Sample records for cineradiography

  1. High-speed cineradiography using electronic imaging (United States)

    Lucero, Jacob P.; Fry, David A.; Gaskill, William E.; Henderson, R. L.; Crawford, Ted R.; Carey, N. E.


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has constructed and is now operating a cineradiography system for imaging and evaluation of ballistic interaction events at the 1200 meter range of the Terminal Effects Research and Analysis (TERA) Group at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Cineradiography is part of a complete firing, tracking, and analysis system at the range. The cine system consists of flash x-ray sources illuminating a one-half meter by two meter fast phosphor screen which is viewed by gated-intensified high resolution still video cameras via turning mirrors. The entire system is armored to protect against events containing up to 13.5 kg of high explosive. Digital images are available for immediate display and processing. The system is capable of frame rates up to 105/sec for up to five total images.

  2. High speed cineradiography using electronic imaging (United States)

    Lucero, J. P.; Fry, D. A.; Gaskill, W. E.; Henderson, R. L.; Crawford, T. R.; Carey, N. E.


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has constructed and is now operating a cineradiography system for imaging and evaluation of ballistic interaction events at the 1200 meter range of the Terminal Effects Research and Analysis (TERA) Group at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Cineradiography is part of a complete firing, tracking, and analysis system at the range. The cine system consists of flash x-ray sources illuminating a one-half meter by two meter fast phosphor screen which is viewed by gated-intensified high resolution still video cameras via turning mirrors. The entire system is armored to protect against events containing up to 13.5 kg of high explosive. Digital images are available for immediate display and processing. The system is capable of frame rates up to 10(exp 5)/sec for up to five total images.

  3. Fuel-motion diagnostics and cineradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.


    Nuclear and non-nuclear applications of cineradiography are reviewed, with emphasis on diagnostic instrumentation for in-pile transient-reactor safety testing of nuclear fuel motion. The primary instrument for this purpose has been the fast-neutron hodoscope, which has achieved quantitative monitoring of time, location, mass, and velocity of fuel movement under the difficult conditions associated with transient-reactor experiments. Alternative diagnostic devices that have been developed have not matched the capabilities of the hodoscope. Other applications for the fuel-motion diagnostic apparatus are also evolving, including time-integrated radiography and direct time- and space-resolved fuel-pin power monitoring. Although only two reactors are now actively equipped with high-resolution fuel-motion diagnostic systems, studies and tests have been carried out in and for many other reactors.

  4. Cardiac dimensional analysis by use of biplane cineradiography: description and validation of method. (United States)

    Lipscomb, K


    Biplane cineradiography is a potentially powerful tool for precise measurement of intracardiac dimensions. The most systematic approach to these measurements is the creation of a three-dimensional coordinate system within the x-ray field. Using this system, interpoint distances, such as between radiopaque clips or coronary artery bifurcations, can be calculated by use of the Pythagoras theorem. Alternatively, calibration factors can be calculated in order to determine the absolute dimensions of a structure, such as a ventricle or coronary artery. However, cineradiography has two problems that have precluded widespread use of the system. These problems are pincushion distortion and variable image magnification. In this paper, methodology to quantitate and compensate for these variables is presented. The method uses radiopaque beads permanently mounted in the x-ray field. The position of the bead images on the x-ray film determine the compensation factors. Using this system, measurements are made with a standard deviation of approximately 1% of the true value.

  5. From cineradiography to biorobots: an approach for designing robots to emulate and study animal locomotion. (United States)

    Karakasiliotis, K; Thandiackal, R; Melo, K; Horvat, T; Mahabadi, N K; Tsitkov, S; Cabelguen, J M; Ijspeert, A J


    Robots are increasingly used as scientific tools to investigate animal locomotion. However, designing a robot that properly emulates the kinematic and dynamic properties of an animal is difficult because of the complexity of musculoskeletal systems and the limitations of current robotics technology. Here, we propose a design process that combines high-speed cineradiography, optimization, dynamic scaling, three-dimensional printing, high-end servomotors and a tailored dry-suit to construct Pleurobot: a salamander-like robot that closely mimics its biological counterpart, Pleurodeles waltl Our previous robots helped us test and confirm hypotheses on the interaction between the locomotor neuronal networks of the limbs and the spine to generate basic swimming and walking gaits. With Pleurobot, we demonstrate a design process that will enable studies of richer motor skills in salamanders. In particular, we are interested in how these richer motor skills can be obtained by extending our spinal cord models with the addition of more descending pathways and more detailed limb central pattern generator networks. Pleurobot is a dynamically scaled amphibious salamander robot with a large number of actuated degrees of freedom (DOFs: 27 in total). Because of our design process, the robot can capture most of the animal's DOFs and range of motion, especially at the limbs. We demonstrate the robot's abilities by imposing raw kinematic data, extracted from X-ray videos, to the robot's joints for basic locomotor behaviours in water and on land. The robot closely matches the behaviour of the animal in terms of relative forward speeds and lateral displacements. Ground reaction forces during walking also resemble those of the animal. Based on our results, we anticipate that future studies on richer motor skills in salamanders will highly benefit from Pleurobot's design.

