Sample records for cinematography

  1. Implementing Game Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo


    Cinematographic games are a rising genre in the computer games industry and an increasing number of titles published include some aspects of cinematography in the gameplay or the storytelling. At present state, camera handling in computer games is managed primarily through custom scripts and anim......Cinematographic games are a rising genre in the computer games industry and an increasing number of titles published include some aspects of cinematography in the gameplay or the storytelling. At present state, camera handling in computer games is managed primarily through custom scripts...

  2. Virtual Cinematography in Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo


    Cinematography is a key aspect in the development of modern computer games. The quality of the visuals depends, not only on the accuracy of the rendering, but on the way that the scene is presented to the player. Which element should be included in the frame, from which point of view and in which...

  3. Computer Graphics in Cinematography


    Polozuns, Aleksandrs


    The purpose of this thesis was to cover the major characteristics about different techniques presently used in the field of CG and visual effects by giving a variety of examples from the famous movies. Moreover, the history of visual effects and CGI, and how the development process of it changed the industry of cinematography were studied. The practi-cal part of this study is dedicated to analyzing what modern software are the most popular ones among professionals. Several studios were survey...

  4. Space, myth and cinematography (United States)

    Hambardzumov, Arsen


    There exist both ancient and modern myths. The competition of good and evil, sanctity, mythic hero character, etc. make up those myths. Connection between the myth and literature, art and mainly cinematography is highly essential. Hollywood is a striking example of that connection, in other words "A Dream Factory". The mythic component in American films is obvious. It refers to the product structure which is frequently created by mythic rules. One of its striking examples is D. Lucas's film "Star wars. Episode IV – New Hope" (1977): The film plot is built on the struggle between the good and the evil. On one hand those are the representatives of the Empire with Darth Vader and princess Leia with her devotees on the other. The space has played a unique role for Greek philosophers as well. It was the symbol of perfection and grace. The attempt to approach this perfection, the desire to see the internal similarity besides the external one has been reflected in S. Kubrick's film "2001: Space Odyssey" (1968). Showing the space distance director looks for perfection in us which lies in the harmony of truth, human and nature.

  5. Clinical applications of biomechanics cinematography. (United States)

    Woodle, A S


    Biomechanics cinematography is the analysis of movement of living organisms through the use of cameras, image projection systems, electronic digitizers, and computers. This article is a comparison of cinematographic systems and details practical uses of the modality in research and education.

  6. Virtual Cinematography Using Optimization and Temporal Smoothing


    Litteneker, Alan Ulfers


    The problem of automatic virtual cinematography is often approached as an optimization problem. By identifying the extrema of an objective function matching some desired parameters, such as those common in live action photography or cinematography, a suitable camera pose or path can be automatically determined. With several constraints on function form, multiple objective functions can be combined into a single optimizable function, which can be further extended to model the smoothness of the...

  7. Kinematic measurement from panned cinematography. (United States)

    Gervais, P; Bedingfield, E W; Wronko, C; Kollias, I; Marchiori, G; Kuntz, J; Way, N; Kuiper, D


    Traditional 2-D cinematography has used a stationary camera with its optical axis perpendicular to the plane of motion. This method has constrained the size of the object plane or has introduced potential errors from a small subject image size with large object field widths. The purpose of this study was to assess a panning technique that could overcome the inherent limitations of small object field widths, small object image sizes and limited movement samples. The proposed technique used a series of reference targets in the object field that provided the necessary scales and origin translations. A 102 m object field was panned. Comparisons between criterion distances and film measured distances for field widths of 46 m and 22 m resulted in absolute mean differences that were comparable to that of the traditional method.

  8. An Application of Calculus to Cinematography. (United States)

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents a laboratory exercise in which an integration problem is applied to cinematography, without the need for apparatus. The problem situation is about the oscillation control of a camera platform to attain the contrast angular rate of objects. Wave equations for describing the oscillations are presented and an expression for…

  9. A Lightweight Intelligent Virtual Cinematography System for Machinima Production (United States)


    A Lightweight Intelligent Virtual Cinematography System for Machinima Production David K. Elson1, Mark O. Riedl2 1Columbia University, Computer...However, creating quality cinematic visualizations with existing machinima techniques still requires a high degree of talent and effort. We...produces a cinematic visualization. Unlike other virtual cinematography systems, Cambot favors an offline algorithm coupled with an extensible

  10. Game Cinematography: From Camera Control to Player Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo


    Building on the definition of cinematography (Soanes and Stevenson, Oxford dictionary of English. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 2005), game cinematography can be defined as the art of visualizing the content of a computer game. The relationship between game cinematography and its...... traditional counterpart is extremely tight as, in both cases, the aim of cinematography is to control the viewer’s perspective and affect his or her perception of the events represented. However, game events are not necessarily pre-scripted and player interaction has a major role on the quality of a game...... experience; therefore, the role of the camera and the challenges connected to it are different in game cinematography as the virtual camera has to both dynamically react to unexpected events to correctly convey the game story and take into consideration player actions and desires to support her interaction...

  11. Integrative Role Of Cinematography In Biomechanics Research (United States)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Gregor, Robert J.


    Cinematography is an integral element in the interdisciplinary biomechanics research conducted in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. For either an isolated recording of a movement phenomenon or as a recording component which is synchronized with additional transducers and recording equipment, high speed motion picture film has been effectively incorporated into resr'arch projects ranging from two and three dimensional analyses of human movements, locomotor mechanics of cursorial mammals and primates, to the structural responses and dynamic geometries of skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The basic equipment used in these studies includes three, 16 mm high speed, pin-registered cameras which have the capacity for electronic phase-locking. Crystal oscillators provide the generator pulses to synchronize the timing lights of the cameras and the analog-to-digital recording equipment. A rear-projection system with a sonic digitizer permits quantification of film coordinates which are stored on computer disks. The capacity for synchronizing the high speed films with additional recording equipment provides an effective means of obtaining not only position-time data from film, but also electromyographic, force platform, tendon force transducer, and strain gauge recordings from tissues or moving organisms. During the past few years, biomechanics research which comprised human studies has used both planar and three-dimensional cinematographic techniques. The studies included planar analyses which range from the gait characteristics of lower extremity child amputees to the running kinematics and kinetics of highly skilled sprinters and long-distance runners. The dynamics of race cycling and kinetics of gymnastic maneuvers were studied with cinematography and either a multi-dimensional force platform or a bicycle pedal with strain gauges to determine the time histories of the applied forces. The three-dimensional technique

  12. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography (United States)

    Shapiro, Robert


    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  13. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography. (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J


    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth.

  14. 7 CFR 500.23 - Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on grounds. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... National Arboretum Facilities and Grounds § 500.23 Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... photography or cinematography as specified in § 500.24. Facilities and grounds are available for use...

  15. Photo-Realistic Image Synthesis and Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore


    Realistic Virtual View Synthesis is a new field of research that has received increasing attention in recent years. It is strictly related to the grown popularity of virtual reality and the spread of its applications, among which virtual photography and cinematography. The use of computer generated......: the augmented actor. Fundamental concepts and examples of methods proposed for realistic view synthesis based on the transfer of photo-realism from reference photographs to novel views, will be presented. The application of methods for realistic image synthesis to virtual cinematography will also be illustrated...

  16. Cinematography; A Guide for Film Makers and Film Teachers. (United States)

    Malkiewicz, J. Kris

    Concentrating on the work of the cinematographer--the man behind the camera or in charge of the shooting--this book also touches on techniques of sound recording, cutting, and production logistics. Technical discussions designed to provide the basic principles and techniques of cinematography are presented about cameras, films and sensitometry,…

  17. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography.


    Sun, G.; Holliman, N. S.


    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empi...

  18. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography. (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève


    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults.

  19. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick


    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  20. The beginning of human life under time-laps Cinematography


    Mio, Yasuyuki


    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to follow and record the early stages of development of a human embryo using time-lapse cinematography, and to discuss the beginning of human life. Materials and Methods: Human ova were incubated in thermo-stabilized and pH controlled chambers and observed using an inverted microscope fitted with a CCD digital camera. Images were taken at 2-minute intervals for 5–6 days. A total of 30 consecutive images, corresponding to an hour of incubat...

  1. Denaturalizing the technique: feminists contributions to think the cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavalcanti Tedesco


    Full Text Available Cinematography is generally understood as a technological area, which means neutral for many people. This may account for not deserving the due attention into the cinema and the audiovisual studies. However, as any technique, it was developed starting from some hypotheses to reach specific objectives. In this study, we aim to analyze it with a feministic perspective to identify the gender views that contributed to its expression, which were influenced by it. We ́ll do that by the sudy of some cinematographic manuals edited since the years 1930, comparing their guidelines with some important classic/industrial Mexican films.

  2. Pseudophakodonesis and corneal endothelial contact: direct observations by high-speed cinematography. (United States)

    Jacobs, P M; Cheng, H; Price, N C


    High-speed cinematography was used to observe the movement of Federov type I lens implants within the anterior chamber. Our measurements suggest that in most patients contact between the lens implant and corneal endothelium does not occur.

  3. [Describe and convince: visual rhetoric of cinematography in medicine]. (United States)

    Panese, Francesco


    The tools of visualisation occupy a central place in medicine. Far from being simple accessories of glance, they literally constitute objects of medicine. Such empirical acknowledgement and epistemological position open a vast field of investigation: visual technologies of medical knowledge. This article studies the development and transformation of medical objects which have permitted to assess the role of temporality in the epistemology of medicine. It firstly examines the general problem of the relationships between cinema, animated image and medicine and secondly, the contribution of the German doctor Martin Weiser to medical cinematography as a method. Finally, a typology is sketched out organising the variety of the visual technology of movement under the perspective of the development of specific visual techniques in medicine.

  4. Combined time-lapse cinematography and immuno-electron microscopy. (United States)

    Balfour, B M; Goscicka, T; MacKenzie, J L; Gautam, A; Tate, M; Clark, J


    A method was developed to record interactions between mobile non-adherent immunocytes by time-lapse cinematography and then to study the same cells by immuno-electron microscopy, using monoclonal antibodies against surface components. For this purpose a modified stage was designed to fit an inverted microscope. The attachment included a device to cool the culture chamber with N2 gas, a micro-injector for monoclonal antibody and immuno-gold treatment, and two pairs of washing needles to change the medium without disturbance. The technique was first employed to study the formation of aggregates around the antigen-presenting cells in cultures containing cells from hyper-immunized animals. Recently peripheral blood cells from normal subjects and patients with immune deficiency syndromes were stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, cluster formation was recorded, and the cells were processed for immuno-electron microscopy.

  5. Vitreous cinematography in the study of vitreoretinal diseases. (United States)

    Trempe, C L; Takahashi, M; Freeman, H M


    A new technique of vitreous cinematography involves scanning of the vitreous cavity using optical sections to provide objective, reproducible information on the dynamics of the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal relationships. Using a newly developed preset lens (El Bayadi-Kajiura lens), this technique makes it possible to document an entire optical section of the posterior vitreous. This is done by mechanically displacing the vitreous so that maximum reflectivity can be obtained from the vitreous gel. This article describes the technique and presents clinical examples documenting complete and incomplete vitreous detachment in normal eyes, Cloquet's canal associated with an optic disc pit, vitreous traction associated with a lamellar hole in an area of preretinal macular fibrosis, and vitreous traction at the anterior flap of a retinal break.

  6. Planning and accounting for government orders of business of cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Zhuk


    Full Text Available Deals with the nature, structure and main elements of the financial and economic relations of the state and cinema, the mechanisms of interaction. Established that rise to financial and economic relations between the state and entity cinematography, while state support, are predictions in the state budget expenditure for this purpose. Thus the totality of relations during state support filmmaking advisable to divide into five stages. In particular, this part of film in the competition (competition programs, the conclusion of the state contract, the state contract execution, reporting for the manufacture of the final product - the film that provides order and displayed in the accounting as an intangible asset and the accounting of income and expenses for production of the film according to the state order and order cancellation on income.

  7. Schlieren Cinematography of Current Driven Plasma Jet Dynamics (United States)

    Loebner, Keith; Underwood, Thomas; Cappelli, Mark


    Schlieren cinematography of a pulsed plasma deflagration jet is presented and analyzed. An ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse (20 μs). The Schlieren signal is radiometrically calibrated to obtain a two dimensional mapping of the refraction angle of the axisymmetric pinch plasma, and this mapping is then Abel inverted to derive the plasma density distribution as a function radius, axial coordinate, and time. Analyses of previously unknown discharge characteristics and comparisons with prior work are discussed.

  8. [Camera-cinematography of the heart (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Adam, W E; Meyer, G; Bitter, F; Kampmann, H; Bargon, G; Stauch, M


    By "camera-cinematography" of the heart, we mean an isotope method which permits detailed observation of cardiac mechanics without the use of a catheter. All that is necessary is an intravenous injection of 10 to 15 mCi 99mTc human serum albumen followed after ten minutes by a five to ten minute period of observation with a scintilation camera. At this time the isotope has become distributed in the blood. Variations in the precordial impulses correspond with intra-cardiac changes of blood volume during a cardiac cycle. Analysis of the R-wave provides adequate information of cyclical volume changes in limited portions of the heart. This is achieved by a monitor with a pseudo-3-dimensional display; contraction and relaxation of the myocardium can be shown for any chosen longitudinal or horizontal diameter of the heart. Our programme allows simultaneous presentation of the movement of any point on the myocardium as a time-activity curve. The method is recommended as an addition to chest radiography, heart screening or cardiac kymography before carrying out cardiac catheterisation.

  9. Demonstration-Lecture on X-ray Cinematography. (United States)

    Reynolds, R J


    The author describes a practical method of X-ray cinematography by which permanent records may be rapidly and inexpensively obtained.A photograph is taken of the screen-image by an ordinary cinematographic camera and by the use of continuous bands of positive film movements may be studied for any length of time. The advantage of this is specially obvious when examining such organs as the heart. These permanent records can be used for the following purposes:-1. Diagnostic.2. To compare with former records, in order to watch effects of treatment, or progress of a pathological condition.3. For teaching purposes.4. For transmission at home or abroad, so that they can be examined by other specialists who may wish to see what the former condition was.The process is simple enough to become routine practice in hospitals and institutions, and to be within the reach of every radiologist.The apparatus occupies only a small space, can be accommodated in any X-ray department, and can be operated by one person.The method is perfectly safe as far as the patient is concerned; that is to say there should be no difficulty in avoiding excessive exposure to radiation.

  10. [Medical photography and cinematography before 1914: privileged rapport with the neurosciences]. (United States)

    Aubert, M G


    Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, professor at the Université catholique de Louvain, was an enthusiastic user of photography and a pioneer of medical cinematography. He used these techniques widely in order to illustrate his lectures, papers and his neurological textbook. His films and photographic plates are at the present time being studied and restored. The nitrate films are the oldest belgian films surviving. Neuroscientists have played a major role in the development of medical photography and cinematography and in the use of these techniques for clinical, research or didactic purposes.

  11. Noise factor of a high-speed cinematography system; Facteur de bruit d'une chaine de cinematographie ultrarapide: application a la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secroun, A


    Inertial confinement fusion simulates in a laboratory the thermodynamic state of the center of stars, thus leading to the determination of stellar parameters. In order to reach that aim, high-speed cinematography brings up instruments specifically adapted to picosecond measurement, for which it is necessary to know the final precision. A model of the noise factor of the instruments under study is introduced and confronted to the experimental results obtained. (authors)

  12. [Cinematography of ocular fundus with a jointed optical system and tv or cine-camera (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Kampik, A; Rapp, J


    A method of Cinematography of the ocular fundus is introduced which--by connecting a camera with an indirect ophthalmoscop--allows to record the monocular picture of the fundus as produced by the ophthalmic lens.

  13. [The etiological differentiation of neuromuscular produced dysphagia by x-ray cinematography]. (United States)

    Brühlmann, W


    850 patients with dysphagia were examined by x-ray cinematography. On the basis of these examinations the normal events of swallowing are compared with the abnormalities observed. The technique is described. An algorithm has been developed depending on the presence of symmetry or asymmetry of the abnormalities and on muscle tone, which permits classification of the various aetiological groups. In addition, specific features of individual diseases often make it possible to arrive at a definite diagnosis.

  14. High-speed off-axis holographic cinematography with a copper-vapor-pumped dye laser. (United States)

    Lauterborn, W; Judt, A; Schmitz, E


    A series of coherent light pulses is generated by pumping a dye laser with the pulsed output of a copper-vapor laser at rates of as much as 20 kHz. Holograms are recorded at this pulse rate on a rotating holographic plate. This technique of high-speed holographic cinematography is demonstrated by viewing the bubble filaments that appear in water under the action of a sound field of high intensity.

  15. A Real-time Cinematography System for Interactive 3D Environments


    Lino, Christophe; Christie, Marc; Lamarche, Fabrice; Guy, Schofield; Olivier, Patrick


    International audience; Developers of interactive 3D applications, such as computer games, are expending increasing levels of effort on the challenge of creating more narrative experiences in virtual worlds. As a result, there is a pressing requirement to automate an essential component of a narrative – the cinematography – and develop camera control techniques that can be utilized within the context of interactive environments in which actions are not known in advance. Such camera control al...

  16. [The ultra-rapid cinematography of the larynx, its contributions in speech pathology]. (United States)

    Chevaillier, G; Sauvaget, E; Herman, P; Tran Ba Huy, P


    The development in the medical field of high speed cinematography and its dissemination in the field of speech pathology will probably change the way we view the larynx and diagnose its disorders. So far only the stroboscope could inform us about the appearance of vocal cord vibration but with certain limitations. Indeed the wave motion of the vocal cords is really only apparent motion. It is made possible through the phenomenon of retinal persistence of images and light intermittent vocal folds set to the frequency of the voice and out of phase by a few Hertz. This technique has several disadvantages: The need for the voice to trigger the strobe light; a low number of frames per second (25 fps) recorded; frame loss for the period between unlit two flashes; limitation in the study of the upper voice spectrum (gearing). The ultra-rapid cinematography brings a big difference in design since the digital recording can shoot up to 4000 frames per second with permanent lighting of the larynx. The slow reading of short sequences permits us to view the actual movement of vibrating structures, and to analyze the behavior of the vibrator during the transitional phases of the attack, depreciation and termination of sound. The footage in high resolution permits a detailed analysis of the movements of opening and closing of the vocal cords in phonation and respiration, and the diagnosis of lesions.

  17. Time-lapse cinematography in living Drosophila tissues: preparation of material. (United States)

    Davis, Ilan; Parton, Richard M


    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been an extraordinarily successful model organism for studying the genetic basis of development and evolution. It is arguably the best-understood complex multicellular model system, owing its success to many factors. Recent developments in imaging techniques, in particular sophisticated fluorescence microscopy methods and equipment, now allow cellular events to be studied at high resolution in living material. This ability has enabled the study of features that tend to be lost or damaged by fixation, such as transient or dynamic events. Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila are shared with the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties in keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick hazy cytoplasm. This protocol outlines the preparation of major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping them alive.

  18. From photography to cinematography: recording movement and gait in a neurological context. (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève


    The major challenge of photography has been freezing movement, to transform it into a fixed image or series of images. Very soon, photographers became interested in movement itself and tried to use photography as a tool to analyze movement. At the early stages, physicians interested in movement, perhaps surprisingly, made important technical contributions. Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, by Duchenne, the first book with physiological experiments illustrated by photographs, is a landmark in this historical development. At the Salpêtrière, thanks to Charcot, photography officially entered clinical neurology. Medical journals with photographs were actively developed by Bourneville. Londe established a clinical photographic laboratory and published the first book on medical photography. The study of animal and human movement by Muybridge and Marey in the 1880s led to chronophotography and later cinematography. Clinicians such as Dercum and Richer took advantage of these new techniques to study pathological movement and gait in neurological diseases.

  19. The application of high-speed cinematography for the quantitative analysis of equine locomotion. (United States)

    Fredricson, I; Drevemo, S; Dalin, G; Hjertën, G; Björne, K


    Locomotive disorders constitute a serious problem in horse racing which will only be rectified by a better understanding of the causative factors associated with disturbances of gait. This study describes a system for the quantitative analysis of the locomotion of horses at speed. The method is based on high-speed cinematography with a semi-automatic system of analysis of the films. The recordings are made with a 16 mm high-speed camera run at 500 frames per second (fps) and the films are analysed by special film-reading equipment and a mini-computer. The time and linear gait variables are presented in tabular form and the angles and trajectories of the joints and body segments are presented graphically.

  20. NLT and extrapolated DLT:3-D cinematography alternatives for enlarging the volume of calibration. (United States)

    Hinrichs, R N; McLean, S P


    This study investigated the accuracy of the direct linear transformation (DLT) and non-linear transformation (NLT) methods of 3-D cinematography/videography. A comparison of standard DLT, extrapolated DLT, and NLT calibrations showed the standard (non-extrapolated) DLT to be the most accurate, especially when a large number of control points (40-60) were used. The NLT was more accurate than the extrapolated DLT when the level of extrapolation exceeded 100%. The results indicated that when possible one should use the DLT with a control object, sufficiently large as to encompass the entire activity being studied. However, in situations where the activity volume exceeds the size of one's DLT control object, the NLT method should be considered.

  1. Time-lapse cinematography of the capillary tube cell migration inhibition test. (United States)

    Bray, M A


    The kinetics of human and guinea pig cell migration inhibition have been studied using time-lapse cinematography of cells migrating from capillary tubes. Guinea pig and human cells exhibit markedly different kinetics in the absence of inhibitors. Specific antigen causes a dose-related inhibition of migration for up to 60 h using guinea pig cells and a peak of inhibition after 18 h using the human leucocyte system. The timing of measurement of maximum activity more critical for the latter test. The kinetics of lymphokine generation have been examined and the migration inhibitory activity of the plant mitogen (PHA), a Kurloff cell product and a continuous cell line supernatant have been compared with the inhibitory profiles of lymphokine preparations and specific antigen.

  2. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues. (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H


    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application.

  3. Evaluation of diffuse-illumination holographic cinematography in a flutter cascade (United States)

    Decker, A. J.


    Since 1979, the Lewis Research Center has examined holographic cinematography for three-dimensional flow visualization. The Nd:YAG lasers used were Q-switched, double-pulsed, and frequency-doubled, operating at 20 pulses per second. The primary subjects for flow visualization were the shock waves produced in two flutter cascades. Flow visualization was by diffuse-illumination, double-exposure, and holographic interferometry. The performances of the lasers, holography, and diffuse-illumination interferometry are evaluated in single-window wind tunnels. The fringe-contrast factor is used to evaluate the results. The effects of turbulence on shock-wave visualization in a transonic flow are discussed. The depth of field for visualization of a turbulent structure is demonstrated to be a measure of the relative density and scale of that structure. Other items discussed are the holographic emulsion, tests of coherence and polarization, effects of windows and diffusers, hologram bleaching, laser configurations, influence and handling of specular reflections, modes of fringe localization, noise sources, and coherence requirements as a function of the pulse energy. Holography and diffuse illumination interferometry are also reviewed.

  4. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography. (United States)

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S


    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  5. Mathematical analysis of endothelial sibling pair cell-cell interactions using time-lapse cinematography data. (United States)

    Brown, L M; Ryan, U S; Absher, M; Olazabal, B M


    The sibling pairs from two different endothelial cell cultures were analysed by time-lapse cinematography. It was shown that wounded and regular (low density seeded) cultures differed in the behaviour patterns of their siblings. The cultures differed most significantly in the minimum interdivision time (IDT) which was 27% lower for the wounded culture. In the wounded culture there was a greater correlation of IDT values between sibling pairs. IDT values recorded both for paired and for unpaired cells were shorter for the wounded than for the regular culture. The mean IDT for unpaired cells was longer than the mean IDT for paired cells in the regular culture. Thus paired cells in the regular culture, had shorter IDTs, but not as short as in the wounded culture. It was significant that in the wounded culture the first generation of siblings were very close (less than 150 microns apart) at division. Overall the behaviour differences between the two cultures resulted in a higher rate of increase in cell numbers, and thus faster repair, of the wounded monolayer.

  6. Motility analysis of circularly swimming bull spermatozoa by quasi-elastic light scattering and cinematography. (United States)

    Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B


    The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed.

  7. Evaluation of diffuse-illumination holographic cinematography in a flutter cascade (United States)

    Decker, A. J.


    Since 1979, the Lewis Research Center has examined holographic cinematography for three-dimensional flow visualization. The Nd:YAG lasers used were Q-switched, double-pulsed, and frequency-doubled, operating at 20 pulses per second. The primary subjects for flow visualization were the shock waves produced in two flutter cascades. Flow visualization was by diffuse-illumination, double-exposure, and holographic interferometry. The performances of the lasers, holography, and diffuse-illumination interferometry are evaluated in single-window wind tunnels. The fringe-contrast factor is used to evaluate the results. The effects of turbulence on shock-wave visualization in a transonic flow are discussed. The depth of field for visualization of a turbulent structure is demonstrated to be a measure of the relative density and scale of that structure. Other items discussed are the holographic emulsion, tests of coherence and polarization, effects of windows and diffusers, hologram bleaching, laser configurations, influence and handling of specular reflections, modes of fringe localization, noise sources, and coherence requirements as a function of the pulse energy. Holography and diffuse illumination interferometry are also reviewed.

  8. [The value of double contrast arthrotomography combined with cinematography in the diagnosis of functional and structural TMJ alterations]. (United States)

    Engelke, W; Grossniklaus, B; Sailer, H F


    Double contrast arthrotomography combined with cinematography as a diagnostic instrument establishing functional and structural TMJ alterations is evaluated for its diagnostic value and reliability within the chain of diagnostic measures applied. In 131 patients double-contrast arthrotomography was followed by a comprehensive history of joint problems, and verification of the clinical findings as well as the arthrographic diagnosis and the post-arthrographic TMJ alterations. Our interest was focussed, among others, on the question whether arthrography alone would have any therapeutic effect or produce an alteration in TMJ function.

  9. Comparison of a clinical gait analysis method using videography and temporal-distance measures with 16-mm cinematography. (United States)

    Stuberg, W A; Colerick, V L; Blanke, D J; Bruce, W


    The purpose of this study was to compare a clinical gait analysis method using videography and temporal-distance measures with 16-mm cinematography in a gait analysis laboratory. Ten children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (means age = 8.8 +/- 2.7 years) and 9 healthy children (means age = 8.9 +/- 2.4 years) participated in the study. Stride length, walking velocity, and goniometric measurements of the hip, knee, and ankle were recorded using the two gait analysis methods. A multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences between the data collected using the two methods. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were determined to examine the relationship between the measurements recorded by the two methods. The consistency of performance of the subjects during walking was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients. No significant differences were found between the methods for the variables studied. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients ranged from .79 to .95, and intraclass coefficients ranged from .89 to .97. The clinical gait analysis method was found to be a valid tool in comparison with 16-mm cinematography for the variables that were studied.

  10. Use of high-speed cinematography and computer generated gait diagrams for the study of equine hindlimb kinematics. (United States)

    Kobluk, C N; Schnurr, D; Horney, F D; Sumner-Smith, G; Willoughby, R A; Dekleer, V; Hearn, T C


    High-speed cinematography with computer aided analysis was used to study equine hindlimb kinematics. Eight horses were filmed at the trot or the pace. Filming was done from the side (lateral) and the back (caudal). Parameters measured from the lateral filming included the heights of the tuber coxae and tailhead, protraction and retraction of the hoof and angular changes of the tarsus and stifle. Abduction and adduction of the limb and tarsal height changes were measured from the caudal filming. The maximum and minimum values plus the standard deviations and coefficients of variations are presented in tabular form. Three gait diagrams were constructed to represent stifle angle versus tarsal angle, metatarsophalangeal height versus protraction-retraction (fetlock height diagram) and tuber coxae and tailhead height versus stride (pelvic height diagram). Application of the technique to the group of horses revealed good repeatability of the gait diagrams within a limb and the diagrams appeared to be sensitive indicators of left/right asymmetries.

  11. High speed cinematography of the initial break-point of latex condoms during the air burst test. (United States)

    Stube, R; Voeller, B; Davidhazy, A


    High speed cinematography of latex condoms inflated to burst under standard (ISO) conditions reveals that rupture of the condom typically is initiated at a small focal point on the shank of the condom and then rapidly propagates throughout the condom's surface, often ending with partial or full severance of the condom at its point of attachment to the air burst instrument. This sequence of events is the reverse of that sometimes hypothesized to occur, where initiation of burst was considered to begin at the attachment point and to constitute a testing method artifact. This hypothesis of breakage at the attachment point, if true, would diminish the value of the air burst test as a standard for assessing manufacturing quality control as well as for condom strength measurements and comparisons.

  12. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography. (United States)

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P


    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  13. Preliminary observations on polar body extrusion and pronuclear formation in human oocytes using time-lapse video cinematography. (United States)

    Payne, D; Flaherty, S P; Barry, M F; Matthews, C D


    In this study, we have used time-lapse video cinematography to study fertilization in 50 human oocytes that had undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Time-lapse recording commenced shortly after ICSI and proceeded for 17-20 h. Oocytes were cultured in an environmental chamber which was maintained under standard culture conditions. Overall, 38 oocytes (76%) were fertilized normally, and the fertilization rate and embryo quality were not significantly different from 487 sibling oocytes cultured in a conventional incubator. Normal fertilization followed a defined course of events, although the timing of these events varied markedly between oocytes. In 35 of the 38 fertilized oocytes (92%), there were circular waves of granulation within the ooplasm which had a periodicity of 20-53 min. The sperm head decondensed during this granulation phase. The second polar body was then extruded, and this was followed by the central formation of the male pronucleus. The female pronucleus formed in the cytoplasm adjacent to the second polar body at the same time as, or slightly after, the male pronucleus, and was subsequently drawn towards the male pronucleus until the two abutted. Both pronuclei then increased in size, the nucleoli moved around within the pronuclei and some nucleoli coalesced. During pronuclear growth, the organelles contracted from the cortex towards the centre of the oocyte, leaving a clear cortical zone. The oocyte decreased in diameter from 112 to 106 microm (P cinematography is an excellent tool for studying fertilization and early embryo development, and have demonstrated that human fertilization comprises numerous complex dynamic events.

  14. A study on correlation between stereographic cinematography and storytelling: through a documentary film about Ho Quyen-UNESCO World heritage in Vietnam (United States)

    Choi, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Jaehong


    Nowadays stereoscopic technology is being paid attention as a leading technology for the next generation film industry in many countries including Korea. In Korean stereoscopic film production, however, the quality but also the quantity of stereoscopic contents still leaves much to be desired, and know-how and skill of stereoscopic film production has been elevated in tardy progress. This paper shows a research on the correlation between stereoscopic cinematography and storytelling. Based on a casestudy of a documentary film about Ho Quyen, UNESCO World Heritage in Vietnam, we could deliver guidelines for the stereoscopic film production and storytelling. For this study, we analyzed scenes and shots of a documentary film script in pre-production stage. These analysis results were reflected on a storyboard. A stereographer grasped the idea of a storytelling that a director had meant through a script and storyboard. Then he applied suitable parameters for a stereoscopic cinematography to every shot with a beamsplitter rig. A researcher wrote major parameters like interaxial distance, convergence angle in every shot. Then average parameter values of scenes were calculated from the parameter database, and the relationship between stereoscopic cinematography and storytelling was derived by shot-by-shot analysis.

  15. The sexual phase of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata: cytological and time-lapse cinematography characterization. (United States)

    Scalco, Eleonora; Amato, Alberto; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; Montresor, Marina


    Pseudo-nitzschia is a thoroughly studied pennate diatom genus for ecological and biological reasons. Many species in this genus, including Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, can produce domoic acid, a toxin responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning. Physiological, phylogenetic and biological features of P. multistriata were studied extensively in the past. Life cycle stages, including the sexual phase, fundamental in diatoms to restore the maximum cell size and avoid miniaturization to death, have been well described for this species. P. multistriata is heterothallic; sexual reproduction is induced when strains of opposite mating type are mixed, and proceeds with cells producing two functionally anisogamous gametes each; however, detailed cytological information for this process is missing. By means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and nuclear staining, we followed the nuclear fate during meiosis, and using time-lapse cinematography, we timed every step of the sexual reproduction process from mate pairing to initial cell hatching. The present paper depicts cytological aspects during gametogenesis in P. multistriata, shedding light on the chloroplast behaviour during sexual reproduction, finely describing the timing of the sexual phases and providing reference data for further studies on the molecular control of this fundamental process.

  16. Arthur Simons (1877-1942) and Tonic Neck Reflexes With Hemiplegic "Mitbewegungen" (Associated Reactions): Cinematography From 1916-1919. (United States)

    Holdorff, Bernd


    Tonic neck reflexes were investigated by Rudolf Magnus and Adriaan de Kleijn in animals and men in 1912 and eventually by Arthur Simons, a neurologist in Berlin and coworker of Hermann Oppenheim. Simons studied these reflexes in hemiplegic patients, who were mainly victims of World War I. This work became his most important contribution and remained unsurpassed for many years. The film (Filmarchiv, Bundesarchiv [Film Archive, National Archive] Berlin) with Simons as an examiner shows 11 war casualties with brain lesions that occurred between 1916 and 1919. The injuries reveal asymmetric neck reflexes with "Mitbewegungen," that is, flexion or extension on the hemiplegic side. Mitbewegungen is identical with Francis Walshe's "associated reactions" caused by neck rotation and/or by cocontraction of the nonaffected extremities, for example, by closing of the fist (Walshe). The knowledge of the neck reflexes is important in acute neurology and in rehabilitation therapy of hemiplegics for antispastic positions. Simons' investigations were conducted in the early era of increasing use of cinematography in medical studies. The film had been nearly forgotten until its rediscovery in 2010.

  17. Proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells: time-lapse cinematography of growth to confluence and restitution of monolayer after wounding. (United States)

    Ryan, U S; Absher, M; Olazabal, B M; Brown, L M; Ryan, J W


    A fundamental characteristic of vascular endothelium is that it exists as a monolayer, a condition that must be met in both vascular growth and repair. Maintenance of the monolayer is important both for the exchange of nutrients and for interactions between blood solutes and endothelial enzymes and transport systems. We have used time-lapse cinematography to compare proliferative behavior of bovine pulmonary endothelial cells in (1) establishment of a monolayer from a low-density seed (7.5 X 10(4) cells in a 60 mm dish) and (2) restitution of a confluent monolayer (approx. 2.9 x 10(6) cells in a 60 mm dish) following a mechanical wound (removal of cells from an area 5 x 15 mm by scraping). Culture 2 was not refed after wounding. In culture 2, approx. 30% of the cells accounted for repopulation (confluence in 40 hr). In culture 1, all cells entered into division. Participating cells of culture 2 began division immediately (69 divisions/filmed area in 10 hr, vs. four divisions in culture 1). Interdivision times (IDT) were longer and relatively constant in culture 1 until near confluence; none were less than 10 h, whereas in 2, 24% of the IDT's were less than or equal to 10 hr. Remarkably, IDTs of culture 2 decreased steadily until confluence was re-established. Cell migration in culture 1 was multidirectional while direction of migration in culture 2 was always into the wound area. Mean migration rate (MIG) in culture 2 was related to the site of origin of the cells, those dividing farthest from the unwounded area had fastest MIGs. Neither culture formed more than a single layer of cells. Although the cell kinetics of cultures 1 and 2 differed, the same goal, confluence, was achieved in either case.

  18. Documentation of normal and leukemic myelopoietic progenitor cells with high-resolution phase-contrast time-lapse cinematography. (United States)

    Boll, I T


    The high-resolution phase-contrast, time-lapse cinematography using oil immersion lenses and 16-mm film demonstrates the kinetic cell events as maturation, locomotion, mitosis, and apoptosis of cells cultivated at 37 degrees C for up to 10 days. 0.5 v/v frozen-thawed sera with presumably high cytokine concentrations were added to the plasma or agar clot. Vital progenitor cells from human bone marrow and blood have a large, bright, unstructured nucleus with a large nucleolus and a narrow rim of cytoplasm (nuclear/cytoplasmic volume ratio = 0.7). Their nuclei are 6-14 micrometer in diameter and double their volume within 8 h. Many (70%) move at a mean speed of 2 micrometer/min, and many (30%) multiply with alpha-2alpha mitoses, generating progenitor cell families. Various disturbances during the course of mitosis lead to the formation of polyploid cells, thereby yielding the megakaryocytic cell line. Some of the progenitor cells undergo asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses: One of the two initially identical daughter cells remains a progenitor cell in the morphological sense, whereas the other daughter cell - depending on the size of its mother cell - matures in the same culture medium to form a granulocytopoietic, monocytopoietic or erythrocytopoietic cell line. - In acute myeloid leukemias (AML), the blasts and their nuclei are slightly larger than the corresponding progenitor cells and move faster (5 micrometer/min). Symmetric alpha-2alpha mitoses permit unlimited multiplication of the leukemic blasts if contact with cytotoxic lymphocytes does not render them apoptotic. This results in more stromal cells than normal. Granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and anemia occur due to the genetic impairment of signaling control for asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses, and thrombocytopenia occurs due to the reduction in polyploidization.

