WorldWideScience

Sample records for cinematography

  1. Cinematography and character depiction

    OpenAIRE

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-01-01

    This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under th...

  2. Cinematography and character depiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under the three main headings of lighting, camera view point and the camera’s mode of perception. The outcome is an accessible and systematised foundation for film makers to consult as an entry point into understanding the relationship between character depiction and cinematography:
    Cinematography captures and expresses what a character is
    feeling – their attitude towards the rest of the world, their interior state” Ian Gabriel, director of Forgiveness (2004 [personal interview 2009].

  3. Virtual Cinematography in Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Cinematography is a key aspect in the development of modern computer games. The quality of the visuals depends, not only on the accuracy of the rendering, but on the way that the scene is presented to the player. Which element should be included in the frame, from which point of view and in which...... positions are all aspects that have been widely stud- ied in classical cinematography. However, it is still unclear how the principles developed for the film medium are ap- plicable to an interactive medium such as computer games. This article presents a study, which explores the interplay between...... cinematography and player experience. The results of the experiment demonstrate the existence of an impact of the cinematographic behaviour of camera on both player’s affect and her in-game behaviour. Furthermore, this impact is dependent on the game mechanics highlighting once more the difference between...

  4. Implementing Game Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cinematographic games are a rising genre in the computer games industry and an increasing number of titles published include some aspects of cinematography in the gameplay or the storytelling. At present state, camera handling in computer games is managed primarily through custom scripts...... and animations and there is an inverse relationship between player freedom and cinematographic quality. In this paper, we present a description of a series of technical challenges connected with the development of an automatic camera control library for computer games and we showcase a set of algorithmic...

  5. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    A virtual camera represents the point-of-view of the player through which she perceives the game world and gets feedback on her actions. Thus, the virtual camera plays a vital role in 3D computer games and aects player experience and enjoyability in games. Interactive virtual cinematography is the...... process of visualising the content of a virtual environment by positioning and animating the virtual camera in the context of interactive applications such as a computer game. Camera placement and animation in games are usually directly controlled by the player or statically predened by designers. Direct....... The camera controller should dynamically and eciently translate these rules into camera positions and movements before (or while) the player plays the game. Automatically controlling the camera in virtual 3D dynamic environments is an open research problem and a challenging task. From an optimisation...

  6. Clinical applications of biomechanics cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodle, A S

    1986-10-01

    Biomechanics cinematography is the analysis of movement of living organisms through the use of cameras, image projection systems, electronic digitizers, and computers. This article is a comparison of cinematographic systems and details practical uses of the modality in research and education. PMID:2946390

  7. An Application of Calculus to Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents a laboratory exercise in which an integration problem is applied to cinematography, without the need for apparatus. The problem situation is about the oscillation control of a camera platform to attain the contrast angular rate of objects. Wave equations for describing the oscillations are presented and an expression for…

  8. Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, D.B.; Anderson, S.E.; Li-wei He [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Animations generated by interactive 3D computer graphics applications are typically portrayed either from a particular character`s point of view or from a small set of strategically-placed viewpoints. By ignoring camera placement, such applications fail to realize important storytelling capabilities that have been explored by cinematographers for many years. In this paper, we describe several of the principles of cinematography and show how they can be formalized into a declarative language, called the Declarative Camera Control Language (DCCL). We describe the application of DCCL within the context of a simple interactive video game and argue that DCCL represents cinematic knowledge at the same level of abstraction as expert directors by encoding 16 idioms from a film textbook. These idioms produce compelling animations, as demonstrated on the accompanying videotape.

  9. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth. PMID:26684420

  10. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  11. Taoism themes in modern chinese cinematography

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, D. I.; АНДРЕЕВ Д.И.

    2014-01-01

    The paper demonstrates some peculiarities of Taoism, a Chinese national religion, in its intersection with Chinese cinematography. The paper analyses how Taoism themes influence modern Chinese films and how they are interpreted in plots, characters and symbolism of these films. В работе рассматриваются некоторые особенности Даосизма, национальной религии Китая, в его корреляции с китайским кинематографом. В работе анализируется, каким образом Даосские мотивы влияют на современный китайский...

  12. 7 CFR 500.23 - Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... National Arboretum Facilities and Grounds § 500.23 Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... photography or cinematography as specified in § 500.24. Facilities and grounds are available for use...

  13. Cinematography of weakly - luminous transient phenomena using image converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review on the physical of optical informations emitted by a light source of weak intensity and short duration, the authors describe a high gain device by associating two image converters. The present specifications are given in the domain of high speed cinematography and spectrometry. (authors)

  14. Cinematography; A Guide for Film Makers and Film Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiewicz, J. Kris

    Concentrating on the work of the cinematographer--the man behind the camera or in charge of the shooting--this book also touches on techniques of sound recording, cutting, and production logistics. Technical discussions designed to provide the basic principles and techniques of cinematography are presented about cameras, films and sensitometry,…

  15. Director-Oriented Shot Assessment and Evaluation in Virtual Cinematography

    OpenAIRE

    Hannan, Shakil A.; Endou, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2005-01-01

    Traditional storyboards are considered the blueprints of live action movie shooting for narrative storytelling, but they have limitations. In addition, the conversion of storyboards to motion picture cinematography consumes time and money. We propose a more advanced tool than storyboards: the Shot Evaluation and Development System, which not only reduces the time and cost of live action shooting, but also helps a director to increase his or her artistry and creativity through the exploration ...

  16. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, G; Holliman, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empi...

  17. Dislexicon of slapstick humor, funny cinematography, and very special effects

    OpenAIRE

    D'haeyere, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    The Dislexicon of Slapstick Humor, Funny Cinematography, and Very Special Effects is a richly illustrated glossary containing 138 witty words used in Mack Sennett's comedy studios between 1912 and 1933. It comprises clever concepts connected to slapstick comedy, gag strategies, funny pratfalls, dangerous stuntwork, and secrets of the filmmaking trade. In a mishmash of slapstick facts and fictions, the Dislexicon fully accepts small talk, tall tales, filmspeak, jokes, and gossip as historical ...

  18. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults. PMID:19892123

  19. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  20. Denaturalizing the technique: feminists contributions to think the cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavalcanti Tedesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cinematography is generally understood as a technological area, which means neutral for many people. This may account for not deserving the due attention into the cinema and the audiovisual studies. However, as any technique, it was developed starting from some hypotheses to reach specific objectives. In this study, we aim to analyze it with a feministic perspective to identify the gender views that contributed to its expression, which were influenced by it. We ́ll do that by the sudy of some cinematographic manuals edited since the years 1930, comparing their guidelines with some important classic/industrial Mexican films.

  1. Photo-Realistic Image Synthesis and Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    characters, "virtual actors", in the motion picture production increases every day. While the most known computer graphics techniques have largely been adopted successfully in nowadays fictions, it still remains very challenging to implement virtual actors which would resemble, visually, human beings......Realistic Virtual View Synthesis is a new field of research that has received increasing attention in recent years. It is strictly related to the grown popularity of virtual reality and the spread of its applications, among which virtual photography and cinematography. The use of computer generated...

  2. Planning and accounting for government orders of business of cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Zhuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deals with the nature, structure and main elements of the financial and economic relations of the state and cinema, the mechanisms of interaction. Established that rise to financial and economic relations between the state and entity cinematography, while state support, are predictions in the state budget expenditure for this purpose. Thus the totality of relations during state support filmmaking advisable to divide into five stages. In particular, this part of film in the competition (competition programs, the conclusion of the state contract, the state contract execution, reporting for the manufacture of the final product - the film that provides order and displayed in the accounting as an intangible asset and the accounting of income and expenses for production of the film according to the state order and order cancellation on income.

  3. [Describe and convince: visual rhetoric of cinematography in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panese, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The tools of visualisation occupy a central place in medicine. Far from being simple accessories of glance, they literally constitute objects of medicine. Such empirical acknowledgement and epistemological position open a vast field of investigation: visual technologies of medical knowledge. This article studies the development and transformation of medical objects which have permitted to assess the role of temporality in the epistemology of medicine. It firstly examines the general problem of the relationships between cinema, animated image and medicine and secondly, the contribution of the German doctor Martin Weiser to medical cinematography as a method. Finally, a typology is sketched out organising the variety of the visual technology of movement under the perspective of the development of specific visual techniques in medicine. PMID:19777777

  4. Noise factor of a high-speed cinematography system; Facteur de bruit d'une chaine de cinematographie ultrarapide: application a la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secroun, A

    2000-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion simulates in a laboratory the thermodynamic state of the center of stars, thus leading to the determination of stellar parameters. In order to reach that aim, high-speed cinematography brings up instruments specifically adapted to picosecond measurement, for which it is necessary to know the final precision. A model of the noise factor of the instruments under study is introduced and confronted to the experimental results obtained. (authors)

  5. Dose distributions of patients from chest fluoroscopy, upper GI-tract radiography and cinematography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The per caput dose from medical exposure in Japan is several times higher than in other developed countries. There are no dose limitations for medical exposure. Then, the appropriate applications of radiation diagnosis/treatments (justification of practices) and the quality control of diagnosis/treatments (optimization of protection) are needed to reduce the doses from medical exposure. It is well documented that patient doses from a X-ray diagnosis are distributed in the broad range. Recently, the IAEA introduced guidance levels for some typical X-ray diagnosis and in vivo nuclear medicines. We carried out the investigation of dose distribution of patients from the X-ray examinations of chest, cardiovascular cinematography and upper GI-tract X-ray examination in order to give the basic information on the quality control of each X-ray diagnosis. These X-ray diagnoses are performed frequently in Japan, and especially chest X-ray examinations are carried out periodically to all population more than 18 years old as legal health check and GI-tract X-ray examinations to the persons more than 35 years old. The cardiovascular cinematography and the upper GI-tract X-ray examination bring higher effective dose for patients. More information is therefore, needed for the reduction and quality control of medical exposure in Japan. (author)

  6. [The ultra-rapid cinematography of the larynx, its contributions in speech pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevaillier, G; Sauvaget, E; Herman, P; Tran Ba Huy, P

    2010-01-01

    The development in the medical field of high speed cinematography and its dissemination in the field of speech pathology will probably change the way we view the larynx and diagnose its disorders. So far only the stroboscope could inform us about the appearance of vocal cord vibration but with certain limitations. Indeed the wave motion of the vocal cords is really only apparent motion. It is made possible through the phenomenon of retinal persistence of images and light intermittent vocal folds set to the frequency of the voice and out of phase by a few Hertz. This technique has several disadvantages: The need for the voice to trigger the strobe light; a low number of frames per second (25 fps) recorded; frame loss for the period between unlit two flashes; limitation in the study of the upper voice spectrum (gearing). The ultra-rapid cinematography brings a big difference in design since the digital recording can shoot up to 4000 frames per second with permanent lighting of the larynx. The slow reading of short sequences permits us to view the actual movement of vibrating structures, and to analyze the behavior of the vibrator during the transitional phases of the attack, depreciation and termination of sound. The footage in high resolution permits a detailed analysis of the movements of opening and closing of the vocal cords in phonation and respiration, and the diagnosis of lesions. PMID:21086656

  7. From photography to cinematography: recording movement and gait in a neurological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-09-01

    The major challenge of photography has been freezing movement, to transform it into a fixed image or series of images. Very soon, photographers became interested in movement itself and tried to use photography as a tool to analyze movement. At the early stages, physicians interested in movement, perhaps surprisingly, made important technical contributions. Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, by Duchenne, the first book with physiological experiments illustrated by photographs, is a landmark in this historical development. At the Salpêtrière, thanks to Charcot, photography officially entered clinical neurology. Medical journals with photographs were actively developed by Bourneville. Londe established a clinical photographic laboratory and published the first book on medical photography. The study of animal and human movement by Muybridge and Marey in the 1880s led to chronophotography and later cinematography. Clinicians such as Dercum and Richer took advantage of these new techniques to study pathological movement and gait in neurological diseases. PMID:12481476

  8. Time-lapse cinematography in living Drosophila tissues: preparation of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ilan; Parton, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been an extraordinarily successful model organism for studying the genetic basis of development and evolution. It is arguably the best-understood complex multicellular model system, owing its success to many factors. Recent developments in imaging techniques, in particular sophisticated fluorescence microscopy methods and equipment, now allow cellular events to be studied at high resolution in living material. This ability has enabled the study of features that tend to be lost or damaged by fixation, such as transient or dynamic events. Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila are shared with the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties in keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick hazy cytoplasm. This protocol outlines the preparation of major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping them alive. PMID:22485989

  9. Evaluation of diffuse-illumination holographic cinematography in a flutter cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1979, the Lewis Research Center has examined holographic cinematography for three-dimensional flow visualization. The Nd:YAG lasers used were Q-switched, double-pulsed, and frequency-doubled, operating at 20 pulses per second. The primary subjects for flow visualization were the shock waves produced in two flutter cascades. Flow visualization was by diffuse-illumination, double-exposure, and holographic interferometry. The performances of the lasers, holography, and diffuse-illumination interferometry are evaluated in single-window wind tunnels. The fringe-contrast factor is used to evaluate the results. The effects of turbulence on shock-wave visualization in a transonic flow are discussed. The depth of field for visualization of a turbulent structure is demonstrated to be a measure of the relative density and scale of that structure. Other items discussed are the holographic emulsion, tests of coherence and polarization, effects of windows and diffusers, hologram bleaching, laser configurations, influence and handling of specular reflections, modes of fringe localization, noise sources, and coherence requirements as a function of the pulse energy. Holography and diffuse illumination interferometry are also reviewed.

  10. Arthur Simons (1877-1942) and Tonic Neck Reflexes With Hemiplegic "Mitbewegungen" (Associated Reactions): Cinematography From 1916-1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Tonic neck reflexes were investigated by Rudolf Magnus and Adriaan de Kleijn in animals and men in 1912 and eventually by Arthur Simons, a neurologist in Berlin and coworker of Hermann Oppenheim. Simons studied these reflexes in hemiplegic patients, who were mainly victims of World War I. This work became his most important contribution and remained unsurpassed for many years. The film (Filmarchiv, Bundesarchiv [Film Archive, National Archive] Berlin) with Simons as an examiner shows 11 war casualties with brain lesions that occurred between 1916 and 1919. The injuries reveal asymmetric neck reflexes with "Mitbewegungen," that is, flexion or extension on the hemiplegic side. Mitbewegungen is identical with Francis Walshe's "associated reactions" caused by neck rotation and/or by cocontraction of the nonaffected extremities, for example, by closing of the fist (Walshe). The knowledge of the neck reflexes is important in acute neurology and in rehabilitation therapy of hemiplegics for antispastic positions. Simons' investigations were conducted in the early era of increasing use of cinematography in medical studies. The film had been nearly forgotten until its rediscovery in 2010. PMID:26684424

  11. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  12. Predation by the Dwarf Seahorse on Copepods: Quantifying Motion and Flows Using 3D High Speed Digital Holographic Cinematography - When Seahorses Attack!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Ed

    2008-11-01

    Copepods are an important planktonic food source for most of the world's fish species. This high predation pressure has led copepods to evolve an extremely effective escape response, with reaction times to hydrodynamic disturbances of less than 4 ms and escape speeds of over 500 body lengths per second. Using 3D high speed digital holographic cinematography (up to 2000 frames per second) we elucidate the role of entrainment flow fields generated by a natural visual predator, the dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) during attacks on its prey, Acartia tonsa. Using phytoplankton as a tracer, we recorded and reconstructed 3D flow fields around the head of the seahorse and its prey during both successful and unsuccessful attacks to better understand how some attacks lead to capture with little or no detection from the copepod while others result in failed attacks. Attacks start with a slow approach to minimize the hydro-mechanical disturbance which is used by copepods to detect the approach of a potential predator. Successful attacks result in the seahorse using its pipette-like mouth to create suction faster than the copepod's response latency. As these characteristic scales of entrainment increase, a successful escape becomes more likely.

  13. An investigation of bubble coalescence and post-rupture oscillation in non-ionic surfactant solutions using high-speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournival, G; Ata, S; Karakashev, S I; Jameson, G J

    2014-01-15

    Most processes involving bubbling in a liquid require small bubbles to maximise mass/energy transfer. A common method to prevent bubbles from coalescing is by the addition of surfactants. In order to get an insight into the coalescence process, capillary bubbles were observed using a high speed cinematography. Experiments were performed in solutions of 1-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, tri(propylene glycol) methyl ether, and poly(propylene glycol) for which information such as the coalescence time and the deformation of the resultant bubble upon coalescence was extracted. It is shown in this study that the coalescence time increases with surfactant concentration until the appearance of a plateau. The increase in coalescence time with surfactant concentration could not be attributed only to surface elasticity. The oscillation of the resultant bubble was characterised by the damping of the oscillation. The results suggested that a minimum elasticity is required to achieve an increased damping and considerable diffusion has a detrimental effect on the dynamic response of the bubble, thereby reducing the damping. PMID:24231084

  14. «SOVIET PRODUCTION FILM» AS GENRE PHENOMENON OF THE SOVIET CINEMA OF THE 1970S: CINEMATOGRAPHY SPECIFICS AND FORMAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. HRYUKIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available «Soviet production film» - a unique genre phenomenon of the Soviet cinema of the 1970th years which emergence has been caused by the cinema tradition of reflection of "a labor subject" originating in the 1920th years on the Soviet screen, and also socio-cultural realities of the time: the declared "era of scientific and technical revolution", blossoming of production dramatic art, strengthening of ideological control over cinema. Relying on ideas of the Russian formal school in the film theory (Yu. Tynyanov, V. Shklovsky, B. Eykhenbaum, the film genres which have designated fundamental problems of studying, and also on provisions of the genre film study which has developed ideas of the Russian formalists, article pursues attempt to designate structural-semantic features of "soviet production film". Existence of steady ways of cinematography decisions, an setting, an iconography, musical and sound design, significant types of characters and actor's roles, models of plots and the general ideological and thematic context connected with the social and economic and industrial sphere of life of the Soviet society allows to tell about actually cinema specifics of a «soviet production film» as film genre.

  15. Don Quijote de la Mancha: Reflexiones en torno a las relaciones cine-literatura Don Quijote de la Mancha: Reflections about the relationships between cinematography-literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ardila Rojas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de algunos aspectos de la relación cine-literatura, a partir del Don Quijote de La Mancha literario y de algunas versiones cinematográficas y televisivas realizadas en español y en inglés. Inicialmente se presentan problemas teóricos en torno a categorías que suelen serles afines: relato, autor, narración, historia, etc., para involucrar alternativamente fenómenos que, desde el punto de vista de los autores, generan ambigüedades textuales o múltiples interpretaciones en las versiones que se analizan. De este análisis comparativo que parte de los relatos en cuestión se llega finalmente a conclusiones de carácter estético e ideológico sobre los mismos.This article presents an analysis of some aspects of the relationship between cinematography and literature. Starting from the Don Quijote de La Mancha and taking into account some film and television versions developed in Spanish and English. At the beginning, a theoretical problem based on similar types for concepts categorization: author, narration, story, relat, among others will be analyzed. In addition, a connection is made with some authors' concepts in order to avoid textual ambiguity or multiple interpretations in the versions that are analyzed. Through a comparative analysis supported in these stories, it is possible to reach some aesthetic and ideological conclusions about them.

  16. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli. PMID

  17. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Ogawa

    Full Text Available The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion. Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround, 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono, 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG. The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life

  18. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers. PMID:20739661

  19. Measurement of bubble velocity in an air/water flow through a narrow gap by using high-speed cinematography; Ermittlung der Blasengeschwindigkeit einer Luft/Wasser-Spaltstroemung mit Hilfe der Hochgeschwindigkeitskinematographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, S.; Friedel, L. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    To predict the mass flow of a two phase mixture at a given pressure difference through narrow gaps, apart from the change in state of the gas phase during pressure reduction, the knowledge of the fluid dynamics on balance which occurs in the form of a relative velocity between the phases is important. These two influences were examined with the aid of high speed cinematography for a water/air bubble flow. Apart from the quick reduction in pressure due to the sudden reduction in crossection at the entry to the gap, there are no significant differences between the experimentally determined volume change in bubbles of different sizes and that calculated assuming an isothermal change in state. The mean velocity of the bubbles does not differ appreciably from that calculated assuming an homogeneous flow. [Deutsch] Zur Vorhersage des sich bei gegebener Druckdifferenz einstellenden Massenstroms eines Zweiphasengemischs durch enge Spalte ist neben der Zustandsaenderung der Gasphase waehrend der Druckabsenkung u.a. auch die Kenntnis des sich dabei einstellenden fluiddynamischen Ungleichgewichts in Form einer Relativgeschwindigkeit zwischen den Phasen von Bedeutung. Diese beiden Einfluesse wurden mit Hilfe der Hochgeschwindigkeitskinematographie fuer eine Wasser/Luft-Blasenstroemung untersucht. Abgesehen von der raschen Druckabsenkung aufgrund der ploetzlichen Querschnittsverengung im Spalteintritt treten keine nennenswerten Unterschiede zwischen den experimentell ermittelten und den unter der Annahme einer isothermen Zustandsaenderungen berechneten Volumenaenderung verschiedengrosser Blasen auf. Die mittlere Geschwindigkeit der Blasen unterscheidet sich dabei nicht wesentlich von der unter der Annahme einer homogenen Stroemung berechneten. (orig.)

  20. Investigations about the structure of the transient diesel fuel injection jet near the nozzle with the method of radio-frequency cinematography. Untersuchungen zur Struktur des instationaeren Dieseloeleinspritzstrahles im Duesennahbereich mit der Methode der Hochfrequenz-Kinematografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifler, W.

    1990-03-22

    Precise knowledge on the flow processes in interior of a fuel injector and of a diesel jet near the nozzle are required in order to reduce the pollutant emissions of a diesel engine through selective optimization of mixing. A radio-frequency cinematography system on the basis of a pulsed laser and streak camera was developed in order to make such flow processes visible. Transparent nozzle caps were used for isolation of the start parameters. The 'supercavitation' inside the nozzles, which in this way was made visible, continues far into the pressure chamber and governs the jet structure near the nozzle. The real diesel injection jet was examined subsequently systematically by different hydraulic start parameters. It was found out that in the case of all bag hole compressions that are relevant for mixing, the jet pattern is determined essentially through the protrusions resulting from implosion. First investigations about evaporation behavior pointed to a preferred ignition site in the marginal zone of the jet. (HWJ).

  1. Cinematography and Television: Differences and Similarites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Nazareth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Television and Cinema present specific behaviour and language in relation to reality. If film focuses on its proximity to artistic practices, and this reflects the viewer’s relationship with the film, television, in turn, seeks in directness or the transposition of the real to the imaginary, the key to its success, the audience. We all see the possibilities that television has for viewers. Even those most aware of the various con- straints, and who claim themselves to be not influenced, come under the hypnotic power of the television screen. The quality of the programming continues to decline, succumbing to the claim that television channels have to get into the audience “ratings”.

  2. Mystification in Czech cinematography and Czech culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA BRZEZIŃSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the issue of mystification and hoax in Czech culture. It demonstrates historical aspects of this phenomenon and, basing on the example of various cultural texts, shows that the mystification as a means of artistic expression is deeply rooted in Czech culture. Surrealistic and illogical themes that are characteristic for Czech humour are used by artists, especially filmmakers, in creating successive mystifications. The article examines films such as Oil Gobblers (1988, Year of Devil (2002, Czech Dream (2004, Jara Cimrman Lying, Sleeping (1983, in order to analyse the role of this phenomenon in both films that speak of mystification and the ones that are mystifications themselves.

  3. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  4. The Technique of Special-Effects Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Raymond

    The author describes the many techniques used to produce cinematic effects that would be too costly, too difficult, too time-consuming, too dangerous, or simply impossible to achieve with conventional photographic techniques. He points out that these techniques are available not only for 35 millimeter work but also to the 16 mm. photographer who…

  5. Estudos sobre o comportamento dos Planorbídeos: I - uma técnica de observação e registro comportamental por cinematografia Studies on the behavior of planorbids: I - a technique for behavioral observation and recording by use of cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio S. Pieri

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma técnica envolvendo cinematografia com lapso de tempo foi elaborada para o estudo da atividade comportamental dos planorbídeos em condições de laboratório. As observações realizam-se em uma câmara dotada de ciclo de iluminação dia-noite, e os registros são feitos com uma filmadora super-8, operada quadro a quadro, sob luz de flash estroboscópico. Essa técnica tem permitido mensurações rigorosas de diferentes aspectos do comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818, e pode ser utilizada na análise do nível de resposta dos planorbídeos aos moluscicidas, em testes experimentais, e dos comportamentos de proteção frente a condições adversas em geral.A technique involving time-lapse cinematography was developed for studying the behavioral repertoire of planorbids in laboratory conditions. Observations were carried out within a chamber with controlled light and temperature; recording was done by single frame shooting at 10 second intervals, with synchronized strobed flash. This technique has allowed accurate measurements of different aspects of the activity of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, and can be useful in analysing the level of response of planorbids to molluscicides, in experimental tests, as well as their protective behavior under general adverse conditions.

  6. Analysing Janusz Kaminski's cinematography based on selected movies

    OpenAIRE

    Rumanóczki, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to analyse the artistic and technical points of the work of Polish cinematographer Janusz Kaminski. Three movies were selected from his filmography, all of them were directed by Steven Spielberg. The movies were analysed with the intention to find the trademarks thatKaminski used during his career. In addition, the technical details of making movies, what does a crew do and what equipment they use, were studied.

  7. Peripheral cinematographies in the global distribution system: structural tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josetxo Cerdán Los Arcos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an approach to the critical discourses that are generated in the film distribution processes, and it focusses its analysis on the case of minority, peripheral and quality-orientated cinemas. While much is known about the processes through whichthe so-called commercial films arrive in movie theatres, there are few studies that delve into the distribution conditions of minority cinemas (as if their distribution process could come about in a naturalised way, due to these theatres’ goodness. Nothing could be further from the truth. The circulation of these films originates from very concrete representations, which emanate from some specific centres, and they are the ones that end up configuring the terrain of uses and abuses for the consumption of these films.

  8. Possibilities of rotating drums in ultra-high-speed cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study shows that it is possible to produce a drum rotating at a peripheral speed of 500m/s. A prototype has actually reached this speed and confirmed the feasibility of the system. It is driven by an electric motor and is made of titanium covered with boron fibres. The main performances to be expected of cameras (whole-image, slit or spectrographic) using such a drum is described

  9. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  10. High-speed cinematography of gas-metal atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [ALCOA Specialty Metals Division, 100 Technical Drive, Alcoa Center, PA 15069 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.ting@alcoa.com; Connor, Jeffery [Material Science Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Ridder, Stephen [Metallurgical Processing Group, NIST, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8556, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2005-01-15

    A high-speed cinematographic footage of a 304L stainless steel gas atomization, recorded at the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST), was analyzed using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The analysis showed the gas atomization process possesses two prominent frequency ranges of melt oscillation (pulsation). A low-frequency oscillation in the melt flow occurring between 5.41 and 123 Hz, with a dominant frequency at 9.93 Hz, was seen in the recirculation zone adjacent to the melt orifice. A high-frequency melt oscillation range was observed above 123 Hz, and was more prominent one melt-tip-diameter downstream in the melt atomization image than upstream near the melt tip. This high-frequency range may reflect the melt atomization frequency used to produce finely atomized powder. This range also included a prominent high frequency at 1273 Hz, which dominated in the image further away downstream from the melt tip. This discrete high-frequency oscillation is most probably caused by the aeroacoustic ''screech'' phenomenon, intrasound (<20 kHz), a result of the atomizing gas jets undergoing flow resonance. It is hypothesized that this discrete intrinsic aeroacoustic tone may enhance melt breakup in the atomization process with evidence of this fact in the melt images.

  11. Application Of Biomechanics Cinematography To The Study Of Sports And Industrial Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagenhoef, Stanley

    1982-02-01

    A personal history of biomechanical analyses from motion pictures is presented. The areas of work are of total body motions of athletes in many sports, analysis of work-related injuries in industry, measurements of synthetic turfs, diagnosis of muscular imbalance, and animal motion. A film presentation illustrates each of these areas.The filming and analysing of any motion should produce data that has practical applications. This means taking measured data, interpreting it properly, and then using the information to actually obtain useful results. The practical application of data obtained from the high speed filming of humans and animals is presented here.

  12. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  13. [Auguste Lumière (1862-1943). Cinematography...and microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Auguste Lumière was the most inventive of the two brothers in the area of therapeutics and pharmacology. In 1896 he created his laboratory of experimental physiology where he discovered some organo-metallic derivatives active against syphilis, the oral vaccination against typhoid, vaseline gauze against burns. Unselfish amateur or real scientist he was a self-taught man who expended a lot of industrial activity even on erroneous scientific bases as he publicly refused the phenomenon of tuberculosis contagion in 1930. PMID:20527330

  14. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C.P.J. [University of California, Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science, Urey Hall, Mali Code 0339, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  15. 电影艺术摘记%Notes on the Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗贝尔·布莱松; 单万里; 杨红鹂

    2001-01-01

    @@ [译者前言]谈布莱松,不可不论他的.这本凝聚着作者20多年心血与智慧的著作,犹如一本圣哲箴言,启迪着众多的电影艺术工作者.原作最初出版于1 975年,后来再三印制,并被译成多种文字,遗憾的是我国尚未有完整的中文译本.在纪念布莱松逝世周年之际,我们将这本不足两万言的著作全部译出(根据法国加利玛出版社2000年的重印本翻译).

  16. We await for the F¨uhrer’s orders: the Nazi perversion in cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Frigeri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the ideological and intertextual parallels between Triumph of the Will, the movie, produced by Leni Riefenstahl and the book Mein Kampf, by Adolf Hitler. Triumph of the Will is the film registry of the National Socialist Party in 1934, at the city of Nuremberg and Mein Kampf was written by Hitler in 1924 while He was in jail; the book aims to guide the members of the Nazi party. For this, the research resumes History by the Nazi’s rise using authors like Elias Canetti (1995 and Hannah Arendt (1989; we also study German film production by Siegrief Kracauer (1988. After, this work investigates the movies made by Riefenstahl from Ray Müller’s documentary (1993, and also by the book from Steven Bach (2008 and Riefenstahl’s autobiography (1991. This research constitutes as metodology the books by Mikhail Bakhtin (2010, Robert Stam (1992 and Jacques Durand (1973, to make the movie’s découpage we use Laurent Jullier and Michel Marie (2009. We separated sixteen movie scenes and they were compared between each other to investigate if the movie was made to be seen by all of the german people, to convince them about the Nazi’s ideal – originally present and described in Mein Kampf.

  17. CITY, COUNTRYSIDE AND NATURE AS DISCURSIVE DEVICES USED TO STRENGTHEN THE NATIONAL IDENTITY IN ICELANDIC CINEMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sebastian Konefał

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception the Icelandic film industry has used the strategy of combining telluric elements with national- istic narratives. In many films one may also find visual structures that can be linked with the ‘tourist gaze’ – the term as we know it from the texts of John Urry. Despite a focus on some unique qualities of Icelandic nature and its cultural heritage (that can be attractive to foreign viewers the specificity of cinematic production processes on the island belong to the structure of local, national cinema. Moreover, the 1980s, considered as the time of the rebirth of the Icelandic film industry and its rapid modernization, are full of films containing conservative or leftist telluric topics which are difficult for foreign audiences to understand. A new, transnational quality of Icelandic film features began with the film debut of Friðrik Þór Friðriksson in 1987. His fusion of modernist and postmodernist plots has encouraged other filmmakers to start the process of re-interpretation of the classic narrative structures, and to render the ironic demystification of some nationalistic themes.

  18. Cine-servo lens technology for 4K broadcast and cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurishi, Ryuji; Wakazono, Tsuyoshi; Usui, Fumiaki

    2015-09-01

    Central to the rapid evolution of 4K image capture technology in the past few years, deployment of large-format cameras with Super35mm Single Sensors is increasing in TV production for diverse shows such as dramas, documentaries, wildlife, and sports. While large format image capture has been the standard in the cinema world for quite some time, the recent experiences within the broadcast industry have revealed a variety of requirement differences for large format lenses compared to those of the cinema industry. A typical requirement for a broadcast lens is a considerably higher zoom ratio in order to avoid changing lenses in the middle of a live event, which is mostly not the case for traditional cinema productions. Another example is the need for compact size, light weight, and servo operability for a single camera operator shooting in a shoulder-mount ENG style. On the other hand, there are new requirements that are common to both worlds, such as smooth and seamless change in angle of view throughout the long zoom range, which potentially offers new image expression that never existed in the past. This paper will discuss the requirements from the two industries of cinema and broadcast, while at the same time introducing the new technologies and new optical design concepts applied to our latest "CINE-SERVO" lens series which presently consists of two models, CN7x17KAS-S and CN20x50IAS-H. It will further explain how Canon has realized 4K optical performance and fast servo control while simultaneously achieving compact size, light weight and high zoom ratio, by referring to patent-pending technologies such as the optical power layout, lens construction, and glass material combinations.

  19. Study for Digital Cinematography%数字电影摄制技术研究(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军

    2004-01-01

    电影历来是采用胶片和摄影机拍摄的,但是,从电影《星战前传Ⅱ:克隆人进攻》开始,电影制作人正在尝试用数字电影摄影机进行电影的拍摄。这部电影完全采用数字格式记录,是世界上第一部真人表演的没用胶片拍摄的电影。事实上,从电影业开始采用数字技术以来,数字技术就不断对传统胶片电影的制作提出挑战。今天,数字技术无疑已

  20. GLORIFICATION OF RUSSIAN CONSPIRATORS IN RUSSIAN AND EARLY SOVIET CINEMATOGRAPHY: THE IMAGE OF S. G. NECHAEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Dogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In her Paper, Dunja Dogo aims to show how one specific historical character as well as radical revolu­tionist, S. G. Nechaev, was treated in «Дворец кре­пость» («The Palace and the Fortress», 1924—the first Soviet full-length fictional films on Russian Populists and directed by A. V. Ivanovsky for the Leningrad State cinematographic production «Sevzapkino». The screenplay of this film was written by the prominent historian and man of letters P. E. Shchiogolev, who made use of newly available archival material for the purpose of featuring history for the masses.One key question shall guide Dogo's Paper: in this cinematic text, through which narrative devices were the stories of the recent revolutionary past re­organised and reinterpreted in relation to the projects predominating in the Soviet post-re­v­o­lu­ti­o­nary present?

  1. The Study of Mu Deyuan's Film Cinematography%穆德远影像风格研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茵

    2016-01-01

    穆德远的身份标签有很多重,他似乎一直在摄影师、导演、编剧之间转换.不知不觉中,穆德远已经在他热爱的电影时光中摸爬滚打探索了三十多个年头.他既有学院派摄影对原则与规范的讲究与坚持,同时又在自己每一部作品中探索变革与创新的可能.在大时代辗转变迁的洪流之下,穆德远不断追寻属于自己的独特光影之美、色彩之美、运动之美,构建属于自己的影像造型语言体系,总是能为自己的影片寻找到一种最为准确自然、细腻恰切的影像表达方式和光影韵味,给人们留下了许多斑斓各异又弥足珍贵的光影记忆.

  2. “双影互动”的技术视野%Technical View of "Interaction of Photography and Cinematography"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐竟涵

    2015-01-01

    “双影互动”这一图片摄影和电影两大媒介交融互渗的艺术现象,很多时候是以新技术、新设备作为支撑的.比如,某些影片中出现的“延时摄影”“子弹时间”,就是在技术平台上图片摄影影响电影创作的绝佳范例.本文介绍了若干“双影互动”的技术实例,剖析它们在形式感、时空观念方面的创新,以便于读者对两种媒介融合互动的可能性有更深入的思考,从而创造出更丰富的视觉心理体验.

  3. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  4. The Dream of Digital Cinematography Camera%数字摄影机之梦(连载4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2009-01-01

    @@ 处理 数字拍摄时成像器件把光学图像转换成电子图像,经过处理后把数字化的图像数据记录在存储媒介上.因此,数字摄影机的图像质量不但与拍摄环节的因素有关,还与处理和记录这两个环节的因素有关.

  5. The of Digital Cinematography Camera%数字摄影机之梦 (连载3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2009-01-01

    @@ 4.宽容度、灵敏度和信噪比 宽容度是曝光宽容度的简称,表示拍摄高光比画面的能力,灵敏度也叫感光度,表示低照度拍摄的能力,信噪比则是对画面中图像与噪波比例的描述,三者相互关联,都与成像器件的性能有关,是图像质量的重要组成部分.

  6. 数字摄影机之梦(连载2)%The Dream of Digital Cinematography Camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2009-01-01

    @@ 怎样使数字摄影机达剑35mm胶片的拍摄质量 经过一百多年的发展,基于胶片的摄影技术已经达到了近乎完美的程度,为摄影行业树立了高质量图像的标准.数码相机刚刚出现的时候专业摄影师对数码图像很不满意,认为其质量与35mm胶片相差甚远.对数码照片质量的早期关注重点是清晰度,之后关注的焦点转移到了宽容度,景深范围等方面.全画幅单反数码相机出现后数码图像的质量开始全面达到了35mm胶片的水平,专业摄影师对数码图像质量的抱怨逐渐消失,现在即使是最保守的摄影师也开始放弃胶片转向了数字拍摄.

  7. 数字摄影机之梦(连载1)%The Dream of Digital Cinematography Camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2009-01-01

    数字化浪潮席卷全球,我们熟悉的模拟技术和产品一个接一个地被数字技术和产品替代,电影也不例外。已经有百年历史的电影从拍摄、制作到放映过去都是在胶片上完成的,如今数字中间片工艺已经成为好莱坞电影制作的标准流程,数字放映机和数字摄影机也进入了影院和拍摄现场。数字化使电影从它的诞生母体加速脱离,无胶片电影正在从梦想变成现实。

  8. The Study of Hou Yong's Film Cinematography%纪实之真与戏剧之魂——侯咏电影摄影风格探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志丹; 王雨栽

    2016-01-01

    在中国当代摄影师中,侯咏电影摄影是一个独特的存在.他不仅能以汪洋恣肆的影像之水墨泼洒出戏剧风格的电影之画,也能用平实敦厚的摄影机之笔描绘出写实风格的质朴诗篇.在两种风格的辗转变换中,不难看出,贯穿始终的是创作者对形式与内容之间依存关系的独到见解.在不断的创作实践创作中,侯咏建立了兼容并济的视觉体系.