  6. Cineradiography of the pharyngoesophageal segment in postlaryngectomy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weissenbruch, R; Kunnen, M; Albers, FWJ; van Cauwenberge, PB; Sulter, AM


    The use of tracheoesophageal voice prostheses has gained wide acceptance in the field of vocal rehabilitation after total laryngectomy. In a randomized study with 3 arms, alaryngeal speech proficiency was assessed in 60 postlaryngectomy patients: 20 patients underwent primary unilateral pharyngeal m

  7. Cine MRI: a new approach to the diagnosis of scapholunate dissociation

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    Langner, I.; Eisenschenk, A. [University Medicine Greifswald, Division of Hand Surgery and Functional Microsurgery, Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Greifswald (Germany); Fischer, S.; Langner, S. [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)


    To evaluate the feasibility of cine MRI for the detection of scapholunate dissociation (SLD) and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of cine MRI with those of cineradiography and arthroscopy. To evaluate feasibility, healthy subjects underwent cine MRI of the wrist. To evaluate sensitivity and specificity, patients with clinically suspected scapholunate ligament (SLL) injury after trauma to the wrist were prospectively included and underwent radiographic examination, cineradiography, and cine MRI. In 25 out of 38 patients, subsequent arthroscopy was performed. Results of cineradiography and cine MRI correlated with those of arthroscopy. Cine MRI was of diagnostic quality in all healthy subjects and patients with good interrater agreement. There was excellent correlation between cineradiography and cine MRI. Scapholunate distance differed significantly between healthy subjects and patients with scapholunate dissociation (p < 0.001), but not between imaging modalities in the patient group. Cine MRI had 85 % sensitivity and 90 % specificity for the detection of SLD. Cine MRI of the wrist is a fast and reliable technique for the detection of SLD with diagnostic accuracy comparable to cineradiography. It can be easily implemented as a routine clinical MRI examination, facilitating diagnostic workup of patients with suspected SLD while avoiding radiation exposure. (orig.)

  8. [Efficacy of high-frequency cinematography in diagnosis of dysphagia]. (United States)

    Oelerich, M; Mai, R; Müller-Miny, H; Peters, P E


    Dysphagia is a common symptom in clinical practice. Due to the broad spectrum of underlying diseases many disciplines are involved in the therapy and diagnosis of dysphagia, where radiology plays a central role. The radiologist is confronted with different diagnostic problems and has to choose the most appropriate type of investigation. In many cases no organic disorder can be demonstrated by clinical examination, endoscopy or conventional radiological techniques. In this setting cineradiography is an outstanding tool for finding functional or structural changes in the swallowing chain. This study underlines the efficiency of cineradiography in the diagnosis of dysphagia.

  9. Atlantoaxial subluxation after otoplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, E J


    A case of iatrogenic atlantoaxial subluxation after bilateral otoplasty is presented. Cineradiography was required for definitive diagnosis. Bed rest and Halter traction successfully resolved the condition. Great care is required while turning the head during skin preparation, draping, planning, and surgery, especially in young children. A high index of suspicion is necessary when a child develops torticollis after otoplasty.

  10. Plummer-Vinson syndrome. A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Jaffe, P E


    The Plummer-Vinson syndrome is characterized by dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia, and esophageal webs. The webs are best diagnosed by cineradiography. Iron repletion often improves the dysphagia, although some patients require esophageal dilatation or bougienage. The syndrome is associated with an increased incidence of postcricoid carcinoma, and surveillance endoscopy is recommended.

