrate that relations existing between correlation functions may help to justify the truncation of the hierarchy. Then we obtain the kinetic equations of a stable or unstable plasma. They do not reduce to an equation for the one-body distribution function, but generally involve two coupled equations for the one-body distribution function and the spectral density of the fluctuating electric field. We study limiting cases where the Balescu-Lenard equation, the quasi-linear theory, the Pines-Schrieffer equations and the equations of weak turbulence in the random phase approximation are recovered. At last we generalise the H-theorem for the system of equations and we define conditions for irreversible behaviour. (authors) [French] Dans ce travail nous etablissons les equations cinetiques d'un plasma a partir des equations de la recurrence de Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood et Yvon. Nous demontrons qu'entre les fonctions de correlation d'un plasma existent des relations qui permettent de justifier la troncature de la recurrence. Nous obtenons alors les equations cinetiques d'un plasma stable ou instable. En general elles ne se reduisent pas a une equation d'evolution pour la densite simple, mais se composent de deux equations couplees portant sur la densite simple et la densite spectrale du champ electrique fluctuant. Nous etudions le cas limites ou l'on retrouve l'equation de Balescu-Lenard, les equations de la theorie quasi-lineaire, les equations de Pines et Schrieffer et les equations de la turbulence faible dans l'approximation des phases aleatoires. Enfin, nous generalisons le theoreme H pour ce systeme d'equations et nous precisons les conditions d'evolution irreversible. (auteurs)

  12. Radioisotopes as tracers for reactions in molten fluoride media; Les radioisotopes comme indicateurs des reactions se produisant dans des milieux de fluorures fondus; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov v kachestve indikatorov dlya reaktsij v rasplavlennoj ftoristoj srede; Los radioisotopos como indicadores de las reacciones que tienen lugar en un medio de fluoruros fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, W R; Shaffer, J H; Strehlow, R A; Ward, W T; Watson, G M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    Chemical reactions which may be useful for removing certain constituents from molten fluoride solution have been examined by use of appropriate radioisotopes and standard counting procedures. Classes of reactions studied have included (1) isotopic exchange between solute tracer and insoluble compound, (2) partition of solute between the melt and a solid solution of a similar compound, and (3) precipitation of the radioisotope as insoluble compound. In typical experiments, radiotracer LaF{sub 3} in LiF-NaF melts was shown to exchange rapidly with inactive La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A similar rapid exchange in this solvent occurred between radiotracer CeF{sub 3} and inactive CeO{sub 2}; the electron transfer required in the latter case is apparently no barrier to the reaction. Addition of inactive CeF{sub 3} to each system increased the radiotracer content of the solution in accordance with the mass-action principle. When certain LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts containing CeF{sub 3} and rare-earth fluorides are cooled the primary phase is a solid solution of the trifluorides. Equilibria, between molten solution and solid solution, have been evaluated for various fluoride pairs. No significant deviations from the simple mass-action principle have been observed. Separations of various species by selective precipitation of oxides from molten fluoride solutions have also been demonstrated. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie, au moyen do radioisotopes appropries et des procedes de comptage habituels, les reactions chimiques qui peuvent contribuer a l'elimination do certains constituants en solution dans des fluorures fondus. Les categories de reactions etudiees comprenaient 1. L'echange isotopique entre indicateurs dissous et composes insolubles; 2. La repartition du solute entre la masse fondue et la solution solide d'un compose analogue; 3. La precipitation du radioisotope comme compose insoluble. Des experiences caracteristiques ont montre que, dans les echantillons de LiF-NaF, il

  13. Some Uses of Radioisotopes and Radiations in Entomology; Quelques emplois des radioelements et des rayonnements en entomologie; Nekotorye vidy primeneniya radioehlementov i oblucheniya v ehntomologii; Algunas aplicaciones de los radioelementos y de las radiaciones en entomologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Lecomte, J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station de Recherches sur l' Abeille et les Insectes Sociaux, Bures-Sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-09-15

    The paper reviews the applications of radioisotopes in entomology that have been developed at our two centres during the last few years. Early work (Au{sup 198}-labelling) related to the bee and more particularly to the radius of dispersion of worker bees from a colony. After investigations on the individual dose received in tagging of this kind, the radioresistance of the bee was determined, the lethal dose being estimated at about 90 kr. Au{sup 198} was also used to study exchange of food within a bee-hive. On the other hand, P{sup 32} was used for studies of exchange of food, in small hives, between individuals of different functions (males, workers and queens) or different colonies. Similar trophallaxic studies have recently been performed on wasps. Au198 was likewise the basic radioisotope used in work on ant's nests. The most interesting finding from one of the early studies was that exchange of food takes place between nests more than 50 m apart and belonging to different species (Formica rufa and Formica polyctena). A later study, in which an ant run and not the nest itself was labelled, revealed a division of responsibility within the nests the tagged ants were found invariably to explore the same run and to have little contact with other individuals of the same colony. In the same experiment abnormal radioactivity was noted in the ants before labelling, due in particular to (Sr+Nb){sup 95} . This discovery would seem to point to accumulation of radioactive fall-out in ant's nests. At a period of low fall-out, natural radioactivity attributed to K{sup 40} was observed and was used for purposes of potassium determination in ants and bees. An attempt was made to label acridians with Ir{sup 192} and the findings are described in the paper. Lastly, an autoradiographic study has been made of the distribution of certain radioisotopes (P{sup 32} and S{sup 35}) in the body of the bee. (author) [French] Le memoire passe en revue les applications des radioelements

  14. Analyses and quantitative determination of the strontium radioisotopes 89 and 90 in milk powder; Recherche et dosage des isotopes radioactifs 89 et 90 du strontium dans le lait en poudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Michon, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The authors describe a procedure for the determination of the strontium radioisotopes 89 and 90. The concentration of strontium is made possible by the insolubility of its nitrate salt in strong nitric acid which allows the removal of greatest part of calcium. The purification is performed on a cation exchange column. The amount of radioisotope 90 is determined by means of its daughter product yttrium 90 necessary calibrations and computations are treated in special paragraphs. With regard to the reproducibility of the measurements, the fluctuations are less than 20 per cent. This seems satisfaction for such a technique which have great sensibility while being long and necessitative great carefulness. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent une technique de dosage des isotopes 89 et 90 du strontium. La concentration du strontium est assuree grace a l'insolubilite de son nitrate dans l'acide nitrique concentre, ce qui permet d'eliminer la plus grande partie du Ca. La purification se fait sur une colonne echangeuse de cations. L'isotope 90 est dose grace a son descendant l'yttrium 90. Les etalonnages et calculs necessaires font l'objet de paragraphes detailles. En ce qui concerne la reproductibilite des mesures, les fluctuations sont inferieures a 20 pour cent, ce qui semble satisfaisant devant la grande sensibilite de la methode qui reste cependant longue et delicate. (auteur)

  15. Chemical kinetics: on the heterogeneous catalysis processes leading to an exchange between two phases. Example: isotopic exchange reactions; Cinetique chimique: sur les processus de catalyse 'heterogene' conduisant a un echange entre deux phases. Exemple: reactions d'echange isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, G; Grandcollot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    For an exchange reaction between a gaseous and a liquid phase proceeding by 'heterogeneous' catalysis in the liquid phase, diffusion in the liquid and the chemical reaction are two simultaneous and indivisible processes. We have nevertheless been able to establish criteria making it possible to distinguish between a really homogeneous kinetic process and a pseudo-homogeneous one. (author) [French] Pour une reaction d'echange entre une phase gazeuse et une phase liquide procedant par catalyse 'heterogene' en phase liquide, la diffusion dans le liquide et la reaction chimique sont deux etapes simultanees et indissociables. Nous avons pu neanmoins etablir des criteres permettant de distinguer entre une cinetique homogene vraie et une cinetique pseudo-homogene. (auteur)

  16. Use of radioisotopes in the systematic analysis of impurities in metals of very high purity; Application des radioisotopes a l'analyse systematique des impuretes dans les metaux de tres haute purete; Primenenie radioizotopov v sistematicheskom analize primesej v vysokochistykh metallakh; Aplicacion de los radioelementos al analisis sistematico de las impurezas en los metales muy puros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Philippe; Gaittet, Jean [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique (C.N.R.S.), Vitry (France)

    1962-01-15

    Using the ''zone melting'' method, very-high-purity metals with impurity concentrations of the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -8} can be obtained. These metals are prepared in small quantities only and it must be possible to determine with great sensitivity the content of a very large number of elements from a single sample. The authors have been able by systematic analysis of aluminium and iron after neutron irradiation to determine 45 elements from a single sample of the order of 1 g. This analysis of a large number of impurities was made possible only by the cascade separation of radioisotopes created during irradiation in more than 40 analytical fractions. Most of the radioisotopes are then isolated radiochemically pure and are simultaneously identified by study of their radioactive decay period and {gamma}-ray spectrum. By supplementing this systematic analysis with determination of certain elements from separate samples, it may be foreseen that the activation method will enable about 60 elements to be determined, either by neutron irradiation (in the case of sulphur, phosphorous, chlorine, barium, etc), or by recourse to the reactions produced by deuterons (in that of carbon and boron). The authors lay special emphasis on the results and implications of their analyses. (author) [French] La methode de la permet d'obtenir des metaux de tres haute purete ou les concentrations en impuretes sont de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} a 10{sup -8}. Ces metaux sont prepares en petites quantites et il est tres important de pouvoir doser avec grande sensibilite un tres grand nombre d'elements sur une seule prise d'essai. Pour cela, l'analyse systematique de l'aluminium et du fer par irradiation neutronique nous a permis de doser quarante-cinq elements sur une prise d'essai de l'ordre du gramme. Cette analyse d'un grand nombre d'impuretes n'a ete rendue possible que par la separation en cascade des radioisotopes crees pendant l'irradiation en plus de quarante fractions

  17. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report; Entrainement et redistribution des radionucleides sur le bassin versant de la Peyne. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F

    2006-07-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  18. Radioisotope camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.M.; Kump, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic ciruit corrects distortions caused by the distance between the individual photomultiplier tubes of the multiple radioisotope camera on one hand and between the tube configuration and the scintillator plate on the other. For this purpose the transmission characteristics of the nonlinear circuits are altered as a function of the energy of the incident radiation. By this means the threshold values between lower and higher amplification are adjusted to the energy level of each scintillation. The correcting circuit may be used for any number of isotopes to be measured. (DG) [de

  19. Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delattre, R. [Institut de Recherches du Coton et Textiles, Paris (France)

    1963-09-15

    control experiment will now be required, consisting of labelling, during the season, cotton-plants in a field where cotton was also grown the previous year; this time non-diapause chrysalids will be labelled. Similar observations are also being performed on a number of other cotton-plant pests. (author) [French] Le chenille de Diparopsis wacersi Roth est nuisible au cotonnier en detruisant fleurs et capsules. Cette noctuelle, pratiquement monophage, passe l'inter-saison, soit dans le sol sous forme de chrysalides en-diapause a partir du 10 novembre, soit par des generations continues (polyvoltines) sur les plants non arraches. Des etudes de laboratoire ont permis d'elucider les principaux mecanismes declenchant la diapause et y mettant fin. Dans la nature, les pullulations en cours de culture s'etablissent a partir d'individus univoltins venant a eclosion vers avril-mai aussi bien que des generations sans diapause; la participation respective de ces deux souches differentes devrait etre determinee assez exactement pour connaitre les moyens de lutte appropries: arrachage du cotonnier, destruction des pupes en diapause dans le sol, avancement de la campagne, etc. Le marquage par des radioisotopes des chenilles venant a maturite aux epoques critiques devrait permettre de serrer ce probleme sur le plan pratique. Des experiences preliminaires ont eu lieu a Tikem (Republique de Tchad) en vue de determiner des techniques de marquage simples. Dans un premier essai, {sup 32}P a ete applique en pulverisation aqueuse directe sur le feuillage de cotonniers jeunes. Malgre la pluie, l'absorption fut de 10% environ par la plante en quelques heures. Diverses chenilles phyllophages (Sylepta derogata, Prodenia litura) ne retiennent pas de radioactivite, mais les chenilles qui se nourrissent d'organes fructiferes (Heliothis armigera, Earias insulana, Diparopsis watersi, etc.) sont facilement detectable trois mois apres l'application. Dans un deuxieme essai, {sup 32}P et {sup 35}S ont ete

  20. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control; Emploi des radioisotopes et des rayonnements dans la lutte contre les insectes nuisibles aux plantes et aux animaux; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov i radiashchi v bor'be s nasekomymi-vreditelyami rastenij i zhivotnykh; Utilizacion de los radioisotopos y de las radiaciones en la lucha contra los insectos nocivos para las plantas y los animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, S. V.; Martens, B. K.; Samojlova, V. A.; Molchanova, Z. I. [Vsesoyuznyj Institut Zashchity Rastenij, Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-09-15

    degrees of stability when subjected to the action of herbicides. Pesticides containing trace quantities of isotopes with short half-lives can be used as a means of judging the merits of various spraying systems for treating seeds and agricultural crops with pesticides; this method also provides information about the optimum doses. Experiments have shown that ionizing radiations can be used to increase the virulence of insect nosophytes (Beauveria vassiana Unill.) and thus improve the efficiency of microbiological insect-pest-control methods. The sterilizing and lethal effects of ionizing radiations are also useful in combatting insect pests. Gamma-ray experiments have made it possible to establish sterilizing doses for a number of insect pests which attack crops and stored products (Calandra granaria L., Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, Pectinophora malvella Hb., Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say, Chloridea obsoleta F.). The data obtained in these investigations will be used to develop and improve the methods of insect-pest control used in agriculture. (author) [French] Le probleme de la lutte contre les parasites des cultures presente une grande importance pour l'economie nationale. Il importe, pour le resoudre, de tirer parti des realisations scientifiques les plus recentes. Pour rationaliser les methodes actuelles de lutte contre les insectes nuisibles et accroitre l'efficacite de ces methodes, on a fait appel aux radioisotopes et aux rayonnements. Grace a remploi des radioisotopes et des rayonnements, il est possible de rationaliser dans une large mesure les methodes utilisees et d'augmenter leur efficacite. A cet effet, il est indispensable d'etudier a fond les problemes d'ecologie, de toxicologie, etc. Dans le domaine de l'ecologie, la methode du radiomarquage des insectes est particulierement prometteuse. L'emploi de radioisotopes pour le marquage des insectes ravageurs des cereales (Eurygaster integriceps Put. et Hadena sordida Skh.) et de leurs parasites (Meniscus

  1. Study of atmospheric tritium transfers in lettuce: kinetic study, equilibrium and organic incorporation during a continuous atmospheric exposure; Etude des transferts du tritium atmospherique chez la laitue: Etude cinetique, etat d'equilibre et integration du tritum sous forme organique lors d'une exposition atmospherique continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.

    2009-11-30

    This thesis has explored the mechanisms of tritium 'absorption and incorporation in a human-consumed plant, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), due to atmospheric exposure. Foliar uptake appears to play a key role in absorption of tritium as tissue free water tritium. Whatever the development stage and the light conditions, the specific activity in tissue free water reaches that of water vapour in air in several hours. The specific activity ratio is then about 0, 4. The time to reach equilibrium in soil is over 24 hours in most cases: the specific activity ratio ranges then 0, 01 to 0, 26. Incorporation rate of tissue free water tritium as organically-bound tritium has been estimated to 0, 13 to 0, 16 % h-l in average over the growing period of the plant, but marked variations are observed during growth. In particular, a significant increase appeared at the exponential growth stage. Deposition and diffusion of tritium in soil lead to significant OBT activities in soil. Results globally indicate equilibrium between the different environmental compartments (air, soil, plant). However, some experiments have revealed high OBT concentrations regarding atmospheric level exposure and ask for a possible phenomenon of local tritium accumulation in OBT for particular conditions of exposure. (author) [French] Ce travail de these a concerne l'etude des phenomenes d'absorption et d'incorporation sous forme organique du tritium dans un vegetal de consommation courante, la laitue (Lactuca sativa L.), en reponse a une exposition atmospherique. Il apparait que la voie foliaire joue un role primordial dans l'absorption du tritium au sein de l'eau tissulaire des plants. Quels que soient le stade de developpement des plants et les conditions d'eclairement, le temps necessaire pour atteindre l'equilibre des concentrations dans l'eau libre et dans la vapeur d'eau de l'air est de plusieurs heures; le rapport des concentrations est alors de

  2. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  3. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-20

    u) watt/cm-3 O) specific activity f) curia/watt (curie/a) a) half-life c) specific power output h) years (capacity) 1) days d) watt/p Polonium - 210 ...AD/A-001 210 RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER G. M. Fradkin, et al Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia 20...narticularlv for nurninn and irocess~ino of wastg.Sheatinc food , conversion of liruld oxtoner to des, and also for removal of imnurities and reula:tion

  4. Radioisotope detection with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.S.; Muller, R.A.; Tans, P.P.

    1979-12-01

    High energy mass spectrometry is a new and very sensitive technique of measuring rare radioisotopes. This paper describes the techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample and the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications

  5. Efficiency of the Shut-Down and Safety Equipment and the Kinetic Characteristics of the G2 and G3 Reactors; Efficacite des dispositifs de secours et de securite et caracteristiques cinetiques des piles G2 et G3; Ehffektivnost' sistem avarijnoj zashchity reaktorov G.2 i G.3 i kineticheskie kharakteristiki ehtikh sistem; Caracteristicas cineticas y eficacia de los dispositivos de auxilio y de seguridad de los reactores G2 y G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henri, C.; Plisson, J.; Teste duBailler, A. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1963-10-15

    The experience gained in several years of operating the G2 and G3 reactors confirms that natural uranium-graphite-gas reactors are extremely safe. The built-in shut-down and safety mechanisms which minimize operational incidents such as lack of power from the mains, blower failure, lack of water etc., together with accidents such as cladding bursts, local overheating, loss of coolant etc. are described and their operation explained by means of diagrams. The main points examined are as follows: (a) power distribution and controlability during accident conditions; (b) distribution of emergency water; and (c) the safety chain. The performance of the installations and the successive improvements incorporated in them are mentioned. The built-in safety characteristics of the reactors are shown by means of an experimental study of their behaviour in transient operation. These studies make it possible to check the validity of the calculation model. The machine calculation programmes can subsequently be used to study the consequences of possible accidents. Special attention is given to the depressurization accident, taking into account the performance of the safety device installed. (author) [French] L'experience acquise'au cours de plusieurs annees d'exploitation des piles G2 et G3 permet de confirmer le haut degre de securite du fonctionnement des piles de la filiere uranium naturel-graphitegaz. Les installations fixes de secours et de securite permettant de pallier, d'une part aux incidents d'exploitation tels que manque d'alimentation du reseau de distribution, arret de soufflage, manque d'alimentation en eau, etc., d'autre part, a des accidents tels que rupture de gaine, echauffements locaux, perte de fluide caloporteur, etc., sont decrites et leur fonctionnement explicite au moyen de schemas de principe. On examine principalement (a) la distribution ''puissance'' et ''controle'' des installations secourues, (b) la distribution d'eau secourue, et (c) la chaine de

  6. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  7. Radioisotopes production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Application of radioisotopes for both medical and industrial applications constitutes one of the most important peaceful uses of atomic energy. The striking diffusion and the exciting perspective of radioisotope for a plethora of medical and industrial applications are mainly attributable to the penetrating and ionization properties of radiation emanating from radioisotopes. The revolutionary medical applications of radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of a multitude of diseases are causing a rapid expansion of the nuclear medicine field. While the industrial uses of radioisotopes are not expanding as quickly, also require large amounts of radioisotopes. Production of radioisotopes is not only the first step, but also the most crucial for the success as well as sustainable growth of radioisotope applications. With the rapid growth and expanding areas of applications, the demands for isotopes have increased several folds. A number of radioisotopes of different physical half-life, energy of the particle or gamma emission, specific activity and chemistry are now regularly produced both at commercial centers as well as at selected nuclear science research institutes utilizing reactors and cyclotrons to meet the ever growing need

  8. Investigation of the kinetics of the reactions of oxidation, nitration, and hydrogenation of uranium; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation, de la nitruration et de l'hydruration de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    Various physico-chemical methods have been used to investigate the kinetics of the oxidation hydridation and nitridation of uranium. The experimental results show that the kinetics of these reactions are influenced by many factors also the Pilling and Bedworth rule is valid only under very limited conditions. The disagreement between this rule and the experimental results could be explained by the existence of numerous mechanical faults in the compounds obtained by the dry corrosion of the metal. (author) [French] Les cinetiques d'oxydation, d'hydruration et de nitruration de l'uranium ont ete etudiees au moyen de differentes methodes physico-chimiques. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus indiquent qu'un grand nombre de facteurs influencent les cinetiques d'attaque et que la regle de Pilling et Bedworth n'est verifiee que dans des cas tres limites. Les desaccords entre cette regle et les resultats experimentaux s'expliqueraient par l'existence de nombreux defauts mecaniques dans les composes obtenus par corrosion seche du metal. (auteur)

  9. Kinetic distribution of the radio-sodium among the rabbit in hypothermia; Cinetique de la distribution du radio-sodium chez le lapin en hypothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F; Combrisson, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The experimental hypothermia, by the deep modifications of the circulatory hemodynamic, which it drags, and by the huge reduction of the oxidative processes that it characterizes, represent a particular physiological state that must permit to specify physico-chemical mechanisms which order the exchanges of the partition of the blood in capillaries and notably electrolytes exchanges. To do this study we followed the distribution kinetics of the sodium 24 in the blood system of 30 rabbits that was either in hypothermia, either to normal temperature. (M.B.) [French] L'hypothermie experimentale, par les modifications profondes de l'hemodynamique circulatoire qu'elle entraine, et par la diminution considerable des processus oxydatifs qui la caracterise, represente un etat physiologique particulier qui doit permettre de preciser experimentalement les mecanismes physico-chimiques qui commandent les echanges dont la paroi des capillaires sanguins est le siege, et notamment les echanges d'electrolytes. Pour cela on a suivi la cinetique de la distribution du sodium 24 dans le systeme sanguin de 30 lapins qui etaient soit en hypothermie, soit a temperature normale. (M.B.)

  10. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  11. Use of Isotopes for Investigating the Behaviour and Ecology of Insect Pests in Some Recent Studies; Emploi des radioisotopes dans des recherches recentes sur le comportement et l'ecologie des insectes nuisibles; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov dlya issledovaniya povedeniya i ehkologii nasekomykh-vreditelej v Irane; Empleo de isotopos en estudios recientes sobre el comportamiento y la ecologia de las plagas insectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi Sayeed, M. [Cento Institute of Nuclear Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1963-09-15

    toujours pose des problemes interessants aux entomologistes. Les radioisotopes constituent un outil efficace, et l'auteur expose les resultats auxquels il est parvenu grace a leur emploi dans l'etude de certains de ces problemes. L'Anopheles stephensi est le principal vecteur du paludisme en Iran meridional. En marquant des moustiques avec {sup 32}P, on a pu determiner la dispersion, le comportement, la digestion du sang, le developpement des ovaires et la duree des cycles gonotrophiques. On a constate que, dans environ 80% des cas, le moustique a besoin de deux repas de sang pour realiser le premier cycle. La duree de ce cycle a ete de 4-5 j selon la temperature. Les moustiques marques qui etaient parvenus a l'etat adulte pendant la nuit ont ete laches sur un village isole. On a calcule tous les jours le pourcentage de moustiques irradies par rapport a la prise totale; en partant de l'hypothese que la population naturelle demeurait constante, on a determine le taux de mortalite et constate que c 'etait une fonction exponentielle pour les six premiers jours. On a egalement etudie le comportement sexuel de la femelle a l'aide de femelles normales qui s'etaient accouplees une fois avec des males marques avec {sup 32}P. On a pu etablir que la femelle s'accouple plus d' une fois et que la spermatotheque devient radioactive apres accouplement avec un male irradie. On a enregiste un nombre de coups pouvant atteindre jusqu'a deux fois le bruit de fond (12 cpm) en utilisant des males donnant environ 15 000 cpm. Avec des moustiques marques avec {sup 32}P, on a egalement etudie l'injection de salive dans une solution de'glucose pendant l'absorption de nourriture. L'Eurygaster integriceps est un insecte tres nuisible au ble en Iran, au Pakistan et au Moyen-Orient. Au moyen de grains marques par {sup 32}P, on a etudie le comportement alimentaire au premier stade nymphal, On a egalement etudie d'autres nourritures marquees et on a constate que la nymphe devait se nourrir, ne serait

  12. Identification and estimation ot carbohydrates using radioisotopic methods; Identification et dosage des hydrates de carbone a l'aide des radioisotopes; Identifikatsiya i opredelenie karbogidratov s pomoshch'yu radioizotopnykh metodov; Identificacion u valoracion de hidratos de carbono con ayuda de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, G O; Criddle, W J [Department of Chemistry, University College, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    Isotope-dilution methods have been developed to identify and estimate the small amount of products formed when carbohydrates are irradiated in aqueous solution with Co{sup 60} gamma-radiation. Conventional analytical methods proved inadequate. After irradiation of C{sup 14}-sugar solutions, the autoradiographs prepared after paper chromatography indicated extensive degradation. Using a reverse isotope-dilution procedure involving the addition of known carriers, and conversion of the fragments into crystalline derivatives, various constituents were quantitatively determined. It is possible to distinguish between d- and Z-isomers, and estimate each isomer independently. The method is applicable to other analytical problems in carbohydrate chemistry. A new method for scanning and recording the radioactivity along paper-chromatogram strips, which involves an inexpensive modification to conventional counting equipment, is described. (author) [French] On a mis au point des methodes de dilution isotopique destinees a identifier et a doser les menues quantites de produits qui se forment lorsque des hydrates de carbone en solution aqueuse sont irradies par les rayons gamma du cobalt-60. A cet egard, les methodes d'analyse classiques se sont revelees inadequates. Apres irradiation de solutions de sucre marque au carbone-14, les autoradiogrammes etablis a la suite d'une chromatographic sur papier indiquaient une forte degradation. En recourant a une methode de dilution isotopique inverse, avec adjonction d'entraineurs connus, et en operant une conversion des fragments en derives cristallins, on a pu determiner quantitativement plusieurs elements constitutifs. Il est possible de distinguer les isomeres dextrogyres des isomeres levogyres et de doser chaque isomere independamment. La methode peut etre appliquee a d'autres problemes d'analyse dans la chimie des hydrates de carbone. Le memoire decrit une nouvelle methode permettant d'explorer et d'enregistrer la radioactivite de

  13. A Kinetic Description of the Van Hove Correlation Functions; Description Cinetique des Fonctions de Correlation de Van Hove; 041a 0418 041d 0415 0422 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 041e 0415 041e 041f 0418 0421 0410 041d 0418 0415 0424 0423 041d 041a 0426 0418 0419 041a 041e 0420 0420 0415 041b 042f 0426 0418 0418 0412 0410 041d 0413 041e 0412 0415 ; Descripcion Cinetica de las Funciones de Correlacion de Van Hove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelkin, M.; Van Leeuwen, J. M.J.; Yip, S. [Cornell University Ithaca N.Y. (United States)

    1965-06-15

    appropriate to G(r, t) and G{sub s} (r, t) do not have the same form. The consequences of the two descriptions are demonstrated by model calculations in the context of simple relaxation approximations. The Gs(r, t) calculation leads to a correlation function with non-Gaussian effects which are qualitatively similar to but more pronounced than those calculated by Rahman in liquid argon from molecular dynamics. More refined treatment of the collision integral is now being considered. The G (r, t) calculation shows the expected effects of thermal diffusion and damped sound wave propagation at long wavelengths, and deviates from the conventional hydrodynamic description at short wavelengths. (author) [French] La fonction de correlation de densite de van Hove G (r, t) pour un fluide classique est exprimee par une integration sur les quantites de mouvements d'une fonction appropriee de distribution a une particule F (r, p, t). Par un procede analogue, on obtient la fonction d'autocorrelation G{sub s}(r, t) exprimee a l'aide d'une autre fonction de distribution F{sub s}(r, p, t). Les auteurs montrent que pour des gaz de densite moyenne, ces fonctions de distribution peuvent etre calculees a partir d'equations cinetiques. Ces dernieres sont etablies par des developpements en serie, selon la densite, de F (r, p, t) et F{sub s}(r, p, t). Pour des temps courts par rapport aux intervalles entre les chocs, les series ainsi obtenues peuvent etre utilisees directement. Pour des temps plus longs, il faut faire la somme d'une serie infinie de termes de maniere a tenir compte des effets de chocs multiples. La sommation des termes predominants peut se ramener a la solution d'une equation integrale. Dans l'ordre inferieur, cette equation a la forme d'une equation de Boltzmann linearisee, corrigee pour tenir compte des chocs incomplets. Lorsque ces corrections sont negligees, l'equation appropriee relative a F(r, p, t) devient l'equation de Boltzmann linearisee telle qu'elle est employee dans la

  14. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  15. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-01-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  16. Economical Radioisotope Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power to...