  9. 浮华背后的隐忧——2009年中国电影摄影评述%Review of Cinematography 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆德远

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2009年是中国电影的又一个丰收年,产量提高,票房看张,一些年轻导演的影片后来居上,取得不蜚业绩,电影市场超乎想象的繁荣.从投资规模看,2009年电影呈现出一种相对良性的态势,4000万~8000万人民币的中等投资影片较往年增多,这也是电影产业规模化的表现.但很多时候,电影的翻作水准与投资规模,票房回报并不绝对成正比,与电影市场的繁荣景象相佐的是,中国电影的制作水准并没相应的提升,从摄影创作的角度看,甚至出现了某种程度的退步.

  10. On the Strategy of Cinematography Education in China%中国摄影教育应对策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐东平

    2010-01-01

    中国的摄影教育与世界摄影教育体系共生,不过发展较为迟缓.但新时代数字化技术的普及,各种新技术的共享,给中国摄影教育带来了一个前所未有的发展良机.我国自身的摄影教育体制还不够完善,还有许许多多必须应对的问题,而如何应对,采取什么样的策略,则是对我们新时期摄影教育工作者面对的一次严峻考验.从培养人才的目标制定,到具体课程的设置,以及摄影教师的自我重塑,本文的探讨,意在为现今摄影教学的改革提供些许的依据与方向.

  11. Hollywood Cinematography Art: Tradition And Development%好莱坞电影摄影艺术:传统与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍玉珩; 张一平; 郝冰

    2008-01-01

    好莱坞电影自诞生时刻开始,就特别重视电影摄影艺术和技术.在好莱坞,电影摄影师是光的艺术家,他们是在用光代替画笔在电影胶片上进行作画的画家,与画家不同的是电影摄影师的作品,不是展览在美术馆和画廊内的大众可以观看欣赏的画作,而是制作在电影胶卷上的负片,到洗印车间冲洗后印制出可以放映的正片.在好莱坞,电影摄影师的地位很高,人们更喜欢称他为"摄影导演",他同导演一样是一部电影作品的最直接的,最主要的创作者.

  12. Flash X-ray cinematography analysis of dwell and penetration of small caliber projectiles with three types of SiC ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Strassburger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of ceramic composite armor it is essential to know the mechanisms during each phase of the projectile–target interaction and their influence on the penetration resistance. Since the view on the crater zone and the tip of a projectile penetrating a ceramic is rapidly getting obscured by damaged material, a flash X-ray technique has to be applied in order to visualize projectile penetration. For this purpose, usually several flash X-ray tubes are arranged around the target and the radiographs are recorded on film. At EMI a flash X-ray imaging method has been developed, which provides up to eight flash radiographs in one experiment. A multi-anode 450 kV flash X-ray tube is utilized with this method. The radiation transmitted through the target is then detected on a fluorescent screen. The fluorescent screen converts the radiograph into an image in the visible wavelength range, which is photographed by means of a high-speed camera. This technique has been applied to visualize and analyze the penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles into three different types of SiC ceramics. Two commercial SiC grades and MICASIC (Metal Infiltrated Carbon derived SiC, a C-SiSiC ceramic developed by DLR, have been studied. The influences, not only of the ceramic but also the backing material, on dwell time and projectile erosion have been studied. Penetration curves have been determined and their relevance to the ballistic resistance is discussed.

  13. 虚拟3D摄影移轴技术研究%Off-Axis Technology of Virtual 3D Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙略

    2010-01-01

    虚拟3D摄影技术指计算机动画制作系统中用于拍摄三维场景以获取立体数字影像的技术.一般情况下,3D摄影系统中双机的主轴需要形成汇聚才能产生立体视觉效果,在真实3D摄影系统中,通常以旋转(Toe In)摄影机的方式形成汇聚.在虚拟3D摄影系统中,由于虚拟摄影机的特殊性质,可以通过移轴(Off Axis)技术形成汇聚.移轴技术可以消除普通3D摄影技术不可避免的梯形变形以及清晰度差异,提高3D影像的质量.本文在分析梯形变形与清晰度差异产生原理的基础上,对虚拟3D摄影系统的移轴控制技术进行讨论,进一步分析如何通过移轴技术消除垂直视差与清晰度差异,从而在理论上证明移轴技术是更为理想的3D摄影控制技术,并最终提出在真实3D摄影系统中引入移轴技术的设想.

  14. 中国电影摄影发展史(1905~1949)%The Evolution of Chinese Cinematography(1905~1949)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国恩

    2005-01-01

    @@ 中国人看到电影,或说电影进入中国,并不比最早的电影生产国晚许久.大概在1896年后,中国就开始放映电影,而我国生产电影,特别是独立生产影片,摄影师自己独立拍摄影片确比其它国家晚许多年.约在1905年,丰泰照相馆的照相师刘仲伦拍摄了由谭鑫培主演的一片.是中国第一部电影.刘仲伦是中国第一位摄影师.之后,中国许多电影都是由外侨摄影师拍摄的.

  15. 跨世纪中国电影艺术与商业观念辨析%Distinction between Cinematography and the Commercial Concept in China across the Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周星

    2002-01-01

    世纪之交,电影艺术与商业的冲突似乎水火不容,在承认商业重要性的同时,必须看到电影的艺术价值是商业实现的内在基础,正如商业是艺术价值实现的助力一样.电影艺术不能排斥商业,但艺术旗帜必须高扬.

  16. 超高清数字摄影技术在电视系统中的应用%Application of UHD Digital Cinematography Technology in TV System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军

    2015-01-01

    随着4K视频技术发展,大画幅超高清数字成像技术开始投入电视节目制作.针对不同形态节目的需求,研究有别于电影模式的4K电视制作工艺,对于促进超高清电视技术的应用,具有重要意义.本文对近两年来电影电视制作中逐步普及的摄制设备的技术性能做一梳理,旨在对4K制作设备选型和有待研究的问题提出自己的看法.

  17. 浅论摄影创作中场面气氛的营造%On Building the Atmosphere for Scene by Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁厚斌

    2009-01-01

    在摄影创作实践中,作为视觉表达主要设计者和实现者的摄影师,承担着重要的技术和艺术的任务.国内外优秀的摄影师无不在场面气氛营造方面下功夫,这也是衡量一个撮影师创作水准的极为重要的标尺.

  18. The Study of Zhao Xiaoshi's Film Cinematography%追寻那一抹时代的气息——赵晓时电影摄影研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力; 李乐雅

    2016-01-01

    无论是早期写实主义的《绝响》《寡妇村》,还是后来商业电影的《麦田》《建国大业》《建党伟业》;无论人物传记风格的《梅兰芳》,还是“大广告片”《私人订制》,摄影师赵晓时的影像风格一直那么平实、沉厚,不刻意炫技,以追求真实的画面感受作为影像创作的一个重要原则.但不炫技不代表没有设计,赵晓时总有些镜头看似清新自然,细较之下却包含了很多刻意为之的元素与成分,这是广告摄影融于他血液后的产物.人文艺术片如此,“大广告片’如此,主旋律电影也是如此,那就是:追寻影片整体的风貌,追寻那一抹特殊的气息与氛围.这是他在拍摄每一部电影前必须规划的蓝图,也是其影像序列的整体风貌与气质.

  19. The Breakthrough of Cinematography in New Hollywood Films%新好莱坞电影摄影创作的突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许斌; 赵垣

    2016-01-01

    20世纪40年代末以来,美国在经济、政治、社会整体思潮等方面都发生了变化,因而美国好莱坞电影机制也开始转型.本文首先论述产业方面好莱坞摆脱陈旧模式、摄影创作发展与借鉴欧洲新浪潮的深远影响,继而阐述用光观念中戏剧光效转变为自然光效这一主要变化,并介绍因变焦镜头和斯泰尼康等设备的出现摄影运动手段的发展,最后以犯罪片和战争片为例阐释视觉形式的突破.

  20. LED影视灯具的特点及应用现状%Characteristic and application status of LED lighting in the field of cinematography and television

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京池

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 LED影视灯具的发展 1.1发展影视灯具的意义 照明耗电在各个国家的总发电量中占有很大比例,我国照明耗电大体占全国总发电量10~1296.根据中华人民共和国2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报(2010年2月25日公布),2009年我国总发电量为37146.5亿千瓦时(度),照明耗电按全国总发电量1096计,达3714.7亿度,为三峡水力发电工程年发电能力(847亿度)的4.39倍左右.

  1. Seeing V.S.Sensing: The Comparative Study of Handheld Cinematography and Steadicam Cinematography%“看到”与“感受到”——手持摄影画面与斯坦尼康摄影画面的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    手持摄影和斯坦尼康摄影是电影创作者在追寻摄影机的自由运动进程中逐步发展、完善的两大拍摄手法.手持摄影作为一种直接的运动手法,往往给观者一种纪录片式的真实感,从电影化叙事的角度讲,它的画面更为主观,更能体现创作者的创作意图,强调的是创作者的意愿;斯坦尼康摄影则以稳定见长,画面相对客观,从形式上看,它最大的特点就是可以在连续的时间段内较为完整地再现叙事空间,从而增强影像的真实感,它更多强调的是叙事本身.

  2. 76 FR 69700 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Facilities as well as Commercial Photography and Cinematography at the U.S. Arboretum. OMB Control Number... cinematography. Need and Use of the Information: USNA officials will collect the information using...

  3. 76 FR 53397 - Notice of Intent To Renew Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... facilities, as well as for commercial photography and cinematography. Fees generated will be used to defray... and Facilities as well as Commercial Photography and Cinematography. OMB Number: 0518-0032. Expiration... USNA for commercial photography and cinematography. All rules and regulations noted in 7 CFR...

  4. Le Centre National de la Cinématographie: articulations du postcommunisme roumain

    OpenAIRE

    Arhire, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Endorsing the perspective of democratization studies, this article examines the postcommunism itinerary of the institutional infrastructure of Romanian cinematography. Special emphasis is given to the National Center of Cinematography (NCC) as a privileged locus disclosing both the commerce between institutional continuity and change, and the predicaments of cinematography, squeezed between market and state control.

  5. Making Storms--A Introduction on the Cinematography of the Film Master ond Commander%风暴的诞生--影片《怒海争锋:极地远征》摄影工作介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军

    2004-01-01

    @@ 第76届奥斯卡最佳摄影奖的获奖影片是一部描述19世纪上叶拿破仑时期海战的大片.罗素·克洛(Russell Crowe)在影片中饰演一个号称"幸运船长"的我行我素的英军船长杰克·奥伯瑞(Jack Aubrey),保罗·贝塔尼(Paul Bettany)饰演医生斯蒂芬·马突林(Stephen Maturin).

  6. 技娴艺湛相得为文--论吴印咸的艺术道路及其电影摄影%Wu Yinxian's Artistic Career and His Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少白

    2005-01-01

    @@ 在百年中国电影史上,电影摄影艺术家行列中,吴印咸是十分突出的一位.他一生跋涉近一个世纪,跨越了民国和共和国两个时代.他对于左翼电影运动的开展,解放区人民电影的创立,新中国电影事业和电影教育事业的建设,都有重大贡献;尤其是在摄影和电影摄影的创作上,更是取得了长久不衰、永志青春的卓越成就.

  7. 从美剧《老友记》析影视的场景设计%Friends:An Analytical Insight into the Scene Design in Art of Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋真

    2007-01-01

    针对肥皂剧《老友记》被众多中国青年作为当代都市生活模本的现象,以影视美术造型理论为解码器,从场景感染力、造型语言、场景风格化与图式化四个方面,通过对其场景设计的精妙进行层层破译,从而深悟影视场景艺术的创作之道.

  8. A Brief on the Cinematography of Film and TV Advertisements:the Function of Mobile Shooting Equipments%浅谈汽车类影视广告的摄影创作运动器材表现篇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐虹; 罗征宇; 刘娟

    2007-01-01

    @@ 汽车在中国发展成为大众能接受的商品,时间不算很长.早期的车类广告制作思路与一般的家电类产品相仿,这阶段的车类影视广告自然是以展示车的外形、颜色、类别这些最为基本的属性为主.

  9. 开创先河、享誉当代的俄罗斯国立电影学院%A Pioneer:Introduction to Today's Russian State Institute of Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红英

    2007-01-01

    电影在20世纪内被确立、发展、完善为独立的艺术种类和工业行业,相应地,电影领域的专业教育活动也是在20世纪内才兴起和发展起来的。在全世界的范围内,公认的开创电影专业教育先河并享有很高威望的机构是俄罗斯的国立电影学院。

  10. 视觉经验的共识--实现电影摄影造型表意的桥梁%Consensus of Visual Experience—A Bridge to Realize the Shape and Expression of Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇华

    2004-01-01

    @@ 表意是电影符号学术语.它是一个语义学概念.说明抽象概念或具体事物与用来表现抽象概念或具体事物的语言之间的关系.在符号学中,指能指系统和所指系统构成的表达含义的功能.也是结构语言学中一个核心概念.电影符号学的学者们认为,注重研究符号的表意功能,确定能指(电影表达手段)与所指(影片含义)的关系,深入探讨表意的结构,是电影符号学的根本任务.表意必然是有系统的编码过程.

  11. 摄影系"造型艺术构思"课程的实践教学探讨%The Practical Education System of Cinematography Department: Based on a Case Study of Advanced Art Design Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林韬

    2010-01-01

    "造型艺术构思"课的是摄影系的专业基础课,在加强传统电影摄影教学的同时,强化视觉创作观念方面的教学.本文探讨了本课程的教学目的、任务、思路,以及主要技术要求,作业点评方式,并结合学生作业实例和学期创作设置进行分析说明,如何在实践教学过程中,集中所有注意力全面解决影像内部的问题.

  12. Safeguard the Movies' Pure Artistry--On Robert Bresson's Concept of Artistic Cinematography%捍卫电影艺术的纯粹性--初识布莱松电影艺术观念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单万里

    2001-01-01

    在新旧世纪交替的世界影坛,罗贝尔·布莱松无疑是人们谈论最多的老导演之一.1901-1999,他的一生与20世纪相始终;2000-2001,名副其实的"布莱松双年".纪念这位电影艺术大师逝世周年的活动尚未落下帷幕,人们又迎来了他的百年诞辰.许多国家的电影艺术工作者都举行了纪念活动,法国有关方面更是适时组织了布莱松电影艺术作品全球大巡展,今年1月在北京举办的布莱松电影艺术作品回顾展就是这次大巡展的一部分.多年来,我国影界基本上是只闻布莱松其名而很少看到他的作品,这次回顾展多少弥补了这项缺憾.在长期的电影艺术实践中,布莱松不仅创造了独特的电影艺术作品,而且形成了独特的电影艺术观念,这些观念既反映在他的影片中,也体现在他留给世人的唯一著作--中,下面这篇文章是对这本著作的初步读解.

  13. 黑白影像再现红色年代--影片《张思德》摄影艺术赏析%Reshaping the Red Era in Black and White:On the Cinematography of "Zhang Side"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇镭

    2004-01-01

      在毛主席的演讲发表60周年的重要日子里,尹力导演的大型革命历史故事片带着我们回到了从前革命的岁月中.影片以一个普通士兵的经历向人们述说着那个年代特有的简朴而珍贵的人文精神,述说着那个年代人们对于信仰和理想的追求.……

  14. 弦外有余音的影像诗人——梁明电影影像风格研究%The Study of Liang Ming's Film Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高薇; 匡晓彤

    2016-01-01

    作为我国的第五代电影导演、摄影师,梁明在影像造型上有自己独到的见解,并一以贯之于他所拍摄的影片中,精准的影像控制力、造型的深厚功底和对电影语言的追求,使他能够迁想妙得地获得至纯的色彩表达、至真的细节呈现、至幻的空间展示、至美的画面构成,与此同时,深厚的生活积淀,长期的从教经历和理论研究,使他透彻地理解电影艺术的境界不在于事物的模写正确,而在于意味的有效传达,他在用无限诗意来传达不可言说的袅袅余音.

  15. 瞬间完成的电影梦——观念摄影中的“电影情结”%Second-Realized Film Dream: Film Complex in Concept Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁艳华

    2015-01-01

    随着摄影技术的开发与更新,“观念摄影”艺术家们传达个人主观观念的欲望也同样地强烈起来,并且为摄影提供了更多的可能性,开发出了另外一种新的摄影功能——“造像”功能,呈现出具有一种超现实、虚拟、梦幻外壳形式下的艺术真实.当现实的片段完全不能够承载自己要传达的意念,越来越多的图片摄影师开始借助于导演身份的创作手法满足他们的愿望——像拍电影一样去拍照片.摄影师凭借个人主观创造出具有可视性的“客观现实世界”,并且采用摄影的方式进行影像记录,这样的观看方式,无论从哪个层面,都被支配于摄影者本身,这与电影导演呈现的时空不谋而合.

  16. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Jacob K. Javits Fellowship Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... composition, music literature, studio arts (including photography), television, film, cinematography, theater arts, playwriting, screenwriting, acting, and dance. The selected fields in the humanities are:...

  17. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  18. La Comedia de Magia y los efectos visuales de la era pre-cinematográfica en el siglo XIX en Chile The Comedy of Magic and the Visual Effects of the Pre-cinematography Era in the XIX Century in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Maturana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available «A través de la revisión bibliográfica, principalmente de diarios, revistas y afiches de espectáculos presentados en el siglo XIX en Santiago y otras ciudades chilenas, se configura un conjunto de obras y grupos teatrales, principalmente compañías europeas, que utilizaron efectos pre-cinematográficos para mostrar mundos escénicos vinculados a las transformaciones mágicas en vivo, producidas por efectos ópticos de proyección lumínica. Estos espectáculos tuvieron vigencia durante todo el siglo analizado. Lideraba el uso de estos efectos en la puesta en escena la Comedia de Magia. Este género, considerado como parte del fin del Barroco en Europa, tuvo su fundamento principal en la tramoya y la magia escénica. Luego, estos espectáculos desaparecieron del ámbito teatral, siendo absorbidos sus efectos ópticos por el lenguaje del cine.Through the bibliographic review of newspapers, magazines and announcements posted during the XIX Century in Santiago and other Chilean cities, it can be seen that a number of plays and some artistic groups, mainly European theater companies, used pre-cinematographic effects on stage to show how theatrical sceneries linked to live magical transformations produced by light-projected optical effects. These plays were showed throughout the whole analyzed century. Optical effects led their scenery. This genre, considered as part of the end of European baroque, had as main foundation both stage machinery and stage magic. With time, these shows disappeared from the stages since they were assimilated by the optical language of Cinema.

  19. 以色列电影的侧面--学生电影、电影教育和电影市场%the Side Face of Israeli Movies--the Movies Produced by the Students, the Movie's Market and the Cinematography Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军

    2001-01-01

    本文旨在通过对以色列学生电影短片成就、以色列电影教育以及以色列电影市场的情况介绍,使大家对光艳的以色列电影文化的成长基础有一个背景的了解.文章简要分析了此次在北京电影学院展映的5部以色列学生电影短片的风格和题材特点,介绍了以色列萨姆·斯皮尔伯格电影艺术学院的办学和学生短片创作的情况,同时对以色列的电影工业现状做了一个粗略扫描.

  20. 数字技术与电影空间——由奥斯卡摄影奖入围影片看数字技术对电影空间的影响%The Influence of Digital Technology on Film Space from the Finalists of Academy Award for Best Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    在电影技术的时间轴上,自20世纪80年代起,数字技术就已开始被广泛使用于电影制作中,而2000年是数字摄影机问世并真正投入电影拍摄的坐标点.数字摄影手段的加盟,加之变形宽银幕技术、3D摄影的再次兴起和虚拟现实(VR)技术的迅速发展,为电影摄影提供了丰富多样的手段选择,更成为电影空间构成的强大技术后盾.近年来,好莱坞电影的题材不断拓展,历史、现实、未来,梦境、心理、外太空,无不被纳入电影空间的呈现范畴.本文将以2000-2016年间部分奥斯卡最佳摄影奖入围影片所构成的序列为时间轴,以其中的部分影片为例,探讨数字手段对电影空间存在形式的改变,并分析影片创作过程中的技术使用与电影空间的选择趋向.

  1. 专才培养模式下的个体全面成长——从"先力奖"看摄影系实践教学%The Practical Education System of Cinematography Department: Based on A Case Study of "Cinerent Award"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆德远

    2010-01-01

    面对学生作业,如何在鼓励学生保持创作个性的同时,让他们明白电影不是自说自话的表达,而是一种大众艺术形式,需要接受市场的考验,是摆在摄影系教师面前的课题.摄影系自2002年起,针对毕业班学生作业创办了"学生电影创作先力奖",并联络电影界的一线电影制作人来担当评委,意在用业界顶尖人物的观点和评价来激励学生的创作热情、引导他们的创作方向.本文总结了"先力奖"创办以来,摄影系实践教学的经验和收获,以供交流.

  2. 中华人民共和国国家标准供电视播放用影片安全画面范围的位置和尺寸%Cinematography-Safe picture areas for motion-picture films for television -Position and dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ 前言 本标准修改采用了ISO 1223:1993. 本标准是对GB/T 5301-1985的修订,本次修订维持原标准的主要部分不变,由于原标准的名称不能准确反映该标准的实际用途,故改为现名.

  3. 加强电影技术标准工作,促进电影产业跨越式发展--在2004年全国电影技术工作暨电影专业委员会七届一次会议上的发言%Strengthening Cinematography Standardization Promoting Film Industrial Striding Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李枢平

    2004-01-01

    @@ 电影得以百年的发展,其基本保障就是有一套全球统一的技术标准系列.100年来传统电影无论在前期拍摄、后期制作还是在发行、放映各个环节都已形成了统一的技术标准系列,指导和规范着电影制作、加工、发行和放映的整个过程,使全球电影节目和设备具有良好的交互性.

  4. 数字技术对电影摄影创作产生了哪些影响?电影摄影师曹郁访谈%What Impact Has Digital Technology Brought upon Cinematography?——An Interview with Cinematographer Cao Yu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    《数字影像质量探究》课题组

    2007-01-01

    @@ 曹郁,1997年毕业于北京电影学院摄影系,现任北京电影制片厂摄影师.1996年,拍摄(学生作品),获戛纳青年电影基金会评委会大奖;2002年,拍摄,获瑞士洛伽诺电影节评委会大奖;2004年,拍摄,获金马奖最佳摄影奖、金鸡电影节最佳摄影奖提名,影片获金马奖最佳影片、金鸡奖最佳影片、东京电影节评委会大奖.

  5. Nacionalismus a antisemitismus v české kinematografii v období druhé republiky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednařík, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2009), s. 145-149. ISSN 1803-876X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : nationalism * anti- semitism * Czech cinematography Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  6. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  7. 7 CFR 500.20 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations noted in 7 CFR 500, subpart A—Conduct on the U.S. National Arboretum Property, will apply to... for the use of the USNA for commercial photography and cinematography. Fees generated will be used...

  8. We Are Not Vidiots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Grant

    1990-01-01

    Presents arguments in support of public library acquisition of videos. Some potential benefits for children and adults of watching videos are cited, e.g., learning about good acting, screenwriting, cinematography, directing, music, and good literature. (MES)

  9. The editor

    OpenAIRE

    Hainstock, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Section on editing and post-production Cinematography is the art and craft of visualizing and recording the moving image. The cinematographer therefore has to use their technical and creative skills to photographically capture the mood of the film and the vision of the director. Done properly, they add the magic and depth to a film, giving it a defining edge. This practical book explains the principles behind cinematography, as well as the skills of the cinematographer. Having described...

  10. Close encounters Brazil and Argentina: Adhemar Gonzaga in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Autran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relations between the cinematography of Argentina and the cinematography of Brazil in the 1930s and 1940s, with the central axis Adhemar Gonzaga’s visit to Buenos Aires in 1934 and the contacts established there. The paper also discusses the tour of Hollywood star Ramón Novarro in South America, one of the motivations of the trip of Gonzaga.

  11. Jean Comandon Neuroscientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Lefebvre, Thierry; de Pastre, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The microbiologist Jean Comandon is famous for his studies on the movement of the syphilis bacteria as differentiated in various forms by ultramicroscope. He was also a pioneer on the technical application of the microcinematography in laboratory research. His collaboration with clinicians and surgeons in the study of various pathological disorders is little known. From 1918 to the 1920s, he collaborated with such neurologists as André Thomas, Jean Athanase Sicard, and others in the study of various neurological disorders by using cinematography as a scientific tool for understanding the clinical and pathological mechanisms of diseases. These collaborations allowed him to be involved in the beginnings of the French cinematography industry, especially with Charles Pathé who established a small film studio laboratory in Vincennes where a multidisciplinary group improved the application of cinematography in clinical medical practice. PMID:26684425

  12. Estetik Bir Öğe Olarak Sinemada Ses Tasarımı Ve Örnek Bir Film Çözümlemesi
    Sound Design As An Aesthetical Element In Cinema And An Example Of A Film Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa SÖZEN

    2013-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that the image itself, even in a film having the simplest story, does not provide enough message. Due to a spesific aesthetic predication of audio phonemena, the films, right from the beginning, started to be shown in accompany with sound. The soundelement in cinematography which produces the semantic expression asa parlance by means of images and sounds has its own ways of use.The sound universe of cinematography is composed of dialogs, effectsand music each having di...

  13. ФЕНОМЕН ОДЕРЖИМОСТИ В СОВРЕМЕННОЙ РУССКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Шарипова, Л.

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of a phenomenon of obses- sion in modern Russian culture. The author reveals a place of this phenomenon as cultural archetype in a philosophic-historical context of this period and presents ways of art realization of the phenomenon of obsession in modern Russian culture on materials of literature, music, pictorial art and cinematography

  14. Laboratoř experimentální analýzy napětí (LEAN) V ÚT AV ČR - její současný stav, možnosti i perspektivy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2003 - (Dobiáš, I.), s. 267-272 ISBN 80-85918-81-1. [Colloquium dynamics of machines. Praha (CZ), 09.02.1999-10.02.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : dynamic photoelasticity * highspeed cinematography * optical topography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  15. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument

  16. Possibilities of roentgenological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown

  17. British Standard method for determination of ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/process combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the direction of the Cinematography and Photography Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/film-process combinations. The method determines the speed and gradient, i.e. contrast, of the X-ray films processed according to their manufacturer's recommendations. (U.K.)

  18. Pronikání židovské tematiky do československé kinematografie na přelomu 50. a 60. let

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednařík, Petr

    Praha : Ústav pro studium totalitních režimů, 2015 - (Petráš, J.; Svoboda, L.), s. 151-162 ISBN 978-80-87912-24-9 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Jewish themes * holocaust * Czechoslovak cinematography Subject RIV: AB - History

  19. De-colonising Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    its literary and artistic nationalising “outlets” as self- contradictory; a political impossibility. The emergence of new historiographies in Morocco and in the diaspora that have begun challenging the two hitherto dominating nationalist narratives has been “crafted” in literature and cinematography...

  20. The Value of Biomechanical Research in Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, D. A.

    Simple observation of dance movement, while very useful, can lead to misconceptions, about the physical realities of dance movement, that make learning difficult. This gap between reality and understanding can be reduced by the application of biomechanical techniques such as cinematography, electromyography, and force-plate analysis. Biomechanical…

  1. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose a...

  2. 'Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm' - De 'making of' de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, T.; Aasman, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    This article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of a series of articles about amateur film

  3. ‘Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm’ : De making of de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasman, Susanna; Van der Heijden, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of the series ‘Her Majesty, Super 8’, a se

  4. The Technique of Lighting for Television and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerson, Gerald

    The aim of this book is to enable everyone working with light in photography, cinematography, and television to build a methodical, rational foundation for techniques from which personal creativity can grow. Fundamentals about the nature of light are explored in a first chapter, and similarities and differences between the eye and the camera in…

  5. Testing Physical Diagnosis Skills with Videotape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Paula L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An inexpensive videotape testing system has been developed at the Department of Pediatrics and Department of Medical TV-Cinematography at the University of Arizona College of Medicine. The development and validation of a test using this system to assess observational skills important for accurate physical diagnosis are described. (LBH)

  6. Trends in Vocational Education in the Arts 1980. Fast Response Survey System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Douglas A.; Farris, Elizabeth

    A study examined the nature and extent of vocational arts education programs throughout the 50 states. During the study, data were sought concerning those programs designed to prepare students for occupations in 14 arts areas: dance; vocal music; instrumental music; theater; radio, television, and video; cinematography; photography; graphic arts;…

  7. Behind Idealism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Most scholarly attention has so far been put on von Trier’s work regarding form, genre and cinematography. In this paper I will focus on the thematic and philosophical qualities we find in von Trier’s work. The above quotation is an essential key to the understanding of the cinema of Lars von Trier...

  8. "Kuleshov on Film": A Spectator-Centered Film Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Trisha

    This paper describes some of the theories of cinematography of Soviet film theorist and filmmaker Lev Kuleshov. It points out that for him, film was communication portraying people's activities emanating from the environment. It explains that he was especially interested in audience response, particularly that of the proletariat, and that he felt…

  9. Creative Art and Cinematographic Production Vis-a-Vis the State in Europe. International Colloquy Organised by the European Art and Experimental Cinema Association in Collaboration with the Council of Europe. Cultural Policy Studies Series 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescure, Jean; Degand, Claude

    Various aspects of the role of the state in fostering creative art and cinematography are discussed in the two reports presented in this volume. In "The Role of the Market in the Relation Between the State and Cinematographic Creation" Jean Lescure emphasizes that this relationship should be viewed as one of complicity rather than assistance or…

  10. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  11. New Adventures in Screencasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen X.

    2013-01-01

    There are universal elements to great videos and games that drive large audiences: beautiful cinematography and graphics, engaging and purposeful screenplays and storylines, unforgettable soundtracks, and a brand name that makes viewers and players want to return for more. Libraries can, and should, employ these elements in their own videos to…

  12. Getting into Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Mel

    This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

  13. Contemporary Films and Religious Exploration: An Opportunity for Religious Education. Part II: How to Engage in Conversation with Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Pamela Mitchell

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary films can be used by educators to engage people in religious exploration. Argues that viewers should engage in a conversation with film at the levels of content and cinematography. Discusses four types of film study and examples of films that can be used in each. (DSK)

  14. ‘Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm’ De making of de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, Tim van der; Aasman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    abstractThis article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of a series of articles about amat

  15. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  16. The Sequence of Hip and Selected Upper-Extremity Joint Movements During the Golf Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Charles L.

    This study analyzed wrist, elbow, and hip actions of golfers who were accurately driving a golf ball a maximum distance. Electrogoniometry and cinematography were used to measure wrist, forearm, elbow, and hip actions during the downswing of 10 low-handicap golfers who were attempting to drive a minimum of 225 yards within a 50-yard corridor.…

  17. The Lord of the Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘金梅

    2002-01-01

    Peter Jackson's first film in The Lord of the Rings trilogy (三步曲) has just grabbed (夺得) four Oscars-awards for the best make-up, best cinematography (摄影), best visual effects and best original score.Chinese audience had a chance to watch the fihn from late April.

  18. The Impact of Film. How Ideas Are Communicated Through Cinema and Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Roy Paul

    The forms and concepts of cinema and television are examined in order to shed light upon the techniques of communicating ideas and achieving psychological effects on film. Part I of the book focuses upon basic cinematic and television concepts, including matters such as the language and grammar of cinematography, the syntax of editing, the…

  19. Juarez: The Reflection of U.S. Values in a Historical Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittloff, Scott

    2005-01-01

    This article is designed to survey mid-20th century American perceptions of Latin America through popular culture. It focuses on an analysis of the motion picture treatment of Latin America in the American film Juarez. The plot, characters, and cinematography have all been influenced by the social and political climate in the United States and…

  20. Simulating Building Fires for Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.

    1987-01-01

    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  1. New Turkish Cinema – Some Remarks On The Homesickness Of The Turkish Soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ayşen Kaim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary cinematography reflects the dualism in modern Turkish society. The heart of every inhabitant of Anatolia is dominated by homesickness for his little homeland. This overpowering feeling affects common people migrating in search of work as well as intellectuals for whom Istanbul is a place for their artistic development but not the place of origin. The city and “the rest” have been considered in opposition to each other. The struggle between “the provincial” and “the urban” has even created its own film genre in Turkish cinematography described as “homeland movies”. They paint the portrait of a Turkish middle class intellectual on the horns of a dilemma, the search for a modern identity and a place to belong in a modern world where values are constantly shifting.

  2. Fates Intertwining, Cultures Connection. Impact of Delaunay Couple Research Activity on Gabriel Guevrekian’s Oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Zabelina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an avant-garde trend simultaneism, which primarily emerged in painting, then developed in textile painting, clothes design and cinematography. The article attempts to interpret simultaneism theoretically as a holistic phenomenon and determine its place in the art of the XX century. Certain displays of simultaneism trend in painting and textile design have been studied well. But special displays of simultaneism in cinematography and architecture have been studied insufficiently. This fact prevents interpreting simultaneism as a holistic phenomenon. To study the impact of simultaneism on landscape architecture, the article uses such scientific methods as stylistic-formal analysis and comparative analysis. The article discloses principles of simultaneism, the trend, which originates at the intersection of art and science, traces the impact of Robert and Sonia Delaunay research activities on Guevrekian’s creative concept. The author introduces for the scientific use some sources, unknown to the domestic study of art.

  3. Live embryo imaging to follow cell cycle and chromosomes stability after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbach, Sebastian T; Boiani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) into mouse oocytes yields a transcriptionally and functionally heterogeneous population of cloned embryos. Most studies of NT embryos consider only embryos at predefined key stages (e.g., morula or blastocyst), that is, after the bulk of reprogramming has taken place. These retrospective approaches are of limited use to elucidate mechanisms of reprogramming and to predict developmental success. Observing cloned embryo development using live embryo cinematography has the potential to reveal otherwise undetectable embryo features. However, light exposure necessary for live cell cinematography is highly toxic to cloned embryos. Here we describe a protocol for combined bright-field and fluorescence live-cell imaging of histone H2b-GFP expressing mouse embryos, to record cell divisions up to the blastocyst stage. This protocol, which can be adapted to observe other reporters such as Oct4-GFP or Nanog-GFP, allowed us to quantitatively analyze cleavage kinetics of cloned embryos. PMID:25287344

  4. Perbandingan Metode Depth of Field pada Lensa Kamera Fotografi dengan Efek Lensa pada Software Animasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of photography becomes fundamental importance in the understanding of digital cinematography. The work of a good photography is a blend of knowledge and photographic ability (skill correctly. By learning photography properly, it allows an animator or digital art workers to apply some standard cinematography as well. By knowing the comparison between photography with "photographic" in 3D animation, animators will be easier to create a digital aesthetic standard with the help of the software. This paper discusses the comparison of the use of photographic camera lenses and camera parameters found in animation software 3D Studio Max. The final form is the camera pictures and parameters of used lens with the results of rendering images with the software-related parameter.

  5. Cinematografie van de neurowetenschap in Nederland: De Magnus-Rademaker collectie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Koehler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Following a short introduction on medical photography and cinematography, we describe a recently discovered neurological film collection, the so called Magnus-Rademaker collection (1909-1940, earlier presumed to be lost. Rudolf Magnus was professor in pharmacology in Utrecht and Gysbertus Rademaker was professor in physiology and later in neurology in Leiden. At the time they performed experimental research on animals to the role of the labyrinth, the neck afferents and cerebellum in position and standing. Next to animals, they also filmed patients. As an example we discuss a film about a boy whose cerebellum had been largely removed because of a tumor. The case was discussed for the ‘Amsterdam Neurologists Society’ and reported upon in the Dutch journal of medicine (1940. The films were produced for educational, as well as for scientific purposes. the discovery of this collection contributes to a better understanding of the role that early cinematography played in science and medicine.

  6. ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS FINANCING OF CULTURAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costandachi Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is made analysis concern basically state structures of culture and arts activities, is describes the problems are met during the reforming process the financial mechanisms in cultural sphere. Author disclosed the ways evolve private and estate financing cultural sphere, also is disclosed why is need estate financial support. The work contains something detailed measures actions to improve financial and mechanisms financing of cultural sphere. Analyzing questions of modernization of budgetary financing of branch the author have formulated effectiveness of use of budgetary funds at all levels in cultural structures and proposed the ways of finishing of market reforms in cinematography. In the final of work is presented scheme system of financing, formation and distribution of financial resources in cinematography and is making conclusions and is offered wais of the solutions created present situation in this sphere in Moldova.

  7. The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in biossays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra O papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida a bioensaios com o moluscicida vegetal Phytolacca dodecandra

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jurberg; J. V. Barbosa; Rotenberg, L.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 25, 50 75 and 100 mgl-1 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Time-lapse cinematography was used to quantify accurately the following parameters: (a) frequency of exits from the solution, (b) time spent out of the solution and (c) time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. These behavior patterns were statistically compared between surviving snails and those which later died. The proportion of surviving ...

  8. Tecnologias da Comunicação, Horror e Ficção Científica: o caso de três filmes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁNEPA, Laura Loguercio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of three Brazilian films of the 1970’s whose stories brought back the fantasy of a violent past with the articulated interest in the possibilities of exploring unknown worlds through communication technologies. The intention is to investigate how a cultural universe strongly bonded to the mysticism around past lives and ancestral curses is connected to the technological imagination, repeating a phenomenon seen in several national cinematographies, but gained in Brazil some particular haracteristics.

  9. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. ...

  10. Biomechanical studies of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT): quantifying the movements of vertebral bodies during SMT

    OpenAIRE

    Gál, Julianna; Herzog, Walter; Kawchuk, Gregory; Conway, Phillip; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    1994-01-01

    The relative movements between vertebral bodies T10 and T11, and T11 and T12 were measured during clinical-type SMTs to T11 in unembalmed post-rigor human cadavers, using embedded stainless steel bone pins and high speed cinematography. Significant relative movements between target and adjacent vertebrae occurred primarily in sagittal and axial rotation during the thrust phases of the SMTs. The relative positions of the vertebral bodies were compared at similar force levels, before and after ...

  11. Yingjin Zhang, Cinema, Space, and Polylocality in a Globalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Pernin, Judith

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of space has assumed a significant role in cinematographic studies, especially those focusing on China. Cinema, Space, and Polylocality in a Globalizing China, a collection of articles by Yingjin Zhang published in various magazines and journals between 2004 and 2009, considers space and its influence on several genres of contemporary cinematography (from martial arts blockbusters to official cinema, as well as independent productions). The author has twin aims: h...

  12. Analog versus digital: How human perception adapts to new film aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Loertscher, Miriam Laura; Weibel, David; FLUECKIGER, Barbara; Spiegel, Simon; Mennel, Pierre; Mast, Fred; Groner, Rudolf; Iseli, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The digital revolution changed film production in many ways. But so far, nobody has com- pared complete narrative films captured with analog and digital cinematography empir- ically. In two cinema experiments (356 participants in experiment 1, 137 participants in experiment 2), we tested whether digital and analog recording methods are perceived dif- ferently. Eye tracking analysis of 67 participants was carried out to compare the perception of typical film scenes. The two capturing technolog...