  19. Time-lapse cinematography study of the germinal vesicle behaviour in mouse primary oocytes treated with activators of protein kinases A and C. (United States)

    Alexandre, H; Mulnard, J


    A passive erratic movement of the germinal vesicle (GV), already visible in small incompetent oocytes, is followed by an active scalloping of the nuclear membrane soon before GV breakdown (GVBD) in cultured competent oocytes. Maturation can be inhibited by activators of protein kinase A (PK-A) and protein kinase C (PK-C). Our time-lapse cinematography analysis allowed us to describe an unexpected behaviour of the GV when PK-C, but not PK-A, is activated: GV undergoes a displacement toward the cortex according to the same biological clock which triggers the programmed translocation of the spindle in control oocytes. It is concluded that, when oocytes become committed to undergo maturation, the cytoplasm acquires a PK-A-controlled "centrifugal displacement property" which is not restricted to the spindle.

  20. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance. (United States)

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A


    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  1. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    control of the camera by the player increases the complexity of the interaction and reduces the designer's control on game storytelling. A completely designer-driven camera releases the player from the burden of controlling the point of view, but might generate undesired camera behaviours. Furthermore...... control architecture able to generate real-time, smooth and well composed camera animations. Moreover, we have designed and tested an approach to model the player's camera preferences using machine learning techniques and to tailor the automatic camera behaviour to the player and her game-play style...... to be able to accurately and smoothly control the camera. Finally, the results of a user survey, conducted to evaluate the suggested methodology for camera behaviour modelling and adaptation, shows that the resulting adaptive cinematographic experience is largely favoured by the players and it generates...

  2. Predation by the Dwarf Seahorse on Copepods: Quantifying Motion and Flows Using 3D High Speed Digital Holographic Cinematography - When Seahorses Attack! (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Ed


    Copepods are an important planktonic food source for most of the world's fish species. This high predation pressure has led copepods to evolve an extremely effective escape response, with reaction times to hydrodynamic disturbances of less than 4 ms and escape speeds of over 500 body lengths per second. Using 3D high speed digital holographic cinematography (up to 2000 frames per second) we elucidate the role of entrainment flow fields generated by a natural visual predator, the dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) during attacks on its prey, Acartia tonsa. Using phytoplankton as a tracer, we recorded and reconstructed 3D flow fields around the head of the seahorse and its prey during both successful and unsuccessful attacks to better understand how some attacks lead to capture with little or no detection from the copepod while others result in failed attacks. Attacks start with a slow approach to minimize the hydro-mechanical disturbance which is used by copepods to detect the approach of a potential predator. Successful attacks result in the seahorse using its pipette-like mouth to create suction faster than the copepod's response latency. As these characteristic scales of entrainment increase, a successful escape becomes more likely.

  3. Visualization of living terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes of growth plate cartilage in situ by differential interference contrast microscopy and time-lapse cinematography. (United States)

    Farnum, C E; Turgai, J; Wilsman, N J


    The functional unit within the growth plate consists of a column of chondrocytes that passes through a sequence of phases including proliferation, hypertrophy, and death. It is important to our understanding of the biology of the growth plate to determine if distal hypertrophic cells are viable, highly differentiated cells with the potential of actively controlling terminal events of endochondral ossification prior to their death at the chondro-osseous junction. This study for the first time reports on the visualization of living hypertrophic chondrocytes in situ, including the terminal hypertrophic chondrocyte. Chondrocytes in growth plate explants are visualized using rectified differential interference contrast microscopy. We record and measure, using time-lapse cinematography, the rate of movement of subcellular organelles at the limit of resolution of this light microscopy system. Control experiments to assess viability of hypertrophic chondrocytes include coincubating organ cultures with the intravital dye fluorescein diacetate to assess the integrity of the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic esterases. In this system, all hypertrophic chondrocytes, including the very terminal chondrocyte, exist as rounded, fully hydrated cells. By the criteria of intravital dye staining and organelle movement, distal hypertrophic chondrocytes are identical to chondrocytes in the proliferative and early hypertrophic cell zones.

  4. An investigation of bubble coalescence and post-rupture oscillation in non-ionic surfactant solutions using high-speed cinematography. (United States)

    Bournival, G; Ata, S; Karakashev, S I; Jameson, G J


    Most processes involving bubbling in a liquid require small bubbles to maximise mass/energy transfer. A common method to prevent bubbles from coalescing is by the addition of surfactants. In order to get an insight into the coalescence process, capillary bubbles were observed using a high speed cinematography. Experiments were performed in solutions of 1-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, tri(propylene glycol) methyl ether, and poly(propylene glycol) for which information such as the coalescence time and the deformation of the resultant bubble upon coalescence was extracted. It is shown in this study that the coalescence time increases with surfactant concentration until the appearance of a plateau. The increase in coalescence time with surfactant concentration could not be attributed only to surface elasticity. The oscillation of the resultant bubble was characterised by the damping of the oscillation. The results suggested that a minimum elasticity is required to achieve an increased damping and considerable diffusion has a detrimental effect on the dynamic response of the bubble, thereby reducing the damping.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available «Soviet production film» - a unique genre phenomenon of the Soviet cinema of the 1970th years which emergence has been caused by the cinema tradition of reflection of "a labor subject" originating in the 1920th years on the Soviet screen, and also socio-cultural realities of the time: the declared "era of scientific and technical revolution", blossoming of production dramatic art, strengthening of ideological control over cinema. Relying on ideas of the Russian formal school in the film theory (Yu. Tynyanov, V. Shklovsky, B. Eykhenbaum, the film genres which have designated fundamental problems of studying, and also on provisions of the genre film study which has developed ideas of the Russian formalists, article pursues attempt to designate structural-semantic features of "soviet production film". Existence of steady ways of cinematography decisions, an setting, an iconography, musical and sound design, significant types of characters and actor's roles, models of plots and the general ideological and thematic context connected with the social and economic and industrial sphere of life of the Soviet society allows to tell about actually cinema specifics of a «soviet production film» as film genre.

  6. Proliferation kinetics of cultured cells after irradiation with X-rays and 14 MeV neutrons studied by time-lapse cinematography. (United States)

    Kooi, M W; Stap, J; Barendsen, G W


    Exponentially growing cells of an established line derived from a mouse osteosarcoma (MOS) have been studied by time-lapse cinematography after irradiation with 3 Gy of 200 kV X-rays or 1.5 Gy of 14 MeV neutrons. Cell cycle times (Tc) of individual cells and their progeny in three subsequent generations as well as the occurrence of aberrant mitosis have been determined to evaluate the variation in expression of damage in relation to the stage in the intermitotic cycle and the radiation quality. The results show that the radiation doses applied cause an equal elongation of the mean Tc, which is largest in the irradiated cells but persists in the three subsequent generations. After 3 Gy of X-rays, mitotic delay is largest in cells irradiated in later stages of the cycle, but this difference is not observed after 1.5 Gy of 14 MeV neutrons. In subsequent generations the Tc values show larger variations among descendents of cells treated in the same stage of the cycle as compared to controls but this variation is equal for the doses of X-rays and neutrons applied. Division probability was significantly reduced in irradiated cells as well as in subsequent generations, whereby with neutrons as compared to X-rays the damage is expressed in earlier generations, with less variation as a function of the cell cycle.

  7. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos. (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei


    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers.

  8. Don Quijote de la Mancha: Reflexiones en torno a las relaciones cine-literatura Don Quijote de la Mancha: Reflections about the relationships between cinematography-literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ardila Rojas


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de algunos aspectos de la relación cine-literatura, a partir del Don Quijote de La Mancha literario y de algunas versiones cinematográficas y televisivas realizadas en español y en inglés. Inicialmente se presentan problemas teóricos en torno a categorías que suelen serles afines: relato, autor, narración, historia, etc., para involucrar alternativamente fenómenos que, desde el punto de vista de los autores, generan ambigüedades textuales o múltiples interpretaciones en las versiones que se analizan. De este análisis comparativo que parte de los relatos en cuestión se llega finalmente a conclusiones de carácter estético e ideológico sobre los mismos.This article presents an analysis of some aspects of the relationship between cinematography and literature. Starting from the Don Quijote de La Mancha and taking into account some film and television versions developed in Spanish and English. At the beginning, a theoretical problem based on similar types for concepts categorization: author, narration, story, relat, among others will be analyzed. In addition, a connection is made with some authors' concepts in order to avoid textual ambiguity or multiple interpretations in the versions that are analyzed. Through a comparative analysis supported in these stories, it is possible to reach some aesthetic and ideological conclusions about them.

  9. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses. (United States)

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano


    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli.

  10. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Ogawa

    Full Text Available The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion. Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround, 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono, 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG. The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life

  11. HD aesthetics and digital cinematography


    Flaxton, T.


    This chapter is accompanied by a series of online interviews entitled ‘A Verbatim History of the Aesthetics, Technology and Techniques of Digital Cinematography’. This online resource seeks to circumscribe and circumlocute the wide variety of interests and usages of incoming digital media with specific relation to the effects of increased resolution being offered by emerging digital technologies and can be found here:

  12. Comparative effects of 60Co gamma-rays and neon and helium ions on cycle duration and division probability of EMT 6 cells. A time-lapse cinematography study. (United States)

    Collyn-d'Hooghe, M; Hemon, D; Gilet, R; Curtis, S B; Valleron, A J; Malaise, E P


    Exponentially growing cultures of EMT 6 cells were irradiated in vitro with neon ions, helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays. Time-lapse cinematography allowed the determination, for individual cells, of cycle duration, success of the mitotic division and the age of the cell at the moment of irradiation. Irradiation induced a significant mitotic delay increasing proportionally with the delivered dose. Using mitotic delay as an endpoint, the r.b.e. for neon ions with respect to 60Co gamma-rays was 3.3 +/- 0.2 while for helium ions it was 1.2 +/- 0.1. Mitotic delay was greatest in those cells that had progressed furthest in their cycle at the time of irradiation. No significant mitotic delay was observed in the post-irradiation generation. Division probability was significantly reduced by irradiation both in the irradiated and in the post-irradiated generation. The reduction in division probability obtained with 3 Gy of neon ions was similar to that obtained after irradiation with 6 Gy of helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays.

  13. Measurement of bubble velocity in an air/water flow through a narrow gap by using high-speed cinematography; Ermittlung der Blasengeschwindigkeit einer Luft/Wasser-Spaltstroemung mit Hilfe der Hochgeschwindigkeitskinematographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, S.; Friedel, L. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)


    To predict the mass flow of a two phase mixture at a given pressure difference through narrow gaps, apart from the change in state of the gas phase during pressure reduction, the knowledge of the fluid dynamics on balance which occurs in the form of a relative velocity between the phases is important. These two influences were examined with the aid of high speed cinematography for a water/air bubble flow. Apart from the quick reduction in pressure due to the sudden reduction in crossection at the entry to the gap, there are no significant differences between the experimentally determined volume change in bubbles of different sizes and that calculated assuming an isothermal change in state. The mean velocity of the bubbles does not differ appreciably from that calculated assuming an homogeneous flow. [Deutsch] Zur Vorhersage des sich bei gegebener Druckdifferenz einstellenden Massenstroms eines Zweiphasengemischs durch enge Spalte ist neben der Zustandsaenderung der Gasphase waehrend der Druckabsenkung u.a. auch die Kenntnis des sich dabei einstellenden fluiddynamischen Ungleichgewichts in Form einer Relativgeschwindigkeit zwischen den Phasen von Bedeutung. Diese beiden Einfluesse wurden mit Hilfe der Hochgeschwindigkeitskinematographie fuer eine Wasser/Luft-Blasenstroemung untersucht. Abgesehen von der raschen Druckabsenkung aufgrund der ploetzlichen Querschnittsverengung im Spalteintritt treten keine nennenswerten Unterschiede zwischen den experimentell ermittelten und den unter der Annahme einer isothermen Zustandsaenderungen berechneten Volumenaenderung verschiedengrosser Blasen auf. Die mittlere Geschwindigkeit der Blasen unterscheidet sich dabei nicht wesentlich von der unter der Annahme einer homogenen Stroemung berechneten. (orig.)

  14. The Technique of Special-Effects Cinematography. (United States)

    Fielding, Raymond

    The author describes the many techniques used to produce cinematic effects that would be too costly, too difficult, too time-consuming, too dangerous, or simply impossible to achieve with conventional photographic techniques. He points out that these techniques are available not only for 35 millimeter work but also to the 16 mm. photographer who…

  15. Mystification in Czech cinematography and Czech culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article concerns the issue of mystification and hoax in Czech culture. It demonstrates historical aspects of this phenomenon and, basing on the example of various cultural texts, shows that the mystification as a means of artistic expression is deeply rooted in Czech culture. Surrealistic and illogical themes that are characteristic for Czech humour are used by artists, especially filmmakers, in creating successive mystifications. The article examines films such as Oil Gobblers (1988, Year of Devil (2002, Czech Dream (2004, Jara Cimrman Lying, Sleeping (1983, in order to analyse the role of this phenomenon in both films that speak of mystification and the ones that are mystifications themselves.

  16. Cinematography and Television: Differences and Similarites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Nazareth


    Full Text Available Television and Cinema present specific behaviour and language in relation to reality. If film focuses on its proximity to artistic practices, and this reflects the viewer’s relationship with the film, television, in turn, seeks in directness or the transposition of the real to the imaginary, the key to its success, the audience. We all see the possibilities that television has for viewers. Even those most aware of the various con- straints, and who claim themselves to be not influenced, come under the hypnotic power of the television screen. The quality of the programming continues to decline, succumbing to the claim that television channels have to get into the audience “ratings”.

  17. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.


    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  18. High-speed cinematography of muscle contraction. (United States)



    Motion pictures of the "twitch" of an excised frog gastrocnemius muscle taken at rates of 6000 frames per second provide a means of very accurately timing the phases. The extreme "slow motion" reveals surface phenomena not observable by other techniques. Evidence of "active relaxation" is suggested by results of frame-by-frame analysis.

  19. Estudos sobre o comportamento dos Planorbídeos: I - uma técnica de observação e registro comportamental por cinematografia Studies on the behavior of planorbids: I - a technique for behavioral observation and recording by use of cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio S. Pieri


    Full Text Available Uma técnica envolvendo cinematografia com lapso de tempo foi elaborada para o estudo da atividade comportamental dos planorbídeos em condições de laboratório. As observações realizam-se em uma câmara dotada de ciclo de iluminação dia-noite, e os registros são feitos com uma filmadora super-8, operada quadro a quadro, sob luz de flash estroboscópico. Essa técnica tem permitido mensurações rigorosas de diferentes aspectos do comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818, e pode ser utilizada na análise do nível de resposta dos planorbídeos aos moluscicidas, em testes experimentais, e dos comportamentos de proteção frente a condições adversas em geral.A technique involving time-lapse cinematography was developed for studying the behavioral repertoire of planorbids in laboratory conditions. Observations were carried out within a chamber with controlled light and temperature; recording was done by single frame shooting at 10 second intervals, with synchronized strobed flash. This technique has allowed accurate measurements of different aspects of the activity of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, and can be useful in analysing the level of response of planorbids to molluscicides, in experimental tests, as well as their protective behavior under general adverse conditions.

  20. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam


    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  1. [Efficacy of high-frequency cinematography in diagnosis of dysphagia]. (United States)

    Oelerich, M; Mai, R; Müller-Miny, H; Peters, P E


    Dysphagia is a common symptom in clinical practice. Due to the broad spectrum of underlying diseases many disciplines are involved in the therapy and diagnosis of dysphagia, where radiology plays a central role. The radiologist is confronted with different diagnostic problems and has to choose the most appropriate type of investigation. In many cases no organic disorder can be demonstrated by clinical examination, endoscopy or conventional radiological techniques. In this setting cineradiography is an outstanding tool for finding functional or structural changes in the swallowing chain. This study underlines the efficiency of cineradiography in the diagnosis of dysphagia.

  2. High-speed cinematography of gas-metal atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [ALCOA Specialty Metals Division, 100 Technical Drive, Alcoa Center, PA 15069 (United States)]. E-mail:; Connor, Jeffery [Material Science Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Ridder, Stephen [Metallurgical Processing Group, NIST, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8556, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)


    A high-speed cinematographic footage of a 304L stainless steel gas atomization, recorded at the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST), was analyzed using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The analysis showed the gas atomization process possesses two prominent frequency ranges of melt oscillation (pulsation). A low-frequency oscillation in the melt flow occurring between 5.41 and 123 Hz, with a dominant frequency at 9.93 Hz, was seen in the recirculation zone adjacent to the melt orifice. A high-frequency melt oscillation range was observed above 123 Hz, and was more prominent one melt-tip-diameter downstream in the melt atomization image than upstream near the melt tip. This high-frequency range may reflect the melt atomization frequency used to produce finely atomized powder. This range also included a prominent high frequency at 1273 Hz, which dominated in the image further away downstream from the melt tip. This discrete high-frequency oscillation is most probably caused by the aeroacoustic ''screech'' phenomenon, intrasound (<20 kHz), a result of the atomizing gas jets undergoing flow resonance. It is hypothesized that this discrete intrinsic aeroacoustic tone may enhance melt breakup in the atomization process with evidence of this fact in the melt images.

  3. [Postoperative complications after larynx resection: assessment with video-cinematography]. (United States)

    Kreuzer, S; Schima, W; Schober, E; Strasser, G; Denk, D M; Swoboda, H


    In past decades, the surgical techniques for treating laryngeal carcinoma have been vastly improved. For circumscribed tumors, voice-conserving resections are possible and for extensive neoplasms, radical laryngectomy, sometimes combined with chemoradiation, has been developed. Postoperative complications regarding swallowing function are not uncommon. Radiologic examinations, especially pharyngography and videofluoroscopy, are most often used to evaluate patients with complications after laryngeal surgery. An optimized videofluoroscopic technique for evaluation of complications is described. The radiologic appearance of early and late complications, such as fistulas, hematomas, aspiration, strictures, dysfunction of the pharyngoesophageal sphincter, tumor recurrence, and metachronous tumors is demonstrated.

  4. A Real-time Cinematography System for 3D Environments


    Lino, Christophe; Christie, Marc; Lamarche, Fabrice; Olivier, Patrick


    International audience; Nous proposons une méthode temps-réel d'automatisation de la construction d'un film à partir d'une liste d'éléments bas-niveau (eg. actions/mouvements des personnages, mouvement des objets). Notre système calcule des points de vue appropriés sur ces éléments, et effectue des coupures de montage selon des conventions cinématographiques définies par l'utilisateur et le style. Les points de vue sont sélectionnés dans des régions spécifiques de l'environnement (les volumes...

  5. We await for the F¨uhrer’s orders: the Nazi perversion in cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Frigeri


    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the ideological and intertextual parallels between Triumph of the Will, the movie, produced by Leni Riefenstahl and the book Mein Kampf, by Adolf Hitler. Triumph of the Will is the film registry of the National Socialist Party in 1934, at the city of Nuremberg and Mein Kampf was written by Hitler in 1924 while He was in jail; the book aims to guide the members of the Nazi party. For this, the research resumes History by the Nazi’s rise using authors like Elias Canetti (1995 and Hannah Arendt (1989; we also study German film production by Siegrief Kracauer (1988. After, this work investigates the movies made by Riefenstahl from Ray Müller’s documentary (1993, and also by the book from Steven Bach (2008 and Riefenstahl’s autobiography (1991. This research constitutes as metodology the books by Mikhail Bakhtin (2010, Robert Stam (1992 and Jacques Durand (1973, to make the movie’s découpage we use Laurent Jullier and Michel Marie (2009. We separated sixteen movie scenes and they were compared between each other to investigate if the movie was made to be seen by all of the german people, to convince them about the Nazi’s ideal – originally present and described in Mein Kampf.

  6. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C.P.J. [University of California, Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science, Urey Hall, Mali Code 0339, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)


    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  7. Human megakaryoblastic proliferation and differentiation events observed by phase-contrast cinematography. (United States)

    Boll, I T; Domeyer, C; Bührer, C


    Microcinematographic documentation of mitoses, amitoses, endomitoses, or cytoplasmic fusion shortly after completion of mitoses was done in bone marrow specimens of patients with quantitative platelet disorders and controls. In patients with platelet disorders, most mitoses with cell duplication occurred in large promegakaryocytes after 4-fold nuclear and cytoplasmic enhancement. Normal specimens showed polyploidization happening in small megakaryoblasts, while mitoses with cell duplication were seen only after cultivation in freeze-thawed sera of patients with platelet disorders. Frequently, lymphocytes were observed to contact megakaryoblastic cells undergoing mitoses, amitoses and endomitoses and to enter the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes (emperipolesis), leaving it again after several hours.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Dogo


    Full Text Available In her Paper, Dunja Dogo aims to show how one specific historical character as well as radical revolu­tionist, S. G. Nechaev, was treated in «Дворец кре­пость» («The Palace and the Fortress», 1924—the first Soviet full-length fictional films on Russian Populists and directed by A. V. Ivanovsky for the Leningrad State cinematographic production «Sevzapkino». The screenplay of this film was written by the prominent historian and man of letters P. E. Shchiogolev, who made use of newly available archival material for the purpose of featuring history for the masses.One key question shall guide Dogo's Paper: in this cinematic text, through which narrative devices were the stories of the recent revolutionary past re­organised and reinterpreted in relation to the projects predominating in the Soviet post-re­v­o­lu­ti­o­nary present?

  9. [Auguste Lumière (1862-1943). Cinematography...and microbiology]. (United States)

    Freney, Jean


    Auguste Lumière was the most inventive of the two brothers in the area of therapeutics and pharmacology. In 1896 he created his laboratory of experimental physiology where he discovered some organo-metallic derivatives active against syphilis, the oral vaccination against typhoid, vaseline gauze against burns. Unselfish amateur or real scientist he was a self-taught man who expended a lot of industrial activity even on erroneous scientific bases as he publicly refused the phenomenon of tuberculosis contagion in 1930.

  10. De los cómics a la cinematografía = From Comics to Cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Gubern Garriga-Nogués


    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar nos sumergimos en la Historia del Arte para bucear en los antecedentes del cómic y, a partir de ahí, seguir a lo largo del tiempo la interacción que ha existido entre éste y los grandes medios de difusión de imágenes y de creación de iconos visuales: pintura, fotografía y especialmente el cine. Analiza el paso de la imagen estática a la imagen en movimiento tanto en la alta cultura como en la cultura popular y como todas estas artes visuales se han interrelacionado y retroalimentado, mucho más aún en la actualidad. Un largo recorrido que tiene por objeto rastrear los procesos, la dinámica y la evolución que existe alrededor de la viñeta desde sus orígenes ancestrales hasta el mundo del cine, sus semejanzas y sus diferencias, su interactividad y, sobre todo la influencia y los nexos existentes entre uno y otro en la búsqueda y desarrollo de un lenguaje plástico narrativo.From a multidisciplinary perspective we immerse ourselves into the History of Art, to dive into the background of the history of comics and, from there, to follow along the way the interaction that has existed between this and the main media that are specialized in images and creating visual icons, painting, photography and especially the cinema. It analyses the step from the static image to the moving image, in both high culture and popular culture, and shows how all these visual arts have been interrelating and have nurtured themselves, even more so nowadays. A long journey that aims to track the processes, the dynamic and the evolution that exist around the vignette from their ancestral origins to the cinematic world, their similarities and their differences, its interactivity and especially the influence and links between one another in the pursuit and development of a narrative visual language.

  11. Cine-servo lens technology for 4K broadcast and cinematography (United States)

    Nurishi, Ryuji; Wakazono, Tsuyoshi; Usui, Fumiaki


    Central to the rapid evolution of 4K image capture technology in the past few years, deployment of large-format cameras with Super35mm Single Sensors is increasing in TV production for diverse shows such as dramas, documentaries, wildlife, and sports. While large format image capture has been the standard in the cinema world for quite some time, the recent experiences within the broadcast industry have revealed a variety of requirement differences for large format lenses compared to those of the cinema industry. A typical requirement for a broadcast lens is a considerably higher zoom ratio in order to avoid changing lenses in the middle of a live event, which is mostly not the case for traditional cinema productions. Another example is the need for compact size, light weight, and servo operability for a single camera operator shooting in a shoulder-mount ENG style. On the other hand, there are new requirements that are common to both worlds, such as smooth and seamless change in angle of view throughout the long zoom range, which potentially offers new image expression that never existed in the past. This paper will discuss the requirements from the two industries of cinema and broadcast, while at the same time introducing the new technologies and new optical design concepts applied to our latest "CINE-SERVO" lens series which presently consists of two models, CN7x17KAS-S and CN20x50IAS-H. It will further explain how Canon has realized 4K optical performance and fast servo control while simultaneously achieving compact size, light weight and high zoom ratio, by referring to patent-pending technologies such as the optical power layout, lens construction, and glass material combinations.

  12. Banal art history. Baroque, modernization and official cinematography in Franco’s Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi de Haro García


    Full Text Available In this article the newsreels made by Noticiarios y Documentales Cinematográficos (Cinematographic Newsreels and Documentaries, NO-DO, the official film production company created by Francoism, will be analyzed in order to shed light on the political, cultural and social role played by the presentation of art and art history to a wide public under Francoism. Special attention will be devoted to the role played by the imaginaries associated with the visual arts of the baroque and the Golden Age and to the ways in which they crossed paths with the construction of a national identity and the changes experimented by the dictatorship. This will show to what extent ‘banal art history’ can play a relevant role in ‘banal nationalism’ as defined by Michael Billig.

  13. Study for Digital Cinematography%数字电影摄制技术研究(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  14. 电影艺术摘记%Notes on the Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗贝尔·布莱松; 单万里; 杨红鹂


    @@ [译者前言]谈布莱松,不可不论他的.这本凝聚着作者20多年心血与智慧的著作,犹如一本圣哲箴言,启迪着众多的电影艺术工作者.原作最初出版于1 975年,后来再三印制,并被译成多种文字,遗憾的是我国尚未有完整的中文译本.在纪念布莱松逝世周年之际,我们将这本不足两万言的著作全部译出(根据法国加利玛出版社2000年的重印本翻译).

  15. Banal art history. Baroque, modernization and official cinematography in Franco’s Spain


    Noemi de Haro García


    In this article the newsreels made by Noticiarios y Documentales Cinematográficos (Cinematographic Newsreels and Documentaries, NO-DO), the official film production company created by Francoism, will be analyzed in order to shed light on the political, cultural and social role played by the presentation of art and art history to a wide public under Francoism. Special attention will be devoted to the role played by the imaginaries associated with the visual arts of the baroque and the Golden A...

  16. We await for the F¨uhrer’s orders: the Nazi perversion in cinematography


    Renata Aparecida Frigeri


    This work aims to investigate the ideological and intertextual parallels between Triumph of the Will, the movie, produced by Leni Riefenstahl and the book Mein Kampf, by Adolf Hitler. Triumph of the Will is the film registry of the National Socialist Party in 1934, at the city of Nuremberg and Mein Kampf was written by Hitler in 1924 while He was in jail; the book aims to guide the members of the Nazi party. For this, the research resumes History by the Nazi’s rise using authors like Elias Ca...

  17. Metropolitan architecture & cinematography: Modern psychotechnologies at the dawn of the 20th century


    Ginosatis, Dimitris


    International audience; Αντλώντας επιλεκτικά από ένα ευρύ φάσμα θεωριών, το παρόν κείμενο επιχειρεί να δείξει ότι, πολύ περισσότερο από απλές αισθητικές μορφές, η Μητρόπολη και το τεχνικό μέσο του Κινηματογράφου, στην εποχή του μοντερνισμού, συνιστούν πρωτίστως σύνθετες πολιτισμικές τεχνολογίες με πολύπλοκες δομές και επιπτώσεις. Η μοντέρνα μητρόπολη είναι κάτι παραπάνω από αυτό που υπονοεί: δηλαδή τον αρχιτεκτονικά διευθετημένο φυσικό χώρο της πόλης. Ομοίως, η κινηματογραφία είναι κάτι παραπ...

  18. The 'look' and how to keep it: cinematography, postproduction and digital colour


    Misek, Richard


    Jacques Aumont has noted that, throughout screen history, filmmakers have tended to regard colour as something to be controlled.1 Between the rise of Technicolor in the mid 1930s and the emergence of digital cinema in the late 1990s, this typically involved controlling the colours that appeared in front of a film camera through techniques including production design, costume design, lens filtration and coloured lighting. Since the spread of Digital Intermediate (DI) in the early to mid 2000s,...

  19. Application Of Biomechanics Cinematography To The Study Of Sports And Industrial Injuries (United States)

    Plagenhoef, Stanley


    A personal history of biomechanical analyses from motion pictures is presented. The areas of work are of total body motions of athletes in many sports, analysis of work-related injuries in industry, measurements of synthetic turfs, diagnosis of muscular imbalance, and animal motion. A film presentation illustrates each of these areas.The filming and analysing of any motion should produce data that has practical applications. This means taking measured data, interpreting it properly, and then using the information to actually obtain useful results. The practical application of data obtained from the high speed filming of humans and animals is presented here.

  20. The minorities and minoritised cinematographies in the European cultural policy: the Danish alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antía Mª LÓPEZ GÓMEZ


    Full Text Available The purpose of this document is to analyze the European Union's approach to its cultural development model during the last decade and towards the future. Based on the analysis of mass cultural models, which dominate the post-modern democracies, we suggest that the dissident forms of culture (minorities or minoritised, precisely for their refractory condition towards the cultural standardized model and generated by the current political and economic logic, constitute a guarantee for the possibility, after modernity, of a different European culture. In this regard, we have exemplified an alternative to the European Union’s erratic cultural policy in the Danish audiovisual production: in spite of the modest dimension of its territory, supported by a national language with a limited geographic location, the facts show a high quality cinematographic production whose unmistakable hallmarks proclaim it as a recognizable cultural and undeniable fact. In contrast with the Danish case, some of the most significant European Digital Agenda issues are discussed and openly reported: among others, the disappearance of precedents purpose in relation to promote OV and multilingualism and the fact that the small cinemas are no longer interlocutors in policy-making from the Community's point of view…

  1. “双影互动”的技术视野%Technical View of "Interaction of Photography and Cinematography"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  2. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Decker, A. J.


    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  3. The Study of Mu Deyuan's Film Cinematography%穆德远影像风格研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  4. 数字摄影机之梦(连载1)%The Dream of Digital Cinematography Camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  5. The Dream of Digital Cinematography Camera%数字摄影机之梦(连载4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 处理 数字拍摄时成像器件把光学图像转换成电子图像,经过处理后把数字化的图像数据记录在存储媒介上.因此,数字摄影机的图像质量不但与拍摄环节的因素有关,还与处理和记录这两个环节的因素有关.

  6. The of Digital Cinematography Camera%数字摄影机之梦 (连载3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 4.宽容度、灵敏度和信噪比 宽容度是曝光宽容度的简称,表示拍摄高光比画面的能力,灵敏度也叫感光度,表示低照度拍摄的能力,信噪比则是对画面中图像与噪波比例的描述,三者相互关联,都与成像器件的性能有关,是图像质量的重要组成部分.

  7. 数字摄影机之梦(连载2)%The Dream of Digital Cinematography Camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 怎样使数字摄影机达剑35mm胶片的拍摄质量 经过一百多年的发展,基于胶片的摄影技术已经达到了近乎完美的程度,为摄影行业树立了高质量图像的标准.数码相机刚刚出现的时候专业摄影师对数码图像很不满意,认为其质量与35mm胶片相差甚远.对数码照片质量的早期关注重点是清晰度,之后关注的焦点转移到了宽容度,景深范围等方面.全画幅单反数码相机出现后数码图像的质量开始全面达到了35mm胶片的水平,专业摄影师对数码图像质量的抱怨逐渐消失,现在即使是最保守的摄影师也开始放弃胶片转向了数字拍摄.

  8. Integration of Robotics and 3D Visualization to Modernize the Expeditionary Warfare Demonstrator (EWD) (United States)


    PROJECTION .......................................................................99 1. Digital Cinematography ...details ongoing research on multiple cinematography upgrades recommended for X3D that may benefit this work. 1. Digital Cinematography At this year’s... cinematography for EWD scenario playbacks, the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) libraries were used to modify movie files produced in X3D. Appendix D contains

  9. Flash X-ray cinematography analysis of dwell and penetration of small caliber projectiles with three types of SiC ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Strassburger


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of ceramic composite armor it is essential to know the mechanisms during each phase of the projectile–target interaction and their influence on the penetration resistance. Since the view on the crater zone and the tip of a projectile penetrating a ceramic is rapidly getting obscured by damaged material, a flash X-ray technique has to be applied in order to visualize projectile penetration. For this purpose, usually several flash X-ray tubes are arranged around the target and the radiographs are recorded on film. At EMI a flash X-ray imaging method has been developed, which provides up to eight flash radiographs in one experiment. A multi-anode 450 kV flash X-ray tube is utilized with this method. The radiation transmitted through the target is then detected on a fluorescent screen. The fluorescent screen converts the radiograph into an image in the visible wavelength range, which is photographed by means of a high-speed camera. This technique has been applied to visualize and analyze the penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles into three different types of SiC ceramics. Two commercial SiC grades and MICASIC (Metal Infiltrated Carbon derived SiC, a C-SiSiC ceramic developed by DLR, have been studied. The influences, not only of the ceramic but also the backing material, on dwell time and projectile erosion have been studied. Penetration curves have been determined and their relevance to the ballistic resistance is discussed.

  10. LED影视灯具的特点及应用现状%Characteristic and application status of LED lighting in the field of cinematography and television

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1 LED影视灯具的发展 1.1发展影视灯具的意义 照明耗电在各个国家的总发电量中占有很大比例,我国照明耗电大体占全国总发电量10~1296.根据中华人民共和国2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报(2010年2月25日公布),2009年我国总发电量为37146.5亿千瓦时(度),照明耗电按全国总发电量1096计,达3714.7亿度,为三峡水力发电工程年发电能力(847亿度)的4.39倍左右.

  11. 浅论摄影创作中场面气氛的营造%On Building the Atmosphere for Scene by Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  12. Hollywood Cinematography Art: Tradition And Development%好莱坞电影摄影艺术:传统与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍玉珩; 张一平; 郝冰



  13. Luis Alcoriza o la mexicanización del exiliado cinematográfico republicano = Luis Alcoriza or the Mexican Nationalization of the Republican Cinematography Exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Chaumel Fernández


    Full Text Available Luis Alcoriza,  exiliado republicano español en México, desarrolló su carrera como  actor, guionista y director en su patria de adopción dándola algunas de sus mejores películas. En su condición de exiliado dispuso de mayor objetividad para mostrar los cambios de la sociedad mexicana y de sus principales problemas políticos. Figura imprescindible de la evolución del Cine Mexicano  de  la segunda mitad del siglo XX, se configura como uno de los principales ejemplos del  fenómeno de mexicanización de los cineastas exiliados.Luis Alcoriza, Spanish republican exile in Mexico, developed his career as an actor, writer and director in his adopted country giving her some of his best films. In his exile he had before as objective to show the changes in Mexican society and its major political problems. Essential figure in the evolution of Mexican cinema in the second half of the twentieth century stands as one of the prime examples of the phenomenon of mexicanización of exiled filmmakers.

  14. The Study of Zhao Xiaoshi's Film Cinematography%追寻那一抹时代的气息——赵晓时电影摄影研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力; 李乐雅



  15. On the Strategy of Cinematography Education in China%中国摄影教育应对策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. 超高清数字摄影技术在电视系统中的应用%Application of UHD Digital Cinematography Technology in TV System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  17. 跨世纪中国电影艺术与商业观念辨析%Distinction between Cinematography and the Commercial Concept in China across the Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  18. 浮华背后的隐忧——2009年中国电影摄影评述%Review of Cinematography 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 2009年是中国电影的又一个丰收年,产量提高,票房看张,一些年轻导演的影片后来居上,取得不蜚业绩,电影市场超乎想象的繁荣.从投资规模看,2009年电影呈现出一种相对良性的态势,4000万~8000万人民币的中等投资影片较往年增多,这也是电影产业规模化的表现.但很多时候,电影的翻作水准与投资规模,票房回报并不绝对成正比,与电影市场的繁荣景象相佐的是,中国电影的制作水准并没相应的提升,从摄影创作的角度看,甚至出现了某种程度的退步.

  19. The Study of Hou Yong's Film Cinematography%纪实之真与戏剧之魂——侯咏电影摄影风格探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志丹; 王雨栽



  20. The Breakthrough of Cinematography in New Hollywood Films%新好莱坞电影摄影创作的突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许斌; 赵垣



  1. 中国电影摄影发展史(1905~1949)%The Evolution of Chinese Cinematography(1905~1949)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 中国人看到电影,或说电影进入中国,并不比最早的电影生产国晚许久.大概在1896年后,中国就开始放映电影,而我国生产电影,特别是独立生产影片,摄影师自己独立拍摄影片确比其它国家晚许多年.约在1905年,丰泰照相馆的照相师刘仲伦拍摄了由谭鑫培主演的一片.是中国第一部电影.刘仲伦是中国第一位摄影师.之后,中国许多电影都是由外侨摄影师拍摄的.

  2. 虚拟3D摄影移轴技术研究%Off-Axis Technology of Virtual 3D Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    虚拟3D摄影技术指计算机动画制作系统中用于拍摄三维场景以获取立体数字影像的技术.一般情况下,3D摄影系统中双机的主轴需要形成汇聚才能产生立体视觉效果,在真实3D摄影系统中,通常以旋转(Toe In)摄影机的方式形成汇聚.在虚拟3D摄影系统中,由于虚拟摄影机的特殊性质,可以通过移轴(Off Axis)技术形成汇聚.移轴技术可以消除普通3D摄影技术不可避免的梯形变形以及清晰度差异,提高3D影像的质量.本文在分析梯形变形与清晰度差异产生原理的基础上,对虚拟3D摄影系统的移轴控制技术进行讨论,进一步分析如何通过移轴技术消除垂直视差与清晰度差异,从而在理论上证明移轴技术是更为理想的3D摄影控制技术,并最终提出在真实3D摄影系统中引入移轴技术的设想.