  17. Radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popple, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  18. Study with radio-sulphur of the kinetics of the process SO{sub 2} + 0.5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3} in a state of chemical equilibrium on a platinum catalyst; Etude, a l'aide du soufre radioactif, de la cinetique de la reaction SO{sub 2} + 0,5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3} en equilibre chimique, en presence d'un catalyseur de platine; Issledovanie pri pomoshchi radioaktivnoj sery kinetiki protsessa SO{sub 2} + 0,5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3}, nakhodyashchegosya v sostoyanii khimicheskogo ravnovesiya, na platinovom katalizatore; Estudio, con ayuda de azufre radiactivo, de la cinetica de la reaccion SO{sub 2} + 0,5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3} en equilibrio quimico en presencia de un catalizador de platino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojter, V A; Stukanovskaya, N A; Kornejchuk, G P

    1962-03-15

    The authors describe an attempt to use radioisotopes in the study of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic processes in a state of equilibrium. The investigation was carried out by the circulation method. After establishment of equilibrium, a small amount of S{sup 35}O{sub 2} was introduced into the system as a tracer and its conversion rate into S{sup 35}O{sub 3} was measured. From that rate the speed of the direct and inverse processes of oxidation of SO{sub 2} on the catalyst was calculated. Possible sequence patterns for the process are suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Le memoire expose un essai d'application des radioisotopes a l'etude de la cinetique des reactions catalytiques heterogenes en equilibre chimique. Les recherches ont ete effectuees par la methode a circulation. Apres etablissement de l'equilibre, on a introduit comme indicateur une petite quantite de {sup 35}SO{sub 2} et mesure la vitesse de sa transformation en {sup 35}SO{sub 3}. En partant de cette vitesse, on a calcule celle du processus d'oxydation directe et inverse du SO{sub 2} sur le catalyseur. Les auteurs proposent et etudient differentes formules selon lesquelles la reaction peut se derouler. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen un experimento sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de la cinetica de procesos cataliticos heterogeneos en estado de equilibrio. La investigacion se llevo a cabo por el metodo de circulacion. Una vez establecido el equilibrio, se introdujo en el sistema una pequena cantidad de {sup 35}SO{sub 2} como trazador y se midio su indice de conversion en {sup 35}SO{sub 3}. De dicho indice se dedujo la velocidad de los procesos directo e inverso de oxidacion del SO{sub 2} en presencia del catalizador. Los autores proponen y examinan diversos tipos posibles de cinetica para el proceso. (author) [Russian] Izlagaetsya opyt primeneniya radioaktivnykh izotopov dlya izucheniya kinetiki geterogennykh kataliticheskikh protsessov, nakhodyashchikhsya v

  19. Study of the kinetics of strontium elimination in the rat; Etude de la cinetique de l'elimination du strontium chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloux, M J; Michon, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A kinetic study of strontium elimination was made on rats after a single oral administration of 3 to 5 {mu}curies of carrier free Sr{sup 90}. The curve showing the body burden in function of time may be considered as the sum of three exponential terms with half-lives of 14 hours, 72 days, 153 days. The term with a half-live of 153 days represents the metabolism of strontium in the bone; it is predominant since the 17. day and its extrapolation to time zero shows that things seem to proceed as if 18 per cent of the administered amount were deposited in the skeleton. (author) [French] La cinetique de l'elimination du strontium chez le rat a ete etudiee apres une administration orale unique de 3 a 5 {mu}curies de {sup 90}Sr repute sans entraineur. La courbe representant la quantite presente dans l'organisme en fonction du temps peut etre assimilee a la somme de trois termes exponentiels de periode 14 heures, 72 jours, 153 jours. Le terme de periode 153 jours represente le metabolisme osseux du strontium, il est preponderant des le 17. jour et son extrapolation au temps zero nous montre qu'en definitive, tout se passe comme si 18 pour cent de la quantite administree etaient deposes dans le squelette. (auteur)

  20. Radioisotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culwell, J. P.

    1963-01-01

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  1. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  2. Handling and Separation of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Research Reactors; Manipulation et Separation des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode Produits dans des Reacteurs de Recherche; ПОЛУЧЕНИЕ И ОТДЕЛЕНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИХ РЕАКТОРАХ; Manipulacion y Separacion de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto Obtenidos en Reactores de Investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, W. W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1963-03-15

    distillation, selective reduction, etc., also add to the variety of separation possibilities to be explored. The local research reactor, whether it is in a university in the United States, or in a developing country, thus opens a whole new era of tracer possibilities. (author) [French] L'emploi des radioisotopes a souvent ete limite aux radioisotopes dont la periode est superieure a un jour, etant donne l'eloignement du reacteur qui les produit. Ceci explique un certain manque d'interet a l'egard du traitement et de l'utilisation de ces radioisotopes, et par suite une certaine reticence de la part du consommateur a envisager meme les possibilites d'emploi de nombreux radioisotopes a courte periode. Comme il existe maintenant de nombreux reacteurs de recherche dans le monde, les laboratoires ne dependent plus de producteurs de radioisotopes eloignes; en outre, les radioisotopes a courte periode couvrent de nombreux champs d'experimentation nouveaux. Il importe, cependant, a cette fin de considerer la production des radioindicateurs sous un angle nouveau. Depuis pres de cinq annees, le programme execute au moyen du reacteur de recherche de l'Universite du Michigan comporte la manipulation, le traitement et la mesure de radioisotopes a courte periode. Les chercheurs de l'Universite emploient couramment des radioisotopes dont les periodes ne depassent pas plusieurs heures, voire quelques minutes. Les traveaux entrepris jusqu'a present avaient trait principalement a l'analyse par activation, mais le material, les methodes et les techniques utilises.peuvent s'appliquer a de nombreux autres domaines. Pour utiliser les radioisotopes a courte periode, il n'est pas necessaire de prevoir un roulement de trois equipes pour le reacteur; il n'est pas lion plus indispensable de disposer de stocks importants de radioisotopes, ni d'installations de traitement perfectionnees.En fait, de simples pinces, utilisees de la maniere courante, donnent generalement de meilleurs resultats que de

  3. Incorporation of Radioisotopes into Melted Silicates; Incorporation de Radioisotopes dans des Silicates Fondus; 0412 0412 0415 0414 0415 041d 0418 0415 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 0412 0420 0410 0421 041f 041b 0410 0412 041b 0415 041d 041d 042b 0415 0421 0418 041b 0418 041a 0410 0422 042b ; Incorporacion de Radioisotopos en Silicatos Fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakova, J.; Saidl, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez near Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic)

    1963-02-15

    exclude any possible contact with water, the safety of this disposal can be guaranteed. (author) [French] Le memoire rend compte de travaux de recherche qui avaient pour but: 1. De choisir des materiaux (roche fondue ou silicate vitrifiable) se pretant a l'incorporation de radio- isotopes a longue periode biologiquement dangereux. 2. De determiner les facteurs susceptibles de diminuer la vitesse de liberation des radioisotopes incorpores, afin qu'ils ne constituent pas un danger pour la biosphere. Les auteurs ont utilise 14 echantillons de basaltes fondus provenant de la Boheme septentrionale et occidentale et trois echantillons de verres selectionnes. Au cours des experiences, on a tenu dument compte de la diffusion de radioisotopes dans les verres et les roches fondues et de la resistance chimique de ces materiaux. Pour etudier la diffusion de {sup 90}Sr et de {sup 134}Cs, on a choisi la methode de la ' couche mince ' decrite par Kryoukov et Jouchovitski, consideree comme la plus avantageuse. Dans la gamme de temperatures de 300 Degree-Sign a 600 Degree-Sign C, on a note des coefficients de diffusion de 10{sup -13} a 10{sup -11}cm{sup 2}/s. Le fait que l'energie d'activation est plus basse pour le cesium que pour le sodium confirme l'hypothese d'apres laquelle le cesium aurait une liaison plus faible que les autres coips simples vitri- fiables. En mesurant la vitesse de lixiviation du cesium et du strontium incorpores a des roches fondues, on a constate que la majeure partie de la radioactivite entrainee l'etait dans la phase initiale du processus. Apres 100 heures, le pourcentage entraine devenait constant. La vitesse de lixiviation ulterieure est probablement limitee par la corrosivite du milieu et par la diffusion interne des elements solubles, de l'interieur vers la surface du solide. On a etudie la corrosivite des verres et des roches fondues dans des conditions statiques a temperature constante (35, 60 et 90 Degree-Sign C) et on a trouve des coefficients de

  4. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  5. Radioisotope clocks in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, R E.M. [Oxford Univ. (UK). Research Lab. for Archaeology

    1979-09-06

    Methods of absolute dating which use the rate of disintegration of a radioactive nucleus as the clock, are reviewed. The use of the abundant radioisotopes (/sup 40/K, Th and U) and of the rare radioisotopes (/sup 14/C, /sup 10/Be, /sup 26/Al, /sup 32/Si, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 41/Ca, /sup 53/Mn) is discussed and radiation integration techniques (fission track dating, thermoluminescence and related techniques) are considered. Specific fields of use of the various methods and their accuracy are examined.

  6. Radioisotopes in soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Soils form a thin veneer of the Earth that sustain the entire flora and fauna of the terra firma. To that extent the soil as a natural resource is very precious and needs to be managed in a sustainable manner. The fate of degradation of pesticides in soil and build-up of heavy metals in the overall biosafety scenario is also studied gainfully using radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are a very potent tool in the hands of the Soil Scientists, perhaps, the most important among the peaceful applications in service of the mankind

  7. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  8. Radioisotopic heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  9. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  10. Radio-isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamins, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    A device is claimed for interrupting an elution process in a radioisotope generator before an elution vial is entirely filled. The generator is simultaneously exposed to sterile air both in the direction of the generator column and of the elution vial

  11. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  12. Radioisotope battery for particular application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Tianjian; Liang Daihua; Cai Jianhua; Dai Zhimin; Xia Huihao; Wang Jianhua; Sun Sen; Yu Guojun; Wang Xiao; Wang Dongxing; Liu Xin

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotope battery, as a new type of power source, was developed in 1960s. It is advantageous in terms of long working life, high reliability, flexibility to rugged environment, maintenance free, and high capacity rate, hence its unique applications in space, isolated terrestrial or ocean spots, deep waters, and medicine. In this paper, we analysz the primary performances and classification of radioisotope thermoelectric generator, as well as characteristic, basic principle,and structure of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), which is the most popular in application of radioisotope battery in space, undersea, terrestrial and medicine. A prospect for development and application of radioisotope battery in the 21 st century is given, too. (authors)

  13. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are: 3 H, 14 Ca, 32 P, 35 S, 38 Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198 Au, 134 Cs, 131 I, 86 Rb, 65 Zn, 59 Fe, 45 Ca, 24 Na, 22 Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  14. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saour, G [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:{sup 3}H, {sup 14}Ca, {sup 32}P, {sup 35}S, {sup 38}Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: {sup 198}Au, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 24}Na, {sup 22}Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs.

  15. Kinetic cartography of radioisotopes of iodine in the thyroid follicles of the new-born rats under low or standard iodine diet: Analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS50): Contribution to the study of the consequences of Chernobyl; Cartographie cinetique des radioisotopes de l'iode dans le follicule thyroidien du rat nouveau-ne carence en iode ou non. Analyse par spectrometrie de masse d'ions secondaires (NanoSIMS50). Contribution a l'etude des consequences de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbast, M

    2008-03-15

    The most significant impact of the Chernobylsk accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among children in contaminated areas. To estimate the radiation dose provided by radioiodine released after Chernobylsk (iodine 131 and short-lived isotopes, iodine 132, 133, 134, 135), we used new-born rats to mimic the situation of fallout contamination (young age and iodine deficiency). The pups, under low iodine diet and under standard diet, were contaminated with {sup 129}I at ages varying between 2 to 15 days and sacrificed 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8 days after contamination. The variation in intra colloidal iodine distribution from 1 hour to 8 days was performed using a new ionic nano probe (NanoSIMS50). This method permits to discriminate between the newly incorporated iodine (129) and the initial pool of iodine (127). SIMS observations permit to heterogeneous intra and inter follicular distribution of {sup 129}I. Iodine deficiency increases the absorbed amounts of iodine by a factor 10. Dosimetric estimations show an important contribution of short-lived radioiodine to the total thyrocyte dose. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the age and the iodine deficiency accelerate the absorption of iodine in follicles and that the contribution of short-lived iodine connate ne neglected. (author)

  16. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  17. Radioisotope production linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.; Hansborough, L.D.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 70-MeV proton beam would open a new family of medical radioisotopes (including the important 123 I) to wide application. A 70-MeV, 500-μA linac is described, based on recent innovations in accelerator technology. It would be 27.3 m long, cost approx. $6 million, and the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable to existing cyclotrons. By operating the rf-power system to its full capability, the same accelerator is capable of producing a 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons. The technology to build such a linac is in a mature stage of developmnt, ready for use by industry

  18. NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letule, T.

    2017-01-01

    NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA). Supplies around 20% of the world's medical radioisotopes used. NTP is a pioneer in the introduction and growth of nuclear medicine as in South Africa. Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that involves the use of radioactive isotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nuclear medicine contributes to enhancing the lives of the society. There is a compelling need for nuclear medicine to be promoted and utilized in the rest of Africa, due to the increasing prevalence of cancer. Cancer is rapidly becoming a public health crisis in low-income and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, patients often present with advanced disease

  19. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies

  20. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  1. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies.

  2. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Heavy element concentration determination by the x-ray fluorescence analysis using radioisotope {gamma}-ray sources; Dosage d'elements lourds par fluorescence X utilisant des radio-sources de rayons gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Materiaux et des Combustibles Nucleaires, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A theoretical and experimental study has been made on the fluorescence analysis of high atomic number element, using {gamma}-ray sources for excitation and characteristic K X-rays for the measurement. The choice of the proper {gamma}-ray energy according to the conditions of the determination is considered. The author has studied the usefulness of using the backscattered {gamma}-rays as a correction mean for matrix and grain-size effects. Sources of {sup 153}Gd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs have been used for excitation using collimated geometries. Concentration measurements of tungsten in steel, tungsten and lead in aqueous solution, PbS in SiO{sub 2}-PbS powder mixtures have been done, as well as thickness evaluation of gold layers on copper. A precision of about 0.2 per cent (abs.) is obtained for lead determination in light matrixes. A probe design is proposed for the continuous determination of lead in aqueous solutions. (author) [French] On etudie de maniere theorique et experimentale l'analyse d'elements a nombre atomique eleve par fluorescence en utilisant des sources de rayons {gamma} pour l'excitation, et des rayons-X K caracteristiques pour la mesure. On considere le choix de l'energie appropriee des rayons {gamma} suivant les conditions experimentales. L'utilite d'employer les rayons {gamma} retrodiffuses pour corriger les effets de la matrice et de la dimension des grains est etudiee. Des sources de {sup 153}Gd, de {sup 57}Co et de {sup 137}Cs a geometrie collimatee ont ete utilisees pour l'excitation. Des mesures de la concentration du tungstene dans l'acier, du tungstene et du plomb en solutions aqueuses, et du PbS dans des melanges de poudre SiO{sub 2}-PbS ont ete entreprises ainsi que l'evaluation de l'epaisseur des couches d'or sur le cuivre. On obtient une precision d'environ 0,2 pour cent (en absolu) pour la determination du plomb dans des matrices legeres. On propose un modele de sonde pour la determination en continu du plomb en solution aqueuse

  4. Management of Waste from the Use of Radioisotopes; Divers Aspects Resultant de l'Utilisation des Isotopes Radioactifs; 0423 0414 0410 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 041e 0422 0425 041e 0414 ; Diversos Aspectos Relacionados con los Desechos Procedentes del Empleo de Radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Lester R. [Radiation Safety Branch, Division of Licensing and Regulation, United States Atomic Energy Commission (United States)

    1960-07-01

    The author examines the origin and nature of radioactive waste generated in the use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture and research and studies the relationship between types, quantities and uses of radioisotopes and disposal of the radioactive waste generated in their use. He also discusses the methods used for the disposal of such waste under the licensing controls of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. These methods include: 1. The controlled discharge of low concentrations of effluents into streams and into the atmosphere; 2. Controlled release of small quantities of soluble or readily dispersible waste products into sanitary sewage systems; 3. Burial, under controlled conditions, of small quantities of waste in the soil ; 4. Return to AEC installations of radioactive waste for storage or land burial ; 5. Treatment by incineration; and 6. Disposal of packaged waste at sea. The paper reviews the criteria and regulatory requirements applicable to cach method of disposal to accomplish the objective of preventing the waste from entering the food chain of man in hazardous quantities, or of adversely affecting the use of the environment by man. It goes on to discuss the limitations on the types, quantities, and methods of disposal for which private concerns can be licensed due to long-term responsibility for maintenance of burial grounds or storage facilities. (author) [French] L'auteur se propose d'examiner l'origine et la nature des dechets radioactifs resultant de l'utflisation des radioisotopes dans l'industrie, la medecine, l'agriculture et dans les laboratoires de recherche, et d'etudier les rapports qui existent entre les types, les quantites et les utilisations des radioisotopes, d'une part, et les dechets de leur production, d'autre part. Il etudie aussi les methodes utilisees pour l'elimination de ces dechets conformement aux mesures de controle appliquees par la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis. Les methodes

  5. Some possible uses of radioisotopes in the rubber industry; Certaines possibilites d'emploi des radioisotopes dans l'industrie du caoutchouc; Nekotorye vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya radioaktivnykh izotopov v rezinovoj promyshlennosti; Algunas posibilidades de utilizacion de los radioisotopos en la industria del caucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimorda, J; Mozhishek, M; Klimanek, L; Staroba, J [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Tekhnologii Reziny i Plastmass (NIITRP), Gorod Gotval' dov, Chekhoslovatskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika (Czech Republic)

    1962-01-15

    A method is described for using beta-emitters (Tl{sup 204} and S{sup 35}) for measuring the wearing qualities of motor-vehicle tyres, checking the homogeneity of tyre rubber, and non-contact thickness-gauging of rubberized fabrics. (author) [French] Le memoire expose une methode permettant d'employer des emetteurs beta ({sup 204}Tl et {sup 35}S) pour la mesure de la resistance des pneumatiques d'automobiles, le controle de l'uniformite du caoutchouc des pneus et la mesure sans contact de l'epaisseur des tissus caoutchoutes. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen un metodo de utilizacion de emisores {beta} ({sup 204}Tl y {sup 35}S) para la medicion de la resistencia al desgaste de los neumaticos de automovil para la verificacion de la homogeneidad del caucho destinado a la fabricacion de neumaticos y para la medicion a distancia del espesor de las telas cauchutadas. (author) [Russian] Opisana metodika ispol'zovaniya beta-izluchatelej (Tl{sup 204} i S{sup 35}) dlya izmereniya velichiny iznosostojkosti avtomobil'nykh shin, dlya kontrolya gomogennosti shinnykh rezin i dlya beskontaktnogo izmereniya tolshchiny obrezinennykh tkanej. (author)

  6. Production of radioisotopes using accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator produced radioisotopes find applications in many fields. Most of them are ideally suited for in-vivo studies of physiological functions. A brief review of various types of accelerators used for radioisotope production is given. The 'state of art' technology relevant to the production of radioisotopes is briefly discussed. Some of the recent advances in nuclear data measurements, target development, chemical processing and quality control are described. There appears to be a definite shift from multipurpose accelerators to dedicated machines, and greater emphasis is placed now on the production of radioisotopes with high radionuclidic purity by choosing a suitable nuclear reaction in a proper energy range. (author)

  7. Applications of radioisotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, N.

    2012-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine is many folds. They can be classified into two main groups. (a) The radioisotope tagged labeled compounds suitable for safe administration in the body for diagnosis of various diseases of vital organs such as brain, kidney, thyroid etc and for treatment known as radiotherapy (b) The sealed source of radioisotopes for utilizing the radiation emitted from the radioisotope for treatment, particularly for radiation therapy of cancer. The former application of radioisotope in the field of medicine has led to the formation of special branch of medicine termed Nuclear Medicine - the branch of medicine deals with the use of radioisotope in the from of radiopharmaceuticals for investigation, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radioisotopes in the form of radiolabelled compound and bio-chemicals that are pharmaceutically and radiologically safe for administration in the body for diagnosis and treatment are called radiopharmaceuticals. The radiopharmaceuticals are the results of world-wide effort to bring nuclear energy in a tangible form for diagnosis and treatment. Radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals thus constitute one of the key requirements for nuclear medicine investigation and radiotherapy. In the case of sealed radioisotope source the radiation emitted by the radioactive source is utilized for the treatment and this mode of treatment is called radiation therapy where no radioactive substance is administrated into the body. This does not form the part of nuclear medicine

  8. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  9. Administration of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  10. Administration of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  11. Radioisotope relay instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakov, V.N.; Sazonov, O.L.; Taksar, I.M.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Yanushkovskij, V.A.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a radioisotope relay device containing a radiation source, a detector, an electronic relay block with a comparative threshold mechanism. The device differs from previously known ones in that, for the purpose of increasing stability and speed of action, the electronic relay block is a separate unit and contains two threshold pulse generators which are joined up, across series-connected ''and'' and ''or'' elements, with one of the inputs of the comparative threshold mechanism, whose second input is connected with a detector and whose outputs are connected with a relay element connected by feedback with the above-mentioned ''and'' elements. (author)

  12. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  13. Short-Lived Radioisotope Production, Processing, Distribution and Applications in Korea; Production, Traitement, Distribution et Applications des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode En Coree; ПРОИЗВОДСТВО КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ В КОРЕЕ, ИХ ОБРАБОТКА, РАССЫЛКА И ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ; Produccion, Elaboracion, Distribuciony Aplicacion de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en Corea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Kim, Chong [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1963-03-15

    The production, processing and distribution of short-lived radioisotopes by the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Korea are discussed. The radioisotopes concerned are Na{sup 24}, Cu{sup 64}, K{sup 42}, Mo{sup 99}, W{sup 187}, colloidal Au{sup 198}, Br{sup 82m} and I{sup 128}. The paper also deals with applications of these isotopes in various fields in Korea. The most important application is the use of Na{sup 24} for the detection of leaks in irrigation water storage containers. Since there are nearly 1500 such containers in South Korea, the detection of leaks is a nation-wide problem. Na{sup 24} is also applied to metabolic studies in hypertension and to the study of the mixing mechanism in miscible liquid-liquid phase systems. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit comment l'Institut coreen de recherches sur l'energie atomique produit, traite et distribue des radioisotopes a courte periode, notamment, {sup 24}Na, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 42}K, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 187}W, {sup 198}Au colloiedal, {sup 82m}Br et {sup 128}I. Il donne egalement un apercu de l'emploi de ces radioisotopes dans differents domaines en Coree. Le plus important consiste a utiliser le sodium-24 pour detecter les fuites des reservoirs d'eau d'irrigation. La Coree du Sud possede pres de 1500 reservoirs de ce genre et c'est pourquoi le probleme de la detection dea fuites se pose a l'echelon national. Le sodium-24 est egalement utilise pour des etudes metaboliques l'hypertension et pour des recherches sur le mecanisme de melange dans les systemes miscibles en phase liquide- liquide. Toutes ces etudes, faites a peu de frais, ont ete couronnees de succes. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute la produccion, elaboracion y distribucion de radioisotopos de periodo corto en el Atomic Energy Research Institute de Corea. Los radioisotopos en cuestion son el {sup 24}Na, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 42}K, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 187}W, {sup 198}Au coloidal, {sup 82m}Br y {sup 128}l. La memoria trata tambien de las aplicaciones de estos

  14. Radioisotopes and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of radioisotopes and radiation processing has grown enormously all over the world with India being no exception. The chemistry and radiochemistry related inputs to the overall technology development and achievements have been, and will continue to be, of considerable value and importance in this multi-disciplinary and multi-specialty field. Harnessing further benefits as well as sustaining proven applications should be the goal in planning for the future. An objective analysis of the socio-economic impact and benefits from this field to the society at large will undoubtedly justify assigning continued high priority, and providing adequate resources and support, to relevant new projects and programmes on the anvil in the area of radioisotopes and radiation technology. It is necessary to nurture and strengthen inter-disciplinary and multi-specialty collaborations and cooperation - at both national and international level as a rule (not as exception) - for greater efficiency, cost-effectiveness and success of ongoing endeavors and future developments in this important field

  15. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  16. The safe handling of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-12-31

    A narrative account of a minor contamination accident in a laboratory is used to demonstrate the important role of radiation protection measures in radioisotope work and the necessity of giving proper regard to such measures. It is primarily directed towards the research scientists and medical workers using radioisotopes on a relatively small scale

  17. Support housing for radioisotope generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A support housing for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features countercurrent batch flow of the eluting reagent interior of the housing. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  18. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Iron(II-Iron(III) Electron-Exchange Reaction in Mixed Solvent Media; Cinetique et Mecanisme de l'Echange d'Electrons entre Fer (II) et Fer (III), dans des Melanges de Solvants; Ikinetika i mekhanizm reaktsii ehlektronnogo obmena zheleza (I) - zheleza (III) v smeshannoj rastvoryayushchej srede; Cinetica y Mecanismo del Intercambio de Electrones Entre Fe{sup II} Y Fe{sup lII} en Mezclas de Disolventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, R. A. [Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    The specific reaction rate constants of theFe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} electron-exchange reaction have been measured at various temperatures, acidities, and ionic strengths in water-acetone, water-methanol, and water-ethanol media. The reaction rate markedly diminishes as the water concentration in the last system decreases, approaching zero as the water concentration approaches zero. The activation energy of the exchange is the same in mixed solvent as in aqueous solution. The effective dielectric constant which the reactants ''see'' continues to be that of pure water even in water-ethanol solutions quite dilute in water. Alterations in composition of the solvation sheath of Fe{sup III} in mixed media are reflected in both electron-exchange and spectroscopic measurements. These findings in mixed solvent media support the water-bridging theory of electron exchange. (author) [French] Les constantes de vitesse specifiques de l'echange d'electrons entre Fe{sup II} et Fe{sup III} ont ete mesurees a differentes temperatures et pour differentes acidites et forces ioniques, dans des melanges d'eau et d'acetone, d'eau et de methanol et d'eau et d'ethanol. Dans le dernier systeme, la vitesse d'echange diminue considerablement a mesure que la concentration en eau decroit, et tend vers zero en meme temps que cette concentration. L'energie d'activation de l'echange est la meme dans un melange de solvants et dans une solution aqueuse. La constante dielectrique effective qui intervient entre les corps reagissants reste celle de l'eau pure, meme dans des solutions concentrees d'ethanol dans l'eau. Les changements de composition de la gaine de solvatation de Fe{sup III} dans les melanges se manifestent a la fois dans les mesures de l'echange d'electrons et dans les mesures spectroscopiques. Ces observations viennent confirmer la theorie de l'echange d'electrons fondee sur le pontage par l'eau. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha medido las constantes de velocidad especificas de la reaccion

  19. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  20. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  1. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  2. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Awang, Wan Anuar [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  3. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.

    1967-01-01

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  4. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  5. Generation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek-Finda, H.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing radioisotopes for radiopharmaceutical applications is claimed. A physiological solution is used to elute a radioactive daughter isotope from a fission-produced parent isotope adsorbed on an adsorbent. The eluate containing the daughter isotope is purified with a cation-exchange material. In separate claims: the parent isotope is molybdenum-99; aluminium oxide which contains fully or partly hydrated manganese dioxide is used as the adsorbent for the parent isotope; a resin is used as the cation-exchange material; a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been neutralized is used as a resin; and a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been converted into the Na + , K + or NH 4 + form is used as a resin; an isotope generator system is also claimed

  6. Some Techniques for Isolating and Using Short-Lived Radioisotopes; Quelques Methodes d'Isolement et d'Utilisation des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode; НЕКОТОРЫЕ МЕТОДЫ ПОЛУЧЕНИЯ И ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ; Algunas Tecnicas de Aislamiento y Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, F.; Kraus, K. A. [Chemstry Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-03-15

    diffusion path used, die measurements may be completed in substantially less time by this method than by conventional techniques, for example diaphragm cell or capillary tube methods. (author) [French] Un grand nombre de radioisotopes sont largement utilises au Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge pour des recherches physico-chimiques, notamment sur les echanges d'ions et la solubilite. L'emploi de radioisotopes a courte periode pour ces travaux a necessite la mise au point non seulement de methodes de preparation et de purificationaccelerees, mais aussi de techniques speciales permettant d'obtenir des informations valables dans un temps relativement court, souvent de l'ordre de quelques minutes. Les auteurs decrivent certaines methodes nouvelles de preparation et de purification d'isotopes Inverted-Question-Mark courte penoue, notamment d'isotopes qui proviennent de matieres irradiees par les neutrons, et en particulier d'elements fissiles. Ces derniers permettent evidemment d'obtenir facilement plusieurs radioisotopes Inverted-Question-Mark courte periode tres utiles, par exemple {sup 99}Mo et {sup 132}Te. Le memoire expose les methodes qui permettent d'isoler ces corps, ainsi que d'autres produits de fission par echange d'ions, sans entraineur; il decrit aussi la separation des produits de filiation a courte periode de leurs ascendants a longue periode par des procedes de ' mulsion ' qui consistent Inverted-Question-Mark adsorber fortement l'ascendant sur des echangeurs d'ions organiques ou mineraux; des exemples typiques sont examines: mulsion de {sup 113}Sn pour en extraire {sup 113}In (1,7 h) et de {sup 137}Cs pour en extraire {sup 137}Ba (2,6 min). Les auteurs decrivent deux applications comportant l'emploi d'indicateurs courte periode pour des recherches chimiques. La premiere permet de mesurer rapidement les solubilites de sels moderement solubles qui ont ete marquees a l'aide d'un indicateur (methode de la ' couche compacte ' ; les auteurs indiquent les resultats

  7. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  8. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  9. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  10. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H.

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  11. Radioisotope waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Safety Bureau established the policy entitled ''On Common Processing System of Radioactive Wastes'' consulting with the Liaison Committee of Radioactive Waste Processing. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) had been discussing the problems required for the establishment of the common disposal facilities based on the above policy, and they started the organization in spring, 1978. It is a foundation borrowing equipments from JAERI though installing newly some of them not available from JAERI, and depending the fund on JRIA. The operation expenses will be borne by those who want to dispose the wastes produced. The staffs are sent out from JAERI and JRIA. For animal wastes contaminated with RI, formaldehyde dipping should be abolished, but drying and freezing procedures will be taken before they are burnt up in a newly planned exclusive furnace with disposing capacity of 50 kg/hour. To settle the problems of other wastes, enough understanding and cooperation of users are to be requested. (Kobatake, H.)

  12. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S M; Kim, E H [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  13. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  14. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  15. A Comparison of Radioisotope Methods for River Flow Measurement; Comparaison de methodes radioisotopiques de mesure du debit des cours d'eau; Sravnenie radioizotopnykh metodov izmereniya rechnykh stokov; Comparacion de los metodos radioisotopicos para medir el caudal de los rios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C. G.; Smith, D. B. [Wantage Research Laboratory Atomic Energy Research Establishment Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1963-08-15

    which affect the general application of tracer techniques to river flow measurement will be presented. It is concluded that all three methods can be satisfactorily used. The Continuous Sample Method is ultimately preferred as it gives the highest accuracy for the smallest quantity of tracer. [French] Aux fins d'une etude comparative des methodes radioisotopiques de mesure de debit fluvial, on a employe les methodes de dilution, d'echantillonnage continu et de comptage total sur l'Aylburton (Gloucestershire), l'Usway et l'Alwin (Northumberland). Ces trois cours d'eau presentent des particularites geologiques differentes et leur debit varie entre 2,5 1 et 3 m{sup 3}/s. Dans toutes les methodes de mesure de debit faisant appel a l'emploi d'indicateurs, il est souhaitable que la distance entre le point ou la mesure est effectuee et celui ou l'indicateur est introduit soit suffisamment grande pour permettre un brassage lateral complet. D'autre part, cette distance doit etre suffisamment reduite pour que la dispersion longitudinale ne soir pas excessive ou que l'indicateur ne se perde pas par adsorption sur le lit. Le mecanisme de dispersion est lie aux caracteristiques hydrologiques du cours d'eau et a la methode utilisee. L'adsorption est fonction du choix de l'indicateur et de la nature geologique du lit de la riviere. Le tritium est ideal a cet egard car il n'est pas adsorbe, mais il est difficile a mesurer et on ne peut pas suivre directement son mouvement dans la riviere. D'autres indicateurs conviennent mieux, mais ils peuvent etre adsorbes. On a etudie le degre d'adsorption de {sup 24}Na, {sup 82}Br et {sup 32}P sous forme de NaHCO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}Br et NaH{sub 2}P0{sub 4}, en comparant les mesures faites en plusieurs points situes en aval d'un point unique d'injection et en introduisant de l'eau tritiee (HTO) en meme temps que chacun des trois indicateurs. Il s'est revele que {sup 32}P est sujet a une forte chimiosorption, comme on le supposait, et n'est par

  16. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  17. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  18. Kinetic study of the reaction of uranium with various carbon-containing gases; Etude cinetique de la reaction sur l'uranium de differents gaz carbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feron, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-09-15

    The kinetic study of the reaction U + CO{sub 2} and U + CO has been performed by a thermogravimetric method on a spherical uranium powder, in temperature ranges respectively from 460 to 690 deg. C and from 570 to 850 deg. C. The reaction with carbon dioxide leads to uranium dioxide. A carbon deposition takes place at the same time. The global reactions is the result of two reactions: U + 2 CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 CO U + CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + C The reaction with carbon monoxide leads to a mixture of dioxide UO{sub 2}, dicarbide UC{sub 2} and free carbon. The main reaction can be written. U + CO {yields} 1/2 UO{sub 2} + 1/2 UC{sub 2} The free carbon results of the disproportionation of the carbon monoxide. A remarkable separation of the two phases UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2} can be observed. A mechanism accounting for the phenomenon has been proposed. The two reactions U + CO{sub 2} and U + CO begin with a long germination period, after which, the reaction velocity seems to be limited in both cases by the ionic diffusion of oxygen through the uranium dioxide. (author) [French] L'etude cinetique des reactions U sol + CO{sub 2} gaz et U sol + CO gaz a ete effectuee par thermogravirnetrie sur une poudre d'uranium a grains spheriques, les domaines de temperature etudies s'etendant respectivement de 460 a 690 deg. C et de 570 a 850 deg. C. L'action du dioxyde de carbone conduit au dioxyde d'uranium UO{sub 2}; il se produit en meme temps un depot de carbone. La reaction globale resulte des deux reactions: U + 2 CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 CO U + CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + C Le mono-oxyde de carbone conduit a un melange de dioxyde UO{sub 2}, de dicarbure UC{sub 2} et de carbone libre. La reaction principale s'ecrit: U + CO {yields} 1/2 UO{sub 2} + 1/2 UC{sub 2} Le carbone libre provient de la dismutation du mono-oxyde de carbone. On observe une separation remarquable des deux phases UO{sub 2} et UC{sub 2}; un mecanisme rendant compte de ce phenomene a

  19. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  20. Radioisotope techniques in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Prabuddha

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are quite useful in oil exploration and exploitation. Nuclear logging offers a way of gathering information on porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, hydrocarbon types and lithology. Some of the interesting applications in well drilling are determining depth of filtrate invasion, detection of lost circulation, drill-bit erosion control; primary cement measurements and well completions such as permanent tubular markers, perforation position marking, detection of channeling behind casing and gravel pack operations. Radioisotopes have been successfully used in optimizing production processes such as production profiling injection profiling, corrosion measurements and well to well tracer tests. (author)

  1. Radioisotope-powered photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Uselman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Disposing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants has become one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry. In a new concept, called a radioisotope photovoltaic generator, a portion of this waste would be used in conjunction with a scintillation material to produce light, with subsequent conversion into electricity via photovoltaic cells. Three types of scintillators and two types of silicon cells were tested in six combinations using 32 P as the radioisotope. The highest system efficiency, determined to be 0.5% when the light intensity was normalized to 100 mW/cm 2 , was obtained using a CsI crystal scintillator and a Helios photovoltaic cell

  2. Radioisotope detection and dating with accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T S; Muller, R A [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1980-07-01

    The status of the new technique of high energy mass spectrometry is reviewed. This sensitive method of measuring isotope concentrations has been applied to the detection of rare radioisotopes used for age estimation. The techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample are described and then the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications is reviewed.