  13. The Role of Pop Music and Other Phenomena of Modern Culture in the Preservation of Komi Language

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Kuznetsov

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the influence of pop music and other phenomenaof mass culture on the preservation of Komi language in the Komi Republic, Russia in the last decade. For the majority of young people, Komi language is not prestigious; it is insufficiently represented in publishing, television and radio broadcasting, cinematography, showbusiness, virtual space, etc. These “elements of progress” (Bazhenova 2004) personify for the youth progress and prestige and should be Komified. Today it is...

  14. Sposoby istnienia muzyki klasycznej w filmie fabularnym

    OpenAIRE

    Dabert, Dobrochna

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with the topic of classical music in film. Classical music can in various ways semantically and aesthetically contribute to the film's message. It can enrich the film's message created at the level of words and images, create new and specific musical meanings but also modify or negate meanings created by words and images. The varied roles of classical music in film are explored on many examples of Polish and world cinematography.

  15. [The impact of socially involved films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, M

    1979-01-01

    During the past few years studies on linguistics and particularly on semiology have considerably renewed the approach and investigation methods in artistic expression. Ideology has several languages and expression systems (photography, painting, music, speech, architecture and so on). The film does not only carry an ideological content: besides the signification systems and the signs taken from other means of films. To consider only films which have the ostensible objective to urge the public to a political action as socially involved is wrong: any movie is socially involved. One must appreciate correctly and politically the place, role and level at which it intervenes in the framework of the ideological fight. Audiovisual alphabetization is essential for the progress of new ideas in the field of picture and sound. In the Third World, when they do exist, cinematographies rarely have the political power to consider such an action. Ideological impact depends mostly on the social, political and cultural environment. A movie is 1st questioned from the standpoint of the historical place and of the problems of the public. The example of Algerian cinematography as a socially involved one is given. At its origin, film-making in this country was working at informing the outside world of the meaning of the people's fight. Its goal was to capture the political and social reality in order to change it. Therefore the social involvement role of Algerian film-producing is tightly connected to the revolutionary process in which the whole country is engaged. Algerian film-producing is often understood as a propaganda cinematography. The stagnation or progress of a cinematography cannot be measured in relation to the universal mythical culture, but in relation to the social and cultural reality of the country where it originates. The present deepening of the reflection on film and ideology is a result of a recent accentuation of the ideologic fight. PMID:12261392

  16. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press) were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective ...

  17. Le 7e art aux regards de l'enfance : les médiations dans les dispositifs d'éducation à l'image cinématographique

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, Perrine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the way the film mediation works. The work concerns necessity of a "mediation": its uses, and the positions issued from it, since the motion picture was born, within the educational devices on cinematographic image. These arguments tend to set up "a mediation" between cinematography and children, with various, more or less implicit and even partially contradictory reasons.The issue consists in grasping the shifts which take place in between these positi...

  18. Artová kina v Brně

    OpenAIRE

    ŘEHÁKOVÁ, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor's Thesis describes the Art House Cinema situation in Brno, Czech Republic, especially in relation to the findings from the book Sure Seaters: The Emergence of Art House Cinema from Barbara Wilinski and analyses other related things that affect Art House Cinemas, such as the movie distribution network, film festivals, the emergence of art house cinema in the US and history if cinematography in the Czech Republic. There is only one art house cinema in Brno, the Art Cinema. It was ...

  19. El mito del zombi en la actualidad: desmembramiento sacrificial colectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Carcavilla Puey, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    For several decades the zombie myth maintained the same symbolic structure as literature and cinematography regarding the perverse use of animal magnetism and hypnosis, the genealogy from which it descends. In the last third of twentieth century the myth underwent a profound transformation, which nevertheless represented a continuation of its previous unconscious meaning. The analysis of the new archetypal elements that it included, closely related to a nuclear aspect of the spirit of twentie...

  20. Electric Field Influence on the Processes Near Metal Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Alexey Yu.; Nedolugov, Vladimir I.; Vasiliev, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    A two-wavelength high-speed holographic cinematography, integral and time-resolved spectroscopy and splite unfolding methods were used in an investigation of a laser plasma initiated at the surfaces of metal samples by laser pulses in the external electric field. The temporal evolution of the electron densities and heavy particle concentrations was determined and a study was made of the nature of motion of shock wave and plasma fronts. A weak dependence of the evolution of the shock wave velo...

  1. 黒澤明とドストエフスキイ : 映画『白痴』の戦略

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 孝純

    2011-01-01

    The film of Dostoevsky's novel Idiot cinematized by Akira Kurosawa has been highly appreciated by Russians and has been considered as a very remarkable evidence of Japanese assimilation to the understanding of this Russian author. The novel Idiot is such a complicated psychological novel that it is almost impossible to cinematize. It is said that the art of cinematography is inadequate to fully express the deep human psychology. But the passionate love of Kurosawa to this novel, particularly ...

  2. Free viewpoint action recognition using motion history volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Weinland, Daniel; Ronfard, Rémi; Ronfard, Remi; Boyer, Edmond

    2006-01-01

    Action recognition is an important and challenging topic in computer vision, with many important applications including video surveillance, automated cinematography and understanding of social interaction. Yet, most current work in gesture or action interpretation remains rooted in view-dependent representations. This paper introduces Motion History Volumes (MHV) as a free-viewpoint representation for human actions in the case of multiple calibrated, and background-subtracted, video cameras. ...

  3. Chemokinetic accumulation of human neutrophils on immune complex-coated substrata: analysis at a boundary

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The locomotory behavior of human blood neutrophil leukocytes was studied at a boundary between two surfaces with different chemokinetic properties. This was achieved by time-lapse cinematography of neutrophils moving on coverslips coated with BSA, then part-coated with immune complexes by adding anti-BSA IgG with a straight-line boundary between the BSA and the immune complexes. Cell locomotion was filmed in microscopic fields bisected by the boundary, and kinetic behavior was assessed by com...

  4. Flash-x-radiography for fuel motion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is primarily intended to be a status report on recent activities in the Flash X-ray Radiography/Cinematography area. Studies in the area of source definition as well as associated experimental limitations are discussed. The implications of machine current upon precision uncertainty in measurements of changes in areal density are presented. The radiographic techniques presently being evaluated are discussed. Performance estimates representative of this type of diagnostic tool are presented. Comparison with other results is made

  5. The development and use of audio-visual technology in terms of economy and socio-economic trends in society

    OpenAIRE

    Mikšík, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe history of audio-visual technology and to analyse the influence of digitalization. The text describes the history of cinematography, television and also the introduction of audio-visual technology to people's homes. It contains information on present situation as well as new trends and the influence of the Internet on audio-visual making. There is a comparison of past and present technologies. The new technologies are accessible even for amateur creators wh...

  6. Longboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jhala, Arnav; Rawls, Curtis; Young, R. Michael;

    2008-01-01

    link planner — Darshak — encodes cinematic shots and idioms as plan operators and automatically completes unspecified shots from the user generated scenario and executes script and story actions. A real-time geometric constraint solver written on the Unreal game engine is used for rendering the shots....... Longboard is developed as a platform for integrating research in interactive storytelling, intelligent cinematography, and intelligent user interfaces for creative professionals. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of Longboard....

  7. Measuring Fracture Times Of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Bister, Leo; Bickler, Donald G.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical measurements complement or replace fast cinematography. Electronic system measures microsecond time intervals between impacts of projectiles on ceramic tiles and fracture tiles. Used in research on ceramics and ceramic-based composite materials such as armor. Hardness and low density of ceramics enable them to disintegrate projectiles more efficiently than metals. Projectile approaches ceramic tile specimen. Penetrating foil squares of triggering device activate display and recording instruments. As ceramic and resistive film break oscilloscope plots increase in electrical resistance of film.

  8. Novel Phenotypic Fluorescent Three-Dimensional Platforms for High-throughput Drug Screening and Personalized Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Changge; Avis, Ingalill; Salomon, David; Cuttitta, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We have developed novel phenotypic fluorescent three-dimensional co-culture platforms that efficiently and economically screen anti-angiogenic/anti-metastatic drugs on a high-throughput scale. Individual cell populations can be identified and isolated for protein/gene expression profiling studies and cellular movement/interactions can be tracked by time-lapse cinematography. More importantly, these platforms closely parallel the in vivo angiogenic and metastatic outcomes of a given tumor xeno...

  9. "The Tube is Flickering Now": Aesthetics of Authenticity in Good Night, and Good Luck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzsche, Sina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the Clooney/Heslov/Soderbergh production Good Night, and Good Luck (2005. Its unusual visual style (cinematography, mise-en-scène, etc. enables an immediate aesthetic viewing experience of Cold War America. Drawing on Fluck's discussion about aesthetics and its socio-cultural function, the "docu-drama" (Doherty 53, while referring to the era of McCarthyism, serves as an instance of articulation for the dissatisfaction with contemporary American politics.

  10. A Question of Heroines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Oscar M. Salazar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ang Kababaihan ng Malolos (2014. 85 minutes. Color. Directed by Sari Dalena and Kiri Dalena. Written and produced by Nicanor Tiongson. Cinematography by Kiri Dalena. Starring Hazel Faith dela Cruz as Basilia Villariño Tantoco, Karl Medina as Jose Rizal, Bong Enriquez as Governor-General Valeriano Weyler, and Carlos Celdran as Fray Felipe Garcia. Edited by Keith Sicat and Joris Fernandez. Philippines: Ambassador Bienvenido R. Tantoco Sr.

  11. A stereoscopic lens for digital cinema cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny; Rupkalvis, John

    2015-03-01

    Live-action stereoscopic feature films are, for the most part, produced using a costly post-production process to convert planar cinematography into stereo-pair images and are only occasionally shot stereoscopically using bulky dual-cameras that are adaptations of the Ramsdell rig. The stereoscopic lens design described here might very well encourage more live-action image capture because it uses standard digital cinema cameras and workflow to save time and money.

  12. António Reis and Margarida Cordeiro, eccentric filmmakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Tavares Neves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The international symposium "António Reis and Margarida Cordeiro, eccentric filmmakers" took place in Paris between the 3rd and the 4th of June, 2015. Speakers exchanged on the political, social and poetical aspects of the duo's cinematography, as well as on the reverberations of titles such as Jaime (1974 and Trás-os-montes (1976 on the Portuguese filmic landscape of the decades that followed.

  13. Menemukan Formula Sinematografi Seni Pertunjukan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Eko Suprihono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fokus dari sinematografi untuk seni pertunjukan dimaksudkan untuk diskusi tentang pembuatan pilihanpencahayaan dan kamera saat merekam aktivitas seni pertunjukan di panggung untuk program televisi. Televisiadalah bentuk di mana sesuatu disampaikan, dicapai, atau ditransfer ke sejumlah besar orang. Isu ‘efek’ televisikehilangan program-program yang mengarah perlu diminta tidak hanya dalam hal efek atau kegiatan penontontetapi juga dalam hal kesempatan yang hilang bagi keanekaragaman budaya yang akan diekspresikan pada kreativitastelevisi. Setiap aspek dari televisi menunjukkan ketergantungan pada genre, yang merupakan kelompok kategorisproses diskursif yang transek teks melalui interaksi budaya mereka dengan industri, penonton, dan konteks yanglebih luas. Kita mungkin mulai diskusi dengan memulai dengan contoh tekstual seperti ketoprak humor, wayangkulit, opera van java sebagai praktek industri, pergeseran sejarah, atau kontroversi penonton.Kata kunci: sinematografi , seni pertunjukan, ketoprak humorABSTRACTThe Formula of Performing Arts Cinematography. The focus of cinematography for performing arts is intendedto a discussion about the making of lighting and camera choices when recording performing arts activities on stage for thetelevision programs. Television is the form in which something is conveyed, accomplished, or transferred to a large numberof people. The issues of ‘the effects’ of television miss leading programs needs to be asked not only in terms of effects oraudience activity but also in terms of missing opportunities for cultural diversity to be expressed on television creativities.Every aspect of television exhibits a reliance on genre, which are categorical clusters of discursive processes that transect textsvia their cultural interactions with industries, audiences, and broader contexts. We might begin a discussion by startingwith a textual example such as ketoprak humor, wayang kulit, opera van java as an industrial

  14. Podpora filmového průmyslu v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Čulíková, Alžběta

    2012-01-01

    The subject of the bachelor's thesis is the film industry support in the Czech Republic. In its theoretical part, a large scale of contributions of this creative industry has been summarized. The work focuses mainly on the financial support as one of the possible means of support. Furthermore, in the theoretical part, significant institutions engaged in this sphere are described, i.e. "Státní fond kinematografie"(The State Fund of Cinematography), "MEDIA"programme and the European fund "Eurim...

  15. Podpora kinematografie v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Polický, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this bachelor work I'd like to focus on the reasons of support of the film industry from public sources. At first I deal with the question, whether an economic reasoning of state aid exists, or whether it's only lobbing of interest groups. Consequently I look at the process of getting subventions from State fund for support and development of the Czech cinematography. The aim of the work is to find out, whether this support brings benefits, or whether it only represents costs and tax spend...

  16. ENG 225 UOP COURSE Tutorial/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    dfvgbnm,m

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 1 An Evolving Industry ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 2 Narrative and Storytelling ENG 225 Week 1 Quiz ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 1 Actors and Acting ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 2 Tools of Cinematography ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Elements of Design ENG 225 Week 2 Quiz ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 1 Frame by Frame ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 2 Music and Soundscapes ENG 225 Week 3 Assignment Final Film Critique Draft ENG 225 Week 3 Q...

  17. “The West Wing with Wigs” ? Politics and History in HBO’s John Adams

    OpenAIRE

    Godet, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, HBO released a $ 100 million, seven-part mini-series based on David McCullough’s Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of John Adams. The reviews were enthusiastic, with most people praising the cinematography, the storytelling, and Paul Giamatti and Laura Linney’s acting. Soon, however, historians started to complain about various historical inaccuracies in the show. Jeremy Stern, for example, wrote on the History News Network that “the first episode especially is fundamentally marred by...

  18. ENG 225 ASH Course Tutorial / eng225dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    anil27

    2015-01-01

    ENG 225 Entire Course (Ash) For more course tutorials visit www.eng225.com   ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 1 An Evolving Industry ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 2 Narrative and Storytelling ENG 225 Week 1 Quiz ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 1 Actors and Acting ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 2 Tools of Cinematography ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Elements of Design ENG 225 Week 2 Quiz ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 1 Frame by Frame ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 2 Music and Soundscapes ENG 225 Week 3 Assignment Final Film Cri...

  19. ENG 225 ASH Material-eng225dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    Sandywilliam1

    2015-01-01

    ENG 225 Entire Course (Ash) For more course tutorials visit www.eng225.com   ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 1 An Evolving Industry ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 2 Narrative and Storytelling ENG 225 Week 1 Quiz ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 1 Actors and Acting ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 2 Tools of Cinematography ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Elements of Design ENG 225 Week 2 Quiz ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 1 Frame by Frame ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 2 Music and Soundscapes ENG 225 Week 3 Assignment Final Film Cri...

  20. ENG 225(ASH) course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 1 An Evolving Industry ENG 225 Week 1 DQ 2 Narrative and Storytelling ENG 225 Week 1 Quiz ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 1 Actors and Acting ENG 225 Week 2 DQ 2 Tools of Cinematography ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Elements of Design ENG 225 Week 2 Quiz ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 1 Frame by Frame ENG 225 Week 3 DQ 2 Music and Soundscapes ENG 225 Week 3 Assignment Final Film Critique Draft ...

  1. Pedigree analysis of the hypothermal recovery of the effects of gamma-rays on hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured hepatoma cells of the rat were irradiated with 400 to 900 R of gamma-rays. They were kept at room temperature for several hours before transferred to normal culture condition at 370C. The pedigree analysis of growing cells recorded by cinematography indicated a variety of lethal and non-lethal recovery events such as a decrease in lethal branch formation and an increase in locomotion. The so-called repair immediately after irradiation has many facets depending upon dose and duration of the low temperature treatment. (auth.)

  2. The Effects of Temperature and Body Mass on Jump Performance of the Locust Locusta migratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Snelling, Edward P.; Christie L Becker; Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump...

  3. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Wadi, Shahd; Garraio, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    The camera is like a magic lantern that we embrace to make our dreams come true. It is the tool we use to reclaim our existence, memory, and humanity.Mai Masri (Palestinian movie maker), 2008 In 2011 we organized a cinema and debate cycle entitled ‘Palestinian Women and Cinema’ in Lisbon and Coimbra, Portugal. We wanted to bring to the public a cinematography that is practically unknown, but mostly we were interested in promoting a discussion about cinema, feminism and Palestine. This initia...

  4. Interpretation Of Biomechanical Data To A Gymnastics Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierman, Gail

    1982-02-01

    Several trials of many different gymnastics skills on various pieces of apparatus were filmed and the results were studied with the coach. The time to accomplish the entire skill as well as the time for each segment of the skill was important to the coach. He was also interested in angle of release or push-off and the path of the center of gravity. Lastly, graphs of velocities and accelerations of limb segments were revealing to the coach. Biomechanical analysis has helped him see why the performances were good; he is more interested in working with the investigator in all the events in gymnastics through the medium of cinematography.

  5. Brownian motion of helical flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N

    1979-07-01

    We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages , and are also calculated where z and theta are the position along and angle around the helix axis respectively. Although the theory is limited to short time interval, direct comparison with experiment is possible by using the recently developed cinematography technique. PMID:16997210

  6. Inducible adhesion of mesenchymal cells to elastic fibers: elastonectin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornebeck, W; Tixier, J M; L. Robert

    1986-01-01

    The addition of highly purified elastic fibers to confluent human skin fibroblast or porcine aorta smooth muscle cell cultures resulted in a time-dependent, strong adhesion of the fibrils to the cell surface. The kinetics of adhesion was studied by video/time-lapse cinematography. After a 0.5-1 hr lag period, adhesion progressed to a maximum amount in 3-6 hr in the described conditions. Adhesion is strongly accelerated by the prior addition of soluble elastin peptides (kappa-elastin) to the c...

  7. Corrado Neri, Âges inquiets. Cinémas chinois: une représentation de la jeunesse (Uneasy ages. Chinese cinemas: A representation of youth)

    OpenAIRE

    Pernin, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Corrado Neri, Âges inquiets. Cinémas chinois: une représentation de la jeunesse (Uneasy ages. Chinese cinemas: A representation of youth), Lyon, Tigre de Papier, 2009, 533 pp. This work by Corrado Neri, based on his doctoral thesis, deals with the thematic treatment of youth in "Chinese language cinema." It is a historical and trans-territorial study of the representation of the youth in the cinematography of Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the People's Republic. By the term "youth," which may appear ...

  8. [Training in digestive endoscopy. Considerations, experiences and methodological contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Lucero, R; Espiniella, F; Zárate, J O; Tomás, J; Grosso, M

    1986-01-01

    The bibliographical contributions on education in digestive endoscopy and the need of establishing in Argentina a curricular programming for its teaching-learning are considered. The experience of the authors acquired during the giving of eight Basic or initiation Courses and eight Advanced or Improvement Courses is presented. They used in them six didactic simulators and endoscopic cinematography that completed the written simulations. Conceptual and methodological aspects are exposed to perform the curricular programming of training comprising the student from the student of Medicine to the gastroenterologist or surgeon more devoted or specialist in digestive endoscopy. PMID:3661076

  9. Ventral impressions on the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two impressions can be seen on the ventral aspect of the hypopharynx and upper oesophagus; on static images it is difficult to differentiate these from small tumours. In order to evaluate this region more accurately, we have examined 150 patients by means of rapid rate cinematography. In 52.6% we found a constant irregular or convex impression formed by the cricoid; in the other cases this was not seen or was quite minimal. In 93% a sub-cricoid impression could be demonstrated which was due to lax mucosa. Characteristically this showed a variable appearance during the passage of a bolus. Only the cricoid impression was associated with dysphagia. (orig.)

  10. The H-alpha/H-beta ratio in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirin, H.; Liggett, M.; Patterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation involves the study of an extensive body of data accumulated of simultaneous H-alpha and H-beta cinematography of flares. The data were obtained with two telescopes simultaneously photographing flares in H-alpha and H-beta. The results of measurements in a number of flares are presented in a table. The flares were selected purely by optical quality of the data. That the measured ratios are not too different from those in stellar flares is suggested by the last two columns of the table. These columns show that a variety of possible line width ratios could give an integrated intensity ratio of less than unity.

  11. Synchronizing Photography For High-Speed-Engine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. S.

    1989-01-01

    Light flashes when shaft reaches predetermined angle. Synchronization system facilitates visualization of flow in high-speed internal-combustion engines. Designed for cinematography and holographic interferometry, system synchronizes camera and light source with predetermined rotational angle of engine shaft. 10-bit resolution of absolute optical shaft encoder adapted, and 2 to tenth power combinations of 10-bit binary data computed to corresponding angle values. Pre-computed angle values programmed into EPROM's (erasable programmable read-only memories) to use as angle lookup table. Resolves shaft angle to within 0.35 degree at rotational speeds up to 73,240 revolutions per minute.

  12. Rheological properties of RBC in the microcirculation of mammalian skeletal muscle. [red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    In the investigation the established technique of direct microscopic viewing was combined with the use of a closed circuit television system and cinematography. The red cell flow patterns in all capillaries were found to be oscillatory with characteristic cycle frequencies and amplitudes for all concentrations of inspired oxygen greater than 8%. Generally, there was a transient decrease in mean flow rate with increasing severity of hypoxia, with a gradual return toward control values. Red cell flow patterns are discussed along with questions of red cell configuration.

  13. [Dysphagia. Are swallowing sounds diagnostically useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, C; Biniek, R

    2005-12-01

    The origin and importance of swallowing sounds in dysphagia have been discussed in previous research. Those studies report a general similarity in the sound patterns of different swallowing actions. The current paper confirms this. In addition, the origin of swallowing sound patterns is examined more closely. Finally, we simultaneously analyzed the swallowing sounds of healthy voluntary subjects and patients with swallowing disorders using X-ray cinematography. Videoendoscopy was also done. As expected, we found a variety of sound sequences differing from those of healthy subjects. Patients with tracheal tubes or cannulae constitute a special group whose swallowing sounds give additional information about the act of swallowing. PMID:16133430

  14. Measurement of fluid properties using rapid-double-exposure and time-average holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The holographic recording of the time history of a flow feature in three dimensions is discussed. The use of diffuse illumination holographic interferometry or the three dimensional visualization of flow features such as shock waves and turbulent eddies is described. The double-exposure and time-average methods are compared using the characteristic function and the results from a flow simulator. A time history requires a large hologram recording rate. Results of holographic cinematography of the shock waves in a flutter cascade are presented as an example. Future directions of this effort, including the availability and development of suitable lasers, are discussed.

  15. The production of drops by the bursting of a bubble at an air liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrozes, J. S.; Ligneul, P.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism arising during the bursting of a bubble at an air-liquid interface is described. A single bubble was followed from an arbitrary depth in the liquid, up to the creation and motion of the film and jet drops. Several phenomena were involved and their relative order of magnitude was compared in order to point out the dimensionless parameters which govern each step of the motion. High-speed cinematography is employed. The characteristic bubble radius which separates the creation of jet drops from cap bursting without jet drops is expressed mathematically. The corresponding numerical value for water is 3 mm and agrees with experimental observations.

  16. [Acute perilunar dislocations: algorithm for treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfigh, H

    2001-01-01

    In most cases, perilunar dislocations of the wrist are caused by high speed accidents. Usually these injuries occur by a fall on the dorsiflexed superextension of the hand. The instability caused by injuries of various erticular structures (ligament, bone) show various developmental stages. Clinical symptoms are reduced and painful movement, instability of the carpus, snapping and swelling. The diagnosis is established by X-ray, cinematography, arthrography MRT or CT. Perilunar instability with or without associated fractures and particularly de Quervain must be reduced and treated operatively including suture of the ligament and stabilization of the fracture. PMID:11824286

  17. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

  18. Rationalizing foot and ankle measurements to conform to a rigid body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homidan, Suliman; Fletcher, Roger

    2006-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the in vivo locations of skeletal landmarks plays an integral role in several biomechanical research techniques. Because of rounding errors caused by instruments or skin movement, the data obtained through cinematography are usually not accurate and rise to a distance matrix which, because of the data errors, may not be Euclidean. The aim of this paper is to find the best Euclidean distance matrix (EDM) that approximates the distance matrix and then, an accurate estimation of the locations of skeletal landmarks. A useful scheme for parametrizing an orthogonal matrix is also described. PMID:16880161

  19. An esthetic and cultual aims of Arab African cinema in the working : the Carthage film festival (JCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguiba, Sayda

    2013-01-01

    The JCC (« Carthagian days of cinematography ») is a Arab-African film festival established in 1966, the oldest on the continent. Over the last decade, the festival has seen number of challenges on the organizational level as well as in its film selection ; the competition remained exclusively reserved to African and Asian films. In parallel sections not being part of the competition films were shown from around the world.The present thesis is based on interview conducted with a wide range of...

  20. Directional Solidification Velocity of Undercooled Cu7oNi3o Alloy Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The directional dendrite growth velocity in the Cu7oNi30 alloy melt undercooled by 90~185 K was measured by high speed cinematography, and compared with the calculated free dendrite growth velocity. It was found that at lower undercoolings the interaction between the adjacent directionally growing dendrites is weak, and there is not marked difference between the velocity of the directionally growing dendrite and that of free dendrite. But with undercooling increasing,the interaction is enhanced due to the decrease of the primary arm spacing, which makes the velocity difference enlarges quickly.

  1. Documentary Realism, Sampling Theory and Peircean Semiotics: electronic audiovisual signs (analog or digital as indexes of reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Godoy

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Documentary Realism, focusing on thephysical phenomena of transduction that take place in analog and digital audiovisual systems, herein analyzed in the light of the Sampling Theory, within the framework of Shannon and Weaver’s Information Theory. Transduction is a process by which one type of energy is transformed into another, or by which information is transcodified. Within the scope of Documentary Realism, it cannotbe claimed that electronic audiovisual signs, because of their technical digital features lead to a rupture with reality. Rather, the digital documentary, based on electronic digital cinematography, is still an index of reality.

  2. Transitions in Interface Objects: Searching Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gamble

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments demonstrate that a list-like database interface which benefits from the persistence of contextual information does not show the same degree of benefit of collocating objects over display changes that has been previously observed in a map-searching study. This provides some support for the claim that the nature of the task must be taken into account in choosing how to design dynamic displays. We discuss the benefit of basing design principles on theoretical models derived from film cutting methods used in cinematography, so that they can be extended to novel design situations.

  3. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  4. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  5. Full-scale high-speed schlieren imaging of explosions and gunshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.; Grumstrup, Torben P.; Dodson, Lori J.; Miller, J. D.; Gatto, Joseph A.

    2005-03-01

    High-speed imaging and cinematography are important in research on explosions, firearms, and homeland security. Much can be learned from imaging the motion of shock waves generated by such explosive events. However, the required optical equipment is generally not available for such research due to the small aperture and delicacy of the optics and the expense and expertise required to implement high-speed optical methods. For example, previous aircraft hardening experiments involving explosions aboard full-scale aircraft lacked optical shock imaging, even though such imaging is the principal tool of explosion and shock wave research. Here, experiments are reported using the Penn State Full-Scale Schlieren System, a lens-and-grid-type optical system with a very large field-of-view. High-speed images are captured by photography using an electronic flash and by a new high-speed digital video camera. These experiments cover a field-of-view of 2x3 m at frame rates up to 30 kHz. Our previous high-speed schlieren cinematography experiments on aircraft hardening used a traditional drum camera and photographic film. A stark contrast in utility is found between that technology and the all-digital high-speed videography featured in this paper.

  6. Giving to see with words: Cinema and Literature in Italo Calvino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fontes Ferraz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the relations between Image and Word are recurring in the work of Italo Calvino, who had always searched to project in his books images that might rebuild his imaginary worlds, in order to think the blank page such as a movie screen. So, we’ll demonstrate how the Calvino’s literary produce combines the imaging to the verbal,   searching to build images from the word, or aiming to translate mental images into words. Starting, so, the intersections between image and word, we’ll get the considerations made by Calvino about cinema and literature, presenting a context in which the cinema was the world to the Italian writer and revealing the effects of World War II such Calvino’s vision of the cinematography production, as the insertion of a politically engaged young writer in the literature’s world. In this paper, we aim to reflect about the relations between literature and cinema in Calvino’s work, remarking how the whole calvinian writing can be considered as a cinematography of words.

  7. Cinema e transformação social: o Instituto de Cinematografia de Santa Fé (1956-1962 Cinema and social transformation: Santa Fé's cinematographic institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Cristina Araujo Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o processo de implantação do Instituto de Cinematografia de Santa Fé, na Universidade do Litoral, Argentina, em um momento de crise da cinematografia do continente latino-americano. Identifica a influência do Centro Experimental de Cinematografia de Roma, onde havia estudado seu diretor e fundador, Fernando Birri, e da Escola de documentaristas ingleses, dirigida por John Grierson. Demonstra a criatividade de seus integrantes para adaptar propostas cinematográficas internacionais para as sociedades latino-americanas e relacioná-las às propostas culturais da esquerda dos anos 50. Identifica, ainda, a singularidade de seu método para a produção cinematográfica, e a relação do Instituto com a comunidade local.This paper discusses the implementation process of Santa Fé Cinematographic Institute at University of Litoral, in Argentina, concomitantly with a period of crisis in the Latin American cinematography. It identifies the influence of both Cinematography Experimental Centre of Rome - where its director and founder, Fernando Birri, had studied - and the School of English documentarists, directed by John Grierson. It also demonstrates the creativity of its participants in adapting international cinematographic proposals to Latin American societies and linking them to leftist cultural proposals of the 1950's. Moreover, it points out the singularity of its cinematographic production method and the relationship of the Institute with local communities.

  8. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-09-22

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  9. OS FRAGMENTOS DE NARRATIVA MÍTICA DA PRINCESA DE COLCHIS -CÓLQUIDA. (Dossiê: O Mundo Antigo: Literatura e Historiografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Cândido

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo trata das representações do mito de Medeia na poética e na cultura material, compreendendo a dinâmica interativa entre a escrita e a figuração por meio do verbo graphein na cultura grega. Trata também das representações deste mito na arte cinematográfica, pondo em evidência a transcendência de sua narrativa mítica ao expressar problemas inerentes à humanidade.Palavras-chaves: Medeia, Representação, CinematografiaAbstract: This article deals with the representations of the Myth of Medea in the poetic and material culture, including the interactive dynamic between writing and figuration through the verb graphein in Greek culture. It also deals with the representations of this myth in the cinematography, highlighting the transcendence of this mythical narrative to express humanity problems.Key words: Medea, Representation, Cinematography.Recebido em: 22/07/2015  – Aceito em 07/09/2015

  10. Continuidad y cambio en el c ine cubano contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉNÁRT, András

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban cinematography of the 20th century, conceived in parallel with the formation of the New Latin American Cinema, tended to reflect the political system’s immobility, but it also let the filmmakers create some truly valuable masterpieces. In the 21st century Cuban cinema shows no fear to reveal the main problems and social contradictions of the country. Nowadays Cuba goes through some significant political and social changes and reforms, and these transformations appear as well in the cinematography of this socialist country. We come across topics that try to reproduce the real Cuba, together with the darker side of the everyday life. These topics are, for example, the violence, crime, legal and illegal activities of the society, poverty and prostitution; all these have become common and inseparable elements of the Cubans’ life in order to be able to survive. Cuban cinema does not conceal these unpleasant details from the public. Individual and social uncertainty are now recurrent constituents of today’s Cuban movies, while the negative or rarely positive consequences of consumer culture also turn up in recent films. The aim of my article is to outline a panoramic picture about the contemporary Cuban cinema through some peculiar examples and to differentiate between the old and new directions of the Seventh Art in the country of the Castro brothers.

  11. Cine-club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ciné-club

    2013-01-01

    Thursday 4 July 2013 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Pi Directed by Darren Aronofsky (USA, 1998) Original version English; french subtitles; 83 minutes First work of director Darren Aronofsky, PI is an intense, hallucinogenic, and an extremely adept exploration into the world of independent science fiction. Depicting one man's obsession to construct a theoretical, numerical order out of chaos in an attempt to decipher a pattern to both the stock market and existence as a whole, he has launched a sense-numbing expedition that simultaneously complies with and defies expectations of science-fiction cinema. Without expensive special effects, Aronofsky uses innovative cinematography and perfectly conceived music to construct both the paranoid world and fanatical fascination of one man’s quest for absolute knowledge. Aronofsky has masterfully fused mathematics and theology to create an eerie sci-fi world lying somewhere between Stanley Kubrick and Rod Serling. Awarded at Sundance Film Festi...

  12. Direct observation of densification and grain growth in a W--Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, H.; Pask, J.A.; Exner, H.E.

    1979-04-01

    Densification and grain growth in a tungsten--nickel alloy containing 32 vol % of liquid at 1550/sup 0/C were studied by conventional methods aided by hot stage scanning electron microscopy and cinematography. This technique yields important additional qualitative information on the mechanisms. Two stages can be discerned. In stage 1, essentially complete pore elimination, rapid grain growth and adjustment of microstructural geometry take place. In the second stage, microstructure coarsening occurs which is characterized by geometric similarity. Columnar grain growth at the surface is observed due to squeezing out of Ni--W liquid, flooding of surface grains and fast evaporation of the Ni. The driving forces for these processes are discussed showing that a high ratio of grain boundary energy to liquid surface energy is essential. A W--Cu alloy with 32 vol % liquid at 1100/sup 0/C did not show any grain growth due to essentially no solubility of W in Cu at this temperature.

  13. Etienne-Jules Marey: a short biography and appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddleton, Graham P.

    2003-07-01

    As a "son" of Beaune it seems appropriate to give a short appreciation of the work of Marey, as a pioneer in the field of high speed and motion recording photography, at this Congress held in his birthplace. Not only was he a notable physicist but he was a very often under appreciated pioneer of scientific photography, especially as applied to motion recording and analysis. It can be rightfully claimed that his work makes him an important element in the discovery of cinematography in general. His contemporary (and at times collaborator) Muybridge seems to have been credited with much of the acclaim in this field, possible because of his more extrovert character, and possible because of Marey's many other notable scientific achievements. Marey had invented a high-speed camera capable of 700 pps by 1894!

  14. [In vitro model of the re-epithelialization of defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, B; Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1986-10-15

    Epidermal cells taken from guinea pigs were cultured on collagen in order to study the processes comparable to reepithelialization of wounds by means of time-lapse cinematography and electron microscopy. Attachment and spreading of the cells are essential for the following cell proliferation. Immediately after seeding, the cells move in streams and rotate around their axes. Flattened cells show cytoplasmic streaming and ameboid movement as they continuously alter their shapes (10-25 microns/h). The cells actively form intercellular bridges, which favor the confluence of the cells. In the present study, the phases of attachment, intercellular association, and formation of colonies have been classified and related to the activity of the DNA synthesis, as it was indicated by 3H-thymidine incorporation. PMID:3541413

  15. 4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic imaging of the hand. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the hand covers the following issues: projection radiography, cinematography, MRT and CR arthrography, arthroscopy, arteriography, skeleton scintiscanning, sonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, anatomy of forearm and carpus, anatomy of metacarpus and fingers, carpal function and morphometry, postoperative X-ray diagnostic, growing hand skeleton, normative variants, malformations and deformities, trauma of the distal forearm, lesions of the ulnocarpal complex (TFCC), scaphoid fractures, scaphoid arthrosis, fractures of other carpus bones, carpal luxations and luxation fractures, carpal instabilities, fractures of the metacarpalla, finger fractures, arthrosis deformans, enthesiopathies, sport induced soft tissue lesions, osteonecrosis, impingement syndromes, osteopenic skeletal diseases, metabolis diseases, crystal-induced osteoarthropaties, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, rheumatic fever, collagenoses, infective arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infections, cystoids bone lesions, skeletal tumors, soft tissue tumors, carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve compression syndrome, arterial perfusion disturbances, differential diagnostic tables on hand lesions.

  17. Mechanism of instabilities in turbulent combustion leading to flashback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. O.; Vaneveld, L.; Ghoniem, A. F.; Daily, J. W.; Oppenheim, A. K.; Korschelt, D.; Hubbard, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    High-speed schlieren cinematography, combined with synchronized pressure transducer records, was used to investigate the mechanism of combustion instabilities leading to flashback. The combustion chamber had an oblong rectangular cross-section to model the essential features of planar flow, and was provided with a rearward facing step acting as a flameholder. As the rich limit was approached, three instability modes were observed: (1) humming - a significant increase in the amplitude of the vortex pattern; (2) buzzing - a large-scale oscillation of the flame; and (3) chucking - a cyclic reformation of the flame, which results in flashback. The mechanism of these phenomena is ascribed to the action of vortices in the recirculation zone and their interactions with the trailing vortex pattern of the turbulent mixing layer behind the step.

  18. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R

    1986-05-01

    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations. PMID:23906357

  19. Image of the clergy in the cinema of the conquest of Mexico: the Black Legend in the “Nuevo Mundo” of Gabriel Retes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús González Manrique

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conquest and colonization of the territory now called Mexico has been a recurrent theme in Mexican film and, of course, the central role that the clergy has played in the evangelization of those lands has been present for the entirety of Mexican cinematography. In this historical genre, the representation of the clergy has varied depending upon historiographic tendencies and the important historic, political, and cultural events of the time that the film was made; in this way, we can see representation of the Catholic Church’s power on a spectrum that ranges from goodness to absolute wickedness. Most of the time these representations are based more on historical perceptions than available documentation. This article will analyze the evolution of clerical figures in conquest films, noting different modes of representation dictated by the official historiographical tendency in the moment that the film was made and presented to the public.

  20. The medical film 1897-1997: Part I. The first half-century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex-Lopresti, M

    1998-03-01

    Medicine has frequently been in the forefront of applying new illustrative media to its needs, and cinematographic film is a good example. Within a year of the introduction of moving pictures, cine-film was used for medical research and to a lesser extent for teaching. The profession took advantage of the spread of cinemas by making health education films, and during the first half century of cinematography surgeons were keen to have their operations filmed. Medical educators were slow to include film in their teaching programmes and several organizations were formed to encourage their use. After the Second World War, medical films for undergraduate and postgraduate education became accepted until, as the medical film reached its centenary, cine-film declined in favour of video-recordings. PMID:9764516

  1. Science Education with the LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, S. H.; Khandro, L. M.; Larson, A. M.; McCarthy, D. W.; Pompea, S. M.; Shara, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    LSST will create the first true celestial cinematography - a revolution in public access to the changing universe. The challenge will be to take advantage of the unique capabilities of the LSST while presenting the data in ways that are manageable, engaging, and supportive of national science education goals. To prepare for this opportunity for exploration, tools and displays will be developed using current deep-sky multi-color imaging data. Education professionals from LSST partners invite input from interested members of the community. Initial LSST science education priorities include: - Fostering authentic student-teacher research projects at all levels, - Exploring methods of visualizing the large and changing datasets in science centers, - Defining Web-based interfaces and tools for access and interaction with the data, - Delivering online instructional materials, and - Developing meaningful interactions between LSST scientists and the public.