  3. 76 FR 69700 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request (United States)


    ... Facilities as well as Commercial Photography and Cinematography at the U.S. Arboretum. OMB Control Number... cinematography. Need and Use of the Information: USNA officials will collect the information using...

  4. Le Centre National de la Cinématographie: articulations du postcommunisme roumain


    Arhire, Elena


    Endorsing the perspective of democratization studies, this article examines the postcommunism itinerary of the institutional infrastructure of Romanian cinematography. Special emphasis is given to the National Center of Cinematography (NCC) as a privileged locus disclosing both the commerce between institutional continuity and change, and the predicaments of cinematography, squeezed between market and state control.

  5. 76 FR 53397 - Notice of Intent To Renew Information Collection (United States)


    ... facilities, as well as for commercial photography and cinematography. Fees generated will be used to defray... and Facilities as well as Commercial Photography and Cinematography. OMB Number: 0518-0032. Expiration... USNA for commercial photography and cinematography. All rules and regulations noted in 7 CFR...

  6. Seeing V.S.Sensing: The Comparative Study of Handheld Cinematography and Steadicam Cinematography%“看到”与“感受到”——手持摄影画面与斯坦尼康摄影画面的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  7. 开创先河、享誉当代的俄罗斯国立电影学院%A Pioneer:Introduction to Today's Russian State Institute of Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  8. 技娴艺湛相得为文--论吴印咸的艺术道路及其电影摄影%Wu Yinxian's Artistic Career and His Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 在百年中国电影史上,电影摄影艺术家行列中,吴印咸是十分突出的一位.他一生跋涉近一个世纪,跨越了民国和共和国两个时代.他对于左翼电影运动的开展,解放区人民电影的创立,新中国电影事业和电影教育事业的建设,都有重大贡献;尤其是在摄影和电影摄影的创作上,更是取得了长久不衰、永志青春的卓越成就.

  9. 视觉经验的共识--实现电影摄影造型表意的桥梁%Consensus of Visual Experience—A Bridge to Realize the Shape and Expression of Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 表意是电影符号学术语.它是一个语义学概念.说明抽象概念或具体事物与用来表现抽象概念或具体事物的语言之间的关系.在符号学中,指能指系统和所指系统构成的表达含义的功能.也是结构语言学中一个核心概念.电影符号学的学者们认为,注重研究符号的表意功能,确定能指(电影表达手段)与所指(影片含义)的关系,深入探讨表意的结构,是电影符号学的根本任务.表意必然是有系统的编码过程.

  10. 瞬间完成的电影梦——观念摄影中的“电影情结”%Second-Realized Film Dream: Film Complex in Concept Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  11. Making Storms--A Introduction on the Cinematography of the Film Master ond Commander%风暴的诞生--影片《怒海争锋:极地远征》摄影工作介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 第76届奥斯卡最佳摄影奖的获奖影片是一部描述19世纪上叶拿破仑时期海战的大片.罗素·克洛(Russell Crowe)在影片中饰演一个号称"幸运船长"的我行我素的英军船长杰克·奥伯瑞(Jack Aubrey),保罗·贝塔尼(Paul Bettany)饰演医生斯蒂芬·马突林(Stephen Maturin).

  12. Safeguard the Movies' Pure Artistry--On Robert Bresson's Concept of Artistic Cinematography%捍卫电影艺术的纯粹性--初识布莱松电影艺术观念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  13. A Brief on the Cinematography of Film and TV Advertisements:the Function of Mobile Shooting Equipments%浅谈汽车类影视广告的摄影创作运动器材表现篇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐虹; 罗征宇; 刘娟


    @@ 汽车在中国发展成为大众能接受的商品,时间不算很长.早期的车类广告制作思路与一般的家电类产品相仿,这阶段的车类影视广告自然是以展示车的外形、颜色、类别这些最为基本的属性为主.

  14. 弦外有余音的影像诗人——梁明电影影像风格研究%The Study of Liang Ming's Film Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高薇; 匡晓彤



  15. 从美剧《老友记》析影视的场景设计%Friends:An Analytical Insight into the Scene Design in Art of Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. 黑白影像再现红色年代--影片《张思德》摄影艺术赏析%Reshaping the Red Era in Black and White:On the Cinematography of "Zhang Side"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  17. [Segmental wall movement of the left ventricle in healthy persons and myocardial infarct patients studied by a catheter-less nuclear medical method (camera-cinematography of the heart)]. (United States)

    Geffers, H; Sigel, H; Bitter, F; Kampmann, H; Stauch, M; Adam, W E


    Camera-Kinematography is a nearly noninvasive method to investigate regional motion of the myocard, and allows evaluation of the function of the heart. About 20 min after injection of 15-20 mCi of 99mTC-Human-Serum-Albumin, when the tracer is distributed homogenously within the bloodpool, data acquisition starts. Myocardial wall motion is represented in an appropriate quasi three-dimensional form. In this representation scars can be revealed as "silent" (akinetic) regions, aneurysms by asynchronic motion. Time activity curves for arbitrarily chosen regions can be calculated and give an equivalent for regional volume changes. 16 patients with an old infarction have been investigated. In fourteen cases the location and extent of regions with abnormal motion could be evaluated. Only two cases of a small posterior wall infarction did not show deviations from normal contraction pattern.

  18. 摄影系"造型艺术构思"课程的实践教学探讨%The Practical Education System of Cinematography Department: Based on a Case Study of Advanced Art Design Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  19. Southeast Asia Report, Vietnam, Tap Chi Cong San, No. 8, August 1984. (United States)


    schools, from streets, bridges across canals and streetlights to sewers, public restrooms, public trash containers, meeting places, reading rooms, etc...Bourgeois cinematography poisons and destroys the soul and character of man. Crime and sexual passion are the two ingredients of all works of bourgeois...cinematography. Bourgeois films cannot develop a plot without crime and sexual passion. Many experts in bourgeois cinematography, many "movie stars

  20. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs. (United States)


    Committee for Cinematography have not bestirred themselves, the re-recording of contraband cassettes, their sale and underground rental. (A striking...running ahead of the events, that by the time the State Committee for Cinematography and the Ministry of Electronics Industry put out the first dozens...with the invasion of cinematography or television in the world." But this alone was clear even in 1972; in 1984 something larger was already

  1. USSR Report, Electronics and Electrical Engineering (United States)


    Cinematography (M. V. Antipin, L. L. Polosin; TEKHNIKA KINO I TELEVIDENIYA, No 1, Jan 84) ................................. 13 Development of Soviet...TELEVISION SYSTEMS FOR CINEMATOGRAPHY Moscow TEKHNIKA KINO I TELEVIDENIYA in Russian No 1, Jan 84 pp 14-20 ANTIPIN, M. V. and POLOSIN, L. L., Leningrad...Institute of Cinematography Engineers [Abstract] Requirements are discussed which digital high-definition television systems must meet in order to post

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 3, February 1989 (United States)


    of the Scientific Research Cinematography Institute; A. Pavlov, film director (Moscow); V. Ryabinskiy, deputy chairman, USSR Goskino; Y. Semenyuk...The second item is the making of films. The new wave of documentary cinematography was unexpected to many. This applied to us personally, the public...only at least the main criterion in documentaries. But is this criterion applicable to an artistic documentary cinematography ? For such a

  3. JPRS Report, East Asia. Southeast Asia, Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN, No. 9, September 1989 (United States)


    not arise again. Dang Nhat Minh, secretary general of the Vietnam Cinematography Association: The most important thing with respect to the...survival of the arts and letters associations (with includes the Cinematography Associ- ation) is to make specific decisions on the tasks func- tions and...produced five feature films and five video films for the Vietnam Cinematography Federation, and we have carried on joint ventures with other

  4. Interactions of Small-Scale Physical Mixing Processes with the Structure, Morphology and Bloom Dynamics and Optics of Non-Spheroid Phytoplankton (United States)


    microscopic imaging techniques , and microscopic video- cinematography protocols for both phytoplankton and zooplankton for use in current laboratory...phytoplankton, zooplankton and bioluminescence papers, and examined data/figures for layered structures. Imaging and Cinematography : preview it as a work-in-progress, email me (, and I will provide you with a temporary URL. Imaging and Cinematography

  5. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2079. (United States)


    cinematography and, to a certain degree, the theater, does not provoke the slightest alarm in the cultural environment and does not arouse any type of...of their attitudes. Nor are things much different in cinematography where poor, colorless and un- expressive films are treated with goodwill and even

  6. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 4, April 1988. (United States)


    rather strong and distinct change occurred within a number of literary and art sectors, especially in prose, theatrical art and cinematography ...and love), in cheap plays and in a number of phenomena which reflect a pandering to ordinary tastes of consumers in cinematography , paintings

  7. Southeast Asia Report, Vietnam, TAP CHI CONG SAN, No. 6, June 1985 (United States)


    cultural and artistic activities, which include literature, theatrical art, cinematography , photography, music, the fine arts, architecture, museum... cinematography , Mozambique has produced a number of feature films on the heroic struggle for liberation and the cause of building the new life of the people. The

  8. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs. (United States)


    through years and cen- turies, that is why the party has always evaluated the cinematography and has always devoted attention to it. Through your...revisionist cinematography is being corroded by the deep crisis, you, the Albanian film producers, are proving that when art is pervaded by the Marxist

  9. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  10. A New Framework for Software Visualization: A Multi-Layer Approach (United States)


    typography , graphic design , animation, and cinematography with modern human-computer interaction technology to facilitate both the human understanding...of the techniques of interactive graphics and the crafts of graphic design , typography , animation and cinematography to enhance the presentation and...such as top-down design and stepwise refinement [1], structured programming [2], modularity and information hiding [3], object oriented programming [4

  11. We Are Not Vidiots. (United States)

    Burns, Grant


    Presents arguments in support of public library acquisition of videos. Some potential benefits for children and adults of watching videos are cited, e.g., learning about good acting, screenwriting, cinematography, directing, music, and good literature. (MES)

  12. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia. (United States)


    Not enough attention has been given to agriculture, as has been given to timber and export affairs. The work techniques have remained feudal...for expanding production, and convert from basic production techniques to the new ones so that more agricultural sections will be organized and...88 p 2) Deputy Director of the Cinematography Department, Ministry of Culture; his article on economic manage- ment in the cinematography sector

  13. 以色列电影的侧面--学生电影、电影教育和电影市场%the Side Face of Israeli Movies--the Movies Produced by the Students, the Movie's Market and the Cinematography Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  14. 加强电影技术标准工作,促进电影产业跨越式发展--在2004年全国电影技术工作暨电影专业委员会七届一次会议上的发言%Strengthening Cinematography Standardization Promoting Film Industrial Striding Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 电影得以百年的发展,其基本保障就是有一套全球统一的技术标准系列.100年来传统电影无论在前期拍摄、后期制作还是在发行、放映各个环节都已形成了统一的技术标准系列,指导和规范着电影制作、加工、发行和放映的整个过程,使全球电影节目和设备具有良好的交互性.

  15. 数字技术与电影空间——由奥斯卡摄影奖入围影片看数字技术对电影空间的影响%The Influence of Digital Technology on Film Space from the Finalists of Academy Award for Best Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  16. 中华人民共和国国家标准供电视播放用影片安全画面范围的位置和尺寸%Cinematography-Safe picture areas for motion-picture films for television -Position and dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 前言 本标准修改采用了ISO 1223:1993. 本标准是对GB/T 5301-1985的修订,本次修订维持原标准的主要部分不变,由于原标准的名称不能准确反映该标准的实际用途,故改为现名.

  17. 数字技术对电影摄影创作产生了哪些影响?电影摄影师曹郁访谈%What Impact Has Digital Technology Brought upon Cinematography?——An Interview with Cinematographer Cao Yu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 曹郁,1997年毕业于北京电影学院摄影系,现任北京电影制片厂摄影师.1996年,拍摄(学生作品),获戛纳青年电影基金会评委会大奖;2002年,拍摄,获瑞士洛伽诺电影节评委会大奖;2004年,拍摄,获金马奖最佳摄影奖、金鸡电影节最佳摄影奖提名,影片获金马奖最佳影片、金鸡奖最佳影片、东京电影节评委会大奖.

  18. 专才培养模式下的个体全面成长——从"先力奖"看摄影系实践教学%The Practical Education System of Cinematography Department: Based on A Case Study of "Cinerent Award"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  19. La Comedia de Magia y los efectos visuales de la era pre-cinematográfica en el siglo XIX en Chile The Comedy of Magic and the Visual Effects of the Pre-cinematography Era in the XIX Century in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Maturana


    Full Text Available «A través de la revisión bibliográfica, principalmente de diarios, revistas y afiches de espectáculos presentados en el siglo XIX en Santiago y otras ciudades chilenas, se configura un conjunto de obras y grupos teatrales, principalmente compañías europeas, que utilizaron efectos pre-cinematográficos para mostrar mundos escénicos vinculados a las transformaciones mágicas en vivo, producidas por efectos ópticos de proyección lumínica. Estos espectáculos tuvieron vigencia durante todo el siglo analizado. Lideraba el uso de estos efectos en la puesta en escena la Comedia de Magia. Este género, considerado como parte del fin del Barroco en Europa, tuvo su fundamento principal en la tramoya y la magia escénica. Luego, estos espectáculos desaparecieron del ámbito teatral, siendo absorbidos sus efectos ópticos por el lenguaje del cine.Through the bibliographic review of newspapers, magazines and announcements posted during the XIX Century in Santiago and other Chilean cities, it can be seen that a number of plays and some artistic groups, mainly European theater companies, used pre-cinematographic effects on stage to show how theatrical sceneries linked to live magical transformations produced by light-projected optical effects. These plays were showed throughout the whole analyzed century. Optical effects led their scenery. This genre, considered as part of the end of European baroque, had as main foundation both stage machinery and stage magic. With time, these shows disappeared from the stages since they were assimilated by the optical language of Cinema.

  20. Realistic Visualization of Virtual Views and Virtual Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore


    Realistic Virtual View Visualization is a new field of research which has received increasing attention in recent years. It is strictly related to the increased popularity of virtual reality and the spread of its applications, among which virtual photography and cinematography. The use of computer...... is then gaining consensus: the augmented actor. Fundamental concepts and examples of methods proposed for realistic view synthesis, based on the transfer of photorealism from reference photographs to novel views, will be presented. The application of methods for realistic image synthesis to virtual cinematography...

  1. The Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement (United States)


    Cinematography 4.6 4.2 8.3 38 Misc. Chemical Products 76.8 73.8 115.2 39 Plastic 222.2 208.4 230.6 40 Rubber 34.1 45.4 43.0 41 Hides and Skins 0.1 0.1 0.3 42...Wax, Etc; Dental Prep 21.6 25.3 23.8 35 Albumins; Mod Starch; Glue 0.7 0.6 0.4 36 Explosives 0.0 0.0 0.0 37 Photographic/ Cinematography 1.5 3.3 0.7

  2. Trends in Vocational Education in the Arts 1980. Fast Response Survey System. (United States)

    Wright, Douglas A.; Farris, Elizabeth

    A study examined the nature and extent of vocational arts education programs throughout the 50 states. During the study, data were sought concerning those programs designed to prepare students for occupations in 14 arts areas: dance; vocal music; instrumental music; theater; radio, television, and video; cinematography; photography; graphic arts;…

  3. 'Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm' - De 'making of' de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, T.; Aasman, S.I.


    This article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of a series of articles about amateur film

  4. Researches in a sistemic approach of intangible assets accounting


    Popesc, Eleodor


    Entities frequently spend resources or attire debts to purchase, develop, maintain or extend intangible resources like scientific or technical knowledge, design and implementation of new processes and systems, licenses, intellectual property, knowledge on market and brands (including trademarks and advertising titles). Commune samples of incorporated elements in these vast directions are software, patents, authors right, cinematography movies, consumer lists, rights concerning mortgage servic...

  5. 75 FR 43467 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability; Movie Captioning and Video Description (United States)


    ... full name and address. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters or any form of... movie separate from the sound is still common. Today, the cinematography portion of many movies is... subtitles, open captions also describe other sounds and sound makers (e.g., sound effects, music, and...

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, USSR Council of Ministers & Officials: Biographies, Interviews (United States)


    extreme situations, and good coordination and harmonization of the required special services. Another important goal is to conduct effective technical...Committee for Cinematography 16 KATUSHEV, Konstantin Fedorovich 17 Minister of Foreign Economic Relations 17 KIRICHENKO, Vadim Nikitovich 18...MIKHALCHENKO, Aleksandr Ivanovich 30 Minister of Installation and Special Construction Work 30 MOSTOVOY, Pavel Ivanovich 31 Deputy Chairman of

  7. ‘Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm’ : De making of de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasman, Susanna; Van der Heijden, Tim


    This article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of the series ‘Her Majesty, Super 8’, a se

  8. The Lord of the Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Peter Jackson's first film in The Lord of the Rings trilogy (三步曲) has just grabbed (夺得) four Oscars-awards for the best make-up, best cinematography (摄影), best visual effects and best original score.Chinese audience had a chance to watch the fihn from late April.

  9. ‘Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm’ De making of de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, Tim van der; Aasman, Susan


    abstractThis article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of a series of articles about amat

  10. Behind Idealism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Mads


    Most scholarly attention has so far been put on von Trier’s work regarding form, genre and cinematography. In this paper I will focus on the thematic and philosophical qualities we find in von Trier’s work. The above quotation is an essential key to the understanding of the cinema of Lars von Trier...

  11. De-colonising Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    and its literary and artistic nationalising “outlets” as self- contradictory; a political impossibility. The emergence of new historiographies in Morocco and in the diaspora that have begun challenging the two hitherto dominating nationalist narratives has been “crafted” in literature and cinematography...

  12. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Jacob K. Javits Fellowship Program... (United States)


    ... education. The selected fields in the arts are: Creative writing, music performance, music theory, music composition, music literature, studio arts (including photography), television, film, cinematography, theater.... Applicants must also either: Be entering into a doctoral program in academic year 2011-2012, or have not...

  13. Getting into Film. (United States)

    London, Mel

    This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

  14. USSR Report, Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 2, March-April 1984. (United States)


    made extensive use of polygraph tracings of sleep and cinematography of animal behavior, in the course of a day (from 0800 to 2000 hours) rats wake up...stimulus [8] and, under our experimental conditions, a long- acting one. Evidently, this is why the phases were extended in time. There are no

  15. Get-in-the-Zone (GITZ) Transition Display Format for Changing Camera Views in Multi-UAV Operations (United States)


    another. Inspired by cinematography techniques to help audiences maintain spatial understanding of a scene across discrete film cuts, use of a...flag of each of the following colors; light green, light blue, magenta, yellow, and orange. The blue and red flags acted as clutter with the rest

  16. Simulating Building Fires for Movies (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.


    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  17. The Impact of Film. How Ideas Are Communicated Through Cinema and Television. (United States)

    Madsen, Roy Paul

    The forms and concepts of cinema and television are examined in order to shed light upon the techniques of communicating ideas and achieving psychological effects on film. Part I of the book focuses upon basic cinematic and television concepts, including matters such as the language and grammar of cinematography, the syntax of editing, the…

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs. (United States)


    position? He does not take the trouble to develop origi- nal arguments. All the techniques he uses in his criticism are borrowed from those resolutions... Cinematography , after transferring its functions to the LiSSR Ministry of Cul- ture. 4. To introduce into Articles 24, 25, 26, and 27 of the LiSSR Law dated

  19. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs. (United States)


    room section. However, knowing the technique of Olimova, they asked for a receipt that she, having moved to the new section, would vacate the former...the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography workshop of USSR People’s Artist S. A. Gerasimov, where I apprenticed, there always prevailed a spirit

  20. Further Development of a Model for Rod Ricochet (United States)


    constraint, a solution technique has been developed that avoids the complexity of an iterative solution that characterized the original work. The revised...simpler minimization constraint, a solution technique has been developed that avoids the complexity of an iterative solution that characterized the...1. Spark cinematography of a ricocheting rod projectile, [3]. S.B. Segletes / International Journal of Impact Engineering 34 (2007) 899

  1. Modeling Plasma Flow in Solid Propellant Charges Using the NGEN Multiphase CFD Code (United States)


    using these equations derived by a formal averaging technique applied to the microscopic flow. These equations require a number of constitutive laws...disk (dimensions shown are from Chang and Howard [32]). acrylic, that allows cinematography of plasma flows and ignition events along the propellant

  2. Southeast Asia Report (United States)


    Economic Protectionism Association president Salvador Enriquez, ’is a modern form of colonization technique ." He denounced government leaders for, cinematography andttertrical art and so forth have improved. The contingent of cultural of the cultural movement and revolutionary demand...remarkable progress in organization, leadership, construction, and improving techniques and equipment, thereby contributing, together with the Army and

  3. The Technique of Lighting for Television and Motion Pictures. (United States)

    Millerson, Gerald

    The aim of this book is to enable everyone working with light in photography, cinematography, and television to build a methodical, rational foundation for techniques from which personal creativity can grow. Fundamentals about the nature of light are explored in a first chapter, and similarities and differences between the eye and the camera in…

  4. The Value of Biomechanical Research in Dance. (United States)

    Ranney, D. A.

    Simple observation of dance movement, while very useful, can lead to misconceptions, about the physical realities of dance movement, that make learning difficult. This gap between reality and understanding can be reduced by the application of biomechanical techniques such as cinematography, electromyography, and force-plate analysis. Biomechanical…

  5. Development of Finances in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (United States)


    cinematography and the cultural-visual enterprises also be- longed to private entrepreneurs. Despite the fact that the state sector of the economy was...directed at a multilateral increase in the output of cooperative unions of the peasants and the handicraft workers, at the perfection of techniques

  6. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Plasma Injection by an Electrothermal Igniter Into a Solid Propellant Gun Charge (United States)


    transparent acrylic that allows cinematography of plasma flows and ignition events along the propellant bed. The chamber can withstand pressures up to ~13...formal averaging technique applied to the microscopic flow. These equations require a number of constitutive laws for closure including state equations


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeruddin Niva


    Full Text Available The objectives of the research are: (i to know the prosocial behavioral level of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar before and after giving cinematography approach, and (ii to know whether or not the approach is able to enhance the prosocial behavior of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar. The research is a quantitative research using experimental method. The research design used is quasi experimental design with non-equivalent control group design. The data collection technique applied is scale and FGD (Focus Group Discussion. The findings shows that (i the prosocial behavioral level of the students was low in pretest while after giving treatment there were significant increase to the prosocial behavior in the experimental group, and (ii the cinematography approach was able to increase the prosocial behavior of the Grade VIII students in Bosowa Internatinal School Makassar. 

  8. Perbandingan Metode Depth of Field pada Lensa Kamera Fotografi dengan Efek Lensa pada Software Animasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni


    Full Text Available The knowledge of photography becomes fundamental importance in the understanding of digital cinematography. The work of a good photography is a blend of knowledge and photographic ability (skill correctly. By learning photography properly, it allows an animator or digital art workers to apply some standard cinematography as well. By knowing the comparison between photography with "photographic" in 3D animation, animators will be easier to create a digital aesthetic standard with the help of the software. This paper discusses the comparison of the use of photographic camera lenses and camera parameters found in animation software 3D Studio Max. The final form is the camera pictures and parameters of used lens with the results of rendering images with the software-related parameter.

  9. Fates Intertwining, Cultures Connection. Impact of Delaunay Couple Research Activity on Gabriel Guevrekian’s Oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Zabelina


    Full Text Available The article deals with an avant-garde trend simultaneism, which primarily emerged in painting, then developed in textile painting, clothes design and cinematography. The article attempts to interpret simultaneism theoretically as a holistic phenomenon and determine its place in the art of the XX century. Certain displays of simultaneism trend in painting and textile design have been studied well. But special displays of simultaneism in cinematography and architecture have been studied insufficiently. This fact prevents interpreting simultaneism as a holistic phenomenon. To study the impact of simultaneism on landscape architecture, the article uses such scientific methods as stylistic-formal analysis and comparative analysis. The article discloses principles of simultaneism, the trend, which originates at the intersection of art and science, traces the impact of Robert and Sonia Delaunay research activities on Guevrekian’s creative concept. The author introduces for the scientific use some sources, unknown to the domestic study of art.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costandachi Gheorghe


    Full Text Available In this work is made analysis concern basically state structures of culture and arts activities, is describes the problems are met during the reforming process the financial mechanisms in cultural sphere. Author disclosed the ways evolve private and estate financing cultural sphere, also is disclosed why is need estate financial support. The work contains something detailed measures actions to improve financial and mechanisms financing of cultural sphere. Analyzing questions of modernization of budgetary financing of branch the author have formulated effectiveness of use of budgetary funds at all levels in cultural structures and proposed the ways of finishing of market reforms in cinematography. In the final of work is presented scheme system of financing, formation and distribution of financial resources in cinematography and is making conclusions and is offered wais of the solutions created present situation in this sphere in Moldova.

  11. New Turkish Cinema – Some Remarks On The Homesickness Of The Turkish Soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ayşen Kaim


    Full Text Available Contemporary cinematography reflects the dualism in modern Turkish society. The heart of every inhabitant of Anatolia is dominated by homesickness for his little homeland. This overpowering feeling affects common people migrating in search of work as well as intellectuals for whom Istanbul is a place for their artistic development but not the place of origin. The city and “the rest” have been considered in opposition to each other. The struggle between “the provincial” and “the urban” has even created its own film genre in Turkish cinematography described as “homeland movies”. They paint the portrait of a Turkish middle class intellectual on the horns of a dilemma, the search for a modern identity and a place to belong in a modern world where values are constantly shifting.

  12. Cinematografie van de neurowetenschap in Nederland: De Magnus-Rademaker collectie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Koehler


    Full Text Available Following a short introduction on medical photography and cinematography, we describe a recently discovered neurological film collection, the so called Magnus-Rademaker collection (1909-1940, earlier presumed to be lost. Rudolf Magnus was professor in pharmacology in Utrecht and Gysbertus Rademaker was professor in physiology and later in neurology in Leiden. At the time they performed experimental research on animals to the role of the labyrinth, the neck afferents and cerebellum in position and standing. Next to animals, they also filmed patients. As an example we discuss a film about a boy whose cerebellum had been largely removed because of a tumor. The case was discussed for the ‘Amsterdam Neurologists Society’ and reported upon in the Dutch journal of medicine (1940. The films were produced for educational, as well as for scientific purposes. the discovery of this collection contributes to a better understanding of the role that early cinematography played in science and medicine.

  13. Longboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jhala, Arnav; Rawls, Curtis; Young, R. Michael


    Real-time 3D game environments provide a compelling medium for cinematic storytelling. Professional filmmakers have started using them for pre-visualization. They provide a low-cost learning environment to students. Longboard is an intelligent storyboarding tool that provides content authors access....... Longboard is developed as a platform for integrating research in interactive storytelling, intelligent cinematography, and intelligent user interfaces for creative professionals. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of Longboard....

  14. Military Applications of Curved Focal Plane Arrays Developed by the HARDI Program (United States)


    considered one of the main founders of geometrical optics, modern photography, and cinematography . Among his inventions are the Petzval portrait lens... special frequencies, (b) the variation of intensity as a function of special frequency, (c) the image variation of intensity as a result of an...parameters for the HARDI systems to be designed for various applications. To do this, we needed a toolcomputer codeto study the effects of various

  15. The War Film: Historical Perspective or Simple Entertainment (United States)


    nominated for six Academy Awards to include Best Picture. It won for Best Special Effects and Best Cinematography as Lawrence of Arabia swept the Oscars...involvement, filmmaker’s military experience, and special effects over the course of several decades. To accomplish these aims, the thesis was limited to...view the military in the same light. It is important for the military to understand what shapes public opinion and what effect that public opinion

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 16, November 1987. (United States)


    freedoms of citizens: to this effect , "public defenders" and special commissions for the protection of civil rights are functioning in a number of...objectively, its special study. Like Soviet cinematography as a whole, historical-revo- lutionary films were given an incentive for renovation only after...only approach which allows us to consider economic processes and production relations as they actually exist in the society. In promoting special

  17. USSR Report. International Affairs: The Working Class and the Contemporary World. No. 4, July-August 1986. (United States)


    many aspects of the effect of changes in the material position of the workers on these movements require further research. There is a special need...ASIA, AFRICA AND IATIN AMERICA World Economic Crisis’ Effects on Developing States Examined (pp 90-101) (N.Z. Volchek) 29 SOCIAL DEMOCRACY TODAY...and Cinematography SHVEYTSER, Vladimir Yakovlevich - candidate of historical sciences, senior scientific associate at the USSR Academy of Sciences

  18. A stereoscopic lens for digital cinema cameras (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny; Rupkalvis, John


    Live-action stereoscopic feature films are, for the most part, produced using a costly post-production process to convert planar cinematography into stereo-pair images and are only occasionally shot stereoscopically using bulky dual-cameras that are adaptations of the Ramsdell rig. The stereoscopic lens design described here might very well encourage more live-action image capture because it uses standard digital cinema cameras and workflow to save time and money.

  19. "The Tube is Flickering Now": Aesthetics of Authenticity in Good Night, and Good Luck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzsche, Sina


    Full Text Available The article examines the Clooney/Heslov/Soderbergh production Good Night, and Good Luck (2005. Its unusual visual style (cinematography, mise-en-scène, etc. enables an immediate aesthetic viewing experience of Cold War America. Drawing on Fluck's discussion about aesthetics and its socio-cultural function, the "docu-drama" (Doherty 53, while referring to the era of McCarthyism, serves as an instance of articulation for the dissatisfaction with contemporary American politics.

  20. A Question of Heroines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Oscar M. Salazar


    Full Text Available Ang Kababaihan ng Malolos (2014. 85 minutes. Color. Directed by Sari Dalena and Kiri Dalena. Written and produced by Nicanor Tiongson. Cinematography by Kiri Dalena. Starring Hazel Faith dela Cruz as Basilia Villariño Tantoco, Karl Medina as Jose Rizal, Bong Enriquez as Governor-General Valeriano Weyler, and Carlos Celdran as Fray Felipe Garcia. Edited by Keith Sicat and Joris Fernandez. Philippines: Ambassador Bienvenido R. Tantoco Sr.

  1. António Reis and Margarida Cordeiro, eccentric filmmakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Tavares Neves


    Full Text Available The international symposium "António Reis and Margarida Cordeiro, eccentric filmmakers" took place in Paris between the 3rd and the 4th of June, 2015. Speakers exchanged on the political, social and poetical aspects of the duo's cinematography, as well as on the reverberations of titles such as Jaime (1974 and Trás-os-montes (1976 on the Portuguese filmic landscape of the decades that followed.

  2. USSR Report, Problems of the Far East, No. 3, July-September 1986. (United States)


    Northeastern China. The Soviet Army’s operations against the Japanese militarists and the Maiizhonguo troops in Northeastern China ( Manchuria ) were supported...being published in Harbin . This list could go on. Soviet cinema is very popular in China. Movies belonging to the classics of our cinematography... Manchuria ’ and Ko- rea’s northern regions for an assault on the Soviet Union. In their ideological struggle with the enemy, Soviet political

  3. Tecnologias da Comunicação, Horror e Ficção Científica: o caso de três filmes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁNEPA, Laura Loguercio


    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of three Brazilian films of the 1970’s whose stories brought back the fantasy of a violent past with the articulated interest in the possibilities of exploring unknown worlds through communication technologies. The intention is to investigate how a cultural universe strongly bonded to the mysticism around past lives and ancestral curses is connected to the technological imagination, repeating a phenomenon seen in several national cinematographies, but gained in Brazil some particular haracteristics.

  4. USSR Report, Electronics and Electrical Engineering, No. 111 (United States)


    Cinematography , and BONDARCHUK, 7. M,, IRZ, P. 7., GILINSKIY, A. G. and DROZDOV, 7. M., "Ekran" Scientific and Production Organization iAbstract] Major...dimensions and currents in the buses. The shielding factor representing the primary electromagnetic parameter acting on the bus of a given lead is...practically independent of the pattern of current change in the bus with time. The actual electrodynamic forces acting on the buses were calculated by a

  5. East Europe Report. (United States)


    their elbow room for acting creatively. The clear focus on the further development of the productive forces, mainly through the broad application of...decided to act on this. The basis for their action is a positive assessment of both the decision of the authorities to release noncriminal services sphere; —an evaluation of the draft plan of a new law on cinematography ; —an analysis of organizational structures as well as problems

  6. Shock Tubes and Shock Tunnels: Design and Experiments (United States)


    another gas (driver gas). After the rupture of this diaphragm the driver gas, acting as a piston expands into the low pressure chamber and generates a...interface, acts like a well for the non-dissipative part of the test gas and a loss of this gas occurs through the interface in the boundary layer ( or cinematography [(x, t) or (y, t) diagrams]. Examples of shock tube flows are thus represented in Figs.14 and 15 [30]. (a

  7. USSR Report, Chemistry (United States)


    Photography Scientific Research and Design Institute, has developed a process for a new color negative film for cinematography . ’In terms of quality...Concentrated and Long- Acting Mineral Fertilizers" and "To Develop and Assimilate New.Production Processes for the Acquisition of the Most Important...diethoxyphosphonyl)benzylamine as the initial compound. When phosgene acts on (S)(-)-a-(diethoxyphosphonyl)benzylamine in the presence of pyridine, (S)(+)- x

  8. Translations on USSR Military Affairs, No. 1394. (United States)


    considerate intercourse thanks to the indoctrinational acts of public organizations and the adminis tration. But, as it was explained, these actions in...secretary V. Privalov and acting director of the Yaroslavl’ Fuel Apparatus Plant F. Paderin were very business like during the period of preparing for...of cinematography , Petrotechnical and Gas Industry imeni Gubkin. Meanwhile, given well-established monitoring and timely measures on the part of the

  9. Statistical Software Engineering (United States)


    Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government...research in software visualization—the use of typography, graphic design, animation, and cinematography to facilitate the understanding and...components. One of its major functions is to act as the central repository for all relevant project data (statistical or nonstatistical). Thus this

  10. "Social horror": A critical analysis of ideological and poetic function of the motive of victim in the contemporary Serbian film


    Kronja Ivana


    This paper analyses achievements of Serbian cinematography after 2000, which narrative strategies and visual aesthetics are focused on the issues of violence and victims in the context of social despair, post-communist transition and ongoing global value crisis. Films made by Mladen Đorđević Life and Death of a Porn Gang (2009), Srđan Spasojević A Serbian Movie (2010), and Marko Novaković Menagerie (2012) integrate these complex characteristics of disintegr...

  11. Cooperative Wall-climbing Robots in 3D Environments for Surveillance and Target Tracking (United States)


    Unlike the traditional climbing robots using magnetic devices and vacuum suction techniques , and some recent novel climbing robots of vortex...a low pressure zone enclosed by a chamber. Since the City-Climber robots don’t require perfect sealing as the vacuum suction technique does, the...Mosaics”, IEEE Workshop on Three- Dimensional Cinematography (3DCINE󈧊), June 22, New York City (in conjunction with CVPR). 23. Zhigang Zhu, Hao Tang

  12. AvantGuard: An Instrument to Explore Issues of Autonomy (United States)


    optimize situation awareness, reaction time and engagement. AvantGuard explores a variety of techniques familiar to gainers. 4.1 Cinematography Attention...adaptive strategy. Using sophisticated game techniques , a high-performance UAV simulation game prototype was developed, as well as the design for the...simulation, training and eventual execution. By employing sophisticated game techniques , AvantGuard advances an innovative design. By considering the

  13. List of RAE Translations Issued during the Period 1 January 1980 to 31 March 1981, (United States)


    compared with those obtained by theoretical calculation. The experiments on the nose-cone were carried out for and financed by the Direction Technique des...the heart sucks blood into the atria during systole. X-ray cinematography and kymography were used in studies on ;animals and humans with and without...surface purification, surface orienta- tion, sealing techniques , and ageing processes) are treated. 2028 CONTRIBUTION OF PHOTOELASTIC ANALYSIS TO THE STUDY

  14. Technical Operations Support III (TOPS III). Delivery Order 0081: Novel Pitch Materials for High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Fibers, Foams and Composites - Phase 3 (United States)


    method [6]. An important addition to the technique is that during compression failure, high-speed video was captured using a Phantom V7.0 camera, the...However, the high speed cinematography has facilitated the capturing of the event [7]. Figure 3. A Schematic of a Mounted Specimen for...conductivity of 350 ±130 W/m*K as calculated from the thermal flash technique and 520 ±70 W/m*K as calculated from the electrical resistivity

  15. High Pressure Particulate Physics Facility (United States)


    material will introduce a release wave or re-shock wave in the material. Re-shock/release wave experiments are necessary tools/ techniques to probe...interaction to occur with minimal impact misalignment (17). Techniques have been developed to ensure that the target mount is precisely normal to the...obtained by copper wire. In the future x-ray cinematography , line VISAR and time indexed spectroscopy are planned. SECTION III SUMMARY We are

  16. The image of the mirror as a means of expression in the fine arts and cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Skorik


    Full Text Available The author deduces the correlation between the mirror reflection in fine art and the mirror reflection in cine-matography as multiform way of expressing the scenario idea. The image of the mirror is the appointed mean of expression, which helps to enrich the language, to perceive and to interpret the world view. The fol-lowing research can be interesting to arts critics, culturologists, film critics, artists and people, who are fond of the history of fine art.