  3. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  4. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube. (orig.) [de

  5. Radioisotopes in engineering and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of radioisotope techniques in engineering and materials quality control are shown. The inventory of mercury in electrolytical cells, the transit and residence time measurements in several processes and radiotracer control are studied. The radioactive tracers in hydrologycal problems is evaluated. (M.J.C.) [pt

  6. Radioisotopes point the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radiochemicals as tracers in medicine is discussed, with particular reference to the choice of radioisotope to be used, its properties, quality control and its detection and measurement in tracer experiments. The development of autoradiography is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, E. A. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  8. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.; Menossi, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  9. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Sakda

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131 I (solution and capsule), 131 I-MIBG, 131 I-Hippuran, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-HA, and 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  10. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  11. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Some results of radioisotope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1974-10-01

    The accumulation of radioisotopes by brucellae depends on the consistency of the feed medium on which they are grown. The uptake of P-32 is a factor of 5 to 16 greater, and that of sulfur-35 in the form of sodium sulfate is a factor of 30 to 100 greater when grown on a complex solid agar than in a bouillion solution of the same ingredients. Brucellae are readily tagged with /sup 32/P and /sup 35/S simultaneously. These tagged brucellae were used to study in vitro storage under various temperature regimes. Brucellae actively incorporate iron. The uptake of methionine and cystine tagged with sulfur-35 by brucellae was investigated. Methionine is absorbed directly for the most part by brucellae, while the sulfur-35 in sodium sulfate is primarily transformed to cystine and cysteine. The uptake of various radioisotopes can be used to type various strains of brucellae. Isotopes are used to trace the course of various diseases in animals. (SJR)

  13. Radioisotopes in Burmese agricultural research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    The Burmese authorities decided to start a laboratory for the use of radioisotope techniques in agricultural r e search. The laboratory was set up at the Agricultural Research Institute at Gyogon, on the outskirts of Rangoon. Under its technical assistance program, IAEA assigned an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes for this project. Discussions were held with regional representatives of the Food and Agriculture Organization on the best lines of research to be adopted at the laboratory in its early stages. As the most important crop in Burma is rice, a series of experiments were planned for a study of the nutrition of rice, particularly its phosphorus uptake, with special reference to comparative responses on a range of typical paddy soils. The experiments began last year and are being continued.

  14. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  15. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjian

    1987-01-01

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  17. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  18. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, Meera

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30 P, by bombardment of 27 Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  19. Radioisotopes and their applications in highway testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes in highway testing are described. Radioisotopic methods have been used to determine : (1) moisture and density of soil and base materials for compaction control, (2) magnesium oxide content of cement, (3) permeability of bituminous coverings and (4) field density of freshly laid hot bituminous concrete surface. Possible uses of nuclear explosives for production of aggregates and of radioisotopes for determination of deflection in the design of flexible pavements are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  1. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  2. Energetic study of combustion instabilities and genetic optimisation of chemical kinetics; Etude energetique des instabilites thermo-acoustiques et optimisation genetique des cinetiques reduites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch.E.

    2005-12-15

    Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)

  3. Time extrapolation of radiolytic degradation product kinetics: the case of polyurethane; Extrapolation dans le temps des cinetiques de production des produits de degradation radiolytique: application a un polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoux, A

    2007-02-15

    The prediction of the environmental impact of organic materials in nuclear waste geological storage needs knowledge of radiolytic degradation mechanisms and kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In this framework, the effect of high doses (> MGy) and the variation of dose rate have to be considered. The material studied is a polyurethane composed of polyether soft segment and aromatic hard segments. Mechanisms were built on the analysis of material submitted to irradiations of simulation (high energy electrons and gamma radiation) by FTIR spectroscopy and gaseous and liquid degradation products by gas mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography. The electron paramagnetic resonance study of radical process and the determination of oxygen consumption and gas formation radiolytic yields allowed us to acquire kinetic data and to estimate dose rate and high doses effects. The polyurethane radio-oxidation mainly concerns soft segments and induced cross-linkings and production by scissions of oxidised compounds (esters, alcohols, carboxylic acids). The kinetic of radical termination is rapid and the dose rate effect is limited. After 10 MGy, branching and scission reactions are in equilibrium and low molecular weight products accumulate. At last, the degradation products release in water is influenced by the oxidation rate and the temperature. After 10 MGy, the soluble fraction is stabilised at 25%. The water soluble products identified by electro-spray ionisation mass spectrometry (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids) potentially formed complexes with radionuclides. (author)

  4. Kinetic modelling of hydrocracking catalytic reactions by the single events theory; Modelisation cinetique des reactions catalytiques d`hydrocraquage par la theorie des evenements constitutifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, J.M.

    1998-11-23

    Kinetic modelling of petroleum hydrocracking is particularly difficult given the complexity of the feedstocks. There are two distinct classes of kinetics models: lumped empirical models and detailed molecular models. The productivity of lumped empirical models is generally not very accurate, and the number of kinetic parameters increases rapidly with the number of lumps. A promising new methodology is the use of kinetic modelling based on the single events theory. Due to the molecular approach, a finite and limited number of kinetic parameters can describe the kinetic behaviour of the hydrocracking of heavy feedstock. The parameters are independent of the feedstock. However, the available analytical methods are not able to identify the products on the molecular level. This can be accounted for by means of an posteriori lamping technique, which incorporates the detailed knowledge of the elementary step network. Thus, the lumped kinetic parameters are directly calculated from the fundamental kinetic coefficients and the single event model is reduced to a re-lumped molecular model. Until now, the ability of the method to extrapolate to higher carbon numbers had not been demonstrated. In addition, no study had been published for three phase (gas-liquid-solid) systems and a complex feedstock. The objective of this work is to validate the `single events` method using a paraffinic feedstock. First of all, a series of experiments was conducted on a model compound (hexadecane) in order to estimate the fundamental kinetic parameters for acyclic molecules. To validate the single event approach, these estimated kinetic coefficients were used to simulate hydrocracking of a paraffinic mixture ranging from C11 to C18. The simulation results were then compared to the results obtained from the hydrocracking experiments. The comparison allowed to validate the model for acyclic molecules and to demonstrate that the model is applicable to compounds with higher carbon numbers. (author) 60 refs.

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  7. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  8. The industrial application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the two main fields of the industrial application of radioisotopes are introduced. In the field of process controlling device and control first about the transmission and the backscattering methods is reported. Then the x-ray fluorescence method and the moisture gauging with neutrons are mentioned. Also the measuring of depth of charge. In the field of tracer investigations about all kinds of flow and intermixture measurements is reported. And investigations of corrosion, wear and lubrication and precise location of nonmetallic pipe lines are mentioned. (Author)

  9. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  10. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Bedmar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  11. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jae Jo; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Don Soon; Choi, Byung Jong; Jang, Dong Soon; Kim, Hye Sook

    2007-06-01

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  12. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daryoko, M.; Yatim, S.; Suseno, H.; Wiratmo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na 2 , sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10 -3 μCi/cm 2 . This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO 4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  13. Kinetic study of the fluorination by fluorine of some uranium and plutonium compounds; Etude cinetique de la fluoration par le fluor de quelques composes de l'uranium et du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbussche, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-12-15

    The study of fluorination reactions of uranium and plutonium compounds with elementary fluorine, has been carried out using a thermogravimetric method. These reactions are heterogeneous ones, and of the following type: S(solid) + G{sub 1}(gas) - G{sub 2}(gas). The kinetics of these reactions correspond to a uniform attack of the entire surface of the sample. {alpha}: being the degree of completion of the reaction, k(rel): being the relative rate of penetration of the reaction interface, t: being the time, one have the relation: (1-{alpha}){sup 1/3} = 1 - k(rel)*t. The mechanism of the reaction varies according to the nature of the compound: 1) with uranium tetrafluoride and plutonium tetrafluoride, the reaction proceeds in a single step; 2) with uranium oxides, the reaction proceeds in two steps, uranium oxyfluoride being the intermediate compound; 3) with plutonium oxide, the reaction proceeds in two steps, plutonium tetrafluoride being the intermediate compound; and 4) with uranium trichloride, the mechanism is complex: chlorine trifluoride is formed. (author) [French] L'etude des reactions de fluoration par le fluor, de composes de l'uranium et du plutonium a ete faite par thermogravimetrie. Ce sont des reactions heterogenes du type: S(solide) + G{sub 1}(gaz) - G{sub 2}(gaz). La cinetique de ces reactions est celle correspondant a une attaque uniforme de toute la surface de l'echantillon. Si {alpha}: est le degre d'avancement de la reaction, k(rel): est la vitesse relative d'avancement d'un interface reactionnel, t: le temps. On a la relation: (1-{alpha}){sup 1/3} = 1-k(rel)*t. Le mecanisme de la reaction varie selon la nature du compose: 1) tetrafluorure d'uranium et tetrafluorure de plutonium, la reaction s'effectue en un seul stade; 2) Oxydes d'uranium: la reaction s'effectue en deux stades, l'oxyfluorure d'uranium est le compose intermediaire; 3) oxyde de plutonium, la reaction s'effectue en deux stades, la tetrafluorure de plutonium est le compose

  14. Aspects of radioisotopes utilization in clinical medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G.; Lima e Forti, C.A. de; Cunha, M. da C.; Souza Maciel, O. de

    1973-01-01

    A revision concerning radioisotope use in Medicine have been dow. Harmless and effeciency of radioisotopes are shown. Techniques and advantages of tracers used for brain scintiscanning, lung scintiscanning, liver scintinscanning, spleen scintiscanning, bone scintiscanning and thyroid scintiscanning are described and images of them are presented [pt

  15. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  16. Elementary concepts of the radioisotopes uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, Mario A.

    2004-01-01

    Endocrinology has been one of the specialties earlier benefited for the radioisotopes uses in the diagnosis and treatment of different affections. These applications are based on the radioisotopes property of biochemical behaving as non- radioactive molecules, and at the same time, radiations emitting that can be detected by suitable means (diagnostic utility) or that have effects on biological systems (therapeutic action). (author) [es

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected and compiled on radioisotopes produced and sold by Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and on services rendered by DOE facilities. Compiled data were published and distributed in the document list of DOE Radioisotope Customers with Summary of Radioisotope Shipments, FY 1986, PNL-6361, October 1987. The DOE facilities that supplied information for the compilation were Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Savannah River Plant, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. (Hanford). The data provided were reported in several different ways: (1) a list of radioisotopes and services provided by each facility; (2) a list of radioisotope customers, the supplying DOE facility, and the radioisotope or service provided to each customer; and (3) a list of the quantity and value of each radioisotope or service sold by each DOE facility. The sales information covered foreign customers, domestic private customers, and domestic DOE customers

  18. Some Recent Applications of Short Half-Life Radioisotopes in Australia; Quelques Applications Recentes des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode En Australie; НОВЕЙШИЕ СПОСОБЫ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ В АВСТРАЛИИ КОРОТКОЯИВУЩИХ РАДИОИЗОТОПОВ; Algunas Recientes Aplicaciones de los Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J. S. [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1963-03-15

    This paper describes the use of short-lived radioisotopes in some of the field investigations recently carried out by the Isotope Division of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. A radioisotope technique is being developed to trace air movements in clouds, principally for use in experiments related to cloud seeding. In a series of ten experiments, various quantities up to 2 c of copper-64 as finely particulate CuO have been released from an aircraft and traced by detecting, with a large crystal scintillometer, the {gamma}-rays emitted by the CuO distributed about the aircraft. A novel feature of the method is that, not only is the amount of radioactivity about the aircraft measured, but also the directional location of the source of radiation. This enables the navigation of the aircraft towards the centre of the radioactivity. A technique is being developed for large-scale ventilation and air pollution studies. Small amounts of copper-64, either as CuO powder or as copper adsorbed on particles, would be released and collected on filter paper using a high-speed air sampler. Experiments show that excellent discrimination against natural airborne radioactivity is obtained by using {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence techniques for detecting the copper-64 positron annihilation pair. The minimum detection level is about 1 x 10{sup -18} c Cu{sup 64}/cm{sup 3} of air. A method for detection of leaks in town gas distribution systems is described. About 500 {mu}c of bromine-82 labelled methyl bromide is used to test for leaks in the individual services between the gas main and meter, and a feature of the method is that most of the radioactive gas is withdrawn after the test and can be used again. Finally, experiments are briefly described in which gold-198 was used to trace silt, effluent and water movement. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit diverses recherches au moyen des radioisotopes a courte periode entreprises recemment par la Division des isotopes de la Commission

  19. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  20. Design of radioisotope power systems facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbaum, R.C.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems currently produced for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Special Applications by the Mound Laboratory at Miamisburg, Ohio, have been used in a variety of configurations by the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A forecast of fugure radioisotope power systems requirements showed a need for an increased production rate beyond the capability of the existing Mound Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford Company is modifying the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to install the new Radioisotope Power Systems Facility for assembling future radioisotope power systems. The facility is currently being prepared to assemble the radioisotope thermoelectric generators required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions for Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby in 1995 and Cassini, an investigation of Saturn and its moons, in 1996

  1. Activity calculation of radioisotopes in HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuiqing

    1996-12-01

    The activity calculating method and formulas of seven kinds of radioisotopes for High Flux Engineering Test REactor (HFETR) are given. The perturbation of targets to neutron fluence rate is considered while targets are put into the neutron fluence rate field of reactor core. All perturbing factors of seven kinds of radioisotopes being used in HFETR are presented. After considering the perturbation, the calculating accuracy of radioisotope activity has been raised 10%. The given method and formulas have ended the history of all activities estimated by experiences, except for that of 60 Co, in the radioisotope production of HFETR. The conclusions are also useful and instructive for the production of radioisotopes in HFETR. (8 tabs.)

  2. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69m Zn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59 Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co

  3. Radioisotopic studies in renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levasseur, A.; Robillard, R.; Lemieux, R.; Dandavino, R.; Girard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotopic evaluation of kidney graft function has greatly reduced the need for more invasive studies such as arteriography, retrograde pyelograpy and graft biopsy. The schedule of sequential studies beginning the day after transplant may be modified according to the patient's clinical or biochemical status. The combined use of I 131 Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc DTPA allows early detection of graft rejection and its differentiation from tubular necrosis. Scintigraphic images may have a characteristic appearance in cases of arterial, venous or urinary obstruction, urinary fistule, infarction, abcess and lymphocele. This non-invasive diagnostic study requiring only an intravenous injection is simple, rapid, accurate and may be repeated as often as necessary. (auth) [fr

  4. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRossi; Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  5. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  6. Radioisotope tracer applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have many advantages in industrial trouble-shooting and studies on process kinetics. The applications are mainly of two types: one leading to qualitative (Yes or No type) information and the other to quantitative characterisation of flow processes through mass balance considerations and flow models. ''Yes or No'' type methods are mainly used for leakage and blockage locations in pipelines and in other industrial systems and also for location of water seepage zones in oil wells. Flow measurements in pipelines and mercury inventory in electrolytic cells are good examples of tracer methods using the mass balance approach. Axial dispersion model and Tanks-in-Series model are the two basic flow models commonly used with tracer methods for the characterisation of kinetic processes. Examples include studies on flow processes in sugar crystallisers as well as in a precalcinator in a cement plant. (author). 18 figs

  7. Radioisotopic Studies of Brain Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldendorf, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the brain tissues after their administration by injection or inhalation provide an a traumatic approach to the study of blood flow and metabolic processes in the brain. This paper reviews the anatomical,physiological and physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain. The factors governing the passage of various classes of substances through the brain capillaries and their transport through the brain tissues are first considered. The physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain are then discussed. The main difficulties in such measurements is shown to arise from the contribution to the observed counting rate from radioactivity in the scalp and skull. This contribution can be minimized by the use of special collimators designed to view only a part of the brain but to include in their field of view a minimum of non-neural tissue. A further possibility arises with radioisotopes such as 113 In m which emit characteristic X radiation as well as y radiation since the contribution of the former to the total observed counting rate is almost entirely due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues whereas that of the latter is due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues and the brain. By recording the counting rates in appropriate channels of the photon spectrum it is thus possible to correct the results for radioactivity in the scalp and skull. With radioisotopes such as 75 Sc which emit two or more photons in cascade, coincidence counting techniques offer still a further possibility to minimize the contribution from radioactivity in the superficial tissues. Various potential applications of these techniques are described. (author)

  8. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  9. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  10. Measurement of the production of K{sup +} mesons by protons in nuclei (1960); Mesure de la production des mesons K{sup +} par des protons dans les noyaux (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teiger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    K{sup +} mesons produced by the internal proton beam of Saturne have been identified by means of scintillation and Cerenkov counters. The production cross sections are given per target nucleus measured at a laboratory angle of 35 deg. as well as the cross section relative to {pi}{sup +} mesons of the same momentum for: - incident protons of kinetic energy between 1.3 and 2.8 GeV, - targets of C, Cu and Pb, - K{sup +} produced with kinetic energies between 0.45 and 0.65 GeV. From these results we have tried to deduce the importance of indirect production by intermediate {pi} mesons with respect to direct production by proton-nucleon collisions. (author) [French] Au moyen de detecteurs a scintillations et a rayonnement Cerenkov, on a identifie les mesons lourds K{sup +} produits par les protons du faisceau interne de 'Saturne'. On donne les sections efficaces de production, par noyau cible, mesurees a 35 deg. dans le laboratoire, ainsi que les sections efficaces relatives par rapport aux mesons {pi}{sup +} de meme impulsion pour: - des protons incidents d'energie cinetique entre 1,3 GeV et 2,8 GeV, - des cibles de C, de Cu et de Pb, - des K{sup +} produits avec des energies cinetiques entre 0,45 et 0,65 GeV. De ces resultats, on a essaye de deduire l'importance de la production indirecte, par mesons {pi} intermediaires, par rapport a la production directe dans un choc proton-nucleon. (auteur)

  11. The production and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolution of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop. (author)

  12. Twenty years of Korea radioisotope association history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This contents has two parts. The first part describes the present and post of Korea radioisotope association which are about the foundation of the association, organization, main projects and vision of the association. The second part is about the use and the prospect of radiation and radioisotope in Korea, which shows the plan of expansion of use of radiation and radioisotope, the prospect and present condition in fields such as medical, industry and farming, product and distribution, research and development of human resources, system and management of safety of radiation.

  13. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  14. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986

  17. Estimations hypoelliptiques globales et compacit\\'e de la r\\'esolvante Estimations hypoelliptiques globales et compacit\\'e de la r\\'esolvante pour des op\\'erateurs de Fokker-Planck ou des laplaciens de Witten

    CERN Document Server

    Helffer, B

    2004-01-01

    Ces derni\\`eres ann\\'ees, les estimations hypoelliptiques ont connu une nouvelle jeunesse en liaison avec des questions provenant de la th\\'eorie cin\\'etique des gaz. Dans cette direction de nombreux auteurs ont en effet eu besoin de d\\'emontrer des estimations maximales pour en d\\'eduire la compacit\\'e de l'op\\'erateur de Fokker-Planck et avoir des estimations sur la r\\'esolvante permettant d'aborder la question du retour \\`a l'\\'equilibre. Dans un article tr\\`es r\\'ecent, F.~H\\'erau et F.~Nier (inspir\\'es par des calculs explicites du livre de Risken) ont mis en \\'evidence les liens \\'etroits entre ces questions et des questions analogues pour un laplacien de Witten. L'\\'etude de ces liens est poursuivie et syst\\'ematis\\'ee dans un livre en pr\\'eparation \\'ecrit en collaboration avec F.~Nier dont nous allons pr\\'esenter quelques aspects ici en pr\\'esentant parfois un \\'eclairage diff\\'erent sur un probl\\`eme qui laisse encore beaucoup de conjectures non r\\'esolues.

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984.

  19. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984

  20. Experimental study of the thermal fission of uranium 235 in the region of symmetrical masses; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de la fission thermique de l'uranium 235 dans la region des masses symetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribrag, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    Energy correlation experiments with fission fragments are strongly perturbed, in the symmetric region, by the detection of spurious events caused by the apparatus. We show that the measurement of an additional parameter, namely the difference in time-of-flight between the fragments, enables us to eliminate these difficulties. In this work we show also an original method of calibration of the time-of-flight set-up. For thermal fission of {sup 235}U, values of mass yields in the symmetric region are found to agree quantitatively with radiochemical values. Moreover, the average total kinetic energy distribution as a function of the pre-neutron emission masses of the fragments has been calculated. This curve presents in the symmetric region a large dip, the value of which takes on the value 21.2 {+-} 0.8 MeV. This value is smaller than previously published results. (author) [French] Les mesures correlees des energies cinetiques des fragments de fission sont fortement perturbees, dans la region symetrique, par la detection d'evenements aberrants d'origine instrumentale. Nous montrons que la mesure d'un parametre supplementaire, a savoir, la difference des temps de vol des deux fragments, nous permet d'eliminer ces difficultes. Dans ce travail, nous indiquons egalement une methode originale de calibration du dispositif de mesure des temps de vol. Dans le cas de la fission thermique de {sup 235}U, nous avons trouve, dans la region symetrique, une courbe de rendement des masses, en accord quantitatif avec les donnees radiochimiques. De plus, nous avons calcule la distribution de l'energie cinetique totale moyenne en fonction de la masse des fragments, avant emission neutronique. Cette courbe presente, dans la region symetrique, un creux important, dont la valeur atteint 21,2 {+-} 0,8 MeV. Cette valeur est inferieure aux resultats precedemment publies. (auteur)

  1. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupon, Michel.

    1978-09-01

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles [fr

  2. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Azuddin Ali; Abdul Rahman Mohamad Ali.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm -2 S -1 ) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 10 13 n.cm -1 S -1 ). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  3. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  4. Production of radioisotopes with BR2 facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallais, C.J.; Morel de Westfaver, A.; Heeren, L.; Baugnet, J.M.; Gandolfo, J.M.; Boeykens, W.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief account on the isotopes production evolution in the industrialized countries the irradiation devices and the types of standardized capsules used in the BR2 reactor are described as well as the thermal neutron flux. Production of most important radioisotopes like 131 Iodine, 60 Cobalt, 192 Iridium and 99 Molybdenum and their main utilizations (uses)are described. The mean specific activities and the limit of use for different radioisotopes are reported. (A.F.)

  5. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  6. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  7. Technical diagnosis of industrial plants with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the application of radioisotopes in technical diagnosis of industrial plants. Proceeding from the economic importance and the state of the art of radioisotope applications, the principles of tracer techniques are outlined including topical examples of application such as passage of coal through a steam generator, wear in impact crashing of coal, wear and corrosion in pipelines, testing the effective cross section of pipes, and investigations of microstructures. Limits and restrictions of applications are briefly discussed

  8. Radioisotope applications in petroleum and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, U.

    1974-01-01

    The principal radioisotopic technique used for studying and /or controling the drilling, completion, treatment and oil well secondary recovery operations are described. In this cases the radioisotopes are employed almost exclusively as 'markers', in the form of localized and dispersed tracers. The growing acceptance of these techniques is essentially, a consequence of the confidence in the reliability of the data and conclusions derived from their application

  9. Cost-benefit aspects of radioisotope methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The cost-benefit relations in the complex application of radioisotpe techniques increased in the last years to up to 1/10 to 1/15. The most essential cause of this trend is the increase of the capacity of production processes, controlled and automatized by means of radioisotopes, and the solution of qualitatively new technological problems of a high economic relevance. A collection of statistical data about the expediture and benefit of different radioisotopes techniques is presented. (author)

  10. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  11. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  12. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F.

    1991-10-01

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  13. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  14. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.T.; Faber, K.; Klijn, N.; Lemmens, C.; Wissink, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131 I its rather short half life, for 137 Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90 Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137 Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  15. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  16. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N; Tejera, A; Bulbulian, S; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of dimethylzinc pyrolysis; Cinetique et mecanisme de la pyrolyse du dimethylzinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert-Pacht, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-01

    We have studied the pyrolysis of dimethyl-zinc in sealed bulbs between 250 and 400 Celsius degrees with and without cyclohexane, one or other of the reactants being completely deuterated. We have thus shown that the following mechanism occurs: -1) CH{sub 3}Zn CH{sub 3} {yields} CH{sub 3} + Zn CH{sub 3}, -2) CH{sub 3} + C{sub 6}H{sub 12} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, -3) 2 CH{sub 3}Zn {yields} (CH{sub 3}Zn){sub 2} which decomposes to give methane. We have calculated the activation energy for step I: E{sub I} = 45.5 {+-} 3.3 kCal/mole. The study of the reaction in the absence of cyclohexane has made it possible to show that it is not a chain reaction; also the lower limit of the activation energy for the reaction: -4) CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}Zn CH{sub 3} {yields} CH{sub 4} + CH{sub 2}Zn CH{sub 3}, has been calculated. It has been found that E{sub 4} {>=} 15 kCal/mole. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la pyrolyse du dimethylzinc en ampoule scellee, entre 250 et 400 degres Celsius, en presence et en l'absence de cyclohexane, l'un ou l'autre des reactifs etant completement deutere. Nous avons ainsi mis en evidence le mecanisme suivant: -1) CH{sub 3}Zn CH{sub 3} {yields} CH{sub 3} + Zn CH{sub 3}, -2) CH{sub 3} + C{sub 6}H{sub 12} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, -3) 2 CH{sub 3}Zn {yields} (CH{sub 3}Zn){sub 2} qui se decompose avec formation de methane. Nous avons calcule pour l'etape 1 l'energie d'activation: E{sub 1} s 45,5 kCal/mole {+-} 3,3. L'etude de la reaction en l'absence de cyclohexane a permis de montrer que celle-ci n'etait pas une reaction en chaine et de calculer une limite inferieure pour l'energie d'activation de la reaction: -4) CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}Zn CH{sub 3} {yields} CH{sub 4} + CH{sub 2}Zn CH{sub 3}. Nous avons trouve E{sub 4} > 15 kCal/mole.

  18. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  19. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  20. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  1. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators, the radio lanthanides: 151 Pm, 147 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho, 177 Lu, 131 I and the 32 P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the 99m Tc and the 188 Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  2. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators for implanted pacemakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Bovin, A.V.; Fedorets, V.I.; Shapovalov, V.P.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of long-life lithium batteries and the problems associated with miniature radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RITEG) with service lives of 10 years or longer. On eof the main problems encountered when devising a radioisotope heat source (RHS) for an RITEG is to obtain biomedical /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ with a specific neutron yield of 3.10/sup 3/-4.10/sup 3/ (g /SUP ./ sec)/sup -1/, equivalent to metallic Pu 238, and with a content of gamma impurities sufficient to ensure a permissible exposure a permissible exposure does rate (EDR) of a mixture of neutron and gamma radiation. After carrying out the isotope exchange and purifying the initial sample of its gamma impurity elements, the authors obtain biomedical Pu 238 satisfying the indicated requirements king suitable for use in the power packs of medical devices. Taking the indicated specifications into account, the Ritm-1o and gamma radioisotope heat sources were designed, built, tested in models and under natural conditions, and then into production as radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to power the electronic circuits of implanted pacemakers. The Ritm-MT and Gemma radioisotope thermoelectric generators described are basic units, which can be used as self-contained power supplies for electronic equipment with power requirements in the micromilliwatt range.

  3. Use of radioisotopes in studying the penetration of sulphur into iron during hydrogen cathode charging; Application des radioelements a l'etude de la penetration du soufre dans le fer lors du chargement en hydrogene cathodique; Ispol'zovanie radioehlementov dlya izucheniya proniknoveniya sery v zhelezo, kogda ona zaryazhaetsya katodnym vodorodom; Aplicacion de los radioelementos al estudio de la penetracion del azufre en el hierro durante la carga con hidrogeno catodico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besnard, S; Talbot, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Vitry (France)

    1962-01-15

    soufre aux joints des grains. Ce resultat, qui ne pouvait etre obtenu qu'avec l'aide des radiotraceurs, a des consequences importantes notamment dans l'industrie des petroles. Une etude analogue a ete faite en utilisant le radioisotope 32 du phosphore. (author) [Spanish] Determinados elementos, como por ejemplo el arsenico, se emplean corrientemente en el laboratorio para fomentar la penetracion del hidrogeno en el hierro. Por otra parte, se ha comprobado en la industria que la presencia de acido sulfhidrico intensifica la corrosion de los aceros por el hidrogeno. Cabia preguntarse si estas sustancias, que hasta ahora se consideraban como catalizadores, solo fomentan la absorcion del hidrogeno, o si ejercen una influencia directa sobre el metal. Los autores han estudiado este fenomeno en su laboratorio con ayuda de hierro electrolitico puro. Han efectuado la sobresaturacion con hidrogeno por carga catodica. Como sustancia de adicion emplearon sulfuro de sodio marcado con azufre-35. Lograron demostrar que en media hora a la temperatura de -15 Degree-Sign C, el azufre penetra en el hierro hasta una profundidad de unas 120 {mu}m. Han podido comprobar ademas que el azufre se localiza preferentemente en los limites intergranulares. Este resultado, que solo pudo obtenerse gracias a los indicadores radiactivos, tiene importantes consecuencias, en especial para la industria del petroleo. Los autores han realizado un estudio analogo utilizando el radioisotopo 32 del fosforo. (author) [Russian] Nekotorye ehlementy, kak naprimer mysh'yak, obychno ispol'zovalis' v laboratorii dlya oblegcheniya proniknoveniya vodoroda v zhelezo. V promyshlennosti bylo ustanovleno, chto korroziya stalej, vyzvannaya prisutstviem vodoroda, usilivaetsya pri nalichii sernistogo vodoroda. Voznikal vopros, dopuskali li ehti veshchestva, rassmatrivaemye do sikh por v kachestve katalizatorov, tol'ko samuyu bol'shuyu absorbtsiyu ili okazyvali neposredstvennoe vozdejstvie na metall. Izuchenie ehtogo yavleniya

  4. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.; Rechard, R.