  2. Carrier for registration of optical images and holographic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the field of registration of optical information including the holographic one and may be used in the holography, cinematography, micro- and optical electronics, computer engineering. Summary of the invention consists in, that in the carrier containing a dielectric substrate on which there are placed in sequence the first electrode, photoinjection substrate, registration substrate of the chalcogenide vitreous semiconductor and the second electrode, the photoinjection substrate is fabricated of the monocrystalline germanium of the n-type conductivity and the relation of the registration substrate conductivity, during illumination to the photoinjection substrate conductivity in darkness is 0,001. The technical result consists in increasing the carrier photosensibility and in diffraction effectiveness of the information registered on the carrier

  3. An experimental study on the role of the reciprocal tendinous apparatus of the horse at walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, G H

    1978-08-18

    The locomotor pattern of the hind limb of seven horses has been studied in intact animals and after transection of the following structures: the peroneus tertius tendon, the cranial tibial muscle, both cranial tibial muscle and peroneus tertius tendon, and the superficial digital flexor tendon. The investigation was carried out by high speed cinematography and electromyography. It is concluded that (1) the muscles and tendons over the cranial aspect of the tibia play an important role during the support phase; (2) the movements of the hind limb may be performed without the action of the cranial tibial and gastrocnemius muslces; (3) the tendons in the shank store elastic energy during the support phase; (4) the gastrocnemius and cranial tibial muscles may centre the force of the load through the long axis of the tibia. PMID:686394

  4. Possibilities of reducing the radiation dose to patients in the cardiac catheterization laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are possible approaches to radiation dose reduction in cardiac catheterization, both for the operational modus of fluoroscopy and cinematography. An initial study in 15 patients treated with diagnostic cardiac catheterization or PTCA has shown that the cine-technique contributes at least half of the dose-area product accumulated during the entire examination. The radiation dose administered by the cinematographic technique per minute of diagnostic examination is approx. between 5 times and 13 times higher than the dose contributed by fluoroscopy. The paper discusses various possibilities of dose reduction. Studies performed by the authors have shown that additional 0.3 copper filters will reduce the dose to the skin to less than half of the usually applied skin dose. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic imaging of the hand. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Rainer [Herz und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Lanz, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the hand covers the following issues: projection radiography, cinematography, MRT and CR arthrography, arthroscopy, arteriography, skeleton scintiscanning, sonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, anatomy of forearm and carpus, anatomy of metacarpus and fingers, carpal function and morphometry, postoperative X-ray diagnostic, growing hand skeleton, normative variants, malformations and deformities, trauma of the distal forearm, lesions of the ulnocarpal complex (TFCC), scaphoid fractures, scaphoid arthrosis, fractures of other carpus bones, carpal luxations and luxation fractures, carpal instabilities, fractures of the metacarpalla, finger fractures, arthrosis deformans, enthesiopathies, sport induced soft tissue lesions, osteonecrosis, impingement syndromes, osteopenic skeletal diseases, metabolis diseases, crystal-induced osteoarthropaties, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, rheumatic fever, collagenoses, infective arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infections, cystoids bone lesions, skeletal tumors, soft tissue tumors, carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve compression syndrome, arterial perfusion disturbances, differential diagnostic tables on hand lesions.

  6. Bidimensional Lens Systems : A Rational Approach To Group Displacements During Focusing And/Or Zooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angénieux, J. P. L.

    1987-06-01

    Modern objective lenses for cinematography, television or photography, and particularly zoom lenses, are composed of several groups of lenses which are axially displaced during zooming and/or focusing. The number of these groups has increased recently as well as the complexity of their relative movements and functions. In this paper, we give a short history of zooming and focusing techniques ; we discuss the inconvenience of traditional solutions. We then introduce the concept of bidimensional law. We propose a systematic classification of possible lens-types according to the 4 possible types of group. We finally present a few types of lenses in the form of truth tables and parametered diagrams explaining which groups move and how during focusing and/or zooming.

  7. X ray observations of boiling sodium in a reflux-pool-boiler solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J. B.; Stoker, G. C.; Thompson, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    X ray observations of boiling sodium in a 75-kW sub t reflux-pool-boiler solar receiver operating at up to 800 C were carried out. Both cinematographic and quantitative observations were made. From the cinematography, the pool free surface was observed before and during the start of boiling. During boiling, the free surface rose out of the field of view, and chaotic motion was observed. From the quantitative observations, void fraction in pencil-like probe volumes was inferred, using a linear array of detectors. Useful data were obtained from three of the eight probe volumes. Information from the other volumes was masked by scattered radiation. During boiling, time-averaged void fractions ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. During hot restarts, void fractions near unity occurred and persisted for up to 1/2 second.

  8. Clinical evaluation of digital angiographic system equipped with the Safire' flat-panel detector of a direct conversion type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a report on clinical evaluation of our newly developed flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, designed to provide images of a resolution higher than, or at least equal to, that ensured by X-ray photographic films, in clinical digital X-ray cinematography. This new detector was named 'Safire' the acronym of 'Shimadzu advanced flat imaging receptor', emphasizing its high technological level, such as the capability to ensure high quality of images. The clinical evaluation of Shimadzu DIGITEX Premier digital angiography system, equipped with this new flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, has been started in March, 2003, at the Kokura Memorial Hospital in Kyushu, Japan. (author)

  9. High-pressure flame visualization of autoignition and flashback phenomena with liquid-fuel spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, C. J.; Baker, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of boundary layers on autoignition and flashback for premixed Jet-A fuel in a unique high-pressure windowed test facility. A plate was placed in the center of the fuel-air stream to establish a boundary layer. Four experimental configurations were tested: a 24.5-cm-long plate with either a pointed leading edge, a rounded edge or an edge with a 0.317-cm step, or the duct without the plate. Experiments at an equivalence ratio ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 were performed at pressures to 2500 kPa (25 atm.) at temperatures of 600, 645, and 700 K and velocities to 115 meters per second. Flame shapes were observed during flashback and autoignition using high speed cinematography. Flashback and autoignition limits were determined.

  10. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  11. Characterization of sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  12. Drosophila gurken (TGFalpha) mRNA localizes as particles that move within the oocyte in two dynein-dependent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Nina; Clark, Alejandra; MacDougall, Eilidh; Davis, Ilan

    2003-03-01

    In Drosophila oocytes, gurken mRNA localization orientates the TGF-alpha signal to establish the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. We have elucidated the path and mechanism of gurken mRNA localization by time-lapse cinematography of injected fluorescent transcripts in living oocytes. gurken RNA assembles into particles that move in two distinct steps, both requiring microtubules and cytoplasmic Dynein. gurken particles first move toward the anterior and then turn and move dorsally toward the oocyte nucleus. We present evidence suggesting that the two steps of gurken RNA transport occur on distinct arrays of microtubules. Such distinct microtubule networks could provide a general mechanism for one motor to transport different cargos to distinct subcellular destinations. PMID:12636913

  13. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  14. Solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirin, H.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the knowledge about solar flares which has been obtained through observations from the earth and from space by various methods. High-resolution cinematography is best carried out at H-alpha wavelengths to reveal the structure, time history, and location of flares. The classification flares in H alpha according to either physical or morphological criteria is discussed. The study of flare morphology, which shows where, when, and how flares occur, is important for evaluating theories of flares. Consideration is given to studies of flares by optical spectroscopy, radio emissions, and at X-ray and XUV wavelengths. Research has shown where and possibly why flares occur, but the physics of the instability involved, of the particle acceleration, and of the heating are still not understood.

  15. The response of single human cells to zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P. O., Jr.; Cook, J. E.; Reynolds, R. C.; Paul, J. S.; Hayflick, L.; Schulz, W. W.; Stock, D.; Kinzey, S.; Rogers, T.; Campbell, D.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty separate cultures of Wistar-38 human embryonic lung cells were exposed to a zero-gravity environment on Skylab for periods of time ranging from one to 59 days. Duplicate cultures were run concurrently as ground controls. Ten cultures were fixed on board the satellite during the first 12 days of flight. Growth curves, DNA microspectrophotometry, phase microscopy, and ultrastructural studies of the fixed cells revealed no effects of a zero-gravity environment on the ten cultures. Two cultures were photographed with phase time lapse cinematography during the first 27 days of flight. No differences were found in mitotic index, cell cycle, and migration between the flight and control cells. Eight cultures were returned to earth in an incubated state. Karyotyping and chromosome banding tests show no differences between the flight and control cells.

  16. Combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A. F.; Moulder, J. C.; Runyan, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of bulk titanium in one atmosphere oxygen is studied using laser ignition and several analytical techniques. These were high-speed color cinematography, time and space resolved spectra in the visible region, metallography (including SEM) of specimens quenched in argon gas, X-ray and chemical product analyses, and a new optical technique, the Hilbert transform method. The cinematographic application of this technique for visualizing phase objects in the combustion zone is described. The results indicate an initial vapor phase reaction immediately adjacent to the molten surface but as the oxygen uptake progresses the evaporation approaches the point of congruency and a much reduced evaporation rate. This and the accumulation of the various soluble oxides soon drive the reaction zone below the surface where gas formation causes boiling and ejection of particles. The buildup of rutile cuts off the oxygen supply and the reaction ceases.

  17. El apocalipsis doméstico: El fin del mundo según Jaume Balagueró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Expósito Barea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Jaume Balagueró's cinematography is directly connected with Adam Parfrey´s  concept of "Apocalypse Culture". It is a very personal vision of the end of the world in everyday life context. This author´s cinema does not show dystopian environments or collapsing societies or major natural disasters, on the contrary, the apocalypse born  indoors.Balagueró builds his peculiar vision of the end of the world from his fondness for the dark and millenarian spirit. His works address from a gloomy and ugliness aesthetics more rooted in human society such as death, ancestral rites, as something immovable, the pursuit of primal evil as overcoming of conventional religions.This paper aims to analyze the aesthetic, discursive and stylistic constacts that define the Jaume Balagueró´s cinema as apocalypse films, in which converge the classic and modern into what we call the Nova Escola de Barcelona.

  18. Garibaldi e l’epopea garibaldina nel cinema muto italiano. Dalle origini alla I guerra mondiale / Garibaldi and the Representation of Garibaldi in italian silent Cinema: from its Beginning to the World War One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasi, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The first film producted by an italian studio was "La presa di Roma - 20 settembre 1870" (Albertini & Santoni, 1905 and the Italian Risorgimento will continue to be one of the most favoured subjects of italian cinematography. In the period of silent screen films, between 1905 and 1927, aproximately 60 films were produced in Italy concerning the Risorgimento, of which at least 30 were regarding Garibaldi and his epic actions. Even in the cinema, Garibaldi continued to be the most representative and emblematic figure of the Risorgimento, and his popularity is often exploited in misleading ways by the figures of power during the first decades of the twentieth century to ideologize the figure of Garibaldi, still through cinema.

  19. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  20. In vivo X-ray cine-tomography for tracking morphological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Ershov, Alexey; van de Kamp, Thomas; Baumbach, Tilo

    2014-03-18

    Scientific cinematography using ultrafast optical imaging is a common tool to study motion. In opaque organisms or structures, X-ray radiography captures sequences of 2D projections to visualize morphological dynamics, but for many applications full four-dimensional (4D) spatiotemporal information is highly desirable. We introduce in vivo X-ray cine-tomography as a 4D imaging technique developed to study real-time dynamics in small living organisms with micrometer spatial resolution and subsecond time resolution. The method enables insights into the physiology of small animals by tracking the 4D morphological dynamics of minute anatomical features as demonstrated in this work by the analysis of fast-moving screw-and-nut-type weevil hip joints. The presented method can be applied to a broad range of biological specimens and biotechnological processes. PMID:24594600

  1. Inhibition of protein kinase B activity induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis during early G₁ phase in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Opstal, Angélique; Bijvelt, José; van Donselaar, Elly; Humbel, Bruno M; Boonstra, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    Inhibition of PKB (protein kinase B) activity using a highly selective PKB inhibitor resulted in inhibition of cell cycle progression only if cells were in early G1 phase at the time of addition of the inhibitor, as demonstrated by time-lapse cinematography. Addition of the inhibitor during mitosis up to 2 h after mitosis resulted in arrest of the cells in early G1 phase, as deduced from the expression of cyclins D and A and incorporation of thymidine. After 24 h of cell cycle arrest, cells expressed the cleaved caspase-3, a central mediator of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that PKB activity in early G1 phase is required to prevent the induction of apoptosis. Using antibodies, it was demonstrated that active PKB translocates to the nucleus during early G1 phase, while an even distribution of PKB was observed through cytoplasm and nucleus during the end of G1 phase. PMID:22251027

  2. 4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M. (ed.)

    2001-05-01

    In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)

  3. Novel Phenotypic Fluorescent Three-Dimensional Platforms for High-throughput Drug Screening and Personalized Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changge; Avis, Ingalill; Salomon, David; Cuttitta, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We have developed novel phenotypic fluorescent three-dimensional co-culture platforms that efficiently and economically screen anti-angiogenic/anti-metastatic drugs on a high-throughput scale. Individual cell populations can be identified and isolated for protein/gene expression profiling studies and cellular movement/interactions can be tracked by time-lapse cinematography. More importantly, these platforms closely parallel the in vivo angiogenic and metastatic outcomes of a given tumor xenograft in the nude mouse model but, unlike in vivo models, our co-culture platforms produce comparable results in five to nine days. Potentially, by incorporating cancer patient biopsies, the co-culture platforms should greatly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of personalized chemotherapy. PMID:23833685

  4. Using sound to study bubble coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, W; Finch, J A

    2009-04-01

    Frothers are surfactants used in flotation to aid generation of small bubbles, an effect attributed to coalescence prevention. Studying coalescence at the moment of bubble creation is a challenge because events occur over a time frame of milliseconds. This communication introduces a novel acoustic technique to study coalescence as bubbles are generated at a capillary. The sound signal was linked to bubble formation and coalescence events using high-speed cinematography. The technique has the resolution to detect events that occur within 1-2 ms. The results show that for common flotation frothers and n-alcohols (C(4)-C(8)) coalescence prevention is not simply related to surface activity. A total stress model is used to give a qualitative explanation to the action observed. Results for salt (sodium chloride) are included for comparison. PMID:19128806

  5. Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2011-04-13

    The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

  6. Posibilidades abiertas por las nuevas tecnologías en el desarrollo de los cines africanos contemporáneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Leal Riesco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From its beginnings with the wave of independence that swept the continent in the middle of the previous century, African cinema has remained subordinate to and dependent upon Western aid. Barring a few prominent exceptions, the effects of this phenomenon have been visible, with films made catering to the tastes of occidental critics and cinephiles while African viewers have been left thirsting for images and sounds of an autochthonous character. Since the 1990’s, thanks to new technologies, African cinema has achieved a previously inconceivable vitality and autonomy. The democratizing effects of the reduction in the cost of production, distribution, and exhibition, as well as the easier accessibility of new technologies to non-professionals, has made of Africa a creative flashpoint, where myriad voices work to create a nuanced and polyphonic imaginary leagues beyond those prejudices and stereotypes of occidental provenance that have overshadowed this continent’s cinematography for more than five decades.

  7. MENJAGA KONTINUITAS PADA SAAT PENGAMBILAN GAMBAR DALAM MEDIA FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Baptista Permadi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Film media is a new media to communicate. However, the communication way in this movie is different from other media communication visual. Continuity is a crucial element in communicating through visual media, and sometimes continuity in a film is parted in a scene. The cause of losing continuity needs to be observed more, so there will be a method to anticipate losing continuity of a film in pre-production stage or in preparation stage before actual shooting. The data gained from students assignments in Cinematography for Animation subject, which close to problem formulation. After the data is gained and compared, there will be experiment using simulation towards application software 3D to find alternative about continuity. The result covers the shooting way to keep continuity and a brave preparation in pre-production stage or before shooting.

  8. Instabilities and soot formation in spherically expanding, high pressure, rich, iso-octane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockett, R D [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio {phi} > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks.

  9. Contribution to the study of an lpg jet in the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine; Contribution a l'etude d'un jet de gpl dans la chambre de combustion d'un moteur a allumage commande, pour differentes strategies d'injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong Viet, D.

    2002-07-01

    It appears tempting to combine the less polluting combustion of LPG with the energy performances of a direct injection spark-ignition engine. To this aim the study of high pressure injection of a liquid LPG jet, directly inside the combustion chamber of an engine was performed in two ways: Experimental studies: one with fast cinematography and another with the method of Doppler phases in an one-cylinder 'transparent' engine for various conditions of injection and without combustion. They respectively deliver empirical laws for the jet development and some informations about size and speed of the droplets of LPG. A modeling of the jet could then be made on the basis of a turbulent and deviated jet the parameters of which could be adjusted using results of the preceding experimental study. (author)

  10. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  11. Clinical evaluation of digital angiographic system equipped with the Safire' flat-panel detector of a direct conversion type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi [Shimadzu Corporation, Medical Systems Division, Research and Development, Kyoto (JP)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    This report presents a report on clinical evaluation of our newly developed flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, designed to provide images of a resolution higher than, or at least equal to, that ensured by X-ray photographic films, in clinical digital X-ray cinematography. This new detector was named 'Safire' the acronym of 'Shimadzu advanced flat imaging receptor', emphasizing its high technological level, such as the capability to ensure high quality of images. The clinical evaluation of Shimadzu DIGITEX Premier digital angiography system, equipped with this new flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, has been started in March, 2003, at the Kokura Memorial Hospital in Kyushu, Japan. (author)

  12. Marrying into the European family of nations: national disorder and upset gender roles in post-Communist Romanian film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent Romanian films, this article explores the distinctive post-communist concerns with national relocation in the symbolic geography of Europe. The focus on tragic comedies, an increasingly popular genre in Eastern European cinematography, foregrounds the critical usage of irony to express skepticism about the inclusive nature of geopolitical projects such as the European Union by national communities situated at its periphery. While the tragic comedies examined here are successful in challenging official narratives of European belonging, they rely on highly gendered scripts that prove more resilient to ironic reworkings. The movies resort to gendered plots and family tropes, representing Romania’s efforts to receive European recognition as attempts to “marry into” the European Union. The larger thrust of this article is to open complex notions such as “Europe,” “nation,” and “gender,” which are notoriously prone to essentialization, to a deconstructive analysis as systems of differentiation. PMID:22250313

  13. Objective measures of laryngeal imaging: what have we learned since Dr. Paul Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Paul Moore pioneered the use of high-speed cinematography for observation of normal and abnormal vocal fold vibrations during phonation. His analysis of the glottal area waveform, opening and closing speed index, and open quotient from the high-speed films were labor intensive but relevant today. With advances in digital image capture and automated image extraction techniques, stroboscopy and high-speed images of vocal fold vibration may be analyzed with objective measures. Digital high-speed image capture in color is now clinically practical at high resolution. Digital kymography now allows analysis of the vibratory waveform from each vocal fold. Serial capture and comparison can document changes in vibratory function with treatment. Quantification of vocal fold vibration using such techniques is now practical. This is a review of vocal fold vibration capture and analysis techniques since Dr. Moore. PMID:24094798

  14. Live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan

    2010-04-01

    Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster are also used by the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties with regard to keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick, hazy cytoplasm. This article outlines the major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping the cells alive. It describes various imaging and associated techniques best suited to following changes in the distribution of fluorescently labeled molecules in real time in these tissues. Imaging, in general, is a rapidly developing discipline, and recent advances in imaging technology are able to greatly extend what can be achieved with live cell imaging of Drosophila tissues. As far as possible, this article includes the latest technical developments and discusses likely future developments in imaging methods that could have an impact on research using Drosophila. PMID:20360379

  15. Violence, Oppression, and Double Standards in Three Colombian Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Meade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares three Colombian films that tell distinct stories of violence, personal and political oppression, and double standards. The films Confesión a Laura (Confessing to Laura, Jaime Osorio, 1991, La Primera Noche (The First Night, Luis Alberto Restrepo, 2003 and El Rey (The King, José Antonio Dorado, 2004 each highlight the characters’ struggles in the Colombian socio-political landscape. Each  film’s content and themes do not merely offer representations of national culture, but also provide a way in which to discuss the political and social struggles of Colombia. The directors explore these stories of violence and socio-political struggle through the use of mis-en-scène, cinematography, sound, and editing.

  16. Neovascularization and coronary atherosclerotic plaque: cinematographic localization and quantitative histologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, B R; Galli, S J; Barger, A C; Lainey, L L; Silverman, K J

    1987-10-01

    A new technique was developed for analyzing the neovascularization associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis: cinematography during silicone polymer injection of the coronary arteries of fixed and cleared human hearts, followed by histologic analysis in routine and 1-micron-thick, Epon-embedded sections. Twenty-two hearts obtained at autopsy were studied. On the basis of cinematographic findings, individual regions of the coronary arteries were classified as negative, positive, or abundantly positive for neovascularization. Positive and abundantly positive areas, which invariably occurred in segments exhibiting changes of atherosclerosis, contained numerous small vessels in the adventitia and outer media (4.7 +/- 1.5 and 9.8 +/- 1.3 [SE] vessel profiles/artery cross-section in positive and abundantly positive areas, versus 1.0 +/- 0.6 in negative regions). Abundantly positive areas, which occurred in coronary artery segments demonstrating the most extensive atherosclerotic change, contained numerous small vessels in the inner media or in the plaque itself. Some of these microvessels were in close proximity to mast cells, which represent potentially rich sources of mediators affecting vascular tone and permeability. Vessels were not observed in the inner media or in atherosclerotic plaque in areas designated either positive or negative by cinematography. These findings show how our approach can be used both to define the three-dimensional, in situ configuration of coronary artery neovascularization and to characterize the histology of this process in detail. They also confirm previous work indicating that areas of coronary arteries involved by atherosclerosis frequently exhibit extensive neovascularization. PMID:2443438

  17. The meaning of destruction: Definition and contextualization of disaster movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The disaster movie is one of the most persistent genres in cinematography, but it constantly escapes our attention because it is presented as “easy summer fun”. If we want to understand it as a cultural document of an epoch in which the genre is important and popular, we need to come up with a definition, formula and conventions of a disaster movie. Also, we must propose one of many possible comprehensions of its popularity and religious heritage. The paper uses definitions of genre, conventions and formulae in the attempt to show a way of using popular narratives in the transmission of a world view. Using a narrative structure gives us a glimpse into the deeper cultural, social and political context in which the disaster movie is created, popular or rejected. The paper discusses disaster movies as cultural artifacts, as a ritual we are practicing without remembering its purpose. Also, paper is examining identifying apocalyptic and catastrophic as an product of interposition of Apocalypse to Johan and Great Tribulation. Using apocalyptic literature, end times narratives and disaster movies, the paper shows the fruitfulness of destruction representations and imaginarium of terror. Using fear and shock, the messages of disaster movies seems more urgent and relevant. Through the ideas of Susan Sontag and Maurice Yacowar, the paper presents a way for analyzing the contemporary disaster movie. Conventions and formulae of disaster movies help us to understand the way modern cinematography is used for cultural and political means. The popularity of disaster movies can be seen as a form of ”ritualization of discontent” wherein the viewers experience some sort of catharsis. Also, disaster movie gathers different interests and actualizes thirstness for transformation of order or achieving justice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  18. 《呼兰河传》:融汇各种文体艺术的奇文%Tales of Hulan River:A Fantastic Work Blending Together Various Strange Styles of Arts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨迎平

    2016-01-01

    萧红的《呼兰河传》不像小说,它吸收诗、戏剧、散文的一些长处,甚至还具有电影化特征,可谓融汇各种文体艺术。《呼兰河传》通过戏剧艺术的讽刺批判、散文艺术的怀念倾诉、诗歌艺术的吟唱咏叹、电影艺术的影像书写这些陌生化叙述,使读者对呼兰河小城熟视无睹、司空见惯的国民惰性产生惊讶和好奇心。萧红是一位现实主义作家,她真实地表现了呼兰河人的生活,但她的现实主义与传统的现实主义不同,她在《呼兰河传》中运用夸张、象征和反讽手法,创造了超现实的现实主义杰作。%Un1ike the nove1 in its ordinary sense,Tales of Hulan Riverb1ends together various sty1es of arts through absorbing certain strengths from the nove1,drama and prose,even with the features of cinematog-raphy. With such de-fami1airized narrations as ironica1 criticism of drama,nosta1gic confiding of prose, intonating and chanting of poetry,and image writing of cinematography,the Nove1 brings the reader into surprise and curiosity about the common nationa1 inertia of b1indness of the sma11 town of Hu1an River. As a rea1ist writer,Xiao Hong tru1y represents the 1ife of the peop1e by Hu1an River. However,she has crea-ted the Nove1 into a surrea1 masterpiece of rea1ism by making use of hyperbo1e,symbo1 and irony be her rea1ism different from traditiona1 rea1ism.

  19. Neorealist landscapes. Habitat and collective housing in Italy and Spain in the post- war years. 1943-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colella, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting point for this research is the analysis of relationship between Italian and Spanish culture in the post-war era, especially in the field of cinematography, in order to describe possible correspondences or differences in the contemporary architectural and urban production, especially in social housing. Neorealism is the artistic movement that characterizes these years, in which economic, social and political problems weigh on these countries: it was born in Italy and influenced cinematography of different European countries, including Spain. Through comparison between some films, we can define a common urban landscape, with the aim to represent context in which the architecture of Italy and Spain, as in the neorealist cinema, seek new references and a more sensitive look on reality. El Punto de partida de este trabajo de investigación es el análisis de las similitudes existentes entre la cultura Italiana y la Española de la época de la posguerra, sobre todo en el campo de la cinematografía, con el fin de fijar posibles analogías y diferencias en la producción contemporánea arquitectónica y urbanística, especialmente de vivienda social. El Neorrealismo, es la corriente artística que mejor define estos años, en los cuales las grandes dificultades en el panorama económico, social y político, marcan la situación de los dos países: se trata de una expresión cultural que nace en Italia y que influenció distintas cinematografías europeas, entre las cuales la española. A través la comparación de algunas películas, es posible definir un paisaje urbano común, que representa el contexto en el cual se desarrolla la arquitectura de los dos países que, como en el cinema neorrealista, tratará de buscar nuevas referencias y de plantear una mirada más sensible hacia la realidad de la época.

  20. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  1. System and carrier for optical images and holographic information recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the semiconducting silverless photography, in particular to the technique for optical information recording and may be used in microphotography for manifacture of microfiches, microfilms, storage disks, i the multiplication and copying technique, in holography, in micro- and optoelectronics, cinematography etc. The system for optical images and holographic information recording includes an optical exposure system, an information carrier , containing a dielectric substrate with the first electrode, a photosensitive element and the second electrode, arranged in consecutive order, a constant and impulse voltage source, a means for climbing and movement of the information carrier, a control unit for connection of the voltage source to the electroconducting strate, a personal computer, connected to the control unit of the recording modes ,to the exposure system and the information carrier, an electrooptical transparency, connected to the computer by means of the matching unit. The carrier for optical images and holographic information recording contains a dielectric substrate, a photosensitive element formed of a layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor and a layer of the crystalline or amorphous semiconductor, forming a heterojunction, the photosensitive element is arranged between two electrodes , one of which is made transparent , in such case rge layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor comes into contact with the superior transparent electrode, subjected to exposure

  2. Analysis of X-ray induced cell-cycle perturbations in mouse osteosarcoma cells: a two-signal cell-cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of X-irradiation on mouse osteosarcoma cells have been studied by time-lapse cinematography and the resulting pedigrees have been analysed statistically. It is shown that the irradiation treatment causes three types of cell kinetic lesions: cell death (disintegration), cell sterilization (failure to divide) and proliferation delay. The first two lesions are the most important with regard to survival of the irradiated cell in a clonal assay. Of these two lesions, sterilization appears to be highly correlated for sister cells, while this is not true for cell disintegration. This indicates that cell survival in a clonal assay may be a function of the ratio of the incidences of these two types of lesions. The X-ray-induced proliferation delay was studied in terms of intermitotic time distributions, mother-daughter correlation and sibling correlation in relation to the current cell-cycle phase at the time of treatment. This analysis shows that the effects of irradiation on these cell-cycle characteristics is highly cell-cycle-dependent. A qualitative model to account for the observations is presented. (author)

  3. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users. PMID:26742134

  4. Solutions on a high-speed wide-angle zoom lens with aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Takanori

    2012-10-01

    Recent development in CMOS and digital camera technology has accelerated the business and market share of digital cinematography. In terms of optical design, this technology has increased the need to carefully consider pixel pitch and characteristics of the imager. When the field angle at the wide end, zoom ratio, and F-number are specified, choosing an appropriate zoom lens type is crucial. In addition, appropriate power distributions and lens configurations are required. At points near the wide end of a zoom lens, it is known that an aspheric surface is an effective means to correct off-axis aberrations. On the other hand, optical designers have to focus on manufacturability of aspheric surfaces and perform required analysis with respect to the surface shape. Centration errors aside, it is also important to know the sensitivity to aspheric shape errors and their effect on image quality. In this paper, wide angle cine zoom lens design examples are introduced and their main characteristics are described. Moreover, technical challenges are pointed out and solutions are proposed.

  5. Experience with a New Colour-Scintillographic Method for Diagnosing Liver Tumours and Inflammatory Liver Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain a better picture of the structural details of the diseased parenchyma of the liver, we have been using a device which has been adapted for use with the Scanner- Tracerlab and which produces liver scans made up of seven colours. The colours are chosen arbitrarily, each one corresponding to a given number of counts and representing zones of isoradioactivity, i.e. zones of liver tissue of relatively equivalent volume. The white in these colour scintigrams represents the radiation background and the black corresponds to the peak activity in the centre of the liver, where the parenchyma is thickest. The colours in between correspond to the different zones of isoradioactivity. This method has been used to examine 150 patients suffering from malignant (primary and secondary) and benign tumours, 80 patients suffering from chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis and 50 normal subjects. In most of the cases studied, intravenous injections of colloidal gold-198 (Amersham, UK) were used. In numerous cases parallel studies were carried out with mechanical scans, black-and-white photoscintigrams and colour scintigrams. Diagnoses were checked by means of punctures, laparoscopy, laparophotography or cinematography, biopsic punctures, surgery and necropsy. Colour scintillography brings out more clearly the variations in the intensity of the radioactivity, i.e. the disorganization of the parenchyma of the liver or its substitution by tumoral processes. (author)

  6. Adsorption of diatoms at the oil-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahi, Niloofar; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Statistically robust experimental observations on 3D trajectory of diatoms approaching an oil-water interface is crucial for understanding sorption mechanisms of active particles, and interfacial rheology with over-arching implications in interfacial dynamics, droplet break and coalescence. Digital Holographic Cinematography is utilized to measure 3-D trajectories of diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudomona and T. weissflogii and simultaneously track the interface. Experiments are conducted in a 300 × 100 × 100 mm chamber containing 32 ppt artificial seawater. A stationary pendant drop is created on the tip of a needle located at the center of the chamber. Three oil samples, Louisiana crude, hexadecane, and mineral oil, are used. Diatoms are injected at a height above the drop with a negligible velocity, where Diatom precipitates freely on its excess weight. Holograms of diatom and drop are recorded at 5 fps with a magnification of 1.3X and are streamed in real time allowing for long-term study of sorption onto a slowly aging interface. A novel autofocus algorithm enables us to determine 3D locations within an uncertainty of 0.05 particle diameter. This allows us to perform super-resolution measurement to determine the effects of location and orientation of diatoms on the adsorption rate at the oil-water interface. Funded by GoMRI.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of morphological and functional changes of the uterus induced by sacral surface electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the morphological and kinematical changes of the uterus induced by electrical stimulation applied to the skin just above the second and fourth posterior sacral foramens (sacral surface electrical stimulation [ssES]) in 26 healthy subjects. Out of them, eight subjects who had severe pain subjectively during every menstruation received ssES just in menstruation. Morphological and functional changes of the uterus were examined by using T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T1-weighted MR cinematography, respectively. Cyclic electrical stimulation for 15 min with 5 sec ON and 5 sec OFF was applied just before MR scanning. A decrease in thickness of the muscular layer of the uterus was observed in every subject after ssES for 15 min and was significant as compared with the thickness before ssES. Periodic uterine movement during menstruation was observed in the subjects with severe menstrual pain in MR cine and the power spectrum analysis of the movement showed a marked decrease in peak power and frequency after ssES treatment. We conclude that ssES causes a reduction of static muscle tension of the uterus in all menstrual cycle periods and suppression of uterine peristalsis during menstruation in the subjects with severe menstrual pain. Possible neural mechanisms for these static and dynamic effects of ssES on the uterus at spinal level are discussed. (author)

  8. Electromyographic analysis of the hip and knee during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, J R; Jobe, F W; Pink, M; Perry, J; Ruwe, P A

    1995-07-01

    As golf increases in popularity, more golfers seek the proper mechanics necessary for the perfect golf swing. Surprisingly little scientific work has been published on the contribution of the hip and knee muscles during the golf swing even though most professionals have recognized their vital contribution. Recent studies have described the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the shoulder, back, and trunk during the golf swing. The purpose of this study was to describe the electrical muscle activity in seven hip and knee muscles of both the left (lead) and right (trail) leg in competitive golfers while performing the golf swing. Sixteen golfers were studied with indwelling electrodes and high-speed cinematography. The EMG was synchronized with the film to discern five phases of the golf swing. Means, SDs, and t-tests were done. The results revealed that the trail hip extensors and abductors in conjunction with the lead adductor magus initiated pelvic rotation during forward swing. The lead hamstrings maintained a flexed knee and provided a stable base on which pelvic rotation took place. The peak EMG muscle activity recorded in the hips and knees occurred in an earlier phase than that measured previously in the trunk and shoulder. This confirmed the sequential firing pattern of the hip and knee muscles that takes place during the competitive golf swing. Information gained from this study can be used by players and coaches to optimize performance and to minimize injury. PMID:7670971

  9. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.; Fletcher, Neville H.; Blevins, William E.

    2006-01-01

    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends on filtering of the vocal source, but the nature of this filter is controversial. Current hypotheses treat the songbird vocal tract as a rigid tube with a resonance that is modulated by the end-correction of a variable beak opening. Through x-ray cinematography of singing birds, we show that birdsong is accompanied by cyclical movements of the hyoid skeleton and changes in the diameter of the cranial end of the esophagus that maintain an inverse relationship between the volume of the oropharyngeal cavity and esophagus and the song’s fundamental frequency. A computational acoustic model indicates that this song-related motor pattern tunes the major resonance of the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity to actively track the song’s fundamental frequency. PMID:16567614

  10. Cinematics and sticking of heart valves in pulsatile flow test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J; Wirtz, R

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the project was to develop laboratory test devices for studies of the cinematics and sticking behaviour of technical valve protheses. The second step includes testing technical valves of different types and sizes under static and dynamic conditions. A force-deflection balance was developed in order to load valve rims by static radial forces until sticking or loss of a disc (sticking- and clamping-mould point) with computer-controlled force deflection curves. A second deflection device was developed and used for prosthetic valves in the aortic position of a pulsatile mock circulation loop with simultaneous video-cinematography. The stiffness of technical valve rims varied between 0.20 (St. Jude) and about 1.0 N/micron (metal rim valves). The stiffness decreased significantly with increasing valve size. Sticking under pulsatile flow conditions was in good agreement with the static deflection measurements. Hence, valve sticking with increasing danger of thrombus formation is more likely with a less stiff valve rim. In the case of forces acting perpendicularly to the pendulum axis, the clamping mould-point of the valve can be reached, followed by disc dislodgement. PMID:1864654

  11. Forces predicted at the ankle during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, R G

    1982-01-01

    A biomechanical model of the ankle joint was developed and was used to predict the forces at the ankle during the stance phase of running. Measurements from five cadavers were averaged to obtain insertion points and directions of pull of equivalent tendons with respect to the assumed center of the ankle joint. A minimum joint force solution was obtained by assuming that only two equivalent muscle groups could exert force at one time. Three subjects ran at 4.47 m/s across a force platform that recorded the external forces and moments acting on the foot. Cinematography was used to measure the foot and leg positions during stance. Peak resultant joint forces ranging from 9.0 to 13.3 times body weight and peak Achilles tendon forces ranging from 5.3 to 10.0 times body weight were predicted. Small variations in some cases resulted in large differences in predicted forces. The highest tendon forces predicted exceeded those reported to cause damage to cadaver tendons in other studies. PMID:7132650

  12. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws. PMID:9167819

  13. México y el Instituto Internacional de Cinematografía Educativa, 1927-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Herrera León

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento en 1927 del Instituto Internacional de Cinematografía Educativa de Roma (IICE supuso una oportunidad para que México retomara el cine como una herramienta educativa. El artículo estudia tal posibilidad derivada de la relación de México con el Instituto de Roma, entidad artífice de un proyecto de cooperación internacional sin precedentes. México colaboraría de manera muy irregular con el IICE, no obstante los beneficios que podía ofrecerle el proyecto cinematográfico italiano.The establishment of the International Institute of Educational Cinematography of Rome (IICE in 1927 enabled Mexico to take up cinema as an educational tool. The article studies this possibility, derived from Mexico's relationship with the Institute of Rome, the architect of an unprecedented international cooperation project. Mexico, however, collaborated with the IICE on an extremely irregular basis, despite the potential benefits of the Italian cinematographic project.

  14. Time Resolved 2D X-Ray Densitometry of a Ventilated Partial Cavity Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiharju, Simo; Ceccio, Steven

    2011-11-01

    A time resolved x-ray densitometry system was developed to measure the spatial distribution of void fraction for nominally two-dimensional flows. The system can image a region of (15 cm)2 at a frame rate of up to 4000 fps. The source was a rotating anode type normally used for cineradiography and angiography. Supplied by a 65 kW high frequency generator with a high speed starter, it could be operated at up to 433 mA at 150 kV. The imager subsystem comprised of a high speed camera coupled with a high resolution image intensifier. The range of measured void fraction can be changed to span a desired range yielding an uncertainty on the order of 1% of the measurement range. The system is used to examine the void fraction field in the closure region of a ventilated partial cavity behind a backward facing step. The cavity has Reynolds number of O(105) based on the cavity length, and a non-dimensional gas flux of Q* = 0.0048. The bubbly flow created in the cavity wake is examined using the x-ray densitometry system, duel fiber optical probes, and high speed cinematography. The local void fraction and bubble size distributions in the cavity wake are determined, and the measurements methods are compared. The research was sponsored by ONR under grant N00014-08-1-0215, program manager Dr. L. Patrick Purtell.