  11. Dynamic and ultrastructural study of sphincter of Oddi in early-stage cholelithiasis in rabbits with hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Guo Wei; Yao Cheng Wang; Fan Du; Hou Jun Yu


    AIM To study the relationship between preformation of gallstone and the kinetics and ultrastructure of sphincter of Oddi.METHODS Adult female rabbits were used and divided into 3 groups, and fed with either normal or high cholesterol diet for four or eight weeks.Each group contained eight rabbits. The manometry of sphincter of Oddi, biliary cineradiography, gallbladder volume measurement and ultrastructure observation under electron microscope were performed.RESULTS In groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, the basal pressure in low-pressure ampulla or high pressure zone of sphincter of Oddi was elevated, the amplitude of phasic contraction was decreased and the volume of gallbladder were increased, with a significant difference (P<0.01) from those of control. Gallstones were found in group Ⅱ rabbits (7/8). Under cineradiography, low-pressure ampulla showed a spasmodic status without apparent peristaltic contraction. Under electron microscope, inside the muscular cells of sphincter of Oddi,loosening of microfilament and swelling of plasmosomes which congregated at the top were observed. The amount showed no obvious change under nitric oxide synthase (NOS) stain.CONCLUSION Twisting of the microfilament and disarrangement of kink macula densa inside the muscular cells suggested that the sphincter of Oddi was under spasmodic status. The impaired diastolic function caused and aggravated the stasis of cystic bile. The swelling plasmosome could be one of the important factors in elevating the tonic pressure of sphincter of Oddi.

  12. High speed photography, videography, and photonics III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 22, 23, 1985 (United States)

    Ponseggi, B. G. (Editor); Johnson, H. C. (Editor)


    Papers are presented on the picosecond electronic framing camera, photogrammetric techniques using high-speed cineradiography, picosecond semiconductor lasers for characterizing high-speed image shutters, the measurement of dynamic strain by high-speed moire photography, the fast framing camera with independent frame adjustments, design considerations for a data recording system, and nanosecond optical shutters. Consideration is given to boundary-layer transition detectors, holographic imaging, laser holographic interferometry in wind tunnels, heterodyne holographic interferometry, a multispectral video imaging and analysis system, a gated intensified camera, a charge-injection-device profile camera, a gated silicon-intensified-target streak tube and nanosecond-gated photoemissive shutter tubes. Topics discussed include high time-space resolved photography of lasers, time-resolved X-ray spectrographic instrumentation for laser studies, a time-resolving X-ray spectrometer, a femtosecond streak camera, streak tubes and cameras, and a short pulse X-ray diagnostic development facility.

  13. Cranial kinesis in gekkonid lizards (United States)

    Herrel; De Vree F; Delheusy; Gans


    Cranial kinesis was studied in two species of gekkonid lizard, Gekko gecko and Phelsuma madagascariensis, using cineradiography and electromyography. The skull of these geckoes showed the three types of kinesis described by Versluys at the beginning of this century: streptostyly, mesokinesis and metakinesis. In accordance with the later model of Frazzetta, the skull of these animals can be modelled by a quadratic crank system: when the mouth opens during feeding, the quadrate rotates forward, the palato-maxillary unit is lifted and the occipital unit swings forward. During jaw closing, the inverse movements are observed; during crushing, the system is retracted beyond its resting position. The data gathered here indicate that the coupled kinesis (streptostyly + mesokinesis) is most prominently present during the capture and crushing cycles of feeding and is largely absent during late intraoral transport, swallowing, drinking and breathing. The electromyographic data indicate a consistent pattern of muscular activation, with the jaw opener and pterygoid protractor always active during the fast opening phase, and the jaw closers active during closing and crushing. Our data generally support the model of Frazzetta. Although the data gathered here do not allow speculation on the functional significance of the kinesis, they clearly provide some key elements required for a further investigation of the functional and adaptive basis of the system.

  14. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs. (United States)

    Robovska-Havelkova, Pavla; Aerts, Peter; Rocek, Zbynek; Prikryl, Tomas; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Herrel, Anthony


    Frog locomotion has attracted wide scientific interest because of the unusual and derived morphology of the frog pelvic girdle and hind limb. Previous authors have suggested that the design of the frog locomotor system evolved towards a specialized jumping morphology early in the radiation of the group. However, data on locomotion in frogs are biased towards a few groups and most of the ecological and functional diversity remains unexplored. Here, we examine the kinematics of swimming in eight species of frog with different ecologies. We use cineradiography to quantify movements of skeletal elements from the entire appendicular skeleton. Our results show that species with different ecologies do differ in the kinematics of swimming, with the speed of limb extension and especially the kinematics of the midfoot being different. Our results moreover suggest that this is not a phylogenetic effect because species from different clades with similar ecologies converge on the same swimming kinematics. We conclude that it is important to analyze frog locomotion in a broader ecological and evolutionary context if one is to understand the evolutionary origins of this behavior.