    2001-01-01

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR

  5. Seven Things to Know about Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Each atomic element knows exactly how many protons and neutrons it needs at its centre (nucleus) in order to be stable (stay in its elemental form). Radioisotopes are atomic elements that do not have the correct proton to neutron ratio to remain stable. With an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons, energy is given off by the atom in an attempt to become stable. For example, a stable carbon atom has six protons and six neutrons. Whereas its unstable (and therefore radioactive) isotope carbon-14, has six protons and eight neutrons. Carbon-14 and all other unstable elements are called radioisotopes. This movement towards stability, which involves emitting energy from the atom in the form of radiation, is known as radioactive decay. This radiation can be tracked and measured, making radioisotopes very useful in industry, agriculture and medicine

  6. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  7. Safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc. (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An (interim) report by an ad hoc expert committee to the Nuclear Safety Commission, on the safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc., was presented. For the utilization of radioisotopes, etc., there is the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injury Due to Radioisotopes, etc. with the advances in this field and the improvement in international standards, the regulations by the law have been examined. After explaining the basic ideas of the regulations, the problems and countermeasures in the current regulations are described: legal system, rationalization in permission procedures and others, inspection on RI management, the system of the persons in charge of radiation handling, RI transport, low-level radioactive wastes, consumer goods, definitions of RIs, radiation and sealed sources, regulations by group partitioning, RI facilities, system of personnel exposure registration, entrusting of inspection, etc. to private firms, and reduction in the works for permission among governmental offices. (author)

  8. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1976-12-01

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  9. Random-process excursions in radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galochkin, D.V.; Polovko, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximate expressions are derived for the mathematical expectation, variance, and distribution of the durations of the excursions of the output signal from a ratemeter in a radioisotope relay instrument. The tabulated comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculation shows good agreement over the mean value and the variance of the excursion duration for T 0.2 sec as calculated and as obtained by Monte Carlo simulation with a computer using 5000 realizations. It is suggested that the results should be used in choosing the optimum parameters of radioisotope relay instruments

  10. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.St.

    1985-01-01

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  11. Radioisotopic control and automation of food mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Domestic and foreign experience in application of radioisotope devices to process control in fool industry, is described. The diagrams of devices to block and account the production in systems of process monitoring and control are considered. The methods of determining chemical composition of substances are discussed, as sell as the devices used for those purposes and based on recording β-and γ-radiation absorption by substance. The methods for determining dust and smoke content in premises using radioisotope devices. Level indicators, moisture gages and densitimeters usedf ctol level humidity, density and concentration of food products in the process of production are described [ru

  12. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  13. Clinical evaluation of radioisotope examination in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukochi, H [National Konodai Hospital (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    Although many approaches are tried for the diagnoses of malignant tumor, radiological examinations act surely main parts. Among the radiological examinations, radioisotope techniques are not well evaluated instead of their usefulness in this field. The reason may depend on the complexity and difficulty in legal limitations, however, the lack of knowledge in this field is also a main reason. In this paper, the present status of the evaluation of radioisotope techniques is discussed in selected region of the body and some characteristic cases are demonstrated.

  14. The CNRN Research Programme for the Study of Radioisotope Accumulation by Marine Organisms and its Effects as Regards Radioactive Contamination of the Ocean; Le Programme de Recherches du CNRN sur l'Accumulation des Radioisotopes par les Organismes Marins et son Effet sur la Contamination Radioactive de l'Ocean; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Programa de Investigaciones del CNRN para Estudiar la Acumulacion de Radioisotopos en los Organismos Marinos y sus Efectos sobre la Contaminacion Radiactiva del Oceano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzzati-Traverso, A. A.; Bernhard, M. [National Committee for Nuclear Research (Italy)

    1960-07-01

    The paper describes a research programme undertaken by the Comitato Nazionale per le Ricerche Nucleari (CNRN) with a view to considering the whole complex ecological system of the sea in order to trace the paths of radioactive materials that may reach marine products for human consumption. The programme will start with an intensive study of a limited area representative of the Mediterranean and will fall into two parts, descriptive analysis and experimental analysis. The area chosen, details of the laboratory and staff and the general tasks to be carried out are briefly described. Finally, some early results are given. (author) [French] Le memoire expose le programme de recherches que le Gomitato Nazionale per le Ricerche Nucleari (CNRN) a entrepris en vue d'etudier l'ensemble du systeme ecologique complexe de la mer pour retracer les voies suivies par les matieres radioactives qui peuvent parvenir aux produits marins propres a la consommation humaine. Le programme, qui debutera par une etude intensive d'une petite zone representative de la Mediterranee, se subdivisera en deux parties: analyse descriptive et analyse experimentale. Le memoire decrit succinctement la zone choisie, le laboratoire et le personnel, ainsi que les problemes generaux a resoudre. Il donne enfin quelques-uns des premiers resultats obtenus. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describe el programa de investigaciones preparado por el Gomitato Nationale per le Ricerche Nucleari (CNRN) con miras a estudiar: todo el complejo sistema ecologico del mar para determinar el camino seguido, por las sustancias radiactivas que pueden llegar hasta los productos marinos; destinados al consumo humano. El programa comenzara con un estudio minucioso de una limitada zona representativa del Mediterraneo, y se dividira en dos partes, a saber, una descriptiva y otra experimental. Los autores describen brevemente la zona escogida y proporcionan datos relativos al laboratorio, al personal y a los trabajos previstos

  15. The Comparative Accuracy of the 4 {pi} Liquid Scintillation Counting Method of Radioisotope Standardization; L'exactitude comparee de la methode de comptage 4 {pi} a scintillateurs liquides pour l'etalonnage des radioisotopes; Sravnitel'naya tochnost' 4 {pi} zhidkogo stsintillatsionnogo metoda podscheta standartiziruemykh radioizotopov; Exactitud del metodo de recuento con centelleador liquido 4 {pi} para normalizar radioisotopos, comparada con la de otros metodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, J [National Physical Research Laboratory, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1960-06-15

    The accuracy of the 4 {pi} liquid scintillation counting method of standardizing {beta} emitters was compared to 4 l{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting for the nuclides Co{sup 60}, I{sup 131} and Au{sup 198}. For P{sup 32} the liquid counting results were compared to 4 {pi} proportional counting. The efficiency of the liquid scintillation counting method was found to be energy dependent, dropping to about 97.5% for Co{sup 60} which was the lowest energy {beta} emitter investigated. (author) [French] La precision de la methode de comptage 4 {pi} a scintillateurs liquides pour l'etalonnage des emetteurs {beta} a ete comparee au comptage par coincidences 4 {pi} {beta}-{gamma} pour le So{sup 60}, le I{sup 131} et le Au{sup 198}. Dans le cas du P{sup 32}, les resultats du comptage au liquide ont ete compares a ceux du comptage 4 {pi} proportionnel. On a constate que le rendement de la methode de comptage a scintillateurs liquides variait en fonction de l'energie emise et qu'il descendait a environ 97.5% pour le Co{sup 60} qui, de tous les emetteurs {beta} etudies, emet l'energie la plus faible. (author) [Spanish] El autor compara la precision del metodo de recuento con centelleador iquido 4 {pi} para normalizar emisores {beta} con la del metodo de coincidencias {beta}-{gamma} 4 {pi}, para los siguientes nuclidos: So{sup 60}, I{sup 131} y Au{sup 198}. En el caso del P{sup 32}, confronta los resultados del primer metodo con los obtenidos mediante el recuento proporcional 4 {pi}. Comprueba que la eficacia del metodo de recuento con centelleador liquido depende de la energia y desciende al 97.5%, aproximadamente, para el Co{sup 60}, que fue el emisor {beta} mas debil que se investigo. (author) [Russian] Tochnost' 4 {pi} zhidkogo stsintillyatsionnog o metoda podscheta standartiziruemogo {beta}-izluchatelya sravnivalas' s 4 {pi} {beta}-{gamma} metodom podscheta na sovpadeniyakh dlya izotopov So{sup 60}, I{sup 131} i Au{sup 198}. Dlya R{sup 32} rezultaty zhidkogo

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  17. Use of radioisotopes and nuclear methods in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trehber, K.

    1976-01-01

    Some kinds of using radioisotope methods and instruments for regulation and control of metallurgical processes are reviewed. Computized data processing is described as well. The efficiency of industrial application of radioisotopes is remarked

  18. Calculation correlations for radioisotope level gages with relay tracing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejndlin, I.I.; Pakhunkov, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationship was examined between the operational and instrumental parameters of radioisotope tracking level indicators. The relationships were obtained permitting to check the reliability of the tracking regime, and also of the equilibrium state of the radioisotope tracking level indicator

  19. Study of isotopic exchange reactors (1961); Etude des reacteurs d'echange isotopique (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandcollot, P; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A study is made of the general case of the theory of first-order isotopic chemical exchange between a gaseous and a liquid phase in a reactor, starting from fundamental reaction kinetics data, and without making any limiting hypothesis concerning the value of the separation factor. The cases of counter-current reactors and of co-current reactors are considered successively. The general deuterium conservation equation requires the definition of the quotient of the reactor; the performances of this reactor are characterised by its overall efficiency. The idea of the ratio is introduced because it represents a convenient intermediary in the calculations. The search for an additive value for reactors in series leads logically to the defining of an exchange capacity, and a total efficiency, or number of theoretical reactors. This method of expressing the performances of a reactor is more general than the efficiency due to Murphee which only has a physical significance in the particular case of homogeneous liquid reactors. The relationships between these various quantities are established, and the representation due to Mc Cabe and Thiele is generalized. The reactor performances are linked to the first - order reaction kinetics by the transfer number. The relationships are given for a certain number of concrete cases. Finally the application of these calculations is given, together with the approximations necessary in the case where, because of the presence of several components in each phase, the exchange reaction no longer obeys a single kinetic law. (authors) [French] On examine dans le cas general la theorie d'un reacteur quelconque pour l'echange chimique isotopique du premier ordre entre une phase gazeuse et une phase liquide, a partir des donnees fondamentales sur la cinetique de la reaction, sans faire aucune hypothese limitative sur le cas des reacteurs a contre ourant, puis celui des reacteurs a co-courant. L'equation generale de conservation du deuterium

  20. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kentaro; Terunuma, Kusuo

    1994-02-01

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  1. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  2. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  4. The industrial application of radioisotopes in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has conducted a wide-ranging program of radioisotope applications to solve industrial problems of local, regional or national importance. Most of the investigations have been concerned with the behaviour of large complex systems. Broadly, the work covers such economically important fields as flow studies, environmental studies and coastal engineering studies. (author)

  5. How to find out in radioisotope methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections entitled: tracing books by topic; radioisotope methodology cross reference structure; finding a review; journals and how to trace journal articles; abstract; theses and dissertations; research and development reports; critical reviews and information summaries; data books; dictionaries and encyclopedias; guides to the literature; whom to contact; expert advice, research in progress, institutions. (U.K.)

  6. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.

    1988-06-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author) [pt

  7. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  8. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  9. Radioisotopes - their applications in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of radioisotopes and their industrial applications with special reference to industrial radiography are outlined. The various aspects of industrial radiography such as source size, source containers, films, density of radiography, radiographic quality and applications are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  10. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  11. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  12. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  13. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  14. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  15. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author) [fr

  16. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  17. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  18. Study of allotropic transformations in plutonium; Etude des transformations allotropiques du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriet, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The allotropic transformations in plutonium have been studied by different methods: metallography, dilatometry, thermal analysis, resistivity measurements, examination with a hot stage microscope. In order to study the importance of the purity, purification process such as zone-melting or electro-diffusion have been developed. The characteristics of the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} transformation can be explained in terms of the influence of internal stresses on the transition temperature and on the transformation kinetics. Some particular characteristics of {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} and {delta} {yields} {alpha} transformations are also given. (author) [French] Les transformations, allotropiques du plutonium ont ete etudiees a l'aide de differentes methodes: metallographie, dilatometrie, analyse thermique, mesure de resistivite, examen au microscope a platine chauffante. Pour preciser l'influence de la purete, des procedes de purification comme la fusion de zone ou l'electrodiffusion ont ete mis au point. Les caracteres de la transformation {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} s'expliquent par le role des contraintes internes sur la temperature de transition et la cinetique de transformation. Quelques particularites des transformations {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} et {delta} {yields} {alpha} sont egalement presentees. (auteur)

  19. Novel Radioisotope Applications in Industry Promoted by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Presently, there is a lively activity in further development and use of radioisotope technology. Novel radioisotope applications in industry are promoted by the IAEA. Radioisotope technology is contributing significantly to improving and optimising process performance bringing an annual economic benefit to world-wide industry of several billion US$. Probably, an average benefit to cost ratio of 40:1 is reasonably representative of radioisotope applications in industry. There are few short-term investments, which will give a return of this magnitude. The cost effectiveness of radioisotope applications should be widely promulgated to encourage industrialists to take full advantage of the technology. (author)

  20. A kinetic study of the reaction of water vapor and carbon dioxide on uranium; Cinetique de la reaction de la vapeur d'eau et du dioxyde de carbone sur l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-15

    The kinetic study of the reaction of water vapour and carbon dioxide with uranium has been performed by thermogravimetric methods at temperatures between 160 and 410 deg G in the first case, 350 and 1050 deg C in the second: Three sorts of uranium specimens were used: uranium powder, thin evaporated films, and small spheres obtained from a plasma furnace. The experimental results led in the case of water vapour, to a linear rate of reaction controlled by diffusion at the lower temperatures, and by a surface reaction at the upper ones. In the case of carbon dioxide, a parabolic law has been found, controlled by diffusional processes. (author) [French] L'etude cinetique de la reaction de la vapeur d'eau et du dioxyde de carbone sur l'uranium a ete entreprise au moyen de methodes thermogravimetriques, dans te premier cas entre 160 et 410 deg C et dans le second entre 350 et 1050 deg C. Le materiau utilise se presentait sous trois formes: poudres, couches minces evaporees et billes obtenues par fusion en chalumeau a plasma. Les resultats experimentaux ont permis de mettre en evidence, dans le cas de la vapeur d'eau, une cinetique lineaire controlee par la diffusion a basse temperature et d'interface a haute temperature. Dans le cas du dioxyde de carbone par contre, on trouve une cinetique parabolique controlee par la diffusion. (auteur)

  1. Highlighting micrographic structures of uranium-zirconium alloys with 6 per cent of weight of Zr; Mise en evidence des structures micrographiques des alliages uranium-zirconium a 6 pour cent en poids de Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouleau, Maurice

    1961-01-17

    In order to study the transformation kinetics of U-Zr alloys with a Zr content of 6 per cent in weight, the authors searched for a slow enough electrolytic polishing bath, and for an attack and examination method to highlight martensite structures produced by austempering and water tempering, and ultra-fine decomposition structures obtained by austempering. The authors explain the choice of a perchloric-butyl glycol polishing bath, of an examination under polarized light or normal light after appropriate attacks. These studies are reported for annealed alloys, and for processed alloys with martensite or ultra-fine decomposition structures [French] L'etude de la cinetique de transformation des alliages U-Zr a 6 pc en poids de Zr a necessite la recherche d'un bain de polissage electrolytique assez lent et de methodes d'attaque et d'examen qui permettent la mise en evidence des structures martensitiques (provenant de trempes etagees ou de trempes a l'eau) et des structures de decomposition ultrafines (obtenues par trempes etagees). Nous nous sommes arretes dans notre choix: - sur un bain de polissage perchlorique-butyl glycol; sur des examens en lumiere polarisee ou en lumiere normale apres attaques appropriees (en cellule dans le meme electrolyte ou au tampon dans un bain phosphorique ethylene glycol). (auteur)

  2. Kinetic modelling of hydro-treatment reactions by study of different chemical groups; Modelisation cinetique des reactions d`hydrotraitement par regroupement en familles chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnardot, J

    1998-11-19

    Hydro-treatment of petroleum shortcuts permits elimination of unwanted components in order to increase combustion in engine and to decrease atmospheric pollution. Hydro-desulfurization (HDS), Hydro-denitrogenation (HDN) and Hydrogenation of aromatics (HDA) of a LCO (Light Cycle Oil)-Type gas oil have been studied using a new pilot at a fixed temperature with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. A hydrodynamic study showed that reactions occurring in the up-flow fixed bed reactor that has been used during the experiments, were governed exclusively by chemical reaction rates and not by diffusion. Through detailed chemical analysis, height chemical groups have been considered: three aromatics groups, one sulfided group, one nitrogenized and NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}. Two Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type kinetic models with either one or two types of sites have been established. The model with two types of site - one site of hydrogenation and one site of hydrogenolysis - showed a better fit in the modeling of the experimental results. This model enables to forecast the influence of partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and partial pressure of H{sub 2} on hydro-treatment reactions of a LCO-type gas oil. (author) 119 refs.

  3. Mathematical study of chemical kinetics schemes. Application to air pollution models; Etude mathematique de schemas de cinetique chimique. Application a des modeles de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette, E.

    1997-06-23

    Complex chemical kinetics modelling is relevant in numerous fields related to the petroleum industry, for instance engine combustion, petrochemistry and atmospheric pollution. Many numerical difficulties are encountered in the computation of these models, mainly due to the large size, the non-linearity and the stiffness of the associated ordinary differential systems. We first studied systems that have an asymptotic behaviour which may be derived from an algebraic analysis. Then we reviewed different methods that make possible the reduction of size and stiffness for chemical kinetics-related differential systems, and suggest possible improvements for some of those methods. We also studied their application to atmospheric chemistry models. Finally, we started to extend those reduction methods to partial differential systems that include, in addition to chemical kinetics, other phenomena such as species emission, advection or diffusion. (author) 44 refs.

  4. Development of kinetics equations from the Boltzmann equation; Etablissement des equations de la cinetique a partir de l'equation de Boltzmann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plas, R.

    1962-07-01

    The author reports a study on kinetics equations for a reactor. He uses the conventional form of these equations but by using a dynamic multiplication factor. Thus, constants related to delayed neutrons are not modified by efficiency factors. The author first describes the theoretic kinetic operation of a reactor and develops the associated equations. He reports the development of equations for multiplication factors.

  5. Late production of hydrocarbon gases in sedimentary basins: kinetic and isotopic study; Genese tardive des gaz hydrocarbures dans les bassins sedimentaires: etude cinetique et isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorant, F.

    1999-06-23

    The thermal decomposition of sedimentary organic matter, or kerogen, within the metagenesis zone (T > 170 deg. C) leads to the formation of large amounts of late gas, mainly composed by methane. The work reported in this dissertation aims at understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of late methane generation and isotopic fractionation. With this purpose, natural samples of Type II and Type III mature kerogens (Ro > 1.3%, H/C < 0.65), were artificially heated in both open (T = 350 to 900 deg. C at 25 deg. C/min) and closed (T = 375 to 550 deg. C with t = 1 to 216 h) systems. For each experiment, mass and atomic (C, H, O) balances were obtained by recovering, fractionating and quantifying the entire pyrolysis effluents. Moreover, the isotopic compositions ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios) of methane and insoluble residue produced in closed system were measured. These experimental simulations have shown that the amounts of methane generated in an open-pyrolysis system (9 to 40 mg/gC) are systematically inferior to that observed in a closed-pyrolysis system (44 to 68 mg/gC), even after correction of the possible C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} and C{sub 6+} hydrocarbons secondary cracking. This shift, which is larger for Type II kerogens compared to coals and Type II-S kerogens, seems to be correlated with the pyrite content of the samples. Based on the closed-pyrolysis system data, a kinetic scheme, suitable for both Type II and Type III kerogens, was established. It includes three consecutive reactions, whose apparent kinetic parameters do not allow accounting for the corresponding rate constants observed in open system: E{sub 1} = 64.7 kcal/mol and A{sub 1} = 2.58 x 10{sup 15} s{sup -1}, E{sub 2} = 52.8 kcal/mol and A{sub 2} = 5.50 x 10{sup 10} s{sup -1}, E{sub 3} = 55-58 kcal/mol and A{sub 3} = 7.52 x 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. By extrapolation to geological setting, it was thus predicted that kerogens might generate about 15 mg/gC of late methane between 170 and 200 deg. C. In order to describe more precisely these reactions, additional pyrolysis experiments were performed on an aromatic compound, representative of the chemical structure of mature kerogens: the 1-methyl-pyrene. The data show that the methane is mainly produced during secondary and tertiary mechanisms, following to global succeeding stages: E{sub 1} = 56.7 kcal/mol and A{sub 1} = 8.52 x 10{sup 12} s{sup -1}, E{sub 2} = 49.5 kcal/mol and A{sub 2} 2.48 x 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. By analogy, it was established that the three reactions of late methane generation, as observed by pyrolyzing mature kerogens, are respectively related to beta-scission, demethylation and cokefaction processes. In other respects, the late methane is characterized by {delta}{sup 13}C values between -36 and -24 0/00{sub PDB} (experimental conditions), and for the Type II kerogen by a reversal of the isotopic fractionation between the gas and its source at the high maturity levels: {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4/kerogene} = -10 to +2 0/00{sub PDB}. Such an uncommon {delta}{sup 13}C evolution was not observed during the pyrolysis of the I-methyl-pyrene, the generated methane being, on the contrary, strongly {sup 12}C-enriched compared to its source ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4/1-MPy} = -35 to -19 0/00{sub PDB}). Nevertheless, by coupling a model of isotopic fractionation, based on the assumption of strictly kinetically-controlled effects, to the kinetic scheme previously generated, it was shown that the differences of isotopic signature between the model compound and the kerogens are mainly due to highly contrasted precursor effects (i.e. {delta}{sup 13}C of the functional groups from which the methane originates) specific to demethylation processes. Besides the elaboration of a methodology for the acquisition of kinetic, stoichiometric and isotopic parameters specific to the generation of late methane, this work has allowed the validation of a model of isotopic fractionation, especially by emphasizing the synergy between the mechanisms of cracking and the isotopic processes. Following this concept, a general class-compound model for the production and the degradation of oil and gas, including the calculation of the isotopic compositions, was set up. The kinetic scheme, based on that proposed by Behar et at. (1992), comprises 10 first-order reactions whose pre exponential factors (A) are not all the same. The various kinetic and isotopic parameters were determined on the basis of pyrolysis experiments performed on an immature Type II kerogen. The first simulations at low temperature show that this model can reproduce isotopic trends that are consistent with natural observations. However the current uncertainty on the isotopic parameters does not yet allow a confident utilization of the model to predict the {delta}{sup 13}C of hydrocarbon gases is the geological conditions. (author)

  6. Kinetic modeling of the thermal evolution of crude oils in sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinetique de l'evolution thermique des petroles dans les gisements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounaceur, R.

    2001-01-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the reactions involved in the thermal cracking of crude oil in sedimentary basins, and to study its kinetics as a function of temperature and pressure. We study the kinetics of pyrolysis of alkanes at low temperature, high pressure and high conversion and we propose three methods of reduction of the corresponding mechanisms. Several compounds having an inhibiting or accelerating effect on the rate of decomposition of alkanes were also studied. This research led to the construction of a general kinetic model of 5200 elementary steps representing the pyrolysis of a complex mixture of 52 molecules belonging to various chemical families: 30 linear alkanes (from CH{sub 4} to C{sub 30}H{sub 62}), 10 branched-chain alkanes (including pristane and phytane), 2 naphthenes (propyl-cyclo-pentane and propyl-cyclohexane), tetralin, 1-methyl-indan, 4 aromatics (benzene, toluene, butyl-benzene and decyl-benzene), 3 hetero-atomic compounds (a disulfide, a mercaptan and H{sub 2}S). This model is compared to experimental data coming from the pyrolysis of two oils: one from the North Sea and the other from Pematang. The results obtained show a good agreement between the experimental and simulated values. Then, we simulated the cracking of these two oils by using the following burial scenario: initial temperature of 160 degrees, 50 m per million years (ma) in a constant geothermal gradient of 30 degrees C/km, implying a heating rate of 1.5 degrees C/ma. Under these conditions, our model shows that these two oils start to crack only towards 210-220 degrees C and that their time of half-life corresponds to a temperature around 230-240 degrees C. The model also makes it possible to simulate the evolution of geochemical parameters such as the GOR, the API degree... (author)

  7. Release kinetics and mechanisms of trace heavy metals from cement based material; Cinetiques et mecanismes de relargage des metaux lourds presents en traces dans les matrices cimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudilou, E.

    2002-12-15

    Chemical species contained in a solid matrix may be transferred to the environment through water leaching. Previous studies of trace metals released from building materials (particularly cement-based ones) highlight an important analytical difficulty. The aim of this study is to determine the kinetics and the mechanisms involved in the release of trace heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) from industrial cement pastes (usually ranging from 20 to 300 ppm). The development of a dynamic leaching system, named CTG-LEACHCRETE, (used at pH=5, 20 C) which permits the evaluation of the kinetics of trace heavy metals is presented in the first part. Also, innovative solid analysis techniques (ICP-MS-Laser Ablation, local and Grazing Incidence X-rays Diffraction (GIXD) technique) were used to characterise the cement-degraded layers formed during leaching experiments. These techniques enable to monitor the mineralogical evolution and the distribution of trace metals in these areas. The confrontation of these two approaches, kinetic and solid analysis, coupled with a thorough investigation of previously developed models, lead to proposals concerning the mechanisms of release of the trace heavy metals studied. In all the cement pastes studied (CPA-CEM I, CPJ-CEM II/A and CLC-CEM V/A), chromium is trapped in ettringite by substitution SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}(U)CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and its release is then controlled by the dissolution of this hydrate. The behaviour of copper, nickel and zinc in degraded areas and in leachates, are correlated to the silicon of the hydrated calcium silicate (CSH), which imply that they are localised there. Lead, was never detected in the leachates. But it is also correlated to the silicon in the degraded layers. (author)

  8. Construction and validation of detailed kinetic models for the combustion of gasoline surrogates; Construction et validation de modeles cinetiques detailles pour la combustion de melanges modeles des essences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchard, S.

    2005-10-15

    The irreversible reduction of oil resources, the CO{sub 2} emission control and the application of increasingly strict standards of pollutants emission lead the worldwide researchers to work to reduce the pollutants formation and to improve the engine yields, especially by using homogenous charge combustion of lean mixtures. The numerical simulation of fuel blends oxidation is an essential tool to study the influence of fuel formulation and motor conditions on auto-ignition and on pollutants emissions. The automatic generation helps to obtain detailed kinetic models, especially at low temperature, where the number of reactions quickly exceeds thousand. The main purpose of this study is the generation and the validation of detailed kinetic models for the oxidation of gasoline blends using the EXGAS software. This work has implied an improvement of computation rules for thermodynamic and kinetic data, those were validated by numerical simulation using CHEMKIN II softwares. A large part of this work has concerned the understanding of the low temperature oxidation chemistry of the C5 and larger alkenes. Low and high temperature mechanisms were proposed and validated for 1 pentene, 1-hexene, the binary mixtures containing 1 hexene/iso octane, 1 hexene/toluene, iso octane/toluene and the ternary mixture of 1 hexene/toluene/iso octane. Simulations were also done for propene, 1-butene and iso-octane with former models including the modifications proposed in this PhD work. If the generated models allowed us to simulate with a good agreement the auto-ignition delays of the studied molecules and blends, some uncertainties still remains for some reaction paths leading to the formation of cyclic products in the case of alkenes oxidation at low temperature. It would be also interesting to carry on this work for combustion models of gasoline blends at low temperature. (author)

  9. Liquid Scintillation Detection of Tritium and other Radioisotopes in Insoluble or Quenching Organic Samples; Detection par compteur a scintillations a liquides du tritium et des autres radioelements contenus dans des echantillons organiques insolubles ou coupeurs; Obnaruzhenie tritiya metodom zhidkostnoj stsintillyatsii v nerastvorimykh ili sposo'nykh gasit' izluchenie organicheskikh o'raztsakh; Deteccion del tritio u otros radioisotopos por centelleo liquido en muestras organicas insolubles o que provocan extincion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, J F; Westbrook, H L; Gonzales, D [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    To facilitate a study of the H{sup 1}/H{sup 3} isotope effect in the reduction of organic compounds, it has been necessary to develop procedures to overcome the two major limitations of the most convenient general method of radioassaying organic material, liquid scintillation counting. These limitations, which are scintillation-quenching by many organic samples and limited solubility of others, are particularly common with material of biological significance: The procedures developed involve combustion of the sample wrapped in filter paper in art oxygen-filled flask, formation of a solution of the combustion products in a suitable solvent added to the flask before combustion, and scintillation-counting of the solution. Advantages of the developed, procedures, in addition to overcoming the indicated limitations, include efficacy with samples with a great range of activity (some as low as 1{mu}c/mole), good precision (as great as any other general method of radio-assaying H{sup 3}), and applicability to other soft beta emitters (C{sup 14} and S{sup 35}). With a scintillation spectrometer and the techniques developed, samples triply labelled with H{sup 3}, C{sup 14} and S{sup 35} can be differentially radio assayed. Details of the solvent systems and techniques developed are reported. Analytical results are reported for such quenching material as 2.4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazones dyes and for such insoluble materials as proteins and carbohydrates. Application of the techniques to evaluation of H{sup 1}/H{sup 3} isotope effects in certain reduction reactions are discussed. (author) [French] Pour faciliter l'etude de l'effet isotopique ''1H/''3H dans la reduction des composes organiques, il a fallu mettre au point des procedes permettant d'elargir le champ d'application de la methode generale la plus pratique de radioanalyse des matieres organiques, savoir l'analyse au moyen d'un compteur a scintillations a liquides. En effet, ce champ d'application est limite pour deux

  10. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  11. Radioisotopes for nuclear medicine: the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine occupies an important niche in the spectrum of medical capability. Since its initial application on a routine basis over 30 years ago its importance has continued to grow. For example, it is expected that over 430,000 Australians will have a nuclear medicine procedure in 1998. Current procedures using nuclear medicine are mainly concerned with diagnosis of oncology, cardiology and neurology. The main radioisotope used in nuclear medicine is Tc 99m, which is produced by a 'so called' Mo-Tc 99m generator. Other isotopes which currently find routine use are Ga-67, Th-201 and I-131. The selective uptakes by particular organs or structures is facilitated by the use of 'cold kits' which after the chemistry of the radioisotope many of the recent advances have been concerned with increasing the selectivity for a particular organ structure. Several of these new agents show increased selectivity using antibody a peptide recognition units

  12. Application state of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tomoyoshi

    1979-01-01

    Application of unsealed radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals has been increasing year by year with the development of nuclear medicine. As for the radioisotopes for in vivo use which are internally administered and are detected by external scanning, the consumption of Tc-99 m drugs has increased rapidly. The sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo use including 131 I, etc. amounted to four billion Yen in 1977. The consumption of the isotopes used in vitro for radioimmunoassay has made more rapid increase, and the sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vitro use amounted to seven billion Yen in 1977. Radiopharmaceuticals have been used in 1,134 institutes all over Japan in 1978. 534 among them have applied radiopharmaceuticals to both in vivo and in vitro uses. Radioactive wastes have been increasing with the application of these unsealed radiopharmaceuticals, and their disposal method should be examined as there is a limit in their storage. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  14. Medical radioisotope production - the Australian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian government, through its instrumentality, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), owns and operates a 10-MW Dido-class research reactor at Lucas Heights on the southern outskirts of Sydney. This is the only operating nuclear reactor in Australia. It was built in 1958 and has a maximum flux of 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s. ANSTO also jointly owns and operates a 30-MeV IBA negative ion cyclotron at Camperdown in central Sydney, which began operation in 1992. ANSTO is predominantly a research organization; however, radioisotopes are commercially produced through Australian Radioisotopes (ARI), an ANSTO business entity. Seventy-four people are employed by ARI, which is a vertically integrated organization, i.e., everything from target preparation to sale of products is undertaken.