  17. Equidensitometric Methods In An Evaluation Process Of A Film Record Of A Switching Arc (United States)

    Svejda, Bohuslav; Gross, Boleslav


    A high speed cinematography is also one of useful and fruitful methods of optical plasma diagnostics. Value levels of informations obtained from a film record can be very different; this fact depends very much on a used evaluation process. An equidensitometrical investigation is a suitable method for an increase of the information capacity and it presents a possibility how to obtain more valuable informations. Two ways directing to the acquirement of equidensitometric maps were used in our work: a wet photographic process using the Sabattier effect and an electronic device constructed for the special purpose. Some results obtained by these both evaluation methods are compared and discussed.

  18. Transitions in Interface Objects: Searching Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gamble


    Full Text Available Two experiments demonstrate that a list-like database interface which benefits from the persistence of contextual information does not show the same degree of benefit of collocating objects over display changes that has been previously observed in a map-searching study. This provides some support for the claim that the nature of the task must be taken into account in choosing how to design dynamic displays. We discuss the benefit of basing design principles on theoretical models derived from film cutting methods used in cinematography, so that they can be extended to novel design situations.

  19. Documentary Realism, Sampling Theory and Peircean Semiotics: electronic audiovisual signs (analog or digital as indexes of reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Godoy


    Full Text Available This paper addresses Documentary Realism, focusing on thephysical phenomena of transduction that take place in analog and digital audiovisual systems, herein analyzed in the light of the Sampling Theory, within the framework of Shannon and Weaver’s Information Theory. Transduction is a process by which one type of energy is transformed into another, or by which information is transcodified. Within the scope of Documentary Realism, it cannotbe claimed that electronic audiovisual signs, because of their technical digital features lead to a rupture with reality. Rather, the digital documentary, based on electronic digital cinematography, is still an index of reality.

  20. Optical Network Technologies for Future Digital Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Nazir


    Full Text Available Digital technology has transformed the information flow and support infrastructure for numerous application domains, such as cellular communications. Cinematography, traditionally, a film based medium, has embraced digital technology leading to innovative transformations in its work flow. Digital cinema supports transmission of high resolution content enabled by the latest advancements in optical communications and video compression. In this paper we provide a survey of the optical network technologies for supporting this bandwidth intensive traffic class. We also highlight the significance and benefits of the state of the art in optical technologies that support the digital cinema work flow.

  1. Interpretation Of Biomechanical Data To A Gymnastics Coach (United States)

    Shierman, Gail


    Several trials of many different gymnastics skills on various pieces of apparatus were filmed and the results were studied with the coach. The time to accomplish the entire skill as well as the time for each segment of the skill was important to the coach. He was also interested in angle of release or push-off and the path of the center of gravity. Lastly, graphs of velocities and accelerations of limb segments were revealing to the coach. Biomechanical analysis has helped him see why the performances were good; he is more interested in working with the investigator in all the events in gymnastics through the medium of cinematography.

  2. Directional Solidification Velocity of Undercooled Cu7oNi3o Alloy Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The directional dendrite growth velocity in the Cu7oNi30 alloy melt undercooled by 90~185 K was measured by high speed cinematography, and compared with the calculated free dendrite growth velocity. It was found that at lower undercoolings the interaction between the adjacent directionally growing dendrites is weak, and there is not marked difference between the velocity of the directionally growing dendrite and that of free dendrite. But with undercooling increasing,the interaction is enhanced due to the decrease of the primary arm spacing, which makes the velocity difference enlarges quickly.

  3. Brownian motion of helical flagella. (United States)

    Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N


    We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages , and are also calculated where z and theta are the position along and angle around the helix axis respectively. Although the theory is limited to short time interval, direct comparison with experiment is possible by using the recently developed cinematography technique.

  4. “The West Wing with Wigs” ? Politics and History in HBO’s John Adams


    Godet, Aurélie


    In 2008, HBO released a $ 100 million, seven-part mini-series based on David McCullough’s Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of John Adams. The reviews were enthusiastic, with most people praising the cinematography, the storytelling, and Paul Giamatti and Laura Linney’s acting. Soon, however, historians started to complain about various historical inaccuracies in the show. Jeremy Stern, for example, wrote on the History News Network that “the first episode especially is fundamentally marred by...

  5. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability (United States)


    is represented by a collection of stiff springs combined with damping elements that act at the inter- face of the two bodies [10, 21, 27, 28], the...normal force acts on each of the two bodies at the contact point. When a contact is inac- tive, or Φi(q) > 0 , no normal force exists. This rep- resents a... cinematography , mise-en-scene); work an engineer typically does not want to deal with. The implemented software infrastructure offers a set of di

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Life Sciences. (United States)


    34 and in this regard we naturally cannot act as arbitrators. But we also cannot agree with the situation when this "no" alone is elevated to the...Diffuse reflected laser IR radiation at flux density 8 x 10 ŘW/cm2 acts on the hands, arms, and faces of the operators (up to 9,300 flashes per...and cinematography was used. The studies showed that administration of the conjugate to apes in a neurotic state resulted in significant changes in

  7. Rheological properties of RBC in the microcirculation of mammalian skeletal muscle. [red blood cells (United States)

    Ehrenberg, M. H.


    In the investigation the established technique of direct microscopic viewing was combined with the use of a closed circuit television system and cinematography. The red cell flow patterns in all capillaries were found to be oscillatory with characteristic cycle frequencies and amplitudes for all concentrations of inspired oxygen greater than 8%. Generally, there was a transient decrease in mean flow rate with increasing severity of hypoxia, with a gradual return toward control values. Red cell flow patterns are discussed along with questions of red cell configuration.

  8. Rationalizing foot and ankle measurements to conform to a rigid body model. (United States)

    Al-Homidan, Suliman; Fletcher, Roger


    Accurate estimation of the in vivo locations of skeletal landmarks plays an integral role in several biomechanical research techniques. Because of rounding errors caused by instruments or skin movement, the data obtained through cinematography are usually not accurate and rise to a distance matrix which, because of the data errors, may not be Euclidean. The aim of this paper is to find the best Euclidean distance matrix (EDM) that approximates the distance matrix and then, an accurate estimation of the locations of skeletal landmarks. A useful scheme for parametrizing an orthogonal matrix is also described.

  9. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays (United States)

    Chigier, N.


    Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

  10. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang


    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  11. Giving to see with words: Cinema and Literature in Italo Calvino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fontes Ferraz


    Full Text Available Discussions about the relations between Image and Word are recurring in the work of Italo Calvino, who had always searched to project in his books images that might rebuild his imaginary worlds, in order to think the blank page such as a movie screen. So, we’ll demonstrate how the Calvino’s literary produce combines the imaging to the verbal,   searching to build images from the word, or aiming to translate mental images into words. Starting, so, the intersections between image and word, we’ll get the considerations made by Calvino about cinema and literature, presenting a context in which the cinema was the world to the Italian writer and revealing the effects of World War II such Calvino’s vision of the cinematography production, as the insertion of a politically engaged young writer in the literature’s world. In this paper, we aim to reflect about the relations between literature and cinema in Calvino’s work, remarking how the whole calvinian writing can be considered as a cinematography of words.

  12. Cinema e transformação social: o Instituto de Cinematografia de Santa Fé (1956-1962 Cinema and social transformation: Santa Fé's cinematographic institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Cristina Araujo Lima


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o processo de implantação do Instituto de Cinematografia de Santa Fé, na Universidade do Litoral, Argentina, em um momento de crise da cinematografia do continente latino-americano. Identifica a influência do Centro Experimental de Cinematografia de Roma, onde havia estudado seu diretor e fundador, Fernando Birri, e da Escola de documentaristas ingleses, dirigida por John Grierson. Demonstra a criatividade de seus integrantes para adaptar propostas cinematográficas internacionais para as sociedades latino-americanas e relacioná-las às propostas culturais da esquerda dos anos 50. Identifica, ainda, a singularidade de seu método para a produção cinematográfica, e a relação do Instituto com a comunidade local.This paper discusses the implementation process of Santa Fé Cinematographic Institute at University of Litoral, in Argentina, concomitantly with a period of crisis in the Latin American cinematography. It identifies the influence of both Cinematography Experimental Centre of Rome - where its director and founder, Fernando Birri, had studied - and the School of English documentarists, directed by John Grierson. It also demonstrates the creativity of its participants in adapting international cinematographic proposals to Latin American societies and linking them to leftist cultural proposals of the 1950's. Moreover, it points out the singularity of its cinematographic production method and the relationship of the Institute with local communities.

  13. OS FRAGMENTOS DE NARRATIVA MÍTICA DA PRINCESA DE COLCHIS -CÓLQUIDA. (Dossiê: O Mundo Antigo: Literatura e Historiografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Cândido


    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo trata das representações do mito de Medeia na poética e na cultura material, compreendendo a dinâmica interativa entre a escrita e a figuração por meio do verbo graphein na cultura grega. Trata também das representações deste mito na arte cinematográfica, pondo em evidência a transcendência de sua narrativa mítica ao expressar problemas inerentes à humanidade.Palavras-chaves: Medeia, Representação, CinematografiaAbstract: This article deals with the representations of the Myth of Medea in the poetic and material culture, including the interactive dynamic between writing and figuration through the verb graphein in Greek culture. It also deals with the representations of this myth in the cinematography, highlighting the transcendence of this mythical narrative to express humanity problems.Key words: Medea, Representation, Cinematography.Recebido em: 22/07/2015  – Aceito em 07/09/2015

  14. Continuidad y cambio en el c ine cubano contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉNÁRT, András


    Full Text Available The Cuban cinematography of the 20th century, conceived in parallel with the formation of the New Latin American Cinema, tended to reflect the political system’s immobility, but it also let the filmmakers create some truly valuable masterpieces. In the 21st century Cuban cinema shows no fear to reveal the main problems and social contradictions of the country. Nowadays Cuba goes through some significant political and social changes and reforms, and these transformations appear as well in the cinematography of this socialist country. We come across topics that try to reproduce the real Cuba, together with the darker side of the everyday life. These topics are, for example, the violence, crime, legal and illegal activities of the society, poverty and prostitution; all these have become common and inseparable elements of the Cubans’ life in order to be able to survive. Cuban cinema does not conceal these unpleasant details from the public. Individual and social uncertainty are now recurrent constituents of today’s Cuban movies, while the negative or rarely positive consequences of consumer culture also turn up in recent films. The aim of my article is to outline a panoramic picture about the contemporary Cuban cinema through some peculiar examples and to differentiate between the old and new directions of the Seventh Art in the country of the Castro brothers.

  15. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick


    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  16. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis (United States)

    Probe, John D.


    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  17. Colour how we see it and sow we use it

    CERN Document Server

    Woolfson, Michael Mark


    Colour makes our lives more interesting how dull it would be in a black-and-white world! It pleases us aesthetically, entertains us and is useful to us. This unique book aims to describe the scientific nature of colour and light, and how we see it, in an accessible and easily understandable style. The evolution of the eye, science of colour and technical visual systems are all broken down into readable chapters, with clear images and illustrations provided for reference. The book then goes on to discuss the innate tendency of humankind to produce artistic works as conceived, realised and augmented through the use of colour. Focussing on broad forms of artistic entertainment painting with pigments and dyes, colour and light in photography and cinematography, light displays and colour in television this book then delivers a comprehensive review of what colour means and has meant in the creative arts.

  18. Image of the clergy in the cinema of the conquest of Mexico: the Black Legend in the “Nuevo Mundo” of Gabriel Retes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús González Manrique


    Full Text Available The conquest and colonization of the territory now called Mexico has been a recurrent theme in Mexican film and, of course, the central role that the clergy has played in the evangelization of those lands has been present for the entirety of Mexican cinematography. In this historical genre, the representation of the clergy has varied depending upon historiographic tendencies and the important historic, political, and cultural events of the time that the film was made; in this way, we can see representation of the Catholic Church’s power on a spectrum that ranges from goodness to absolute wickedness. Most of the time these representations are based more on historical perceptions than available documentation. This article will analyze the evolution of clerical figures in conquest films, noting different modes of representation dictated by the official historiographical tendency in the moment that the film was made and presented to the public.

  19. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.


    a novel approach to virtual camera control, which builds upon camera control and player modelling to provide the user with an adaptive point-of-view. To achieve this goal, we propose a methodology to model the player’s preferences on virtual camera movements and we employ the resulting models to tailor......Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...... the viewpoint movements to the player type and her game-play style. Ultimately, the methodology is applied to a 3D platform game and is evaluated through a controlled experiment; the results suggest that the resulting adaptive cinematographic experience is favoured by some player types and it can generate...

  20. El apocalipsis doméstico: El fin del mundo según Jaume Balagueró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Expósito Barea


    Full Text Available Jaume Balagueró's cinematography is directly connected with Adam Parfrey´s  concept of "Apocalypse Culture". It is a very personal vision of the end of the world in everyday life context. This author´s cinema does not show dystopian environments or collapsing societies or major natural disasters, on the contrary, the apocalypse born  indoors. Balagueró builds his peculiar vision of the end of the world from his fondness for the dark and millenarian spirit. His works address from a gloomy and ugliness aesthetics more rooted in human society such as death, ancestral rites, as something immovable, the pursuit of primal evil as overcoming of conventional religions. This paper aims to analyze the aesthetic, discursive and stylistic constacts that define the Jaume Balagueró´s cinema as apocalypse films, in which converge the classic and modern into what we call the Nova Escola de Barcelona.

  1. Mito y símbolo en un cine (digital emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Lomillos


    Full Text Available The film Atanarjuat (the first fiction full-length film entirely written, produced, played, and directed by aboriginal Eskimosfrom Nunavut in the Canadian Arctic, and, therefore, Inuktitut spoken exemplarily mixes together memory, myth, symbolic imaginary, and the most innovative digital tool with the aim to forge a new national cinematography. The film dealswith an ancient legend about the enmity between two families or clans living in the Arctic resulting from a curse put by aterrible sorcerer. Atanarjuat, the fast-feet hunter, is the quiet hero who plays the peacemaker role. The story is brimmingwith Shakespearean overtones (passion, betrayal, spirits, murders, as well as with captivating adventure scenes, andthat with the hero running in the nude through the ices of the tundra fleeing from his pursuers has become a key imagedisplaying the outstanding symbolic strength of the film

  2. 4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M. (ed.)


    In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)

  3. Propagated waves induced by gradients of physiological factors within plasmodia ofPhysarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Hejnowicz, Z; Wohlfarth-Bottermann, K E


    Plasmodia ofPhysarum polycephalum were analyzed with the aid of cinematography and the infrared reflection technique for characterization of the phase behavior of their oscillating contraction activity, with special emphasis placed on the effects of temperature gradients. In response to temperature gradients, phase gradients were documented cinematographically as well as by infrared registration. A quantitative evaluation of the cinematographically recorded phenomena was carried out with the aid of streak photography. The phase gradient is directed across the region of the temperature gradient with a delay in phase toward the colder side. The correspondingly generated waves are as short as 1 mm and are propagated toward the colder region. A comparison of these waves with the known "flickering" phenomena in cinematographic films reveals a common nature of both.

  4. On The Calculation Of Derivatives From Digital Information (United States)

    Pettett, Christopher G.; Budney, David R.


    Biomechanics analysis frequently requires cinematographic studies as a first step toward understanding the essential mechanics of a sport or exercise. In order to understand the exertion by the athlete, cinematography is used to establish the kinematics from which the energy exchanges can be considered and the equilibrium equations can be studied. Errors in the raw digital information necessitate smoothing of the data before derivatives can be obtained. Researchers employ a variety of curve-smoothing techniques including filtering and polynomial spline methods. It is essential that the researcher understands the accuracy which can be expected in velocities and accelerations obtained from smoothed digital information. This paper considers particular types of data inherent in athletic motion and the expected accuracy of calculated velocities and accelerations using typical error distributions in the raw digital information. Included in this paper are high acceleration, impact and smooth motion types of data.

  5. Visualization of Taylor-Couette and spiral Poiseuille flows using a snapshot FLASH spatial tagging sequence. (United States)

    Moser, K W; Raguin, L G; Harris, A; Morris, H D; Georgiadis, J; Shannon, M; Philpott, M


    A new magnetic resonance imaging technique was applied to the Taylor-Couette and spiral Poiseuille (Taylor-Couette with superposed mean axial flux) flows for the first time. The experimental technique is a combination of spatial tagging methods and a snapshot FLASH imaging sequence, which allows the full-field visualization of 2-D slices of the flow field, with image acquisition times approximately half a second. By acquiring images every few seconds, direct visualization of flow patterns can be obtained in the form of cinematography. Tagged images of the Taylor-Couette flow were acquired in both the axial and transverse planes and confirmed previously reported numerical predictions of Taylor cell size. Tagged images of the spiral Poiseuille flows verified that the cells in this flow propagate at a higher velocity than the mean axial flow. In addition, intermittent cell formation was observed as the axial flow was increased.

  6. Violence, Oppression, and Double Standards in Three Colombian Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Meade


    Full Text Available This article compares three Colombian films that tell distinct stories of violence, personal and political oppression, and double standards. The films Confesión a Laura (Confessing to Laura, Jaime Osorio, 1991, La Primera Noche (The First Night, Luis Alberto Restrepo, 2003 and El Rey (The King, José Antonio Dorado, 2004 each highlight the characters’ struggles in the Colombian socio-political landscape. Each  film’s content and themes do not merely offer representations of national culture, but also provide a way in which to discuss the political and social struggles of Colombia. The directors explore these stories of violence and socio-political struggle through the use of mis-en-scène, cinematography, sound, and editing.

  7. Clinical evaluation of digital angiographic system equipped with the Safire' flat-panel detector of a direct conversion type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi [Shimadzu Corporation, Medical Systems Division, Research and Development, Kyoto (JP)] [and others


    This report presents a report on clinical evaluation of our newly developed flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, designed to provide images of a resolution higher than, or at least equal to, that ensured by X-ray photographic films, in clinical digital X-ray cinematography. This new detector was named 'Safire' the acronym of 'Shimadzu advanced flat imaging receptor', emphasizing its high technological level, such as the capability to ensure high quality of images. The clinical evaluation of Shimadzu DIGITEX Premier digital angiography system, equipped with this new flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, has been started in March, 2003, at the Kokura Memorial Hospital in Kyushu, Japan. (author)

  8. Posibilidades abiertas por las nuevas tecnologías en el desarrollo de los cines africanos contemporáneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Leal Riesco


    Full Text Available From its beginnings with the wave of independence that swept the continent in the middle of the previous century, African cinema has remained subordinate to and dependent upon Western aid. Barring a few prominent exceptions, the effects of this phenomenon have been visible, with films made catering to the tastes of occidental critics and cinephiles while African viewers have been left thirsting for images and sounds of an autochthonous character. Since the 1990’s, thanks to new technologies, African cinema has achieved a previously inconceivable vitality and autonomy. The democratizing effects of the reduction in the cost of production, distribution, and exhibition, as well as the easier accessibility of new technologies to non-professionals, has made of Africa a creative flashpoint, where myriad voices work to create a nuanced and polyphonic imaginary leagues beyond those prejudices and stereotypes of occidental provenance that have overshadowed this continent’s cinematography for more than five decades.

  9. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov


    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  10. De retretas, prestidigitadores,circos, transformistas, cinematógrafos y toros. Notas para una historia de las diversiones públicas en Medellín, 1890-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenedith Herrera Atehortúa


    Full Text Available Because of some chronicles and local newspaper articles, the Medellin of late 19th Century and the first decade of the 20th Century seemed to be doomed to the lack of amusements. However, these same newspapers refer to the Sunday retreats in Bolivar and Berrío parks, to a number of different prestidigitation functions, cross dressing and circus, dazzling cinematography exhibits and bullfights. Medellin did have fun, despite the constant complaint of monotony pointed by the journalists of the time. The fun, which was not constant according to them, was the one that provided civilizing events such as theatre, opera and zarzuela -the ones that this article does not address- which, despite the overstatement, never lacked in the small and parochial town during 1890-1910.

  11. A comparative study of the ignition and burning characteristics of after burning aluminum and magnesium particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyup; Yoon, Woong Sup [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ignition and the burning of air-born single aluminum and magnesium particles are experimentally investigated. Particles of 30 to 106 μm-diameters were electrodynamically levitated, ignited, and burnt in atmospheric air. The particle combustion evolution was recorded by high-speed cinematography. Instant temperature and thermal radiation intensity were measured using two-wavelength pyrometry and photomultiplier tube methods. Ignition of the magnesium particle is prompt and substantially advances the aluminum particle by 10 ms. Burning time of the aluminum particles is extended 3 to 5 times longer than the magnesium particles. Exponents of a power-law fit of the burning rates are 1.55 and 1.24 for aluminum and magnesium particles, respectively. Flame temperature is slightly lower than the oxide melting temperature. For the aluminum, dimensionless flame diameter is inert to the initial particle size, but for the magnesium inversely proportional to the initial diameter.

  12. Garibaldi e l'epopea garibaldina nel cinema muto italiano. Dalle origini alla I guerra mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lasi


    Full Text Available The first film producted by an italian studio was "La presa di Roma - 20 settembre 1870" (Albertini & Santoni, 1905 and the Italian Risorgimento will continue to be one of the most favoured subjects of italian cinematography. In the period of silent screen films, between 1905 and 1927, aproximately 60 films were produced in Italy concerning the Risorgimento, of which at least 30 were regarding Garibaldi and his epic actions. Even in the cinema, Garibaldi continued to be the most representative and emblematic figure of the Risorgimento, and his popularity is often exploited in misleading ways by the figures of power during the first decades of the twentieth century to ideologize the figure of Garibaldi, still through cinema.

  13. The dialect in Italy after the union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grochowska


    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  14. The nonviolent option today: what is it and why

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella FALCICCHIO


    Full Text Available Written, accepted and used in one word, nonviolence will be approached, in the thematic issue proposed by Polis, as an active creation of a different reality, considering nonviolence a necessity, positive nonviolence an “open doctrine” and “nonviolence of the brave” an option to minimize the violence and to struggle to decrease it in every context. Connected to such a conceptual “control panel”, the studies and articles – composing elements ensuring a multi- perspective of the present thematic issue (from a conquest of violence to microviolence – accurately synthesize landmarks which define the dynamics between ratios such as violence – nonviolence or influence – influencing. The nodes/perspectives which intersect and involve the present endeavor extract their arguments from the fields of educational politics, cinematography, philosophical, pedagogical, anthropological, cultural, religious, linguistic or literary studies.

  15. The Inter-Semiotic Negotiation between the Literary and the Cinematographic Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen DOMINTE


    Full Text Available Considering the postmodern perspective, a text or a discourse never ends, but continues in other texts and discourses. Besides the physical limits, any literary text or discourse develops in a literary system of references belonging to other texts or discourses. The concept of inter-semiotic negotiation describes the process of inter-action realized between two semiotic systems and shows that the meaning generated from one system can be transposed into another semiotic system and, even more, from the writer to the reader, and even further, from the director to the spectator, but mediated through different types of codes. Transferring the aesthetic meaning from one form of art (literature to another (cinematography, there are specific changes for the artistic manner of performance and reception but the common element that may link both arts is represented by the image: literary and cinematographic.

  16. Proyecciones imperiales: el espacio colonial en la cinematografía española de las primeras décadas del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García Carrión


    Full Text Available This article examines the role of the Spanish film culture in the construction and dissemination of discourses and imaginaries of the Spanish Empire in the first decades of XX century, from the birth of cinema (contemporary with the loss of the last colonies until the first decades of the Francoist dictatorship. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the filmic discourse on the Spanish Empire and their role in the Spanish nationalist imaginary. It also presents an understanding of Spanish cinematography which includes an analysis of the role of the film industry, the discussions on the Spanish cinema in the specialist press and the celebration of film conferences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana MIU


    Full Text Available The article p roposes an interpretation of Mircea Nedelciu's work according to the techniques used in his writing and to the cultural predispositions adapted for the time he created. Beside the influences and the interferences between literature and cinematography, ther e is specific interest regarding the reader 's role or the ideal representation of reality; the prose of Mircea Nedelciu contains a sum of reflexions about body and writing. Same as Gheorghe Crăciun, the author of The Somotographic Pact , Nedelciu finds in his photographies a way of catching the present, the sense of reality and palpable in literature. Either he describes the photographic process, or he stops in front of some plastic backgrounds, all of these images cause the writer changes of physiological behavior or of opinion regarding time, perception and object.

  18. Contribution to the study of an lpg jet in the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine; Contribution a l'etude d'un jet de gpl dans la chambre de combustion d'un moteur a allumage commande, pour differentes strategies d'injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong Viet, D.


    It appears tempting to combine the less polluting combustion of LPG with the energy performances of a direct injection spark-ignition engine. To this aim the study of high pressure injection of a liquid LPG jet, directly inside the combustion chamber of an engine was performed in two ways: Experimental studies: one with fast cinematography and another with the method of Doppler phases in an one-cylinder 'transparent' engine for various conditions of injection and without combustion. They respectively deliver empirical laws for the jet development and some informations about size and speed of the droplets of LPG. A modeling of the jet could then be made on the basis of a turbulent and deviated jet the parameters of which could be adjusted using results of the preceding experimental study. (author)

  19. Instabilities and soot formation in spherically expanding, high pressure, rich, iso-octane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockett, R D [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom)


    Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio {phi} > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks.

  20. Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, Philip H


    The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

  1. The Failed Probability of Love Over Labor in THX 1138 (1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydler Christopher


    Full Text Available Scholarship on panopticism and film rarely considers aesthetic attributes of the medium. Thematic elements associated with panopticism are often examined instead. George Lucas’ directorial debut, THX 1138 (1971, uses aesthetic values in filmmaking to screen a narrative grounded in panopticism. By drawing on the Foucaultian principle of panopticism, this article illustrates the ideological confliction between labor and love that is central to the protagonist THX. On the surface, THX 1138 situates the sexual ideologies of the early Seventies in a socialist contention. The sexual ideology that favors love and freedom of expression is placed in direct conflict with a socialist ideology that labor and obedience. This ideological strife erupts on screen in a dystopian future that is visualized in panoptic cinematography techniques. The result is an analysis of the nuanced visual mastery on Lucas’s part that serves as an explicit commentary grounded in the political and cultural contention never quite resolved in American history.

  2. Analysis of brain activity and response during monoscopic and stereoscopic visualization (United States)

    Calore, Enrico; Folgieri, Raffaella; Gadia, Davide; Marini, Daniele


    Stereoscopic visualization in cinematography and Virtual Reality (VR) creates an illusion of depth by means of two bidimensional images corresponding to different views of a scene. This perceptual trick is used to enhance the emotional response and the sense of presence and immersivity of the observers. An interesting question is if and how it is possible to measure and analyze the level of emotional involvement and attention of the observers during a stereoscopic visualization of a movie or of a virtual environment. The research aims represent a challenge, due to the large number of sensorial, physiological and cognitive stimuli involved. In this paper we begin this research by analyzing possible differences in the brain activity of subjects during the viewing of monoscopic or stereoscopic contents. To this aim, we have performed some preliminary experiments collecting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of a group of users using a Brain- Computer Interface (BCI) during the viewing of stereoscopic and monoscopic short movies in a VR immersive installation.

  3. Cine-club

    CERN Multimedia



    Thursday 4 July 2013 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Pi Directed by Darren Aronofsky (USA, 1998) Original version English; french subtitles; 83 minutes First work of director Darren Aronofsky, PI is an intense, hallucinogenic, and an extremely adept exploration into the world of independent science fiction. Depicting one man's obsession to construct a theoretical, numerical order out of chaos in an attempt to decipher a pattern to both the stock market and existence as a whole, he has launched a sense-numbing expedition that simultaneously complies with and defies expectations of science-fiction cinema. Without expensive special effects, Aronofsky uses innovative cinematography and perfectly conceived music to construct both the paranoid world and fanatical fascination of one man’s quest for absolute knowledge. Aronofsky has masterfully fused mathematics and theology to create an eerie sci-fi world lying somewhere between Stanley Kubrick and Rod Serling. Awarded at Sundance Film Festi...

  4. Mechanism of instabilities in turbulent combustion leading to flashback (United States)

    Keller, J. O.; Vaneveld, L.; Ghoniem, A. F.; Daily, J. W.; Oppenheim, A. K.; Korschelt, D.; Hubbard, G. L.


    High-speed schlieren cinematography, combined with synchronized pressure transducer records, was used to investigate the mechanism of combustion instabilities leading to flashback. The combustion chamber had an oblong rectangular cross-section to model the essential features of planar flow, and was provided with a rearward facing step acting as a flameholder. As the rich limit was approached, three instability modes were observed: (1) humming - a significant increase in the amplitude of the vortex pattern; (2) buzzing - a large-scale oscillation of the flame; and (3) chucking - a cyclic reformation of the flame, which results in flashback. The mechanism of these phenomena is ascribed to the action of vortices in the recirculation zone and their interactions with the trailing vortex pattern of the turbulent mixing layer behind the step.

  5. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait. (United States)

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R


    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations.

  6. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna. (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone


    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  7. Synchronization trigger control system for flow visualization (United States)

    Chun, K. S.


    The use of cinematography or holographic interferometry for dynamic flow visualization in an internal combustion engine requires a control device that globally synchronizes camera and light source timing at a predefined shaft encoder angle. The device is capable of 0.35 deg resolution for rotational speeds of up to 73 240 rpm. This was achieved by implementing the shaft encoder signal addressed look-up table (LUT) and appropriate latches. The developed digital signal processing technique achieves 25 nsec of high speed triggering angle detection by using direct parallel bit comparison of the shaft encoder digital code with a simulated angle reference code, instead of using angle value comparison which involves more complicated computation steps. In order to establish synchronization to an AC reference signal whose magnitude is variant with the rotating speed, a dynamic peak followup synchronization technique has been devised. This method scrutinizes the reference signal and provides the right timing within 40 nsec. Two application examples are described.

  8. Objective measures of laryngeal imaging: what have we learned since Dr. Paul Moore. (United States)

    Woo, Peak


    Dr. Paul Moore pioneered the use of high-speed cinematography for observation of normal and abnormal vocal fold vibrations during phonation. His analysis of the glottal area waveform, opening and closing speed index, and open quotient from the high-speed films were labor intensive but relevant today. With advances in digital image capture and automated image extraction techniques, stroboscopy and high-speed images of vocal fold vibration may be analyzed with objective measures. Digital high-speed image capture in color is now clinically practical at high resolution. Digital kymography now allows analysis of the vibratory waveform from each vocal fold. Serial capture and comparison can document changes in vibratory function with treatment. Quantification of vocal fold vibration using such techniques is now practical. This is a review of vocal fold vibration capture and analysis techniques since Dr. Moore.

  9. Combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen (United States)

    Clark, A. F.; Moulder, J. C.; Runyan, C. C.


    The combustion of bulk titanium in one atmosphere oxygen is studied using laser ignition and several analytical techniques. These were high-speed color cinematography, time and space resolved spectra in the visible region, metallography (including SEM) of specimens quenched in argon gas, X-ray and chemical product analyses, and a new optical technique, the Hilbert transform method. The cinematographic application of this technique for visualizing phase objects in the combustion zone is described. The results indicate an initial vapor phase reaction immediately adjacent to the molten surface but as the oxygen uptake progresses the evaporation approaches the point of congruency and a much reduced evaporation rate. This and the accumulation of the various soluble oxides soon drive the reaction zone below the surface where gas formation causes boiling and ejection of particles. The buildup of rutile cuts off the oxygen supply and the reaction ceases.

  10. Characterization of sprays (United States)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.


    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  11. Live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan


    Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster are also used by the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties with regard to keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick, hazy cytoplasm. This article outlines the major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping the cells alive. It describes various imaging and associated techniques best suited to following changes in the distribution of fluorescently labeled molecules in real time in these tissues. Imaging, in general, is a rapidly developing discipline, and recent advances in imaging technology are able to greatly extend what can be achieved with live cell imaging of Drosophila tissues. As far as possible, this article includes the latest technical developments and discusses likely future developments in imaging methods that could have an impact on research using Drosophila.

  12. Water-walking devices (United States)

    Hu, David L.; Prakash, Manu; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.

    We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing menisci by deforming the free surface. The most critical design constraint is that the devices be lightweight and non-wetting. Microscale manufacturing techniques and new man-made materials such as hydrophobic coatings and thermally actuated wires are implemented. Using highspeed cinematography and flow visualization, we compare the functionality and dynamics of our devices with those of their natural counterparts.

  13. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J


    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of the hand. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Rainer [Herz und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Lanz, Ulrich


    The book on diagnostic imaging of the hand covers the following issues: projection radiography, cinematography, MRT and CR arthrography, arthroscopy, arteriography, skeleton scintiscanning, sonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, anatomy of forearm and carpus, anatomy of metacarpus and fingers, carpal function and morphometry, postoperative X-ray diagnostic, growing hand skeleton, normative variants, malformations and deformities, trauma of the distal forearm, lesions of the ulnocarpal complex (TFCC), scaphoid fractures, scaphoid arthrosis, fractures of other carpus bones, carpal luxations and luxation fractures, carpal instabilities, fractures of the metacarpalla, finger fractures, arthrosis deformans, enthesiopathies, sport induced soft tissue lesions, osteonecrosis, impingement syndromes, osteopenic skeletal diseases, metabolis diseases, crystal-induced osteoarthropaties, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, rheumatic fever, collagenoses, infective arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infections, cystoids bone lesions, skeletal tumors, soft tissue tumors, carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve compression syndrome, arterial perfusion disturbances, differential diagnostic tables on hand lesions.

  15. The Wet-Dog Shake

    CERN Document Server

    Dickerson, Andrew; Bauman, Jay; Chang, Young-Hui; Hu, David


    The drying of wet fur is a critical to mammalian heat regulation. In this fluid dynamics video, we show a sequence of films demonstrating how hirsute animals to rapidly oscillate their bodies to shed water droplets, nature's analogy to the spin cycle of a washing machine. High-speed videography and fur-particle tracking is employed to determine the angular position of the animal's shoulder skin as a function of time. X-ray cinematography is used to track the motion of the skeleton. We determine conditions for drop ejection by considering the balance of surface tension and centripetal forces on drops adhering to the animal. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the relationship between animal size and oscillation frequency required to self-dry.

  16. Time-lapse cinematographic analysis of beryllium--lung fibroblast interactions. (United States)

    Absher, M; Sylwester, D; Hart, B A


    The proliferative response to beryllium chloride of cells in a population of human lung fibroblasts was quantitatively assessed using time-lapse cinematography. A dose of 0.02 microgram Be/ml, known to decrease the growth rate of fibroblasts, affects an estimated 75% of the cells in the population, increasing their interdivision time (IDT) by approximately 5 hr. The differences in mean 1n(IDT) between treated and control cells were essentially constant for comparable culture sizes ranging from 25 to 250 cells. There was no correlation between mother and daughter cell IDTs in control or treated culture at any culture size. IDTs of sister pairs were highly correlated in control cultures at selected culture sizes while sister pair IDTs of treated cultures were not. The data suggest that while beryllium alters the IDT of fibroblasts, an effect not related to culture size, any given cell affected by beryllium does not impart effects of the mineral to its progeny.

  17. The meaning of destruction: Definition and contextualization of disaster movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Milan


    Full Text Available The disaster movie is one of the most persistent genres in cinematography, but it constantly escapes our attention because it is presented as “easy summer fun”. If we want to understand it as a cultural document of an epoch in which the genre is important and popular, we need to come up with a definition, formula and conventions of a disaster movie. Also, we must propose one of many possible comprehensions of its popularity and religious heritage. The paper uses definitions of genre, conventions and formulae in the attempt to show a way of using popular narratives in the transmission of a world view. Using a narrative structure gives us a glimpse into the deeper cultural, social and political context in which the disaster movie is created, popular or rejected. The paper discusses disaster movies as cultural artifacts, as a ritual we are practicing without remembering its purpose. Also, paper is examining identifying apocalyptic and catastrophic as an product of interposition of Apocalypse to Johan and Great Tribulation. Using apocalyptic literature, end times narratives and disaster movies, the paper shows the fruitfulness of destruction representations and imaginarium of terror. Using fear and shock, the messages of disaster movies seems more urgent and relevant. Through the ideas of Susan Sontag and Maurice Yacowar, the paper presents a way for analyzing the contemporary disaster movie. Conventions and formulae of disaster movies help us to understand the way modern cinematography is used for cultural and political means. The popularity of disaster movies can be seen as a form of ”ritualization of discontent” wherein the viewers experience some sort of catharsis. Also, disaster movie gathers different interests and actualizes thirstness for transformation of order or achieving justice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  18. 《呼兰河传》:融汇各种文体艺术的奇文%Tales of Hulan River:A Fantastic Work Blending Together Various Strange Styles of Arts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    萧红的《呼兰河传》不像小说,它吸收诗、戏剧、散文的一些长处,甚至还具有电影化特征,可谓融汇各种文体艺术。《呼兰河传》通过戏剧艺术的讽刺批判、散文艺术的怀念倾诉、诗歌艺术的吟唱咏叹、电影艺术的影像书写这些陌生化叙述,使读者对呼兰河小城熟视无睹、司空见惯的国民惰性产生惊讶和好奇心。萧红是一位现实主义作家,她真实地表现了呼兰河人的生活,但她的现实主义与传统的现实主义不同,她在《呼兰河传》中运用夸张、象征和反讽手法,创造了超现实的现实主义杰作。%Un1ike the nove1 in its ordinary sense,Tales of Hulan Riverb1ends together various sty1es of arts through absorbing certain strengths from the nove1,drama and prose,even with the features of cinematog-raphy. With such de-fami1airized narrations as ironica1 criticism of drama,nosta1gic confiding of prose, intonating and chanting of poetry,and image writing of cinematography,the Nove1 brings the reader into surprise and curiosity about the common nationa1 inertia of b1indness of the sma11 town of Hu1an River. As a rea1ist writer,Xiao Hong tru1y represents the 1ife of the peop1e by Hu1an River. However,she has crea-ted the Nove1 into a surrea1 masterpiece of rea1ism by making use of hyperbo1e,symbo1 and irony be her rea1ism different from traditiona1 rea1ism.