  15. Mandibular molar teeth and the development of mastication in the miniature pig (Sus scrofa). (United States)

    Obrez, A


    The only components of the orofacial complex that are fully developed as soon as they establish function are the occlusal surfaces of teeth. It is usually assumed that the occlusal surface of the molar teeth influences the orientation of the power stroke in spite of the fact that the data supporting this claim are lacking. The purpose of this longitudinal study was therefore to determine whether or not this hypothetical form-function relationship existed during development and whether or not it was related to growth. Serial dorsoventral and lateral radiography, and dorsoventral cineradiography were performed during natural feeding of 5 Hanford miniature pigs (Sus scrofa) of both genders between their 8th and 18th weeks. Sequences of power strokes were analyzed frame by frame and compared between sessions, and related to the position of the fourth primary mandibular molar (dm4). The changes in direction of the power stroke and in position of the dm4 relative to the midline were subsequently related to growth. The results of this study indicate that changes in orientation of the power stroke, though significant only on the balancing side, occur independently of the repositioning working and balancing side mandibular molars, as well as of skeletal growth. The null hypothesis that the mandibular primary molars influence the transverse orientation of the power stroke during growth is therefore refuted.

  16. Lingual articulation in songbirds. (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Rothgerber, John R; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh


    Lingual articulation in humans is one of the primary means of vocal tract resonance filtering that produces the characteristic vowel formants of speech. In songbirds, the function of the tongue in song has not been thoroughly examined, although recent research has identified the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity as a resonance filter that is actively tuned to the frequency of the song. In northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), the volume of this cavity is inversely proportional to the frequency of the song above 2 kHz. However, cardinal song extends below this range, leaving the question of whether and how the vocal tract is tracking these low frequencies. We investigated the possible role of the tongue in vocal tract filtering using X-ray cineradiography of northern cardinals. Below 2 kHz, there was prominent tongue elevation in which the tip of the tongue was raised until it seemed to touch the palate. These results suggest that tongue elevation lowers the resonance frequency below 2 kHz by reducing the area of the passage from the oral cavity into the beak. This is consistent with a computational model of the songbird vocal tract in which resonance frequencies are actively adjusted by both changing the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and constricting the opening into the beak.

  17. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow. (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A


    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC and the fundamental frequency in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) whose song, unlike that of the cardinal, consists of a series of almost constant frequency notes. Cineradiography of singing sparrows shows that the oropharyngeal cavity and cranial end of the esophagus expand abruptly at the start of each note and maintain a relatively constant volume until the end of the note. Computation of the vocal tract transfer function suggests a major resonance of the OEC follows the fundamental frequency, making sound transmission more efficient. The presence of similar prominent song-related vocal tract motor patterns in two Oscine families suggests that the active control of the vocal tract resonance by varying the volume of the OEC may be widespread in songbirds.

  18. Time-dependent remodeling of transmural architecture underlying abnormal ventricular geometry in chronic volume overload heart failure. (United States)

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Omens, Jeffrey H; Covell, James W


    To test the hypothesis that the abnormal ventricular geometry in failing hearts may be accounted for by regionally selective remodeling of myocardial laminae or sheets, we investigated remodeling of the transmural architecture in chronic volume overload induced by an aortocaval shunt. We determined three-dimensional finite deformation at apical and basal sites in left ventricular anterior wall of six dogs with the use of biplane cineradiography of implanted markers. Myocardial strains at end diastole were measured at a failing state referred to control to describe remodeling of myofibers and sheet structures over time. After 9 +/- 2 wk (means +/- SE) of volume overload, the myocardial volume within the marker sets increased by >20%. At 2 wk, the basal site had myofiber elongation (0.099 +/- 0.030; P architecture is regionally heterogeneous in chronic volume overload. The early differences in fiber elongation seem most likely due to a regional gradient in diastolic wall stress, whereas the late differences in wall thickness are most likely related to regional differences in the laminar architecture of the wall. These results suggest that the temporal progression of ventricular remodeling may be anatomically designed at the level of regional laminar architecture.