  15. Cosmogenic radioisotopes in Gebel Kamil meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taricco, C.; Colombetti, P.; Bhandari, N.; Sinha, N.; Di Martino, M.; Vivaldo, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently a small (45 m in diameter) and very young (radioisotope activity generated by cosmic rays in the meteoroids as they travel through the interplanetary space before falling on the Earth. From the 26Al activity measurement and its depth production profiles, we infer (i) that the radius of the meteoroid should be about 1 m, constraining to 30-40 ton the range of pre-atmospheric mass previously proposed and (ii) that the fragment should have been located deeply inside the meteoroid, at a depth > 0.7 m. The 44Ti activity is under the detection threshold of the apparatus; using the depth production profiles of this radioisotope and its half-life T1/2 = 59.2 y, we deduce an upper limit to the date of fall.

  16. Health problems of industrial applications of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrna, J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation hygiene problems of industrial radioisotope applications are discussed. The observance of regulations is emphasised. Radiation protection is based on the principle of preventing early radiation damage and limiting late radiation damage to an acceptable level. The basic requirement is that the cumulated dose should be as low as possible, i.e., as low as is practically feasible in considering economic and social aspects. Notices 59/72 and 65/72, Collection of Laws, rule that if the limit of 3/10 of the maximum permissible dose is likely to be reached, control zones should be defined and marked at places of work where radioisotopes are handled. The characteristics of such a control zone are listed and the measures to be taken in case of accident are outlined. (B.S.)

  17. Modern radioisotope production technologies for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, V.; Schweickert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of the accelerator production of radioisotopes for medical purposes, are, above all, the high specific activity attainable as well as the possibility of the generation of nuclei with only a few neutrons which disintegrate due to β + emission or electron capture. It is, for example, possible to diagnostically utilize the developing long-range γ quanta by means of computerized tomography. The production of I-123 at the cyclotron of Karlsruhe (nuclear reaction, target, irradiation arrangement) as well as of ultra-pure I-123 with the help of compact cyclotrons, and the plant developed for this are described in brief. As another radioisotope which can be produced with the help of the compact cyclotron, Rb-81 is mentioned, the disintegration product Kr-81m of which is used in pulmonary diagnostics. (RB) [de

  18. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  19. Development of radioisotope production in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, H.; Kato, H.; Umezawa, H.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1962, we have been developing methods and technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources by using the JAERI's reactors, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and providing the products to domestic users. At present, 29 nuclides and 31 products are on our list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short-lived nuclides are being produced regularly for distribution, but most of the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles and Ir-192 pellets for industrial use and Gd-153 pellet, 7 kinds of Ir-192 and Au-198 grain for medical applications are produced and distributed routinely. (author)

  20. Mathematical models and accuracy of radioisotope gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical expressions relating the variance and mean value of the intrinsic error with the parameters of one and multi-dimensional mathematical models of radioisotope gauges are given. Variance of the intrinsic error at the model's output is considered as a sum of the variances of the random error which is created in the first stages of the measuring chain and the random error of calibration procedure. The mean value of the intrinsic error (systematic error) appears always for nonlinear models. It was found that the optimal model of calibration procedure not always corresponds to the minimal value of the intrinsic error. The derived expressions are applied for the assessment of the mathematical models of some of the existing gauges (radioisotope belt weigher, XRF analyzer and coating thickness gauge). 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  1. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  2. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua

    1987-01-01

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  3. Radioisotopes in the treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    Radiation treatment of malignant growths is not, of course, a novel procedure; both radium implants and X-rays generated at medium voltages (up to 250 kV) have been used all over the world for many years. However, large scale production of radioisotopes in atomic reactors has made radiotherapy available for the first time in less developed areas of the world. Moreover, the treatment has been simplified and, in many cases, made more effective

  4. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  5. Visualization of Radioisotope Detectability Over Time.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Brady [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A radioactive isotope is an atom that has an unstable nucleus. The isotope can undergo radioactive decay, the process in which excessive nuclear energy is emitted from the nucleus in many different forms, such as gamma radiation, alpha particles, or beta particles. The important thing to note is that these emissions act as a signature for the isotope. Each radioisotope has a particular emission spectrum, emitting radiation at different energies and at different rates.

  6. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  7. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C 14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Lethality of radioisotopes in early mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macqueen, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of pre-implantation mouse embryos was found to be prevented by exposure of the embryos to [ 35 S]methionine, but not to [ 3 H]methionine. Such embryos have also been shown to be highly sensitive to [ 3 H]thymidine. These observations are discussed with reference to the path lengths and energies of electrons emitted from the different radioisotopes. (author)

  9. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  10. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors.

  11. Theory of Radioisotope Scanning; Theorie de l'Exploration au Moyen d'un Radioisotope; Matematicheskaya osnova radioizotopnogo skennirovaniya; Teoria de la Exploracion Radioisotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, G. L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    All scanning techniques, whether utilizing focusing collimators, positron detectors or the newer camera techniques, have certain basic problems. The success of these techniques depends in large measure upon the correct choice of various parameters of the collimating system, of which the most important is the resolution. In this paper the relationship of optimum resolution to radioisotope content and distribution are discussed. Radioisotope scanning may be considered as a process of information extraction and presentation. The primary information lies in the original radioisotope distribution. The collimator and detecting system provide the information transfer mechanism and the final scan presents the resultant information. As with all such techniques, only a small fraction of the information is retained in the final scan. It can be shown that for focusing collimator and scintillation camera systems, the number of counts per resolution area varies as the fourth power of the resolution distance. For certain radioisotope distributions it is possible to derive analytically an optimum value of resolution distance. However, for most systems the optimum resolution must be determined by trial and error. The problems here are similar to those of pattern recognition in other fields. A computer programme has been prepared to aid in determining the optimum resolution for various types of patterns. This computer is unique in having intermediate disc storage and CRT read-out. The results have general applicability to the design of many scanning systems. (author) [French] Toutes les methodes d'exploration au moyen d'un radioisotope, celles qui font appel aux collimateurs a focalisation, aux detecteurs de positons ou les techniques plus recentes utilisant des cameras a scintillation, posent certains problemes fondamentaux. Le succes de ces techniques depend beaucoup du choix des differents parametres du dispositif de collimation, dont le plus important est la resolution. L

  12. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  13. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in 32 P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of 32 P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 μCi/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 μCi/ml 32 P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 μCi/ml respectivelly. (author)

  14. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Ryohei; Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  15. New Directions In Radioisotope Spectrum Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  16. Present status of radioisotope production in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    1994-01-01

    Since 1962, the technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources has been developed by using the reactors, JRR-1, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and the products have been offered to domestic users. At present, 31 products of 29 nuclides are on the list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short lived nuclides are produced for regular distribution, but the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles for industrial use, Ir-192 pellets for the nondestructive inspection of pipelines, Gd-153 pellets for the diagnosis of born mineral and seven kinds of brachy therapy Ir-192 and Au-198 grains are produced and distributed regularly. The organic compounds labeled with H-3 and C-14 are widely used. In fiscal year 1992, 34 batches and total amount 12 TBq of processed radioisotopes and 100 batches, 1.2 PBq of radiation sources were produced as scheduled. The development of the techniques for producing the sources emitting high energy β ray used for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is in progress. The method of producing new isotopes is developed. (K.I.)

  17. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  18. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41 Ar, 79 Kr or 85 Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products, 140 La and 24 Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  19. Calculation programme for the accidental transients in reactors of the gas-graphite type; Programme de calcul des transitoires accidentels des piles de la filiere graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henri, Ch.; Bayard, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The study of the behaviour of the fuel during certain incidents or accidents in reactors is closely connected to the study of the changes in temperature. This document describes in the first part the main physical phenomena governing the kinetics of the accident. The aim is to know the temperatures at all points and at all times during the irregular regime which can follow the initial stable regime. In the second part an explanation is given of the numerical methods used. (authors) [French] L'etude du comportement du combustible lors de certains incidents ou accidents de pile est etroitement liee a l'etude de l'evolution des temperatures. Dans sa premiere partie, ce document decrit les phenomenes physiques principaux intervenant dans la cinetique de l'accident. Le but recherche est la connaissance des temperatures en tout point et a tout instant d'un regime varie, faisant suite a un regime initial stable. Dans la deuxieme partie les methodes numeriques employees sont explicitees. (auteurs)

  20. Adsorption of fission products on mediterranean mud; Adsorption des produits de fission sur des vases de mediterranee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P; Gailledreau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Partition coefficients of some fission products have been measured in sea water on mud taken from the bottom of the Mediterranean sea. A discussion follows on the behaviour of these radioisotopes. (author) [French] On a mesure les coefficients de partage dans l'eau de mer de quelques produits de fission a longue periode sur des echantillons de vase preleves en Mediterranee. Les valeurs trouvees sont elevees. Le comportement de ces isotopes radioactifs est discutee. (auteur)

  1. Separation of fission products by the use of recoil; Separation des produits de fission par utilisation du recul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R; Beydon, J; Bardy, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    ', et des essais cinetiques permettent d'expliquer le phenomene de retention et de choisir les conditions les meilleures pour diminuer cette retention jusqu'a une faible valeur. La cinetique de recombinaison thermique fait apparaitre l'influence de la charge de l'ion de fission sur la valeur finale de la retention pour une temperature donnee. L'origine de cette recombinaison thermique est discutee. (auteur)

  2. Soil contamination. part 1. changes in the humidity of non saturated soils after reject in a limited space. part 2. movements of radioactive ions in non saturated soils after reject in a limited space; Contamination des sols (1. partie). Evolution de l'humidite dans les sols non satures apres rejets sur une surface limitee. (2. partie). Comportement des ions radioactifs dans les sols non satures apres rejets d'eau sur une surface limitee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1972-07-01

    upon the counting rate of radioactivity. This method which have allowed to get various results about {sup 131}I and {sup 85}Sr can be generalized to other radioisotopes and other soils. They are applicable to radiological safety of sites studies : Testing storage plants, estimate of accidents hazards and protection of subterranean waters. (author) [French] II est important, dans les etudes de surete radiologique de sites, de connaitre les mouvements d'eau dans les terrains non satures surmontant la nappe aquifere, cette tranche de terrain aere pouvant servir de protection contre la contamination de la nappe. L'utilisation d'humidimetres a neutrons a permis de construire graphiquement les coupes des etats hydriques du terrain et les evolutions dans le temps du volume du sol mouille a partir d'un rejet affectant une superficie restreinte. On mesure aussi les gradients d'humidite, les cinetiques d'assechement, la capacite de retention du sol et la teneur en eau gravifique suspendue en en equilibre avec la charge d'eau. L'etat hydrique initial influence la vitesse d'infiltration et non la vitesse d'avancement du front d'humectation, on peut donc calculer la quantite d'eau accumulable par le terrain. Apres l'arret du rejet, le volume de sol mouille evolue jusqu'a un etat d'equilibre limite par le front d'humectation, les redistributions d'humidite s'effectuant seulement au sein de ce volume; ainsi, en cas de rejet de liquide radioactif, les ions contaminants resteront confines dans un volume mesurable limite par le front d'humectation. Partie 2. Pour faire suite au rapport sur les mouvements d'eau dans les sols non satures apres rejet sur une surface limitee - CEA R 3635 (1) - on etudie les mouvements des ions radioactifs dans ces sols en utilisant un anion et un cathion caracteristiques: l'iode 131 et le strontium 85. La methode est basee sur la mesure simultanee des fronts d'humidite et d'activite au moyen d'humidimetre a neutrons et d'une sonde d'activite specialement

  3. Some Questions on the Fixation of Radioisotopes in Connexion with the Problem of their Safe Burial; Quelques Aspects de la Fixation des Isotopes Radioactifs en Rapport avec le Probleme de leur Elimination dans le Sol; 041d 0414 ; Algunos Aspectos de la Fijacion de los Isotopos Radiactivos en Relacion con los Problemas de su Evacuacion sin Riesgos en el Suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimakov, P. V.; Kulichenko, V. V.

    1960-07-01

    The results given in this paper are based on the fact that the best way of burying fission products is to incorporate them in vitrified fused blocks containing these fission products. The physico-chemical bases of the transformation of liquid waste into solid blocks are shown. The thermogram of this process is presented and the analysis of its characteristics given. The conditions of fusion of the vitrified mass, in particular those contributing to the fixation of radioactive aerosols, are shown. Some results of studies on the chemical state of radioactive fission products in the solid mass in connexion with the leaching of their radioactivity are given. In conclusion, the results of calculations of the temperatures up to which the radioactive blocks may be heated according to their characteristics are presented. (author) [French] Le present memoire est base sur l'hypothese que le meilleur procede d'elimination des dechets radioactifs dans le sous:sol consiste a les enfouir sous forme de blocs coules dans lesquels ils seraient intimement meles a du verre. Les auteurs decrivent les phenomenes physico-chimiques qui permettent la transformation des dechets radioactifs liquides en blocs solides. Ils donnent le thermogramme de ce processus et examinent certaines de ses particularites. Ils exposent en outre les conditions de coulage de la masse de verre, notamment celles qui facilitent la formation d'aerosols radioactifs. Les auteurs donnent quelques resultats des etudes effectuees sur l'etat chimique des elements radioactifs au sein de la masse solide, dans la mesure ou ces resultats touchent aux problemes que pose la fuite de la radioactivite due au 'lessivage' du bloc par l'eau. En conclusion, les auteurs indiquent les resultats du calcul des temperatures maxima auxquelles on peut porter les blocs radioactifs compte tenu de leurs caracteristiques. (author) [Spanish] Los autores de la memoria parten del supuesto de que la mejor manera de evacuar en el suelo los

  4. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la

  5. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la cinetique par des equations dependant purement du

  6. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  7. Radioisotope Power Sources; Sources d'energie utilisant les radiobotopes; Radioizotopnye istochniki ehnergii; Fuentes radio isotopicas de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culwell, J. P. [USAEC, Washington, D.C (United States)

    1963-11-15

    hazards. (author) [French] Le programme de production d'energie au moyen des radioisotopes, execute par la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis, a donne naissance a toute une technologie nouvelle de l'emploi des radioisotopes comme source d'energie dans des generateurs. Les sources d'energie utilisant des radioisotopes conviennent particulierement pour les applications a distance, qui exigent des alimentations de longue duree, de faibles dimensions et de fonctionnement sur. Ces ''batteries nucleaires'', qui peuvent fonctionner de maniere satisfaisante dans des conditions extremes de temperature et d'exposition aux rayons solaires et aux rayonnements electromagnetiques, constituent des sources d'energie interessantes pour differents types d'engins telecommandes tels que ceux qui sont destines a recueillir des renseignements ou a assurer une surveillance ainsi que les satellites et autres vehicules spatiaux. Les radioisotopes utilises comme sources d'energie sont generalement des emetteuis alpha ou beta. Les emetteurs alpha sont preferables, mais ils sont plus couteux et plus rares et on les reserve generalement pour les applications spatiales. A l'heure actuelle les emetteurs beta, obtenus par separation des dechets de la fission nucleaire, sont utilises exclusivement dans les engins terrestres et marins. On peut neanmoins prevoir que des emetteurs beta, comme le strontium-90, seront eventuellement utilises dans l'espace. On fait actuellement des recherches sur des generateurs qui utiliseront comme sources des melanges de produits de fission. Ces sources seront d'un prix de revient moins eleve qile les radioisotopes purs car les couts de la separation et de la purification seront supprimes. Des prototypes de generateurs thermoelectriques, utilisant le strontium-90 et le cesium-137 comme sources, fonctionnent actuellement ou sont mis au point dans des stations meteorologiques, des engins de balisage et des appareils pour la survellance des profondeurs marines. Le

  8. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Webb, M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  9. HAC and production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews different methods for the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds that make use of hot atom reactions. Subsequently he discusses the production of radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals; enrichment of (n,γ) products, recoil labelling and related methods (neutron reaction products, cyclotron production, excitation labelling, radiation and discharge induced labelling). The final section offers a survey of radioisotope production using accelerators. Only a selection of the various conditions used in practical RI production is considered. (Auth.)

  10. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  11. The Research and Development of the Radioisotope Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinfelds, E.V.; Ghosh, T.K.; Prelas, M.A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The project of developing radioisotope energy conversion system (RECS) involves analytical computational assisted design and modeling and also laboratory research. The computational analysis consists of selecting various geometries and materials for the main RECS container and the internally located radioisotope, computing the fluxes of the beta (-) particles and of the visible (or ultraviolet) photons produced by the beta (-) s, computing the transport of these photons to the photovoltaic cells, and computing the overall efficiency of useful conversion of the radioisotope power

  12. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  13. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  14. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  15. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  16. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1981-10-01

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youfeng

    1997-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  18. Collection and processing of information in biological kinetics studies with radioactive tracers; Collecte et traitement de l'information dans les etudes de cinetique biologique avec traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, J; Lafuma, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The authors present an automatic method for the collection and treatment of information in biological kinetics experiments using radioactive tracers. The recording are made without any time constant on magnetic tape. The information recorded is sampled by a 400 channel multi-scale analyzer and transferred to punched cards. The digital analysis is done by an I.B.M. computer. The method is illustrated by an example: the hepatic fixation of colloidal gold in the pig. Its advantages and requirements are discussed. In the appendix are given the FORTRAN texts for two programmes used in treating the example presented. (authors) [French] Les auteurs presentent une methode automatique de collecte et de traitement de l'information dans les experiences de cinetique biologique utilisant les traceurs radioactifs. Les enregistrements sont realises sans constante de temps sur bande magnetique. L'information enregistree fait l'objet d'un echantillonnage a l'aide d'un analyseur a 400 canaux en mode multi-echelle puis est transferee sur cartes perforees. L'exploitation digitale est confiee a un ordinateur I.B.M.. La methode est illustree par un exemple d'etude de la fixation hepatique de l'or colloidal chez le porc. Ses avantages et ses exigences sont discutes. En annexe figurent les textes en FORTRAN de deux programmes utilises pour le traitement de l'exemple cite. (auteurs)

  19. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  20. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlock, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m 2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  1. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  2. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  3. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.; Laidler, R.I.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  5. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  6. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  7. Industrial measurement instruments that use radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monno, Asao

    2004-01-01

    An example of a large-scale system for controlling hot rolling, and recent developments for a gamma-ray thickness gauge for the inner-mill housing of a plate and a thickness gauge for a hot seamless tube mill are introduced. The dramatically higher speed response, versatile intelligent elements, larger data capacity and formation of a database are advantages of these instruments over conventional devices. Moreover, Fuji Electric's industrial measuring instruments that use radioisotopes are manufactured and marketed to be compatible with those of Hitachi, and we have already compiled a track record of many deliveries. (author)

  8. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  9. Some recent developments in the application of radioisotope techniques in Australia; Progres recents dans l'application des methodes radioisotopiques en Australie; Poslednie dostizheniya v oblasti primeneniya radioizotopov v Avstralii; Recientes progresos realizados en Australia en las aplicaciones tecnicas de los radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, J N [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Sutherland, N.S.W. (Australia)

    1962-01-15

    This paper describes some -of the work carried out by the Isotopes Section of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission during the last two years, particularly relating to industrial and field tests in co-operation with other organizations. A study of the flow pattern of water in a power-station cooling pond was made, using iodine-131 as tracer. The flow of the water was followed quantitatively throughout the 200 000 000 gallon pond by the use of calibrated underwater scintillation-counters. These experiments showed that the flow pattern was affected by the wind more than by any other factor. In the absence of wind an appreciable fraction of the war m water channelled across the surface of the pond and re-entered the power station within 3-4 hours. This indicated a design defect in the layout of the intake which was subsequently modified. A study of the pattern of flow in a Bach subsider for raw sugar solutions is also described. The hot raw solution after lime treatment enters through a single feed line at the top and clarified solution is taken off by pipelines at six different levels. The solids are taken off at the base. About 5 mc of bromine-82 in solution was injected into the feed line and the appearance of the tracer measured quantitatively by shielded scintillation detectors on each of the six outlet pipes. Analysis of the distribution of activity with time in each line permitted a clear indication of the nature of the flow within the subsider. Finally, a study of the efficiency of mixing in a spiral-type mixer is described. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit certains des travaux accomplis au cours des deux dernieres annees par la Section des isotopes de la Commission australienne de l'energie atomique, notamment les experiences pratiques, industrielles ou autres, entreprises de concert avec d'autres organisations. On a etudie le mouvement des eaux dans le bassin de refroidissement d'une centrale electrique, en utilisant l'iode-131 comme indicateur. Ce

  10. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  11. Alecto - results obtained with homogeneous critical experiments on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233; Alecto - resultats des experiences critiques homogenes realisees sur le plutonium 239, l'uranium 235 et l'uranium 233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna, J G; Brunet, J P; Caizegues, R; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Kremser, J; Tellier, H; Verriere, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In this report are given the results of the homogeneous critical experiments ALECTO, made on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233. After a brief description of the equipment, the critical masses for cylinders of diameters varying from 25 to 42 cm, are given and compared with other values (foreign results, criticality guide). With respect to the specific conditions of neutron reflection in the ALECTO experiments the minimal values of critical masses are: Pu239 M{sub c} = 910 {+-} 10 g, U235 M{sub c} = 1180 {+-} 12 g and U233 M{sub c} = 960 {+-} 10 g. Experiments relating to cross sections and constants to be used on these materials are presented. Lastly, kinetic experiments allow to compare pulsed neutron methods to fluctuation methods. [French] On presente dans ce rapport les resultats des experiences critiques homogenes ALECTO, effectuees sur le plutonium 239, l'uranium 235 et l'uranium 233. Apres avoir rappele la description des installations, on donne les masses critiques pour des cylindres de diametres variant entre 25 et 42 cm, qui sont comparees avec d'autres chiffres (resultats etrangers, guide de criticite). Dans les gammes des diametres etudies pour des cuves a fond plat reflechies lateralement, la valeur minimale des masses critiques est la suivante: Pu239 M{sub c} = 910 {+-} 10 g, U235 M{sub c} = 1180 {+-} 12 g et U233 M{sub c} 960 {+-} 10 g. Des experiences portant sur les sections efficaces et les constantes a utiliser sur ces milieux sont ensuite presentees. Enfin des experiences de cinetique permettent une comparaison entre la methode des neutrons pulses et la methode des fluctuations. (auteur)

  12. A contribution to the structural and kinetic study of the slow transformation of an iron or uranium alpha crystal; Contribution a l'etude structurale et cinetique de la transformation lente d'un cristal de fer alpha ou d'uranium alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donze, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-12-15

    transformation {alpha} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {alpha} du fer ou de la double transformation {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {alpha} de l'uranium. Nous avons montre que ce phenomene ne se produit pas dans le cas des metaux tres purs mais seulement lorsque le metal renferme des traces d'impuretes notamment du carbone. Le cristal unique n'est regenere que si l'on a soin de ne pas depasser de plus de quelques degres la temperature de fin de transformation. On retrouve ce phenomene dans les agregats polycristallins: les orientations des cristaux constitutifs ce l'agregat sont conservees bien que les joints de grains subissent des deplacements considerables. 2- L'etude cinetique de la transformation au refroidissement d'une part, l'analyse de la texture de la phase {gamma} dans le cas du fer, de l'autre, demontrent que la regeneration resulte de la conservation de germes de la phase {alpha} dans la phase de haute temperature. Ces germes paraissent relativement stables car au bout de 24 h de sejour a la temperature d'experience ils conservent leurs proprietes. 3- L'etude des macles de fer {gamma} engendrees par la transformation {alpha} {yields} {gamma} nous a permis de demontrer qu'il n'existe pas de relation d'orientation dans la transformation {alpha} {yields} {gamma} du fer pur. 4- Grace a l'elaboration d'une pellicule d'oxyde epitaxique sur la surface du fer {gamma}, nous avons mis en evidence un nouveau type de macles de transformation du fer {alpha} qui croissent dans une direction [110] et dont le plan de contact est (110). Formees de lamelles tres fines, ces macles par contact sont instables et se transforment en macles par penetration dont chaque element, beaucoup plus gros, provient du grossissement d'un certain nombre de lamelles. (auteur)

  13. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  14. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, G.J.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  16. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcher, E H [Post-graduate Medical School, Hammersmith, London (United Kingdom)

    1961-07-15

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias.

  17. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, G J; Krishnamoorthy, P N

    1960-07-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  18. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, S.; Seviour, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of "2"4Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that "2"4Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. - Highlights: • We show that neutron interrogation of food can produce many radioisotopes. • We show a strong dependance between food and certain radioisotopes. • Some isotopes are shown to have an energy dependence. • Previous claims that 24Na is the main threat is shown to only apply in special cases.

  19. Discrete radioisotopic relays of a cyclic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klempner, K.S.; Vasil'ev, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A functional diagram of discrete radioisotopic relay equipment (RRP) with cyclic action was examined. An analysis of its rapid action and reliability under stationary conditions and transition regimes is presented. A structural diagram of radioisotopic relay equipment shows three radiation detectors, a pulse standardizer, an integrator and a power amplifier with a threshold cut-off device. It was established that the basic properties of the RRP - rapid action and reliability - are determined entirely by the counting rate of the average frequency of pulses from the radiation detector, n 0 and n 1 , in the 0 and 1 states (absence of current in the electromagnetic relay winding and activation of the winding of the output relay), capacities N 1 and N 2 of the dual counters, and the frequency of the transition threshold, f, of the generator. Formulas are presented which allow making engineering calculations for determining the optimum RRP parameters. High speed and reliability are shown, which are determined by the production purposes of the relay

  20. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Pinkert, J.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.Y.; Wang, S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  1. Report of Radioisotope Inspection Technical Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, H.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of unifying the method of performance test for the routine management of the performance of RI equipments, the check-up of performance at the time of purchasing the equipments or research works, the Committee has continued the investigation on the method of performance test on RI equipments. Now, the definite plans have been decided regarding the method of performance test on radioisotope monitoring instruments and the measuring instruments for RI samples, therefore they are reported hereinafter. As for the radioisotope monitoring instruments, Curie meter, area monitor, water monitor, gas monitor and hand, foot and cloth monitor were taken up, and the items of inspection, the purposes, the testing methods, the expression of measured results and their evaluation were discussed. The accuracy of measurement of absolute radio-activity is important in Curie meter, the stability of continuous monitoring is important in general monitors, and the limit of measurement is important in the hand, foot and cloth monitor. As for the measuring instruments for radioactive materials, the efficiency of counting, linearity and stability were taken up as the items of performance test, and other matters to which attention should be paid were added. These were described, dividing into well type scintillation counter and liquid scintillation counter. (Kako, I.)

  2. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey; Shah, Ashwin

    2005-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  3. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hercik, F.; Jammet, H.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  4. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  5. A set of portable radioisotopic control and measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospeev, V.V.; Sidorov, V.N.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Uleksin, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems and perspectives are examined of the portable radioisotope instruments application in agriculture, building industry, engeeniring and geological survay and in melioration. Principles are given of creation a series of radioisotopic instruments based on the principle of ganging. The series described consists of radioisotopic densimeters and moisture gages of the portable type, based on the ganging principle. The instruments differ in the measuring converters and have unified information processing and power supply devices. Criteria are stated for the ganging principle estimation, in particular, estimation of the technical means' compatibility. Four different types of compatibility are distinguished: an information compatibility; a metrological compatibility; structural and operational compatibility. Description is given of the unified information processing device - the unified pulse counter of the SIP-1M type and description of a row of radioisotopic measuring converters, which provides a possibility for completing the portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-2 type, intended for measuring densities of concrets and soils in the surface layer up to 30 cm and the density range from 1000 to 2500 kg/m 3 ; portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-1 type having measuring range from 600 to 1500 kg/m 3 ; surface-depth radioisotopic densimeter of the PPGR-1 type and surface-depth radioisotopic moisture gage of the VPGR-1 type [ru

  6. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  7. Application of radioisotope technique for investigation of pumps seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoszewski, B.; Zorawska, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope method of measuring the wear of rings of the face mechanical seals, bush in soft seals, and leakage in double mechanical seals is described. The examples are given. It is found that radioisotope technique can be used for investigation of the seals. (author)

  8. Shielded radioisotope generator and method for using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclide generator for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features batch flow of eluting reagent interior of the generator in a completely shielded environment

  9. A 4{pi} Anticoincidence Arrangement for Measurements of Beta-Ray Emitting Isotopes; Montage a Anticoiencidence 4{pi} pour la Mesure des Radioisotopes Emetteurs Beta; 4{pi} sistema schetchikov antisovpadenij dlya izmerenij beta-izluchayushchikh izotopov; Aparato de Recuento 4{pi} en Anticoincidencia para Medir Emisores Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srdoc, D. [Institute ' ' Ruder Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1965-10-15

    A 4{pi} anticoincidence, low-background counting system consisting of two specially designed parallel plate counters and a bridge anticoincidence circuit is described. Each counter is of a flat, mica window ''pancake'' type. The diameter of the counters is much larger than the gap between the plates. Good counting properties are obtained in spite of the unusual counter geometry, owing to the flexibility of the counter shape design when a neon-halogen mixture is used. The counters are so arranged that both windows face the sample, leaving a narrow slit for the sample holder. The sample is spread on a thin metalized plastic film. The pulses from both counters due to beta-particles coming from the sample are recorded, giving a 4{pi} counting geometry. The pulses due to cosmic particles triggering both counters simultaneously cancel out in a simple bridge anticoincidence arrangement, thus eliminating the need for an electronic circuit. Furthermore, the parallel plate counters used here for beta-particle counting possess a markedly reduced sensitivity to gamma-rays near the threshold voltage, resulting in a further lowering of the background. Sources of beta-particles of higher energies, as well as gamma-ray sources, can also be measured by the described system, because in the proposed geometry there is no possibility of triggering both counters simultaneously, as is the case with the conventional guard-counter arrangements. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit un ensemble de mesure a anticolhcidence 4{pi}, ayant un faible bruit de fond, compose de deux compteurs speciaux a plateaux paralleles relies par un pont d'anticofncidence. Ces deux compteurs sont de type circulaire plat a fenetre de mica. Le diametre du compteur est tres superieur a l'espace entre les plaques. Malgre sa geometrie inusitee, l'appareil a des proprietes de comptage satisfaisantes en raison de la souplesse que lui conferent ses caracteristiques lorsqu'on utilise un melange halogene-neon. Les

  10. Developments in radioisotope production and labelling of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in both reactor and accelerator production of radioisotopes finding applications in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research are summarised. The priorities for the production of 48 different cyclotron radioisotopes; and for 42 reactor produced radioisotopes finding biomedical applications are identified. Each includes 5 generator systems. The rapid expansion of cyclotron based radioisotope production and automated synthesis of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals with the position-emitting radionuclides continues to gain momentum. Recent feasibility studies of the cyclotron production of 186 Re, 99m Tc and of 99 Mo are cited as examples of motivation to develop accelerator alternatives to use of nuclear reactors for medical radioisotope production. Examples of SPET and PET radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 131 I, 123 I, 124 I, 18 F, and with therapeutic radionuclides are highlighted. (author)

  11. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  12. Radioisotope production by reactors and cyclotrons in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yukio

    1978-01-01

    Present status of radioisotope production in Japan and the increasing demand from various fields are generally reviewed. Future problems associated with the shortage of economical supply are also discussed. The first half of this report is devoted to general review of the increasing demand for various radioisotopes from increasing number of users. The present status and future trends of the distribution of users of specific radioisotopes and their demands are shown. The remaining half of this report reviews the production with reactors and cyclotrons. The Japanese reactors producing radioisotopes are limited to low flux (10 13 ) research reactors at JAERI. Some problems associated with the improvement of availability and with the organizational structure are discussed. As for the production with cyclotrons, available facilities and the method of production are explained in detail. For clinical use, especially for the production of short lived radioisotopes, the advantage of a small special purpose cyclotron at each medical organization is emphasized. (Aoki, K.)