  19. Neorealist landscapes. Habitat and collective housing in Italy and Spain in the post- war years. 1943-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colella, Federico


    Full Text Available Starting point for this research is the analysis of relationship between Italian and Spanish culture in the post-war era, especially in the field of cinematography, in order to describe possible correspondences or differences in the contemporary architectural and urban production, especially in social housing. Neorealism is the artistic movement that characterizes these years, in which economic, social and political problems weigh on these countries: it was born in Italy and influenced cinematography of different European countries, including Spain. Through comparison between some films, we can define a common urban landscape, with the aim to represent context in which the architecture of Italy and Spain, as in the neorealist cinema, seek new references and a more sensitive look on reality. El Punto de partida de este trabajo de investigación es el análisis de las similitudes existentes entre la cultura Italiana y la Española de la época de la posguerra, sobre todo en el campo de la cinematografía, con el fin de fijar posibles analogías y diferencias en la producción contemporánea arquitectónica y urbanística, especialmente de vivienda social. El Neorrealismo, es la corriente artística que mejor define estos años, en los cuales las grandes dificultades en el panorama económico, social y político, marcan la situación de los dos países: se trata de una expresión cultural que nace en Italia y que influenció distintas cinematografías europeas, entre las cuales la española. A través la comparación de algunas películas, es posible definir un paisaje urbano común, que representa el contexto en el cual se desarrolla la arquitectura de los dos países que, como en el cinema neorrealista, tratará de buscar nuevas referencias y de plantear una mirada más sensible hacia la realidad de la época.

  20. Time resolved measurements of particle lift off from the wall in a turbulent water channel flow (United States)

    van Hout, Rene; Rabencov, Boris; Arca, Javier


    Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) and digital holography measurements were carried out in a dilute particle-laden flow tracking both Polystyrene Spheres (PS, ~0.583 mm, d+ ~ 10) as well as resolving the instantaneous velocity field of the turbulent flow. Measurements were performed in a closed loop, transparent, square channel facility (50x50 mm2) at 127.5cm from the inlet with bulk water velocity 0.3 m/s (Reh = 7353) and friction velocity 0.0174 m/s. Data were captured at 1 kHz, corresponding to a time scale 5x smaller than the flow's viscous scale. Single view digital holographic cinematography was used to track the 3D PS motion inside the VOI (17x17x50 mm3) including the wall bottom. TR-PIV in a vertical plane (29.3x29.3 mm2) oriented along the channel's centerline imaged PS together with flow tracers. Discrimination was based on their size difference. Instantaneous sequences of PS plotted on the spatial velocity, vorticity and swirling strength maps showed the effect of turbulent flow structures and resulting particle movement. Results are presented for particles that lift off from the bottom wall as a result of complex interaction with ejection and sweep motions.

  1. High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Diling [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Wu, Benny [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Scherz, Andreas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Acremann, Yves [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE); Tyliszczak, Tolek [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Fischer, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-ray Optics; Friedenberger, Nina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Ollefs, Katharina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Farle, Michael [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Fienup, James R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Stöhr, Joachim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)


    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by split and- delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with state of-the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  2. Detection, imaging, and kinetics of sub-micron organelles of chondrocytes by multiple beam interference microscopy (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Medina, Honorio; Barboza, J. M.; Colantuoni, Gladys; Quintero, Maritza


    Chondrocytes, obtained from testosterone treated human articular cartilage, were examined by a recently developed Multiple Beam Interference Microscopy (MBIM) attached to a confocal set up, Video-enhanced differential interference microphotography and also by cinematography. In the MBIM, the intensity of the transmitted pattern is given by the Airy function which increases the contrast dramatically as the coefficient of the reflectance of the parallel plates increases. Moreover, in this configuration, the beam passes several times through a specific organelle and increases its optical path difference both because of the increase in the trajectory and refractive index (high density) of the organelle. The improved contrast enhances the resolving power of the system and makes visible several structural details of sub micron dimensions like nucleolus, retraction fibers, podia, etc. which are not possible to reveal with such a clarity by conventional techniques such as bright field, phase contrast or DIC. This technique permits to detect the oscillatory and rotational motions of unstained cilia for the first time. The frequency of oscillations was found to be 0.8 Hz.

  3. National Identities and Cinema: a critical recension of the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Macedo


    Full Text Available This critical review concerns the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain. This book is part of a series of volumes published in the Directory of World Cinema, by Intellect Books. The first part consists of a critique of the film "Biutiful", an interview with the director Jaime Rosales, followed by a reflection on the Spanish film industry. This part is also composed of a chapter in which are discussed the aspects that the authors consider to define the Spanish culture, concluding with a reflection on the work of some Spanish filmmakers. In the second part are presented ten film genres that characterize the Spanish cinema, and analyzed ten films by each gender. This book would benefit from a final reflection on the Spanish cinema, by recognizing and discussing the national character of the films produced, very marked by the national spaces and by the political, cultural and social history lived. Many European cinematographies became known as belonging to a particular national culture, and some even developed a style or have become specialized in a particular genre. This seems to be the reality of Spanish cinema, were the genre classified in this book as author melodram is very present.

  4. Full-Scale Schlieren Imaging of Firearms Discharge and Bullets in Flight (United States)

    Grumstrup, Torben; Settles, Gary; Dodson-Dreibelbis, Lori


    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source, thus having a 2x3m field-of-view, was described at previous APS/DFD meetings. The implementation of high-speed still imaging and cinematography of shock waves with this system has also been described. Schlieren methods and external ballistics have been closely related since Mach and Salcher first photographed shock waves about a bullet in 1887. The reason to revisit the topic here is that a large field of view allows imaging not only of the bullet and muzzle blast, but also of shock wave interactions with the surroundings and with the person firing the gun. Microsecond still images reveal various stages of these phenomena for both transonic and supersonic (pistol and rifle) bullets. High-speed movies at 30,000 frames/s are also presented. Some implications of these results for hearing protection while using firearms, the improvement of gun and ammunition design and safety, and forensic investigations of close-range bullet wounds are discussed.

  5. Strategy Dependent Swimming Dynamics Change among a Predatory Algae Species with Different Strains (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Adolf, Jason; Place, Allen


    Digital holographic microscopic cinematography is used for measuring the 3D, time resolved, swimming behavior of toxic and non-toxic strains the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum. We focus on the response of predators of the same species, but with different predation strategy, to the presence of prey, Storeatula major. Experiments are performed in a 3x3 mm cuvette, at densities extending to 100,000 cells/ml. Holograms are recorded at 60fps and at 20X magnification. In each case, we simultaneously track 200-500 cells in the 3mm deep sample, at a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4x2 μm. We show that responses are largely dependent on the predation strategy. K. veneficum 2064, a toxic mixotroph, slows down and decreases the helix radius and clusters around the prey. Conversely, MD5, a non-toxic, autotrophic-like strain is completely oblivious to prey. Strain 1974, which is toxic and twice as motile, shows heterotrophic-like responses with characteristics of an active hunter. Also, on going spectral analysis of the 3-D motion provides quantitative insight on the swimming dynamics of microorganisms.

  6. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface (United States)

    Di Marco, P.; Morganti, N.; Saccone, G.


    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field.

  7. The effect of racetrack design on gait symmetry of the pacer. (United States)

    Crawford, W H; Leach, D H


    A survey of a western Canadian racetrack determined the superelevation and transition curves to be less than the cited design standards. High-speed cinematography was used to film seven Standardbred pacers as they proceeded around one curve of the track at racing speed and for each horse 19 temporal stride parameters were obtained from these films using a film analyzer system. Average velocities were calculated and the mean stride length was found to vary from 5.08 m to 5.77 m. In all frames analyzed the hind foot was observed to contact the track surface prior to the ipsilateral forefoot and all horses displayed significant (p less than 0.05) contralateral asymmetry of some temporal stride parameters. Fifteen temporal stride parameters were significantly different (p less than 0.05) when compared between horses but only three temporal stride parameters were significantly different (p less than 0.05) when their values were compared between segments of the curved portions of the track. It is suggested that temporal gait asymmetry should not be used to judge the standards of racetrack design.

  8. Effects of nitrendipine on growth activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. (United States)

    Absher, M P; Baldor, L; Warshaw, D M


    Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial wall may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. If cell migration and proliferation are dependent on extracellular calcium, then treatment with calcium channel blockers such as nitrendipine may alter these cellular responses. In the studies reported here, proliferation and migration activities were assessed in cultured bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells exposed to nitrendipine. SMCs in long-term culture are characterized by periods of either stable or enhanced proliferative activity. During the stable periods, 1 microM nitrendipine has no effect on proliferation, but during periods of enhanced proliferation, 1 microM nitrendipine augments growth by approximately 20%. SMC migration rates and interdivision times were determined from analysis of time-lapse cinematography films. During stable periods of growth, cell migration rate was inversely related to interdivision time (i.e., fast migrating cells had the shortest interdivision times). Treatment with 1 microM nitrendipine abolished the relationship between migration rate and interdivision time and prolonged interdivision times. These data suggest that the ability of nitrendipine to alter SMC proliferation, interdivision time, and migration is dependent upon the overall proliferative state of the culture.

  9. "Social horror": A critical analysis of ideological and poetic function of the motive of victim in the contemporary Serbian film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronja Ivana


    Full Text Available This paper analyses achievements of Serbian cinematography after 2000, which narrative strategies and visual aesthetics are focused on the issues of violence and victims in the context of social despair, post-communist transition and ongoing global value crisis. Films made by Mladen Đorđević Life and Death of a Porn Gang (2009, Srđan Spasojević A Serbian Movie (2010, and Marko Novaković Menagerie (2012 integrate these complex characteristics of disintegration of Serbian community and dysfunctional state system into their cinematic poetics. These films present examples of radical film aesthetics, which, through strategies of making things unusual, and the influence of underground, pornography and horror on the realistic drama, speak about permanently traumatised Serbian society. They directly connect collective political state and the domain of personal, family, intimate and sexual, controversially relying on the images and narratives of gender misogyny and the violence it produces and its victims. The paper critically approaches these issues from the gender- feminist perspective.

  10. Laser Based Color Film Recorder System With GaAs Microlaser (United States)

    Difrancesco, David J.


    In 1984 Pixar's research and development group built and applied to the motion-picture arts at Lucasfilm's ILM facility a three color laser based film scanner/recorder system. The digital film printer is capable of reading and writing 35mm film formats on a variety of film stocks. The system has been used in award-winning special-effects work, and has been operated in a normal production environment since that time. The primary objective was to develop a full color high resolution system, free from scan artifacts, enabling traditionally photographed motion-picture film to be inter-cut with digital raster image photography. Its use is applied to the art of blue-screen traveling-matte cinematography for motion pic-ture special effects. The system was designed using the Pixar Image Computer and conventional gas laser technology as the illumination source. This paper will discuss recent experimental work in the application of GaAs microlaser technology to a digital film printing system of the future.

  11. Experimental investigation of two oil dispersion pathways by breaking waves (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Katz, Joseph


    This experimental study focuses on generation and size distribution of airborne and subsurface oil droplets as breaking surface waves interact with a crude oil slick (MC252 surrogate). Experiments in a specialized wave tank investigate the effects of wave height and wave properties (e.g. spilling vs. plunging), as well as drastically reducing the oil-water interfacial tension by orders of magnitude by introducing dispersant (Coexist 9500-A). This dispersant is applied at varying dispersant-to-oil ratios either by premixing or surface spraying, the latter consistent with typical application. The data include high-speed visualizations of processes affecting the entrainment of subsurface oil and bubbles as well as airborne aerosols. High-speed digital holographic cinematography is employed to track the droplet trajectories, and quantify the droplet size distributions above and below the surface. Introduction of dispersants drastically reduces the size of subsurface droplets to micron and even submicron levels. Ahead of the wave, the 25 μm (our present resolution limit) to 2 mm airborne droplet trajectories are aligned with the wave direction. Behind the wave, these droplets reverse their direction, presumably due to the airflow above the wave. Supported by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  12. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr. (United States)

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng


    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users.

  13. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations. (United States)

    Hebenstreit, Felix; Leibold, Andreas; Krinner, Sebastian; Welsch, Götz; Lochmann, Matthias; Eskofier, Bjoern M


    Gait phase durations are important spatiotemporal parameters in different contexts such as discrimination between healthy and pathological gait and monitoring of treatment outcomes after interventions. Although gait phases strongly depend on walking speed, the influence of different speeds has rarely been investigated in literature. In this work, we examined the durations of the stance sub phases and the swing phase for 12 different walking speeds ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 m/s in 21 healthy subjects using infrared cinematography and an instrumented treadmill. We separated the stance phase into loading response, mid stance, terminal stance and pre-swing phase and we performed regression modeling of all phase durations with speed to determine general trends. With an increasing speed of 0.1m/s, stance duration decreased while swing duration increased by 0.3%. All distinct stance sub phases changed significantly with speed. These findings suggest the importance of including all distinct gait sub phases in spatiotemporal analyses, especially when different walking speeds are involved.

  14. Educando con medios alternativos / Educating with Alternative Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Rubí Barquero


    Full Text Available Recibido 10 de noviembre de 2010 • Aceptado 09 de marzo de 2011 • Corregido 04 de mayo de 2011    Resumen. Este artículo nace de mi interés por explorar caminos que hagan de la experiencia educativa que se vive diariamente en las aulas, una actividad más interesante y placentera; es por ello que exalto las posibilidades que como medio pedagógico tienen el cine y, en general, los medios audiovisuales, junto con la conveniencia de que los educadores recurran a ellos como alternativas enriquecedora de su desempeño profesional.  Abstract. This paper emerges from my interest in exploring ways to transform the daily classroom educational activity into a more pleasant and interesting experience. In this regard, I call attention to the possibilities of cinematography and other audiovisual media as pedagogical means, and the advisability for educators to use them as enhancing alternatives to their professional performance.

  15. Describing the dynamics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using relativistic viscous hydrodynamics (United States)

    Yarbrough, Katherine Michelle

    Shock diamonds occur in over- or under- expanded supersonic flow. They occur in the unsteady jet of a pulse detonation engine, displaying an array of complex features. Due to the highly transient nature of the flow, it must be captured using high-speed cinematography. A study of image processing of shock reflection in unsteady flow is presented. Using a computer-based environment, a method was developed to process images of shock waves to pinpoint where the shock wave starts. Using mathematical methods, such as Abel transforms, a computer code, written in Matlab, was developed to accurately transform the images to detect density distributions in the form of shock waves. The Mach number and specific heat, pressure, temperature, and density ratios were found using shock polars. Evolution of the flow was examined by transforming images to follow the flow patterns. Seven images were selected and analyzed with the methods developed in this thesis. Then a comparison was done by tracking particles seeded in the flow. The particle tracking revealed velocities which were compared to the Mach numbers found using the shock polars.

  16. Chemical Constituents of Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn.%苦木化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝晨蔯; 邓贵华; 林朝展


    Five compounds were isolated and purified from the 95% ethanol extract of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. by using column cinematography and recrystallization. On the basis of spectroscopic methods,their structures were identified as tiifolirhran (1) .maackiain (2) ,3',7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (3) ,umbelliferone (4) ,and dmodin (5). All the Compounds are reported from the genus Picrasma for the first time.%运用各种柱色谱和重结晶等方法对苦木Pierasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn.进行分离纯化,得到五个化合物.通过NMR等现代波谱学方法和技术鉴定化合物的结构分别为:高丽槐素-3-0-β-D-葡萄糖苷(trifolirhizin,1),高丽槐素(maackiain,2),3',7-二羟基4'-甲氧基异黄酮(3',7 -dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone,3),7-羟基香豆素(ubelliferone,4)和大黄素(emodin,5).五个化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  17. Towards Genre Classification in Anglophone West Africa Video Films: The Case of Scorned as a Woman’s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo


    Full Text Available This paper explores the woman’s film within the context of Africa and African cinematography by examining the Ghanaian video film Scorned (2008, written and directed by Shirley Frimpong-Manso. It examines the themes, narrative structure, and cinematic style employed in the Ghanaian video film Scorned (2008, comparing it to the key elements of the 1930s – 1950s woman’s film genre of Hollywood. We argue that Scorned follows the traditional genre of the woman’s Hollywood movie while simultaneously subverting some of the ingrained conventions and expectations of that genre. The film merges and renegotiates the generic elements of the woman’s film as represented in the Hollywood woman’s film genre and melodrama by focusing on the underpinning ideologies, plot, and aesthetics in making visible the Ghanaian woman’s experience and constructing a female consciousness. Such engagements can contribute to teasing out some of the generic elements, which could constitute the African woman’s film.

  18. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.


    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  19. The Golem in the era of technical reproducibility: filmic apparatus, modern man and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Cristina Stangherlin Santucci


    Full Text Available Approaching Walter Benjamin to the expressionist movement in its cinematic form and its subversive attitude, this article proposes to consider the automaton's image as an allegory in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Thus, starting from the ideal expressionist as cinematographic technique and plot, and going through the Benjamin's Theses "On the Concept of History", as well as going through the various ideas contained in the work of the German philosopher concerning the work of art in the twentieth century, we will see the Golem, mystical character of the Jewish tradition represented by the figure of a giant, made from inanimate matter, coming to life in this text-screen. Life that has come to interrupt the course of a History which presents herself as a continuous line reporting only the history of the winners, ie, of the holders of political and / or social power, and ignoring the history of the subdued men, that is, of the until now obedient men. And such irruption should not only be the work of a mythical being, but also work of the man, as a proletarian in the capitalistic system, and of the cinematography as apparatus and representation.

  20. True Detective Stories: Media Textuality and the Anthology Format between Remediation and Transmedia Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Demaria


    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the recent HBO first season TV series True Detective (2014-, the essays focuses on the renewed anthology format of contemporary seriality as a way to inscribe the form of the novel in the transmedia imagination and its narrative models. While the first part of the essay concentrates on Media and Literary Studies’ debates on the statute of media texts, their materiality and the transformations of their contents in the participatory and convergent culture of prosumers, the second part is devoted to an in-depth reading of some of the main features of True Detective’s first season: from the ways it remediates many other genres and media, to how – as an audiovisual sychretyc text -  it plays with dialogues, cinematography, music and its temporal, spatial and seeing enunciative strategies and positions in order to construct a (quasidystopic narrative of America as an after-image, or, better, a post-collapse America and its Southern Gothic landscapes. In the lst paragraph, this writing briefly engages with how this particular format of TV series helps developing narrative models that fan we bpages and fanfic archives are still struggling not so much to comprehend, but to actually transform into an expanded textuality  able to tell a more ‘true’ story.

  1. Early radiological diagnostics for scapholunate dissociation (SLD); Radiologische Fruehdiagnostik der skapholunaeren Dissoziation (SLD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Fodor, S.; Christopoulos, G. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Kalb, K.H. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany). Klinik fuer Handchirurgie


    The partial tear of the scapholunate ligament (pre-dynamic stage of SLD) as well as the complete tear (dynamic stage) does not lead to carpal malalignment. However, if the completely ruptured ligament is accompanied by lesions of the extrinsic ligaments, both the scaphoid and the lunate are malaligned already at rest (static stage of SLD). Later, osteoarthritis will develop, beginning in the radioscaphoid compartment, progressing to the midcarpal joint, and ending in a carpal collapse (osteoarthrotic stage of SLD). Dynamic SLD is detectable only in stress views and in cinematography. The high utility of MRI for directly visualizing the injured ligament is emphasized: reparation tissue is focally enhanced at the rupture site by intravenously applied contrast agent; the individual segments of the scapholunate ligament can be visualized in direct MR arthrography, therefore allowing differentiation of partial and complete ligamentous tears. (orig.) [German] Die Teilruptur des Lig. scapholunatum (praedynamisches Stadium) und die isolierte Komplettruptur (dynamisches Stadium) fuehren zu keiner karpalen Gefuegestoerung in Ruhe. Erst wenn die Komplettruptur von Laesionen der extrinsischen Bandstabilisatoren begleitet wird, stehen das Skaphoid und Lunatum bereits in Ruhe in Fehlstellung (statisches Stadium). Spaeter kommt es zur Handgelenkarthrose, zuerst radioskaphoidal, dann mediokarpal mit Ausbildung eines karpalen Kollapses (arthrotisches Stadium). Die dynamische Instabilitaet ist nur mit Stressaufnahmen und kinematographisch nachweisbar. Die MRT vermag das rupturierte Lig. scapholunatum direkt darzustellen: Intravenoes verabreichtes Kontrastmittel reichert sich fokal am Reparationsgewebe der Rupturstelle an; mit der direkten MR-Arthrogaphie koennen die Bandsegmente besser abgegrenzt und Partial- von Komplettrupturen unterschieden werden. (orig.)

  2. Mean droplet size and local velocity in horizontal isothermal free jets of air and water, respectively, viscous liquid in quiescent ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rabadi, S.; Friedel, L. [Fluid Mechanics Institute, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany); Al Salaymeh, A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jordan (Jordan)


    Measurements using two-dimensional Phase Doppler Anemometry as well as high speed cinematography in free jets at several nozzle exit pressures and mass flow rates, show that the Sauter mean droplet diameter decreases with increasing air and liquid-phase mass flow ratio due to the increase of the air stream impact on the liquid phase. This leads to substantial liquid fragmentation, respectively primary droplet breakup, and hence, satellite droplet formation with small sizes. This trend is also significant in the case of a liquid viscosity higher than that of water. The increased liquid viscosity stabilizes the droplet formation and breakup by reducing the rate of surface perturbations and consequently droplet distortions, ultimately also leading, in total, to the formation of smaller droplets. The droplet velocity decreases with the nozzle downstream distance, basically due to the continual air entrainment and due to the collisions between the droplets. The droplet collisions may induce further liquid fragmentation and, hence, formation of a number of relatively smaller droplets respectively secondary breakup, or may induce agglomeration to comparatively larger liquid fragments that may rain out of the free jet. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White


    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  4. Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; R. Gupta; B. Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering


    The knowledge of biomass char gasification kinetics has considerable importance in the design of advanced biomass gasifiers, some of which operate at high pressure. The char gasification kinetics themselves are influenced by char structure. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the char structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, digital cinematography, and surface area analysis. Char samples were prepared at pressures between 1 and 20 bar, temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000{degree}C, and heating rates between 20 and 500{degree}C/s. Our results indicate that pyrolysis conditions have a notable impact on the biomass char morphology. Pyrolysis pressure, in particular, was found to influence the size and the shape of char particles while high heating rates led to plastic deformation of particles (i.e. melting) resulting in smooth surfaces and large cavities. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Tekstualiteit van kinematografie: Filmhermeneutiek as publieke teologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anet (Anna Elizabeth Dreyer-Kruger


    Full Text Available Tendencies in film hermeneutics. Hollywood is synonymous with the tradition of images that are used to create emotion, to strengthen attachment, and to encourage imitation. In a certain sense these values are also encouraged by the church as institution. Scholars who study the connection between cinematography and theology acknowledge that the cinema has become the ‘principal new church’ for post-secularised believers. Films are regarded among the ‘big books’ of ‘postmodern culture’. In this article it is argued that film hermeneutics should be regarded as an epistemological movement which has departed from a typographical culture, including logocentrism, phonocentrism, and text-focused cognition. The movement is towards a visual culture, including audiovisual and virtual realities, and is contextualised in a cyber-community. Tendencies in films with biblical and religious dimensions and themes, including the way in which the Christ figure is portrayed, are discussed. In this article the value of film hermeneutics – that is, the ‘textuality of the screen’ – as public theology, is also identified.

  6. The influence of visual representations of “the Other” in the system of modern sociocultural communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodii Nataliya


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the way and the form of modern humanitaristics understanding of the problem of visual representation of “the Other”. The authors’ tasks were to comprehend the nature and dynamics of visualization, to give a distinct working definition of visual competence. Besides, the purpose of the paper was to state the components of visual competence, its criteria, estimation methods and in this context to interpret the image of “the Other” decoded in scientific philosophic and cultural literature and in daily cultural practices. And the final task was to reduce the visual message to the verbal one. The doctrine that the image may be read is the common prejudice, which prevents the formation of a new approach to visuality. The first step towards the solution of problem is to describe the techniques, which help in potential understanding of the visual structure. Understanding the image diversity and its possible text analogues should help in establishing the specific requirements, which can be and must be applicable to visual representation of “the Other”. Representations in the visual culture (photography, cinematography, media, painting, advertisement influence the social image, affects the daily social practices and communications. Visual representations are of interest for social theorists as well as cultural texts, as they give an idea on the context of cultural production, social interaction and individual experience.

  7. Measurement of unsteady convection in a complex fenestration using laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulad, M.E.; Naylor, D. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Oosthuizen, P.H. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering


    Complex fenestration involving windows with between-panes louvered blinds is gaining interest as a means to control solar gains in buildings. However, the heat transfer performance of this type of shading system is not well understood, especially at high Rayleigh numbers. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used in this study to measure the unsteady convective heat transfer in a tall enclosure with between-panes blind that was heated to simulate absorbed solar radiation. Digital cinematography was combined with laser interferometry to make time-averaged measurements of unsteady and turbulent free convective heat transfer. This paper described the procedures used to measure the time-average local heat flux. Under strongly turbulent conditions, the average Nusselt number for the enclosure was found to compare well with empirical correlations. A total sampling time of about ten seconds was needed in this experiment to obtain a stationary time-average heat flux. The time-average heat flux was found to be relatively insensitive to the camera frame rate. The local heat flux was found to be unsteady and periodic. Heating of the blind made the flow more unstable, producing a higher amplitude heat flux variation than for the unheated blind condition. This paper reported on only a small set of preliminary measurements. This study is being extended to other blind angles and glazing spacings. The next phase will focus on flow visualization studies to characterize the nature of the flow. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  9. A study of the effect of binary oxide materials in a single droplet vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, R.C., E-mail: [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dinh, T.N.; Manickam, L.T. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In an effort to explore fundamental mechanisms that may govern the effect of melt material on vapor explosion's triggering, fine fragmentation and energetics, a series of experiments using a binary-oxide mixture with eutectic and non-eutectic compositions were performed. Interactions of a hot liquid (WO{sub 3}–CaO) droplet and a volatile liquid (water) were investigated in well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments conducted in the Micro-interactions in steam explosion experiments (MISTEE) facility. The tests were visualized by means of a synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography system, called simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography (SHARP). The acquired images followed by further analysis indicate milder interactions for the droplet with non-eutectic melt composition in the tests with low melt superheat, whereas no evident differences between eutectic and non-eutectic melt compositions regarding bubble dynamics, energetics and melt preconditioning was observed in the tests with higher melt superheat.

  10. Mascotte, a research test facility for high pressure combustion of cryogenic propellants; Mascotte, un banc d'essai de recherche pour la combustion a haute pression d'ergols cryogeniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vingert, L.; Habiballah, M.; Traineau, J.C. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)


    Detailed experimental studies of cryogenic propellant combustion are needed to improve design and optimization of high performance liquid rocket engines. A research test facility called Mascotte has been built up by ONERA to study elementary processes that are involved in the combustion of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen. Mascotte is aimed at feeding a single element combustor with actual propellants, and the third version in operation since mid 1998 allows to reach supercritical pressures in the combustor. A specific high pressure combustor was developed for this purpose. Research teams from different laboratories belonging to CNRS and ONERA, regrouped in a common research program managed by CNES and SNECMA division SEP, may run experiments on Mascotte, with several objectives: - improve the knowledge and the modeling of physical phenomena; - provide experimental results for computer code validation; - improve and assess diagnostic techniques (especially optical diagnostics). Following diagnostics for instance, were used on Mascotte from 1994 to 1999: - OH imaging (spontaneous emission and laser induced fluorescence ); - CARS temperature measurements (using the H{sub 2} and simultaneously the H{sub 2}O molecules); - High speed cinematography (with a copper vapor laser synchronized to a high speed camera); - O{sub 2} vapor imaging (laser induced fluorescence); - Particle sizing (by means of a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer). (authors)

  11. México y el Instituto Internacional de Cinematografía Educativa, 1927-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Herrera León


    Full Text Available El establecimiento en 1927 del Instituto Internacional de Cinematografía Educativa de Roma (IICE supuso una oportunidad para que México retomara el cine como una herramienta educativa. El artículo estudia tal posibilidad derivada de la relación de México con el Instituto de Roma, entidad artífice de un proyecto de cooperación internacional sin precedentes. México colaboraría de manera muy irregular con el IICE, no obstante los beneficios que podía ofrecerle el proyecto cinematográfico italiano.The establishment of the International Institute of Educational Cinematography of Rome (IICE in 1927 enabled Mexico to take up cinema as an educational tool. The article studies this possibility, derived from Mexico's relationship with the Institute of Rome, the architect of an unprecedented international cooperation project. Mexico, however, collaborated with the IICE on an extremely irregular basis, despite the potential benefits of the Italian cinematographic project.

  12. Cinema Brasileiro Contemporâneo e Subalternidade: Impasses da Representação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinyze das Graças Prates de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo busca refletir sobre a emergência, no cinema brasileiro produzido nas duas últimas décadas, de um expressivo número de filmes que tematizam a questão da subalternidade. Priorizamos aqui a análise de Uma onda no ar (Helvécio Ratton, 2002, com a finalidade de examinar os impasses da representação de comunidades periféricas — situadas nas margens da nação — pela cinematografia contemporânea. Abstract: This article aims to reflect about the emergency of an expressive number of Brazilian films, produced during the last two decades, which thematize the question of subalternity. We prioritize here the exam of Uma onda no ar, directed by Helvécio Ratton (2002, in order to analyze the impasses that involve the representation of peripheral communities — located in the borders of the nation — by the contemporaneous cinematography.

  13. Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)


    The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)

  14. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)


    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  15. Experimental Characterization of a Plasma Deflagration Accelerator for Simulating Fusion Wall Response to Disruption Events (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark


    In this work, the suitability of a pulsed deflagration accelerator to simulate the interaction of edge-localized modes with plasma first wall materials is investigated. Experimental measurements derived from a suite of diagnostics are presented that focus on the both the properties of the plasma jet and the manner in which such jets couple with material interfaces. Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic plasma state variables within the jet are presented using a quadruple Langmuir probe operating in current-saturation mode. This data in conjunction with spectroscopic measurements of H α Stark broadening via a fast-framing, intensified CCD camera provide spatial and temporal measurements of how the plasma density and temperature scale as a function of input energy. Using these measurements, estimates for the energy flux associated with the deflagration accelerator are found to be completely tunable over a range spanning 150 MW m-2 - 30 GW m-2. The plasma-material interface is investigated using tungsten tokens exposed to the plasma plume under variable conditions. Visualizations of resulting shock structures are achieved through Schlieren cinematography and energy transfer dynamics are discussed by presenting temperature measurements of exposed materials. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  16. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering


    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Aproximación a los oficios de cine en España (desde sus inicios hasta 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Martín


    Full Text Available En el origen de las exhibiciones cinematográficas, una única persona era capaz de captar las imágenes, y llevarlas ante los espectadores mediante su proyección. El interés despertado en la población por esta nueva forma de entretenimiento, facilitado por la adquisición de ocio para las clases trabajadoras que ven reducidas sus jornadas laborales, y la propia evolución tecnológica y narrativa del medio, van a provocar la creación y destrucción de diferentes oficios,. La cinematografía se convertirá durante este proceso en una industria.In the origin of the Cinematographic exhibitions, one person only could be able to catch images and bring them over to the spectators through the projection. The woken up interest in the population, for this new form of entertainment, facilitated by the acquisition of leisure for the workers class, who have seen reduced their labour days, and the own technological and narrative evolution, will provoke the creation and destruction of the different professions. Cinematography will than turn during this process, into industry.

  18. Studies on chemical constituents from Rubus alceaefolius Poir%粗叶悬钩子的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹丹; 周洪波; 房志坚


    目的 研究粗叶悬钩子的化学成分.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱对粗叶悬钩子进行分离纯化,通过理化常数和波谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从粗叶悬钩子的石油醚萃取部位分离鉴定出6个化合物,分别为:熊果醇(Ⅰ)、白桦酸(Ⅱ)、蔷薇酸(Ⅲ)、大黄素甲醚(Ⅳ)、肉豆蔻酸(V)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅵ).结论 化合物Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、V均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To study on the chemical constituents from Rubus akeaefolius. Methods The compounds were isolated with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column cinematography from Rubus akeaefolius, and identified with various modern spectroscopic analysis and physical constants. Results Six compounds were isolated from petroleum ether extract of this plant and identified as uvaol ( I ) , betulinic acid ( II ) , euscaphic acid (III ) , physcion (IV ) , myristic acid ( V), β-sitosterol (VI). Conclusion Compounds I 、II 、 III、 IV 、 V were obtained from the plant for the first time.

  19. Simultaneous high speed digital cinematographic and X-ray radiographic imaging of a intense multi-fluid interaction with rapid phase changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Roberta Concilio; Park, Hyun Sun; Dinh, Truc-Nam [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden)


    As typical for the study of the vapor explosions, the qualitative and quantitative understanding of the phenomena requires visualization of both material and interface dynamics. A new approach to multi-fluid multiphase visualization is presented with the focus on the development of a synchronized high-speed visualization by digital cinematography and X-ray radiography. The developed system, named SHARP (simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography), and its image processing methodology, directed to an image synchronization procedure and a separate quantification of vapor and molten material dynamics, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, we exploit an intrinsic property of the X-ray radiation, namely the differences in linear mass attenuation coefficients over the beam path through a multi-component system, to characterize the evolution of molten material distribution. Analysis of the data obtained by the SHARP system and image processing procedure developed granted new insights into the physics of the vapor explosion phenomena, as well as, quantitative information of the associated dynamic micro-interactions. (author)

  20. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Flake Aluminum - High-Speed Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A


    Charges of 0.5 g PETN were used to disperse 1 g of flake aluminum in a rectangular test chamber of 4 liter inner volume and inner dimensions of approximately 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm. The subsequent combustion of the flake aluminum with the ambient air in the chamber gave rise to a highly luminous flame. The evolution of the luminous region was studied by means of high-speed cinematography. The high-speed camera is responsive to a broad spectral range in the visible and near infra-red. For a number of tests this response range was narrowed down by means of a band-pass filter with a center wavelength of 488 nm and a half-width of 23 nm. The corresponding images were expected to have a stronger temperature dependence than images obtained without the filter, thus providing better capability to highlight hot-spots. Emission in the range of the pass-band of the filter can be due to continuous thermal radiation from hot Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or to molecular band emission from gaseous AlO. A time-resolving spectrometer was improvised to inspect this topic. The results suggest that AlO emission occurs, but that the continuous spectrum is the dominating effect in our experiments.

  1. Study of the combustion of aluminium and magnesium particulates: influence of the composition of the gaseous mixture and of pressure; Etude de la combustion de particules d'aluminium et de magnesium: influence de la composition du melange gazeux et de la pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, B.


    The combustion of metal particulates has a major interest in the domain of space propulsion. Aluminium is today used as doping material in the solid propellant of Ariane 5 rocket engines. Magnesium represents a possible fuel for propellers allowing a come back from Mars. An electrostatic levitation device has been used to study the combustion in controlled environment of particulates having a size representative of those encountered in propellers. The particulates are ignited with a laser and observed by fast cinematography. The inhibitive property of hydrogen chloride, an important constituent of the propellant atmosphere, on the combustion of aluminium particulates has been evidenced. These results have been compared with those obtained with a kinetic model in gaseous phase. The combustion of magnesium particulates in carbon dioxide has been studied for 53-63 {mu}m and 1-2 mm particulates. It is shown that the ignition of small particulates is controlled by the chemical kinetics and that the limit ignition pressure is reversely proportional to the particulates size. A study on big samples, performed in normal gravity but also in reduced gravity to get rid of the natural convection phenomena, has permitted to show a pulsed combustion regime linked with the presence of heterogenous reactions. The measurement of the combustion durations for the different sizes of particulates has permitted to propose a correlation between these two parameters for the particulate diameters comprised between 50 {mu}m and 2 mm. (J.S.)