  19. Cineradiographic analysis of mouse postural response to alteration of gravity and jerk (gravity deceleration rate). (United States)

    Hasegawa, Katsuya; de Campos, Priscila S; Zeredo, Jorge L; Kumei, Yasuhiro


    The ability to maintain the body relative to the external environment is important for adaptation to altered gravity. However, the physiological limits for adaptation or the disruption of body orientation are not known. In this study, we analyzed postural changes in mice upon exposure to various low gravities. Male C57BL6/J mice (n = 6) were exposed to various gravity-deceleration conditions by customized parabolic flight-maneuvers targeting the partial-gravity levels of 0.60, 0.30, 0.15 and μ g (high-definition cineradiography and with exact instantaneous values of gravity and jerk. As a result, the coordinated extension of the neck, spine and hindlimbs was observed during the initial phase of gravity deceleration. Joint angles widened to 120%-200% of the reference g level, and the magnitude of the thoracic-curvature stretching was correlated with gravity and jerk, i.e., the gravity deceleration rate. A certain range of jerk facilitated mouse skeletal stretching efficiently, and a jerk of -0.3~-0.4 j (g/s) induced the maximum extension of the thoracic-curvature. The postural response of animals to low gravity may undergo differential regulation by gravity and jerk.

  20. Essential Segmental Myoclonus Responding Well To Fluoxetine A case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya K B


    Full Text Available We report a case of essential segmental myoclonus a 10 year old girl who presented with continuing movement of both the shoulder girdle muscles for 6 months. The movements were exacerbated with the hands raised above the head or in the outstretched posture and were persisting during sleep. There was no abnormal palatal movement. Additionally there was a rhythmical clicking sound arising from the shoulders that could be felt and ausculated with the stethoscope. CT scan of brain and MRI of cervical spine were non-contributory, EMG showed muscle activates at about 50 per second in the shoulder girdle muscles. Cine-radiography of shoulder joints showed the head of humerus hitting against the spine of the scapula rhythmically. Spinal tap was non-contributory. The diagnosis or essential segmental myoclonus was entertained and the subject with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with remarkable response. The possible mechanism of action of agents modulating the serotonergic system in the brain for the management of myoclonus has been reviewed and their role suggested.

  1. Two cases of chronic radiodermatitis caused by cardiac catheterization

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    Ishikawa, Makiko; Soh, Inketsu; Sueki, Hirohiko; Iijima, Masafumi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Hayashi, Ken; Wakugawa, Motoshi


    Coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) associated with fluoroscopy and cineradiography deliver higher radiation doses than any other conventional methods and, as a result, expose patients to ionizing radiation. We herein report two cases of radiodermatitis caused by cardiac catheterization whose irradiation dose could be retrospectively calculated. One sixty-year-old female and one sixty eight-year-old female who had suffered from myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, respectively, developed erythematous plaques on the right submammary area and the lesions were initially diagnosed to be fixed drug eruptions. The lesions of submammary area gradually showed the findings of poikiloderma and finally demonstrated ulceration, however, we could not make an accurate diagnosis at that time, due to our lack of knowledge about these radiologic examinations. The cumulative irradiation dose of these cases was calculated to be 58.5 Gy and 45.5 Gy, respectively, and both cases were finally diagnosed to have chronic radiodermatitis as a result of cardiac catheterization. (author)

  2. Calcaneal loading during walking and running (United States)

    Giddings, V. L.; Beaupre, G. S.; Whalen, R. T.; Carter, D. R.


    PURPOSE: This study of the foot uses experimentally measured kinematic and kinetic data with a numerical model to evaluate in vivo calcaneal stresses during walking and running. METHODS: External ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematic data were measured during walking and running using cineradiography and force plate measurements. A contact-coupled finite element model of the foot was developed to assess the forces acting on the calcaneus during gait. RESULTS: We found that the calculated force-time profiles of the joint contact, ligament, and Achilles tendon forces varied with the time-history curve of the moment about the ankle joint. The model predicted peak talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joint loads of 5.4 and 4.2 body weights (BW) during walking and 11.1 and 7.9 BW during running. The maximum predicted Achilles tendon forces were 3.9 and 7.7 BW for walking and running. CONCLUSIONS: Large magnitude forces and calcaneal stresses are generated late in the stance phase, with maximum loads occurring at approximately 70% of the stance phase during walking and at approximately 60% of the stance phase during running, for the gait velocities analyzed. The trajectories of the principal stresses, during both walking and running, corresponded to each other and qualitatively to the calcaneal trabecular architecture.

  3. Cardiac Malpositions

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    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  4. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

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    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure.

  5. Cineradiographic Analysis of Mouse Postural Response to Alteration of Gravity and Jerk (Gravity Deceleration Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hasegawa


    Full Text Available The ability to maintain the body relative to the external environment is important for adaptation to altered gravity. However, the physiological limits for adaptation or the disruption of body orientation are not known. In this study, we analyzed postural changes in mice upon exposure to various low gravities. Male C57BL6/J mice (n = 6 were exposed to various gravity-deceleration conditions by customized parabolic flight-maneuvers targeting the partial-gravity levels of 0.60, 0.30, 0.15 and μ g (<0.001 g. Video recordings of postural responses were analyzed frame-by-frame by high-definition cineradiography and with exact instantaneous values of gravity and jerk. As a result, the coordinated extension of the neck, spine and hindlimbs was observed during the initial phase of gravity deceleration. Joint angles widened to 120%–200% of the reference g level, and the magnitude of the thoracic-curvature stretching was correlated with gravity and jerk, i.e., the gravity deceleration rate. A certain range of jerk facilitated mouse skeletal stretching efficiently, and a jerk of −0.3~−0.4 j (g/s induced the maximum extension of the thoracic-curvature. The postural response of animals to low gravity may undergo differential regulation by gravity and jerk.

  6. Hind limb proportions and kinematics: are small primates different from other small mammals? (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela


    Similar in body size, locomotor behaviour and morphology to the last common ancestor of Primates, living small quadrupedal primates provide a convenient model for investigating the evolution of primate locomotion. In this study, the hind limb kinematics of quadrupedal walking in mouse lemurs, brown lemurs, cotton-top tamarins and squirrel monkeys are analysed using cineradiography. The scaling of hind limb length to body size and the intralimb proportions of the three-segmented hind limb are taken into consideration when kinematic similarities and differences are discussed. Hind limb kinematics of arboreal quadrupedal primates, ranging in size between 100 g and 3000 g, are size independent and resemble the hind limb kinematics of small non-cursorial mammals. A common feature seen in smaller mammals, in general, is the horizontal position of the thigh at touchdown and of the lower leg at lift-off. Thus, the maximum bone length is immediately transferred into the step length. The vertical position of the leg at the beginning of a step cycle and of the thigh at lift-off contributes the same distance to pivot height. Step length and pivot height increase proportionally with hind limb length, because intralimb proportions of the hind limb remain fairly constant. Therefore, the strong positive allometric scaling of the hind limb in arboreal quadrupedal primates affects neither the kinematics of hind limb segments nor the total angular excursion of the limb. The angular excursion of the hind limb in quadrupedal primates is equal to that of other non-cursorial mammals. Hence, hind limb excursion in larger cercopithecine primates differs from that of other large mammals due to the decreasing angular excursion as part of convergent cursorial adaptations in several phylogenetic lineages of mammals. Typical members of those phylogenetic groups are traditionally used in comparison with typical primates, and therefore the ;uniqueness' of primate locomotor characteristics is

  7. Cineradiographic study of forelimb movements during quadrupedal walking in the brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus, Primates: Lemuridae). (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Fischer, M S


    Movements of forelimb joints and segments during walking in the brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus) were analyzed using cineradiography (150 frames/sec). Metric gait parameters, forelimb kinematics, and intralimb coordination are described. Calculation of contribution of segment displacements to stance propulsion shows that scapular retroversion in a fulcrum near the vertebral border causes more than 60% of propulsion. The contribution by the shoulder joint is 30%, elbow joint 5%, and wrist joint 1%. Correlation analysis was applied to reveal the interdependency between metric and kinematic parameters. Only the effective angular movement of the elbow joint during stance is speed-dependent. Movements of all other forelimb joints and segments are independent of speed and influence, mainly, linear gait parameters (stride length, stance length). Perhaps the most important result is the hitherto unknown and unexpected degree of scapular mobility. Scapular movements consist of ante-/retroversion, adduction/abduction, and scapular rotation about the longitudinal axis. Inside rotation of the scapula (60 degrees -70 degrees ), together with flexion in the shoulder joint, mediates abduction of the humerus, which is not achieved in the shoulder joint, and is therefore strikingly different from humeral abduction in man. Movements of the shoulder joint are restricted to flexion and extension. At touch down, the shoulder joint of the brown lemur is more extended compared to that of other small mammals. The relatively long humerus and forearm, characteristic for primates, are thus effectively converted into stride length. Observed asymmetries in metric and kinematic behavior of the left and right forelimb are caused by an unequal lateral bending of the spinal column.

  8. The role of sphinter of Boyden in bile excretion and its regulating factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Guo Wei; Yao Cheng Wang; Qing Jiang Meng


    AIM To investigate the role of sphincter of Boyden in bile excretion and its regulating factors.METHODS Perfusion manometry, choledocho-cineradiography, reaction of the sphincter of Boyden toendogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) and immunohistochemical quantitative analysis were performed in 16dogs to study the motility and morphology of the sphincter of Boyden in experimental (postcholecystectomy)group ( n = 8) and the control group (n = 8).RESULTS The bile duct surrounded by SB was a low-pressure lumen (10.0 ± 2.0 mmHg), in which thepressure was significantly different (P<0.01, t = 6. 195) from the basal pressure of the high-pressure area ofsphincter of Oddi (SO), its basal pressure (SOBP) was 16.9±0.5 mmHg. The SB was an enlarged ampulladuring bile excretion interval, and showed active contraction during bile excretion. Intrinsic CCK could causediastole of SO, but does not affect the systole and diastole of SB. After cholecystectomy, spastic contractionpersisted in SB, which could not be relieved by intrinsic CCK. The sensitivity to CCK of SO was decreased,and the evacuation time of media prolonged (27.0±3.4 min vs precholecystectomy 17.l±0.9min P<0.01,t =7.961). In immunohistochemistry analysis, the contents of a-actin, myosin in the SB of experimentalgroup showed no increase. Under electronic microscope, the main changes were 3D structuraldisarrangement of the cell framework, distortion of the microfilaments, swelling and aggregation ofmitochondria at the nuclear side.CONCLUSION The excretion of bile can be divided into two types, physiological bile excretion with a drivemainly caused by the contraction of SB, and the other, functional bile excretion with a drive mainly causedby the contraction of gallbladder. It seems that the function of SB was controlled by vagus, whereas SO wasmore sensitive to the intrinsic CCK, The intact gallbladder is an elemental factor of functional coordinationof SB and SO.

  9. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences; Funktionelle MRT des Pharynx bei obstruktiver Schlafapnoe (OSA) mit schnellen 2D-FLASH-Sequenzen

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    Jaeger, L. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Guenther, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Gauger, J. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Nitz, W. [Siemens Medizintechnik, Erlangen (Germany); Kastenbauer, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)


    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager (`Vision`, Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die funktionelle Bildgebung des Pharynx war bisher eine Domaene der Hochfrequenzroentgenkinematographie, der Computertomographie (CT) und der ultraschnellen Computertomographie. Die Entwicklung moderner Techniken in der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) fuehrte zu neuen Ansaetzen in der Diagnostik pharyngealer Dysfunktionen. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Implementierung neuer schneller MR-Sequenzen, um Verschlussmechanismen entlang des Pharnyxschlauches bei Patienten mit obstruktiver Schlafapnoe (OSA) zu untersuchen. 16 Patienten mit OSA und 6 gesunde Probanden wurden an einem 1,5-T-Ganzkoerpermagnetresonanztomographen (`Vision`, Siemens Medizintechnik, Erlangen

  10. Patient Dose Values during Interventional Cardiology Examinations in Yazd Hospitals, Iran

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    Verginia Tsapaki


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The number of interventional cardiology (IC procedures has increased rapidly. Coronary angiography (CA and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA are now widely performed as a matter of routine and they are considered safe procedures for experienced cardiologists. However, it is also known that these procedures are associated with high radiation doses due to long fluoroscopy time (T, and large number of cineradiography frames (F. These levels of radiation may even lead to radiation skin injuries under certain conditions. "nPatients and Methods: A detailed study of radiation doses received by 168 patients who underwent CA, and 84 patients who underwent PTCA using 3 angiography x-ray systems in two hospitals of Yazd-Iran is presented. An air kerma-area product (KAP meter was used for patient dosimetry. KAP, fluoroscopy time and total number cine frames for CA and PTCA procedures were recorded for each patient. "nResults: Mean ± SD of KAP in CA and PTCA were 33 Gy.cm2 ± 18.8 Gy.cm2 and 80.3 Gy.cm2 ± 65.6 Gy.cm2, respectively. The comparison showed that CA KAP (33Gy.cm2, fluoroscopy time (2.7±2.4min, and cine frames number (571±149 except of on case, were lower than (P<0.001 the results of other studies and mean KAP due to PTCA procedures, except for three cases, were not significantly different from the other references' results. "nConclusion: The high-level expert cardiologists could not have a significant effect on the decrease of patient dose since they should also teach angiography examinations to medicine students. With increasing patient BMI the value of KAP increased, but the fluoroscopy time and cine frames number did not change significantly. In addition, the results showed that the use of flat panel detector was not sufficient for decreasing patient dose and the system's adjustment was more important.

  11. Esophageal scintigraphy of Zenker`s diverticula before and after diverticulotomy; Oesophagusszintigraphie von Zenkerschen Divertikeln vor und nach Divertikulotomie

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    Frahm, C.; Baehre, M.; Eckerle, S.; Richter, E. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin; Ahrens, K.H.; Sommer, K. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde; Frahm, C. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie


    Sequential and static esophageal scintigraphies were performed in 17 patients with Zenker`s diverticulum before and after laser surgical diverticulotomy. We used a gamma camera system in 45 LAO-position after application of 15 ml of tea which was marked with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Filling and evacuation of the diverticulum were expressed in proportion to the administered activity. Relative volumes of the diverticula were obtained from cineradiography by using the height of the neighbouring cervical vertebra, and the clinical symptoms were divided into 4 groups. Zenker`s diverticula could be verified visually and quantitatively by scintigraphy. The precise temporal course of the reduction of activity in the diverticulum was exactly determined. The scintigraphic retentions correlated with the X-ray volumes with a coefficient ranging from 0,55 to 0,85. Clinical symptoms also were not very closely related to scintigraphic and X-ray findings, respectively. The esophageal scintigraphy allows quantification of the filling and evacuation of Zenker`s diverticula, thus it is suitable for objectivization of the functional relevance of the diverticula. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Bei 17 Patienten mit Zenkerschem Divertikel wurden vor und nach laserchirurgischer Divertikulotomie Oesophagussequenzszintigraphien und statische Oesophagusszintigraphien durchgefuehrt. Die Untersuchungen erfolgten an einer Grossfeld-Gammakamera in 45 LAO-Position nach Applikation von 15 ml Tee, der mit {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA markiert war. Divertikelfuellung und -entleerung wurden im Verhaeltnis zur applizierten Aktivitaet ausgedrueckt. Die relativen Divertikelvolumina wurden aus der Roentgenkinematographie anhand der Hoehe des benachbarten Halswirbelkoerpers bestimmt, die klinischen Beschwerden nach 4 Schweregraden beurteilt. Die Zenkerschen Divertikel liessen sich szintigraphisch visuell und quantitativ nachweisen. Der genaue zeitabhaengige Verlauf der Aktivitaetsabnahme im Divertikel wurde jeweils exakt bestimmt

  12. The study between the dynamics and the X-ray anatomy and regularizing effect of gallbladder on bile duct sphincter of the dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Guo Wei; Yao-Cheng Wang; Guo-Min Liang; Wei Wang; Bao-Ying Chen; Jia-Kuan Xu; Li-Jun Song


    AIM: To study the relationship between the radiological anatomy and the dynamics on bile duct sphincter in bile draining and regulatory effect of gallbladder.METHODS: Sixteen healthy dogs weighing 18 kg to 25 kg were divided randomly into control group and experimental group (cholecystectomy group). Cineradiography, manometry with perfusion, to effect of endogenous cholecystokinin and change of ultrastructure were employed.RESULTS: According to finding of the choledochography and manometry, in control group the intraluminal basal pressure of cephalic cyclic smooth muscle of choledochal sphincter cCS was 9.0+2.0 mmHg and that of middle oblique smooth muscle of choledochal sphincter (mOS) was 16.8+0.5 mmHg,the intraluminal basal pressure of cCS segment was obviously lower than that of mOS (P<0.01) in the interval period of bile draining, but significant difference of intraluminal basal pressure of the mOS segment was not found between the interval period of bile draining (16.8+0.5 mmHg) and the bile flowing period (15.9±0.9 mmHg) (P>0.05). The motility of cCS was mainly characterized by rhythmically concentric contraction, just as motility of cCS bile juice was pumped into the mOS segment in control group. And motility of mOS segment showed mainly diastolic and systolic activity of autonomically longitudinal peristalsis. There was spasmodic state in cCS and mOS segment and reaction to endogenous cholecystokinin was debased after cholecystectomy. The change of ultrastructure of cCS portion showed mainly that the myofilaments of cell line in derangement and mitochondria is swelling.CONCLUSION: During fasting, the cCS portion has a function as similar cardiac "pump" and it is main primary power source in bile draining, and mOS segment serves mainly as secondary power in bile draining. The existence of the intact gallbladder is one of the important factors in guaranteeing the functional coordination between the cCS and mOS of bile duct sphincter. There is