  13. Radiation hazards in the neighbourhood of uranium reactors; Dangers des rayonnements aupres des piles a uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    Radiation hazards near uranium reactors may be divided in two groups. Hazards when the reactor is normally operating: {gamma} radiation from hot uranium or air contamination by fission gases, {gamma} radiation or contamination by the coolant (air, nitrogen, heavy-water), {gamma} radiation from radioisotopes. Hazards in the case of an accident: presence of hot uranium in the atmosphere, soil contamination. (author) [French] Les dangers d'irradiation aupres des piles a uranium sont a classer essentiellement en deux groupes. Les dangers existant aupres d'une pile exploitee normalement: irradiation {gamma} par l'uranium irradie ou contamination de l'air par des gaz de fission, irradiation {gamma} ou contamination par les fluides de refroidissement (air, azote, eau lourde), irradiation {gamma} par les radioelements fabriques. Les dangers en cas d'accident survenant a un reacteur en fonctionnement, ayant pour consequence : la presence dans l'air d'uranium irradie, la contamination du sol. (auteur)

  14. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  15. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A 1 and A 2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A 2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A 2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  16. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  17. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    1Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou Bénin. Email : cgbemavo@yahoo.fr. 2Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Centre de Recherches Agricoles d'Agonkanmey (CRA-A),. Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, Eau et Environnement (LSSEE).

  18. Study on application of radiation and radioisotopes -Development of the radioisotope production facilities for the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Bok; Woo, Jong Sub; Kang, Byung Woi; Baek, Sam Tae; Jeong, Un Soo; Park, Yong Chul; Jeon, Young Keon; Chang, Chun Ik; Lee, Bong Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Development and construction of the lead hot cell for radioisotope production and related facility. 1. Fabrication and installation of the lead H/C system. 2. Development and installation of the hydraulic transfer system. 3. Development of the radiation monitoring system. 4. Fabrication and installation of the fire extinguishing system in the H/C. 5. Fabrication and installation of the fume hood. 4 tabs.,10 figs. (Author).

  19. 82Sr--82Rb radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Erdal, B.R.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved 82 Sr- 82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be greater than 10 7 . Approximately 80 percent of the 82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH 4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be greater than 10 5 , and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three 82 Sr half lives. 2 claims, no drawings

  20. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  1. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivers, R.W.; Murray, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  2. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.

    1987-01-01

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  3. Radio-isotope powered light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spottiswoode, N.L.; Ryden, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The light source described comprises a radioisotope fuel source, thermal insulation against heat loss, a biological shield against the escape of ionizing radiation and a material having a surface which attains incandescence when subject to isotope decay heat. There is then a means for transferring this heat to produce incandescence of the surface and thus emit light. A filter associated with the surface permits a relatively high transmission of visible radiation but has a relatively high reflectance in the infra red spectrum. Such light sources require the minimum of attention and servicing and are therefore suitable for use in navigational aids such as lighthouses and lighted buoys. The isotope fuel sources and thus the insulation and shielding and the incandescent material can be chosen for the use required and several sources, materials, means of housing etc. are detailed. Operation and efficiency are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, J.

    1986-01-01

    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  5. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  6. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  7. Production of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, Tatsuo

    1977-01-01

    As problems in the process of production of short-lived radioisotopes for medical use and in clinical application of them, the following three items were mentioned: 1. separation and purification in a short time, 2. devices to decrease exposure dose in workers, and 3. preservation of radiochemical purity and chemical purity, and avoidance of mixture of impurities. In consideration of these problems, an outline of on-line production system of radioactive gases (from irradiation by accelerated particles to separation, purification, and administration of them), which was exploited in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, was described. Production of 13 NH 3 , the aqueous solution of 18 F, and 123 I was also given an outline. Simultaneous production method of many nuclides by means of laminated target and compounds labelled with positron emitter were also described. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-15

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  9. Guidebook on radioisotope tracers in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using tracers (chemical, dyes, etc.) in the investigation of complex physical phenomena has always attracted the attention of scientists and engineers. When radioactive isotopes became available it was immediately recognized that they offered an almost ideal solution to tracer selection. This book is devoted to reviewing the present status of the tracer method as such and to its applications to those branches of industry which have derived large benefits from the use of this modern technology. The main objectives of the IAEA's Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section is to help Member States in introducing to their own industries the different isotope and radiation techniques which have become available as a result of developments in the nuclear sciences. This section proposed the preparation of this guidebook, putting together various radiotracer methods and the experience obtained so far in their industrial use. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the general concept of tracers, technology and safety aspects, as well as data evaluation and interpretation. In chapter 5, therefore, general applications are discussed. In chapter 6, specialists in selected fields discuss their experience in radiotracer applications in various types of industrial activity. Most case studies are illustrated by at least one detailed example of an experiment carried out at an industrial installation. Current trends in the development of radiotracer methods are discussed in chapter 7, from both a theoretical and a practical viewpoint. Some possible new RTT applications in the future are also discussed here. Sealed radioactive sources are used almost as often as radioisotope tracers in industrial measurements. Annex I gives a short review of these techniques. Readers who are interested in the basic principles of radioisotope production will find the necessary information in Annex II. Annexes III, V and VI provide a demonstration of fundamental relations and properties; useful

  10. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  11. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  12. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1994-09-01

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  13. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  14. Radioisotope applications in industry and environment: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology in industry, medicine and agriculture form an important part of India's programme of using nuclear technology for societal benefits. Radioisotope production in India started on a modest scale soon after 1 MW APSARA reactor at Trombay, Mumbai became critical in 1956. The scope of activities expanded thereafter. With the commissioning of 40 MW CIRUS reactor in 1960, the setting up of modern radioisotope processing laboratories in late sixties and the production of cobalt-60 in power reactors in megacurie quantities in late seventies made India self-sufficient in radioisotope production. The radioisotope production received a major boost in 1985 with the commissioning of high flux 100 MW DHRUVA reactor, which provided opportunity to extend the range of radioisotopes available in the country both in quantity as well in specific activity. The CIRUS reactor has been shutdown in year 2010 and 1 MW APSARA reactor is presently being upgraded to 5 MW. Today, The DHRUVA reactor operating at its full capacity is being used for production of 100 different radioisotopes those are used in industry, agriculture and medicine. (author)

  15. Computerized control system for administration of the radioisotope use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago, Tsutomu; Ito, Shin; Isozumi, Yasuhito; Kurihara, Norio

    1986-01-01

    An on-line computer system for administration of the radioisotope use has been developed. This system consists of a multi-job type host computer and two sets of personal computers with identification card-readers. The personal computers are employed as terminal devices for radioisotope users. By the use of an identification card, entrance and leaving times are recorded automatically. Furthermore, an easy operation of the personal computer permits users to access to the information of their resistered radioisotopes, such as nuclides, chemical forms, updated activities, storage locations, and history of usage. A recording sheet on which those data are printed is provided from the personal computer. After the use of radioisotopes, users can record their data on the recording sheets. These records are used as the input data to this system to update the data of the used radioisotopes. Owing to the concise format of the recording sheet and various sorting programs developed in present work, this system enables us to grasp the exact flow of the radioisotopes from purchase to disposal. Out-put data from high-speed kanji printer can provide many important books which are legally requested to be kept for administration of the radioisotope use. (author)

  16. Future radioisotope power needs for missions to the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.; Underwood, M.L.; Nesmith, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA and DOE plan a cooperative team effort with industry, government laboratories and universities to develop a near term, low cost, low power (100 watt electric class), low mass (<10 kg), advanced radioisotope space power source (ARPS) and in the process reduce the plutonium-related costs as well. The near term is focused on developing an advanced energy converter to use with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The GPHS was developed and used for the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Advanced energy converter technologies are needed as a more efficient replacement for the existing thermoelectric converters so that the space radioisotope power source mass and cost can be reduced. a more advanced technology space radioisotope power system program is also planned that addresses a longer-term need. Twenty first century robotic scientific information missions to the outer planets and beyond are planned to be accomplished with microspacecraft which may demand safe, even more compact, lower-power, lower-mass radioisotope power sources than those which can be achieved as a result of the near term efforts. The longer-term program focuses not only on converter technology but also on lower power, more compact radioisotope heat source technology and smaller, lower mass radioisotope heater units for second generation microspacecraft. This more ambitious, longer time-horizon focus necessarily occurs at this time on the technology R and D level rather than at the system technology level

  17. Celerity, pulse and wavelength of De broglie for a nucleon (proton or neutron), according to its kinetic energy. - Formulas and curves; Vitesse, impulsion et longueur d'onde de de broglie d'un nucleon (proton ou neutron), en fonction de son energie cinetique. - Formules et courbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozmski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The celerity curves, pulse and wavelength of De Broglie for a nucleon (proton or neutron) have been calculated and traced accordingly to its kinetic energy. (M.B.) [French] Les courbes de vitesses, d mpulsion et de longueur d nde de Broglie d n nucleon (proton ou neutron) ont ete calcule et trace en fonction de son energie cinetique. (M.B.)

  18. Production and application of radioisotopes - a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolutions of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop

  19. Utilization of radioisotopes and irradiation in crop protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    There is a growing realization of the benefits which may be derived from the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in the different disciplines of crop protection research. Many investigations which might only be carried out with extreme difficulty or not all by conventional methods, could be pursued with relative ease. Radioisotopes and irradiation have been utilized in understanding the physiology and behaviour of pests and their biochemical processes and in consequence, have contributed beneficially to the development of better control techniques and more effective pesticides. On the environmental aspects, radioisotopic techniques have provided a useful tool in understanding the behaviour, metabolism and residues of pesticides in the environment. (author)

  20. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  1. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  2. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lity of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope pro- gramme. Selection ... and blockages detection in buried pipelines are rendered ..... from reputed international suppliers with analysis report.

  3. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yishu [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China)

    2000-10-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, {gamma}-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, {sup 90}Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  4. The use of radioisotopes in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-04-15

    Some of the more important isotope applications, especially those which are or can be profitably introduced in the developing countries, are reviewed. The use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture, and hydrology is discussed

  5. Economic Contributions of Radioisotope Production Reactor in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ji Hee; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Whan

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotopes (RIs) have been used extensively in the fields of industrial, the agricultural, and the medical applications. Especially the deficiency of radioisotopes such as Mo-99 and I-131 in the medical applications recently is becoming the main issue in our society. Radioisotope with the characteristics of public goods in some aspects is mainly playing as the intermediate inputs or goods in the process of the industrial production, with being expected to produce the economic benefits by creating the new demand in the market or enlarging the value added for the related goods and services. In this study, the contribution effects for Korean economy by the construction and operation of the reactor for radioisotope production would be evaluated the effects produced by the activities such as a RI supplies into domestic industry, the RI exports, the neutron transmutation doping services called NTD, and the exports of RI production reactors

  6. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2000-01-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90 Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  7. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  8. Organic synthesis with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes of the non-metals, principally 11 C, 13 N and 18 F, has burgeoned over the last decade. This has been almost entirely because of the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a powerful non-invasive technique for investigating pathophysiology in living man. PET is essentially an external technique for the rapid serial reconstruction of the spatial distribution of any positron-emitting radioisotope that has been administered in vivo. Such a distribution is primarily governed by the chemical form in which the positron-emitting radioisotope is incorporated, and importantly for clinical research, is often perturbed by physical, biological or clinical factors. Judicious choice of the chemical form enables specific biological information to be obtained. For example, the labelling of glucose with a positron-emitting radioisotope could be expected to provide a radiopharmaceutical for the study of glucose utilisation in both health and disease. (author)

  9. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  10. Sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses: implications for the containment of sulphate-bearing nuclear wastes; Solubilite et cinetiques de diffusion des sulfates dans differents verres d'oxydes: application au conditionnement des dechets nucleaires sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.

    2009-09-15

    The thesis deals with sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses, in order to control sulphate incorporation and sulphate volatilization in nuclear waste glasses. It was conducted on simplified compositions, in the SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-R{sub 2}O (R = Li, Na, K, Cs), SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO systems. These compositions allowed us to study the influence of the nature of network-modifying ions (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+}) and also of former elements (Si, B, V), on structure and properties of glasses. Sulphate volatility is studied in sodium borosilicate melts using an innovative technique of sulphate quantitation with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is useful to obtain kinetic curves of sulphate volatilization. The establishment of a model to fit these curves leads to the determination of diffusion coefficients of sulphate. These diffusion coefficients can thus be compared to diffusion coefficients of other species, determined by other techniques and presented in the literature. They are also linked to diffusion coefficients in relation with the viscosity of the melts. Concerning sulphate solubility in glasses, it depends on glass composition and on the nature of sulphate incorporated. Sulphate incorporation in alkali borosilicate glasses leads to the formation of a sulphate layer floating on top of the melt. Sulphate incorporation in barium borosilicate and boro-vanadate glasses leads to the crystallization of sulphate species inside the vitreous matrix. Moreover, sulphate solubility is higher in these glasses than in alkali borosilicates. Finally, exchanges between cations present in glasses and cations present in the sulphate phase are also studied. (author)

  11. Study of some continuous spectra produced by nuclear reactions with light nuclei; Etude de quelques spectres continus produits par reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, L

    1966-07-01

    The continuous spectra coming from several nuclear reactions with light nuclei were measured. The spectra can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism; however, the reactions produced by {sup 6}Li are different. A mechanism was proposed to explain their spectra based on the following assumptions: {sup 6}Li makes a nuclear molecule with the target which subsequently breaks up in such a way that an {alpha} particle comes out with the kinetic energy that it has in the molecule. The calculated spectra and those measured are in good agreement. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les spectres continus produits dans plusieurs reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers. A l'exception des spectres produits par {sup 6}Li, on a trouve qu'on pouvait expliquer ces spectres par le mecanisme des reactions en deux etapes. Nous avons propose un mecanisme pour expliquer les spectres produits par {sup 6}Li. On suppose que {sup 6}Li forme une molecule nucleaire avec la cible qui eclate ensuite de facon telle qu'une particule alpha de la molecule sort avec l'energie cinetique de son mouvement propre dans la molecule. Les spectres calcules avec ces hypotheses et les spectres mesures sont en bon accord. (auteur)

  12. Evaluation of processing methods for static radioisotope scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, J.A.

    1976-12-01

    Radioisotope scanning in the field of nuclear medicine provides a method for the mapping of a radioactive drug in the human body to produce maps (images) which prove useful in detecting abnormalities in vital organs. At best, radioisotope scanning methods produce images with poor counting statistics. One solution to improving the body scan images is using dedicated small computers with appropriate software to process the scan data. Eleven methods for processing image data are compared

  13. The brain, a choice subject for radioisotopic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.

    1996-01-01

    Progresses realized in the use of radioisotopes and in tomographic imaging techniques have permitted to access to the visualization of the human body functions. The application of this radioisotopic functional imaging (or emission tomography functional imaging) has been particularly fruitful in the study of brain functioning. This method is the only exploratory method for the biochemical aspects of the cerebral functioning and is used both by the physiologist and the therapist. (J.S.)

  14. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Mandell, S.

    1974-01-01

    The eleventh edition of the AEC radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1974 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USAEC facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. The information is divided into four sections. Section I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Each customer has been designated a number according to its alphabetical position which provides a means of cross-referencing in the following sections. The isotopes purchased are listed after the address of the customer and the laboratory supplying each isotope is indicated by a letter set off by parentheses. Section II is an alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and again divided into the domestic and foreign categories. This section provides a quick idea of the amount of companies purchasing a particular isotope. If more information is needed, the reader can locate the customer by number and determine the laboratory supplying the isotope. The third section is an alphabetical list of states and countries, also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Section IV summarizes the FY 1974 radioisotope shipment activities of USAEC laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the Domestic, Foreign, and Project (AEC facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided. (U.S.)

  15. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  16. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Han, H.S.; Park, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  17. Radioisotopes - where have we got to, where are we going ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid growth has been achieved and there are remarkable possibilities in various fields of radioisotopes and radiation. New applications in molecular biology, in nuclear medicine, and in biotechnology are opening further opportunities for the use of radioisotopes. In the industrial field too there is growth, as microprocessor techniques extend the usefulness of radioisotope methods. And radiation engineering is a success story of its own, as ever-increasing use is made of radiation processing and sterilization, and new horizons open for food irradiation. This paper begins by recalling how isotope technology developed from the research laboratory to become the industry-scale activity it is today. A section is devoted to describing the development of a new radioisotope industry during the period from the 1930s through 1960s, focusing on the growth in the areas of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, isotope gauging and tracing, production control, industrial processing, and production of radioisotopes. After a brief review of the present it looks into the future to suggest the directions in which new developments may lie. In particular, remarkable growth is expected in such areas as molecular biology, biotechnology, radiography, gauging, process control, radiation processing, and radiation sterilization. A review is also made of the transport and disposal of radioisotopes. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Oxidation of iron and steels by carbon dioxide under pressure (1962); Oxydation du fer et des aciers par l'anhydride carbonique sous pression (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    After having developed one of the first thermo-balances to operate under pressure, we have studied the influence of the pressure on the corrosion of iron and steels by carbon dioxide. The corrosion was followed by three different methods simultaneously: by the oxidation kinetics, by micrographs, and by radiocrystallography. We have been able to show that the influence of the pressure is not negligible and we have provided much experimental evidence: oxidation kinetics, micrographic aspects, surface precipitation of carbon, metal carburization, the texture of the magnetite layer. All these phenomena are certainly modified by changes in the carbon dioxide pressure. In order to interpret most of our results we have been led to believe that the phenomenon of corrosion by CO{sub 2} depends on secondary reactions localised at the oxide-gas interface. This would constitute a major difference between the oxidation by CO{sub 2} and that by oxygen. (author) [French] Apres avoir etudie et mis au point une des premieres thermobalances fonctionnant sous pression, nous avons etudie l'influence de la pression sur la corrosion du fer et des aciers par l'anhydride carbonique. Notre etude a ete conduite simultanement sur trois plans differents: etude des cinetiques d'oxydation, etude micrographique et etude radiocristallographique. Nous avons pu montrer que l'influence de la pression n'etait pas negligeable et nous en avons fourni un faisceau de preuves experimentales important: cinetiques d'oxydation, aspect micrographique, precipitation superficielle de carbone, carburation du metal, texture de la couche de magnetite. Tous ces phenomenes sont sans aucun doute modifies par une variation de pression du gaz carbonique. Pour interpreter la plupart de nos resultats, nous avons ete conduits a penser que le phenomene de corrosion par CO{sub 2} etait tributaire de reactions secondaires localisees a l'interface oxyde-gaz. Ce serait la une des differences fondamentales entre l'oxydation par

  19. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, L.; Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.; Wierzbicki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  20. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Berridge, M.; Maziere, B.; Crouzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the preparation of radioisotopes for biochemical and physiological studies and the principal methods for their incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, while pointing out the problems encountered with their use and considering their medical interest in the following areas: distribution and flow of fluids, metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Inorganic and organic radiopharmaceuticals presently in use and most probable to be used in the future are reviewed. It is anticipated that three types of products labelled with 15 O, 13 N, 11 C and 18 F will be developed in the future. The first type includes products which trace general phenomena such as fluid movement or metabolism of sugars, fats and proteins. The compromise between physiological accuracy and imaging technology is discussed in relation to the use of 11 C and 18 F. The second type of product is one to measure more specific parameters such as those of molecular transport kinetics, membrane permeability, cellular pH and receptor-ligand interactions, again with particular reference to 11 C and 18 F. The third type of product discussed is that intended for pharmacology studies, particular reference being made to 68 Ga, 82 Rb. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  2. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  3. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  4. Application of radioisotopes in plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiraj, G.; Pavani, Lalitha; Allimuthu, Elangovan; Yadav, Ranjeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    There are concerns that continuous uses of pesticides have negative impacts on the environment and it also results in development of resistance against pesticides in many insect species. Radioactive exposure improves quality and productivity of agricultural products along with insect, pest and disease management. They are helpful in study of optimum utilization of insecticides and pesticides in cultivated crops without harmful effects to plants and other living organisms. The control of plant virus diseases is one of the greatest problems of our day. Aphids feeding on plants containing 32 P become radioactive and retain the label for some weeks which helps in monitoring their movement. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) proposed by Knipling in 1955, relies on application of ionizing radiation as a means to effectively sterilize male insects without affecting their ability to function in the field and successfully mate with wild female insects. This technique involves release of large numbers of sterile male insects of the target species in the field crop. With relevance to plant pathogens, radioisotopes are used to measure the spread of the plant diseases. (author)

  5. Current status of radio-isotopes utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India)

    1974-08-01

    Utilization of radioisotopes were reviewed briefly in a categorized manner. In plant biochemistry, long lived radioactive carbon ,/sup 14/C, was applied to clarify such metabolic processes as photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis, etc., while radioactive oxygen ,/sup 18/O, was used to study the O/sub 2/ generation mechanism. Radioactive phosphorus ,/sup 32/P, was used to detect the amount, grain size of phosphatic fertilizer as well as the time and depth for better utilization. Radioactive sulphur ,/sup 35/S, and nitrogen ,/sup 15/N, could be of use in studies of protein metabolism in plants. Radioactive tracers of other minerals such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mo, B, and Co were also used to detect their specific role in plants. Use of radioactive isotopes in protein synthesis and transfer of genetic information was described. Radioactive iodine ,/sup 131/I, binding capacity of milk proteins, and radio trace studies in the iodine turn over in the use of radioactive iodine were summarized.

  6. Radioisotope detection with tandem electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, H E; Elmore, D; Ferraro, R [Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Nuclear Structure Research Lab.; Beukens, R P; Chang, K H; Kilius, L R; Lee, H W; Litherland, A E [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Purser, K H [General Ionex Corp., Newburyport, MA (USA)

    1980-01-01

    An MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Rochester has been employed since May 1977 to detect /sup 14/C in terrestrial samples, /sup 36/Cl in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples and /sup 10/Be and /sup 26/Al in samples produced by reactor and accelerator irradiation. The sample sizes ranged from about 10 to less than 1 mg and the ratio of the radioisotope to the stable isotopes approached one part in 10/sup 16/ for /sup 14/C and /sup 36/Cl and one part in 10/sup 14/ for /sup 10/Be and /sup 26/Al. /sup 14/C has been measured in a number of samples of geological and archaelogical interest. /sup 36/Cl has been measured in various groundwater samples as well as samples at Antarctic meteorites and ice. Dedicated systems for /sup 14/C dating and geological measurements based on the tandem electrostatic accelerator principle are presently under construction for laboratories in the U.S.A., U.K. and Canada.

  7. Light-weight radioisotope heater impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s

  8. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  9. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  10. Professor de Hevesy traces radioisotope history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Professor George de Hevesy, who was a pioneer in the field of radioactive tracers, prepared this paper for the IAEA symposium on Radiochemical Methods of Analysis, held at Salzburg in October 1964. Professor de Hevesy was born in Budapest in 1885. He studied in Budapest, Berlin and Freiburg, and spent some years at Zurich when Einstein was there. In 1911 he went to Manchester to work with Rutherford and there witnessed some of the greatest discoveries in the history of physics. At the end of 1912 he visited the Vienna Institute for Radium Research, where he worked with Paneth, and in 1913 applied the method of labelled lead for the first time. After the first world war, he worked at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen; since 1943, his chief activities have been in Sweden. In 1923, with Coster, he discovered the element hafnium. He made notable discoveries on the mobility of ions, and isotope separation, and his work on radioisotope tracers, which has had important biological applications, won him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1943

  11. Prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Yoneho

    1994-01-01

    Radiation Utilization in Japan has been positioned, together with nuclear power generation, as one of the important cornerstones, and research and development and practical usage of it has been proceeded with steadily in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and so on. In the field of medicine, SPECT and PET facilities, radio-immunoassay, radiotherapy has come widely to practical use. In the field of agriculture and fisheries, improvement of breed, sterile insect technique have been implemented, and eradication of melon fly has been achieved. In the field of industry, it is expected that the practical use of neutron radiography technique and research and development of synthesizing high performance, high function materials are progressed. In the environment preservation area, a pilot test using electron beam to treat the exhaust gases out of coal fired power plants, city garbages combustion facilities, city high way tunnels in order to establish de- sulphur/de-nitrogen technique is carried out. As the international contribution in the field of radiation utilization, the cooperation with developing countries and the cooperation among advanced countries are reported. In this paper, a prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization is described. (J.P.N.)

  12. Radioisotopes investigations of copper ore dressing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryka, L.; Furman, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes radioisotope applications in the copper industry, mainly for the examination of comminution, classification, and flotation processes for selected physical parameters. Measurements were performed by a mobile laboratory containing the electronics for experiment control and data recording and processing using special computer software. This system makes it possible to determine measurements in an industrial environment. The data acquisition system provides 24 spectrometric channels, consisting of scintillation probes, high-voltage (HV) power supplies, and pulse-height analyzers, as well as an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter interfaced to the IBM personal computer. The sampling time is fully programmable and interrupt based and can vary from 1 ms to hours and may be set separately for each channel. The milli-second sampling time technique has been applied to high-resolution flow velocity measurements. On the other hand, longer sampling time enables the system to be left unattended for days to monitor, for example, copper ore concentration or efficiency of the flotation process

  13. Radioisotope Power Sources for MEMS Devices,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in airbags to more recent optical applications. Depending on the application, these devices often require an on-board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring operation for an extended period of time. Previously suggested power sources include fossil fuels and solar energy, but nuclear power sources may provide significant advantages for certain applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to establish the viability of using radioisotopes to power realistic MEMS devices. A junction-type battery was constructed using silicon and a 63 Ni liquid source. A source volume containing 64 microCi provided a power of ∼0.07 nW. A more novel application of nuclear sources for MEMS applications involves the creation of a resonator that is driven by charge collection in a cantilever beam. Preliminary results have established the feasibility of this concept, and future work will optimize the design for various applications

  14. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  15. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Doi, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Eiji; Kawakami, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14 C, 3 H, 125 I and 35 S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  16. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Natsuki; Ikeda, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Satoru

    1989-01-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99m TcO 4 - into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author)

  17. Utilization of radioisotopes in medical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yasuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The establishment and advance of nuclear medicine was briefly described here and the present situations and recent topics on clinical nuclear medicine were summarized as well as its prospects for the future. A labeling method to monitor dynamic changes of living substances using radioisotope (RI) was established by Hevesy using radionuclides. The radiotracing method has been applied to chemical field. The numbers of yearly application in 1982, 1987, 1992 and 1997 were reported in respects of in vivo assays (scintigram, SPECT, PET), the treatments with unsealed RI, PET and in vitro examination (RIA, IRMA). The data show that the application of in vivo examination greatly increased for the last 5 years. Bone scintigram was most frequent (26.9%) followed by myocardial scintigram (19.6%). On the other hand, application of in vitro radioassay is gradually decreasing now after the peak in 1992 (241,000 cases per day). The determination of blood concentrations of various tumor markers such as CEA, CA19-9, CA15-3 ar3, etc. became able using radioimmunodetection (RID). Positron emission computed tomography (PET) is valuable for detection of malignant tumor especially for postoperative recurrence or metastasis, evaluation of myocardial viability and identification of epileptic focus. PET using {sup 15}O labeled H{sub 2}O is thought useful for the study on higher functions of human brain such as language, thinking, and prognostic evaluation of damages in the brain. Nuclear medicinal examination, which has been used for diagnosis would be utilized for designing of clinical therapy and evaluation of its effects and prognosis. (M.N.)

  18. International codes concerning the security of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Explained is the title subject with international and Japanese official argument or publications and actions, where the security is defined as protection of sealed and unsealed radioisotopes (RI) from malicious acts. IAEA worked out the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in 2004 based on its preceding argument and with the turning point of the terrorism 3.11 (2001), and Nuclear Security Recommendations on radioactive material and associated facilities (2011), for whose prerequisite, Security of radioactive sources: implementing guide (2009) and Security in the transport of radioactive material (2008) had been drawn up. The Code of Conduct indicates the security system to regulate the sealed sources that each nation has to build up through legislation, setup of regulatory agency, registration of the sources, provision of concerned facilities with radiation protection, etc. For attaining this purpose, IAEA defined Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (2005, 2012), Categorization of radioactive sources (2005) and Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-VALUES) (2006). For updating the related matters, IAEA holds international conferences somewhere in the world every year. The Nuclear Security Recommendations indicate the nation's responsibility of building up and maintaining the security system above with well-balanced measures between the safe and secure use of RI without the invalid inhibition of their usage. Japan government worked out the concept essential for ensuring the nuclear security in Sep. 2011, in which for RI, defined were the risk and benefit in use and security, and securing role of the present legal systems concerning the safety handling and objective RI involved in their registration system. Securing measures of RI in such usage as medical and industrial aids must be of advanced usefulness and safety in harmony with activities of other countries. (T.T)

  19. Radioisotopes present in building materials of workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Claro, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Corrêa, J. N.; Denyak, V.; Kappke, J.; Perna, A. F. N.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, T. O.; Rocha, Z.; Schelin, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    The isotope 222Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population. The decay products of 222Rn interacting with the cells of biological tissue of lungs have very high probability to induce cancer. The present survey was focused in the evaluation of activity concentration of 222Rn and other radioisotopes related to the building materials at workplaces at Curitiba - Paraná State. For this purpose, the instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used to measure the average concentrations of 222Rn in building materials, which were also submitted to gamma spectrometry analysis for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radionuclides present in samples of sand, mortar, blue crushed stone (Gneissic rock), red crushed stone (Granite), concrete and red bricks. The main radionuclides evaluated by gamma spectrometry in building material samples were 238U/226Ra, 232Th and 40K. These measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN - CNEN). The results of the survey present the concentration values of 222Rn related to construction materials in a range from 427±40.52 Bq/m³ to 2053±90.06 Bq/m³. The results of gamma spectroscopy analysis show that specific activity values for the mentioned isotopes are similar to the results indicated by the literature. Nevertheless, the present survey is showing the need of further studies and indicates that building materials can contribute significantly to indoor concentration of 222Rn.

  20. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, E.

    2011-01-01

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  1. Civili, langue des Baloango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavoungou, Paul Achille; Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    , Congo, Angola, etc.) issus de la décolonisation. Il présente de façon succincte quelques phénomènes historiques, phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, homonymiques et analogiques de la langue. Des faits sémantiques des emprunts linguistiques y sont également décrits dans le cadre des changements...

  2. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  3. Radioisotope research and development at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout its fifty year history, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted research and development in the production, isolation, purification, and application of radioactive isotopes. Initially this work supported the weapons development mission of the Laboratory. Over the years the work has evolved to support basic and applied research in many diverse fields, including nuclear medicine, biomedical studies, materials science, environmental research and the physical sciences. In the early 1970s people in the Medical Radioisotope Research Program began irradiating targets at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to investigate the production and recovery of medically important radioisotopes. Since then spallation production using the high intensity beam at LAMPF has become a significant source of many important radioisotopes. Los Alamos posesses other facilities with isotope production capabilities. Examples are the Omega West Reactor (OWR) and the Van de Graaf Ion Beam Facility (IBF). Historically these facilities have had limited availability for radioisotope production, but recent developments portend a significant radioisotope production mission in the future

  4. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.; Yoon, B. M.; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Park, C. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Suh, C. H.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Hong, S. B.; Jun, S. S.; Min, E. S.; Jang, K. D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Suh, K. S.; Goo, J. H.; Chung, S. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, J. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Bang, K. S.