  15. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  16. A screen for constituents of motor control and decision making in Drosophila reveals visual distance-estimation neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triphan, Tilman; Nern, Aljoscha; Roberts, Sonia F.; Korff, Wyatt; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Strauss, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Climbing over chasms larger than step size is vital to fruit flies, since foraging and mating are achieved while walking. Flies avoid futile climbing attempts by processing parallax-motion vision to estimate gap width. To identify neuronal substrates of climbing control, we screened a large collection of fly lines with temporarily inactivated neuronal populations in a novel high-throughput assay described here. The observed climbing phenotypes were classified; lines in each group are reported. Selected lines were further analysed by high-resolution video cinematography. One striking class of flies attempts to climb chasms of unsurmountable width; expression analysis guided us to C2 optic-lobe interneurons. Inactivation of C2 or the closely related C3 neurons with highly specific intersectional driver lines consistently reproduced hyperactive climbing whereas strong or weak artificial depolarization of C2/C3 neurons strongly or mildly decreased climbing frequency. Contrast-manipulation experiments support our conclusion that C2/C3 neurons are part of the distance-evaluation system. PMID:27255169

  17. National Identities and Cinema: a critical recension of the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Macedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This critical review concerns the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain. This book is part of a series of volumes published in the Directory of World Cinema, by Intellect Books. The first part consists of a critique of the film "Biutiful", an interview with the director Jaime Rosales, followed by a reflection on the Spanish film industry. This part is also composed of a chapter in which are discussed the aspects that the authors consider to define the Spanish culture, concluding with a reflection on the work of some Spanish filmmakers. In the second part are presented ten film genres that characterize the Spanish cinema, and analyzed ten films by each gender. This book would benefit from a final reflection on the Spanish cinema, by recognizing and discussing the national character of the films produced, very marked by the national spaces and by the political, cultural and social history lived. Many European cinematographies became known as belonging to a particular national culture, and some even developed a style or have become specialized in a particular genre. This seems to be the reality of Spanish cinema, were the genre classified in this book as author melodram is very present.

  18. The relationship between basketball shooting kinematics, distance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Bartlett, R

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional cinematography (100 Hz) was used to establish the relationship between distance and the kinematics of shooting with respect to playing position in basketball. Fifteen subjects, divided into guards, forwards and centres (all n = 5), performed jump shots from each of three distances: 2.74, 4.57 and 6.40 m from the basket. Increases in mean release speed were found as shooting distance increased for all groups. This was due to increased angular velocities of both shoulder flexion and elbow extension and an increased speed of the centre of mass in the direction of the basket. Release angles for the two shorter distances (52-55 degrees) tended to provide the advantage of a steep angle of entry into the basket, whereas those at the longest distance (48-50 degrees) were closer to those requiring the minimum possible release speed. All groups exhibited an earlier timing of release as shooting distance increased, which gave rise to an earlier rotation of the shoulder axis. The more consistent changes in kinematic patterns with changes in shooting distance exhibited by guards as compared to centres would suggest that such adjustments are easier to make for those players who regularly shoot from long range. PMID:8809716

  19. Intermittent turbulent events over sandy current ripples: a motion-picture analysis of flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, H. K.; Chough, S. K.

    2003-10-01

    A series of laboratory flume experiments was conducted in order to elucidate sediment transport processes over sandy current ripples. Instantaneous cinematography, capable of recording up to 30 frames per second, was employed to trace the coherent trajectories of the sediment particles and flow. Analysis of channel side-view images suggests that sediment behaviour over a fully developed current ripple can be categorized as distinct stages on both stoss and lee sides. Near the reattachment point on the stoss side, sediment particles exhibit the following intermittent but coherent motions: (1) impact of sediment-laden fluid on the reattachment point; (2) entrainment of particles; (3) spiral-like turbulent motion; and (4) downstream dissipation of particles. The sequential sediment behaviour is called micro-scale kolk, which is a key mechanism responsible for turbulent sediment entrainment over current ripples. The salient features of boil were not observed. In the crest and lee side region, sequential images show the following characteristics: (1) detachment of particles and fluid at the crest; (2) entrainment and shielding of particles; (3) avalanching and rolling of free-shear layer; and (4) downstream dissipation and recreation of a lee face. Segregation of heavy minerals was accomplished by successive avalanches along the lee slope and mixing vortices in the separation cell.

  20. Full-Scale Schlieren Imaging of Firearms Discharge and Bullets in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumstrup, Torben; Settles, Gary; Dodson-Dreibelbis, Lori

    2003-11-01

    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source, thus having a 2x3m field-of-view, was described at previous APS/DFD meetings. The implementation of high-speed still imaging and cinematography of shock waves with this system has also been described. Schlieren methods and external ballistics have been closely related since Mach and Salcher first photographed shock waves about a bullet in 1887. The reason to revisit the topic here is that a large field of view allows imaging not only of the bullet and muzzle blast, but also of shock wave interactions with the surroundings and with the person firing the gun. Microsecond still images reveal various stages of these phenomena for both transonic and supersonic (pistol and rifle) bullets. High-speed movies at 30,000 frames/s are also presented. Some implications of these results for hearing protection while using firearms, the improvement of gun and ammunition design and safety, and forensic investigations of close-range bullet wounds are discussed.

  1. Experimental investigation of two oil dispersion pathways by breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Katz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    This experimental study focuses on generation and size distribution of airborne and subsurface oil droplets as breaking surface waves interact with a crude oil slick (MC252 surrogate). Experiments in a specialized wave tank investigate the effects of wave height and wave properties (e.g. spilling vs. plunging), as well as drastically reducing the oil-water interfacial tension by orders of magnitude by introducing dispersant (Coexist 9500-A). This dispersant is applied at varying dispersant-to-oil ratios either by premixing or surface spraying, the latter consistent with typical application. The data include high-speed visualizations of processes affecting the entrainment of subsurface oil and bubbles as well as airborne aerosols. High-speed digital holographic cinematography is employed to track the droplet trajectories, and quantify the droplet size distributions above and below the surface. Introduction of dispersants drastically reduces the size of subsurface droplets to micron and even submicron levels. Ahead of the wave, the 25 μm (our present resolution limit) to 2 mm airborne droplet trajectories are aligned with the wave direction. Behind the wave, these droplets reverse their direction, presumably due to the airflow above the wave. Supported by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  2. True Detective Stories: Media Textuality and the Anthology Format between Remediation and Transmedia Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Demaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the recent HBO first season TV series True Detective (2014-, the essays focuses on the renewed anthology format of contemporary seriality as a way to inscribe the form of the novel in the transmedia imagination and its narrative models. While the first part of the essay concentrates on Media and Literary Studies’ debates on the statute of media texts, their materiality and the transformations of their contents in the participatory and convergent culture of prosumers, the second part is devoted to an in-depth reading of some of the main features of True Detective’s first season: from the ways it remediates many other genres and media, to how – as an audiovisual sychretyc text -  it plays with dialogues, cinematography, music and its temporal, spatial and seeing enunciative strategies and positions in order to construct a (quasidystopic narrative of America as an after-image, or, better, a post-collapse America and its Southern Gothic landscapes. In the lst paragraph, this writing briefly engages with how this particular format of TV series helps developing narrative models that fan we bpages and fanfic archives are still struggling not so much to comprehend, but to actually transform into an expanded textuality  able to tell a more ‘true’ story.

  3. Studies on chemical constituents from Rubus alceaefolius Poir%粗叶悬钩子的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹丹; 周洪波; 房志坚

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究粗叶悬钩子的化学成分.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱对粗叶悬钩子进行分离纯化,通过理化常数和波谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从粗叶悬钩子的石油醚萃取部位分离鉴定出6个化合物,分别为:熊果醇(Ⅰ)、白桦酸(Ⅱ)、蔷薇酸(Ⅲ)、大黄素甲醚(Ⅳ)、肉豆蔻酸(V)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅵ).结论 化合物Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、V均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To study on the chemical constituents from Rubus akeaefolius. Methods The compounds were isolated with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column cinematography from Rubus akeaefolius, and identified with various modern spectroscopic analysis and physical constants. Results Six compounds were isolated from petroleum ether extract of this plant and identified as uvaol ( I ) , betulinic acid ( II ) , euscaphic acid (III ) , physcion (IV ) , myristic acid ( V), β-sitosterol (VI). Conclusion Compounds I 、II 、 III、 IV 、 V were obtained from the plant for the first time.

  4. Tekstualiteit van kinematografie: Filmhermeneutiek as publieke teologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anet (Anna Elizabeth Dreyer-Kruger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tendencies in film hermeneutics. Hollywood is synonymous with the tradition of images that are used to create emotion, to strengthen attachment, and to encourage imitation. In a certain sense these values are also encouraged by the church as institution. Scholars who study the connection between cinematography and theology acknowledge that the cinema has become the ‘principal new church’ for post-secularised believers. Films are regarded among the ‘big books’ of ‘postmodern culture’. In this article it is argued that film hermeneutics should be regarded as an epistemological movement which has departed from a typographical culture, including logocentrism, phonocentrism, and text-focused cognition. The movement is towards a visual culture, including audiovisual and virtual realities, and is contextualised in a cyber-community. Tendencies in films with biblical and religious dimensions and themes, including the way in which the Christ figure is portrayed, are discussed. In this article the value of film hermeneutics – that is, the ‘textuality of the screen’ – as public theology, is also identified.

  5. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae. Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.

  6. Mascotte, a research test facility for high pressure combustion of cryogenic propellants; Mascotte, un banc d'essai de recherche pour la combustion a haute pression d'ergols cryogeniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vingert, L.; Habiballah, M.; Traineau, J.C. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2000-07-01

    Detailed experimental studies of cryogenic propellant combustion are needed to improve design and optimization of high performance liquid rocket engines. A research test facility called Mascotte has been built up by ONERA to study elementary processes that are involved in the combustion of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen. Mascotte is aimed at feeding a single element combustor with actual propellants, and the third version in operation since mid 1998 allows to reach supercritical pressures in the combustor. A specific high pressure combustor was developed for this purpose. Research teams from different laboratories belonging to CNRS and ONERA, regrouped in a common research program managed by CNES and SNECMA division SEP, may run experiments on Mascotte, with several objectives: - improve the knowledge and the modeling of physical phenomena; - provide experimental results for computer code validation; - improve and assess diagnostic techniques (especially optical diagnostics). Following diagnostics for instance, were used on Mascotte from 1994 to 1999: - OH imaging (spontaneous emission and laser induced fluorescence ); - CARS temperature measurements (using the H{sub 2} and simultaneously the H{sub 2}O molecules); - High speed cinematography (with a copper vapor laser synchronized to a high speed camera); - O{sub 2} vapor imaging (laser induced fluorescence); - Particle sizing (by means of a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer). (authors)

  7. LAMP proteins are required for fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kassidy K; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Scott, Cameron C; Malevanets, Anatoly; Saftig, Paul; Grinstein, Sergio

    2007-01-24

    Lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are delivered to phagosomes during the maturation process. We used cells from LAMP-deficient mice to analyze the role of these proteins in phagosome maturation. Macrophages from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2-deficient mice displayed normal fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes. Because ablation of both the lamp-1 and lamp-2 genes yields an embryonic-lethal phenotype, we were unable to study macrophages from double knockouts. Instead, we reconstituted phagocytosis in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by transfection of FcgammaIIA receptors. Phagosomes formed by FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs obtained from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2- deficient mice acquired lysosomal markers. Remarkably, although FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs from double-deficient mice ingested particles normally, phagosomal maturation was arrested. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 double-deficient phagosomes acquired Rab5 and accumulated phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, but failed to recruit Rab7 and did not fuse with lysosomes. We attribute the deficiency to impaired organellar motility along microtubules. Time-lapse cinematography revealed that late endosomes/lysosomes as well as phagosomes lacking LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 had reduced ability to move toward the microtubule-organizing center, likely precluding their interaction with each other. PMID:17245426

  8. The effect of binary oxide materials on a single droplet vapor explosion triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, R.C.; Manickam, L.T.; Dinh, T.N. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    In order to explore the fundamental mechanism dictated by the material influence on triggering, fine fragmentation and subsequent vapor explosion energetics, a series of experiments using a mixture of eutectic and non-eutectic binary oxide were initiated. Dynamics of the hot liquid (WO{sub 3}-CaO) droplet and the volatile liquid (water) were investigated in the MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) facility by performing well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments, using a high-speed visualization system with synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography, called SHARP (Simultaneous High-speed Acquisition of X-ray Radiography and Photography). The acquired images followed by further analysis showed a milder interaction for the non-eutectic melt composition for the tests with low melt superheat, whether no evident differences between eutectic and non-eutectic melt compositions regarding bubble dynamics, energetics and melt preconditioning was perceived for the high melt superheat tests. (author)

  9. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, P.; Morganti, N.; Saccone, G.

    2015-11-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field.

  10. The use of low departure aspheric surfaces in high quality wide angle lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Kristen E.; Jonas, Reginald P.; Wallace, Brian P.

    2015-09-01

    Modern lens designs for digital sensors, such as those required in medium volumes for cinematography, often require the use of one or two high departure aspheric surfaces. With departures from best fit sphere of up to a few millimeters, the use of such surfaces are accompanied by a number of consequences: high cost metrology, very tight opto-mechanical tolerances and image artifacts due to the sub-aperture grinding and polishing process. Previously we examined the use of multiple aspheric surfaces with very low departures from best fit sphere (BFS) and concluded that advantages may be gained in standard and telephoto lenses, but not in wide angle lens designs1. In this work we consider the potential benefits of low departure aspheric surfaces, as applied to wide angle lenses in particular. We review the number, placement, and nature of aspheric surfaces in some wide angle lens design examples, and look at the potential to redesign with an increased number of low departure aspheric surfaces that have the potential to be manufactured without the need for computer generated holograms (CGH's). The use and limitations of modern interferometers capable of measuring aspheric surfaces without the use of CGH's will be considered. In one example we examine the performance, manufacturing, and cost perspective, paying particular attention to testing and mechanical alignment tolerances.

  11. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms. PMID:26684423

  12. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  13. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  14. Promising system for selecting healthy in vitro-fertilized embryos in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors--(i) timing of the first cleavage; (ii) number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii) presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv) number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v) oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage--pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%). The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos. PMID:22590579

  15. Simultaneous high speed digital cinematographic and X-ray radiographic imaging of a intense multi-fluid interaction with rapid phase changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Roberta Concilio; Park, Hyun Sun; Dinh, Truc-Nam [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    As typical for the study of the vapor explosions, the qualitative and quantitative understanding of the phenomena requires visualization of both material and interface dynamics. A new approach to multi-fluid multiphase visualization is presented with the focus on the development of a synchronized high-speed visualization by digital cinematography and X-ray radiography. The developed system, named SHARP (simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography), and its image processing methodology, directed to an image synchronization procedure and a separate quantification of vapor and molten material dynamics, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, we exploit an intrinsic property of the X-ray radiation, namely the differences in linear mass attenuation coefficients over the beam path through a multi-component system, to characterize the evolution of molten material distribution. Analysis of the data obtained by the SHARP system and image processing procedure developed granted new insights into the physics of the vapor explosion phenomena, as well as, quantitative information of the associated dynamic micro-interactions. (author)

  16. Study of the combustion of aluminium and magnesium particulates: influence of the composition of the gaseous mixture and of pressure; Etude de la combustion de particules d'aluminium et de magnesium: influence de la composition du melange gazeux et de la pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, B.

    2000-07-01

    The combustion of metal particulates has a major interest in the domain of space propulsion. Aluminium is today used as doping material in the solid propellant of Ariane 5 rocket engines. Magnesium represents a possible fuel for propellers allowing a come back from Mars. An electrostatic levitation device has been used to study the combustion in controlled environment of particulates having a size representative of those encountered in propellers. The particulates are ignited with a laser and observed by fast cinematography. The inhibitive property of hydrogen chloride, an important constituent of the propellant atmosphere, on the combustion of aluminium particulates has been evidenced. These results have been compared with those obtained with a kinetic model in gaseous phase. The combustion of magnesium particulates in carbon dioxide has been studied for 53-63 {mu}m and 1-2 mm particulates. It is shown that the ignition of small particulates is controlled by the chemical kinetics and that the limit ignition pressure is reversely proportional to the particulates size. A study on big samples, performed in normal gravity but also in reduced gravity to get rid of the natural convection phenomena, has permitted to show a pulsed combustion regime linked with the presence of heterogenous reactions. The measurement of the combustion durations for the different sizes of particulates has permitted to propose a correlation between these two parameters for the particulate diameters comprised between 50 {mu}m and 2 mm. (J.S.)

  17. Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; R. Gupta; B. Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The knowledge of biomass char gasification kinetics has considerable importance in the design of advanced biomass gasifiers, some of which operate at high pressure. The char gasification kinetics themselves are influenced by char structure. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the char structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, digital cinematography, and surface area analysis. Char samples were prepared at pressures between 1 and 20 bar, temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000{degree}C, and heating rates between 20 and 500{degree}C/s. Our results indicate that pyrolysis conditions have a notable impact on the biomass char morphology. Pyrolysis pressure, in particular, was found to influence the size and the shape of char particles while high heating rates led to plastic deformation of particles (i.e. melting) resulting in smooth surfaces and large cavities. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The influence of visual representations of “the Other” in the system of modern sociocultural communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodii Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the way and the form of modern humanitaristics understanding of the problem of visual representation of “the Other”. The authors’ tasks were to comprehend the nature and dynamics of visualization, to give a distinct working definition of visual competence. Besides, the purpose of the paper was to state the components of visual competence, its criteria, estimation methods and in this context to interpret the image of “the Other” decoded in scientific philosophic and cultural literature and in daily cultural practices. And the final task was to reduce the visual message to the verbal one. The doctrine that the image may be read is the common prejudice, which prevents the formation of a new approach to visuality. The first step towards the solution of problem is to describe the techniques, which help in potential understanding of the visual structure. Understanding the image diversity and its possible text analogues should help in establishing the specific requirements, which can be and must be applicable to visual representation of “the Other”. Representations in the visual culture (photography, cinematography, media, painting, advertisement influence the social image, affects the daily social practices and communications. Visual representations are of interest for social theorists as well as cultural texts, as they give an idea on the context of cultural production, social interaction and individual experience.

  19. 广东聚光堂获奖作品赏析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> 第十四届时报亚太广告奖12月7目在台北举行颁奖典礼,获奖的重点单位仍然是台湾的广告公司,大陆广告公司,包括独资、合资和本土广告公司总体表现欠佳,在一片萧瑟中,广东聚光堂广告公司首次参赛就成了大陆本土广告公司在此次广告盛典上最大的赢家。参赛作品6件,有4件获奖。其中 A Helpleas Girl Who LoveBallet/Eye Contact(女孩篇/眼神篇)以其对社会现实的深切关注和人性化的表现,获得 Television-Public Welfare(公益类)铜奖,与此同时,两条公益片精湛的摄影技术更是折取了本届影视类广告 Television—Cinematography(摄影)金奖,令得

  20. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.

    2009-11-02

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  1. Measurement of unsteady convection in a complex fenestration using laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulad, M.E.; Naylor, D. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Oosthuizen, P.H. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2009-06-15

    Complex fenestration involving windows with between-panes louvered blinds is gaining interest as a means to control solar gains in buildings. However, the heat transfer performance of this type of shading system is not well understood, especially at high Rayleigh numbers. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used in this study to measure the unsteady convective heat transfer in a tall enclosure with between-panes blind that was heated to simulate absorbed solar radiation. Digital cinematography was combined with laser interferometry to make time-averaged measurements of unsteady and turbulent free convective heat transfer. This paper described the procedures used to measure the time-average local heat flux. Under strongly turbulent conditions, the average Nusselt number for the enclosure was found to compare well with empirical correlations. A total sampling time of about ten seconds was needed in this experiment to obtain a stationary time-average heat flux. The time-average heat flux was found to be relatively insensitive to the camera frame rate. The local heat flux was found to be unsteady and periodic. Heating of the blind made the flow more unstable, producing a higher amplitude heat flux variation than for the unheated blind condition. This paper reported on only a small set of preliminary measurements. This study is being extended to other blind angles and glazing spacings. The next phase will focus on flow visualization studies to characterize the nature of the flow. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. A screen for constituents of motor control and decision making in Drosophila reveals visual distance-estimation neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triphan, Tilman; Nern, Aljoscha; Roberts, Sonia F; Korff, Wyatt; Naiman, Daniel Q; Strauss, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Climbing over chasms larger than step size is vital to fruit flies, since foraging and mating are achieved while walking. Flies avoid futile climbing attempts by processing parallax-motion vision to estimate gap width. To identify neuronal substrates of climbing control, we screened a large collection of fly lines with temporarily inactivated neuronal populations in a novel high-throughput assay described here. The observed climbing phenotypes were classified; lines in each group are reported. Selected lines were further analysed by high-resolution video cinematography. One striking class of flies attempts to climb chasms of unsurmountable width; expression analysis guided us to C2 optic-lobe interneurons. Inactivation of C2 or the closely related C3 neurons with highly specific intersectional driver lines consistently reproduced hyperactive climbing whereas strong or weak artificial depolarization of C2/C3 neurons strongly or mildly decreased climbing frequency. Contrast-manipulation experiments support our conclusion that C2/C3 neurons are part of the distance-evaluation system. PMID:27255169

  3. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D

    2008-07-16

    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr(2)O(3) matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr(2)O(3)/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr(2)O(3) matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr(2)O(3) matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr(2)O(3) matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation. PMID:21828750

  4. From the “Camera Obscura” to the Computer, or How Does the Image Become an Apparent Indexical Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Teodor Codoban

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The triumph of the image in contemporary culture is as obvious as the triumph of the body within the Western civilization. However, what has been less noticed is that it is also as partial and specific. As it is not the body in its metaphysical certainty that had triumphed, but only the body as a register of meanings (only the body as language, what triumphs in this civilization is also only a certain type of image. This is because when we, the Westerners, refer to the image, we inevitably think of the tridimensional space of the Euclidean projection, originating in the Renaissance paintings and backed up afterwards by the photography of the late 19th century, by cinematography and by today‟s omnipresent television. This is the type of image that has triumphed and that takes under its caring wing everything that resembles it within the visual culture. Consequently, we speak with too much ease about the image and we call almost everything “image” as long as it vaguely belongs to visibility, or even to resemblance in a very general sense, even though we conceive it according to the tridimensional image from the Euclidean projection.

  5. The Role of Pop Music and Other Phenomena of Modern Culture in the Preservation of Komi Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kuznetsov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of pop music and other phenomenaof mass culture on the preservation of Komi language in the Komi Republic, Russia in the last decade. For the majority of young people, Komi language is not prestigious; it is insufficiently represented in publishing, television and radio broadcasting, cinematography, showbusiness, virtual space, etc. These “elements of progress” (Bazhenova 2004 personify for the youth progress and prestige and should be Komified. Today it is necessary to introduce the application of Komi language more actively in the sphere of modern technologies as one of the “elements of progress”. The Komi need to stop viewing their culture and language as second-rate, underdeveloped in relation to Russian culture and language. The article also discusses the activities targeted at expanding the spheres of use of the Komi language, the state support to the modern Komi culture, the influence of the phenomena of modern culture on the prestige of the Komi language, and other issues.

  6. Promising system for selecting healthy in vitro-fertilized embryos in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Sugimura

    Full Text Available Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors--(i timing of the first cleavage; (ii number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage--pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%. The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos.

  7. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-02-25

    "Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes" is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community -academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  8. Developmental Characterization of Tail Movements in the Appendicularian Urochordate Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreneisz, Orsolya; Glover, Joel C

    2015-01-01

    Using high-speed video cinematography, we characterized kinematically the spontaneous tail movements made by the appendicularian urochordate Oikopleura dioica. Videos of young adult (1-day-old) animals discriminated 4 cardinal movement types: bending, nodding, swimming and filtering, each of which had a characteristic signature including cyclicity, event or cycle duration, cycle frequency, cycle frequency variation, laterality, tail muscle segment coordination and episode duration. Bending exhibited a more common, unilateral form (single bending) and a rarer, bilateral form (alternating bending). Videos of developing animals showed that bending and swimming appeared in rudimentary form starting just after hatching and exhibited developmental changes in movement excursion, duration and frequency, whereas nodding and filtering appeared in the fully mature form in young adults at the time of first house production. More complex behaviors were associated with inflating, entering and exiting the house. We also assessed the influence of descending inputs by separating the tail (which contains all muscles and most likely the neural circuits that generate most motor outputs) from the head. Isolated tails spontaneously generated either bending or swimming movements in abnormally protracted episodes. This together with other observations of interactions between bending and swimming behaviors indicates the presence of several types of descending inputs that regulate the activity of the pattern generating circuitry in the tail nervous system. PMID:26516763

  9. Red chlorophyll: the new barium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, G W

    2012-05-01

    Imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) motility remotely through the abdominal wall has always been a tradeoff between resolution and invasiveness. Skin reflects and/or absorbs wavelengths of radiation in the ultraviolet and visible ranges, but is largely transparent to both high-energy radiation (Gamma to X-rays; cinematography has excellent spatial and temporal resolution, but ionization can produce acute and long-term deleterious effects to the patient or animal. Other 'slice-based' imaging techniques such as ultrasound/MRI/CT minimize tissue damage, but are limited in the planar area that can be imaged in a timely fashion. This viewpoint article will summarize and explore the implications of recent advances in infrared imaging of the GI tract, in particular, an article published in this issue of NGM entitled 'In vivo dynamic imaging of intestinal motions using diet-related autofluorescence' in which the authors have used infrared imaging in combination with that most elusive ingredient, standard mouse chow, to capture the motions of the mouse GI tract. PMID:22489835

  10. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L

    2013-12-22

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts' function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  11. Measurements of polystyrene bead trajectories and spatial distributions in a turbulent water flow, square duct using high-speed digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hout, Rene; Rabencov, Boris; Arca, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Near neutrally buoyant, polystyrene beads (583 micrometers) were tracked in a square (50 × 50 mm2), closed-loop, turbulent water duct at a bulk flow Reynolds number of 10,602 (friction velocity 0.0208 m/s) using single view, inline digital holographic cinematography (at 1 kHz). The volume of interest (50 × 17.4 × 17.4 mm3) was positioned at the bottom part of the channel. The mean bead diameter normalized by inner wall coordinates was d+ = 14.2, with Stokes numbers of 8.5. In-house developed algorithms, fine-tuned to tracking single and overlapping beads were developed. Bead in-focus positions were determined by maximum intensity gradient method. Results showed that in agreement with literature publications, ascending beads lagged the mean streamwise water velocity while descending ones had similar velocities. Average streamwise bead velocities and number densities collapsed onto wall-normal-streamwise and spanwise-streamwise planes, indicated preferential segregation of ascending and descending beads up to a height of 100 wall units. Spanwise ``lane'' separation distances ranged between 150-200 wall units, larger but of the same order as the spanwise extent of coherent near-wall turbulence structures. Duct corners were nearly devoid of beads likely caused by secondary flows. Israel Science Foundation Grant 915/10 and COST Actions MP0806 and FP1005.

  12. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Flake Aluminum - High-Speed Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A

    2006-06-19

    Charges of 0.5 g PETN were used to disperse 1 g of flake aluminum in a rectangular test chamber of 4 liter inner volume and inner dimensions of approximately 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm. The subsequent combustion of the flake aluminum with the ambient air in the chamber gave rise to a highly luminous flame. The evolution of the luminous region was studied by means of high-speed cinematography. The high-speed camera is responsive to a broad spectral range in the visible and near infra-red. For a number of tests this response range was narrowed down by means of a band-pass filter with a center wavelength of 488 nm and a half-width of 23 nm. The corresponding images were expected to have a stronger temperature dependence than images obtained without the filter, thus providing better capability to highlight hot-spots. Emission in the range of the pass-band of the filter can be due to continuous thermal radiation from hot Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or to molecular band emission from gaseous AlO. A time-resolving spectrometer was improvised to inspect this topic. The results suggest that AlO emission occurs, but that the continuous spectrum is the dominating effect in our experiments.

  13. Programmable shunt valves: in vitro assessment of safety of the magnetic field generated by a portable game machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Koji; Nakajo, Takato; Kawamo, Michiari; Kato, Akihito; Ishigaki, Seiichiro; Murakami, Hidetomo; Imaizumi, Yohichi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are frequently used to treat hydrocephalus. The use of a programmable shunt valve allows physicians to easily change the opening pressure. Since patients with adjustable CSF shunt valves may use portable game machines, the permanent magnets in these machines may alter the shunt valve programmed settings or permanently damage the device. This study investigated the risk of unintentional valve adjustment associated with the use of game machines in patients with programmable CSF shunt valves. Four adjustable valves from 4 different manufacturers, Sophysa Polaris model SPV (Polaris valve), Miethke proGAV (proGAV), Codman Hakim programmable valve (CHPV), and Strata II small valve (Strata valve), were evaluated. Magnetic field interactions were determined using the portable game machine, Nintendo DS Lite (DS). The maximum distance between the valve and the DS that affected the valve pressure setting was measured by x-ray cinematography. The Polaris valve and proGAV were immune to unintentional reprogramming by the DS. However, the settings of the CHPV and Strata valves were randomly altered by the DS. Patients with an implanted shunt valve should be made aware of the risks posed by the magnetic fields associated with portable game machines and commonly used home electronics. PMID:21946726

  14. Psychiatry and movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions. PMID:19556954

  15. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Haushahn, Tobias; Warnke, Markus; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae). Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult) and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1), and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal. PMID:26444002

  16. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling. PMID:26229111

  17. Mean droplet size and local velocity in horizontal isothermal free jets of air and water, respectively, viscous liquid in quiescent ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rabadi, S.; Friedel, L. [Fluid Mechanics Institute, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany); Al Salaymeh, A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jordan (Jordan)

    2007-01-15

    Measurements using two-dimensional Phase Doppler Anemometry as well as high speed cinematography in free jets at several nozzle exit pressures and mass flow rates, show that the Sauter mean droplet diameter decreases with increasing air and liquid-phase mass flow ratio due to the increase of the air stream impact on the liquid phase. This leads to substantial liquid fragmentation, respectively primary droplet breakup, and hence, satellite droplet formation with small sizes. This trend is also significant in the case of a liquid viscosity higher than that of water. The increased liquid viscosity stabilizes the droplet formation and breakup by reducing the rate of surface perturbations and consequently droplet distortions, ultimately also leading, in total, to the formation of smaller droplets. The droplet velocity decreases with the nozzle downstream distance, basically due to the continual air entrainment and due to the collisions between the droplets. The droplet collisions may induce further liquid fragmentation and, hence, formation of a number of relatively smaller droplets respectively secondary breakup, or may induce agglomeration to comparatively larger liquid fragments that may rain out of the free jet. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. A low-cost simulation platform for flapping wing MAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. M.; Chahl, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a flight simulator for analysing the systems level performance of a Dragonfly-Inspired Micro Air Vehicle (DIMAV). A quasi-steady blade element model is used to analyse the aerodynamic forces. Aerodynamic and environmental forces are then incorporated into a real world flight dynamics model to determine the dynamics of the DIMAV system. The paper also discusses the implementation of the flight simulator for analysing the manoeuvrability of a DIMAV, specifically several modes of flight commonly found in dragonflies. This includes take-off, roll turns and yaw turns. Our findings with the simulator are consistent with results from wind tunnel studies and slow motion cinematography of dragonflies. In the take-off mode of flight, we see a strong dependence of take-off accelerations with flapping frequency. An increase in wing-beat frequency of 10% causes the maximum vertical acceleration to increase by 2g which is similar to that of dragonflies in nature. For the roll and yaw modes of manoeuvring, asymmetrical inputs are applied between the left and right set of wings. The flapping amplitude is increased on the left pair of wings which causes a time averaged roll rate to the right of 1.76rad/s within two wing beats. In the yaw mode, the stroke plane angle is reduced in the left pair of wings to initiate the yaw manoeuvre. In two wing beats, the time averaged yaw rate is 2.54rad/s.

  19. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  20. Tumor-initiating label-retaining cancer cells in human gastrointestinal cancers undergo asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M; Mullinax, John E; Ambe, Chenwi M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J; Wiegand, Gordon W; Garfield, Susan H; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. PMID:22331764

  1. 紫丁香花蕾化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of the Alabastrum of Syringa oblata Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽巍; 王金兰; 赵明; 张树军

    2011-01-01

    采用硅胶柱色谱和半制备高效液相色谱等从紫丁香花蕾乙酸乙酯溶液中分离得到8个单体化合物,经理化性质和波谱方法分别鉴定为:丁香苦素B(1)、齐墩果酸(2)、乌苏酸(3)、羽扇豆酸(4)、羽扇豆醇(5)、对羟基苯丙醇(6)、对羟基苯乙醇(7)和β-谷甾醇(8).其中化合物6首次从该种植物中分离得到,其余均为首次从该植物花蕾中分离得到.%Eight compounds were isolated by silica gel column cinematography and HPLC from ethyl acetate fraction of dried alabastrum of Syringa oblata. The structures were identified by means of physic-chemical and spectral data. They are Syringopicrogenin-B (1) ,oleandic acid (2) ,ursolic acid (3) .lupanic acid (4),luprol (5) ,p-hydroxy phenylpro-panol (6) ,p-hydroxy phenylethanol (7) ,and β-sitoaterol (8). Compound 6 is isolated from this plant for the first time. The other compounds are isolated from the alabastrum of S. Oblata Iindl. For the first time.

  2. High-speed cinematographic evaluation of claw-ground contact pattern of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tanja; Weishaupt, Michael A; Meyer, Sven W; Waldern, Nina; Peinen, Katja von; Nuss, Karl

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the manner in which a cow's claws make contact with the ground at the walk, the gait, and in particular the claw-ground contact pattern, were studied in 12 healthy, lactating dairy cows, using high-speed cinematography (500frames/s) while the animals were walking on a treadmill. The results showed that the limbs were advanced around the contralateral limbs in a sigmoid curve. The feet contacted the ground with the foot axis and the tips of the claws rotated slightly outwards. In all cows the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial claws in the hindlimbs, and in 10/12 cows in the forelimbs. The heel of the lateral claws was the region of initial contact with the ground in the hindlimbs of all cows and in the forelimbs in 9/12 cows. Lateral 'heel first' contact in the fore and hindlimbs appeared to be the normal gait pattern in these animals. Compared with a previous study of heifers, lactating cows had a larger step width in the hindlimbs and a smaller step width in the forelimbs. These ground contact patterns offer an explanation for the predisposition to claw disorders of the lateral claw of the hindlimb. The results of this study reinforce the suggestion that soft floor surfaces should be provided for cattle to prevent mechanical injury to the claws. PMID:18424198

  3. [Theodor Huzella and the initiation of research on the interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Ladislas; Labat-Robert, Jacqueline; Michel Robert, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between cells and the surrounding "biomatrix", mediated by receptors as integrins or the elastin receptor is the most important topic in up to date research on connective tissues. Looking for the origin of this concept, one finds the pioneering work of Theodor Huzella, professor of histology-embryology at the Medical University of Budapest during pre-world war II decades. Using time-laps micro-cinematography in reflected light, he visualized the important role of connective tissue fibers, prepared in his laboratory, for the oriented migration of normal and malignant cells. His theoretical explanations, attributing an "active" role to the elasticity of the argyrophilic fibrous network in the coordination of cell societies, can now be reinterpreted in the light of recent work on the mechanotransduction of "messages" from the extracellular matrix to the cell inside. We propose a succinct review of Huzella's work and theories reinterpreted in the light of up-to-date knowledge on cell-matrix interactions. PMID:22748046

  4. Experimental study of thermoacoustic effects on a single plate. Pt. 1. Temperature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Mech. Eng.

    2000-03-01

    The thermal interaction between a heated solid plate and the acoustically driven working fluid was investigated by visualizing and quantifying the temperature fields in the neighbourhood of the solid plate. A combination of holographic interferometry and high-speed cinematography was applied in the measurements. A better knowledge of these temperature fields is essential to develop systematic design methodologies for heat exchangers in oscillatory flows. The difference between heat transfer in oscillatory flows with zero mean velocity and steady-state flows is demonstrated in the paper. Instead of heat transfer from a heated solid surface to the colder bulk fluid, the visualized temperature fields indicated that heat was transferred from the working fluid into the stack plate at the edge of the plate. In the experiments, the thermoacoustic effect was visualized through the temperature measurements. A novel evaluation procedure that accounts for the influence of the acoustic pressure variations on the refractive index was applied to accurately reconstruct the high-speed, two-dimensional oscillating temperature distributions. (orig.)

  5. Cineradiographic (video X-ray) analysis of skilled reaching in a single pellet reaching task provides insight into relative contribution of body, head, oral, and forelimb movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Leblond, Hugues; Rossignol, Serge; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2008-10-10

    The forelimb movements (skilled reaching) used by rats to reach for a single food pellet to place into the mouth have been used to model many neurological conditions. They have been described as a sequence of oppositions of head-pellet, paw-pellet and pellet-mouth that can be described as movements of the distal portion of body segments in relation to their fixed proximal joints. Movement scoring is difficult, however, because the location and movement of body segments is estimated through the overlying fur and skin, which is pliable and partially obscures movement. Using moderately high-speed cineradiographic filming from lateral, dorsal, and frontal perspectives, the present study describes how forelimb and skeletal bones move during the skilled reaching act. The analysis indicates that: (i) head movements for orienting to food, enabled by the vertical orientation of the rostral spinal cord, are mainly independent of trunk movement, (ii) skilled reaching consists of a sequence of upper arm and extremity movements each involving a number of concurrent limb segment and joint movements and (iii) food pellets are retrieved from the paw using either the incisors and/or tongue. The findings are discussed in relation to the idea that X-ray cinematography is valuable tool for assisting descriptive analysis and can contribute to understanding general principles of the relations between whole body, head, oral, and upper extremity movement. PMID:18514337

  6. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. PMID:22038841

  7. Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)

  8. «Absolute Prohibition on Going to See the Infernal Spectacle of the White Sorcerer»: The Function of Narrative and Metaphor in the Historical Reconstitution of Cinematographic Spectacle in an African Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Bamba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reconstruction of a case of cinematography’s cultural reception in an Islamic African village. My interpretative analysis of this process is based on a reading of a short story by Amadou Bâ Hampâté. From Bâ’s text, I raise a number of questions: how do the enunciative structures of a first-person account and the speeches of other characters and viewers mix with a historical description? What does the figure of the spectator of the first cinema reflect? Are the speech, opinions and public reactions in that African village about cinema different from or similar to those of other publics around the world at that time? What are the socio-cultural determinations and mediations that Bâ’s narrative allows us to glimpse between cinematic spectacle and religious «institution»? What is the role of metaphor in the cultural reception of cinematography? My hypothesis is that the narrative of Bâ can be read and interpreted as both a metaphor and a historical document.

  9. Relationship between the length of cell cycles, cleavage pattern and developmental competence in bovine embryos generated by in vitro fertilization or parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to study the kinetics of initial cell divisions in relation with the cleavage patterns in viable (with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage) and non-viable bovine embryos and parthenotes. The kinetics of in vitro development and cleavage patterns were observed by time lapse cinematography. The length of the first and second but not third cell cycle differed significantly between the viable and non-viable embryos after IVF or parthenogenesis. Viable embryos had significantly shorter first and second cell cycles than non-viable ones. The presence of fragments, protrusions and unequally-sized blastomeres was associated with an extended one-cell stage and reduced ability to develop to the blastocyst stage; however, the lengths of the second and third cell cycles were not altered. Oocytes showing direct division from one cell to 3 or 4 blastomeres showed similar developmental ability and embryonic cell numbers to those showing normal division, although, with a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities. Our results suggest that the differences in the first cell cycles between viable and non-viable embryos were not sperm-related, whereas direct cleavage of 1-cell embryos to 3 or more blastomeres and protrusion formation are related to sperm-driven factors. The length of the first and second cell cycles and the cleavage pattern should be examined simultaneously to predict developmental competence of embryos at early cleavage stages. PMID:20035110

  10. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D [Laboratoire ISL/CNRS ' Nanomateriaux pour les Systemes Sous Sollicitations Extremes' (NS3E), FRE 3026, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), 5 rue du General Cassagnou, 68301 Saint-Louis (France)], E-mail: comet@isl.tm.fr

    2008-07-16

    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  11. Cinema Brasileiro Contemporâneo e Subalternidade: Impasses da Representação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinyze das Graças Prates de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo busca refletir sobre a emergência, no cinema brasileiro produzido nas duas últimas décadas, de um expressivo número de filmes que tematizam a questão da subalternidade. Priorizamos aqui a análise de Uma onda no ar (Helvécio Ratton, 2002, com a finalidade de examinar os impasses da representação de comunidades periféricas — situadas nas margens da nação — pela cinematografia contemporânea. Abstract: This article aims to reflect about the emergency of an expressive number of Brazilian films, produced during the last two decades, which thematize the question of subalternity. We prioritize here the exam of Uma onda no ar, directed by Helvécio Ratton (2002, in order to analyze the impasses that involve the representation of peripheral communities — located in the borders of the nation — by the contemporaneous cinematography.  

  12. NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

    2014-06-01

    SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

  13. Towards Genre Classification in Anglophone West Africa Video Films: The Case of Scorned as a Woman’s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the woman’s film within the context of Africa and African cinematography by examining the Ghanaian video film Scorned (2008, written and directed by Shirley Frimpong-Manso. It examines the themes, narrative structure, and cinematic style employed in the Ghanaian video film Scorned (2008, comparing it to the key elements of the 1930s – 1950s woman’s film genre of Hollywood. We argue that Scorned follows the traditional genre of the woman’s Hollywood movie while simultaneously subverting some of the ingrained conventions and expectations of that genre. The film merges and renegotiates the generic elements of the woman’s film as represented in the Hollywood woman’s film genre and melodrama by focusing on the underpinning ideologies, plot, and aesthetics in making visible the Ghanaian woman’s experience and constructing a female consciousness. Such engagements can contribute to teasing out some of the generic elements, which could constitute the African woman’s film.

  14. Evolving role of MRI in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Obara, Piotr; Oto, Aytekin

    2013-06-01

    MR enterography is playing an evolving role in the evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Standard MR enterography includes a combination of rapidly acquired T2 sequence, balanced steady-state acquisition, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. The diagnostic performance of these sequences has been shown to be comparable, and in some respects superior, to other small bowel imaging modalities. The findings of CD on MR enterography have been well described in the literature. New and emerging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), cinematography, and magnetization transfer, may lead to improved accuracy in characterizing the disease. These advanced techniques can provide quantitative parameters that may prove to be useful in assessing disease activity, severity, and response to treatment. In the future, MR enterography may play an increasing role in management decisions for patients with small bowel CD; however, larger studies are needed to validate these emerging MRI parameters as imaging biomarkers. PMID:23712842

  15. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenstreit, Felix; Leibold, Andreas; Krinner, Sebastian; Welsch, Götz; Lochmann, Matthias; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-10-01

    Gait phase durations are important spatiotemporal parameters in different contexts such as discrimination between healthy and pathological gait and monitoring of treatment outcomes after interventions. Although gait phases strongly depend on walking speed, the influence of different speeds has rarely been investigated in literature. In this work, we examined the durations of the stance sub phases and the swing phase for 12 different walking speeds ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 m/s in 21 healthy subjects using infrared cinematography and an instrumented treadmill. We separated the stance phase into loading response, mid stance, terminal stance and pre-swing phase and we performed regression modeling of all phase durations with speed to determine general trends. With an increasing speed of 0.1m/s, stance duration decreased while swing duration increased by 0.3%. All distinct stance sub phases changed significantly with speed. These findings suggest the importance of including all distinct gait sub phases in spatiotemporal analyses, especially when different walking speeds are involved. PMID:26256534

  16. The Golem in the era of technical reproducibility: filmic apparatus, modern man and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Cristina Stangherlin Santucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Approaching Walter Benjamin to the expressionist movement in its cinematic form and its subversive attitude, this article proposes to consider the automaton's image as an allegory in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Thus, starting from the ideal expressionist as cinematographic technique and plot, and going through the Benjamin's Theses "On the Concept of History", as well as going through the various ideas contained in the work of the German philosopher concerning the work of art in the twentieth century, we will see the Golem, mystical character of the Jewish tradition represented by the figure of a giant, made from inanimate matter, coming to life in this text-screen. Life that has come to interrupt the course of a History which presents herself as a continuous line reporting only the history of the winners, ie, of the holders of political and / or social power, and ignoring the history of the subdued men, that is, of the until now obedient men. And such irruption should not only be the work of a mythical being, but also work of the man, as a proletarian in the capitalistic system, and of the cinematography as apparatus and representation.

  17. Tactile learning by a whip spider, Phrynus marginemaculatus C.L. Koch (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Roger D; Hebets, Eileen A

    2009-04-01

    The ability of animals to learn and remember underpins many behavioural actions and can be crucial for survival in certain contexts, for example in finding and recognising a habitual refuge. The sensory cues that an animal learns in such situations are to an extent determined by its own sensory specialisations. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi) are nocturnal and possess uniquely specialised sensory systems that include elongated 'antenniform' forelegs specialised for use as chemo- and mechanosensory feelers. We tested the tactile learning abilities of the whip spider Phrynus marginemaculatus in a maze learning task with two tactile cues of different texture--one associated with an accessible refuge, and the other with an inaccessible refuge. Over ten training trials, whip spiders got faster and more accurate at finding the accessible refuge. During a subsequent test trial where both refuges were inaccessible, whip spiders searched for significantly longer at the tactile cue previously associated with the accessible refuge. Using high-speed cinematography, we describe three distinct antenniform leg movements used by whip spiders during tactile examination. We discuss the potential importance of tactile learning in whip spider behaviour and a possible role for their unique giant sensory neurons in accessing tactile information. PMID:19198849

  18. Independent Evolution of Suction Feeding in Neobatrachia: Feeding Mechanisms in Two Species of Telmatobius (Anura:Telmatobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, José Sebastián

    2016-02-01

    The most common feeding mechanism among aquatic vertebrates as fishes, turtles, and salamanders is inertial suction. However, among the more than 6,400 species of anurans, suction feeding occurs only in pipids. Pipidae is a small basal lineage relative to Neobatrachia, an enormous clade that contains about 96% of extant anurans. The Andean neobatrachian frogs of the genus Telmatobius include strictly aquatic and semiaquatic species. Diet analyses indicate that some species of Telmatobius feed on strictly aquatic prey, but until now their feeding mechanisms have been unknown. Herein, the feeding mechanisms in two species of Telmatobius, that represent the two predominant modes of life in the genus, are explored. The semiaquatic T. oxycephalus and the fully aquatic T. rubigo are studied using high-speed cinematography and standard anatomical techniques to provide a qualitative approach to feeding behavior and a detailed morphological description of the mouth, tongue, hyoid and related muscles. T. oxycephalus uses similar mechanisms of aquatic prey capture as do the vast majority of anurans that are capable of forage in water, whereas the fully aquatic T. rubigo is an inertial suction feeder. This is the first report of an objective record of this unique feeding behavior in a Neobatrachian. Several morphological characters seem to be related with this function and are convergent with those of pipids. PMID:26575038

  19. Remembering the past: Representations of women’s trauma in post-1989 Romanian cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the long-term effects of Romanian communist natality politics and the way in which cinema was used to re-appropriate the past after the shift in political climate in 1989. Romania’s process of coming to terms with the past was characterized by political reluctance to explore the communist legacy. However, personal attempts of recollecting the past have a unique ability to bridge the intergenerational gap and facilitate the transmission of knowledge and memories. This paper therefore presents two examples of Romanian cinema focused on the experiences of those directly affected by the family planning politics of the communist regime. Das Experiment 770 - Gebären auf Behelf (2005, directed by Razvan Georgescu and Florin Iepan, is a documentary based on oral testimonies and documents that sketch the history of Romanian communism and the involvement of various individuals. The second source used—4 Months, 3 Weekes and 2 Days (2007 directed by Cristian Mungiu—is a film that uses a different language and technics in order to re-appropriate the past, not through direct testimony of those involved, but creating fictional characters. The target audience of these movies—as is often the case with historical cinema—is the second or third generation. Cinematography provides a simple and popular way of connecting these generations with the experiences of their predecessors.

  20. 读电影

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    高清电影摄影(插图第3版)原作名:High Definition Cinematography,Third Edition作者:[英]保罗?惠勒译者:梁明/刘海舰/华伟成出版社:世界图书出版公司出版年:2011-7页数:274定价:49.80元装帧:平装《电影学院016:高清电影摄影(插图第3版)》对采用高清拍摄的制片决策、技术基础,拍摄过程中需要注意的问题以及解决办法,不同品牌和机型的性能与特点,进行了全面系统的介绍。

  1. Triggering and Energetics of a Single Drop Vapor Explosion: The Role of Entrapped Non-Condensable Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Roberta Concilio [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    The present work pertains to a research program to study Molten Fuel-Coolant Interactions (MFCI), which may occur in a nuclear power plant during a hypothetical severe accident. Dynamics of the hot liquid (melt) droplet and the volatile liquid (coolant) were investigated in the MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) facility by performing well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments, using a high-speed visualization system with synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography. The current study is concerned with the MISTEE-NCG test campaign, in which a considerable amount of non-condensable gases (NCG) are present in the film that enfolds the molten droplet. The SHARP images for the MISTEE-NCG tests were analyzed and special attention was given to the morphology (aspect ratio) and dynamics of the air/ vapor bubble, as well as the melt drop preconditioning. Energetics of the vapor explosion (conversion ratio) were also evaluated. The MISTEE.NCG tests showed two main aspects when compared to the MISTEE test series (without entrapped air). First, analysis showed that the melt preconditioning still strongly depends on the coolant subcooling. Second, in respect to the energetics, the tests consistently showed a reduced conversion ratio compared to that of the MISTEE test series

  2. A study of the effect of binary oxide materials in a single droplet vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, R.C., E-mail: rch@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dinh, T.N.; Manickam, L.T. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    In an effort to explore fundamental mechanisms that may govern the effect of melt material on vapor explosion's triggering, fine fragmentation and energetics, a series of experiments using a binary-oxide mixture with eutectic and non-eutectic compositions were performed. Interactions of a hot liquid (WO{sub 3}–CaO) droplet and a volatile liquid (water) were investigated in well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments conducted in the Micro-interactions in steam explosion experiments (MISTEE) facility. The tests were visualized by means of a synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography system, called simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography (SHARP). The acquired images followed by further analysis indicate milder interactions for the droplet with non-eutectic melt composition in the tests with low melt superheat, whereas no evident differences between eutectic and non-eutectic melt compositions regarding bubble dynamics, energetics and melt preconditioning was observed in the tests with higher melt superheat.

  3. Educando con medios alternativos / Educating with Alternative Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Rubí Barquero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 10 de noviembre de 2010 • Aceptado 09 de marzo de 2011 • Corregido 04 de mayo de 2011    Resumen. Este artículo nace de mi interés por explorar caminos que hagan de la experiencia educativa que se vive diariamente en las aulas, una actividad más interesante y placentera; es por ello que exalto las posibilidades que como medio pedagógico tienen el cine y, en general, los medios audiovisuales, junto con la conveniencia de que los educadores recurran a ellos como alternativas enriquecedora de su desempeño profesional.  Abstract. This paper emerges from my interest in exploring ways to transform the daily classroom educational activity into a more pleasant and interesting experience. In this regard, I call attention to the possibilities of cinematography and other audiovisual media as pedagogical means, and the advisability for educators to use them as enhancing alternatives to their professional performance.

  4. Early radiological diagnostics for scapholunate dissociation (SLD); Radiologische Fruehdiagnostik der skapholunaeren Dissoziation (SLD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Fodor, S.; Christopoulos, G. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Kalb, K.H. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany). Klinik fuer Handchirurgie

    2006-08-15

    The partial tear of the scapholunate ligament (pre-dynamic stage of SLD) as well as the complete tear (dynamic stage) does not lead to carpal malalignment. However, if the completely ruptured ligament is accompanied by lesions of the extrinsic ligaments, both the scaphoid and the lunate are malaligned already at rest (static stage of SLD). Later, osteoarthritis will develop, beginning in the radioscaphoid compartment, progressing to the midcarpal joint, and ending in a carpal collapse (osteoarthrotic stage of SLD). Dynamic SLD is detectable only in stress views and in cinematography. The high utility of MRI for directly visualizing the injured ligament is emphasized: reparation tissue is focally enhanced at the rupture site by intravenously applied contrast agent; the individual segments of the scapholunate ligament can be visualized in direct MR arthrography, therefore allowing differentiation of partial and complete ligamentous tears. (orig.) [German] Die Teilruptur des Lig. scapholunatum (praedynamisches Stadium) und die isolierte Komplettruptur (dynamisches Stadium) fuehren zu keiner karpalen Gefuegestoerung in Ruhe. Erst wenn die Komplettruptur von Laesionen der extrinsischen Bandstabilisatoren begleitet wird, stehen das Skaphoid und Lunatum bereits in Ruhe in Fehlstellung (statisches Stadium). Spaeter kommt es zur Handgelenkarthrose, zuerst radioskaphoidal, dann mediokarpal mit Ausbildung eines karpalen Kollapses (arthrotisches Stadium). Die dynamische Instabilitaet ist nur mit Stressaufnahmen und kinematographisch nachweisbar. Die MRT vermag das rupturierte Lig. scapholunatum direkt darzustellen: Intravenoes verabreichtes Kontrastmittel reichert sich fokal am Reparationsgewebe der Rupturstelle an; mit der direkten MR-Arthrogaphie koennen die Bandsegmente besser abgegrenzt und Partial- von Komplettrupturen unterschieden werden. (orig.)

  5. Vocal fold and ventricular fold vibration in period-doubling phonation: physiological description and aerodynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Lucie; Henrich, Nathalie; Pelorson, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    Occurrences of period-doubling are found in human phonation, in particular for pathological and some singing phonations such as Sardinian A Tenore Bassu vocal performance. The combined vibration of the vocal folds and the ventricular folds has been observed during the production of such low pitch bass-type sound. The present study aims to characterize the physiological correlates of this acoustical production and to provide a better understanding of the physical interaction between ventricular fold vibration and vocal fold self-sustained oscillation. The vibratory properties of the vocal folds and the ventricular folds during phonation produced by a professional singer are analyzed by means of acoustical and electroglottographic signals and by synchronized glottal images obtained by high-speed cinematography. The periodic variation in glottal cycle duration and the effect of ventricular fold closing on glottal closing time are demonstrated. Using the detected glottal and ventricular areas, the aerodynamic behavior of the laryngeal system is simulated using a simplified physical modeling previously validated in vitro using a larynx replica. An estimate of the ventricular aperture extracted from the in vivo data allows a theoretical prediction of the glottal aperture. The in vivo measurements of the glottal aperture are then compared to the simulated estimations. PMID:21117769

  6. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Chemical Constituents of Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn.%苦木化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝晨蔯; 邓贵华; 林朝展

    2012-01-01

    Five compounds were isolated and purified from the 95% ethanol extract of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. by using column cinematography and recrystallization. On the basis of spectroscopic methods,their structures were identified as tiifolirhran (1) .maackiain (2) ,3',7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (3) ,umbelliferone (4) ,and dmodin (5). All the Compounds are reported from the genus Picrasma for the first time.%运用各种柱色谱和重结晶等方法对苦木Pierasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn.进行分离纯化,得到五个化合物.通过NMR等现代波谱学方法和技术鉴定化合物的结构分别为:高丽槐素-3-0-β-D-葡萄糖苷(trifolirhizin,1),高丽槐素(maackiain,2),3',7-二羟基4'-甲氧基异黄酮(3',7 -dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone,3),7-羟基香豆素(ubelliferone,4)和大黄素(emodin,5).五个化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  8. Synthesis of WO 3 nanoparticles for superthermites by the template method from silica spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibot, Pierre; Comet, Marc; Vidal, Loic; Moitrier, Florence; Lacroix, Fabrice; Suma, Yves; Schnell, Fabien; Spitzer, Denis

    2011-05-01

    Nanosized WO 3 tungsten trioxide was prepared by calcination of H 3P 4W 12O 40· xH 2O phosphotungstic acid, previously dissolved in a silica colloidal solution. The influence of the silica spheres/tungsten precursor weight ratio ( x) was investigated. The pristine oxide powders were characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM and TEM techniques. A specific surface area and a pore volume of 64.2 m 2 g -1 and 0.33 cm 3 g -1, respectively, were obtained for the well-crystallized WO 3 powder prepared with x = 2/3 and after the removal of the silica template. The WO 3 particles exhibit a sphere-shaped morphology with a particle size of 13 and 320 nm as function of the x ratio. The performance and the sensitivity levels of the thermites prepared from aluminium nanoparticles mixed with (i) the smallest tungsten (VI) oxide material and (ii) the microscale WO 3 were compared. The combustion of these energetic composites was investigated by time resolved cinematography (TRC). This unconventional experimental technique consists to ignite the dried compressed composites by using a CO 2 laser beam, in order to determine their ignition delay time (IDT) and their combustion rate. The downsizing WO 3 particles improves, without ambiguity, the energetic performances of the WO 3/Al thermite. For instance, the ignition delay time was greatly shortened from 54 ± 10 ms to 5.7 ± 0.2 ms and the combustion velocity was increased by a factor 50 to reach a value of 4.1 ± 0.3 m/s. In addition, the use of WO 3 nanoparticles sensitizes the mixture to mechanical stimuli but decreases the sensitivity to electrostatic discharge.

  9. Aquatic prey capture in ray-finned fishes: a century of progress and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry-Graham, L A; Lauder, G V

    2001-05-01

    The head of ray-finned fishes is structurally complex and is composed of numerous bony, muscular, and ligamentous elements capable of intricate movement. Nearly two centuries of research have been devoted to understanding the function of this cranial musculoskeletal system during prey capture in the dense and viscous aquatic medium. Most fishes generate some amount of inertial suction to capture prey in water. In this overview we trace the history of functional morphological analyses of suction feeding in ray-finned fishes, with a particular focus on the mechanisms by which suction is generated, and present new data using a novel flow imaging technique that enables quantification of the water flow field into the mouth. We begin with a brief overview of studies of cranial anatomy and then summarize progress on understanding function as new information was brought to light by the application of various forms of technology, including high-speed cinematography and video, pressure, impedance, and bone strain measurement. We also provide data from a new technique, digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) that allows us to quantify patterns of flow into the mouth. We believe that there are three general areas in which future progress needs to occur. First, quantitative three-dimensional studies of buccal and opercular cavity dimensions during prey capture are needed; sonomicrometry and endoscopy are techniques likely to yield these data. Second, a thorough quantitative analysis of the flow field into the mouth during prey capture is necessary to understand the effect of head movement on water in the vicinity of the prey; three-dimensional DPIV analyses will help to provide these data. Third, a more precise understanding of the fitness effects of structural and functional variables in the head coupled with rigorous statistical analyses will allow us to better understand the evolutionary consequences of intra- and interspecific variation in cranial morphology and function

  10. Glenoid labrum tears related to the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J R; Carson, W G; McLeod, W D

    1985-01-01

    Tears of the glenoid labrum were observed in 73 baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes who underwent arthroscopic examination of the dominant shoulder. Most of the tears were located over the anterosuperior portion of the glenoid labrum near the origin of the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle into the glenoid. At arthroscopy, the tendon of the long head of the biceps appeared to originate through and be continuous with the superior portion of the glenoid labrum. In many cases it appeared to have pulled the anterosuperior portion of the labrum off the glenoid. This observation was verified at arthroscopy by viewing the origin of the biceps tendon into the glenoid labrum as the muscle was electrically stimulated. With stimulation of the muscle, the tendinous portion became quite taut, particularly near its attachment to the glenoid labrum, and actually lifted the labrum off the glenoid. Three-dimensional high-speed cinematography with computer analysis revealed that the moment acting about the elbow joint to extend the joint through an arc of about 50 degrees was in excess of 600 inch-pounds. The extremely high velocity of elbow extension which is generated must be decelerated through the final 30 degrees of elbow extension. Of the muscles of the arm that provide the large deceleration forces in the follow-through phase of throwing, only the biceps brachii traverses both the elbow joint and the shoulder joint. Additional forces are generated in the biceps tendon in its function as a "shunt" muscle to stabilize the glenohumeral joint during the throwing act.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4051091

  11. [The effect of the motion of forefoot joint at the force exerted upon the floor during walking exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, A; Nishizono, H; Ebashi, H; Shibayama, H

    1993-11-01

    In walking exercise the human body is exposed to external forces. Some of them are produced by constraints such as surface, shoes or opponent. In kick action of walking, the ground reaction force (GRF) is the most important external force. The magnitude of the GRF, its direction, and point of application have an influence on the load on the human body. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of forefoot joint (artt. metatarsophalangeae) at the force exerted upon the floor during kick action of walking. The device used in this study to analyze the GRF and its three components consists of Kistler's force platform. Output from force transducer was collected online with a TEAC data recorder and MEM-4101 minicomputer. The impact force measurements were taken from the anterior-posterior force time curves at the take-off for 1 subject walking 10 trials at 2 m/sec with 2 different pairs of shoes (Shoes 1: thin sole of 4mm, and Shoes 2: thick sole of 40mm) and without shoes. High speed (200f/sec) cinematography was also used to analyze the angular displacement of forefoot joint at the take-off of walking exercise. The force acting at the forefoot joint may produce the anterior-posterior force of the GRF which is defined as the propelling power acting on the human body during walking exercise. The result showed that the impact force peak occurred 40-60 msec before take-off and the propelling part of kick action accounted for only about 6% of the external force.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8123187

  12. Noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric monitoring of multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouki, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada); Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab.

    1997-11-01

    A condensed review of recent advances accomplished in the development and the applications of noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric measurement techniques to multiphase flows and systems is presented. In recent years utilization of such noninvasive techniques has become widespread in many engineering disciplines that deal with systems involving two immiscible phases or more. Tomography provides concentration, holdup, or 2D or 3D density distribution of at least one component of the multiphase system, whereas velocimetry provides the dynamic features of the phase of interest such as the flow pattern, the velocity field, the 2D or 3D instantaneous movements, etc. The following review is divided into two parts. The first part summarizes progress and developments in flow imaging techniques using {gamma}-ray and X-ray transmission tomography; X-ray radiography; neutron transmission tomography and radiography; positron emission tomography; X-ray diffraction tomography; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; electrical capacitance tomography; optical tomography; microwave tomography; and ultrasonic tomography. The second part of the review summarizes progress and developments in the following velocimetry techniques: positron emission particle tracking; radioactive particle tracking; cinematography; laser-Doppler anemometry; particle image velocimetry; and fluorescence particle image velocimetry. The basic principles of tomography and velocimetry techniques are outlined, along with advantages and limitations inherent to each technique. The hydrodynamic and structural information yielded by these techniques is illustrated through a literature survey on their successful applications to the study of multiphase systems in such fields as particulate solids processes, fluidization engineering, porous media, pipe flows, transport within packed beds and sparged reactors, etc.

  13. Ignition and Combustion of Bulk Metals in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.; Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    1999-01-01

    Results of a study of heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion of metals in reduced gravity are presented. Cylindrical titanium and magnesium samples are radiatively ignited in pure-oxygen at 1 atm. Qualitative observations, propagation rates, and burning times are extracted from high-speed cinematography. Time-resolved emission spectra of gas-phase reactions are acquired with an imaging spectrograph. Lower propagation rates of the reacting mass on titanium and of ignition waves on magnesium are obtained at reduced gravity. These rates are compared to theoretical results from fire-spread analyses with a diffusion/convection controlled reaction. The close agreement found between experimental and theoretical propagation rates indicates the strong influence of natural-convection-enhanced oxygen transp6rt on burning rates. Lower oxygen flux and lack of condensed product removal appear to be responsible for longer burning times of magnesium gas-phase diffusion flames in reduced gravity. Spherically symmetric explosions in magnesium flames at reduced gravity (termed radiation-induced metal explosions, or RIME) may be driven by increased radiation heat transfer from accumulated condensed products to an evaporating metal core covered by a porous, flexible oxide coating. In titanium specimens, predominantly heterogeneous burning characterizes the initial steady propagation of the molten mass, while homogeneous gas-phase reactions are detected around particles ejected from the molten mixture. In magnesium specimens, band and line reversal of all the UV spectral systems of Mg and MgO are attributed to the interaction between small oxide particles and the principal gaseous emitters.

  14. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals under elevated, normal and reduced gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.

    1995-01-01

    This research effort is aimed at providing further insight into this multi-variable dependent phenomena by looking at the effects of gravity on the ignition and combustion behavior of metals. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g gravity loads during launch and reentry and to zero-gravity environments while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational potentials is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under microgravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition mechanisms. The effect of microgravity on the combustion of bulk metals has been investigated by Steinberg, et al. on a drop tower simulator. However, no detailed quantitative work has been done on ignition phenomena of bulk metals at lower or higher-than-normal gravitational fields or on the combustion characteristics of metals at elevated gravity. The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an experimental system capable of providing fundamental physical and chemical information on the ignition of bulk metals under different gravity levels. The metals used in the study, iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were selected because of their importance as elements of structural metals and their simple chemical composition (pure metals instead of multi-component alloys to avoid complication in morphology and spectroscopic studies). These samples were also chosen to study the two different combustion modes experienced by metals: heterogeneous or surface oxidation, and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction. The experimental approach provides surface temperature profiles, spectroscopic measurements, surface morphology, x-ray spectrometry of metals specimens and their combustion products, and high-speed cinematography of the heating, ignition and combustion

  15. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt

    2016-01-01

    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period. PMID:26684427

  16. Os festivais GLBT de cinema e as mudanças estético-políticas na constituição da subjetividade GLBT movie festivals and the aesthetic-political changes in the constitution of subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Bessa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo traço um breve panorama do crescimento e diversificação dos festivais GLBT de cinema e da visibilidade gay. A análise está centrada nas transformações que configuraram uma nova cinematografia denominada, no início dos anos 1990, de queer movie (Rich, 1991. Desde a pioneira edição de um festival de cinema gay e lésbico, em São Francisco no final dos anos 1970, houve uma significativa mudança nos filmes feitos pelo, ou voltados para o, público gay. Isso se faz notar da produção à exibição, incluindo aspectos narrativos e técnicas cinematográficas, o que provoca um repensar tanto da formatação-programação dos festivais, quanto do próprio cinema GLBT. Novas sensibilidades e subjetividades contrastam-se com as pioneiras cenas fílmicas de cunho militante-identitário, colocando questões sobre corpo, sexualidade e gênero.This article is an overview of the growth of GLBT film festivals and also of gay visibility. The focus will be on the analysis of the changes that configured a new cinematography called, at the beginning of the nineties, queer movies (Rich, 1991. Since the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian film festival at the end of the seventies, there was a significant change in the films made for or directed toward gay audiences. This could be noticed from production to exhibition, including narrative aspects and cinematographic techniques, leading one to rethink both the formatting-programming of the festivals and the GLBT cinema itself. New sensibilities and subjectivities contrast with the pioneering film scenes from the militant-identitary matrix, raising questions on body, sexuality and gender.

  17. Neurocinematography in Pre-World War II Netherlands: The Magnus-Rademaker Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt; Hielscher, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Historical films made by neuroscientists have shown up in several countries during past years. Although originally supposed to have been lost, we recently found a collection of films produced between 1909 and 1940 by Rudolf Magnus (1873-1927), professor of pharmacology (Utrecht) and his student Gysbertus Rademaker (1887-1957), professor of physiology (1928, succeeding Willem Einthoven) and neurology (1945, both in Leiden). Both collections deal with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were done with animals (labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brainstem sections) and observations on patients. The films demonstrate the results of these studies. Moreover, there are films with babies showing tonic neck reflexes and moving images capturing adults with cerebellar symptoms following cerebellectomies for tumors and several other conditions. Magnus' studies resulted in his well-known Körperstellung (1924, "Body Posture") and Rademaker's research in his Das Stehen (1931, "Standing"). The films probably had an educative and scientific purpose. Magnus demonstrated his films at congresses, including the Eighth International Congress of Physiologists (Vienna, 1910) and Rademaker screened his moving images at meetings of the Amsterdam Neurologists Society (at several occasions as reflected in the Winkler-Monakow correspondence and the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde). Next to these purposes, the films were used to analyze movement and a series of images from the films were published in articles and books. The films are important historical sources that provide a portrait of the pre-World War II era in neuroscience, partly answering questions on how physicians dealt with patients and researchers with their laboratory animals. Moreover, the films confirm that cinematography was an important scientific tool in neuroscience research. PMID:26684426

  18. Contemporary Romanian Art in the United States1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Dana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the recent international interest in contemporary Romanian art and its growth in market share, with a focus on the United States. The theme is followed thorough in numerous museum exhibitions, increased collector following, art fair presence, gallery representation and auction activity initially in Europe and the United States. The phenomenon is discussed both in the context of the larger international movement conducive to the contemporary art price bubble, and in that of the local socio-economic changes. My chief interest lies in the factors leading up to the entry of post 1989 Romanian art in the global arena as a manifestation of market forces in the field. The analysis follows its grass roots local emergence through non-profit institutions, individual artists, small publications, low budget galleries, as well as the lack of contribution (with few notable exceptions of state institutions, while pointing out the national context of increasing deregulation of social support systems resulting in lack of focus on cultural manifestations. The conclusion is that the recent ascent of contemporary Romanian art (and coincidentally, the award winning contemporary Romanian cinematography is a fortuitous convergence of various factors, among which, increased international mobility and sharing. At the same time, it is also the result of the evolution of various individual artists that pursued a form of art rooted in Romanian artistic tradition but with a focus on the symbolic figurative. The result is a personal semiotics of raising the mundane to extraordinary levels that reconfigured the anxiety of entering a new system into an unmistakable and lasting visual language.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of premixed hydrogen/air flame propagating in a combustion chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huahua; Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Peng

    2014-03-15

    An experimental and numerical study of dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flame in a closed explosion vessel is described. High-speed shlieren cinematography and pressure recording are used to elucidate the dynamics of the combustion process in the experiment. A dynamically thickened flame model associated with a detailed reaction mechanism is employed in the numerical simulation to examine the flame-flow interaction and effect of wall friction on the flame dynamics. The shlieren photographs show that the flame develops into a distorted tulip shape after a well-pronounced classical tulip front has been formed. The experimental results reveal that the distorted tulip flame disappears with the primary tulip cusp and the distortions merging into each other, and then a classical tulip is repeated. The combustion dynamics is reasonably reproduced in the numerical simulations, including the variations in flame shape and position, pressure build-up and periodically oscillating behavior. It is found that both the tulip and distorted tulip flames can be created in the simulation with free-slip boundary condition at the walls of the vessel and behave in a manner quite close to that in the experiments. This means that the wall friction could be unimportant for the tulip and distorted tulip formation although the boundary layer formed along the sidewalls has an influence to a certain extent on the flame behavior near the sidewalls. The distorted tulip flame is also observed to be produced in the absence of vortex flow in the numerical simulations. The TF model with a detailed chemical scheme is reliable for investigating the dynamics of distorted tulip flame propagation and its underlying mechanism. PMID:24486615

  20. In Search of the Sorcerer’s Apprentice: between Lucian and Walt Disney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Kalitan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, the movie by Jon Turteltaub entitled The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (2010 seems not to have any connections with Greco-Roman antiquity whatsoever. To find the hidden connection we have to go back to year 1797 when Johann Wolfgang Goethe published his famous ballad Der Zauberlehrling (The Sorcerer's Apprentice Almost a century later, this work inspired a French composer Paul Dukas to write his masterpiece, the symphonic scherzo L’apprenti sorcier. Dukas’ music became the leitmotif of both Disney’s movies: Fantasia (1940 and Fantasia 2000 (1999 whose action is based on Goethe’s ballad. Also, the basic elements of the plot were used in one of the episodes of the series Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1961. This is where we touch the ancient roots of the story. A good friend of J.W. Goethe, Christopher Martin Wieland, happened to have published in 1789 the first complete German translation of Lucian of Samosata’s (120-180 AD works, including a dialogue entitled Philopseudes (The Lover of Lies. The tenth story told in Philopseudes turned out to be very similar to the one written by J. W. Goethe and then adapted into Disney’s and Turteltaub’s movies. In my paper I try to show the transmission of the Lucianic text from antiquity to modern film adaptations. The original Lucian tale, rewritten by J.W. Goethe, becomes very influential. The so-called “sorcerer’s apprentice syndrome” can be found at the root of many fantastic stories in which humans could not curb their creations (i.e. robots which eventually would turn against their makers. The primary focus of this paper is on how the story of a young apprentice changed over centuries and how it was adopted by cinematography.

  1. The possible role of cranio-cervical trauma and abnormal CSF hydrodynamics in the genesis of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadian, Raymond V; Chu, David

    2011-01-01

    UPRIGHT Multi-Position MR scanning has uncovered a key set of new observations regarding Multiple Sclerosis (MS), which observations are likely to provide a new understanding of the origin of MS. The new findings may also lead to new forms of treatment for MS. The UPRIGHT MRI has demonstrated pronounced anatomic pathology of the cervical spine in five of the MS patients studied and definitive cervical pathology in the other three. The pathology was the result of prior head and neck trauma. All eight MS patients entered the study on a first come first serve basis without priority, and all but one were found to have a history of serious prior cervical trauma which resulted in significant cervical pathology. The cervical pathology was visualized by UPRIGHT MRI. Upright cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cinematography and quantitative measurements of CSF velocity, CSF flow and CSF pressure gradients in the upright patient revealed that significant obstructions to CSF flow were present in all MS patients. The obstructions are believed to be responsible for CSF "leakages" of CSF from the ventricles into the surrounding brain parenchyma which "leakages" can be the source of the MS lesions in the brain that give rise to MS symptomatology. The CSF flow obstructions are believed to result in increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) that generate "leakages" of the CSF into the surrounding brain parenchyma. In all but one MS patient, anatomic pathologies were found to be more severe in the upright position than in the recumbent position. Similarly, CSF flow abnormalities were found to be more severe in the upright position than in the recumbent position in all but one MS patient. Images of the MS patient anatomic pathologies and CSF flow abnormalities are provided with comparison images from normal examinees in Figures 1-15. PMID:21970155

  2. Actively learning human gaze shifting paths for semantics-aware photo cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Gao, Yue; Ji, Rongrong; Xia, Yingjie; Dai, Qionghai; Li, Xuelong

    2014-05-01

    Photo cropping is a widely used tool in printing industry, photography, and cinematography. Conventional cropping models suffer from the following three challenges. First, the deemphasized role of semantic contents that are many times more important than low-level features in photo aesthetics. Second, the absence of a sequential ordering in the existing models. In contrast, humans look at semantically important regions sequentially when viewing a photo. Third, the difficulty of leveraging inputs from multiple users. Experience from multiple users is particularly critical in cropping as photo assessment is quite a subjective task. To address these challenges, this paper proposes semantics-aware photo cropping, which crops a photo by simulating the process of humans sequentially perceiving semantically important regions of a photo. We first project the local features (graphlets in this paper) onto the semantic space, which is constructed based on the category information of the training photos. An efficient learning algorithm is then derived to sequentially select semantically representative graphlets of a photo, and the selecting process can be interpreted by a path, which simulates humans actively perceiving semantics in a photo. Furthermore, we learn a prior distribution of such active graphlet paths from training photos that are marked as aesthetically pleasing by multiple users. The learned priors enforce the corresponding active graphlet path of a test photo to be maximally similar to those from the training photos. Experimental results show that: 1) the active graphlet path accurately predicts human gaze shifting, and thus is more indicative for photo aesthetics than conventional saliency maps and 2) the cropped photos produced by our approach outperform its competitors in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons. PMID:24723578

  3. Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-21

    Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. PMID:23831138

  4. Variability of blowfly head optomotor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R; Egelhaaf, M; Grewe, J; Warzecha, A K

    2009-04-01

    Behavioural responses of an animal are variable even when the animal experiences the same sensory input several times. This variability can arise from stochastic processes inherent to the nervous system. Also, the internal state of an animal may influence a particular behavioural response. In the present study, we analyse the variability of visually induced head pitch responses of tethered blowflies by high-speed cinematography. We found these optomotor responses to be highly variable in amplitude. Most of the variability can be attributed to two different internal states of the flies with high and low optomotor gain, respectively. Even within a given activity state, there is some variability of head optomotor responses. The amount of this variability differs for the two optomotor gain states. Moreover, these two activity states can be distinguished on a fine timescale and without visual stimulation, on the basis of the occurrence of peculiar head jitter movements. Head jitter goes along with high gain optomotor responses and haltere oscillations. Halteres are evolutionary transformed hindwings that oscillate when blowflies walk or fly. Their main function is to serve as equilibrium organs by detecting Coriolis forces and to mediate gaze stabilisation. However, their basic oscillating activity was also suggested to provide a gain-modulating signal. Our experiments demonstrate that halteres are not necessary for high gain head pitch to occur. Nevertheless, we find the halteres to be responsible for one component of head jitter movements. This component may be the inevitable consequence of their function as equilibrium and gaze-stabilising organs. PMID:19329750

  5. Experimental visualization of temperature fields and study of heat transfer enhancement in oscillatory flow in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted of incompressible, moderate Reynolds number flow of air over heated rectangular blocks in a two-dimensional, horizontal channel. Holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in self- sustained oscillatory flow. Experiments were conducted in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes for Reynolds numbers in the range from Re = 520 to Re = 6600. Interferometric measurements were obtained in the thermally and fluiddynamically periodically fully developed flow region on the ninth heated block. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1054 and Re = 1318. The period of oscillations, wavelength and propagation speed of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the main channel were measured at two characteristic flow velocities, Re = 1580 and Re = 2370. For these Reynolds numbers it was observed that two to three waves span one geometric periodicity length. At Re = 1580 the dominant oscillation frequency was found to be around 26 Hz and at Re = 2370 the frequency distribution formed a band around 125 Hz. Results regarding heat transfer and pressure drop are presented as a function of the Reynolds number, in terms of the block-average Nusselt number and the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. Measurements of the local Nusselt number together with visual observations indicate that the lateral mixing caused by flow instabilities is most pronounced along the upstream vertical wall of the heated block in the groove region, and it is accompanied by high heat transfer coefficients. At Reynolds numbers beyond the onset of oscillations the heat transfer in the grooved channel exceeds the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. (orig.)

  6. Chemical Constituents of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from the Root Bark of Changium smyrnioides Wolff%明党参根皮超临界萃取部位化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 陈建伟; 李祥

    2012-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取、柱层析、重结晶等方法,从明党参根皮部位分离得到9个化合物.经理化方法和波谱分析鉴定为二十五烷酸(1)、二十七烷醇(2)、β-谷甾醇(3)、豆甾醇(4)、异欧前胡素(5)、欧前胡素(6)、花椒毒酚(7)、珊瑚菜内酯(8)和5-羟基-8-甲氧基补骨脂素(9).化合物5~7为首次从明党参中分离得到,其余化合物均为首次从该植物根皮中分离得到.%Nine compounds were isolated and purified from the root bark of Changium smymioides Wolff, by using supercritical CO2 extraction,column cinematography and crystallization method. The structures were identified as pentacosano-ic acid (1) .heptacosanol (2) ,β-sitosterol (3) , stigmasterol (4) , isoimperatorin (5) , imperatorin (6) , xanthotorol (7) ,phellopterin (8) ,and 5-hydroxyl-8-methoxy-psoralen (9) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectro-scopic analysis. Compound 5-7 were obtained from the plant for the first time. Other compounds were first isolated from the root bark of this plant.

  7. Interferometric and numerical study of the temperature field in the boundary layer and heat transfer in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucic, Anita; Emans, Maximilian; Mayinger, Franz; Zenger, Christoph

    2004-04-01

    An interferometric study and a numerical simulation are presented of the combined process of the bulk turbulent convection and the dynamic of a vapor bubble which is formed in the superheated boundary layer of a subcooled flowing liquid, in order to determine the heat transfer to the flowing subcooled liquid. In this investigation focus has been given on a single vapor bubble at a defined cavity site to provide reproducible conditions. In the experimental study single bubbles were generated at a single artificial cavity by means of a CO{sub 2}-laser as a spot heater at a uniformly heated wall of a vertical rectangular channel with water as the test fluid. The experiments were performed at various degrees of subcooling and mass flow rates. The bubble growth and the temporal decrease of the bubble volume were captured by means of the high-speed cinematography. The thermal boundary layer and the temperature field at the phase-interface between fluid and bubble were visualized by means of the optical measurement method holographic interferometry with a high temporal and spatial resolution, and thus the local and temporal heat transfer could be quantified. The experimental results form a significant data basis for the description of the mean as well as the local heat transfer as a function of the flow conditions. According to the experimental configuration and the obtained data the numerical simulations were performed. A numerical method has been developed to simulate the influence of single bubbles on the surrounding fluid which is based on a Lagrangian approach to describe the motion of the bubbles. The method is coupled to a large-eddy simulations by the body force term which is locally evaluated based on the density field. The obtained experimental data correspond well with the numerical predictions, both of which demonstrate the thermo- and fluiddynamic characteristics of the interaction between the vapor bubble and the subcooled liquid.

  8. Gait pattern of heifers before and after claw trimming: a high-speed cinematographic study on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S W; Weishaupt, M A; Nuss, K A

    2007-02-01

    The manner in which the claws contacted the ground at the walk was evaluated in 18 healthy heifers. The animals were filmed before and after claw trimming while walking on a treadmill using high-speed cinematography (500 frames/s). For each limb, 4 consecutive steps were recorded from a side and a frontal plane. The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the order of claw contact with the treadmill surface, 2) the initial claw contact area, and 3) the effect of trimming on claw contact patterns. The heifers placed their front feet on the ground in a plane sagittal to the shoulders, whereas the hind feet were advanced more toward the median plane. Before trimming, the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial in 83% of front and 100% of hind limbs. Trimming changed the percentage to 92% in the front and to 97% in the hind limbs. The percentage with which the heel of the lateral claws became the region of initial contact with the ground increased from 47 to 64% in the front feet and from 50 to 78% in the hind feet. In the medial claws of the forelimbs, claw trimming shifted the region of initial contact from the toe to the abaxial wall and heel. In the hind limbs, the main region of initial contact of the medial claws became the abaxial wall. Weight bearing by the medial claw became visibly apparent only during the midstance, propulsion, and push-off phases. "Heel first" contact of the lateral claws in the front and hind limbs may be the normal gait pattern in cattle. On hard surfaces, this pattern may lead to overload and predispose to disease, especially in the hind limbs. PMID:17235142

  9. Use of very low departure aspheric surfaces in high quality camera lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Kristen E.; Jonas, Reginald P.; Thorpe, Michael D.

    2014-12-01

    High performance, compact cinematography lenses working over a large sensor area are demanding designs which are achieved using one or two high departure aspheric elements. With sag departures from best fit sphere of up to a few millimeters, the use of such aspheres is accompanied by a number of consequences. These include high cost metrology, very tight opto-mechanical tolerances and the potential for image artifacts produced during the sub-aperture grinding and polishing process. A modified asphere manufacturing process was utilized to reduce artifacts by eliminating the subaperture grinding and pre-polishing. This method is limited to aspheric surfaces which can be directly polished from a spherical base surface with aspheric departures of <15μm. These very low departure aspheres have the benefit of inexpensive metrology and tolerance relaxation compared with high departure aspheres. Interferograms, slope maps, and out-of-focus images demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of direct asphere generation from a polished sphere. A series of large format lenses covering focal lengths from telephoto to wide angle, were redesigned to determine the feasibility of the use of very low departure aspheres. Increasing the number of aspheric surfaces but reducing the aspheric departure to less than 15μm was demonstrated. We conclude that 3-5 very low departure aspheres are sufficient to provide similar performance to the high departure asphere designs for most focal lengths. One limitation encountered was in the wide angle lenses. The exception was the wide angle lenses where it is difficult to reduce departures below 30μm while maintaining the same optical performance.

  10. Application of laser-optical diagnostics for the support of direct-injection gasoline combustion process development; Einsatz laseroptischer Messverfahren zur Unterstuetzung der Entwicklung von Brennverfahren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, W.; Meyer, H.; Stiebels, B. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Abt. Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-07-01

    The development of direct-injection gasoline engines at Volkswagen was supported strictly from the beginning by the means of optical diagnostics and CFD-simulations. Basic phenomena, such as the formation of the in-cylinder flow field, the penetration of the spray formed by a hollow-cone swirl-type injector at high fuel pressure, the interaction of spray and flow and the formation of an ignitable mixture were analysed in details. The paper describes the laser-optical techniques-particle-image-velocimetry, laser-Doppler-anemometry, videostroboscopy, high-speed cinematography and laser-induced fluorescence - which were used during the development of the DI gasoline combustion process. Examples taken from engines with optical access to the combustion chamber demonstrate the capability of the techniques and pinpoint where the design of the combustion process benefits from experimental and simulation investigations. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung von Ottomotoren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung wurde bei Volkswagen von Beginn an konsequent durch den Einsatz optischer Messverfahren und CFD-Simulationen unterstuetzt. Damit konnten grundlegende Phaenomene, wie die Ausbildung des Stroemungsfeldes im Motorbrennraum, die Ausbreitung des durch einen Hohlkegel-Drallinjektor unter hohem Druck eingespritzten Kraftstoffs sowie die Wechselwirkung der Luftstroemung im Zylinder mit den Einspritzstrahlen und die Bildung einer zuendfaehigen Ladungswolke detailliert untersucht werden. Das Paper beschreibt die laseroptischen Messverfahren - Particle-Image-Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler-Anemometry, Video-Stroboskopie, Hochgeschwindikgkeits-Kinematographie und Laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz - die bei der Brennverfahrensentwicklung eingesetzt werden und zeigt anhand einer Reihe von konkreten Beispielen, wo Antworten auf Grundsatzfragen zur Auslegung des Brennverfahrens durch Messergebnisse an optisch zugaenglichen Motoren und durch CFD-Simulationen erarbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  11. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  12. Uma aplicação da análise biomecânica do processo de montagem de produtos industriais Biomechanical analysis of assembly process of manufacturing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Naveiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um método informatizado de avaliação biomecânica e sua aplicação na avaliação do trabalho de montagem de componentes numa indústria do setor biomédico. O método envolve a utilização da técnica da videocinematografia para aquisição de imagens, sua digitalização e seu posterior tratamento através do programa BIOMEC. O programa BIOMEC dispõe de uma base de dados em biomecânica e antropometria e de procedimentos de cálculo que permitem determinar com precisão os níveis de sobrecarga estática e dinâmica apresentados nas situações filmadas. O estudo efetuado com funcionárias que trabalham na montagem de equipamentos biomédicos mostrou a eficácia do método como alternativa a métodos qualitativos de análise de risco baseados em observação direta.This paper describes a computer-assisted method for biomechanics evaluation and its application to the analysis of assembly work in a biomedical industry. The method involves the use of the video cinematography technique for image capturing followed by a digitalisation process that enables the BIOMEC program treat images. The program BIOMEC encompasses an anthropometric and a biomechanics database and calculation procedures that allow to define with precision the muscle-skeletal overload in the studied situations. The case study conducted with the assembly workers of a biomedical industry showed the method efficacy as an alternative to qualitative methods based in direct observation.

  13. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  14. Analysis of prey capture and food transport kinematics in two Asian box turtles, Cuora amboinensis and Cuora flavomarginata (Chelonia, Geoemydidae), with emphasis on terrestrial feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natchev, Nikolay; Heiss, Egon; Lemell, Patrick; Stratev, Daniel; Weisgram, Josef

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the kinematics and morphology of the feeding apparatus of two geoemydid chelonians, the Malayan (Amboina) box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) and the yellow-margined box turtle (Cuora flavomarginata). Both species are able to feed on land as well as in water. Feeding patterns were analysed by high-speed cinematography. The main focus of the present study is on the terrestrial feeding strategies in both Asian box turtles, because feeding on land has probably evolved de novo within the ancestrally aquatic genus Cuora. During terrestrial feeding (analysed for both species), the initial food prehension is always done by the jaws, whereas intraoral food transport and pharyngeal packing actions are tongue-based. The food uptake modes in Cuoras differ considerably from those described for purely terrestrial turtles. Lingual food prehension is typical of all tortoises (Testudinidae), but is absent in C. amboinensis and C. flavomarginata. A previous study on Terrapene carolina shows that this emydid turtle protrudes the tongue during ingestion on land, but that the first contact with the food item occurs by the jaws. Both Asian box turtles investigated here have highly movable, fleshy tongues; nonetheless, the hyolingual complex remains permanently retracted during initial prey capture. In aquatic feeding (analysed for C. amboinensis only), the prey is captured by a fast forward strike of the head (ram feeding). As opposed to ingestion on land, in the underwater grasp the hyoid protracts prior to jaw opening. The head morphology of the investigated species differs. In contrast to the Malayan box turtle, C. flavomarginata exhibits a more complexly structured dorsal lingual epithelium, a considerable palatal vault, weaker jaw adductor muscles and a simplified trochlear complex. The differences in the hyolingual morphology reflect the kinematic patterns of the terrestrial feeding transport. PMID:19010648

  15. El mito del zombi en la actualidad: desmembramiento sacrificial colectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcavilla Puey, Lorenzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For several decades the zombie myth maintained the same symbolic structure as literature and cinematography regarding the perverse use of animal magnetism and hypnosis, the genealogy from which it descends. In the last third of twentieth century the myth underwent a profound transformation, which nevertheless represented a continuation of its previous unconscious meaning. The analysis of the new archetypal elements that it included, closely related to a nuclear aspect of the spirit of twentieth century art, enables us to develop an interpretive approach to a mythical framework and its underlying psychological process currently running through the collective psyche: respectively, the initiation death and the solvent and disintegrative dynamic of the soul. It will be based in the analytical psychology theoretical framework and we will use the historical-comparative method.El mito del zombi conservó durante varias décadas la misma estructura simbólica que la literatura y cinematografía acerca del uso perverso del magnetismo animal y la hipnosis, su genealogía. En el último tercio del siglo XX el mito sufre una profunda transformación que, no obstante, supone la continuación de su anterior sentido inconsciente. El análisis de los nuevos elementos arquetípicos que va a incorporar, estrechamente relacionados con un aspecto nuclear del espíritu del arte del siglo XX, nos va a permitir realizar una aproximación interpretativa a cierto entramado mítico y su proceso psicológico subyacente que atraviesa actualmente la psique colectiva: la muerte iniciática y la dinámica disolvente y desintegradora del alma, respectivamente. Nos basaremos para ello en el marco teórico de la psicología analítica y haremos uso del método histórico-comparativo.

  16. Culture of bovine embryos in polyester mesh sections: the effect of pore size and oxygen tension on in vitro development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, T; Inaba, Y; Aikawa, Y; Ohtake, M; Kobayashi, S; Akai, T; Hattori, H; Konishi, K; Imai, K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of polyester mesh culture for the in vitro production of bovine embryos, as polyester mesh is an alternative way for tracking individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). Bovine embryos were isolated during in vitro culture using sections of three different polyethylene terephthalate (PET) mesh products. In vitro matured and fertilized bovine oocytes were cultured in the 217 × 217, 230 × 230 or 238 × 238-μm openings of PET mesh sections or in simple micro-drops (control) for 7 days under either 20% or 5% O(2) tensions. No difference in embryo developmental rates was found between the culture groups in terms of cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst expansion irrespective of O(2) tension. In contrast, under 20% O(2) tension, blastocysts that developed in PET mesh with 217 × 217-μm opening had significantly higher numbers of total and trophectoderm (TE) cells than control embryos; however, the numbers and proportions of inner cell mass (ICM) cells did not differ. Under 5% O(2) tension, no difference was found among the culture groups in the numbers of total, ICM and TE cells in embryos. All three PET mesh products investigated in this study were proven to be effective to prevent embryo movement. The results demonstrate that bovine embryos can be cultured in PET mesh sections without negative side-effects and suggest that embryo distance determined by the mesh affects embryo quality at atmospheric oxygen tension. Polyethylene terephthalate mesh with 217 × 217-μm openings was found to be the most suitable for further application in TLC. PMID:19845884

  17. “Los embrujos secretos del trópico”. Frontera amazónica y producción del espacio estatal en la obra cinematográfica de Jorge Ruiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pareja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la obra cinematográfica de Jorge Ruiz utilizando la teoría socio-espacial de Henri Lefebvre. Argumenta que sus documentales, películas etnográficas y noticieros para el cine constituyen una totalidad discursiva que presenta estéticamente la producción del espacio estatal boliviano durante el siglo XX. A partir de una retórica audiovisual que juega con nociones de verticalidad, horizontalidad y centralidad, la obra de Ruiz posiciona el espacio andino como el eje de la modernización estatal y sitúa  a la cuenca amazónica en los márgenes del estado. Concluye que hacer visible la región amazónica en el discurso de la nación tuvo como efecto el desplazamiento de los antagonismos de clase en favor del conflicto entre centro y regiones.This article studies the cinematography of Jorge Ruiz making use of the socio-spatial theory of Henri Lefebvre. It argues that his documentaries, ethnographic films and newsreels for the cinema constitute a discursive totality that presents aesthetically the production of the Bolivian state space during the twentieth century. From an audiovisual rhetoric that plays with notions of verticality, horizontality and centrality, Ruiz’s work locates Andean space as the focal point of state modernization and situates the Amazon basin at the margins of the state. It concludes that in making the Amazon region visible in the nation’s discourse this had the effect of displacing class antagonisms in favor of the conflict between center and regions.

  18. Automated high-speed video analysis of the bubble dynamics in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, Reinhold; Ilchenko, Volodymyr; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and a very good optical access. For the optical observation of the bubble behaviour the high-speed cinematography is used. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, a huge number of bubble cycles could be analysed. The structure of the developed algorithms for the detection of the bubble diameter, the bubble lifetime, the lifetime after the detachment process and the waiting time between two bubble cycles is described. Subsequently, the results from using these automated procedures are presented. A remarkable novelty is the presentation of all results as distribution functions. This is of physical importance because the commonly applied spatial and temporal averaging leads to a loss of information and, moreover, to an unjustified deterministic view of the boiling process, which exhibits in reality a very wide spread of bubble sizes and characteristic times. The results show that the mass flux dominates the temporal bubble behaviour. An increase of the liquid mass flux reveals a strong decrease of the bubble life - and waiting time. In contrast, the variation of the heat flux has a much smaller impact. It is shown in addition that the investigation of the bubble history using automated algorithms delivers novel information with respect to the bubble lift-off probability. (Author)

  19. Comparison of Contents of Alkaloids in Young Leonurus Heterophyllus Sweet in Different Harvest Time%不同采收期童子益母草中生物碱含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文婷; 黄伟; 王伟胜; 程夏倩; 徐丽君; 楼锦芳; 王春甫

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较不同采收期童子益母草中水苏碱和益母草碱的含量,为确定童子益母草的种植和采收时间提供依据.方法 采用高效液相色谱法测定童子益母草中水苏碱和益母草碱含量,并考察不同产地、不同采收期童子益母草中两种生物碱的含量.结果 两种不同种植基地童子益母草中水苏碱和益母草碱的含量随种植时间延长呈上升趋势,约5个月达平衡,而后有所下降.结论 该方法分离度好,稳定,适合作为童子益母草的质量控制方法,可为童子益母草种植和采收提供依据.%Objective To compare the contents of staohydrine and leonurine of young Leonurus heterophyllus (YLH) in different harvest time for the further scientific guidance for implantation and harvest of YLH. Methods A high performance liquid cinematography (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of stachydrine and leonurine in YLH. The contents of these two alkaloids in different places of production and harvest time were determined. Results The contents of the two alkaloids increased over time in both two places of production, reached a peak at about the 5th month after-implantation, and then decreased. Conclusion The method is stable with good resolution, and suitable for the quality control of YLH. The data obtained can provide research base for the implantation and harvest of YLH.

  20. Biomechanical research in dance: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-03-01

    The authors reviewed the literature, published from 1970 through December 2009, on biomechanical research in dance. To identify articles, the authors used search engines, including PubMed and Web of Science, five previous review articles, the Dance Medicine and Science Bibliography, and reference lists of theses, dissertations, and articles being reviewed. Any dance research articles (English language) involving the use of electromyography, forceplates, motion analysis using photography, cinematography or videography, and/or physics analysis were included. A total of 89 papers, theses/dissertations, and abstracts were identified and reviewed, grouped by the movement concept or specialized movements being studied: alignment (n = 8), plié (8), relevé (8), passé (3), degagé (3), développé (7), rond de jambe (3), grand battement (4), arm movements (1), forward stepping (3), turns (6), elevation work (28), falls (1), and dance-specific motor strategies (6). Several recurring themes emerged from these studies: that elite dancers demonstrate different and superior motor strategies than novices or nondancers; that dancers perform differently when using a barre as opposed to without a barre, both in terms of muscle activation patterns and weight shift strategies; that while skilled dancers tend to be more consistent across multiple trials of a task, considerable variability is seen among participants, even when matched for background, years of training, body type, and other variables; and that dance teachers recommend methods of achieving movement skills that are inconsistent with optimal biomechanical function, as well as inconsistent with strategies employed by elite dancers. Measurement tools and the efficacy of study methodologies are also discussed. PMID:21442132

  1. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re = 200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36 m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re = 350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties

  2. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d' Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  3. Validation of an optical encoder during free weight resistance movements and analysis of bench press sticking point power during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Eric J; Galna, Brook; McKenna, Michael J; Hunt, Patrick H; Pyne, David B

    2007-05-01

    During the concentric movement of the bench press, there is an initial high-power push after chest contact, immediately followed by a characteristic area of low power, the so-called "sticking region." During high-intensity lifting, a decline in power can result in a failed lift attempt. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of an optical encoder to measure power and then employ this device to determine power changes during the initial acceleration and sticking region during fatiguing repeated bench press training. Twelve subjects performed a free weight bench press, a Smith Machine back squat, and a Smith Machine 40-kg bench press throw for power validation measures. All barbell movements were simultaneously monitored using cinematography and an optical encoder. Eccentric and concentric mean and peak power were calculated using time and position data derived from each method. Validity of power measures between the video (criterion) and optical encoder scores were evaluated by standard error of the estimate (SEE) and coefficient of variation (CV). Seven subjects then performed 4 sets of 6 free weight bench press repetitions progressively increasing from 85 to 95% of their 6 repetition maximum, with each repetition continually monitored by an optical encoder. The SEE for power ranged from 3.6 to 14.4 W (CV, 1.0-3.0%; correlation, 0.97-1.00). During the free weight bench press training, peak power declined by approximately 55% (p -95%). In conclusion, the optical encoder provided valid measures of kinetics during free weight resistance training movements. The decline in power during the initial acceleration phase appears a factor in a failed lift attempt at the sticking point. PMID:17530976

  4. Review of Transient Fuel Test Results at Sandia National Laboratories and the Potential for Future Fast Reactor Fuel Transient Testing in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A.; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Kelly, John; Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Reactor driven transient tests of fast reactor fuels may be required to support the development and certification of new fuels for Fast Reactors. The results of the transient fuel tests will likely be needed to support licensing and to provide validation data to support the safety case for a variety of proposed fast fuel types and reactors. In general reactor driven transient tests are used to identify basic phenomenology during reactor transients and to determine the fuel performance limits and margins to failure during design basis accidents such as loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and reactivity insertion accidents. This paper provides a summary description of the previous Sandia Fuel Disruption and Transient Axial Relocation tests that were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission almost 25 years ago. These tests consisted of a number of capsule tests and flowing gas tests that used fission heating to disrupt fresh and irradiated MOX fuel. The behavior of the fuel disruption, the generation of aerosols and the melting and relocation of fuel and cladding was recorded on high speed cinematography. This paper will present videos of the fuel disruption that was observed in these tests which reveal stark differences in fuel behavior between fresh and irradiated fuel. Even though these tests were performed over 25 years ago, their results are still relevant to today's reactor designs. These types of transient tests are again being considered by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership because of the need to perform tests on metal fuels and transuranic fuels. Because the Annular Core Research Reactor is the only transient test facility available within the US, a brief summary of Sandia's continued capability to perform these tests in the ACRR will also be provided. (authors)

  5. Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)

  6. Arthur Posnansky y su Obsesion Milenaria. Biografia lntelectual de un Pionero, by Carlos Ponce Sangines, 1994, La Paz: Producciones Cima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Ponce proposes to develop an intellectual history of Posnansky, whom many view as the father of Bolivian archaeology, which he hopes will contribute to the establishment of context for the development of local prehistory. However, for the most part, the volume serves more as a foil for Ponce to refer to his own work and publications, as they update, contradict, and improve on the earlier archaeological reconstructions of Posnansky. Arthur Posnansky (1873-1946 was an important contributor to Bolivian culture history, being not only a pioneer in Bolivian archaeology, but also in Bolivian cinematography, in the development of the national park system, and in the introduction of the first automobile into Bolivia. He was trained as a naval engineer in his native Vienna, a skill which he quickly parlayed into a fortune in Bolivia in the rubber boom, in terms of transporting the latex by river transport. With the loss of Arce to Brazil in 1903, he shifted his focus to other fields. He brought the first gasoline-powered motorboat to Lake Titicaca that year, and while visiting the excavations of the French Crequi-Montfort and Senechal de La Grange Mission, under the direction of George Courty, during trips to the lake, he became very intrigued with the site of Tiwanaku and its place in Bolivian prehistory. Posnansky shortly thereafter began his extensive collection of material artifacts from Tiwanaku, constructing the -"Palacio Tihuanacu" in 1917-1918 to house the stela, ceramics and other materials which he collected. This structure and its collections were subsequently sold to the state, becoming the current Museo Nacional de Arqueologia.

  7. Temptations of a socialist paradise: Reflections of a consumerist society in Yugoslavian films of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world divided by irreconcilable ideological differences into the capitalist West and the socialist East, Yugoslavia itself has, since the early fifties, faced a permanent choice between two options, on the borderline between those two opposing blocs. Coerced by political circumstances, the country's leadership had chosen its own path into communism, formulated through the idea of worker self-management that secured the belief among the people of Yugoslavia that they did not belong to either of the sides divided by the iron curtain. Although it was initially promoted as an expression of authentic Marxism, these unique political projects inevitably lead to an increasing openness toward the western world. The reduction of central government control over the economy, opening of borders, freedom of movement inside and outside the country, freedom of companies to trade abroad, permissible limited private property etc. allowed for easier access to elements of a consumer society that were coming from the West. Getting closer to the western world, as a cultural and an economic process, in the early 1960s also became a subject of Yugoslavian cinematography, which had after a string of years of partisan films begun to deal with modern (urban life. Through an anthropological analysis of the most popular domestic films made during that period, such as: Zajednicki stan, Nema malih bogova, Ljubav i moda and Na mesto građanine pokorni, in this paper I observe how ideological dilemmas concerning the first experiences of abandoning 'pure' socialism and the gradual acceptance of consumerism manifested in society (just prior to the economic reform of 1965., the vision of some future society that came to exist and the encounter with the taste of its values and lifestyle (the appearance of market mentality where new rules become important - competition and a fight for personal interest, individualism opposed to collective socialist solidarity etc.. [Projekat

  8. MAX GLÜCKSMANN: SUS PRIMEROS PASOS EN LA “CASA LAPAGE”. DESCUBRIENDO AL PIONERO DEL CINEMATÓGRAFO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ximena Gómez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the results of research project. We investigated the Buenos Aires city’s cultural industries from the early twentieth century and the end of the begin of War World Second. In this context, my interest is to observe path of a pioneer of show industry, photographer, director, producer, distributor, etc., the busissman Austrian Max Glücksmann. Along the transformation that lived the city of Buenos Aires since the late nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century and changes the technique appeared intuitive immigrants, busissman and seeking a commercial return built the entertainment market in Argentina. This paper attempts to give keep up with the first steps of Glücksmann, an immigrant such as employee Lapage Photography house that was in the center of Buenos Aires, soon pasar to be his manager and culminate as the owner of it. And from this space, in the course of the twentieth century to become one of the entrepreneurs of the cinematography and the record industry in Argentina. For this, we will use of graphic sources of the time trying to make a reconstruction of the cultural circuit where developed. As also noted the growth of the city, the locals begin to circulate and appearing as potential consumers of different products. From the observation of the marketing methods such as advertising, and analyzes of how was organized the House Lapage, identify as Max Glüscksmann becomes manager of trade and look at the itinerary of decisiones he took and how they helped to shape the entertainment market of the city of Buenos Aires.

  9. 影视人类学研究与非洲书写探新∗--晚近日本学界动态及启示%On the Visual Anthropology and Africa Writing in Contemporary Japan:Trends and Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮云星; 阮立

    2016-01-01

    晚近日本人类学界的影视人类学研究展现新拓展,其中非洲人类学书写的反思与探索是比较活跃的一个领域。笔者通过介绍近年邻国日本学界的两个案例,即东京 EC影视会活用德国国立科学研究所(IWF)《科学影视志百科库(EC Encyclopedia Cinematographica)》之非洲影视片的实践案例和日本国立民族学博物馆当代非洲影视志的拍摄及探索案例,进而提起当代中国非洲人类学影视书写和(影视)人类学资料库建设之议题。%Visual anthropology in Japan has witnessed new developments in recent years,especial-ly on its methodological exploration concerning the visualization and presentation of Africa.This paper tries to capture such progress in Japan with two concrete cases in the field:the creative reconstruction of films of Africa in IWF’s Cinematography Encyclopedia kept by Japan;the experimental exploration on filming and presentation of Africa carried out by Japanese National Museum of Ethnology (Minpa-ku).Referring to such progress in Japan,this paper brings insights for anthropological inquiry on writing Africa in contemporary China and indicates that a database for visual anthropology is indispen-sible.

  10. Estetik Bir Öğe Olarak Sinemada Ses Tasarımı Ve Örnek Bir Film Çözümlemesi Sound Design As An Aesthetical Element In Cinema And An Example Of A Film Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SÖZEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the image itself, even in a film having the simplest story, does not provide enough message. Due to a spesific aesthetic predication of audio phonemena, the films, right from the beginning, started to be shown in accompany with sound. The soundelement in cinematography which produces the semantic expression asa parlance by means of images and sounds has its own ways of use.The sound universe of cinematography is composed of dialogs, effectsand music each having different ontologies. In today’s cinematography,all these three elements were given in. For all that, in some filmsproduced for certain aesthetic considerations and in limited numbersthe usage of effects and music are avoided. Looking at the elementsmaking up the universe of sound in a film from the perspective ofessential functions it is seen that the dialogs are used to provideinformation, effects to create a real spatial and temporal feeling, andmusic to conceive the ambiance required by narrative. By doing so,matching the sounds in harmony with images is achieved and so theenhancement of the narrative’s reality illusion is expected. Somedirectors on the other hand, by pushing the sound out of its basicfunctions, rendering images and sounds contrary oppose this approachgo in search of producing different and new meanings. This studyinvestigates the how the sound universe design of the film “Deli DeliOlma” directed by Murat Saracoğlu, as an aesthetic element ismanipulated. In analysis, sound universe has been assesed either bystructural or dramatic functional dimensions. En basit öyküye sahip bir filmde bile sadece görüntülerin yeteri kadar ileti sağlamadığı bilinen bir gerçekliktir. Ses olgusunun kendine özgü estetik bir yükleme sahip oluşundan ötürü, sinemanın ilk anlarından itibaren filmler ses eşliğinde gösterilmeye başlanmıştır. Bir dil olarak anlamsal ifadeyi görüntü ve sesler aracılığıyla üreten sinemada ses

  11. Fuel Coolant Interaction Results in the Fuel Pins Melting Facility (PMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental work related to FCI at PNC has been concentrated into the molten UO2 dropping test. After the completion of molten UO2 drop experiments, emphasis is directed toward the FCI phenomena of the initiating conditions of the accident under the more realistic geometry. The experiments are conducted within the Pin Melt Facility (PMF) in which UO2 pellets clad in stainless steel are melted by direct electric heating under the stagnant or flowing sodium. The primary objectives of the PMF test are to: - obtain detail experimental results (heat-input, clad temperature, sodium temperature, etc.) on the FCI under TOP and LOF conditions; - observe the movement of the fuel before and after the pin failure by the X-ray cinematography; - observe the degree of coherence of the pin failures; - accumulate the experience of the FCI experiment which is applicable to the subassembly or more larger scale; - simulate the fuel behavior of the in-pile test (GETR, CABRI). The preliminary conclusions can be drawn from the foregoing observations are as follows: - Although the fuel motion and FCI of the closed test section appeared to be different from those of the open test section, the conclusion of the effect of the inside pressure on FCI needs more experimental data. - The best heating condition of the UO2 pellet for the FCI study with PMF is established as 40 w/cm at the steady state and 1680 J/g of UO2 during the additional transient state. The total energy deposition of the UO2 pellet is thus estimated in the range of 2400 J/g of UO2 -2600 J/g of UO2. The analytical model of the fuel pin failure and the subsequent FCI are suggested to count the following parameters: - The fuel pin failure due to the fuel vaporization due to the rapid energy deposition; - Molten fuel, clad and sodium interaction in the fuel pin after the pin failure; - The upward flow of molten fuel with molten clad or vapor sodium, as well as the slumping of molten fuel

  12. Effect of operation conditions of the drop-on-demand aerosol generator on aerosol characteristics: Pseudo-cinematographic and plasma mass spectrometric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently presented drop-on-demand (DOD) aerosol generator overcomes some of the drawbacks of pneumatic nebulization, as its aerosol is no longer generated by gas–liquid interaction. In the current study, an advanced imaging technique is presented, based on a CCD camera equipped with magnifying telecentric optics to allow for fast, automated and precise aerosol characterization as well as fundamental studies on the droplet generation processes by means of pseudo-cinematography. The DOD aerosol generator is thoroughly characterized regarding its droplet size distribution, which shows few distinct populations rather than a continuous distribution. Other important figures, such as the Sauter diameter (D3,2) of 22 μm and the span of 0.4 were also determined. Additionally, the influence of the electrical operation conditions of the dosing device on the aerosol generation process is described. The number and volume of the generated droplets were found to be very reproducible and user-variable, e.g. from 17 to 27 μm (D3,2), within a span of 0.07–0.89. The performances of different setups of the DOD as liquid sample introduction system in ICP-MS are correlated to the respective achievable aerosol characteristics and are also compared to the performance of a state-of-the-art μ-flow nebulizer (EnyaMist). The DOD system allowed for improved sensitivity, but slightly elevated signal noise and overall comparable limits of detection. The results are critically discussed and future directions are outlined. - Graphical abstract: Further characterization of the drop-on-demand aerosol generator for sample introduction in atomic spectrometry. - Highlights: • Significantly improved ICP-MS sensitivity using the DOD vs. EnyaMist. • Comparable detection limits but slightly worse short-term precision. • Superior flexibility compared with conventional/miniaturized pneumatic nebulizers. • Electrical operation conditions of the DOD influence aerosol characteristics. • The

  13. Study of the quenching and subsequent return to room temperature of uranium-chromium, uranium-iron, and uranium-molybdenum alloys containing only small amounts of the alloying element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of an apparatus which makes possible thermal pre-treatments in vacuo, quenching carried out in a high purity argon atmosphere, and simultaneous recording of time temperature cooling and thermal contraction curves, the author has examined the transformations which occur in uranium-chromium, uranium-iron and uranium-molybdenum alloys during their quenching and subsequent return to room temperature. For uranium-chromium and uranium-iron alloys, the temperature at which the γ → β transformation starts varies very little with the rate of cooling. For uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 atom per cent of Mo, this temperature is lowered by 120 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn. The temperature at which the β → α transformation starts is lowered by 170 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn in the case of uranium-chromium alloy containing 0,37 atom per cent of Cr. The temperature is little affected in the case of uranium-iron alloys. The addition of chromium or iron makes it possible to conserve the form β at ordinary temperatures after quenching from the β and γ regions. The β phase is particularly unstable and changes into needles of the α form even at room temperatures according to an autocatalytic transformation law similar to the austenitic-martensitic transformation law in the case of iron. The β phase obtained by quenching from the β phase region is more stable than that obtained by quenching from the γ region. Chromium is a more effective stabiliser of the β phase than is iron. Unfortunately it causes serious surface cracking. The β → α transformation in uranium-chromium alloys has been followed at room temperature by means of micro-cinematography. The author has not observed the direct γ → α transformation in uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 per cent of molybdenum even for cooling rates of up to 2000 deg. C/s. He has however observed the formation of several martensitic structures. (author)

  14. Programmed electromyographic activity and negative incremental muscle stiffness in monkeys jumping downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Laursen, A M

    1984-05-01

    We trained monkeys to jump down from different heights, and recorded electromyograms (e.m.g.s) in arm muscles, and ground reaction forces. The landing movements were also recorded by high-speed cinematography. The e.m.g. of the triceps began about 80 ms before landing. The initial burst lasted until about 20 ms after ground contact and was succeeded by bursts of gradually declining amplitude. These discharges were not of reflex origin, because when the monkey was deceived by a collapsible platform, they were time-locked to the expected, not to the true landing. The amplitude of the e.m.g. in the triceps increased with the height of the jump, indicating adaptive control. The timing of the e.m.g. pattern was assumed to be programmed before take off, because it was unaffected by extinction of the light during the fall. The vertical ground reaction force produced by the arms had an inflexion on its rising phase which arose from the very rapid stretch of the muscles which control the wrist. Then came a sharp peak produced mainly by stretch of the triceps. The inflexion and the sharp peak were probably produced by short-range stiffness of the muscles of the upper arm. The torque acting on the elbow joint, and the elbow joint stiffness were calculated from the ground reaction forces and the movement of the arm. The torque was high at impact and gradually declined during the landing. The force produced by the triceps increased sharply, then decreased while it continued to lengthen. Thus, the elbow joint showed high initial stiffness, which then decreased, and finally became negative. This dynamic relation between length and tension was very different from the static length-tension characteristic of skeletal muscles. The observed behaviour of the muscles presumably takes advantage of the resistance of the musculo-skeletal system to transient forces. The observed negative stiffness occurs only during submaximal contractions. We propose that the segmented pattern in the e

  15. Dynamic evaluation of swallowing disorders with electron-beam tomography; Funktionelle Schluckaktuntersuchungen mit der Elektronenstrahlcomputertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raith, J. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria); Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria); Kern, R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria); Groell, R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria); Rienmueller, R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria)

    1996-03-01

    Three cases preselected by videofluorography were studied to evaluate whether electron beam tomography (EBT) permits more detailed dynamic imaging of swallowing disorders focusing on the mesonasopharyngeal segment, the hypopharynx and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Immediately after videofluorographic examination of the oropharyngeal deglutition, EBT is performed. The patient is in a supine position and while the patient swallows a 20 ml bolus of water or diluted iodine containing contrast agent, a sequence of 20 images per level is scanned. The levels, which are determined by using the scout view, are oriented parallel to the hard palate either at the level of the hard palate to image the mesonasopharyngel segment or just above the hyoid bone to focus on the hypopharynx or at the location of the USE. The scan technique is a single-slice cinemode with a slice thickness of 3 mm (exposure time 100 ms, interscan delay 16 ms, 130 kV, 620 mA). The following structural interactions that we have so far been unable to image can be clearly demonstrated with EBT: During normal swallowing, the mesonasopharyngeal segment is completely and symmetrically closed by the soft palate and Passavant`s cushion; lateral hypopharyngeal pouches can be located more precisely; and disorders of the UES can be differentiated into functional or morphologically caused disorders (e.g., goiter or cervical osteophytes). Videofluorography and cinematography are still the gold standard in functional evaluation of swallowing disorders. However, EBT permits dynamic imaging of pharyngeal deglutition in a preselected transverse plane and can give useful additional information concerning functional anatomical changes in the pharynx during swallowing. Further clinical evaluation is needed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Videofluorographie und Kinematographie gelten derzeit als Goldstandard fuer die Abklaerung von Schluckstoerungen. Methodisch bedingt ist jedoch keine ueberlagerungsfreie Darstellung der

  16. Special effects used in creating 3D animated scenes-part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    In present, with the help of computer, we can create special effects that look so real that we almost don't perceive them as being different. These special effects are somehow hard to differentiate from the real elements like those on the screen. With the increasingly accesible 3D field that has more and more areas of application, the 3D technology goes easily from architecture to product designing. Real like 3D animations are used as means of learning, for multimedia presentations of big global corporations, for special effects and even for virtual actors in movies. Technology, as part of the movie art, is considered a prerequisite but the cinematography is the first art that had to wait for the correct intersection of technological development, innovation and human vision in order to attain full achievement. Increasingly more often, the majority of industries is using 3D sequences (three dimensional). 3D represented graphics, commercials and special effects from movies are all designed in 3D. The key for attaining real visual effects is to successfully combine various distinct elements: characters, objects, images and video scenes; like all these elements represent a whole that works in perfect harmony. This article aims to exhibit a game design from these days. Considering the advanced technology and futuristic vision of designers, nowadays we have different and multifarious game models. Special effects are decisively contributing in the creation of a realistic three-dimensional scene. These effects are essential for transmitting the emotional state of the scene. Creating the special effects is a work of finesse in order to achieve high quality scenes. Special effects can be used to get the attention of the onlooker on an object from a scene. Out of the conducted study, the best-selling game of the year 2010 was Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. This way, the article aims for the presented scene to be similar with many locations from this type of games, more

  17. KROTOS FCI experimental programme at CEA Cadarache: new features and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, J.M.; Bullado, Y.; Journeau, C.; Fouquart, P.; Piluso, P.; Sergeant, C.; Magallon, D. [CEA-Cadarache, DTN/STRI/LMA, Bat 708, BP1, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: KROTOS facility has been operated by the European Commission at JRC-Ispra for many years until 1999 as part of the FARO/KROTOS programme. The programme had to be stopped at JRC due to new EC priorities, and an agreement was concluded with CEA to transfer the KROTOS facility and know-how to Cadarache to continue investigating the pending FCI issues. By this agreement, CEA became owner of the facility. The main objective of the KROTOS programme at CEA Cadarache is understanding the role of melt properties in steam explosion propagation and energetics and, in particular, steam explosion behaviour of prototypical corium melts. Possible influence of physicochemical processes on explosiveness will also be explored. Actually, analysis of alumina debris produced at Ispra have shown that formation of metastable phases and chemical reaction with water at high temperature may play a significant role in enhancing heat transfer to water in the explosion phase. In order to reach the objective, steam explosion experiments are performed in well characterised conditions for a large spectrum of conditions and melt compositions of interest for both in- and ex-vessel situations. A trigger is applied as a rule. Advanced technology and instrumentation is used to reduce uncertainties on initial conditions and characterise the various phases of an explosion, with emphasis on high energy X-ray cinematography to qualify pre-mixing. This advanced instrumentation will enable the measurement of detailed variables to consolidate the qualification of the FCI codes. The use of high energy X-rays made it necessary to construct a new building to house the facility and its components. The facility should newly become operative early 2005. Main improvements with respect to Ispra concern melt delivery, hydrogen measurement and X-ray imaging. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that identification of the pre-mixture-water interface and coherent melt jet core, and

  18. Investigation of Atomization and Combustion Performance of Renewable Biofuels and the Effects of Ethanol Blending in Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Adam Gregory

    This thesis presents results from an experimental investigation of the macroscopic and microscopic atomization and combustion behavior of B99 biodiesel, ethanol, B99-ethanol blends, methanol, and an F-76-Algae biodiesel blend. In addition, conventional F-76 and Diesel #2 sprays were characterized as a base case to compare with. The physical properties and chemical composition of each fuel were measured in order to characterize and predict atomization performance. A variety of B99-ethanol fuel blends were used which demonstrate a tradeoff between lower density, surface tension, and viscosity with a decrease in the air to liquid ratio. A plain jet air-blast atomizer was used for both non-reacting and reacting tests. The flow rates for the alternative fuels were set by matching the power input provided by the baseline fossil fuels in order to simulate use as a drop in replacement. For this study, phase Doppler interferometry is employed to gain information on drop size, SMD, velocity, and volume flux distribution across the spray plume. A high speed camera is used to gather high speed cinematography of the sprays for observing breakup characteristics and providing additional insight. Reacting flow tests captured NOx, CO, and UHC emissions along with high speed footage used to predict soot levels based on flame luminosity. The results illustrate how the fuel type impacts the atomization and spray characteristics. The air-blast atomizer resulted in similar atomization performance among the DF2, F-76, and the F-76/Algae blend. While methanol and ethanol are not suitable candidates for this air-blast configuration and B99 produces significantly larger droplets, the addition of ethanol decreased drop sizes for all B99-ethanol blends by approximately 5 microns. In regards to reacting conditions, increased ethanol blending to B99 consistently lowered NOx emissions while decreasing combustion efficiency. Overall, lower NOx and CO emissions were achieved with the fuel blends

  19. Perversion and method. Žižek’s "platonic love" for film, dialectics of exemplification and the catastrophe of psychoanalysis in the cinematic discourse of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulić Borislav

    2013-01-01

    . It is argued that this asymmetry ultimately causes what Žižek rejects in principle: a substitution of materialism and contingency of truth-search for a holism of sense. Consequently this seems to turn the psychoanalytic discourse on cinematography into a hermeneutic one.

  20. Descolonización y cine: la propuesta indígena de Jorge Sanjinés hoy

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    Núria Vilanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of Jorge Sanjinés’ cinema in current Latin American cinematography, specifically in Bolivia. The central idea argues that despite the favourable political situation Bolivia is at the present experiencing, with the arrival of Evo Morales to the Presidency in the year 2006, the declaration of Bolivia as a multinational State, and the growing prominence of aymaras and quechuas in the national political arena, indigenous film as envisioned by Sanjinés has not been fully developed. The article puts forward the difficulties which the national and international film industry face in incorporating a type of film that does not respond to the expectations of a mainstream public, makes no concessions to the Western viewer, and provides no cultural filters to pave the viewer’s understanding and persuade him or her cinematically.Este artículo explora la herencia del cine de Jorge Sanjinés en el cine latinoamericano actual y muy específicamente en el boliviano. La idea central argumenta que a pesar de la favorable coyuntura política que vive Bolivia con la llegada de Evo Morales a la presidencia en el año 2006, la declaración de Bolivia como un Estado plurinacional y el creciente protagonismo de aymaras y quechuas en la esfera política nacional, el cine indígena, como lo vislumbró Sanjinés, no se ha desarrollado lo suficiente.    El artículo plantea la dificultad de lograr que la industria cinematográfica nacional e internacional sea capaz de incorporar un tipo de películas que    no responde a las expectativas de un público convencional más o menos mayoritario, que no hace concesiones al espectador occidental ni recurre a los filtros necesarios para allanar su comprensión y persuadirle cinemato- gráficamente. 

  1. Effect of operation conditions of the drop-on-demand aerosol generator on aerosol characteristics: Pseudo-cinematographic and plasma mass spectrometric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlandini von Niessen, Jan O.; Krone, Karin M.; Bings, Nicolas H., E-mail: bings@uni-mainz.de

    2014-02-01

    The recently presented drop-on-demand (DOD) aerosol generator overcomes some of the drawbacks of pneumatic nebulization, as its aerosol is no longer generated by gas–liquid interaction. In the current study, an advanced imaging technique is presented, based on a CCD camera equipped with magnifying telecentric optics to allow for fast, automated and precise aerosol characterization as well as fundamental studies on the droplet generation processes by means of pseudo-cinematography. The DOD aerosol generator is thoroughly characterized regarding its droplet size distribution, which shows few distinct populations rather than a continuous distribution. Other important figures, such as the Sauter diameter (D{sub 3,2}) of 22 μm and the span of 0.4 were also determined. Additionally, the influence of the electrical operation conditions of the dosing device on the aerosol generation process is described. The number and volume of the generated droplets were found to be very reproducible and user-variable, e.g. from 17 to 27 μm (D{sub 3,2}), within a span of 0.07–0.89. The performances of different setups of the DOD as liquid sample introduction system in ICP-MS are correlated to the respective achievable aerosol characteristics and are also compared to the performance of a state-of-the-art μ-flow nebulizer (EnyaMist). The DOD system allowed for improved sensitivity, but slightly elevated signal noise and overall comparable limits of detection. The results are critically discussed and future directions are outlined. - Graphical abstract: Further characterization of the drop-on-demand aerosol generator for sample introduction in atomic spectrometry. - Highlights: • Significantly improved ICP-MS sensitivity using the DOD vs. EnyaMist. • Comparable detection limits but slightly worse short-term precision. • Superior flexibility compared with conventional/miniaturized pneumatic nebulizers. • Electrical operation conditions of the DOD influence aerosol

  2. Las Formas Políticas del Cine Argentino: Montajes, Disrupciones y Estéticas de una Tradición Political Forms of Argentinean Cinema: Editing, Disrupting, and the Aesthetics of a Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dipaola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo indaga y analiza las formas políticas del cine argentino desde los años sesenta a la actualidad, pero centrándose especialmente en el cine argentino contemporáneo (1995-2010. Se propone hablar de «formas políticas» y no de «cine político» como ejercicio para pensar la política y la estética en sus relaciones inmanentes. Así, establece tres períodos: los años sesenta y setenta como la irrupción de la política en el cine; los años ochenta como el desplazamiento de la política por la denuncia moral y los años noventa y post 2001 como un retorno de lo sensible o como el advenimiento de las «políticas de lo sensible». Así, se indaga en las formas políticas del cine y conjuntamente se interroga el dispositivo de representación estética de la cinematografía.This article examines and analyzes political forms of argentine cinema from the sixties to the present, focusing especially on contemporary argentine cinema (1995-2010. It will try to deal with «political forms» rather than with the notion of a «political film», an exercise to think about politics and aesthetics as an immanent relation. Thus, three periods are considered in this article: the sixties and seventies as the emergence of political cinema; the eighties as the displacement of politics by moral denunciation and the nineties and after 2001 as a return of the sensory experience or as the advent of «sensible policies.» The text will explore political forms in films, and will question this device of aesthetic representation in cinematography.

  3. Biblioteca Publica en Huntington Beach (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Historico, Dion

    1977-07-01

    Full Text Available The first stage, which is the only one completed up to the present time, consists of a more extensive architectural complex conceived for housing different cultural functions besides the library: plastic arts, cinematography, scientific and informative activities, etc. The building is organized in two main floors in a rectangular shape, and in several mezzanines, reading rooms, book deposits, projection areas, music and painting departments and technical administration and maintenance offices, occupying a total of approximately 4,400 m2. The architectural design denotes the intention of integration in the treatment of the inside spaces, by the suppression of separate compartments, organizing the necessary distinction of functions in the reading rooms, by means of differences of floor levels and with the use of adequate decorative elements. In the same manner, the outside walls have been substituted by complete glass surfaces which allow full incorporation of the natural surroundings in the architecture.Constituye la primera fase, única realizada hasta el presente, de un complejo arquitectónico más amplio concebido para albergar distintas funciones culturales además de biblioteca: artes plásticas, cinematografía, actividades científicas e informativas, etc. El edificio se organiza en dos plantas principales, de forma rectangular, y en diversas entreplantas, salas de lectura, depósitos de libros, locales de proyección, departamentos de música y pintura, y oficinas técnicas de administración y mantenimiento, ocupando un total aproximado de 4.400 m2. El planteamiento arquitectónico denota un propósito integrador en el tratamiento de los espacios interiores, por la supresión de las compartimentaciones de fábrica, organizándose la necesaria distinción de ambientes en las salas de lectura, mediante diferencias de nivel del suelo y con el empleo de adecuados elementos decorativos. Del mismo modo, los muros de fachada se han

  4. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

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    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  5. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  6. Teatro-cine Eileen Norris - California (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, Albert C.

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available This building forms a part of the substructure of the Department of the Cinema of the University of Southern California. Among its various functions, it includes the practical teaching of cinematography. It consists of a ground floor for accesses and auditorium, with a surface measuring 1,950 m2, and a basement of the same extension, designed for a film library and film deposit. The auditorium has a capacity for 350 spectators and is equipped with a screen adaptable to the projection of 16, 35 and 70 mm films, as well as equipment for the projection of slides and video tapes. It can also be conditioned as a lecture hall, for which purpose, complete sets of equipment fort simultaneous translation have been installed. On the outside, the architecture presents a neoclassical design, based on a portico of four large white cement columns, which combines with Marble exteriors on the walls.

    Este edificio forma parte de la infraestructura del Departamento de Cine de la Universidad de California del Sur. Entre sus diversas funciones comprende la enseñanza práctica de la cinematografía. Consta de una planta baja destinada a accesos y auditorio, de 1.950 m2 de superficie, y un sótano, de la misma extensión, destinado a biblioteca de cine y a depósito de películas. El auditorio tiene capacidad para 350 espectadores y cuenta con una pantalla adaptable a la proyección de films de 16, 35 y 70 mm, así como con equipos para la proyección de diapositivas y cintas de video-tapes. Puede acondicionarse, igualmente, como sala de conferencias, para lo cual se han instalado unos completos equipos de traducción simultánea. Exteriormente, la arquitectura presenta un diseño neoclásico, basado en un pórtico de cuatro grandes columnas de cemento blanco que combina con revestimientos de mármol y en los paramentos verticales.

  7. Experimental Study of the Influence of Initial Pressure on the Detonation Propagation Characteristic in Narrow Gap%初始压力对狭缝内爆轰传播特性影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱跃进; 潘振华; 张彭岗; 潘剑锋; 王谦

    2016-01-01

    在高度H=1 mm,宽度W=20 mm的狭缝内,实验研究了不同初始压力( P0=10~40 kPa)下化学恰当比的C2 H4/O2预混气的爆轰传播特性。采用烟迹法记录爆轰胞格结构,同时采用高速摄影捕捉火焰面。实验结果表明,随着初始压力降低,爆轰波的化学反应诱导区距离增大,壁面条件(如摩擦、导热)的影响增强,导致火焰传播的速度震荡加剧,爆轰波传播从多头模式向单头模式过渡,并可出现多次起爆或者熄爆等复杂现象。此外,稳定自持传播爆轰波的速度亏损会随初始压力降低而增大,但详细规律还需进一步研究。%Influence of different initial pressures ( P0 =10~40 kPa) on detonation propagation of stoichiometric C2 H4/O2 mixtures was experimentally studied in a narrow gap with 1-mm-height and 20-mm-width. The soot film was utilized to record the detonation cell structure, and the high-speed cinematography was used to capture the flame. It can be found that the chemical reaction induction zone length of detonation increases and the influence of wall condition ( such as friction and heat conduction) strengthens with the decrease of initial pressure, hence, the flame velocity fluctuation is intensified. And the detonation propagation transits from multi-head mode to single-head mode, which even can appear multiple detonation initiation or detonation failure phenomena. In addition, the velocity deficit of self-sustained detonation wave becomes larger with the decrease of initial pressure, however, the detailed variation rule needs a further study.

  8. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brisset

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  9. 1. Dose reduction of occupational exposure in cardiac catheterization and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yoshimi [Kyushu Kosei Nenkin Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Fujihashi, Hiroshi; Umeda, Kazuhiro

    2000-08-01

    Occupational exposure to scattered radiation and protective equipment was assessed in 4 medical institutions in Kyushu, Japan. The areas where scattered radiation occurred, the scattered radiation dose in the operator's position, fluoroscopy time, the number of cinematography sessions, and annual number of patients were assessed, and the annual scattered radiation dose to the operator was estimated. Approximately 90% of scattered radiation was generated by the subject and the collimator. Measurement of scattered radiation during coronary arteriography yielded a dose of 255-1200 [{mu}Sv/hr.] during fluoroscopy and 3.8-26.7 [{mu}Sv/10 sec.] during radiography. The duration of fluoroscopy for ablation was much longer than during general examinations and PTCA, suggesting a possible contribution to occupational exposure. The data for the past 5 years show no marked change in total number of catheterizations, but the number of ablations has rapidly increased. Ablation requires specific skills, and thus it is frequently performed by only a few staff members, resulting in exposure being concentrated in a few specific persons. The estimated doses of scattered radiation to the eyes and thyroid gland, which are assumed to be the most highly exposed sites, were 116.2 [mSv/year] during fluoroscopy and 8.9 [mSv/year] during radiography, for a total of 125.1 [mSv/year]. This dose is very close to the maximum occupational exposure dose recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), i.e., 150 [mSv/year]. A protective device that does not impose a burden on the operator or limit the functions of x-ray units was installed on top of the examining table as a measure to reduce the occupational dose. In an experiment using this device the scattered radiation dose during inguinal puncture decreased from 0.8 [mSv/hr.] to 0.02 [mSv/hr.], and the shielding rate was 2.5%. The dose was reduced 97.5%. The authors conclude that radiological personnel must make

  10. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.

    2010-12-01

    , Japan in 2008, for example, seem to support the need for careful mechanical consideration. In this contribution, utilizing two-dimensional dynamic photoelasticity in conjunction with high speed digital cinematography, we try to perform "fully controlled" laboratory experiments of dip-slip faulting and observe the propagation of interface pulses and corner waves mentioned above. A birefringent material containing a (model) dip-slip fault plane is prepared, and rupture is initiated in that material using an Nd:YAG laser system, and the evolution of time-dependent isochromatic fringe patterns (contours of maximum in-plane shear stress) associated with the dynamic process of shallow dip-slip faulting is recorded. Use of Nd:YAG laser pulses, instead of ignition of explosives, for rupture initiation may enhance the safety of laboratory fracture experiments and enable us to evaluate the energy entering the material (and hence the energy balance in the system) more precisely, possibly in a more controlled way.

  11. Excitable dynamics in high-Lewis number premixed gas combustion at normal and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Howard

    1995-01-01

    Freely-propagating, premixed gas flames in high-Lewis (Le) number, quiescent mixtures are studied experimentally in tubes of various diameter at normal (lg) and microgravity (mu g). A premixture of lean butane and oxygen diluted with helium, argon, neon, nitrogen or a mixture of multiple diluents is examined such that the thermal diffusivity of the mixture (and to a lesser extent, the mass diffusivity of the rate-limiting component) is systematically varied. In effect, different diluents allow variation of the Le without changing the chemistry. The flames are recorded with high speed cinematography and their stability is visually assessed. Different modes of propagation were observed depending on the diameter of the tubes (different conductive heat loss), the composition of the mixture and the g-level. At 1g, four modes of propagation were observed in small and intermediate diameter tubes (large conductive heat loss): (1) steadily propagating flames, (2) radial and longitudinal pulsating flames, (3) 'wavering' flames, and (4) rotating spiral flames. As the diameter of the tube increases, the radial modes become more pronounced while the longitudinal modes systematically disappear. Also, multiple, simultaneous, spatially-separated 'pacemaker' sites are observed in intermediate and large diameter tubes. Each site starts as a small region of high luminosity and develops into a flamelet which assumes the form of one of the fore mentioned modes. These flamelets eventually interact, annihilate each other in their regions of intersection and merge at their newly created free-ends. For very large tubes, radially-propagating wave-trains (believed to be 'trigger waves') are observed. These are analogous to the radial pulsations observed in the smaller diameter tubes. At mu g, three modes of propagation have been observed: (1) steadily propagating flames, (2) radial and longitudinal pulsating flames, and (3) multi-armed, rotating flames. Since the pulsating mode exists at mu

  12. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Cila

    1999-01-01

    In boiling high heat fluxes are possible driven by relatively small temperature differences, which make its use increasingly attractive in aerospace applications. The objective of the research is to develop ways to overcome specific problems associated with boiling in the low gravity environment by substituting the buoyancy force with the electric force to enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. Previous studies indicate that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50, as compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. The goal of our research is to experimentally explore the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions, by visualizing the temperature distributions in the vicinity of the heated surface and around the bubble during boiling using real-time holographic interferometry (HI) combined with high-speed cinematography. In the first phase of the project the influence of the electric field on a single bubble is investigated. Pool boiling is simulated by injecting a single bubble through a nozzle into the subcooled liquid or into the thermal boundary layer developed along the flat heater surface. Since the exact location of bubble formation is known, the optical equipment can be aligned and focused accurately, which is an essential requirement for precision measurements of bubble shape, size and deformation, as well as the visualization of temperature fields by HI. The size of the bubble and the frequency of bubble departure can be controlled by suitable selection of nozzle diameter and mass flow rate of vapor. In this approach effects due to the presence of the electric field can be separated from effects caused by the temperature gradients in the thermal boundary layer. The influence of the thermal boundary layer can be investigated after activating the heater at a later stage of the research. For the visualization experiments a

  13. L’écriture cinématographique de la sociologie filmique. Comment penser en sociologue avec une caméra ? Film writing and the sociology of film. Shooting a film through a sociological lense La escritura cinematográfica de la sociología fílmica ¿Cómo pensar como sociólogo sirviéndose de una cámara?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maillot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Les frères Lumière ont inventé, à la fin du XIXe siècle, un nouveau moyen pour représenter le réel et l’organiser dans une vision du monde : le cinématographe, c’est-à-dire un nouveau langage, une nouvelle écriture. Cet outil, (caméra/microphone ne construit plus son discours avec les mots de l’écriture graphique, mais avec des images (et des sons dans l’écriture photo- ou cinémato-graphique. L’utilisation de ce nouveau mode d’expression implique un double apprentissage. En premier lieu la connaissance des capacités des outils et la maîtrise de leur manipulation. On ne filme pas si l’on n’est pas photographe ou cinéaste. Un second apprentissage est nécessaire, il concerne la capacité non plus seulement technique, mais esthétique-sémantique (c’est une même chose, de construire un discours dans l’écriture photo-cinématographique. Cet article propose une intoduction aux problèmes fondamentaux de ce double apprentissage.Late in the XIXth century, the brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière invented a new way of representing and organising reality to create a vision of the world. This new language or mode of expression - cinematography – was comprised of tools (cameras, microphones that no longer constructed discourse through the written word but by images (and sounds conveyed by photo- or cinematographic writing. Two lessons had to be learnt before the new vehicle could be adopted, however. Firstly, participants needed to know about their tools’ functions and how these might be wielded. After all, the only people who can film or take pictures are photographers or cinematographers. Secondly, they had to develop the aesthetic – and, synonymously, semantic – capacity to construct discourse through photo and cinematographic expression. The present article introduces the basic issues associated with these two learning processes.A fines del siglo XIX, los hermanos Lumière inventaron un nuevo medio para

  14. L’image sonore contemporaine : entre misère symbolique et imaginaire sonore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tiffon

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available L’histoire de la musique peut s’écrire comme l’évolution progressive mais déterminante de deux grands paradigmes technologiques, celui de l’écriture et celui du son. L’enregistrement sonore modifie en profondeur l’économie de la musique en inventant notamment de nouveaux modes d’invention du sonore et de nouvelles pratiques d’écoute du sonore. On élargit alors le domaine du musical en inventant l’image sonore. À l’instar des autres arts de studio, la photographie, la cinématographie, la vidéo…, la phonographie prend le réel comme matériau immédiat. L’effet de réalité qui en résulte conduit au glissement progressif de la musique comme objet cultuel (avant le xive siècle, à la musique comme objet industriel (depuis 1970 en passant par la musique comme objet culturel (entre le xive siècle et le xxe siècle ; ce faisant, le risque d’une « désorientation » est bien réel. D’où une cartographie floue entre culture, art et phénomènes de société. L’image sonore semble s’inscrire entre « misère symbolique » et imaginaire, entre l’industrie musicale et l’avant-garde.The history of music can be written as the gradual yet decisive evolution of two great technological paradigms: the paradigms of writing and of sound. Sound recording has profoundly altered the organization of music, notably through the invention of new modes of sound invention and new practices of listening to sound phenomena. It is precisely at this point that the field of music has been widened by the invention of the sound image. After the fashion of the other arts of the studio (photography, cinematography, video and so on, phonography has reality itself as its unmediated material. The resulting reality effect has led to the gradual shift from music as liturgical object (before the 14th century to music as industrial object (since 1970 via music as cultural object (between the 14th century and the 20th century. In

  15. An Experimental Study on the Dynamics of a Single Droplet Vapor Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concilio Hansson, Roberta

    2010-07-01

    The present study aims to develop a mechanistic understanding of the thermal-hydraulic processes in a vapor explosion, which may occur in nuclear power plants during a hypothetical severe accident involving interactions of high-temperature corium melt and volatile coolant. Over the past several decades, a large body of literature has been accumulated on vapor explosion phenomenology and methods for assessment of the related risk. Vapor explosion is driven by a rapid fragmentation of high temperature melt droplets, leading to a substantial increase of heat transfer areas and subsequent explosive evaporation of the volatile coolant. Constrained by the liquid-phase coolant, the rapid vapor production in the interaction zone causes pressurization and dynamic loading on surrounding structures. While such a general understanding has been established, the triggering mechanism and subsequent dynamic fine fragmentation have yet not been clearly understood. A few mechanistic fragmentation models have been proposed, however, computational efforts to simulate the phenomena generated a large scatter of results. Dynamics of the hot liquid (melt) droplet and the volatile liquid (coolant) are investigated in the MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) facility by performing well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments, using a high-speed visualization system with synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography, called SHARP (Simultaneous High-speed Acquisition of X-ray Radiography and Photography). After an elaborate image processing, the SHARP images depict the evolution of both melt material (dispersal) and coolant (bubble dynamics), and their microscale interactions, i.e. the triggering phenomenology. The images point to coolant entrainment into the droplet surface as the mechanism for direct contact/mixing ultimately responsible for energetic interactions. Most importantly, the MISTEE data reveals an inverse

  16. The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in biossays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra O papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida a bioensaios com o moluscicida vegetal Phytolacca dodecandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 25, 50 75 and 100 mgl-1 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Time-lapse cinematography was used to quantify accurately the following parameters: (a frequency of exits from the solution, (b time spent out of the solution and (c time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. These behavior patterns were statistically compared between surviving snails and those which later died. The proportion of surviving snails leaving the liquid medium was significantly higher than that of dying snails. In addition, the surviving group spent significantly more time out of the solution than the group which died, except for the 100 mgl-1 concentration. However, no significant difference was detected in the time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. It can be concluded that both the tendency to leave the P. dodecandra solutions, and the time spent out of them, contributed significantly to snail survival. Molluscicide bioassays should take into account the possibility that some behavior patterns of planorbids might contribute to the protection of the snails.Este trabalho investiga o papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabarta exposta a 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgI-1 de Phytolacca dodecandra. Foi utilizada a técnica de cinematografia com lapso de tempo para quantificar acuradamente os seguintes parâmetros (a freqüência de saídas da solução, (b tempo de permanência fora da solução e (e tempo decorrido até a primeira saída da soluçao. Estes padrões comportamentais foram estatisticamente comparados no que se refere aos caramujos sobreviventes e aos que vieram a morrer. Dentre os camundongos que abandonaram o meio líquido, a proporção de sobreviventes foi significativamente maior que a de mortos. Além disso, um tempo significativamente maior de permanência fora da solução foi observado no grupo que sobreviveu, em relação ao grupo que veio

  17. Música e imágenes hasta la llegada del cine. (Linterna mágica, armónica de cristal, fantasmagorías y teatro de sombras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armell Femenía, Montserrat

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The prehistory of talking movies where the coordination of moving images and sound is concerned, comprises a very extensive period of time of thousands of years stretching from the musical illustration of projected shadows as documented in Ancient China, up to practically the very dawn of cinematography, a technological advance unthinkable today more than ever without the contribution that music and sound have made to the so-called seventh art. This study sets out to offer an overall view of the history of continued human interest in capturing movement in sound and vision at the same moment in time, paying particular attention to certain technical achievements of some relevance (the magic lantern, the harmonic crystal, phantasmagories and the theatre of shadows within the evolution that was to facilitate the birth of the "talkies". A simple introduction to a fascinating and modern world, that, from a purely musicological view is practically nonexistent today (the meagre and marginal bibliography available is the best evidence of that and which requires new and more detailed studies to be done.

    La "pre-historia" del cine hablado, en lo relativo a la coordinación de imágenes en movimiento y sonido, supone un período extensísimo de tiempo, que abarca miles de años, desde la ilustración sonora de sombras proyectadas documentada en la antigua China, hasta prácticamente los albores del cinematógrafo, un avance tecnológico impensable —hoy en día más que nunca— sin la aportación que música y sonido han hecho al denominado séptimo arte. El presente trabajo pretende ofrecer una panorámica de la historia de la —documentadamente inconexa, aunque continua— preocupación humana por fijar el movimiento de un modo visual y sonoro a un tiempo, prestando particular atención a algunos logros técnicos de especial relevancia (la linterna mágica, la armónica de cristal, las fantasmagorías, el teatro de sombras, dentro del recorrido

  18. El legado de los inmigrantes árabes y judíos al desarrollo económico de la Costa Caribe colombiana y a la conformación de su empresariado entre 1850-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Inéso Igirio Gamero

    2014-01-01

    from their hometowns and the main obstacles they found in this new land. Also, who their leaders were, how their social status climbing occured and to establish the main contributions they made to entrepreneurship, politics, and social and cultural development.This historic and regional study, allowed us to see their entrepreneurial intention, aimed to the “help chains”, wide knowledge of international markets and unique ability for bargaining which attracted business people from overseas, such commerce tradition contributed to the industrialization process that the Caribbean Coast witnessed during the XX century; Arabs and Jews ventured in a variety of economic activities in the communities where they established: wholesale and retail, industrial activities, fridges, cattle, cinematography, journalism, culture and politics, which also explains the need they expressed to acquire social status, political connections, capacity to establish relationships with the rest of the society and to promote the right environment for entrepreneurial leadership capable of influencing political decisions regionally and nationwide.Keywords: Help chains; entrepreneurial intention; migration; leadership; personal credits; culture.

  19. Brute Tectonics A Paradox in Contemporary Architecture%粗野建构 当代建筑中的悖论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈沃克·哈图尼安; 周渐佳

    2012-01-01

    especially its pa materiality, this Recalling the 1950s New Brutalism, rticular engagement with image and essay examines selected works of contemporary architects if only to demonstrate the paradox in the present state of tectonic think We are reminded of Gottfried Semper's theory the tectonic of theatricality, and the criticality dressing for transforming a constructed form ng. of of nto the cultural realm. But what if the pressing issue facing architectural criticism today is the aesthetic of spectacle permeating the present culture? The implied paradox highlights the allegorical references of "brute tectonics" to the notion of cut as appropriated in stereotomy and cinematography. Whilst geometry is central to the image - laden drawings produced in stereotomy and by digital machines, there are a few contemporary architects whose work attempts to intermingle geometry with sculptural tectonics. The present turn to monolithic architecture is of further interest; its tectonic cuts have the potential to shortcut the postmodern approach to communication. In the second place, the anonymity implicit in monolithic architecture (its un-approachability) is of critical importance in reference to the contemporary tendency for formal autonomy, and the prevailing euphoria for the spectacular images garnishing digitally reproduced forms.%文章通过重拾20世纪50年代的新粗野主义,尤其是粗野主义与图像、材料性的特殊关联,来检视当代建筑师的部分作品,借以说明建构思考在当下境况中存在的悖论。我们会想起戈特弗里德·森佩尔有关戏剧化建构的理论,还有"饰面"面临着从建造形式转变成为文化范畴时所具备的批判性。然而,如果现在建筑批评所面临的紧迫议题恰是奇观的审美对当下文化的渗透,情况又会如何?隐含的悖论突出了"粗野建构学"中对"切割"这个专属于切石术与电影术的概念的寓言式借鉴。对于由切

  20. HPLC Analysis of Fresh Rehmannia Glutinosa Libosch in Serum of Rats with Blood Heat and Hemorrhage Syndrome Animal Model%血热出血模型大鼠血清中鲜地黄高效液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜新莲; 段红福; 崔瑛; 冯静; 杨云

    2011-01-01

    目的:对阴虚血热出血大鼠含鲜地黄血清进行分析,探索鲜地黄清热凉血药效的物质基础.方法:给予血热出血症模型大鼠鲜地黄,采集血清,用高效液相色谱法分析大鼠含药血清、正常血清以及鲜地黄药材的色谱,研究鲜地黄在血中移行成分以及鲜地黄对大鼠血清中固有成分的影响.结果:在血热出血症模型大鼠含药血清中检测到了鲜地黄的有效成分——梓醇的色谱峰;且发现血清中和药材中有3种相同的共有成分;鲜地黄对模型大鼠血清中1种固有成分的升高有抑制作用.结论:鲜地黄中梓醇及3种未明成分可能是其清热凉血物质基础;鲜地黄对动物血清中固有成分代谢的影响可能是鲜地黄清热凉血药效的机制.%Objective:To investigate bioactive components of fresh Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. In heat - clearing and blood - cooling efficacy by analysis of it - contained serum of rats with yin - deficiency and heat - flourishing hemorrhage. Methods; High - performance liquid cinematography ( HPLC) was adopted to analyze the differences of chromatographs among drug - contained serum, the normal serum and fresh R. Glutinosa material, and to explore transferred components and natural ingredients of serum in rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome animal model treated with fresh R. Glutinosa. Results: Catalpol as one of bioactive components was detected in serum of rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome animal model. Meanwhile,three components were found in both fresh R. Glutinosa and it -contained serum. Moreover,fresh R. Glutinosa could prevent the increased amounts of a natural component of serum in rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome animal model. Conclusion .-Captalpol and three unknown ingredients can all be the bioactive components of fresh R. Glutinosa. Furthermore, the mechanism of fresh R. Glutinosa in heat - clearing and blood - cooling efficacy may be related to

  1. Study of the quenching and subsequent return to room temperature of uranium-chromium, uranium-iron, and uranium-molybdenum alloys containing only small amounts of the alloying element; Etude de la trempe et du revenu a la temperature ordinaire d'alliages uranium-chrome, uranium-fer et uranium-molybdene, a faible teneur en element d'alliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaplace, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-09-15

    By means of an apparatus which makes possible thermal pre-treatments in vacuo, quenching carried out in a high purity argon atmosphere, and simultaneous recording of time temperature cooling and thermal contraction curves, the author has examined the transformations which occur in uranium-chromium, uranium-iron and uranium-molybdenum alloys during their quenching and subsequent return to room temperature. For uranium-chromium and uranium-iron alloys, the temperature at which the {gamma} {yields} {beta} transformation starts varies very little with the rate of cooling. For uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 atom per cent of Mo, this temperature is lowered by 120 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn. The temperature at which the {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation starts is lowered by 170 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn in the case of uranium-chromium alloy containing 0,37 atom per cent of Cr. The temperature is little affected in the case of uranium-iron alloys. The addition of chromium or iron makes it possible to conserve the form {beta} at ordinary temperatures after quenching from the {beta} and {gamma} regions. The {beta} phase is particularly unstable and changes into needles of the {alpha} form even at room temperatures according to an autocatalytic transformation law similar to the austenitic-martensitic transformation law in the case of iron. The {beta} phase obtained by quenching from the {beta} phase region is more stable than that obtained by quenching from the {gamma} region. Chromium is a more effective stabiliser of the {beta} phase than is iron. Unfortunately it causes serious surface cracking. The {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation in uranium-chromium alloys has been followed at room temperature by means of micro-cinematography. The author has not observed the direct {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation in uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 per cent of molybdenum even for cooling rates of up to 2000 deg. C

  2. 法国电影产业国家资助体系浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒叶

    2011-01-01

    <正>长期以来我们都将法国电影看作是艺术电影,小众电影的代名词,对法国影片总有着叫好不叫座,曲高和寡的成见。提及国家对电影产业扶持政策,总认为法国电影产业的发展依靠的是大量国家财政拨款和资金补助。这些都是对法国电影以及法国电影产业资助体系的片面的理解。回顾2010年,法国电影市场共有超过2亿600多万人次的观影人数,比2009年提高了2.4%,创下自1967年以来的最高观影纪录。票房收入约为12,37亿欧元(按照法国平均票价6欧元换算),票房收入占世界排名第四。其中法国本土电影占市场份额的35.7%,美国影片占47.5%。19部法国国产电影超过100万观影人数,其中8部超过200万观影人数。法国电影产量也创下历史新高,达到261部,与2009年相比增加了31部。电影生产制作投资增长31%,高达14.39亿欧元。可以看出,在面对好莱坞电影的强势冲击,在欧盟电影产业整体疲软的大环境下,法国电影仍然保持一定的产量和市场份额,并显示出强劲的上升势头。而跟美国电影"市场至上"的模式化工业生产不同,纵观法国电影市场,影片类型多种多样,喜剧片、动画片、剧情片、纪录片、艺术片等百家争鸣。2010年,法国艺术和实验影片的票房份额达到了总票房的26.4%,这可以说是法国对影视产业坚持"文化多样性"(Cultural Diversity)的最好表现。不可否认,法国电影产业长久以来屹立不倒很大程度上归功于法国国家力量对影视产业的调控和干预。但国家对影视产业的扶持并不是简单的行业补贴或者财政拨款,而是通过一个科学而缜密的影视产业资助体系来进行。具体的执行机构是法国国家电影中心CNC(centre National de la cinematographie)。CNC成立于1946年,直属于法国文化部。它的主要职能有:制定电影政策,规范电影产业;管理和分配电影产业和视

  3. Montage, Militancy, Metaphysics: Chris Marker and André Bazin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E: This article focuses on the relationship between the work of André Bazin and Chris Marker from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s and beyond. The division between Bazin's ŘRight Bankř affiliation with Les Cahiers du Cinéma on the one hand, and Markerřs ŘLeft Bankř allegiances on the other, is called into question here as my argument seeks to muddy the waters of their conventional ideological separation across the river Seine. Working alliteratively through Markerřs well-known talent for deft montage along with his militancy, I consider Bazinřs praise for Markerřs editing technique Ŕ in spite of famously expressing a preference elsewhere for the long take, and deep focus cinematography Ŕ and I address their political differences and convergences. Yet I also explore the rather more unexpected question of metaphysics in order to further emphasize a closer relationship between these two figures. I chart the emergence of an enduring spiritual bond between critic and filmmaker that surfaces first in Markerřs writings for the left-wing Catholic journal L’Esprit