  2. The effect of binary oxide materials on a single droplet vapor explosion triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, R.C.; Manickam, L.T.; Dinh, T.N. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)


    In order to explore the fundamental mechanism dictated by the material influence on triggering, fine fragmentation and subsequent vapor explosion energetics, a series of experiments using a mixture of eutectic and non-eutectic binary oxide were initiated. Dynamics of the hot liquid (WO{sub 3}-CaO) droplet and the volatile liquid (water) were investigated in the MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) facility by performing well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments, using a high-speed visualization system with synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography, called SHARP (Simultaneous High-speed Acquisition of X-ray Radiography and Photography). The acquired images followed by further analysis showed a milder interaction for the non-eutectic melt composition for the tests with low melt superheat, whether no evident differences between eutectic and non-eutectic melt compositions regarding bubble dynamics, energetics and melt preconditioning was perceived for the high melt superheat tests. (author)

  3. «Absolute Prohibition on Going to See the Infernal Spectacle of the White Sorcerer»: The Function of Narrative and Metaphor in the Historical Reconstitution of Cinematographic Spectacle in an African Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Bamba


    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reconstruction of a case of cinematography’s cultural reception in an Islamic African village. My interpretative analysis of this process is based on a reading of a short story by Amadou Bâ Hampâté. From Bâ’s text, I raise a number of questions: how do the enunciative structures of a first-person account and the speeches of other characters and viewers mix with a historical description? What does the figure of the spectator of the first cinema reflect? Are the speech, opinions and public reactions in that African village about cinema different from or similar to those of other publics around the world at that time? What are the socio-cultural determinations and mediations that Bâ’s narrative allows us to glimpse between cinematic spectacle and religious «institution»? What is the role of metaphor in the cultural reception of cinematography? My hypothesis is that the narrative of Bâ can be read and interpreted as both a metaphor and a historical document.

  4. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae. Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.

  5. Submillimetre wave imaging and security: imaging performance and prediction (United States)

    Appleby, R.; Ferguson, S.


    Within the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) has designed and is fabricating a stand-off system operating at sub-millimetre wave frequencies for the detection of objects concealed on people. This system scans people as they walk by the sensor. This paper presents the top level system design which brings together both passive and active sensors to provide good performance. The passive system operates in two bands between 100 and 600GHz and is based on a cryogen free cooled focal plane array sensor whilst the active system is a solid-state 340GHz radar. A modified version of OpenFX was used for modelling the passive system. This model was recently modified to include realistic location-specific skin temperature and to accept animated characters wearing up to three layers of clothing that move dynamically, such as those typically found in cinematography. Targets under clothing have been modelled and the performance simulated. The strengths and weaknesses of this modelling approach are discussed.

  6. Remembering the past: Representations of women’s trauma in post-1989 Romanian cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Adam


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the long-term effects of Romanian communist natality politics and the way in which cinema was used to re-appropriate the past after the shift in political climate in 1989. Romania’s process of coming to terms with the past was characterized by political reluctance to explore the communist legacy. However, personal attempts of recollecting the past have a unique ability to bridge the intergenerational gap and facilitate the transmission of knowledge and memories. This paper therefore presents two examples of Romanian cinema focused on the experiences of those directly affected by the family planning politics of the communist regime. Das Experiment 770 - Gebären auf Behelf (2005, directed by Razvan Georgescu and Florin Iepan, is a documentary based on oral testimonies and documents that sketch the history of Romanian communism and the involvement of various individuals. The second source used—4 Months, 3 Weekes and 2 Days (2007 directed by Cristian Mungiu—is a film that uses a different language and technics in order to re-appropriate the past, not through direct testimony of those involved, but creating fictional characters. The target audience of these movies—as is often the case with historical cinema—is the second or third generation. Cinematography provides a simple and popular way of connecting these generations with the experiences of their predecessors.

  7. 紫丁香花蕾化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of the Alabastrum of Syringa oblata Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽巍; 王金兰; 赵明; 张树军


    采用硅胶柱色谱和半制备高效液相色谱等从紫丁香花蕾乙酸乙酯溶液中分离得到8个单体化合物,经理化性质和波谱方法分别鉴定为:丁香苦素B(1)、齐墩果酸(2)、乌苏酸(3)、羽扇豆酸(4)、羽扇豆醇(5)、对羟基苯丙醇(6)、对羟基苯乙醇(7)和β-谷甾醇(8).其中化合物6首次从该种植物中分离得到,其余均为首次从该植物花蕾中分离得到.%Eight compounds were isolated by silica gel column cinematography and HPLC from ethyl acetate fraction of dried alabastrum of Syringa oblata. The structures were identified by means of physic-chemical and spectral data. They are Syringopicrogenin-B (1) ,oleandic acid (2) ,ursolic acid (3) .lupanic acid (4),luprol (5) ,p-hydroxy phenylpro-panol (6) ,p-hydroxy phenylethanol (7) ,and β-sitoaterol (8). Compound 6 is isolated from this plant for the first time. The other compounds are isolated from the alabastrum of S. Oblata Iindl. For the first time.

  8. Experimental study of thermoacoustic effects on a single plate. Pt. 1. Temperature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Mech. Eng.


    The thermal interaction between a heated solid plate and the acoustically driven working fluid was investigated by visualizing and quantifying the temperature fields in the neighbourhood of the solid plate. A combination of holographic interferometry and high-speed cinematography was applied in the measurements. A better knowledge of these temperature fields is essential to develop systematic design methodologies for heat exchangers in oscillatory flows. The difference between heat transfer in oscillatory flows with zero mean velocity and steady-state flows is demonstrated in the paper. Instead of heat transfer from a heated solid surface to the colder bulk fluid, the visualized temperature fields indicated that heat was transferred from the working fluid into the stack plate at the edge of the plate. In the experiments, the thermoacoustic effect was visualized through the temperature measurements. A novel evaluation procedure that accounts for the influence of the acoustic pressure variations on the refractive index was applied to accurately reconstruct the high-speed, two-dimensional oscillating temperature distributions. (orig.)

  9. 读电影

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    高清电影摄影(插图第3版)原作名:High Definition Cinematography,Third Edition作者:[英]保罗?惠勒译者:梁明/刘海舰/华伟成出版社:世界图书出版公司出版年:2011-7页数:274定价:49.80元装帧:平装《电影学院016:高清电影摄影(插图第3版)》对采用高清拍摄的制片决策、技术基础,拍摄过程中需要注意的问题以及解决办法,不同品牌和机型的性能与特点,进行了全面系统的介绍。

  10. Triggering and Energetics of a Single Drop Vapor Explosion: The Role of Entrapped Non-Condensable Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Roberta Concilio [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The present work pertains to a research program to study Molten Fuel-Coolant Interactions (MFCI), which may occur in a nuclear power plant during a hypothetical severe accident. Dynamics of the hot liquid (melt) droplet and the volatile liquid (coolant) were investigated in the MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) facility by performing well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments, using a high-speed visualization system with synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography. The current study is concerned with the MISTEE-NCG test campaign, in which a considerable amount of non-condensable gases (NCG) are present in the film that enfolds the molten droplet. The SHARP images for the MISTEE-NCG tests were analyzed and special attention was given to the morphology (aspect ratio) and dynamics of the air/ vapor bubble, as well as the melt drop preconditioning. Energetics of the vapor explosion (conversion ratio) were also evaluated. The MISTEE.NCG tests showed two main aspects when compared to the MISTEE test series (without entrapped air). First, analysis showed that the melt preconditioning still strongly depends on the coolant subcooling. Second, in respect to the energetics, the tests consistently showed a reduced conversion ratio compared to that of the MISTEE test series

  11. Promising system for selecting healthy in vitro-fertilized embryos in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Sugimura

    Full Text Available Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors--(i timing of the first cleavage; (ii number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage--pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%. The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos.

  12. Imagen, lugar de memoria y mito : en torno al Alcázar de Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez-Biosca


    Full Text Available El presente texto analiza la función de la producción de imágenes (fotográficas, pictóricas, cinematográficas, arquitectónicas en la mitología franquista que se refiere a la guerra civil. El Alcázar de Toledo fue un escenario emblemático de la guerra, un lugar de memoria por su resistencia, pero también un edificio aureolado de historia. A través del estudio del tratamiento arquitectónico que se dio al edificio (mantenimiento de las ruinas, restauración..., así como de su vida ceremonial, es posible analizar la visión épica que alimentó la memoria franquista y la relación entre el pasado imaginado y el presente.This paper analyzes the role of the images in the Francoist mythology concerning the Spanish Civil War, such as photography, painting, cinematography, architecture... Toledo’s Alcazar was an emblematic stage for the war, a site of memory due to the resistance during the siege. Nevertheless, it has been a monument coloured by history. This article discusses the architectural projects made on the fortress (the maintenance of the states of ruins, restoration..., as well as the ceremonies nationalists authorities organised in it. The consideration of these factors reveal the epic vision that fed Francoist memory and the relationship between imagined past and present.

  13. From the “Camera Obscura” to the Computer, or How Does the Image Become an Apparent Indexical Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Teodor Codoban


    Full Text Available The triumph of the image in contemporary culture is as obvious as the triumph of the body within the Western civilization. However, what has been less noticed is that it is also as partial and specific. As it is not the body in its metaphysical certainty that had triumphed, but only the body as a register of meanings (only the body as language, what triumphs in this civilization is also only a certain type of image. This is because when we, the Westerners, refer to the image, we inevitably think of the tridimensional space of the Euclidean projection, originating in the Renaissance paintings and backed up afterwards by the photography of the late 19th century, by cinematography and by today‟s omnipresent television. This is the type of image that has triumphed and that takes under its caring wing everything that resembles it within the visual culture. Consequently, we speak with too much ease about the image and we call almost everything “image” as long as it vaguely belongs to visibility, or even to resemblance in a very general sense, even though we conceive it according to the tridimensional image from the Euclidean projection.

  14. 广东聚光堂获奖作品赏析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> 第十四届时报亚太广告奖12月7目在台北举行颁奖典礼,获奖的重点单位仍然是台湾的广告公司,大陆广告公司,包括独资、合资和本土广告公司总体表现欠佳,在一片萧瑟中,广东聚光堂广告公司首次参赛就成了大陆本土广告公司在此次广告盛典上最大的赢家。参赛作品6件,有4件获奖。其中 A Helpleas Girl Who LoveBallet/Eye Contact(女孩篇/眼神篇)以其对社会现实的深切关注和人性化的表现,获得 Television-Public Welfare(公益类)铜奖,与此同时,两条公益片精湛的摄影技术更是折取了本届影视类广告 Television—Cinematography(摄影)金奖,令得

  15. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D [Laboratoire ISL/CNRS ' Nanomateriaux pour les Systemes Sous Sollicitations Extremes' (NS3E), FRE 3026, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), 5 rue du General Cassagnou, 68301 Saint-Louis (France)], E-mail:


    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  16. Mitosis in Oedogonium: spindle microfilaments and the origin of the kinetochore fiber. (United States)

    Schibler, M J; Pickett-Heaps, J D


    New ultrastructural observations of mitosis in the closed spindle of Oedogonium cardiacum have been made using cells fixed with glutaraldehyde and tannic acid. Fine filaments 5 to 8 nm in diameter are attached to kinetochores from prophase through anaphase. Some are free in the early division nucleus while others emanate from forming kinetochores at prophase when few if any microtubules (MTs) are inside the nucleus. During prometaphase, MTs invade the nucleus from the poles and appear to interact with the microfilaments. Early in prometaphase, numerous MTs are laterally associated with kinetochores, and the kinetochore fiber is often formed first at one kinetochore of a pair. During metaphase and anaphase, the microfilaments are interspersed among the MTs of these kinetochore fibers. There also is an ill-defined matrix concentrated in the kinetochore fiber, and MTs are often coated irregularly with osmiophilic material. Live mitotic cells of Oedogonium were studied using time lapse cinematography, and we correlate these observations with the above results. We conclude that these microfilaments may constitute one structural component of the traction apparatus that moves chromosomes during metakinesis and anaphase, and that at least some (and possibly many) of the MTs of the kinetochore fiber are derived from those entering the nucleus at prometaphase.

  17. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies (United States)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  18. Forces predicted at the ankle during running. (United States)

    Burdett, R G


    A biomechanical model of the ankle joint was developed and was used to predict the forces at the ankle during the stance phase of running. Measurements from five cadavers were averaged to obtain insertion points and directions of pull of equivalent tendons with respect to the assumed center of the ankle joint. A minimum joint force solution was obtained by assuming that only two equivalent muscle groups could exert force at one time. Three subjects ran at 4.47 m/s across a force platform that recorded the external forces and moments acting on the foot. Cinematography was used to measure the foot and leg positions during stance. Peak resultant joint forces ranging from 9.0 to 13.3 times body weight and peak Achilles tendon forces ranging from 5.3 to 10.0 times body weight were predicted. Small variations in some cases resulted in large differences in predicted forces. The highest tendon forces predicted exceeded those reported to cause damage to cadaver tendons in other studies.

  19. Cinematics and sticking of heart valves in pulsatile flow test. (United States)

    Köhler, J; Wirtz, R


    The aim of the project was to develop laboratory test devices for studies of the cinematics and sticking behaviour of technical valve protheses. The second step includes testing technical valves of different types and sizes under static and dynamic conditions. A force-deflection balance was developed in order to load valve rims by static radial forces until sticking or loss of a disc (sticking- and clamping-mould point) with computer-controlled force deflection curves. A second deflection device was developed and used for prosthetic valves in the aortic position of a pulsatile mock circulation loop with simultaneous video-cinematography. The stiffness of technical valve rims varied between 0.20 (St. Jude) and about 1.0 N/micron (metal rim valves). The stiffness decreased significantly with increasing valve size. Sticking under pulsatile flow conditions was in good agreement with the static deflection measurements. Hence, valve sticking with increasing danger of thrombus formation is more likely with a less stiff valve rim. In the case of forces acting perpendicularly to the pendulum axis, the clamping mould-point of the valve can be reached, followed by disc dislodgement.

  20. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.; Fletcher, Neville H.; Blevins, William E.


    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends on filtering of the vocal source, but the nature of this filter is controversial. Current hypotheses treat the songbird vocal tract as a rigid tube with a resonance that is modulated by the end-correction of a variable beak opening. Through x-ray cinematography of singing birds, we show that birdsong is accompanied by cyclical movements of the hyoid skeleton and changes in the diameter of the cranial end of the esophagus that maintain an inverse relationship between the volume of the oropharyngeal cavity and esophagus and the song’s fundamental frequency. A computational acoustic model indicates that this song-related motor pattern tunes the major resonance of the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity to actively track the song’s fundamental frequency. PMID:16567614

  1. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, S


    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  2. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch. (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W


    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws.

  3. Evolving role of MRI in Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Obara, Piotr; Oto, Aytekin


    MR enterography is playing an evolving role in the evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Standard MR enterography includes a combination of rapidly acquired T2 sequence, balanced steady-state acquisition, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. The diagnostic performance of these sequences has been shown to be comparable, and in some respects superior, to other small bowel imaging modalities. The findings of CD on MR enterography have been well described in the literature. New and emerging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), cinematography, and magnetization transfer, may lead to improved accuracy in characterizing the disease. These advanced techniques can provide quantitative parameters that may prove to be useful in assessing disease activity, severity, and response to treatment. In the future, MR enterography may play an increasing role in management decisions for patients with small bowel CD; however, larger studies are needed to validate these emerging MRI parameters as imaging biomarkers.

  4. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives (United States)

    Comet, M.; Siegert, B.; Pichot, V.; Gibot, P.; Spitzer, D.


    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr2O3 matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr2O3/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr2O3 matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr2O3 matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr2O3 matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode—i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  5. Applied Impact Physics Research (United States)

    Wickert, Matthias


    Applied impact physics research is based on the capability to examine impact processes for a wide range of impact conditions with respect to velocity as well as mass and shape of the projectile. For this reason, Fraunhofer EMI operates a large variety of launchers that address velocities up to ordnance velocities as single stage powder gun but which can also be operated as two-stage light gas guns achieving the regime of low earth orbital velocity. Thereby for projectile masses of up to 100 g hypervelocity impact phenomena up to 7.8 km/s can be addressed. Advanced optical diagnostic techniques like microsecond video are used as commercial systems but - since impact phenomena are mostly related with debris or dust - specialized diagnostics are developed in-house like x-ray cinematography and x-ray tomography. Selected topics of the field of applied impact physics will be presented like the interesting behavior of long rods penetrating low-density materials or experimental findings at hypervelocity for this class of materials as well as new x-ray diagnositic techniques.

  6. Spatio-temporal colour correction of strongly degraded movies (United States)

    Islam, A. B. M. Tariqul; Farup, Ivar


    The archives of motion pictures represent an important part of precious cultural heritage. Unfortunately, these cinematography collections are vulnerable to different distortions such as colour fading which is beyond the capability of photochemical restoration process. Spatial colour algorithms-Retinex and ACE provide helpful tool in restoring strongly degraded colour films but, there are some challenges associated with these algorithms. We present an automatic colour correction technique for digital colour restoration of strongly degraded movie material. The method is based upon the existing STRESS algorithm. In order to cope with the problem of highly correlated colour channels, we implemented a preprocessing step in which saturation enhancement is performed in a PCA space. Spatial colour algorithms tend to emphasize all details in the images, including dust and scratches. Surprisingly, we found that the presence of these defects does not affect the behaviour of the colour correction algorithm. Although the STRESS algorithm is already in itself more efficient than traditional spatial colour algorithms, it is still computationally expensive. To speed it up further, we went beyond the spatial domain of the frames and extended the algorithm to the temporal domain. This way, we were able to achieve an 80 percent reduction of the computational time compared to processing every single frame individually. We performed two user experiments and found that the visual quality of the resulting frames was significantly better than with existing methods. Thus, our method outperforms the existing ones in terms of both visual quality and computational efficiency.

  7. Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles (United States)

    Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.


    Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

  8. Across light: through colour (United States)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel


    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  9. Red chlorophyll: the new barium? (United States)

    Hennig, G W


    Imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) motility remotely through the abdominal wall has always been a tradeoff between resolution and invasiveness. Skin reflects and/or absorbs wavelengths of radiation in the ultraviolet and visible ranges, but is largely transparent to both high-energy radiation (Gamma to X-rays; cinematography has excellent spatial and temporal resolution, but ionization can produce acute and long-term deleterious effects to the patient or animal. Other 'slice-based' imaging techniques such as ultrasound/MRI/CT minimize tissue damage, but are limited in the planar area that can be imaged in a timely fashion. This viewpoint article will summarize and explore the implications of recent advances in infrared imaging of the GI tract, in particular, an article published in this issue of NGM entitled 'In vivo dynamic imaging of intestinal motions using diet-related autofluorescence' in which the authors have used infrared imaging in combination with that most elusive ingredient, standard mouse chow, to capture the motions of the mouse GI tract.

  10. Independent Evolution of Suction Feeding in Neobatrachia: Feeding Mechanisms in Two Species of Telmatobius (Anura:Telmatobiidae). (United States)

    Barrionuevo, José Sebastián


    The most common feeding mechanism among aquatic vertebrates as fishes, turtles, and salamanders is inertial suction. However, among the more than 6,400 species of anurans, suction feeding occurs only in pipids. Pipidae is a small basal lineage relative to Neobatrachia, an enormous clade that contains about 96% of extant anurans. The Andean neobatrachian frogs of the genus Telmatobius include strictly aquatic and semiaquatic species. Diet analyses indicate that some species of Telmatobius feed on strictly aquatic prey, but until now their feeding mechanisms have been unknown. Herein, the feeding mechanisms in two species of Telmatobius, that represent the two predominant modes of life in the genus, are explored. The semiaquatic T. oxycephalus and the fully aquatic T. rubigo are studied using high-speed cinematography and standard anatomical techniques to provide a qualitative approach to feeding behavior and a detailed morphological description of the mouth, tongue, hyoid and related muscles. T. oxycephalus uses similar mechanisms of aquatic prey capture as do the vast majority of anurans that are capable of forage in water, whereas the fully aquatic T. rubigo is an inertial suction feeder. This is the first report of an objective record of this unique feeding behavior in a Neobatrachian. Several morphological characters seem to be related with this function and are convergent with those of pipids.

  11. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities (United States)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian


    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be ˜0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however.

  12. Solutions on a high-speed wide-angle zoom lens with aspheric surfaces (United States)

    Yamanashi, Takanori


    Recent development in CMOS and digital camera technology has accelerated the business and market share of digital cinematography. In terms of optical design, this technology has increased the need to carefully consider pixel pitch and characteristics of the imager. When the field angle at the wide end, zoom ratio, and F-number are specified, choosing an appropriate zoom lens type is crucial. In addition, appropriate power distributions and lens configurations are required. At points near the wide end of a zoom lens, it is known that an aspheric surface is an effective means to correct off-axis aberrations. On the other hand, optical designers have to focus on manufacturability of aspheric surfaces and perform required analysis with respect to the surface shape. Centration errors aside, it is also important to know the sensitivity to aspheric shape errors and their effect on image quality. In this paper, wide angle cine zoom lens design examples are introduced and their main characteristics are described. Moreover, technical challenges are pointed out and solutions are proposed.

  13. Implosion of an underwater spark-generated bubble and acoustic energy evaluation using the Rayleigh model. (United States)

    Buogo, Silvano; Cannelli, Giovanni B


    The growth, collapse, and rebound of a vapor bubble generated by an underwater spark is studied by means of high-speed cinematography, simultaneously acquiring the emitted acoustic signature. Video recordings show that the growth and collapse phases are nearly symmetrical during the first two or three cycles, the bubble shape being approximately spherical. After 2-3 cycles the bubble behavior changes from a collapsing/rebounding regime with sound-emitting implosions to a pulsating regime with no implosions. The motion of the bubble wall during the first collapses was found to be consistent with the Rayleigh model of a cavity in an incompressible liquid, with the inclusion of a vapor pressure term at constant temperature within each bubble cycle. An estimate of the pressure inside the bubble is obtained measuring the collapse time and maximum radius, and the amount of energy converted into acoustical energy upon each implosion is deduced. The resulting value of acoustic efficiency was found to be in agreement with measurements based on the emitted acoustic pulse.

  14. Tactile learning by a whip spider, Phrynus marginemaculatus C.L. Koch (Arachnida, Amblypygi). (United States)

    Santer, Roger D; Hebets, Eileen A


    The ability of animals to learn and remember underpins many behavioural actions and can be crucial for survival in certain contexts, for example in finding and recognising a habitual refuge. The sensory cues that an animal learns in such situations are to an extent determined by its own sensory specialisations. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi) are nocturnal and possess uniquely specialised sensory systems that include elongated 'antenniform' forelegs specialised for use as chemo- and mechanosensory feelers. We tested the tactile learning abilities of the whip spider Phrynus marginemaculatus in a maze learning task with two tactile cues of different texture--one associated with an accessible refuge, and the other with an inaccessible refuge. Over ten training trials, whip spiders got faster and more accurate at finding the accessible refuge. During a subsequent test trial where both refuges were inaccessible, whip spiders searched for significantly longer at the tactile cue previously associated with the accessible refuge. Using high-speed cinematography, we describe three distinct antenniform leg movements used by whip spiders during tactile examination. We discuss the potential importance of tactile learning in whip spider behaviour and a possible role for their unique giant sensory neurons in accessing tactile information.

  15. A low-cost simulation platform for flapping wing MAVs (United States)

    Kok, J. M.; Chahl, J. S.


    This paper describes the design of a flight simulator for analysing the systems level performance of a Dragonfly-Inspired Micro Air Vehicle (DIMAV). A quasi-steady blade element model is used to analyse the aerodynamic forces. Aerodynamic and environmental forces are then incorporated into a real world flight dynamics model to determine the dynamics of the DIMAV system. The paper also discusses the implementation of the flight simulator for analysing the manoeuvrability of a DIMAV, specifically several modes of flight commonly found in dragonflies. This includes take-off, roll turns and yaw turns. Our findings with the simulator are consistent with results from wind tunnel studies and slow motion cinematography of dragonflies. In the take-off mode of flight, we see a strong dependence of take-off accelerations with flapping frequency. An increase in wing-beat frequency of 10% causes the maximum vertical acceleration to increase by 2g which is similar to that of dragonflies in nature. For the roll and yaw modes of manoeuvring, asymmetrical inputs are applied between the left and right set of wings. The flapping amplitude is increased on the left pair of wings which causes a time averaged roll rate to the right of 1.76rad/s within two wing beats. In the yaw mode, the stroke plane angle is reduced in the left pair of wings to initiate the yaw manoeuvre. In two wing beats, the time averaged yaw rate is 2.54rad/s.

  16. Biomechanical research in dance: a literature review. (United States)

    Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew; Koutedakis, Yiannis


    The authors reviewed the literature, published from 1970 through December 2009, on biomechanical research in dance. To identify articles, the authors used search engines, including PubMed and Web of Science, five previous review articles, the Dance Medicine and Science Bibliography, and reference lists of theses, dissertations, and articles being reviewed. Any dance research articles (English language) involving the use of electromyography, forceplates, motion analysis using photography, cinematography or videography, and/or physics analysis were included. A total of 89 papers, theses/dissertations, and abstracts were identified and reviewed, grouped by the movement concept or specialized movements being studied: alignment (n = 8), plié (8), relevé (8), passé (3), degagé (3), développé (7), rond de jambe (3), grand battement (4), arm movements (1), forward stepping (3), turns (6), elevation work (28), falls (1), and dance-specific motor strategies (6). Several recurring themes emerged from these studies: that elite dancers demonstrate different and superior motor strategies than novices or nondancers; that dancers perform differently when using a barre as opposed to without a barre, both in terms of muscle activation patterns and weight shift strategies; that while skilled dancers tend to be more consistent across multiple trials of a task, considerable variability is seen among participants, even when matched for background, years of training, body type, and other variables; and that dance teachers recommend methods of achieving movement skills that are inconsistent with optimal biomechanical function, as well as inconsistent with strategies employed by elite dancers. Measurement tools and the efficacy of study methodologies are also discussed.

  17. Short-time electrical effects during volcanic eruption: Experiments and field measurements (United States)

    Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd; Röder, Helmut


    Laboratory experiments on the fragmentation and expansion of magmatic melt have been performed using remelted volcanic rock at magmatic temperatures as magma simulant. A specially designed dc amplifier in combination with high speed data recording was used to detect short-time electrostatic field effects related to the fragmentation and expansion history of the experimental system, as documented by simultaneous force and pressure recording, as well as by high-speed cinematography. It was found that (1) the voltage-time ratio of electrostatic field gradients (100 to 104 V/s) reflects different physical mechanisms of fragmentation and expansion and (2) the maximum voltage measured in 1 m distance (-0.1 to -180 V) can be correlated with the intensity of the respective processes. Based on these experimental results, a field method was developed and tested at Stromboli volcano in Italy. A 0.8 m rod antenna was used to detect the dc voltage against local ground (i.e., the electrostatic field gradient), at a distance of 60 to 260 m from the respective vent. Upwind position of the detection site was chosen to prevent interference caused by contact of charged ash particles with the antenna. A standard 8 Hz geophone was used to detect the accompanying seismicity. Three types of volcanic activity occurred during the surveillance operation; two of these could be clearly related to specific electrical and seismical signals. A typical delay time was found between the electrical and the seismical signal, corresponding to the seismic velocity within the crater deposits. Using a simple first-order electrostatic model, the field measurements were recalibrated to the laboratory scale. Comparison of field and laboratory data at first approximation revealed striking similarities, thus encouraging the further development of this technique for real-time surveillance operation at active volcanoes.

  18. Recent developments in high-resolution optical diagnostics of repetitively pulsed laser-target effects (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred; Althaus, Marion


    High energy densities, as required both in research and in industry, are achieved by the use of lasers. Extremely highpower densities are obtained in the pulsed mode with short microsecond(s) -, ns-, or even ultrashort ps- to fs- pulses. The interaction of such powerful laser pulses with any type of solid state, liquid or gaseous materials is then causing rapidly developing, nonstationary, optically nonlinear processes. Experimental investigations of these effects are therefore requiring special measuring techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical and optronical methods have proven to be particularly useful. Methods based on laser diagnostics, including high speed photography, cinematography, speckle techniques, holography, videography, infrared techniques or arbitrary combinations of these, are therefore considered to be important tools in these laser effect studies. The investigations reported in the present paper are referring to carbon dioxide-laser effects in intensity ranges which are useful for many industrial applications, such as for example in the field of material processing. Basic interest is actually in pulsed, plasma sustained laser target interaction phenomena which occur above critical threshold power densities, specific for each type of material. Surface induced, highly ionized absorption waves are then determining the energy transfer from the coherent laser radiation field towards the targets. The experiments at ISL were aimed at investigating plasma parameters and their influence on the energy transfer rates, by fast optical, electrical and optronical techniques, such as mentioned above. The results to be discussed refer to target effects, basically observed on optically transparent materials, subject to high average power pulsed carbon dioxide-laser radiation, with repetition rates of several tens to hundred pps at multi-MW/cm2 to GW/cm2 peak power densities and average power densities in the multi-kW/cm2-range.

  19. Gastrointestinal hormones and motility of the human sphincter of Oddi. (United States)

    Ono, K; Suzuki, H; Hada, R; Sasaki, M; Endoh, M


    We investigated the mechanism of humoral control of bile discharge into the duodenum. The actions of the GB, SO and duodenum were monitered by cinecholecystocholangiogrphy combined with manometry of the SO area using a hydraulic-capillary infusion system or MIKRO-TIP, and these were correlated with the plasma concentrations of GI hormones. We concluded that one of the most significant roles of the sphincter of Oddi is to limit bile flow. This postulation was favored by the observation of so-called 'spasm' of the SO where 8 to 10 contractions per min., in contrast to 'normal' contraction of 2 to 4 per min., were seen. On this special occasion, no discharge of the contrast material into the duodenum was noticed. Exogenous or endogenous CCK causes a coordinated action of the GB contraction, the SO relaxation and relaxation of the adjacent segment of the duodenum, resulting in an effective discharge of bile into the duodenum. The effect of Pancreozymin on bile discharge revealed by endoscopic cinematography was that Pancreozymin first made the orifice of the papilla of Vater widely open with a profuse bile flow and following this, caused a repeated shuttering action of the orifice with minimal discharge of bile. This observation opposes the opinion that active SO contractile activity is necessary to bile flow into the duodenum. Caerulein or CCK-33 caused no 'post-inhibition' enhancement of the SO activity that was seen in case of Pancreozymin administration. Motilin, calcium or other substances contained in Pancreozymin (Boots) might be causative for this enhancement.

  20. Versatile microscope-coupled high-intensity pulsed light source for high-speed cine photomicrography of microactuators (United States)

    Krehl, Peter; Engemann, Stephan; Rembe, Christian; Hofer, Eberhard P.


    A compact high-intensity pulsed light source has been developed in order to match a microdynamic test facility for high-speed motion analysis of micromechanical components. The test stand encompasses a universal microscope Zeiss Axioplan, the new light source and an electronic ultra high- speed multiple framing camera Hadland Imacon 468. The light source consists of a narrow cylindrical Xe-filled discharge tube, thus providing a locally stable emission. Since the small-size flashlamp easily fits into a standard microscope lamphousing, it allows to maintain the advantages of Koehler illumination as well as switching to other types of lamphousings. The flash tube is operated via an artificial asymmetric transmission line and delivers a square light pulse with a flash duration of 110 microsecond(s) FWHM and a peak intensity of 50 Med. The light source illuminates the object uniformly within the interesting time window; image shuttering is provided in the camera by gated micro-channel- plate intensifiers. To test the efficiency of the total system for various standard visualization methods (transmitted light, reflected light and differential interference contrast), microscopic still images have been taken at magnification up to 500X and with exposure times down to 10 ns. In addition, two microscopic darkfield methods which provide a high contrast but a low light intensity of the image, have been selected to test their applicability down to an exposure time of 100 ns. Two examples for real-time cinematography of high-speed phenomena in microactuators are shown: the bouncing behavior of an electro-magnetic microrelay and the bubble/jet formation of a thermal ink jet printhead.

  1. External And Internal Work Of A T-6 Paraplegic Propelling A Wheelchair And Arm Cranking A Cycle Ergometer: Case Study (United States)

    Novak, Charles W.


    In this, the International Year of the Disabled, attention is directed among other areas toward rehabilitation and sports participation of wheelchair users. As an application of movement analysis in medicine and rehabilitation and as an application of sports research using biomechanics, this investigation was performed to compare the results of two methods of gathering data on the stress of wheelchair propelling at equivalent work loads and to account for differences in physiological responses with a mechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling. Physiological data collected were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product. A biomechanical cinematography analysis was used to determine external work in wheelchair propelling and to determine the extent to which modifications in segment actionsoccurred during increasing magnitude of work. A cycle ergometer was adjusted to replicate external work loads performed during wheelchair propelling. A t-test of equivalent external work loads indicated that heart rate was not different between the two exercise modes at the .05 level of significance. The t-test did indicate a significant difference in systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product at the .05 level of significance. The biomechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling established that an increase in external work was accomplished by a decrease in the range of motion and an increase in the speed of movement. During cycle ergometry the range and speed of movement remained the same while resistance was increased. Results of the study established that while heart rate for equivalent external work loads was the same for wheelchair propelling and arm cranking cycle ergometry, systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product were not the same. The suggestion was that some means of propelling a wheelchair other than that which is con-sidered "standard" might be considered which produces less stressful responses in wheelchair users.

  2. Interferometric and numerical study of the temperature field in the boundary layer and heat transfer in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucic, Anita; Emans, Maximilian; Mayinger, Franz; Zenger, Christoph


    An interferometric study and a numerical simulation are presented of the combined process of the bulk turbulent convection and the dynamic of a vapor bubble which is formed in the superheated boundary layer of a subcooled flowing liquid, in order to determine the heat transfer to the flowing subcooled liquid. In this investigation focus has been given on a single vapor bubble at a defined cavity site to provide reproducible conditions. In the experimental study single bubbles were generated at a single artificial cavity by means of a CO{sub 2}-laser as a spot heater at a uniformly heated wall of a vertical rectangular channel with water as the test fluid. The experiments were performed at various degrees of subcooling and mass flow rates. The bubble growth and the temporal decrease of the bubble volume were captured by means of the high-speed cinematography. The thermal boundary layer and the temperature field at the phase-interface between fluid and bubble were visualized by means of the optical measurement method holographic interferometry with a high temporal and spatial resolution, and thus the local and temporal heat transfer could be quantified. The experimental results form a significant data basis for the description of the mean as well as the local heat transfer as a function of the flow conditions. According to the experimental configuration and the obtained data the numerical simulations were performed. A numerical method has been developed to simulate the influence of single bubbles on the surrounding fluid which is based on a Lagrangian approach to describe the motion of the bubbles. The method is coupled to a large-eddy simulations by the body force term which is locally evaluated based on the density field. The obtained experimental data correspond well with the numerical predictions, both of which demonstrate the thermo- and fluiddynamic characteristics of the interaction between the vapor bubble and the subcooled liquid.

  3. El mito del zombi en la actualidad: desmembramiento sacrificial colectivo

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    Carcavilla Puey, Lorenzo


    Full Text Available For several decades the zombie myth maintained the same symbolic structure as literature and cinematography regarding the perverse use of animal magnetism and hypnosis, the genealogy from which it descends. In the last third of twentieth century the myth underwent a profound transformation, which nevertheless represented a continuation of its previous unconscious meaning. The analysis of the new archetypal elements that it included, closely related to a nuclear aspect of the spirit of twentieth century art, enables us to develop an interpretive approach to a mythical framework and its underlying psychological process currently running through the collective psyche: respectively, the initiation death and the solvent and disintegrative dynamic of the soul. It will be based in the analytical psychology theoretical framework and we will use the historical-comparative method.El mito del zombi conservó durante varias décadas la misma estructura simbólica que la literatura y cinematografía acerca del uso perverso del magnetismo animal y la hipnosis, su genealogía. En el último tercio del siglo XX el mito sufre una profunda transformación que, no obstante, supone la continuación de su anterior sentido inconsciente. El análisis de los nuevos elementos arquetípicos que va a incorporar, estrechamente relacionados con un aspecto nuclear del espíritu del arte del siglo XX, nos va a permitir realizar una aproximación interpretativa a cierto entramado mítico y su proceso psicológico subyacente que atraviesa actualmente la psique colectiva: la muerte iniciática y la dinámica disolvente y desintegradora del alma, respectivamente. Nos basaremos para ello en el marco teórico de la psicología analítica y haremos uso del método histórico-comparativo.

  4. Comparison of Contents of Alkaloids in Young Leonurus Heterophyllus Sweet in Different Harvest Time%不同采收期童子益母草中生物碱含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文婷; 黄伟; 王伟胜; 程夏倩; 徐丽君; 楼锦芳; 王春甫


    目的 比较不同采收期童子益母草中水苏碱和益母草碱的含量,为确定童子益母草的种植和采收时间提供依据.方法 采用高效液相色谱法测定童子益母草中水苏碱和益母草碱含量,并考察不同产地、不同采收期童子益母草中两种生物碱的含量.结果 两种不同种植基地童子益母草中水苏碱和益母草碱的含量随种植时间延长呈上升趋势,约5个月达平衡,而后有所下降.结论 该方法分离度好,稳定,适合作为童子益母草的质量控制方法,可为童子益母草种植和采收提供依据.%Objective To compare the contents of staohydrine and leonurine of young Leonurus heterophyllus (YLH) in different harvest time for the further scientific guidance for implantation and harvest of YLH. Methods A high performance liquid cinematography (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of stachydrine and leonurine in YLH. The contents of these two alkaloids in different places of production and harvest time were determined. Results The contents of the two alkaloids increased over time in both two places of production, reached a peak at about the 5th month after-implantation, and then decreased. Conclusion The method is stable with good resolution, and suitable for the quality control of YLH. The data obtained can provide research base for the implantation and harvest of YLH.

  5. “Los embrujos secretos del trópico”. Frontera amazónica y producción del espacio estatal en la obra cinematográfica de Jorge Ruiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pareja


    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la obra cinematográfica de Jorge Ruiz utilizando la teoría socio-espacial de Henri Lefebvre. Argumenta que sus documentales, películas etnográficas y noticieros para el cine constituyen una totalidad discursiva que presenta estéticamente la producción del espacio estatal boliviano durante el siglo XX. A partir de una retórica audiovisual que juega con nociones de verticalidad, horizontalidad y centralidad, la obra de Ruiz posiciona el espacio andino como el eje de la modernización estatal y sitúa  a la cuenca amazónica en los márgenes del estado. Concluye que hacer visible la región amazónica en el discurso de la nación tuvo como efecto el desplazamiento de los antagonismos de clase en favor del conflicto entre centro y regiones.This article studies the cinematography of Jorge Ruiz making use of the socio-spatial theory of Henri Lefebvre. It argues that his documentaries, ethnographic films and newsreels for the cinema constitute a discursive totality that presents aesthetically the production of the Bolivian state space during the twentieth century. From an audiovisual rhetoric that plays with notions of verticality, horizontality and centrality, Ruiz’s work locates Andean space as the focal point of state modernization and situates the Amazon basin at the margins of the state. It concludes that in making the Amazon region visible in the nation’s discourse this had the effect of displacing class antagonisms in favor of the conflict between center and regions.

  6. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re = 200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36 m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re = 350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties

  7. Experimental visualization of temperature fields and study of heat transfer enhancement in oscillatory flow in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    An experimental study was conducted of incompressible, moderate Reynolds number flow of air over heated rectangular blocks in a two-dimensional, horizontal channel. Holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in self- sustained oscillatory flow. Experiments were conducted in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes for Reynolds numbers in the range from Re = 520 to Re = 6600. Interferometric measurements were obtained in the thermally and fluiddynamically periodically fully developed flow region on the ninth heated block. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1054 and Re = 1318. The period of oscillations, wavelength and propagation speed of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the main channel were measured at two characteristic flow velocities, Re = 1580 and Re = 2370. For these Reynolds numbers it was observed that two to three waves span one geometric periodicity length. At Re = 1580 the dominant oscillation frequency was found to be around 26 Hz and at Re = 2370 the frequency distribution formed a band around 125 Hz. Results regarding heat transfer and pressure drop are presented as a function of the Reynolds number, in terms of the block-average Nusselt number and the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. Measurements of the local Nusselt number together with visual observations indicate that the lateral mixing caused by flow instabilities is most pronounced along the upstream vertical wall of the heated block in the groove region, and it is accompanied by high heat transfer coefficients. At Reynolds numbers beyond the onset of oscillations the heat transfer in the grooved channel exceeds the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. (orig.)

  8. In Search of the Sorcerer’s Apprentice: between Lucian and Walt Disney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Kalitan


    Full Text Available At first glance, the movie by Jon Turteltaub entitled The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (2010 seems not to have any connections with Greco-Roman antiquity whatsoever. To find the hidden connection we have to go back to year 1797 when Johann Wolfgang Goethe published his famous ballad Der Zauberlehrling (The Sorcerer's Apprentice Almost a century later, this work inspired a French composer Paul Dukas to write his masterpiece, the symphonic scherzo L’apprenti sorcier. Dukas’ music became the leitmotif of both Disney’s movies: Fantasia (1940 and Fantasia 2000 (1999 whose action is based on Goethe’s ballad. Also, the basic elements of the plot were used in one of the episodes of the series Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1961. This is where we touch the ancient roots of the story. A good friend of J.W. Goethe, Christopher Martin Wieland, happened to have published in 1789 the first complete German translation of Lucian of Samosata’s (120-180 AD works, including a dialogue entitled Philopseudes (The Lover of Lies. The tenth story told in Philopseudes turned out to be very similar to the one written by J. W. Goethe and then adapted into Disney’s and Turteltaub’s movies. In my paper I try to show the transmission of the Lucianic text from antiquity to modern film adaptations. The original Lucian tale, rewritten by J.W. Goethe, becomes very influential. The so-called “sorcerer’s apprentice syndrome” can be found at the root of many fantastic stories in which humans could not curb their creations (i.e. robots which eventually would turn against their makers. The primary focus of this paper is on how the story of a young apprentice changed over centuries and how it was adopted by cinematography.

  9. Os festivais GLBT de cinema e as mudanças estético-políticas na constituição da subjetividade GLBT movie festivals and the aesthetic-political changes in the constitution of subjectivity

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    Karla Bessa


    Full Text Available Neste artigo traço um breve panorama do crescimento e diversificação dos festivais GLBT de cinema e da visibilidade gay. A análise está centrada nas transformações que configuraram uma nova cinematografia denominada, no início dos anos 1990, de queer movie (Rich, 1991. Desde a pioneira edição de um festival de cinema gay e lésbico, em São Francisco no final dos anos 1970, houve uma significativa mudança nos filmes feitos pelo, ou voltados para o, público gay. Isso se faz notar da produção à exibição, incluindo aspectos narrativos e técnicas cinematográficas, o que provoca um repensar tanto da formatação-programação dos festivais, quanto do próprio cinema GLBT. Novas sensibilidades e subjetividades contrastam-se com as pioneiras cenas fílmicas de cunho militante-identitário, colocando questões sobre corpo, sexualidade e gênero.This article is an overview of the growth of GLBT film festivals and also of gay visibility. The focus will be on the analysis of the changes that configured a new cinematography called, at the beginning of the nineties, queer movies (Rich, 1991. Since the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian film festival at the end of the seventies, there was a significant change in the films made for or directed toward gay audiences. This could be noticed from production to exhibition, including narrative aspects and cinematographic techniques, leading one to rethink both the formatting-programming of the festivals and the GLBT cinema itself. New sensibilities and subjectivities contrast with the pioneering film scenes from the militant-identitary matrix, raising questions on body, sexuality and gender.

  10. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d' Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)


    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  11. Arthur Posnansky y su Obsesion Milenaria. Biografia lntelectual de un Pionero, by Carlos Ponce Sangines, 1994, La Paz: Producciones Cima

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    David L. Browman


    Full Text Available Ponce proposes to develop an intellectual history of Posnansky, whom many view as the father of Bolivian archaeology, which he hopes will contribute to the establishment of context for the development of local prehistory. However, for the most part, the volume serves more as a foil for Ponce to refer to his own work and publications, as they update, contradict, and improve on the earlier archaeological reconstructions of Posnansky. Arthur Posnansky (1873-1946 was an important contributor to Bolivian culture history, being not only a pioneer in Bolivian archaeology, but also in Bolivian cinematography, in the development of the national park system, and in the introduction of the first automobile into Bolivia. He was trained as a naval engineer in his native Vienna, a skill which he quickly parlayed into a fortune in Bolivia in the rubber boom, in terms of transporting the latex by river transport. With the loss of Arce to Brazil in 1903, he shifted his focus to other fields. He brought the first gasoline-powered motorboat to Lake Titicaca that year, and while visiting the excavations of the French Crequi-Montfort and Senechal de La Grange Mission, under the direction of George Courty, during trips to the lake, he became very intrigued with the site of Tiwanaku and its place in Bolivian prehistory. Posnansky shortly thereafter began his extensive collection of material artifacts from Tiwanaku, constructing the -"Palacio Tihuanacu" in 1917-1918 to house the stela, ceramics and other materials which he collected. This structure and its collections were subsequently sold to the state, becoming the current Museo Nacional de Arqueologia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ximena Gómez


    Full Text Available This article is part of the results of research project. We investigated the Buenos Aires city’s cultural industries from the early twentieth century and the end of the begin of War World Second. In this context, my interest is to observe path of a pioneer of show industry, photographer, director, producer, distributor, etc., the busissman Austrian Max Glücksmann. Along the transformation that lived the city of Buenos Aires since the late nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century and changes the technique appeared intuitive immigrants, busissman and seeking a commercial return built the entertainment market in Argentina. This paper attempts to give keep up with the first steps of Glücksmann, an immigrant such as employee Lapage Photography house that was in the center of Buenos Aires, soon pasar to be his manager and culminate as the owner of it. And from this space, in the course of the twentieth century to become one of the entrepreneurs of the cinematography and the record industry in Argentina. For this, we will use of graphic sources of the time trying to make a reconstruction of the cultural circuit where developed. As also noted the growth of the city, the locals begin to circulate and appearing as potential consumers of different products. From the observation of the marketing methods such as advertising, and analyzes of how was organized the House Lapage, identify as Max Glüscksmann becomes manager of trade and look at the itinerary of decisiones he took and how they helped to shape the entertainment market of the city of Buenos Aires.

  13. Temptations of a socialist paradise: Reflections of a consumerist society in Yugoslavian films of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava


    Full Text Available In a world divided by irreconcilable ideological differences into the capitalist West and the socialist East, Yugoslavia itself has, since the early fifties, faced a permanent choice between two options, on the borderline between those two opposing blocs. Coerced by political circumstances, the country's leadership had chosen its own path into communism, formulated through the idea of worker self-management that secured the belief among the people of Yugoslavia that they did not belong to either of the sides divided by the iron curtain. Although it was initially promoted as an expression of authentic Marxism, these unique political projects inevitably lead to an increasing openness toward the western world. The reduction of central government control over the economy, opening of borders, freedom of movement inside and outside the country, freedom of companies to trade abroad, permissible limited private property etc. allowed for easier access to elements of a consumer society that were coming from the West. Getting closer to the western world, as a cultural and an economic process, in the early 1960s also became a subject of Yugoslavian cinematography, which had after a string of years of partisan films begun to deal with modern (urban life. Through an anthropological analysis of the most popular domestic films made during that period, such as: Zajednicki stan, Nema malih bogova, Ljubav i moda and Na mesto građanine pokorni, in this paper I observe how ideological dilemmas concerning the first experiences of abandoning 'pure' socialism and the gradual acceptance of consumerism manifested in society (just prior to the economic reform of 1965., the vision of some future society that came to exist and the encounter with the taste of its values and lifestyle (the appearance of market mentality where new rules become important - competition and a fight for personal interest, individualism opposed to collective socialist solidarity etc.. [Projekat

  14. Chemical Constituents of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from the Root Bark of Changium smyrnioides Wolff%明党参根皮超临界萃取部位化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 陈建伟; 李祥


    采用超临界CO2萃取、柱层析、重结晶等方法,从明党参根皮部位分离得到9个化合物.经理化方法和波谱分析鉴定为二十五烷酸(1)、二十七烷醇(2)、β-谷甾醇(3)、豆甾醇(4)、异欧前胡素(5)、欧前胡素(6)、花椒毒酚(7)、珊瑚菜内酯(8)和5-羟基-8-甲氧基补骨脂素(9).化合物5~7为首次从明党参中分离得到,其余化合物均为首次从该植物根皮中分离得到.%Nine compounds were isolated and purified from the root bark of Changium smymioides Wolff, by using supercritical CO2 extraction,column cinematography and crystallization method. The structures were identified as pentacosano-ic acid (1) .heptacosanol (2) ,β-sitosterol (3) , stigmasterol (4) , isoimperatorin (5) , imperatorin (6) , xanthotorol (7) ,phellopterin (8) ,and 5-hydroxyl-8-methoxy-psoralen (9) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectro-scopic analysis. Compound 5-7 were obtained from the plant for the first time. Other compounds were first isolated from the root bark of this plant.

  15. Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)


    Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)

  16. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  17. Review of Transient Fuel Test Results at Sandia National Laboratories and the Potential for Future Fast Reactor Fuel Transient Testing in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A.; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Kelly, John; Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)


    Reactor driven transient tests of fast reactor fuels may be required to support the development and certification of new fuels for Fast Reactors. The results of the transient fuel tests will likely be needed to support licensing and to provide validation data to support the safety case for a variety of proposed fast fuel types and reactors. In general reactor driven transient tests are used to identify basic phenomenology during reactor transients and to determine the fuel performance limits and margins to failure during design basis accidents such as loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and reactivity insertion accidents. This paper provides a summary description of the previous Sandia Fuel Disruption and Transient Axial Relocation tests that were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission almost 25 years ago. These tests consisted of a number of capsule tests and flowing gas tests that used fission heating to disrupt fresh and irradiated MOX fuel. The behavior of the fuel disruption, the generation of aerosols and the melting and relocation of fuel and cladding was recorded on high speed cinematography. This paper will present videos of the fuel disruption that was observed in these tests which reveal stark differences in fuel behavior between fresh and irradiated fuel. Even though these tests were performed over 25 years ago, their results are still relevant to today's reactor designs. These types of transient tests are again being considered by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership because of the need to perform tests on metal fuels and transuranic fuels. Because the Annular Core Research Reactor is the only transient test facility available within the US, a brief summary of Sandia's continued capability to perform these tests in the ACRR will also be provided. (authors)

  18. Uma aplicação da análise biomecânica do processo de montagem de produtos industriais Biomechanical analysis of assembly process of manufacturing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Naveiro


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um método informatizado de avaliação biomecânica e sua aplicação na avaliação do trabalho de montagem de componentes numa indústria do setor biomédico. O método envolve a utilização da técnica da videocinematografia para aquisição de imagens, sua digitalização e seu posterior tratamento através do programa BIOMEC. O programa BIOMEC dispõe de uma base de dados em biomecânica e antropometria e de procedimentos de cálculo que permitem determinar com precisão os níveis de sobrecarga estática e dinâmica apresentados nas situações filmadas. O estudo efetuado com funcionárias que trabalham na montagem de equipamentos biomédicos mostrou a eficácia do método como alternativa a métodos qualitativos de análise de risco baseados em observação direta.This paper describes a computer-assisted method for biomechanics evaluation and its application to the analysis of assembly work in a biomedical industry. The method involves the use of the video cinematography technique for image capturing followed by a digitalisation process that enables the BIOMEC program treat images. The program BIOMEC encompasses an anthropometric and a biomechanics database and calculation procedures that allow to define with precision the muscle-skeletal overload in the studied situations. The case study conducted with the assembly workers of a biomedical industry showed the method efficacy as an alternative to qualitative methods based in direct observation.

  19. Application of laser-optical diagnostics for the support of direct-injection gasoline combustion process development; Einsatz laseroptischer Messverfahren zur Unterstuetzung der Entwicklung von Brennverfahren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, W.; Meyer, H.; Stiebels, B. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Abt. Forschung und Entwicklung


    The development of direct-injection gasoline engines at Volkswagen was supported strictly from the beginning by the means of optical diagnostics and CFD-simulations. Basic phenomena, such as the formation of the in-cylinder flow field, the penetration of the spray formed by a hollow-cone swirl-type injector at high fuel pressure, the interaction of spray and flow and the formation of an ignitable mixture were analysed in details. The paper describes the laser-optical techniques-particle-image-velocimetry, laser-Doppler-anemometry, videostroboscopy, high-speed cinematography and laser-induced fluorescence - which were used during the development of the DI gasoline combustion process. Examples taken from engines with optical access to the combustion chamber demonstrate the capability of the techniques and pinpoint where the design of the combustion process benefits from experimental and simulation investigations. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung von Ottomotoren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung wurde bei Volkswagen von Beginn an konsequent durch den Einsatz optischer Messverfahren und CFD-Simulationen unterstuetzt. Damit konnten grundlegende Phaenomene, wie die Ausbildung des Stroemungsfeldes im Motorbrennraum, die Ausbreitung des durch einen Hohlkegel-Drallinjektor unter hohem Druck eingespritzten Kraftstoffs sowie die Wechselwirkung der Luftstroemung im Zylinder mit den Einspritzstrahlen und die Bildung einer zuendfaehigen Ladungswolke detailliert untersucht werden. Das Paper beschreibt die laseroptischen Messverfahren - Particle-Image-Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler-Anemometry, Video-Stroboskopie, Hochgeschwindikgkeits-Kinematographie und Laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz - die bei der Brennverfahrensentwicklung eingesetzt werden und zeigt anhand einer Reihe von konkreten Beispielen, wo Antworten auf Grundsatzfragen zur Auslegung des Brennverfahrens durch Messergebnisse an optisch zugaenglichen Motoren und durch CFD-Simulationen erarbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  20. Automated high-speed video analysis of the bubble dynamics in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, Reinhold; Ilchenko, Volodymyr; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Garching (Germany)


    Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and a very good optical access. For the optical observation of the bubble behaviour the high-speed cinematography is used. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, a huge number of bubble cycles could be analysed. The structure of the developed algorithms for the detection of the bubble diameter, the bubble lifetime, the lifetime after the detachment process and the waiting time between two bubble cycles is described. Subsequently, the results from using these automated procedures are presented. A remarkable novelty is the presentation of all results as distribution functions. This is of physical importance because the commonly applied spatial and temporal averaging leads to a loss of information and, moreover, to an unjustified deterministic view of the boiling process, which exhibits in reality a very wide spread of bubble sizes and characteristic times. The results show that the mass flux dominates the temporal bubble behaviour. An increase of the liquid mass flux reveals a strong decrease of the bubble life - and waiting time. In contrast, the variation of the heat flux has a much smaller impact. It is shown in addition that the investigation of the bubble history using automated algorithms delivers novel information with respect to the bubble lift-off probability. (Author)

  1. Contemporary Romanian Art in the United States1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Dana


    Full Text Available The article discusses the recent international interest in contemporary Romanian art and its growth in market share, with a focus on the United States. The theme is followed thorough in numerous museum exhibitions, increased collector following, art fair presence, gallery representation and auction activity initially in Europe and the United States. The phenomenon is discussed both in the context of the larger international movement conducive to the contemporary art price bubble, and in that of the local socio-economic changes. My chief interest lies in the factors leading up to the entry of post 1989 Romanian art in the global arena as a manifestation of market forces in the field. The analysis follows its grass roots local emergence through non-profit institutions, individual artists, small publications, low budget galleries, as well as the lack of contribution (with few notable exceptions of state institutions, while pointing out the national context of increasing deregulation of social support systems resulting in lack of focus on cultural manifestations. The conclusion is that the recent ascent of contemporary Romanian art (and coincidentally, the award winning contemporary Romanian cinematography is a fortuitous convergence of various factors, among which, increased international mobility and sharing. At the same time, it is also the result of the evolution of various individual artists that pursued a form of art rooted in Romanian artistic tradition but with a focus on the symbolic figurative. The result is a personal semiotics of raising the mundane to extraordinary levels that reconfigured the anxiety of entering a new system into an unmistakable and lasting visual language.

  2. Medical illustration: from caves to cyberspace. (United States)

    Tsafrir, J; Ohry, A


    The human body has been depicted in ancient cave-paintings, in primitively sculpted figures, and through all the ages in various forms of artistic expression. The earliest medical texts were descriptive but not illustrated. Later, as it became clear that knowledge of the human body and all its systems was essential to the practice of healing, texts were accompanied by illustrations which became an integral part of the teaching process. The illustrators included artists, whose interest was primarily artistic, but who were sometimes employed by surgeons or physicians to illustrate their texts. Occasionally, the physicians or scientists accompanied their texts with their own illustrations, and in the last century, medical illustration, in its infinite variety of techniques, has been developed as a profession in its own right. As knowledge was extended, permitted by social and cultural change, as well as by technological advances, the types of illustrations have ranged from gross anatomy through dissections showing the various organ systems, histological preparations, and radiological images, right up to the computerized digital imagery that is available today, which allows both static and dynamic two- and three-dimensional representations to be transmitted electronically across the world in a matter of seconds. The techniques used to represent medical knowledge pictorially have been as varied as the illustrators themselves, involving drawing, engraving, printing, photography, cinematography and digital processing. Each new technique has built on previous experience to broaden medical knowledge and make it accessible to an ever-widening audience. This vast accumulation of pictorial material has posed considerable problems of storage, cataloguing, retrieval, display and dissemination of the information, as well as questions of ethics, validity, manipulation and reliability. This paper traces these developments, illustrating them with representative examples drawn from

  3. Glenoid labrum tears related to the long head of the biceps. (United States)

    Andrews, J R; Carson, W G; McLeod, W D


    Tears of the glenoid labrum were observed in 73 baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes who underwent arthroscopic examination of the dominant shoulder. Most of the tears were located over the anterosuperior portion of the glenoid labrum near the origin of the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle into the glenoid. At arthroscopy, the tendon of the long head of the biceps appeared to originate through and be continuous with the superior portion of the glenoid labrum. In many cases it appeared to have pulled the anterosuperior portion of the labrum off the glenoid. This observation was verified at arthroscopy by viewing the origin of the biceps tendon into the glenoid labrum as the muscle was electrically stimulated. With stimulation of the muscle, the tendinous portion became quite taut, particularly near its attachment to the glenoid labrum, and actually lifted the labrum off the glenoid. Three-dimensional high-speed cinematography with computer analysis revealed that the moment acting about the elbow joint to extend the joint through an arc of about 50 degrees was in excess of 600 inch-pounds. The extremely high velocity of elbow extension which is generated must be decelerated through the final 30 degrees of elbow extension. Of the muscles of the arm that provide the large deceleration forces in the follow-through phase of throwing, only the biceps brachii traverses both the elbow joint and the shoulder joint. Additional forces are generated in the biceps tendon in its function as a "shunt" muscle to stabilize the glenohumeral joint during the throwing act.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [The effect of the motion of forefoot joint at the force exerted upon the floor during walking exercise]. (United States)

    Maeda, A; Nishizono, H; Ebashi, H; Shibayama, H


    In walking exercise the human body is exposed to external forces. Some of them are produced by constraints such as surface, shoes or opponent. In kick action of walking, the ground reaction force (GRF) is the most important external force. The magnitude of the GRF, its direction, and point of application have an influence on the load on the human body. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of forefoot joint (artt. metatarsophalangeae) at the force exerted upon the floor during kick action of walking. The device used in this study to analyze the GRF and its three components consists of Kistler's force platform. Output from force transducer was collected online with a TEAC data recorder and MEM-4101 minicomputer. The impact force measurements were taken from the anterior-posterior force time curves at the take-off for 1 subject walking 10 trials at 2 m/sec with 2 different pairs of shoes (Shoes 1: thin sole of 4mm, and Shoes 2: thick sole of 40mm) and without shoes. High speed (200f/sec) cinematography was also used to analyze the angular displacement of forefoot joint at the take-off of walking exercise. The force acting at the forefoot joint may produce the anterior-posterior force of the GRF which is defined as the propelling power acting on the human body during walking exercise. The result showed that the impact force peak occurred 40-60 msec before take-off and the propelling part of kick action accounted for only about 6% of the external force.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940). (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt


    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period.

  6. Neurocinematography in Pre-World War II Netherlands: The Magnus-Rademaker Collection. (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt; Hielscher, Eva


    Historical films made by neuroscientists have shown up in several countries during past years. Although originally supposed to have been lost, we recently found a collection of films produced between 1909 and 1940 by Rudolf Magnus (1873-1927), professor of pharmacology (Utrecht) and his student Gysbertus Rademaker (1887-1957), professor of physiology (1928, succeeding Willem Einthoven) and neurology (1945, both in Leiden). Both collections deal with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were done with animals (labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brainstem sections) and observations on patients. The films demonstrate the results of these studies. Moreover, there are films with babies showing tonic neck reflexes and moving images capturing adults with cerebellar symptoms following cerebellectomies for tumors and several other conditions. Magnus' studies resulted in his well-known Körperstellung (1924, "Body Posture") and Rademaker's research in his Das Stehen (1931, "Standing"). The films probably had an educative and scientific purpose. Magnus demonstrated his films at congresses, including the Eighth International Congress of Physiologists (Vienna, 1910) and Rademaker screened his moving images at meetings of the Amsterdam Neurologists Society (at several occasions as reflected in the Winkler-Monakow correspondence and the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde). Next to these purposes, the films were used to analyze movement and a series of images from the films were published in articles and books. The films are important historical sources that provide a portrait of the pre-World War II era in neuroscience, partly answering questions on how physicians dealt with patients and researchers with their laboratory animals. Moreover, the films confirm that cinematography was an important scientific tool in neuroscience research.

  7. Synthesis of WO 3 nanoparticles for superthermites by the template method from silica spheres (United States)

    Gibot, Pierre; Comet, Marc; Vidal, Loic; Moitrier, Florence; Lacroix, Fabrice; Suma, Yves; Schnell, Fabien; Spitzer, Denis


    Nanosized WO 3 tungsten trioxide was prepared by calcination of H 3P 4W 12O 40· xH 2O phosphotungstic acid, previously dissolved in a silica colloidal solution. The influence of the silica spheres/tungsten precursor weight ratio ( x) was investigated. The pristine oxide powders were characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM and TEM techniques. A specific surface area and a pore volume of 64.2 m 2 g -1 and 0.33 cm 3 g -1, respectively, were obtained for the well-crystallized WO 3 powder prepared with x = 2/3 and after the removal of the silica template. The WO 3 particles exhibit a sphere-shaped morphology with a particle size of 13 and 320 nm as function of the x ratio. The performance and the sensitivity levels of the thermites prepared from aluminium nanoparticles mixed with (i) the smallest tungsten (VI) oxide material and (ii) the microscale WO 3 were compared. The combustion of these energetic composites was investigated by time resolved cinematography (TRC). This unconventional experimental technique consists to ignite the dried compressed composites by using a CO 2 laser beam, in order to determine their ignition delay time (IDT) and their combustion rate. The downsizing WO 3 particles improves, without ambiguity, the energetic performances of the WO 3/Al thermite. For instance, the ignition delay time was greatly shortened from 54 ± 10 ms to 5.7 ± 0.2 ms and the combustion velocity was increased by a factor 50 to reach a value of 4.1 ± 0.3 m/s. In addition, the use of WO 3 nanoparticles sensitizes the mixture to mechanical stimuli but decreases the sensitivity to electrostatic discharge.

  8. Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils (United States)

    Wilder, M. C.


    An effort to understand and control the unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils was funded for three years through the NASA cooperative agreement program. As part of this effort a substantial data base was compiled detailing the effects various parameters have on the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Parameters studied include Mach number, pitch rate, and pitch history, as well as Reynolds number (through two different model chord lengths) and the condition of the boundary layer at the leading edge of the airfoil (through application of surface roughness). It was found for free stream Mach numbers as low as 0.4 that a region of supersonic flow forms on the leading edge of the suction surface of the airfoil at moderate angles of attack. The shocks which form in this supersonic region induce boundary-layer separation and advance the dynamic stall process. Under such conditions a supercritical airfoil profile is called for to produce a flow field having a weaker leading-edge pressure gradient and no leading-edge shocks. An airfoil having an adaptive-geometry, or dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE), is under development as a unique active flow-control device. The DDLE, formed of carbon-fiber composite and fiberglass, can be flexed between a NACA 0012 profile and a supercritical profile in a controllable fashion while the airfoil is executing an angle-of-attack pitch-up maneuver. The dynamic stall data were recorded using point diffraction interferometry (PDI), a noninvasive measurement technique. A new high-speed cinematography system was developed for recording interferometric images. The system is capable of phase-locking with the pitching airfoil motion for real-time documentation of the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Computer-aided image analysis algorithms were developed for fast and accurate reduction of the images, improving interpretation of the results.

  9. Noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric monitoring of multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouki, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada); Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab.


    A condensed review of recent advances accomplished in the development and the applications of noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric measurement techniques to multiphase flows and systems is presented. In recent years utilization of such noninvasive techniques has become widespread in many engineering disciplines that deal with systems involving two immiscible phases or more. Tomography provides concentration, holdup, or 2D or 3D density distribution of at least one component of the multiphase system, whereas velocimetry provides the dynamic features of the phase of interest such as the flow pattern, the velocity field, the 2D or 3D instantaneous movements, etc. The following review is divided into two parts. The first part summarizes progress and developments in flow imaging techniques using {gamma}-ray and X-ray transmission tomography; X-ray radiography; neutron transmission tomography and radiography; positron emission tomography; X-ray diffraction tomography; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; electrical capacitance tomography; optical tomography; microwave tomography; and ultrasonic tomography. The second part of the review summarizes progress and developments in the following velocimetry techniques: positron emission particle tracking; radioactive particle tracking; cinematography; laser-Doppler anemometry; particle image velocimetry; and fluorescence particle image velocimetry. The basic principles of tomography and velocimetry techniques are outlined, along with advantages and limitations inherent to each technique. The hydrodynamic and structural information yielded by these techniques is illustrated through a literature survey on their successful applications to the study of multiphase systems in such fields as particulate solids processes, fluidization engineering, porous media, pipe flows, transport within packed beds and sparged reactors, etc.

  10. Effect of operation conditions of the drop-on-demand aerosol generator on aerosol characteristics: Pseudo-cinematographic and plasma mass spectrometric studies (United States)

    Orlandini v. Niessen, Jan O.; Krone, Karin M.; Bings, Nicolas H.


    The recently presented drop-on-demand (DOD) aerosol generator overcomes some of the drawbacks of pneumatic nebulization, as its aerosol is no longer generated by gas-liquid interaction. In the current study, an advanced imaging technique is presented, based on a CCD camera equipped with magnifying telecentric optics to allow for fast, automated and precise aerosol characterization as well as fundamental studies on the droplet generation processes by means of pseudo-cinematography. The DOD aerosol generator is thoroughly characterized regarding its droplet size distribution, which shows few distinct populations rather than a continuous distribution. Other important figures, such as the Sauter diameter (D3,2) of 22 μm and the span of 0.4 were also determined. Additionally, the influence of the electrical operation conditions of the dosing device on the aerosol generation process is described. The number and volume of the generated droplets were found to be very reproducible and user-variable, e.g. from 17 to 27 μm (D3,2), within a span of 0.07-0.89. The performances of different setups of the DOD as liquid sample introduction system in ICP-MS are correlated to the respective achievable aerosol characteristics and are also compared to the performance of a state-of-the-art μ-flow nebulizer (EnyaMist). The DOD system allowed for improved sensitivity, but slightly elevated signal noise and overall comparable limits of detection. The results are critically discussed and future directions are outlined.

  11. Actively learning human gaze shifting paths for semantics-aware photo cropping. (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Gao, Yue; Ji, Rongrong; Xia, Yingjie; Dai, Qionghai; Li, Xuelong


    Photo cropping is a widely used tool in printing industry, photography, and cinematography. Conventional cropping models suffer from the following three challenges. First, the deemphasized role of semantic contents that are many times more important than low-level features in photo aesthetics. Second, the absence of a sequential ordering in the existing models. In contrast, humans look at semantically important regions sequentially when viewing a photo. Third, the difficulty of leveraging inputs from multiple users. Experience from multiple users is particularly critical in cropping as photo assessment is quite a subjective task. To address these challenges, this paper proposes semantics-aware photo cropping, which crops a photo by simulating the process of humans sequentially perceiving semantically important regions of a photo. We first project the local features (graphlets in this paper) onto the semantic space, which is constructed based on the category information of the training photos. An efficient learning algorithm is then derived to sequentially select semantically representative graphlets of a photo, and the selecting process can be interpreted by a path, which simulates humans actively perceiving semantics in a photo. Furthermore, we learn a prior distribution of such active graphlet paths from training photos that are marked as aesthetically pleasing by multiple users. The learned priors enforce the corresponding active graphlet path of a test photo to be maximally similar to those from the training photos. Experimental results show that: 1) the active graphlet path accurately predicts human gaze shifting, and thus is more indicative for photo aesthetics than conventional saliency maps and 2) the cropped photos produced by our approach outperform its competitors in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

  12. Experimental visualization of temperature fields and study of heat transfer enhancement in oscillatory flow in a grooved channel (United States)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E.

    An experimental study was conducted of incompressible, moderate Reynolds number flow of air over heated rectangular blocks in a two-dimensional, horizontal channel. Holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in self- sustained oscillatory flow. Experiments were conducted in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes for Reynolds numbers in the range from Re=520 to Re=6600. Interferometric measurements were obtained in the thermally and fluiddynamically periodically fully developed flow region on the ninth heated block. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re=1054 and Re=1318. The period of oscillations, wavelength and propagation speed of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the main channel were measured at two characteristic flow velocities, Re=1580 and Re=2370. For these Reynolds numbers it was observed that two to three waves span one geometric periodicity length. At Re=1580 the dominant oscillation frequency was found to be around 26Hz and at Re=2370 the frequency distribution formed a band around 125Hz. Results regarding heat transfer and pressure drop are presented as a function of the Reynolds number, in terms of the block-average Nusselt number and the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. Measurements of the local Nusselt number together with visual observations indicate that the lateral mixing caused by flow instabilities is most pronounced along the upstream vertical wall of the heated block in the groove region, and it is accompanied by high heat transfer coefficients. At Reynolds numbers beyond the onset of oscillations the heat transfer in the grooved channel exceeds the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel.

  13. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel (United States)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E.

    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re=200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re=1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re=350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties also

  14. Estetik Bir Öğe Olarak Sinemada Ses Tasarımı Ve Örnek Bir Film Çözümlemesi Sound Design As An Aesthetical Element In Cinema And An Example Of A Film Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SÖZEN


    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the image itself, even in a film having the simplest story, does not provide enough message. Due to a spesific aesthetic predication of audio phonemena, the films, right from the beginning, started to be shown in accompany with sound. The soundelement in cinematography which produces the semantic expression asa parlance by means of images and sounds has its own ways of use.The sound universe of cinematography is composed of dialogs, effectsand music each having different ontologies. In today’s cinematography,all these three elements were given in. For all that, in some filmsproduced for certain aesthetic considerations and in limited numbersthe usage of effects and music are avoided. Looking at the elementsmaking up the universe of sound in a film from the perspective ofessential functions it is seen that the dialogs are used to provideinformation, effects to create a real spatial and temporal feeling, andmusic to conceive the ambiance required by narrative. By doing so,matching the sounds in harmony with images is achieved and so theenhancement of the narrative’s reality illusion is expected. Somedirectors on the other hand, by pushing the sound out of its basicfunctions, rendering images and sounds contrary oppose this approachgo in search of producing different and new meanings. This studyinvestigates the how the sound universe design of the film “Deli DeliOlma” directed by Murat Saracoğlu, as an aesthetic element ismanipulated. In analysis, sound universe has been assesed either bystructural or dramatic functional dimensions. En basit öyküye sahip bir filmde bile sadece görüntülerin yeteri kadar ileti sağlamadığı bilinen bir gerçekliktir. Ses olgusunun kendine özgü estetik bir yükleme sahip oluşundan ötürü, sinemanın ilk anlarından itibaren filmler ses eşliğinde gösterilmeye başlanmıştır. Bir dil olarak anlamsal ifadeyi görüntü ve sesler aracılığıyla üreten sinemada ses

  15. Teatro-cine Eileen Norris - California (EE.UU.

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    Martin, Albert C.


    Full Text Available This building forms a part of the substructure of the Department of the Cinema of the University of Southern California. Among its various functions, it includes the practical teaching of cinematography. It consists of a ground floor for accesses and auditorium, with a surface measuring 1,950 m2, and a basement of the same extension, designed for a film library and film deposit. The auditorium has a capacity for 350 spectators and is equipped with a screen adaptable to the projection of 16, 35 and 70 mm films, as well as equipment for the projection of slides and video tapes. It can also be conditioned as a lecture hall, for which purpose, complete sets of equipment fort simultaneous translation have been installed. On the outside, the architecture presents a neoclassical design, based on a portico of four large white cement columns, which combines with Marble exteriors on the walls.

    Este edificio forma parte de la infraestructura del Departamento de Cine de la Universidad de California del Sur. Entre sus diversas funciones comprende la enseñanza práctica de la cinematografía. Consta de una planta baja destinada a accesos y auditorio, de 1.950 m2 de superficie, y un sótano, de la misma extensión, destinado a biblioteca de cine y a depósito de películas. El auditorio tiene capacidad para 350 espectadores y cuenta con una pantalla adaptable a la proyección de films de 16, 35 y 70 mm, así como con equipos para la proyección de diapositivas y cintas de video-tapes. Puede acondicionarse, igualmente, como sala de conferencias, para lo cual se han instalado unos completos equipos de traducción simultánea. Exteriormente, la arquitectura presenta un diseño neoclásico, basado en un pórtico de cuatro grandes columnas de cemento blanco que combina con revestimientos de mármol y en los paramentos verticales.

  16. Special effects used in creating 3D animated scenes-part 1 (United States)

    Avramescu, A. M.


    In present, with the help of computer, we can create special effects that look so real that we almost don't perceive them as being different. These special effects are somehow hard to differentiate from the real elements like those on the screen. With the increasingly accesible 3D field that has more and more areas of application, the 3D technology goes easily from architecture to product designing. Real like 3D animations are used as means of learning, for multimedia presentations of big global corporations, for special effects and even for virtual actors in movies. Technology, as part of the movie art, is considered a prerequisite but the cinematography is the first art that had to wait for the correct intersection of technological development, innovation and human vision in order to attain full achievement. Increasingly more often, the majority of industries is using 3D sequences (three dimensional). 3D represented graphics, commercials and special effects from movies are all designed in 3D. The key for attaining real visual effects is to successfully combine various distinct elements: characters, objects, images and video scenes; like all these elements represent a whole that works in perfect harmony. This article aims to exhibit a game design from these days. Considering the advanced technology and futuristic vision of designers, nowadays we have different and multifarious game models. Special effects are decisively contributing in the creation of a realistic three-dimensional scene. These effects are essential for transmitting the emotional state of the scene. Creating the special effects is a work of finesse in order to achieve high quality scenes. Special effects can be used to get the attention of the onlooker on an object from a scene. Out of the conducted study, the best-selling game of the year 2010 was Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. This way, the article aims for the presented scene to be similar with many locations from this type of games, more

  17. Bubbling at high flow rates in inviscid and viscous liquids (slags) (United States)

    Engh, T. Abel; Nilmani, M.


    The behavior of gas discharging into melts at high velocities but still in the bubbling regime has been investigated in a laboratory modeling study for constant flow conditions. Air or helium was injected through a vertical tuyere into water, zinc-chloride, and aqueous glycerol solutions. High speed cinematography and pressure measurements in the tuyere have been carried out simultaneously. Pressure fluctuations at the injection point were monitored and correlated to the mode of bubble formation. The effects of high gas flow rates and high liquid viscosities have been examined in particular. Flow rates were employed up to 10-3 m3/s and viscosity to 0.5 Ns/m2. In order to attain a high gas momentum, the tuyere diameter was only 3 x 10-3 m. The experimental conditions and modeling liquids were chosen with special reference to the established practice of submerged gas injection to treat nonferrous slags. Such slags can be highly viscous. Bubble volume is smaller than that calculated from existing models such as those given by Davidson and Schüler10,11 due to the effect of gas momentum elongating the bubbles. On the other hand, viscosity tends to retard the bubble rise velocity, thus increasing volumes. To take elongation into account, a mathematical model is presented that assumes a prolate ellipsoidal shape of the bubbles. The unsteady potential flow equations for the liquid are solved for this case. Viscous effects are taken into account by noting that flow deviates from irrotational motion only in a thin boundary layer along the surface of the bubble. Thus, drag on the bubble can be obtained by calculating the viscous energy dissipation for potential flow past an ellipse. The time-dependent inertia coefficient for the ellipsoid is found by equating the vertical pressure increase inside and outside the bubble. This pressure change in the bubble is obtained by assuming that gas enters as a homogeneous jet and then calculating the stagnation pressure at the apex of

  18. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria. (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S


    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  19. A study of the wall/jet interaction on a transient spray. Application to diesel injection; Etude de l'interaction jet/paroi dans un spray transitoire. Application a l'injection diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chale Gongora, H.G.


    The aim of this work is to better understand the mechanisms that govern the formation and development of the parietal flow occurring during the impact of a diesel fuel jet on a plate. In order to isolate the dynamical aspects of the phenomenon, a non-confined experimental configuration at ambient temperature and pressure has been used. The behaviour of the dispersed phase for different conditions of jet approach and different plate temperatures has been analyzed. Velocity and diameter fields of the free zone and of the parietal zone have been measured using a laser doppler apparatus up to a plate surface resolution of 0.2 mm. In a first step, an estimation of the average time value gives information about the global behaviour of the spray: the plate effect is sensible up to a very reduced distance but increases with the plate temperature, the momentum of the parietal jet is localized in a zone very close to the wall, an increase of the droplets size and of radial velocities in the parietal zone is observed when the nozzle is moved closer to the wall, and the increase of the plate temperature facilitates the jet penetration and leads to a reduction of the droplets size (increase of the shear stresses) and to a reduction of the liquid film thickness submitted to splashing. In order to examine the behaviour of velocity and droplets diameter with time, a processing has been defined which provides an average description of the phenomena. A laser tomography study in association with fast cinematography and CCD camera video recording has permitted to outline the main aspects of the evolution of the parietal spray with time: fast development of a swirl which drags most of the small droplets and limits their dispersion, effect of the temperature rise of the plate in the beginning of fuel injection, development of a more intense swirl which leads to an increase of velocity fluctuations, development of wavelet structures in the internal zone of the flow, near the wall, and

  20. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

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    Frédérique Brisset


    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  1. KROTOS FCI experimental programme at CEA Cadarache: new features and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, J.M.; Bullado, Y.; Journeau, C.; Fouquart, P.; Piluso, P.; Sergeant, C.; Magallon, D. [CEA-Cadarache, DTN/STRI/LMA, Bat 708, BP1, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)


    Full text of publication follows: KROTOS facility has been operated by the European Commission at JRC-Ispra for many years until 1999 as part of the FARO/KROTOS programme. The programme had to be stopped at JRC due to new EC priorities, and an agreement was concluded with CEA to transfer the KROTOS facility and know-how to Cadarache to continue investigating the pending FCI issues. By this agreement, CEA became owner of the facility. The main objective of the KROTOS programme at CEA Cadarache is understanding the role of melt properties in steam explosion propagation and energetics and, in particular, steam explosion behaviour of prototypical corium melts. Possible influence of physicochemical processes on explosiveness will also be explored. Actually, analysis of alumina debris produced at Ispra have shown that formation of metastable phases and chemical reaction with water at high temperature may play a significant role in enhancing heat transfer to water in the explosion phase. In order to reach the objective, steam explosion experiments are performed in well characterised conditions for a large spectrum of conditions and melt compositions of interest for both in- and ex-vessel situations. A trigger is applied as a rule. Advanced technology and instrumentation is used to reduce uncertainties on initial conditions and characterise the various phases of an explosion, with emphasis on high energy X-ray cinematography to qualify pre-mixing. This advanced instrumentation will enable the measurement of detailed variables to consolidate the qualification of the FCI codes. The use of high energy X-rays made it necessary to construct a new building to house the facility and its components. The facility should newly become operative early 2005. Main improvements with respect to Ispra concern melt delivery, hydrogen measurement and X-ray imaging. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that identification of the pre-mixture-water interface and coherent melt jet core, and

  2. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  3. 1. Dose reduction of occupational exposure in cardiac catheterization and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yoshimi [Kyushu Kosei Nenkin Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Fujihashi, Hiroshi; Umeda, Kazuhiro


    Occupational exposure to scattered radiation and protective equipment was assessed in 4 medical institutions in Kyushu, Japan. The areas where scattered radiation occurred, the scattered radiation dose in the operator's position, fluoroscopy time, the number of cinematography sessions, and annual number of patients were assessed, and the annual scattered radiation dose to the operator was estimated. Approximately 90% of scattered radiation was generated by the subject and the collimator. Measurement of scattered radiation during coronary arteriography yielded a dose of 255-1200 [{mu}Sv/hr.] during fluoroscopy and 3.8-26.7 [{mu}Sv/10 sec.] during radiography. The duration of fluoroscopy for ablation was much longer than during general examinations and PTCA, suggesting a possible contribution to occupational exposure. The data for the past 5 years show no marked change in total number of catheterizations, but the number of ablations has rapidly increased. Ablation requires specific skills, and thus it is frequently performed by only a few staff members, resulting in exposure being concentrated in a few specific persons. The estimated doses of scattered radiation to the eyes and thyroid gland, which are assumed to be the most highly exposed sites, were 116.2 [mSv/year] during fluoroscopy and 8.9 [mSv/year] during radiography, for a total of 125.1 [mSv/year]. This dose is very close to the maximum occupational exposure dose recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), i.e., 150 [mSv/year]. A protective device that does not impose a burden on the operator or limit the functions of x-ray units was installed on top of the examining table as a measure to reduce the occupational dose. In an experiment using this device the scattered radiation dose during inguinal puncture decreased from 0.8 [mSv/hr.] to 0.02 [mSv/hr.], and the shielding rate was 2.5%. The dose was reduced 97.5%. The authors conclude that radiological personnel must make

  4. Biblioteca Publica en Huntington Beach (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Historico, Dion


    Full Text Available The first stage, which is the only one completed up to the present time, consists of a more extensive architectural complex conceived for housing different cultural functions besides the library: plastic arts, cinematography, scientific and informative activities, etc. The building is organized in two main floors in a rectangular shape, and in several mezzanines, reading rooms, book deposits, projection areas, music and painting departments and technical administration and maintenance offices, occupying a total of approximately 4,400 m2. The architectural design denotes the intention of integration in the treatment of the inside spaces, by the suppression of separate compartments, organizing the necessary distinction of functions in the reading rooms, by means of differences of floor levels and with the use of adequate decorative elements. In the same manner, the outside walls have been substituted by complete glass surfaces which allow full incorporation of the natural surroundings in the architecture.Constituye la primera fase, única realizada hasta el presente, de un complejo arquitectónico más amplio concebido para albergar distintas funciones culturales además de biblioteca: artes plásticas, cinematografía, actividades científicas e informativas, etc. El edificio se organiza en dos plantas principales, de forma rectangular, y en diversas entreplantas, salas de lectura, depósitos de libros, locales de proyección, departamentos de música y pintura, y oficinas técnicas de administración y mantenimiento, ocupando un total aproximado de 4.400 m2. El planteamiento arquitectónico denota un propósito integrador en el tratamiento de los espacios interiores, por la supresión de las compartimentaciones de fábrica, organizándose la necesaria distinción de ambientes en las salas de lectura, mediante diferencias de nivel del suelo y con el empleo de adecuados elementos decorativos. Del mismo modo, los muros de fachada se han

  5. Descolonización y cine: la propuesta indígena de Jorge Sanjinés hoy

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    Núria Vilanova


    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of Jorge Sanjinés’ cinema in current Latin American cinematography, specifically in Bolivia. The central idea argues that despite the favourable political situation Bolivia is at the present experiencing, with the arrival of Evo Morales to the Presidency in the year 2006, the declaration of Bolivia as a multinational State, and the growing prominence of aymaras and quechuas in the national political arena, indigenous film as envisioned by Sanjinés has not been fully developed. The article puts forward the difficulties which the national and international film industry face in incorporating a type of film that does not respond to the expectations of a mainstream public, makes no concessions to the Western viewer, and provides no cultural filters to pave the viewer’s understanding and persuade him or her cinematically.Este artículo explora la herencia del cine de Jorge Sanjinés en el cine latinoamericano actual y muy específicamente en el boliviano. La idea central argumenta que a pesar de la favorable coyuntura política que vive Bolivia con la llegada de Evo Morales a la presidencia en el año 2006, la declaración de Bolivia como un Estado plurinacional y el creciente protagonismo de aymaras y quechuas en la esfera política nacional, el cine indígena, como lo vislumbró Sanjinés, no se ha desarrollado lo suficiente.    El artículo plantea la dificultad de lograr que la industria cinematográfica nacional e internacional sea capaz de incorporar un tipo de películas que    no responde a las expectativas de un público convencional más o menos mayoritario, que no hace concesiones al espectador occidental ni recurre a los filtros necesarios para allanar su comprensión y persuadirle cinemato- gráficamente. 

  6. Effect of operation conditions of the drop-on-demand aerosol generator on aerosol characteristics: Pseudo-cinematographic and plasma mass spectrometric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlandini von Niessen, Jan O.; Krone, Karin M.; Bings, Nicolas H., E-mail:


    The recently presented drop-on-demand (DOD) aerosol generator overcomes some of the drawbacks of pneumatic nebulization, as its aerosol is no longer generated by gas–liquid interaction. In the current study, an advanced imaging technique is presented, based on a CCD camera equipped with magnifying telecentric optics to allow for fast, automated and precise aerosol characterization as well as fundamental studies on the droplet generation processes by means of pseudo-cinematography. The DOD aerosol generator is thoroughly characterized regarding its droplet size distribution, which shows few distinct populations rather than a continuous distribution. Other important figures, such as the Sauter diameter (D{sub 3,2}) of 22 μm and the span of 0.4 were also determined. Additionally, the influence of the electrical operation conditions of the dosing device on the aerosol generation process is described. The number and volume of the generated droplets were found to be very reproducible and user-variable, e.g. from 17 to 27 μm (D{sub 3,2}), within a span of 0.07–0.89. The performances of different setups of the DOD as liquid sample introduction system in ICP-MS are correlated to the respective achievable aerosol characteristics and are also compared to the performance of a state-of-the-art μ-flow nebulizer (EnyaMist). The DOD system allowed for improved sensitivity, but slightly elevated signal noise and overall comparable limits of detection. The results are critically discussed and future directions are outlined. - Graphical abstract: Further characterization of the drop-on-demand aerosol generator for sample introduction in atomic spectrometry. - Highlights: • Significantly improved ICP-MS sensitivity using the DOD vs. EnyaMist. • Comparable detection limits but slightly worse short-term precision. • Superior flexibility compared with conventional/miniaturized pneumatic nebulizers. • Electrical operation conditions of the DOD influence aerosol

  7. Perversion and method. Žižek’s "platonic love" for film, dialectics of exemplification and the catastrophe of psychoanalysis in the cinematic discourse of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulić Borislav


    . It is argued that this asymmetry ultimately causes what Žižek rejects in principle: a substitution of materialism and contingency of truth-search for a holism of sense. Consequently this seems to turn the psychoanalytic discourse on cinematography into a hermeneutic one.

  8. Programmed electromyographic activity and negative incremental muscle stiffness in monkeys jumping downward. (United States)

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Laursen, A M


    We trained monkeys to jump down from different heights, and recorded electromyograms (e.m.g.s) in arm muscles, and ground reaction forces. The landing movements were also recorded by high-speed cinematography. The e.m.g. of the triceps began about 80 ms before landing. The initial burst lasted until about 20 ms after ground contact and was succeeded by bursts of gradually declining amplitude. These discharges were not of reflex origin, because when the monkey was deceived by a collapsible platform, they were time-locked to the expected, not to the true landing. The amplitude of the e.m.g. in the triceps increased with the height of the jump, indicating adaptive control. The timing of the e.m.g. pattern was assumed to be programmed before take off, because it was unaffected by extinction of the light during the fall. The vertical ground reaction force produced by the arms had an inflexion on its rising phase which arose from the very rapid stretch of the muscles which control the wrist. Then came a sharp peak produced mainly by stretch of the triceps. The inflexion and the sharp peak were probably produced by short-range stiffness of the muscles of the upper arm. The torque acting on the elbow joint, and the elbow joint stiffness were calculated from the ground reaction forces and the movement of the arm. The torque was high at impact and gradually declined during the landing. The force produced by the triceps increased sharply, then decreased while it continued to lengthen. Thus, the elbow joint showed high initial stiffness, which then decreased, and finally became negative. This dynamic relation between length and tension was very different from the static length-tension characteristic of skeletal muscles. The observed behaviour of the muscles presumably takes advantage of the resistance of the musculo-skeletal system to transient forces. The observed negative stiffness occurs only during submaximal contractions. We propose that the segmented pattern in the e

  9. Investigation of Atomization and Combustion Performance of Renewable Biofuels and the Effects of Ethanol Blending in Biodiesel (United States)

    Silver, Adam Gregory

    This thesis presents results from an experimental investigation of the macroscopic and microscopic atomization and combustion behavior of B99 biodiesel, ethanol, B99-ethanol blends, methanol, and an F-76-Algae biodiesel blend. In addition, conventional F-76 and Diesel #2 sprays were characterized as a base case to compare with. The physical properties and chemical composition of each fuel were measured in order to characterize and predict atomization performance. A variety of B99-ethanol fuel blends were used which demonstrate a tradeoff between lower density, surface tension, and viscosity with a decrease in the air to liquid ratio. A plain jet air-blast atomizer was used for both non-reacting and reacting tests. The flow rates for the alternative fuels were set by matching the power input provided by the baseline fossil fuels in order to simulate use as a drop in replacement. For this study, phase Doppler interferometry is employed to gain information on drop size, SMD, velocity, and volume flux distribution across the spray plume. A high speed camera is used to gather high speed cinematography of the sprays for observing breakup characteristics and providing additional insight. Reacting flow tests captured NOx, CO, and UHC emissions along with high speed footage used to predict soot levels based on flame luminosity. The results illustrate how the fuel type impacts the atomization and spray characteristics. The air-blast atomizer resulted in similar atomization performance among the DF2, F-76, and the F-76/Algae blend. While methanol and ethanol are not suitable candidates for this air-blast configuration and B99 produces significantly larger droplets, the addition of ethanol decreased drop sizes for all B99-ethanol blends by approximately 5 microns. In regards to reacting conditions, increased ethanol blending to B99 consistently lowered NOx emissions while decreasing combustion efficiency. Overall, lower NOx and CO emissions were achieved with the fuel blends

  10. Música e imágenes hasta la llegada del cine. (Linterna mágica, armónica de cristal, fantasmagorías y teatro de sombras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armell Femenía, Montserrat


    Full Text Available The prehistory of talking movies where the coordination of moving images and sound is concerned, comprises a very extensive period of time of thousands of years stretching from the musical illustration of projected shadows as documented in Ancient China, up to practically the very dawn of cinematography, a technological advance unthinkable today more than ever without the contribution that music and sound have made to the so-called seventh art. This study sets out to offer an overall view of the history of continued human interest in capturing movement in sound and vision at the same moment in time, paying particular attention to certain technical achievements of some relevance (the magic lantern, the harmonic crystal, phantasmagories and the theatre of shadows within the evolution that was to facilitate the birth of the "talkies". A simple introduction to a fascinating and modern world, that, from a purely musicological view is practically nonexistent today (the meagre and marginal bibliography available is the best evidence of that and which requires new and more detailed studies to be done.

    La "pre-historia" del cine hablado, en lo relativo a la coordinación de imágenes en movimiento y sonido, supone un período extensísimo de tiempo, que abarca miles de años, desde la ilustración sonora de sombras proyectadas documentada en la antigua China, hasta prácticamente los albores del cinematógrafo, un avance tecnológico impensable —hoy en día más que nunca— sin la aportación que música y sonido han hecho al denominado séptimo arte. El presente trabajo pretende ofrecer una panorámica de la historia de la —documentadamente inconexa, aunque continua— preocupación humana por fijar el movimiento de un modo visual y sonoro a un tiempo, prestando particular atención a algunos logros técnicos de especial relevancia (la linterna mágica, la armónica de cristal, las fantasmagorías, el teatro de sombras, dentro del recorrido

  11. L’image sonore contemporaine : entre misère symbolique et imaginaire sonore

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    Vincent Tiffon


    Full Text Available L’histoire de la musique peut s’écrire comme l’évolution progressive mais déterminante de deux grands paradigmes technologiques, celui de l’écriture et celui du son. L’enregistrement sonore modifie en profondeur l’économie de la musique en inventant notamment de nouveaux modes d’invention du sonore et de nouvelles pratiques d’écoute du sonore. On élargit alors le domaine du musical en inventant l’image sonore. À l’instar des autres arts de studio, la photographie, la cinématographie, la vidéo…, la phonographie prend le réel comme matériau immédiat. L’effet de réalité qui en résulte conduit au glissement progressif de la musique comme objet cultuel (avant le xive siècle, à la musique comme objet industriel (depuis 1970 en passant par la musique comme objet culturel (entre le xive siècle et le xxe siècle ; ce faisant, le risque d’une « désorientation » est bien réel. D’où une cartographie floue entre culture, art et phénomènes de société. L’image sonore semble s’inscrire entre « misère symbolique » et imaginaire, entre l’industrie musicale et l’avant-garde.The history of music can be written as the gradual yet decisive evolution of two great technological paradigms: the paradigms of writing and of sound. Sound recording has profoundly altered the organization of music, notably through the invention of new modes of sound invention and new practices of listening to sound phenomena. It is precisely at this point that the field of music has been widened by the invention of the sound image. After the fashion of the other arts of the studio (photography, cinematography, video and so on, phonography has reality itself as its unmediated material. The resulting reality effect has led to the gradual shift from music as liturgical object (before the 14th century to music as industrial object (since 1970 via music as cultural object (between the 14th century and the 20th century. In

  12. L’écriture cinématographique de la sociologie filmique. Comment penser en sociologue avec une caméra ? Film writing and the sociology of film. Shooting a film through a sociological lense La escritura cinematográfica de la sociología fílmica ¿Cómo pensar como sociólogo sirviéndose de una cámara?

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    Pierre Maillot


    Full Text Available Les frères Lumière ont inventé, à la fin du XIXe siècle, un nouveau moyen pour représenter le réel et l’organiser dans une vision du monde : le cinématographe, c’est-à-dire un nouveau langage, une nouvelle écriture. Cet outil, (caméra/microphone ne construit plus son discours avec les mots de l’écriture graphique, mais avec des images (et des sons dans l’écriture photo- ou cinémato-graphique. L’utilisation de ce nouveau mode d’expression implique un double apprentissage. En premier lieu la connaissance des capacités des outils et la maîtrise de leur manipulation. On ne filme pas si l’on n’est pas photographe ou cinéaste. Un second apprentissage est nécessaire, il concerne la capacité non plus seulement technique, mais esthétique-sémantique (c’est une même chose, de construire un discours dans l’écriture photo-cinématographique. Cet article propose une intoduction aux problèmes fondamentaux de ce double apprentissage.Late in the XIXth century, the brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière invented a new way of representing and organising reality to create a vision of the world. This new language or mode of expression - cinematography – was comprised of tools (cameras, microphones that no longer constructed discourse through the written word but by images (and sounds conveyed by photo- or cinematographic writing. Two lessons had to be learnt before the new vehicle could be adopted, however. Firstly, participants needed to know about their tools’ functions and how these might be wielded. After all, the only people who can film or take pictures are photographers or cinematographers. Secondly, they had to develop the aesthetic – and, synonymously, semantic – capacity to construct discourse through photo and cinematographic expression. The present article introduces the basic issues associated with these two learning processes.A fines del siglo XIX, los hermanos Lumière inventaron un nuevo medio para

  13. An Experimental Study on the Dynamics of a Single Droplet Vapor Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concilio Hansson, Roberta


    The present study aims to develop a mechanistic understanding of the thermal-hydraulic processes in a vapor explosion, which may occur in nuclear power plants during a hypothetical severe accident involving interactions of high-temperature corium melt and volatile coolant. Over the past several decades, a large body of literature has been accumulated on vapor explosion phenomenology and methods for assessment of the related risk. Vapor explosion is driven by a rapid fragmentation of high temperature melt droplets, leading to a substantial increase of heat transfer areas and subsequent explosive evaporation of the volatile coolant. Constrained by the liquid-phase coolant, the rapid vapor production in the interaction zone causes pressurization and dynamic loading on surrounding structures. While such a general understanding has been established, the triggering mechanism and subsequent dynamic fine fragmentation have yet not been clearly understood. A few mechanistic fragmentation models have been proposed, however, computational efforts to simulate the phenomena generated a large scatter of results. Dynamics of the hot liquid (melt) droplet and the volatile liquid (coolant) are investigated in the MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) facility by performing well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments, using a high-speed visualization system with synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography, called SHARP (Simultaneous High-speed Acquisition of X-ray Radiography and Photography). After an elaborate image processing, the SHARP images depict the evolution of both melt material (dispersal) and coolant (bubble dynamics), and their microscale interactions, i.e. the triggering phenomenology. The images point to coolant entrainment into the droplet surface as the mechanism for direct contact/mixing ultimately responsible for energetic interactions. Most importantly, the MISTEE data reveals an inverse

  14. HPLC Analysis of Fresh Rehmannia Glutinosa Libosch in Serum of Rats with Blood Heat and Hemorrhage Syndrome Animal Model%血热出血模型大鼠血清中鲜地黄高效液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜新莲; 段红福; 崔瑛; 冯静; 杨云


    目的:对阴虚血热出血大鼠含鲜地黄血清进行分析,探索鲜地黄清热凉血药效的物质基础.方法:给予血热出血症模型大鼠鲜地黄,采集血清,用高效液相色谱法分析大鼠含药血清、正常血清以及鲜地黄药材的色谱,研究鲜地黄在血中移行成分以及鲜地黄对大鼠血清中固有成分的影响.结果:在血热出血症模型大鼠含药血清中检测到了鲜地黄的有效成分——梓醇的色谱峰;且发现血清中和药材中有3种相同的共有成分;鲜地黄对模型大鼠血清中1种固有成分的升高有抑制作用.结论:鲜地黄中梓醇及3种未明成分可能是其清热凉血物质基础;鲜地黄对动物血清中固有成分代谢的影响可能是鲜地黄清热凉血药效的机制.%Objective:To investigate bioactive components of fresh Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. In heat - clearing and blood - cooling efficacy by analysis of it - contained serum of rats with yin - deficiency and heat - flourishing hemorrhage. Methods; High - performance liquid cinematography ( HPLC) was adopted to analyze the differences of chromatographs among drug - contained serum, the normal serum and fresh R. Glutinosa material, and to explore transferred components and natural ingredients of serum in rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome animal model treated with fresh R. Glutinosa. Results: Catalpol as one of bioactive components was detected in serum of rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome animal model. Meanwhile,three components were found in both fresh R. Glutinosa and it -contained serum. Moreover,fresh R. Glutinosa could prevent the increased amounts of a natural component of serum in rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome animal model. Conclusion .-Captalpol and three unknown ingredients can all be the bioactive components of fresh R. Glutinosa. Furthermore, the mechanism of fresh R. Glutinosa in heat - clearing and blood - cooling efficacy may be related to

  15. Brute Tectonics A Paradox in Contemporary Architecture%粗野建构 当代建筑中的悖论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈沃克·哈图尼安; 周渐佳


    especially its pa materiality, this Recalling the 1950s New Brutalism, rticular engagement with image and essay examines selected works of contemporary architects if only to demonstrate the paradox in the present state of tectonic think We are reminded of Gottfried Semper's theory the tectonic of theatricality, and the criticality dressing for transforming a constructed form ng. of of nto the cultural realm. But what if the pressing issue facing architectural criticism today is the aesthetic of spectacle permeating the present culture? The implied paradox highlights the allegorical references of "brute tectonics" to the notion of cut as appropriated in stereotomy and cinematography. Whilst geometry is central to the image - laden drawings produced in stereotomy and by digital machines, there are a few contemporary architects whose work attempts to intermingle geometry with sculptural tectonics. The present turn to monolithic architecture is of further interest; its tectonic cuts have the potential to shortcut the postmodern approach to communication. In the second place, the anonymity implicit in monolithic architecture (its un-approachability) is of critical importance in reference to the contemporary tendency for formal autonomy, and the prevailing euphoria for the spectacular images garnishing digitally reproduced forms.%文章通过重拾20世纪50年代的新粗野主义,尤其是粗野主义与图像、材料性的特殊关联,来检视当代建筑师的部分作品,借以说明建构思考在当下境况中存在的悖论。我们会想起戈特弗里德·森佩尔有关戏剧化建构的理论,还有"饰面"面临着从建造形式转变成为文化范畴时所具备的批判性。然而,如果现在建筑批评所面临的紧迫议题恰是奇观的审美对当下文化的渗透,情况又会如何?隐含的悖论突出了"粗野建构学"中对"切割"这个专属于切石术与电影术的概念的寓言式借鉴。对于由切

  16. The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in biossays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra O papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida a bioensaios com o moluscicida vegetal Phytolacca dodecandra

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    P. Jurberg


    Full Text Available This work examines the role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 25, 50 75 and 100 mgl-1 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Time-lapse cinematography was used to quantify accurately the following parameters: (a frequency of exits from the solution, (b time spent out of the solution and (c time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. These behavior patterns were statistically compared between surviving snails and those which later died. The proportion of surviving snails leaving the liquid medium was significantly higher than that of dying snails. In addition, the surviving group spent significantly more time out of the solution than the group which died, except for the 100 mgl-1 concentration. However, no significant difference was detected in the time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. It can be concluded that both the tendency to leave the P. dodecandra solutions, and the time spent out of them, contributed significantly to snail survival. Molluscicide bioassays should take into account the possibility that some behavior patterns of planorbids might contribute to the protection of the snails.Este trabalho investiga o papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabarta exposta a 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgI-1 de Phytolacca dodecandra. Foi utilizada a técnica de cinematografia com lapso de tempo para quantificar acuradamente os seguintes parâmetros (a freqüência de saídas da solução, (b tempo de permanência fora da solução e (e tempo decorrido até a primeira saída da soluçao. Estes padrões comportamentais foram estatisticamente comparados no que se refere aos caramujos sobreviventes e aos que vieram a morrer. Dentre os camundongos que abandonaram o meio líquido, a proporção de sobreviventes foi significativamente maior que a de mortos. Além disso, um tempo significativamente maior de permanência fora da solução foi observado no grupo que sobreviveu, em relação ao grupo que veio

  17. El legado de los inmigrantes árabes y judíos al desarrollo económico de la Costa Caribe colombiana y a la conformación de su empresariado entre 1850-2000

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    Katya Inéso Igirio Gamero


    from their hometowns and the main obstacles they found in this new land. Also, who their leaders were, how their social status climbing occured and to establish the main contributions they made to entrepreneurship, politics, and social and cultural development.This historic and regional study, allowed us to see their entrepreneurial intention, aimed to the “help chains”, wide knowledge of international markets and unique ability for bargaining which attracted business people from overseas, such commerce tradition contributed to the industrialization process that the Caribbean Coast witnessed during the XX century; Arabs and Jews ventured in a variety of economic activities in the communities where they established: wholesale and retail, industrial activities, fridges, cattle, cinematography, journalism, culture and politics, which also explains the need they expressed to acquire social status, political connections, capacity to establish relationships with the rest of the society and to promote the right environment for entrepreneurial leadership capable of influencing political decisions regionally and nationwide.Keywords: Help chains; entrepreneurial intention; migration; leadership; personal credits; culture.

  18. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting (United States)

    Uenishi, K.


    , Japan in 2008, for example, seem to support the need for careful mechanical consideration. In this contribution, utilizing two-dimensional dynamic photoelasticity in conjunction with high speed digital cinematography, we try to perform "fully controlled" laboratory experiments of dip-slip faulting and observe the propagation of interface pulses and corner waves mentioned above. A birefringent material containing a (model) dip-slip fault plane is prepared, and rupture is initiated in that material using an Nd:YAG laser system, and the evolution of time-dependent isochromatic fringe patterns (contours of maximum in-plane shear stress) associated with the dynamic process of shallow dip-slip faulting is recorded. Use of Nd:YAG laser pulses, instead of ignition of explosives, for rupture initiation may enhance the safety of laboratory fracture experiments and enable us to evaluate the energy entering the material (and hence the energy balance in the system) more precisely, possibly in a more controlled way.

  19. Minicomputer For Biomechanical Research (United States)

    Shierman, Gail; Rhymes, Tom


    The increased capabilities of minicomputers today allows a biomechanics laboratory to establish a self-contained computer system for a reasonable price. The system includes a microprocessor, a printer and a CRT. Analog to digital conversion is an important feature to consider as well as the ability to interface with a mainframe computer. A minicomputer adapted for film analysis should be a consideration for data analysis when developing a cinematography laboratory. For the past 10-15 years the area of biomechanics has enjoyed the advances in technology. Equipment and instrumentation once used exclusively by engineers and physicists have become readily available to those involved with snorts analyses. Among the various pieces of equipment accessible to biomechanists today, probably the most important one is the computer. At this time several biomechanics laboratories are using the computer to analyze kinematic and kinetic data obtained from film. The computer in use at each school is generally the main University or College computer with a remote terminal set-up in the biomechanics laboratory. This system functions well if there is adequate response from the time-sharing system of the main computer, and if there is at least one knowledgeable technician available. With the trend toward minicomputers today, their increased capabilities, and their ease of use, a self-contained minicomputer system in the biomechanics laboratory appears to be a viable alternative. The computer system in use in the ,Biomechanics Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma is based around the Cromemco Z2D computer connected to a PCD motion analyzer (Figure 1). The data acquisition system consists of the eight-bit microprocessor-based minicomputer connected to an analog to digital converter (ADC). As a terminal for the computer, we have either a video display unit or a Model 43 Teletype. The Model 43 provides a hard copy out-put while the video terminal provides much faster I/O, useful for

  20. 法国电影产业国家资助体系浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>长期以来我们都将法国电影看作是艺术电影,小众电影的代名词,对法国影片总有着叫好不叫座,曲高和寡的成见。提及国家对电影产业扶持政策,总认为法国电影产业的发展依靠的是大量国家财政拨款和资金补助。这些都是对法国电影以及法国电影产业资助体系的片面的理解。回顾2010年,法国电影市场共有超过2亿600多万人次的观影人数,比2009年提高了2.4%,创下自1967年以来的最高观影纪录。票房收入约为12,37亿欧元(按照法国平均票价6欧元换算),票房收入占世界排名第四。其中法国本土电影占市场份额的35.7%,美国影片占47.5%。19部法国国产电影超过100万观影人数,其中8部超过200万观影人数。法国电影产量也创下历史新高,达到261部,与2009年相比增加了31部。电影生产制作投资增长31%,高达14.39亿欧元。可以看出,在面对好莱坞电影的强势冲击,在欧盟电影产业整体疲软的大环境下,法国电影仍然保持一定的产量和市场份额,并显示出强劲的上升势头。而跟美国电影"市场至上"的模式化工业生产不同,纵观法国电影市场,影片类型多种多样,喜剧片、动画片、剧情片、纪录片、艺术片等百家争鸣。2010年,法国艺术和实验影片的票房份额达到了总票房的26.4%,这可以说是法国对影视产业坚持"文化多样性"(Cultural Diversity)的最好表现。不可否认,法国电影产业长久以来屹立不倒很大程度上归功于法国国家力量对影视产业的调控和干预。但国家对影视产业的扶持并不是简单的行业补贴或者财政拨款,而是通过一个科学而缜密的影视产业资助体系来进行。具体的执行机构是法国国家电影中心CNC(centre National de la cinematographie)。CNC成立于1946年,直属于法国文化部。它的主要职能有:制定电影政策,规范电影产业;管理和分配电影产业和视

  1. “Viimne reliikvia” ja “Kolme katku vahel”: ruumist eesti ajalookirjanduse ekraniseeringutes / The Last Relic and Between Three Plagues: On Space in Film Adaptations of Estonian Historical Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Näripea


     the film performed a brief intervention into the discursive space of the dominating power, creating a vacuum where, for a moment, the Other reigned. Between Three Plagues intentionally opposes the formulas of mass entertainment. The scenography and cinematography of the film are characterised by the „immobility of medieval engraving“ (Tobro 1970, suggesting a reflective mood instead of the dynamic spectacularity and false optimism of socialist realism. Stylistically the film resembles the works of Scandinavian authors like Carl Theodor Dreyer (esp. Day of Wrath, 1943 and Ingmar Bergman (esp. The Seventh Seal, 1957. The goal of contradicting easy entertainment was already embedded in the original version of Jaan Kross’ screenplay, which prohibited the „exhibition of old architecture and museum pieces“, and asked instead to emphasise „the material texture of the backgrounds and larger props…: cobblestone pavement, the grain of timber, rough textiles and especially, limestone walls“ (Kross 1965: 2. Nevertheless, the film’s architectural setting does not form noticeable metaphors. Still, the avoidance of the romanticism and the lack of domineering popular music instantly locates this film outside the repressive desire-creating machine and the illusions that (reproduce wishful reality. But as far as the sense of national resistance is concerned, although the film indeed presents a number of elements that are ideologically problematic in the context of Soviet society, e.g., the question about the permissibility of speaking the truth and the censorship; the struggle between the authority and the arts, it remains firmly within the overall limits set by the Soviet system.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields (United States)

    Herman, Cila


    In boiling high heat fluxes are possible driven by relatively small temperature differences, which make its use increasingly attractive in aerospace applications. The objective of the research is to develop ways to overcome specific problems associated with boiling in the low gravity environment by substituting the buoyancy force with the electric force to enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. Previous studies indicate that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50, as compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. The goal of our research is to experimentally explore the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions, by visualizing the temperature distributions in the vicinity of the heated surface and around the bubble during boiling using real-time holographic interferometry (HI) combined with high-speed cinematography. In the first phase of the project the influence of the electric field on a single bubble is investigated. Pool boiling is simulated by injecting a single bubble through a nozzle into the subcooled liquid or into the thermal boundary layer developed along the flat heater surface. Since the exact location of bubble formation is known, the optical equipment can be aligned and focused accurately, which is an essential requirement for precision measurements of bubble shape, size and deformation, as well as the visualization of temperature fields by HI. The size of the bubble and the frequency of bubble departure can be controlled by suitable selection of nozzle diameter and mass flow rate of vapor. In this approach effects due to the presence of the electric field can be separated from effects caused by the temperature gradients in the thermal boundary layer. The influence of the thermal boundary layer can be investigated after activating the heater at a later stage of the research. For the visualization experiments a

  3. Montage, Militancy, Metaphysics: Chris Marker and André Bazin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cooper


    Full Text Available


    Abstract (E: This article focuses on the relationship between the work of André Bazin and Chris Marker from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s and beyond. The division between Bazin's ŘRight Bankř affiliation with Les Cahiers du Cinéma on the one hand, and Markerřs ŘLeft Bankř allegiances on the other, is called into question here as my argument seeks to muddy the waters of their conventional ideological separation across the river Seine. Working alliteratively through Markerřs well-known talent for deft montage along with his militancy, I consider Bazinřs praise for Markerřs editing technique Ŕ in spite of famously expressing a preference elsewhere for the long take, and deep focus cinematography Ŕ and I address their political differences and convergences. Yet I also explore the rather more unexpected question of metaphysics in order to further emphasize a closer relationship between these two figures. I chart the emergence of an enduring spiritual bond between critic and filmmaker that surfaces first in Markerřs writings for the left-wing Catholic journal L’Esprit