    1997-09-01

    To produce radioisotopes utilizing the research reactor `HANARO`, development of RI production process, target fabrication, preparation of devices and tools for RI process, preparation of production facility for radiopharmaceuticals, test production for the established process, etc. have been carried out, respectively. Production processes for various kinds of radionuclides were developed and the settled methods were applied to test production using `HANARO`. The results of developed process are as follows: (1) I-131 dry distillation method. (2) Large scale production of Ir-192 sources (3) P-32 production process by distillation under reduced pressure (4) Cr-51 production process using enriched target. To irradiate the target for RI production in `HANARO`, target for neutron irradiation, loading/unloading devices, working table in service pool, remote handling tools, shield cask for irradiated target transfer, etc. were designed and fabricated. The function test of prepared targets and the safety analysis of shielding casks were carried out. License for practical use of the prepared casks were obtained from Ministry of Science and Technology. For production of medical radioisotopes, their production facilities were designed in detail and were installed in RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility), with full reflection of the basic concept of the good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The constructed GMP facilities have started to be operated after authorization since Jun., 1997. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes in `HANARO` and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.; Yoon, B. M.; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Park, C. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Suh, C. H.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Hong, S. B.; Jun, S. S.; Min, E. S.; Jang, K. D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Suh, K. S.; Goo, J. H.; Chung, S. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, J. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Bang, K. S.

    1997-09-01

    To produce radioisotopes utilizing the research reactor 'HANARO', development of RI production process, target fabrication, preparation of devices and tools for RI process, preparation of production facility for radiopharmaceuticals, test production for the established process, etc. have been carried out, respectively. Production processes for various kinds of radionuclides were developed and the settled methods were applied to test production using 'HANARO'. The results of developed process are as follows: 1) I-131 dry distillation method. 2) Large scale production of Ir-192 sources 3) P-32 production process by distillation under reduced pressure 4) Cr-51 production process using enriched target. To irradiate the target for RI production in 'HANARO', target for neutron irradiation, loading/unloading devices, working table in service pool, remote handling tools, shield cask for irradiated target transfer, etc. were designed and fabricated. The function test of prepared targets and the safety analysis of shielding casks were carried out. License for practical use of the prepared casks were obtained from Ministry of Science and Technology. For production of medical radioisotopes, their production facilities were designed in detail and were installed in RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility), with full reflection of the basic concept of the good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The constructed GMP facilities have started to be operated after authorization since Jun., 1997. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes in 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal

    2013-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  7. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  8. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal, E-mail: rma8@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  9. The application of spectrographic analysis to the radioisotope production control. II. Analysis of calcium-45, scandium-46, nickel-63, and copper-64 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    Semi-quantitative and quantitative determinations of both the radioactive and the target element in each radioisotope are described. The copper-spark technique was used except for Cu determinations, that need silver or.graphite electro des. Inter-element effects and their compensation through the use of Bi, 6a, In, Ho, Pd, TI and Y as reference elements was examined. For the determination of Ca in Ca-45 samples, Ba, La, Li and Sr were also tested. Good results are achieved with Li for Ca, Y for Sc,Ti and Ni, and either In or Y for Cu and Zn. (Author) 7 refs

  10. The Use of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes in an Activation Analysis Service Programme; Emploi des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode dans un Service d'Analyses par Activation; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУПИХ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОГРАММЕ АКТИВАЦИОННОГО АНАЛИЗА; Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Servicios de Analisis por Activacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, D.; Simpson, H. [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage (United Kingdom)

    1963-03-15

    also give an improved sensitivity. Several types of automatic units for use in counting short-lived radioisotopes are described, including photographic recording techniques, an automation sample changer and various programming units. (author) [French] Les radioisotopes a courte periode, notamment ceux dont la periode est egale ou inferieure a une heure, presentent divers avantages lorsqu'ils sont utilises pour l'analyse par activation. Parmi ces avantages on peut citer les suivants: sensibilite et selectivite (dans certains cas) plus favorables; temps de traitement total plus court, d'ou resultats plus rapides et souvent a meilleur compte; enfin, pour les analyses non destructives, possibilite de reactivation pour de nouvelles mesures. On surmonte progressivement les difficultes inherentes a des periodes aussi comtes. On a mis au point des methodes de separation radiochimique rapide telles que le traitement peut etre effectue sans qu'il se produise une desintegration radioactive excessive. L'emploi de spectrometres gamma perfectionnes et de methodes modernes de traitement des donnees a elargi le champ des analyses non destructives, reduisant ainsi la necessite de proceder a des purifications radiochimiques. Les auteurs illustrent les applications des radioisotopes a courte periode aux analyses par activation en decrivant les problemes d'analyse qu'ils ont eu effectivement a resoudre dans leur service d'analyse par activation. C'est ainsi que si l'on veut determiner la quantite de rubidium presente dans des sels de cesium, l'emploi de {sup 86m}Rb, dont la periode est de 1,0 min, reduit considerablement l'accumulation de l'activite matricielle pour une perte de sensibilite faible. Pour determiner le calcium present dans le tissu, c'est le {sup 49}Ca, dont la periode est de 8,8 min, qui donne les resultats le plus rapidement etant donne que la duree de l'irradiation est tres reduite et qu'en moins d'une heure on peut suivre la courbe de desintegration pour un nombre

  11. Radioisotopic synoviorthesis. Overall performance in our centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hernandez, D.M.; Castillo Berrio, C.; Nogueiras Alonso, J.; Rivas Dominguez, O.; Serena Puig, A.; Martinez Bernardez, S.; Loira Bamio, F.; Campos Villarino, L.; Guitian Iglesias, R.; Lopez Lopez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: assessing the use of Radioisotopic Synoviorthesis (RS) in our hospital; its therapeutic efficacy, complication rate and patient satisfaction with this procedure. Materials and methods: retrospective search of the RS performed in our center from 2005 to 2012. Review of medical records (written and electronic items). Patient satisfaction survey by phone. Method: rheumatologist prescription. Informed consent. Pregnancy test if appropriate. Intra-articular administration of 185 MBq of 90 Yttrium-colloidal and 40 mg of triamcinolone. Compressive bandage and relative rest during 48 hours. Control image at 72 hours p.i.. (Bremsstrahlung). Treatment response assessed by: pain and/or joint effusion recurrence or not, its magnitude and frequency; need for fluid drainage; infiltrations and amount of analgesics for clinical control. Initial date of response and duration thereof. Results: 42 cases were reviewed in total (Knee RS), excluding 13: 5 contraindication (Baker cyst), 1 by insufficient joint fluid, 1 performed with 186Renio, by meniscus rupture in 1 and in 5 by insufficient monitoring. Of the 29 cases finally analyzed, 25 had good response at the initial evaluation (2 months). The following-up at 18 months was only possible in 26 patients; of them just 18 persisted with positive outcome. In 4 cases there were never improved. There were slight migration to regional nodes in three patients, but without regional swelling nor other adverse effects. There were no cases of radio-necrosis or transient increase of synovitis. Overall assessment of the procedure by the patients was satisfactory in most cases. Conclusion: the RS in synovitis associated with chronic inflammatory arthropathy of diverse etiology produces very good short-term therapeutic results in most patients and in a lesser, but significant, percentage of cases a durable response even at two years post treatment. In some patients it could be a definitive solution. The RS is

  12. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

    1992-07-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools

  13. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  14. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.G. da; Lemos, O.F.; Britto, J.L.O. de; Osso, J.A.; Bastos, M.A.V.; Braghirolli, A.M.S.; Chamma, D.F.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Weinreich, R.

    1982-01-01

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author) [pt

  15. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes in works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The limit of the concentration of radioisotopes in the goods contaminated by these isotopes which are not required to be sealed in containers defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency is 1/10,000 of the value A 2 under the notification determining the details of technical standards concerning the transport of radioisotopes or the goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises. The application for the permission of transporting the goods which are highly difficult to be sealed in containers shall list names and addresses, the kinds, quantities, shapes and properties of the transported goods contaminated by radioisotopes, etc. The radiation dose rate of transported goods and vehicles under the regulation is 200 milli-rem an hour on the surfaces of these goods, vehicles and containers, and 10 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from their surfaces. The permissible exposure dose of the persons engaging in transport is 1.5 rem a year. Dangerous goods, signs, and the application for the approval of special measures are specified, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  16. Determination of the radiological impact of radioisotope waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) controls the uses of radioisotopes and the management of wastes resulting from radioisotope use through licences. In most cases, wastes generated through the use of radioisotopes are required by licence condition to be sent to Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for storage but if the amounts of radioisotope are very small, have a low activity or a very short half-life, the radioisotope is permitted to be released to regular waste management systems. The AECB commissioned this study to determine the doses to individuals working in municipal waste management systems and to populations of cities where small amounts of radioisotopes are disposed of through the municipal waste managment systems. The Hamilton-Burlington area surrounding Hamilton Harbour was selected as the study area. The pathways and dosimetry models were put into a computer spread sheet, to give the model flexibility so that it could be easily modified to model other cities. Within the occupational critical group, the maximum doses were calculated for the Hamilton sewage treatment plant aeration worker at 1.2E-6 Sv/a. If this individual were also a member of the critical group in the general population, the maximum dose would be 2.0E-6 Sv/a. Individual doses to the critical group within the general population were calculated as 7.7E-7 Sv/a for adults and 6.8E-8 Sv/a for infants. These compare to AECB regulatory limits of 5.0E-2 Sv/a per person for atomic radiation workers and 5.0E-3 Sv/a per person for the general public. The collective population dose for the study area was 1.37E-1 person-Sv/a or an average dose of 2.6E-7 Sv/a per person for the 525,000 population

  17. Experimental methods of reactor physics; Methodes experimentales de physique des reacteurs a neutrons thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D; Lafore, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This paper is a synthesis of various experimental methods in use with the reactors of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The main techniques used are mentioned and the difficulties encountered and the accuracy obtained are particularly dwelt upon. The application of these various methods to reactors in order to obtain specific results is also indicated. This paper consists of five parts. I - General methods. Macroscopic and microscopic flux distribution (anisotropy effect), power distribution, etc... II - Kinetic measurements a) pulsed neutron technique: apparatus and accuracy; application to {lambda}t and to anti reactivity measurements; application to graphite, light water and beryllium oxide. b) oscillation techniques: equipment and accuracy; application to the measurements of effective cross sections and resonance integrals. c) fluctuations: apparatus and technique of measurement. III - Poison methods. Description of methods for introducing and extracting the poison, difficulties encountered with light and heavy water, measurement of temperature coefficients and anti-reactivity. IV - Spectra measurements. Choice and development of foils, problems of measurement, application to spectral measurements for thermalization studies, application to dosimetry. V - Experimental shielding measurements. The technique and apparatus recently developed in this field are presented. (authors) [French] Cette communication fait une synthese des differentes methodes experimentales mises en oeuvre sur les reacteurs du CEA. Elle presente les principales techniques utilisees et insiste plus particulierement sur les difficultes rencontrees et la precision obtenue; elle indique egalement l'application de ces differentes methodes sur les reacteurs, en vue de l'obtention des resultats determines. Elle comporte cinq parties: I - METHODES GENERALES: Distribution de flux macroscopique et microscopique (effet d'anisotropie), distribution de puissance, etc... II - MESURES CINETIQUES: a

  18. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  19. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, G.B.; Lazor, C.J.

    1976-10-01

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author) [es

  20. Facilities for the production and processing of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radioisotopes which are used in South Africa are produced in the nuclear reactor SAFARI 1 of the AEB and the CSIR cyclotron in Pretoria or are being imported from various overseas manufactures. The safe and efficient production and use of radioisotopes is possible when being handled by sufficiently trained personnel using special designed equipment and facilities. The Isotope Production Centre is situated next to the reactor and waste treatment buildings. New production facilities shielded with lead and equipped with remote handling equipment are being erected and will be commissioned early during 1980 [af

  1. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethes, Gyoergy

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls. (V.N.)

  2. Radioisotope application to studies of copper electrolytic refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ts, U.; Lange, Kh.; Gajdel', B.

    1976-01-01

    Silver and selenium behaviour was studied using sup(110m)Ag and 75 Se radioisotopes in the copper electrolysis process. sup(110m)Ag and 75 Se distribution in the electrorefining products was also studied. It was found that Ag/Se mass ratio affected greatly the silver content in the copper cathode. It was found that the tracer technique made it possible to determine 0,1gSe/tCu and 1gAg/t Cu simultaneously and accurately with small material and time expenses. Using sup(110m)Ag radioisotope, the reduction in electrolyte silver content dependent on time may be determined quickly and accurately

  3. Activities of the IAEA on the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalnov, A V [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Research and Lab.

    1976-06-01

    The program of the IAEA related to the use of radioisotopes and radiation is concentrated in the Department of Research and Isotopes, which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, the Life Sciences Division, and the Division of Research and Laboratories. The following matters are described: hydrology of water systems using stable isotopes, research on CPXE (charged-particle X-ray emission), Regional Cooperative Agreements, Nuclear Methods in Environmental Research, and guidance to developing countries in the medical applications of radioisotopes.

  4. Radiation surveillance procedure during veterinary application of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaldeep; Bhaktivinayagam, A.; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131 I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA

  5. Stantardization problems in radioisotopic techniques for measuring rock density and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubin, O.V.; Pavlov, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the main technical characteristics is given of radioisotope densimeters and hydrometers taken as a base for the State Standard design for field radioisotope instruments for measuring density and moisture of the soil and rocks

  6. The Radioisotopic Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Currents in Natural Waters. Surface Collection of Radioactive Fall-Out on a Large Alpine Lake; Determination par detection nucleaire des coefficients de diffusion et des courants dans les eaux naturelles. Evolution de la surface de collection d'un grand lac alpin pour les retombees radioactives; Opredelenie koehffitsienta diffuzii i skorosti techeniya estestvennykh vod pri pomoshchi yadernogo detektirovaniya. Ehvolyutsiya poverkhnosti sbora radioaktivnykh osadkov na bol'shom al'pijskom ozere; Determinacion por deteccion nuclear de los coeficientes de difusion y de las corrientes en las aguas naturales evolucion de la superficie de captacion de un gran lago alpino para las precipitaciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R.; Nordemann, D. [Service d' Electronique Physique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Dussart, B. [Centre de Recherches Hydrobiologiques, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-08-15

    In an initial stage, the authors brought about the in situ diffusion of a radioactive emitter (sodium-22, in the form of Na{sup +}) with very low activity, i.e. less than 1 mc. The diffusion laws applied in this case made it easy to predict the rate of diffusing of the {sup r}adioactive cloud{sup .} In this way, plotting the activities, as measured by two suitably placed gamma detectors, against time permits the estimation of a diffusion coefficient for the emitter used and, if appropriate, the measurement of current velocity at the point of measurement (in the case described, the Lake of Geneva). Subsequently, and in conjunction with a geophysical study on the general problem of radioactive fall-out, the authors worked on the increases in radioactive fall-out caused by nuclear tests in the atmosphere (October 1961 - January 1962). Measurements of radioactivity were made every day on samples of Lake Geneva water taken at depths of 0 m, 10 m and 20 m and also on a collector of dry and moist atmospheric fall-out. Despite the complex pattern, over a period, of theincreasesinfall-out , the interpretation of the diagrams obtained can help to explain what happens to radioactive products in the diffusion and current conditions encountered. The use of the diffusion of radioactive products in very small quantities and of the various highly sensitive techniques of nuclear detection now available can lead to a better understanding of in situ diffusion and of the movement of natural water masses. (author) [French] Dans un premiere etape, les auteurs ont provoque la diffusion in situ d'un emetteur radioactif, le sodium 22, sous forme de Na{sup +}, avec des activites tres faibles, inferieures au millicurie. Les lois de la diffusion appliquee a ce cas permettent aisement de prevoir l'allure du 'n'uage radioactif'' en cours de diffusion. Ainsi, l'enregistrement en fonction du temps des activites mesurees par deux detecteurs gamma convenablemen t disposes conduit a l'evaluation d

  7. Deuterium isotopic effects connected with unimolecular and concerted mechanisms. The case of 1-deutero-2-chloro alcohols; Effets isotopiques du deuterium attaches a des mecanismes unimoleculaires et concertes. Cas des deutero-1-chloro-2 alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, C

    1962-07-01

    After a bibliographic analysis of the probable causes of isotopic effects and their comparison, with the simplifications provided by the athermal model, a discussion of the isotopic effect of deuterium in organic molecules in terms of structural influences is presented, showing the important role of the C-D bond length which is shorter than the C-H bond length, and of the D atom's Van der Waals radius, shorter than that of the H atom. Kinetic measurements were carried out on some reactions involving the mechanisms proposed: unimolecular ionizations and halogen concentrates. The structural models chosen are: 2-chloro-cyclo-hexanols cis and trans 1-H and 2-D; 2-chloro-cyclo-pentanols cis trans 1-H and 1-D; 1-phenyl-l-chloro-2-propanol threo 2-H and 2-D. (author) [French] Apres une analyse bibliographique des causes probables d'effets isotopiques et leur comparaison, avec les simplifications qu'apporte le modele athermique, on a entrepris l'etude de la discussion isotopique du deuterium dans des molecules organiques en termes d'influences structurelles, cherchant a degager le role important de la longueur de la liaison C-D plus courte que C-H, et du rayon de Van der Waals de l'atome de D plus petit que celui de H. On a effectue des mesures cinetiques sur quelques reactions invoquant les mecanismes envisages: ionisations unimoleculaires et concentrees d'halogenes. Les modeles structuraux choisis sont: chloro 2 - cyclohexanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; chloro 2 - cyclopentanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; phenyl 1 - chloro 1 - propanol 2 threo H 2 et D 2. (auteur)

  8. Deuterium isotopic effects connected with unimolecular and concerted mechanisms. The case of 1-deutero-2-chloro alcohols; Effets isotopiques du deuterium attaches a des mecanismes unimoleculaires et concertes. Cas des deutero-1-chloro-2 alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, C

    1962-07-01

    After a bibliographic analysis of the probable causes of isotopic effects and their comparison, with the simplifications provided by the athermal model, a discussion of the isotopic effect of deuterium in organic molecules in terms of structural influences is presented, showing the important role of the C-D bond length which is shorter than the C-H bond length, and of the D atom's Van der Waals radius, shorter than that of the H atom. Kinetic measurements were carried out on some reactions involving the mechanisms proposed: unimolecular ionizations and halogen concentrates. The structural models chosen are: 2-chloro-cyclo-hexanols cis and trans 1-H and 2-D; 2-chloro-cyclo-pentanols cis trans 1-H and 1-D; 1-phenyl-l-chloro-2-propanol threo 2-H and 2-D. (author) [French] Apres une analyse bibliographique des causes probables d'effets isotopiques et leur comparaison, avec les simplifications qu'apporte le modele athermique, on a entrepris l'etude de la discussion isotopique du deuterium dans des molecules organiques en termes d'influences structurelles, cherchant a degager le role important de la longueur de la liaison C-D plus courte que C-H, et du rayon de Van der Waals de l'atome de D plus petit que celui de H. On a effectue des mesures cinetiques sur quelques reactions invoquant les mecanismes envisages: ionisations unimoleculaires et concentrees d'halogenes. Les modeles structuraux choisis sont: chloro 2 - cyclohexanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; chloro 2 - cyclopentanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; phenyl 1 - chloro 1 - propanol 2 threo H 2 et D 2. (auteur)

  9. Hartree-Fock theory for the equilibrium shape of light nuclei; Theorie Hartree-Fock de la forme d'equilibre des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripka, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    Most of the content of this thesis is published in english in Advances In Nuclear Physics, Vol. 1 (Editors: Baranger and Vogt - Plenum Press). The Hartree- Fock equations are derived. The expansions of the orbits and the possible symmetries of the Hartree-Fock field are discussed. Wavefunctions of even-even N = Z nuclei are given for 12 {<=} A {<=} 40. The role of the monopole, quadrupole and exchange components of the force are discussed. The multiplicity of the solutions and the effect of the spin-orbit interaction are discussed. Exact angular momentum projection is used to generate rotational bands. The validity of the adiabatic rotational model in light nuclei is discussed. Hartree-Fock calculations are extended to include major-shell mixing in order to obtain quadrupole deformations without the use of effective charge. The incompressibility, of nuclei is discussed and the compatibility between the Hartree-Fock solutions, the Mottelson model of quadrupole deformations and the SU3 states of J.P. Elliott and M. Moshinsky is established. (author) [French] La theorie de Hartree-Fock est appliquee au calcul des fonctions d'onde des noyaux legers deformes. Les equations de Hartree-Fock, les symetries permises et le choix du developpement des orbites sont discutes. Les fonctions d'onde des noyaux pair-pairs N = Z (12 {<=} A {<=} 40) sont tabulees. Les contributions des composantes monopolaires et quadrupolaires ainsi que des termes d'echange de la force nucleon-nucleon sont discutees. La methode de projection de moment cinetique est utilisee pour engendrer les bandes de rotation. La validite du modele rotationnel adiabatique est discutee. Les calculs de Hartree-Fock qui tiennent compte du melange de plusieurs couches majeures dans chaque orbite sont appliques au calcul des deformations quadrupolaires sans l'utilisation de charge effective. L'incompressibilite des noyaux et la compatibilite des fonctions d'onde de Hartree- Fock avec les fonctions d'onde SU3 de J

  10. Hartree-Fock theory for the equilibrium shape of light nuclei; Theorie Hartree-Fock de la forme d'equilibre des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripka, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    Most of the content of this thesis is published in english in Advances In Nuclear Physics, Vol. 1 (Editors: Baranger and Vogt - Plenum Press). The Hartree- Fock equations are derived. The expansions of the orbits and the possible symmetries of the Hartree-Fock field are discussed. Wavefunctions of even-even N = Z nuclei are given for 12 {<=} A {<=} 40. The role of the monopole, quadrupole and exchange components of the force are discussed. The multiplicity of the solutions and the effect of the spin-orbit interaction are discussed. Exact angular momentum projection is used to generate rotational bands. The validity of the adiabatic rotational model in light nuclei is discussed. Hartree-Fock calculations are extended to include major-shell mixing in order to obtain quadrupole deformations without the use of effective charge. The incompressibility, of nuclei is discussed and the compatibility between the Hartree-Fock solutions, the Mottelson model of quadrupole deformations and the SU3 states of J.P. Elliott and M. Moshinsky is established. (author) [French] La theorie de Hartree-Fock est appliquee au calcul des fonctions d'onde des noyaux legers deformes. Les equations de Hartree-Fock, les symetries permises et le choix du developpement des orbites sont discutes. Les fonctions d'onde des noyaux pair-pairs N = Z (12 {<=} A {<=} 40) sont tabulees. Les contributions des composantes monopolaires et quadrupolaires ainsi que des termes d'echange de la force nucleon-nucleon sont discutees. La methode de projection de moment cinetique est utilisee pour engendrer les bandes de rotation. La validite du modele rotationnel adiabatique est discutee. Les calculs de Hartree-Fock qui tiennent compte du melange de plusieurs couches majeures dans chaque orbite sont appliques au calcul des deformations quadrupolaires sans l'utilisation de charge effective. L'incompressibilite des noyaux et la compatibilite des fonctions d'onde de Hartree- Fock avec les

  11. Study by electron spin resonance of the free radicals created under irradiation in glycine; Etude par la technique de resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux crees sous irradiation dans la glycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomet, P; Rassat, A; Servoz-Gavin, P; Choudens, H de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The free radicals created by different radiations in glycine are measured by electron spin resonance and their number is evaluated in function of the absorbed dose. This number decreases when the LET of the radiations increases ; in other words,high LET radiations gives less radiochemical effects; in contrary with the fact that high LET radiations creates more damage in biological materials. The decreasing with time of the number of free radicals and the speed of this decrease is a function of temperature; by the study of the kinetics of this decrease, an attempt has been made to prove the presence of three radicals. (authors) [French] Les radicaux crees par divers rayonnements dans la glycine sont detectes par resonance paramagnetique electronique et leur nombre est evalue en fonction de la dose. Ce nombre varie dans le sens inverse du T.E.L moyen, c'est-a-dire que les rayonnements de T.E.L eleves donnent des effets radiochimiques plus petits alors que les effets radiobiologiques sont importants avec des T.E.L eleves. La decroissance dans le temps du nombre de radicaux est observee et la vitesse de diminution des radicaux est liee a la temperature. Etudiant la cinetique de recombinaison, on peut faire l'hypothese de l'existence de 3 radicaux. (auteurs)

  12. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les synergies ont été mises en commun au fur et à mesure des progrès de la recherche. .... Recherche normative (sur le rôle et la performance des institutions .... Système national d'information sur la gestion environnementale connecté à 19 ...... Un fort contrôle centralisé sur l'élaboration des politiques nationales peut ...

  13. Intergrated approach to quality control procedures of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohani Mohamad

    1986-01-01

    Various aspects of the quality control procedures for radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals have been discussed. The paper high lighted those procedures that are important in ensuring the efficacy of the product. It also gives a general idea of the various procedures that are actually carried out by the Quality Control Section. (A.J.)

  14. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J.; Carty, J.

    1997-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 from RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Be-10, Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, El-44, Fe-52, Gd-248, and Hg-194. We will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes from Los Alamos and Brookhaven will be described. Chemical separation techniques have been developed to recover the radioisotopes of interest in both high radiochemical purity and yield and at the same time trying to reduce or eliminate the generation of mixed waste. nearly 75 neutron deficient radioisotopes produced in spallation targets have been produced and distributed to researchers around the world since the inception of the program in 1974

  15. Preparation of an annual report for a consolidated radioisotope licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A consolidated radioisotope licence is a single license issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to an institution having many users of radioactive materials. The licence is issued when the institution has fulfilled the requirements set by the AECB and has implemented policies and procedures which will ensure the maintenance of an effective radiation safety program. The consolidated licence is retained only if the results of AECB inspections are satisfactory -- or remedial action is taken promptly -- and if the institution reports regularly about the status of its radiation safety program. One aspect of this reporting procedure is an annual report. This guide describes the information that the AECB requires in the annual report. The guide applies primarily to universities and research institutions where a wide variety of radioisotope uses take place. The guide does not affect most other institutions or facilities, either because the nature and extent of their operations with radioactive materials do not lend themselves to consolidated licensing or because they are not licensed by the Radioisotopes and Transportation Division. (For example, this guide does not apply to reactors, to accelerators, or to waste management or uranium mining or refining facilities.) The information in the annual report should be specific to the consolidated radioisotope licence. Incidents, staff exposures, and waste associated with accelerators, research reactors, and waste management facilities should be excluded from this report unless they affected activities under the consolidated licence

  16. Clinical evaluation of Proscillaridin-A with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.D.A.; Cordovil, I.L.; Rocha, A.F.G.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty patients with cardiac insufficiency were evaluated under the use of Proscillaridin-A. The analysis was based on classic clinical parameters and 11 patients through the circulation time with the radioisotopic technique. The results obtained are analysed and discussed about the absence of side effects, considering as well the therapeutic use of the drug [pt

  17. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  18. Optimization of periodical interrogation of transducers of radioisotope measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, A.S.; Kaznakov, V.P.; Korolev, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain methods are examined of optimizing periodic interrogation of sensors connected in a definite sequence to device for data processing in a system for controlling production processes. It is shown that in designing multiinput radioisotope measurement systems with a centralized data processing, the choice of the method of organizing periodic interrogation should be made with account for the conditions existing in each specific case

  19. Application of radiation and radioisotopes in life science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation and Radioisotopes have been played an important role in the wide range of life science, from the field study, such as fertilizer or pesticide development or production of new species, to gene engineering researches. Many mutants through radiation have been provided to the market and the usage of radioactive tracers was an effective tool to study plant physiology. It has been granted that the contribution of radioisotopes has been accelerated the development of the gene engineering technology, which is now overwhelming all the other usages of radiation or radioisotopes. However, because of the difficulty to get social acceptance for gene modified plants, the orientation of the life science is now changing towards, so called ''post genome era''. Therefore, from the point of radiation or radioisotope usage, new application methods are needed to develop new type of researches. We present how (1) neutron activation analysis, (2) neutron radiography and (3) positron emission tomography are promising to study living plant physiology. Some of these techniques are not necessarily new methods but with a little modification, they show new aspects of plant activity. (author)

  20. Historical sketch of the discovery, production, and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.

    1975-01-01

    The Joliot-Curies made the first artificial radioisotope ( 30 P) by bombarding aluminum with alpha particles. The development of the cyclotron and other high-energy particle accelerators in the early 1930's led to the production of numerous radioisotopes in measurable quantities. By the beginning of the 1950's, with the abundant neutron fluxes available at the U. S. Atomic Commission reactors, radioisotopes of many species really became abundant. Naturally occurring radioactive lead had been used very sparingly as tracers as far back as 1918 in determining chemical solubility and in 1923 in plant uptake from lead solutions. Now many new uses were developed and tested as tracers in medical diagnosis, agricultural, and industrial chemical and metallurigical processes. Many therapeutic applications were tested. The industrial labs developed thickness and level gauges for control of various manufacturing processes. Cobalt gamma-ray irradiators were developed for medical therapy and have also been used for sterilization of surgical instruments and materials, for food preservation, and for initiation of certain chemical reactions. The most significant development in the 1960's was the rapidly increasing role of private industry in taking over the development, production, sales, as well as research, into new methods of production and applications of radioisotopes

  1. A radioisotope production cyclotron designed to minimize dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlavik, F.F.; Moritz, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a radioisotope production cyclotron which has been designed to minimize the dose to personnel during operation and maintenance. The design incorporates lessons learned from the operation of a CP42 cyclotron and has resulted in a reduction of the dose by a factor of more than 10. (author)

  2. High radio-isotope uptakes in patients with hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, J.; Kalk, W.J.; Ganda, C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1982-12-04

    Hypothyroidism is usually associated with a low radio-isotope uptake by the thyriod gland. We report 8 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism and with borderline high or overtly increased technetium-99m pertechnetate and/or iodine-131 uptakes.

  3. Present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Tian

    1986-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in China started almost thirty years ago. At present there are 20 units producing more than 700 radioisotope products. This report outlines the present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in some major areas. Remarkable achievements have been made in agriculture using nuclear technology. More than 70 new varieties or strains of cultivated plants have been bred by inducing mutation through irradiation. A new variety of silkworm bred by irradiation has unique characteristics such as high and stable yield. Application of radioisotopes in medical research and clinical practice began in 1956 and radionuclides have been progressively used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The most common radionuclide used in therapy is iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism. Isotope-tracer technique and activation analysis play an important role in the study of traditional Chinese medicine. Isotope methods in China have been used in many industrial branches, such as textile, plastic and printing, but not very widely now. The nation has produced more than 2,000 sets of nuclear radiation measuring instruments, which become important parts of industrial automation control. The radiation processing research started in the end of 1950's. Food irradiation research has been going on in a good cooperation of different branches. Now China is planning to set up some plants to produce gamma irradiated disposal syringes and other medical devices. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Standardization and improvement of safety for radioisotope equipped instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo

    1980-01-01

    The safety for radioisotope-equipped instruments is considered. The one is the safety for the source assembly. The radioisotopes employed for radioisotope-equipped instruments are sealed sources which are used in the state of being contained in the enclosures. Many of the enclosures are provided with shutter mechanism for the purpose of emitting radiation only during the period required. If the possible troubles that might lead to the accidents are sampled out of the results of field operation of radiation instruments, and the safety measures for source enclosures are considered in connection with these troubles, it is no exaggeration to say that the safety for source enclosures has been maintained by preventing the critical accidents by the management of users and the cooperation of manufactures though there were the chance for investigating the safety in the common field and the establishment of JIS Z 4614 standard. Another consideration is concerned with the measures to improve the safety. No accident in the past never guarantees no accident in the future. Accumulation of experience is most effective for those measures, and the more experiences the better. It may be most effective that the manufacturers disclose their experiences each other from the wide outlook overcoming the barrier of trade secret. Fortunately, such consciousness has risen since a few years ago, and the investigation group is doing the works in the Japan Radioisotope Association. On the other hand, the reasonable revision of the radiation injury prevention law is desired. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Status and prospects on radioisotope production in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H. S.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Hong, Y. D.; Park, K. B.

    2002-01-01

    In Korea, radioisotopes has been produced using small-sized research reactors (TRIGA Mark II, III) from 1961 to 1995. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) completed the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) in 1995 and a radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) in 1997. Medical and industrial radionuclides such as 131 I, 99m Tc, 166 Ho, 192 Ir and 60 Co, are routinely produced utilizing HANARO. Several hundreds kilo curies of these nuclides were supplied to domestic users in 2001. The Korea Cancer Center Hospital (KCCH) first installed a cyclotron (MC-50) for neutron therapy and RI production in 1984. At present, the cyclotron routinely produced radionuclides such as 201 TI, 67 Ga, 123 I and 18 F. Also, it is capable of producing several radionuclides, including 111 In, 51 Cr, 124 I, 54 Mn, 22 Na, etc. Baby cyclotrons were installed in Seoul National University Hospital, Sam sung Medical Center and Asan Medical Center. The main purpose of the introduction of baby cyclotrons was to produce short-lived positron emitters such as 18 F, 15 O and 11 C for PET. Radioisotope production facilities were imported and installed as subsidiaries of cyclotron. In Korea, more than 60 kinds of radioisotopes are currently used in the field of their applications and most of them are imported form foreign vendors. For the quality assurance of final products such as radiopharmaceuticals and industrial sources, facilities for production should be installed and maintained in accordance with regulation rules and also the production system should be operated under quality management system. Since 1992 the Korean government has been encouraging Mid and Long Term Nuclear R and D Programs to enhance capability in nuclear technology development. In order to actively promote the utilization, research and development of technology applying radiation and RI, the Korean government established 'a comprehensive promotion plan for utilization, research and development

  6. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  7. Theoretical study of the paramagnetic scattering of neutrons; Etude theorique de la diffusion paramagnetique des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-James, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-02-15

    diverses diffusions (elastique et inelastiques) est calculee pour les terres rares soumises a l'action d'un champ cristallin de symetrie cubique, pour les sesquioxydes d'holmium et d'erbium et pour le chlorure ferreux anhydre (Cl{sub 2}Fe). Elle est suffisamment forte pour permettre une detection experimentale, fournissant ainsi une determination directe de la distance des niveaux par mesure de la variation de longueur d'onde du neutron. Il est, de plus, remarquable que, dans le cas du neodyme, de l'holium et de l'erbium, la section efficace totale calculee pour des neutrons de longueur d'onde aux alentours de l'angstrom soit peu sensible aux effets du champ cristallin. On compare les resultats des calculs ci-dessus aux etudes experimentales existantes. On examine egalement l'influence du moment orbital sur la dependance angulaire de la diffusion pour des ions polarises. La loi I = I{sub 0}sin{sup 2}{beta} n'est qu'approchee; on en donne les limites de validite. On envisage enfin l'influence des interactions d'echange entre les ions magnetiques. Les raies de diffusion elastiques et inelastiques sont elargies. Le comportement de la largeur de raie, avec la longueur du vecteur de diffusion k, est different de celui obtenu dans le cas ou le niveau fondamental de l'ion magnetique est defini par un moment cinetique J . La largeur de raie ne tend pas vers zero avec K. (auteur)

  8. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2017 ... ... de Biochimie et Immunologie Appliquée, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Biologiques, Alimentaires et .... l'intoxication des agriculteurs et des consommateurs, ... source d'alimentation en eau et au pouvoir d'achat des.

  9. Radioisotope programme in India: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major discoveries of the 20th century is the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This distinctive discovery in human history transformed atoms of one element to another. Until then, chemical reactions used to be concerned only with changes occurring outside the nucleus. The field of nuclear science came into existence with discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, radioactivity emitted by Uranium salt by Henri Becquerel in 1896 and pioneering work carried out by Madame Curie and Pierre Curie. India's atomic energy programme was envisaged, founded and developed by the great visionary Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha. Since then Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of Government of India has been engaged in developing technologies for use of radiation in all possible fields for the benefit of society. The most common sources of radiation are radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors either by utilizing available excess neutrons for activation of stable elements or by separating useful fission products from the spent fuel. In India, the production of radioisotopes started with the commissioning of APSARA reactor in 1956. Initially, APSARA was operated at low power, and radioisotopes could be produced only on a small scale. All these operations had to be called out with remote handling or in the safe glove boxes keeping in view the radiation levels associated with the samples. In due course, the reactor reached full power and remotely operated processing equipment required for handling the radioisotopes were set up. Isotopes such as Iodine-131, Phosphorous-32, Gold-198 and Sodium-24 were produced and extracted in purified form in small quantities. These were given to KEM Hospital and Bombay Hospital at Mumbai, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute and Safdarjung Hospital in Delhi, mainly for exploratory experiments

  10. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  11. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  12. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Schenter, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted

  13. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schenter, R.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  14. Some Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes in the Study of Metals; Applications Diverses des Radioelements de Courte Periode dans l'Etude des Metaux; РАЗЛИЧНЫЕ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ПРИ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯХ МЕТАЛЛОВ; Aplicaciones de los Radioelementos de Periodo Corto en el Estudio de los Metales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, A. [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie, Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1963-03-15

    Some typical applications of short-lived radioisotopes in various metallurgical investigations are described. A simple method of activation analysis has been designed for determining the amount of lanthanum in steels, to which mischmetall had been added during melting. A study was carried out to determine the behaviour of arsenic, present in small amounts, during the oxidation of iron. The enrichment of arsenic at the metal-oxide interface was first shown by autoradiography. A quantitative study of the phenomenon was then made on oxidized samples irradiated in a nuclear reactor, by dissolving successive layers several microns thick. By this means it was possible to see that the arsenic concentrates itself at the surface of the metal where its content may be as high as 30 or 40 times the initial concentration in the alloy. Research on the growth of metallic crystals was carried out by autoradiography. This was possible because the content of an alloying element in the crystals is lower than its content in the melt from which the crystals are growing. Samples of 2% copper-aluminium alloys were melted, slowly cooled, then quenched during the course of solidification. It was thus possible to show the shape of the crystals at various stages of their growth and to relate this to the temperature of the alloy as measured by a thermocouple. An examination was made of convection currents inside large forge ingots. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the existence of important convection currents inside large steel ingots for forgings, as they solidify. The tests were carried out by introducing a small amount of gold-198 at various times after pouring, in ingots of 4 t and of 30 to 60 t. It was possible to see that in large ingots the convection currents were sufficiently strong one hour after pouring to mix the gold through a large volume of the ingot. (author) [French] Ce memoire se propose de presenter quelques applications typiques des radioelements de courte

  15. Comparison of the production of medical radioisotopes on reactor and cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.; Vuksanovic, Lj.; Dobrijevic, R.; Karanfilov, E.

    1997-01-01

    The production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medical applications can be performed either on nuclear reactor or on cyclotron. According to the nuclear reactions applied the radioisotopes of different physical characteristics can be produced. In the paper a comparison of the radioisotopes production given. Compared are the main steps in the production: choice of the nuclear reaction, targetry, irradiation and radiochemical separations performed on the irradiated target to isolate the desired radioisotope. The main characteristics of the produced radioisotopes are given and discussed. (author)

  16. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ''neutron rich'' and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail

  17. Various possible ways to express the toxicity of radioactive substances in relation with the involved practical problems; Diverses expressions possibles de la toxicite des substances radioactives en fonction des problemes pratiques poses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Vacca, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Radioelements have at the same time physico-chemical and radioactive properties. It is then possible to establish two types of toxicological classifications: one in function of the weight of the radioelement, another in function of its activity. More often, the maximum permissible amounts (MPA) in the human body and the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) in air and water are expressed in microcuries by millilitre ({mu}c/ml), less frequently in micrograms by millilitre ({mu}g/ml). The comparison of these tables of MPA and MPC shows important differences in the classification of radioactive substances by order of decreasing toxicity. Plutonium and radium, being among the most toxic products when the activity is considered are far from being the most dangerous when the weight is considered. On the other hand, {sup 131}I and {sup 56}Mn, for instance appear to be among the most hazardous substances in this eventuality. This twofold consideration corresponds to two aspects of the problems of the toxicity of radioisotopes. The classification by activity is almost exclusively utilised because the toxicological measurements are based on the radioactive properties of the radioisotopes. In general, only these measurements allow to detect the very small amounts of substance usually involved. On the other hand, the toxicity related to internal contamination by radioisotopes depends mostly from their metabolism which is exclusively a function of their physico-chemical properties. Therefore the classification by weight gives the best representation of the hazards encountered when radioactive substances are inhaled or ingested. As a result, the relative toxicity of radioisotopes cannot be based on the classification by activity only. The present division of radioisotopes into different classes: very hazardous, moderately hazardous, slightly hazardous must be revised. (author) [French] Les radioelements presentent a la fois des proprietes physico-chimiques banales et des

  18. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  19. Study on the status of radiation/radioisotope utilization during the last 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Park, Tae Jin; Kuk, Il Hiun

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study is derivation of important indices for establishing government policy to promote radiation and radioisotope utilization and for setting up effective strategy o develop related industries, on the basis of utilization data, and deduction of economic scale induced by using radiation and radioisotope, through the analysis of economic contribution by multi-variate model. Uses of radiation and radioisotopes are increasing annually in Korea, and the effect of utilization to economy and industry is continuously enlarged in accordance with technology development and expansion of radiation and radioisotope uses. Indices related to radiation nd radioisotope uses, which are useful for the promotion of utilization and establishment of development strategy, have to be derived and updated every year. Important indices related to radiation and radioisotope utilization are derived through the study. The indices are useful for planning establishing, and revising policies to promote radiation and radioisotope utilization, and re furthermore valuable for public acceptance nuclear energy

  20. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  1. The Radioisotopes production in tunisia, presentation of the CNSTN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounalli, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Radio-isotopes required in medicine (nuclear medicine, neurology, cardiology, orthopedics) need a deep reflection and a scientific analysis of the problems related to the human health. The utilisation of radioisotopes in other fields such as chemistry, agriculture, industry, safety, earth sciences and environmental physics is also of great importance. In pharmaceutical companies, radioisotopes used in a laboratory of imaging for small animal to check the efficiency of drugs in vivo is touched upon in this presentation. Radioisotopes are also needed for different activities in platform dedicated to the training of radio pharmacist and radio biologist. The availability of radioisotopes in a research center such as the National Center of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies (NCNST) will improve the activity of existing skills and serve the country's development in the field of biomedical research. Tunisia has two projects of cyclotrons facilities: the first one is in the private sector and the second one is proposed by the NCNST. The realization of these projects requires a period of time estimated to two years for the feasibility study and two years more for constitution. In the meantime, it is necessary to establish a master's degree in radio-pharmacy / radio-biology to provide skills that may activate cyclotron facilities. One last test phase lasts 6 months to a year. The work within a cyclotron facility requires a rigorous and a lot of discipline (a little bit military) ordered by the risk of the isotope radioactive half-life and its radiation activity. Thus, it is necessary to provide to the staff, various training required for the functioning of the cyclotron. It is useful to insist on the importance of scientist's team which is going to put on the cyclotron and which consists of: radio-pharmacists, radio physicists experts in radiation protection, and engineer's operators of cyclotrons. It is useful to attract the attention that the specialties in the field of the

  2. Tracer experiment by using radioisotope in surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.S.; Kim, K.C.; Chun, I.Y.; Jung, S.H.; Lee, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. 1. Objective An expansion of industrial activities and urbanization result in still increasing amount of pollutants discharged into surface water. Discharged pollutants in surface water have harmful effects on the ecology of a river system and human beings. Pollutants discharged into surface water is transported and dispersed under conditions characteristic to particular natural water receiver. Radiotracer method is a useful tool for monitoring the pollutant dispersion and description of mixing process taking place in natural streams. A tracer experiment using radioisotope was carried out to investigate the characteristics of a pollutant transport and a determination of the diffusion coefficients in a river system. 2. Methods The upper area of the Keum river was selected for the tracer experiment, which is located in a mid west of Korea. The measurements of the velocity and bathymetry before a tracer experiment were performed to select the sampling lines for a detection of the radioisotope. The radioisotope was instantaneously injected into a flow as a point source by an underwater glass-vial crusher. The detection was made with 60 2inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors at 3 transverse lines at a downstream position. The multi-channel data acquisition systems were used to collect and process the signals transmitted from the detectors. Two-dimensional numerical models were used to simulate the hydraulic parameters and the concentration distributions of the radioisotope injected into the river. 3. Results and Conclusion The calculated results such as velocity and concentrations were compared with the measured ones. The dispersion characteristics of the radioisotope were analyzed according to a variation of the flow rate, water level and diffusion coefficients. Also, the diffusion coefficients were calculated by using the measured concentrations and the coefficients obtained from the field experiment were compared with the ones

  3. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  4. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  5. Safety management of radioisotopes and others in educational institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in the fields of research in various educational institutions. While considerable progress has been seen in the safety management of RI utilization, such accidents as the loss of radioisotopes and radioactive contamination occurred. Under the situation, the safety management of RIs and others in RI-using facilities provided by the law has been examined by the ad hoc committee. A report by the committee is described as follows: need for a RI safety management organization, defining the responsibility of the chief technicians handling radiation, need for the practices of using RIs, etc. in education and traininng, planned RI-handling facilities, cautions for the loss of RIs and the contamination, centralization in RI safety management, improvement of remuneration for the chief technicians handling radiation, occasional restudy on the safety management of RIs, etc. (J.P.N.)

  6. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J.; Carty, J.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 and RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, Ti-44, Fe-52, Gd-148, and Hg-194. The authors will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes will be described

  7. Production of radioisotopes within a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, E.; Tartari, A.; Frignani, M.; Molinari, V.; Mostacci, D.; Rocchi, F.; Sumini, M. . E-mail address of corresponding author: domiziano.mostacci@mail.ing.unibo.it

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, research conducted in the US and in Italy has demonstrated production of radioisotopes in Plasma Focus (PF) devices, and particularly, on what could be termed 'endogenous' production, to wit, production within the plasma itself, as opposed to irradiation of targets. This technique relies on the formation of localized small plasma zones characterized by very high densities and fairly high temperatures. The conditions prevailing in these zones lead to high nuclear reaction rates, as pointed out in previous work by several authors. Further investigation of the cross sections involved has proven necessary to model the phenomena involved. In this paper, the present status of research in this field is reviewed, both with regards to cross section models and to experimental production of radioisotopes. Possible outcomes and further development are discussed. (author)

  8. Present status of application of radiation and radioisotopes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Anwar

    1984-01-01

    Bangladesh has proceeded with the atomic energy programme in three phases: (1) research and development using radiation and radioisotopes and application of the results, (2) building the infrastructure in nuclear technology and (3) production of electricity from nuclear sources and development of associated facilities. It has entered the second phase of the programme. The following main areas of research and application were referred to: agriculture, food preservation, medical sterilization and radiation biology, medicine, non-destructive testing, isotope hydrology, elemental analysis, particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) methods, radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence (RIXFA) methods, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) methods, molecular absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, health physics, and future programme with research reactor. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    This brochure is intended to present the state-of -the-art in techniques for gamma scanning and neutron backscattering for troubleshooting inspection of columns, vessels, pipes, and tanks in many industrial processing sectors. It aims to provide not only an extensive description of what can be achieved by the application of radioisotope sealed sources but also sound experience-based guidance on all aspects of designing, carrying out and interpreting the results of industrial applications. Though it is written primarily for radioisotope practitioners, the brochure is also intended to function as an ambassador for the technology by promoting its benefits to governments, to the general public and to industrial end-users

  10. When are fume-cupboards necessary in hospital radioisotope laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birks, J L [Singleton Hospital, Swansea (UK)

    1976-06-01

    Suggestions are made for procedures likely to require the provision of efficient fume-cupboards in hospital radioisotope laboratories. All such departments undertaking in vivo radioisotope procedures will require a supply of sterile materials, but only some of these will also require a fume-cupboard, since the use of a relatively inexpensive aseptic cabinet, without air flow and exhaust system, may suffice for such procedures as the labelling of blood cells or plasma. Efficient fume-cupboards may be required in hospital laboratories that are routinely concerned with the elution of generators of isotopes such as /sup 99/Tcsup(m) and /sup 113/Insup(m), the sterilization of radiopharmaceuticals (e.g. technetium-sulphur colloid) requiring the use of a pressure cooker, and the storage and handling of therapeutic quantities of /sup 131/I. Copious general ventilation of isotope rooms may be preferable to the too frequent incorporation of unnecessary fume-cupboards.

  11. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Horwitz, E Philip [Naperville, IL

    2009-10-06

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  12. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  13. A radioisotope-powered surface acoustic wave transponder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin, S; Lal, A

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a 63 Ni radioisotope-powered pulse transponder that has a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the frequency transmission frequency selector. Because the frequency is determined by a SAW device, narrowband detection with an identical SAW device enables the possibility for a long-distance RF-link. The SAW transponders can be buried deep into structural constructs such as steel and concrete, where changing batteries or harvesting vibration or EM energy is not a reliable option. RF-released power to radioisotope- released power amplification is 10 8 , even when regulatory safe amounts of 63 Ni are used. Here we have achieved an 800 µW pulse (315 MHz, 10 µs pause) across a 50 Ω load every 3 min, using a 1.5 milli-Ci 63 Ni source

  14. Analysis of status of radiation/radioisotopes utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Kon Wuk

    2017-01-01

    The use of radiation and radioisotopes in Korea has been increasing each year, and its impact on economy and industry is expected to be increasing progressively following the development of industrial technology and the expansion of their usage. To establish and supporting policies for industries using radiation and radioisotopes, it is necessary to check the status of related industries accurately, as well as to gather data required to establish plans for industrial development by studying both revenues and economic scale (contributing to revenue). o analyze the status of utilization, surveys were carried out on 6,621 organizations engaged in nuclear operations handling radiation and radioisotopes pursuant to the Nuclear Safety Act as of end 2014, on 33,471 medical institutions using radiation generators for medical and diagnostic purposes pursuant to the Medical Service Act, and on 2,218 organizations using radiation generators for animal diagnostics pursuant to the Veterinary License Act. he overall status of the domestic radiation market including the number of user organizations, that of employees, and the size of distributions (imports, productions, and exports) with which the scale of domestic radiation market can be judged showed a growth trend compared to the previous year, though the number of employees for radiation operation in industrial sector, research sector, education sector, military sector, and power plants (nuclear power plants) and the size of imports was reduced somewhat. t is expected that data acquired through periodic surveys on the status of utilization would be utilized practically in establishing governmental policies related to the promotion of usage of radiation and radioisotopes, and also be utilized widely in cultivating and developing the industry efficiently to invigorate the related industries

  15. Analysis of status of radiation/radioisotopes utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Kon Wuk [Business Innovation Office, Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The use of radiation and radioisotopes in Korea has been increasing each year, and its impact on economy and industry is expected to be increasing progressively following the development of industrial technology and the expansion of their usage. To establish and supporting policies for industries using radiation and radioisotopes, it is necessary to check the status of related industries accurately, as well as to gather data required to establish plans for industrial development by studying both revenues and economic scale (contributing to revenue). o analyze the status of utilization, surveys were carried out on 6,621 organizations engaged in nuclear operations handling radiation and radioisotopes pursuant to the Nuclear Safety Act as of end 2014, on 33,471 medical institutions using radiation generators for medical and diagnostic purposes pursuant to the Medical Service Act, and on 2,218 organizations using radiation generators for animal diagnostics pursuant to the Veterinary License Act. he overall status of the domestic radiation market including the number of user organizations, that of employees, and the size of distributions (imports, productions, and exports) with which the scale of domestic radiation market can be judged showed a growth trend compared to the previous year, though the number of employees for radiation operation in industrial sector, research sector, education sector, military sector, and power plants (nuclear power plants) and the size of imports was reduced somewhat. t is expected that data acquired through periodic surveys on the status of utilization would be utilized practically in establishing governmental policies related to the promotion of usage of radiation and radioisotopes, and also be utilized widely in cultivating and developing the industry efficiently to invigorate the related industries.

  16. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ''Type B'' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of 238 Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process

  17. Radioisotopes leakage of Fukushima may hit marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qing; Liu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    So many radioisotopes were released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan. Although the isotopes will be vastly diluted and the contamination is unlikely to cause immediate harm to marine organisms, but long-lived isotopes are expected to accumulate in the food chain and may cause problems such as increased mortality in fish and marine-mammal populations. Viewpoints and recommendations for radioactivity pollution survey to the marine ecosystem by experts were reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  18. Prospective production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in divisions of IPPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, G.O.

    2001-01-01

    The first reason to commence the work on production of radioisotope production in IPPE, was the requirement of Russia medicine for original generators of technetium. The essential extension of their production in conditions of Moscow city has met the declaiming of the Moscow urban authorities. The important moment was that, in IPPE were objective possibilities to deployment the production of radioisotope production. Nowadays, nomenclature of the radioisotopes which have been produced in IPPE, constitutes 29 positions. The profile of production of radioisotope production was generated also. Restricted possibilities of the ray base, from one side, and the needs(requirement) of domestic medicine with other, in main have spotted this profile. The raw isotopes constitute a minority - on sales volumes ∼ 20 % (in main abroad), the defining part is constituted the form ready for the use by ∼ 80 % (in main in Russia). All 'know-how' is conditionally possible to divide into 3 categories: Base. It is technologies provided with an operating production sector, guaranteeing stable on quality production having a rather wide seller's market; Perspective. It is those technologies, in which the main stages of RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT are fulfilled with positive result, but the working sites yet are not generated, and on the market are delivered only some samples of production. Are guessed RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT on perfecting the technology; Preparative. The technology, on which there are no regular orders, is not required of an individual working site. Sometimes it is rather precision operations, bound with usage of unique raw material, with a very stiff price of production. (authors)

  19. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan

  20. Occupational radioprotection in the cyclotron laboratory radioisotope production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Teixeira, M.V.; Santos, I.H.T.; Pujol Filho, S.V.

    1990-07-01

    The Cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is operated mainly for radioisotope production, neutron production studies and irradiation damage analysis. The risks associated to the activities developed in these laboratories are exposition to beta, neutron and gama radiation and contamination. The radioprotection program adapted are presented briefly and the results of the air and surface contamination analysis, liquid efluents and dose equivalent of the workers in 1988 are shown. (author) [pt

  1. Radioisotope tracer study in an aniline production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Yelgoankar, V.N.; Mendhekar, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer study was carried out in an aniline production reactor to investigate the cause of poor heat transfer from tube side to shell side in an aniline production (ANPO) reactor. The results of the study indicated that more than 50% of the shell volume was reduced due to deposition of the process material (i.e. fouling) on the shell walls and may be the cause of poor heat transfer in the reactor. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  2. Application of radioisotopes in oil, gas and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    The fundaments and the methodology of the principal radioisotope techniques used in the construction and operation of oil-pipes are described. These techniques deal with gamma radiography of weids, scraper tracking, leak localization in underground pipes and interface detection. The practical use of the mathematical formulas deduced during the theoretical treatment of each method is illustrated through several examples of application. A proceeding for the design of an interface detector based on gamma ray attenuation is presented [pt

  3. Radioisotopes and fungicide research- present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatrath, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The developments in pesticides and radioisotopes fields were so near to each other that at a very early stage in this history, both became linked together and their usefulness was recognised for faster development. The purpose of this communication is to illustrate the present status these techniques in fungicide research by drawing suitable examples and also to bring out the directions in which future research will be going with the aid of these tools. 72 refs

  4. Radioisotopic diagnosis in pediatrics. Radioizotopnaya diagnostika v pediatrii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubovskij, G A

    1983-01-01

    The material concerning the possibilities of modern radiodiagnostic methods in the practice of pediatric cardiology, pulmonology, uronephrology, gastroentorology, osteology, endocrinology and perinatology is presented. The data on techniques for production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation loads on child and personnel and the rules of radiation safety are given. The value and the place of radioisotopic diagnosis in the complex of clinicoroentgenologic and instrumental investigations in pediatrics are based.

  5. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  6. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources

  7. Evaluation of radiophoby phenomenon among patients undergoing radioisotope therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, M.; Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the radiophoby symptoms among 81 patients with different type hyperthyroidism undergoing 1-131 (450-600 MBq) treatment. The state anxiety as well as the trait anxiety levels using Spielberger's scale have been evaluated. Its values were 1 - 6 points (average 3) and 3 - 7 points (average 6) respectively for state anxiety and trait one. These results indicated that radioisotope therapy causes increase of patient's anxiety level. (author)

  8. Charged particle radioisotope production at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1992-05-01

    A variable energy isochronous cyclotron (CV-28) was installed in 1974 at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro, with the purpose, among others, of irradiating suitable targets to produce radioisotopes for medical diagnostic studies. This papers is an overview of the work done in the last two decades and reports the present status on the production of iodine-123 and gallium-67. (author)

  9. Application of radioisotope techniques in analysis of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is tabulated of the use of radioisotope techniques, giving the detected pollutant and the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. The most frequently used principle is the substoichiometric variant of isotope dilution which may be divided into the method of isotope dilution and the radio-reagent method. Both methods are described and examples are given of the determination of pollutants. (J.P.)

  10. Static and dynamic scintigraphy in radioisotope cardiology diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.; Zolna, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Pasyk, S.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the applications of scintigraphy in cardiac diagnosis is given. The principle of operation of the gamma-camera and of the scintigraphic system, the handling of data and the so-called gated scintigraphy are discussed. Characteristics of some radioisotopes applied in nuclear cardiology are given. The most frequent clinical states are discussed in which isotope diagnostics may be useful. Attention is drawn to the advantages of nuclear cardiology methods over conventional diagnostics. (author)

  11. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  12. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  13. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  14. Radioisotope requirements and usage in the radiopharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used extensively in many different productive and beneficial human endeavors. Amersham International, a U.K.-based company originating in the British Scientific Civil Service during World War II, has been actively involved in many of these activities for more than 50 yr. Today they are one of the world's largest suppliers of radioactive compounds and scaled radiation sources for use in industrial quality and safety assurance, life science research, and medicine. This paper outlines one of these applications: the use of radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive nuclides and labeled compounds that have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment of (human) disease. They are manufactured via highly controlled processes and have gone through regulatory scrutiny and approval far in excess of other radioisotopes used in other applications. Radiopharmaceuticals can be conveniently split into two categories. One type is simply an active analog that mimics the physiological behavior of its inactive counterpart in the body. The other involves an actual pharmacological compound that exhibits the desired physiological behavior, which is then labeled with a radionuclide suitable for either imaging or the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose as appropriate but which plays no part in the mechanism of action of the drug. The latter type, which is the more common of the two, can be supplied either as an active compounded product or as a open-quotes cold kit,close quotes which is then labeled with the appropriate radiopharmaceutical-grade radionuclide to yield the final product

  15. Operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjin; Jung, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    At the RIPF at HANARO, Radioisotopes for industrial and medical purpose are produced and research and development for various radioisotopes are carried out. Major products include Ir-192 for NDT, I-131 for treatment and diagnosis of thyroid cancer, Mo-99/Tc-99m Generator for imaging diagnosis of cancer. Production of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical is being increased every year. Due to world-wide unstableness in the supply of Mo-99, a technology to produce (n,γ)Mo-99 generator at HANARO had been developed as a short term countermeasure. It will be available by the end of 2012. As a long term countermeasure, we are trying to build a new fully dedicated isotope reactor that will produce Fission Mo-99. At present, utilization of RIPF at HANARO is being increased. However when the construction of a new dedicated isotope reactor is completed in 2016, the role of the existing facility and new facility should be established accordingly so that none of the facilities are idling. In the near future, when the prospect of a utilization plan is completed, we expect an opportunity to present the result. (author)

  16. Finding of region of interest in radioisotope scintigraphy's images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazs, A.; Lubans, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is about some problems, which arise, when physicians try to make diagnosis, using information from pictures, which are obtained at radioisotope scintigraphy. The algorithm of obtaining pictures' sets (called GFR) is described in this paper. The possible mistakes in diagnosis are also described. One reason of the mistakes is wrong detection the investigated organ's location. The new method is suggested for detection of organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images' sets. Using of dynamic curves of pixels' intensities is suggested for solving of this problem. It is shown, why using of maximums of such curves is impossible for finding of the investigated organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images sets. The using of integral expression is suggested to solve the problem. The suggested method allows finding and selecting of investigated organ's location in image's sequences (correction is not available in the existing methods). The results of using this method are present. The method can work fully automatically or with manual setting of threshold. (authors)

  17. Hydrological model for the transport of radioisotope in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoboah, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes has gained grounds in Ghana as a result of the numerous benefits that could be derived from it. In Ghana, radioisotope materials are used for various purposes in a number of institutions. However, improper disposal of the waste poses threat to the environment. To evaluate the environmental impact of radioisotope pollution, mathematical models play a major role in predicting the pollution level in any medium. This study is concerned with the hydrological model for the transport of radioactive material in the river. The model was composed by employing partial differential equations, describing relevant physical processes evolution (water level, velocities and dissolved substances concentrations) that occurs in water bodies. The mass conservation and momentum laws, state equation and state transport equations are equation system basis. The explicit central difference scheme in space and a forward difference method in time were used for the evaluation of the generalized transport equation, the Advection-Dispersion Equation. A Matlab code was developed to predict the concentration of the radioactive contaminant at any particular time along the river and in a reservoir. The model was able to simulate accurately the various levels of radionuclide concentration changes in the flowing rivers as the flows are augmented by tributary inflows. (au)

  18. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by radioisotope injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Schwarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of trace elements is subject to certain mechanisms of homeostatic regulation. The supply status of the trace elements, iron, copper, zinc and manganese has definite effects on their respective extent of intestinal absorption, retention and intestinal excretion. Experimental studies show that there is an increase in intestinal absorption and retention, and a decrease in turnover rate and endogenous excretion of these trace elements in response to deficient dietary intake. On the basis of these results, three models are discussed for the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis of situations of trace element deficiency: (1) Determination of the intestinal absorption of an orally administered radioisotope dose by measuring the activity of blood; (2) Determination of the retention of a parenterally administered dose in blood or plasma; and (3) Determination of the endogenous faecal excretion of a parenterally administered dose. The advantages and disadvantages of these models are discussed. Determination of the endogenous secretion of the trace element after intravenous injection of its radioisotope may be considered as the simplest and most informative method. (author)

  19. A comparative study of different contaminant radioisotopes in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    An order was established between the various radioisotopes, in order to compare which of them are a major problem concerning the contamination they originate in the materials using during their process, transportation and protection, consequently a sampling of contaminated materials was realized. These materials were submitted to a decontamination process with different reagents (acids, bases and organic and inorganic salts) varying their concentration through dilution with water. Besides for the same kind of reagent two processes were used, one with turbulence in the reagent through mechanical stirring, and the other static maintaining similar volumes of liquid in the two processes as well as a similar material, form and size of the object during the processes, detection of radiation in the samples were realized through a Geiger-Muller detector in similar periods of time, establishing this way a parallel system of comparison which allowed us to observe gains in the necessary period of time for reaching the same grade of decontamination in the two processes, it was concluded that it is very difficult to reach an order of comparison in the contamination because the periods of treatment vary as a function of the chemical compound containing the radioisotope(s). Besides we can reduce considerably the period of time in a stirring process and predict this necessary period of time for reaching the determined decontamination, provided that there are not permanent contaminations. (author)

  20. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors