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Sample records for cimarron plutonium plant

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Kerr-McGee Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This final report is a summary of the events that completes the decontamination and decommissioning of the Cimarron Corporation`s Mixed Oxides Fuel Plant (formally Sequoyah Fuels Corporation and formerly Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation - all three wholly owned subsidiaries of the Kerr-McGee Corporation). Included are details dealing with tooling and procedures for performing the unique tasks of disassembly decontamination and/or disposal. That material which could not be economically decontaminated was volume reduced by disassembly and/or compacted for disposal. The contaminated waste cleaning solutions were processed through filtration and ion exchange for release or solidified with cement for L.S.A. waste disposal. The L.S.A. waste was compacted, and stabilized as required in drums for burial in an approved burial facility. T.R.U. waste packaging and shipping was completed by the end of July 1987. This material was shipped to the Hanford, Washington site for disposal. The personnel protection and monitoring measures and procedures are discussed along with the results of exposure data of operating personnel. The shipping containers for both T.R.U. and L.S.A. waste are described. The results of the decommissioning operations are reported in six reports. The personnel protection and monitoring measures and procedures are contained and discussed along with the results of exposure data of operating personnel in this final report.

  2. Plutonium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography on plutonium in plants is presented. It covers the subjects occurrence of plutonium in plants; soil-plant relationships; root uptake; distribution and translocation; foliar deposition and loss. Compiled data are presented on: recorded and calculated concentration factors of plutonium as well as those for uranium; concentration ratios for several crop types; proportion of plutonium removed from soil by plants; concentration ratios according to plant parts of cereal and vegetable crops. (G.J.P.)

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  4. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington, site began operating in the 1950s to produce plutonium metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. This report describes the stabilization of plutonium materials

  5. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  7. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  11. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.)

  12. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  13. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  14. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

  15. Peaceful plutonium: the THORP nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent court decision has upheld the United Kingdom Government's decision to authorize the commissioning of British Nuclear Fuels Limited's (BNFL's) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). Challenged as uneconomic and environmentally unsound, the author argues against these charges. White uranium is not expensive enough to make recycling necessary, the author argues its importance so as not to waste natural resources. In addition BNFL hope to offer over five thousand jobs to the ailing UK job market when THORP opens as well as offering Pound 500 million profit. It is also argued that plutonium, rather than constituting an environmental hazard, could and should be used to produce cheap electricity, without the environmental hazards caused by coal or oil-fired power plants. (UK)

  16. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors)

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  18. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  19. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, at the Hanford Site has been done at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and in recycle of PuO2-bearing fuels through Hanford reprocessing plants. Plutonium oxide is notoriously refractory and difficult to dissolve. As such, losses of PuO2 residues from the PFP or from Hanford reprocessing plants can report to Hanford Site underground tank waste storage. Those stored wastes are destined to become feed to the Waste Treatment Plant, WTP. Information on the processing of non-PFP plutonium oxide in Hanford plants is provided in this brief report. To help gain perspective, information on PFP processing and plutonium additions to the tank farm system from other Hanford processing is also presented. Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400 C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP's Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ∼0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3·9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4. The PuO2 dissolution was not perfect, however, and

  20. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  1. Plutonium determination by spectrophotometry of plutonium (VI): control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium (VI) spectrophotometric determination, after AgO oxidation in 3 M nitric acid medium, is used for the running-control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. Analytical device used in glove-box or shielded-cell is briefly described. This method is fast, sensitive, unfailing and gives simple effluents. It is applied by day and night shifts, during Light Water Reactor fuel reprocessing campaign, for 0.5 mg/l up to 20 g/l plutonium solutions. Reference solution measurements have a 0.8 to 1.4 % relative standard deviation; duplicate plutonium determinations give a 0.3% relative standard deviation for sample analysis. There is a discrepancy (- 0.3% to - 0.9%) between the spectrophotometric method results and the isotopic dilution analysis

  2. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  3. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  4. Plutonium processing at the Siemens Hanau fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast amount of experience accumulated to date in the fabrication of plutonium fuel assemblies and the course taken by the protracted licensing procedure is outlined. A description of the processes applied and the plant equipment at the existing fabrication facility is provided. The two new production lines, including ancillary systems with a planned annual capacity of 120 tons of mixed oxide, are also described. The current status of implementation with all licenses granted is also presented

  5. Nuclear materials: Alternatives for relocating Rocky Flats Plant's plutonium operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major operational problems in a plutonium-processing building at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado, have existed since the building became operational in 1981. High estimated costs have been associated with repairing the building and potential risks have been associated with the plant's proximity to a major metropolitan center. Four alternatives have been identified for relocating plutonium processing that would cost between about $200 million and $600 million. These alternatives would require between 4 and 10 years to implement, including design, construction and/or alterations and startup. This is in comparison to an estimated cost of about $300 million to repair building 371 at the Rocky Flats Plant and an implementation period of 8 years. The alternative that addresses fabrication operations, the major contributor to safety and health risks at Rocky Flats is to relocate all Rocky Flats plutonium operations. This would cost over $4 billion and take as long as 24 years. On a cost basis alone, this alternative does not appear justified

  6. Continuous monitoring of plutonium solution in a conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the implementation of a safeguards Tank Monitoring System (TAMS) in a Plutonium Conversion Plant (PCP). TAMS main objective is to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (the Agency) with continuous data for safeguards evaluation and review of inventories and flows of plutonium solutions. It has been designed to monitor, in unattended mode, the inventory of each tank and transactions of solutions between tanks, as well as to confirm the absence of borrowing plutonium solutions from and to a neighboring reprocessing plant. The instrumentation consists of one electronic scanner that collects pressure data from electromanometers connected to the tank dip tubes, one uninterruptable power supply and one personal computer operating in a Windows-NT environment. The pressure data transmitted to the acquisition system is saved and converted to volume and density values, coupled with a graph capability to display events in each tank at intervals of 15 seconds. The system operation has not only strengthened the safeguards measures in PCP but also reduced inspection effort while minimizing intrusion to normal plant activities and radiation exposure to personnel. TAMS is a powerful, reliable tool that has significantly improved the effectiveness of safeguards implementation at PCP. The future combined use of TAMS with remote monitoring (RM) will further enhance efficiency of the safeguards measures at PCP. (author)

  7. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  8. Accident Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Polycube Stabilization Project involves low temperature oxidation, without combustion, of polystyrene cubes using the production muffle furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C located in the Remote Mechanical ''C'' (RMC) Line in Room 230A in the 234-52 Facility. Polycubes are polystyrene cubes containing various concentrations of plutonium and uranium oxides. Hundreds of these cubes were manufactured for criticality experiments, and currently exist as unstabilized storage forms at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This project is designed to stabilize and prepare the polycube material for stable storage using a process very similar to the earlier processing of sludges in these furnaces. The significant difference is the quantity of hydrogenous material present, and the need to place additional controls on the heating rate of the material. This calculation note documents the analyses of the Representative Accidents identified in Section 2.4.4 of Hazards Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process, HNF-7278 (HNF 2000). These two accidents, ''Deflagration in Glovebox HC-21C due to Loss of Power'' and ''Seismic Failure of Glovebox HC-21C'', will be further assessed in this accident analysis

  9. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem. [Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes.

  10. Solutions to criticality problems in a plutonium extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two aspects to nuclear criticality safety: prevention of criticality and protection against the consequences of a possible accident: this report considers these two aspects in the case of the Marcoule Plutonium Extraction Plant. After briefly recalling the various techniques used for avoiding criticality (mass, geometry, concentration, poisoning), the authors describe their application in the plant and show in particular that, a rational use of a favorable geometry is a factor both for security and from an economic point of view. The authors then describe the inside organisation which makes it possible to obtain the necessary intrinsic safety standard right from the advance project stage, and to control the workshop safety during the operation of the plant. The second part of the report deals with the system of protection against the consequences of a possible accident: definition of a typical accident, fixing of the boundaries of a critical zone, safety alarm device, individual and collective dosimetry, evacuation plan and safety instructions. (authors)

  11. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  12. Decommissioning of the Plutonium Purification and Residues Recovery Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Group is continuing to build on BNFL's successful record of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. Challenging radiological conditions and complex technical problems have been overcome to reduce the hazard associated with the UK's nuclear legacy. The former Plutonium Purification and Residues Recovery Plant at Sellafield operated from 1954 through to 1987. This is the only plant to have experienced an uncontrolled criticality incident in the UK, in August 1970 during operations. The plant comprised of two mirror image cells approximately 6.5 m x 13.5 m x 16 m, constructed of bare brick. The cell structure provided secondary containment, the process vessels and pipes within the cell providing primary containment. The plant utilized a solvent extraction process to purify the plutonium stream. Surrounding the two process cells to the north, east and south is an annulus area that housed the operational control panels, feed and sample glove-boxes, and ancillary equipment. The building was ventilated by an unfiltered extract on the process cells and a filtered extract from the vessels and glove-boxes. During the long operational lifetime of the plant, the primary containment deteriorated to such an extent that the process cells eventually became the main containment, with levels of radioactive contamination in excess of 14,256 pCi alpha. This led to significant aerial effluent discharges towards the end of the plant's operational life and onerous working conditions during decommissioning. Implementation of a phased decommissioning strategy from 1991 has led to: - A reduction of approximately 60% in the Sellafield site's aerial alpha discharges following installation of a new ventilation system, - Removal of 12 plutonium contaminated glove-boxes and sample cabinets from the building, - Disposal of the approximately 500 m2 of asbestos building cladding, - Removal of over 90% of the active pipes and vessels from the highly contaminated process cells

  13. Application of Prompt Gamma-Ray Analysis to Identify Electrorefining Salt-Bearing Plutonium Oxide at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray analysis is being implemented at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to screen impure plutonium oxide inventory items, received in the mid-1980s from the Rocky Flats Plant, for the presence of sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts from the electrorefining process. A large fraction of these items are suspected to contain electrorefining salts. Because the salts evaporate at the=950C stabilization temperature mandated for long-term storage under the U.S. Department of Energy plutonium oxide stabilization and storage criteria to plug and corrode process equipment, items found to have these salts qualify for thermal stabilization at 750C. The prompt gamma ray energies characteristic of sodium, potassium, chlorine, and other low atomic weight elements arise from the interaction the light elements with alpha radiation from plutonium and americium radioactive decay. High-resolution gamma ray spectrometers designed to detect energies up to ∼4.5 MeV are used to gather the high-energy prompt gamma spectra.Observation of the presence of the high-energy gamma peaks representing the natural chlorine-35, sodium-23, and potassium-39 isotopes and the sodium-to-chlorine peak area ratios in the range for plutonium oxide materials known to contain the electrorefining salts give the evidence needed to identify plutonium oxide materials at the PFP that qualify for the lower-temperature processing. Conversely, the absence of these telltale signals in the prompt gamma analysis provides evidence that the materials do not contain the electrorefining salts. Furthermore, based on calibrations using known assayed items, semiquantitative measurement of the quantity of chlorine present in materials containing electrorefining salt also can be performed by using the count rates observed for the chlorine peak, the plutonium quantity present in the measured item, and the plutonium- and chlorine-specific response of the gamma detection system. The origin and characteristics

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report defines the mission for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project (PFPTP) using a systems engineering approach. This mission analysis will be the basis for the functional analysis which will further define and break down the mission statement into all of the detailed functions required to accomplish the mission. The functional analysis is then used to develop requirements, allocate those requirements to functions, and eventually be used to design the system. This report: presents the problem which will be addressed, defines PFP Transition Project, defines the overall mission statement, describes the existing, initial conditions, defines the desired, final conditions, identifies the mission boundaries and external interfaces, identifies the resources required to carry out the mission, describes the uncertainties and risks, and discusses the measures which will be used to determine success

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  16. Plutonium in soils and plants around the IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of the plutonium isotopes 238Pu and 239+240Pu in the surroundings of the research reactor was measured by application of a very sensitive and selective radioanalytical procedure for the determination of plutonium in soils and plants, including lichens and mosses as bioindicators. All measured concentration are in the range of variation of the global contamination with plutonium caused by fallout of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and burning of satellites in the atmosphere. An additional contamination by plutonium isotopes due to discharges from the reactor in the past is not detectable. (author) 20 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  18. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans

  19. The dissolution vessel for plutonium pits at the U.S. DOE Pantex Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, E J; Vickers, L D

    2000-02-01

    The U.S. DOE Pantex Plant has been given the mission to recertify and requalify plutonium pits for reuse in existing War Reserve nuclear weapons. The first process common to both recertification and requalification is cleaning the plutonium pit. The pit will be cleaned in a dissolution vessel using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent. The recertification and requalification programs are both in the design concept phase at Pantex Plant The U.S. DOE Pantex Plant secures the national security of the United States by using safe vessels for cleaning plutonium pits in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees, the public and the environment. PMID:10651401

  20. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  1. 75 FR 38809 - Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC; Notice of Filing June 25, 2010. Take notice that on June 24, 2010, Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC filed a supplement confirming passive ownership... in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (18 CFR...

  2. Maintenance implementation plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located at the Hanford site at Richland, Washington. This MIP describes the PFP maintenance program relative to DOE order 4330.4B. The MIP defines the key actions needed to meet the guidelines of the Order to produce a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program. A previous report identified the presence of significant quantities of Pu-bearing materials within PFP that pose risks to workers. PFP's current mission is to develop, install and operate processes which will mitigate these risks. The PFP Maintenance strategy is to equip the facility with systems and equipment able to sustain scheduled PFP operations. The current operating run is scheduled to last seven years. Activities following the stabilization operation will involve an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine future plant activities. This strategy includes long-term maintenance of the facility for safe occupancy and material storage. The PFP maintenance staff used the graded approach to dictate the priorities of the improvement and upgrade actions identified in Chapter 2 of this document. The MIP documents PFP compliance to the DOE 4330.4B Order. Chapter 2 of the MIP follows the format of the Order in addressing the eighteen elements. As this revision is a total rewrite, no sidebars are included to highlight changes

  3. Use of plutonium: 40 years of MOX use in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium separated in spent fuel reprocessing has always been an object of considerable controversy in which facts tended to play a subordinate role. Typical headlines in the press run like this: 'What to Do with 50 t of Plutonium' or 'Plutonium Problem Baffles Experts'. The necessary public attention regularly is secured by terms such as 'ultratoxic' or 'weapon-grade' in media reporting. After the change in government in 1998, the use of plutonium was termed an unsolved 'burden left by previous governments'. A seminar was run by the Federal Ministry for the Environment in 2000 in an effort to find repository solutions for plutonium although the perspectives of using that material were in no way inferior to those prevailing today. This erroneous impression of the utilization of plutonium being an open issue will be corrected in this article on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the first use of mixed oxide fuel on German nuclear power plants. In 1966, the Kahl Experimental Nuclear Power Station for the first time employed plutonium as a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). This anniversary offers an opportunity for outlining the political framework of the separation and use of plutonium, and sketching the development of MOX fuel fabrication and use. In addition, the perspectives will be shown for plutonium not yet processed, and the contribution to electricity generation arising from the use of MOX fuel will be described. (orig.)

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  5. One year of operation of the Belgonucleaire (Dessel) plutonium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on experience with plutonium since 1958, Belgonucleaire has successively launched a pilot plant and then a fuel fabrication plant for mixed uranium and plutonium oxides in 1968 and 1973 respectively. After describing briefly the plants and the most important stages in the planning, construction and operation of the Dessel plant, the present document describes the principal problems which were met during the course of operation of the plant and their direct incidence on the capacity and quality of the production of fuel elements

  6. Sludge stabilization at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to operate two laboratory-size muffle furnaces in glovebox HC-21C, located in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The muffle furnaces would be used to stabilize chemically reactive sludges that contain approximately 25 kilograms (55 pounds) of plutonium by heating to approximately 500 to 1000 degrees C (900 to 1800 degrees F). The resulting stable powder, mostly plutonium oxide with impurities, would be stored in the PFP vaults. The presence of chemically reactive plutonium-bearing sludges in the process gloveboxes poses a risk to workers from radiation exposure and limits the availability of storage space for future plant cleanup. Therefore, there is a need to stabilize the material into a form suitable for long-term storage. This proposed action would be an interim action, which would take place prior to completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for the PFP which would evaluate stabilization of all plutonium-bearing materials and cleanout of the facility. However, only 10 percent of the total quantity of plutonium in reactive materials is in the sludges, so this action will not limit the choice of reasonable alternatives or prejudice the Record of Decision of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Environmental Impact Statement

  7. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards

  8. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  9. Improving Efficiency with 3-D Imaging: Technology Essential in Removing Plutonium Processing Equipment from Plutonium Finishing Plant Gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford, Washington began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in remote production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years these gloveboxes and processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked to clean out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to improve the efficiency of cleaning out radioactive gloveboxes at the plant. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work planning process by providing workers with a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which is then used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. In addition, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological materials early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers

  10. Maintenance implementation plan for the plutonium finishing plant. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located at the Hanford site at Richland, Washington. This MIP addresses the maintenance program at PFP as it relates to DOE Order 4330.4B. This MIP addresses those actions identified to be worked on in the Fiscal Year (FY) 95/96 timeframe. Full compliance with 4330.4B will take several years. Actions taken will occur in a sequence determined by a graded approach and startup readiness review. PFP is currently working toward the cleanout and stabilization operation which began in November 1994. Thermal stabilization of sludge process uses one glovebox of the facility. This process is presently being looked at being expanded to 12 furnaces. A graded approach is utilized to dictate the priorities of the improvement/upgrade activities identified in Chapter 4.0 of this document. The graded approach utilized a managerial assessment of the order elements using a number of different inputs. Inputs considered included a DOE Order 4330.4B self-assessment of PFP. The PFP Maintenance strategy is to provide the facility with systems and equipment that will be able to sustain the scheduled operation of this section of the PFP. This operating run is scheduled to last seven years. Activities following the stabilization operation will involve completing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine future plant activities. This strategy also includes long-term maintenance of the facility for safe occupancy and material storage. The major improvement activities identified in this MIP are in the areas of organization, administration, and maintenance procedures. Other key focuses will be in planning and scheduling and in management involvement. The schedule is based upon application of the graded approach with consideration of known resources available

  11. Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts

  12. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHANG PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROW SH; KYLE RN; MINETTE MJ

    2008-07-15

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

  13. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers

  14. A safeguards approach applicable to A plutonium mixed oxide powder plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a safeguards approach possible to apply in a plutonium mixed oxide powder plant which handles large amounts of plutonium in the light of experience gained in some other plutonium bulk handling facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle under IAEA safeguards. The approach is based on performing two routine verifications of the nuclear material per month without interrupting the process operations in the plant combined with continual flow verifications for ongoing process and transfer operations; and two physical inventory verifications per year. The total annual effort to cover all the verifications was estimated to be in the range of 150 to 240 man day. The analysis of the approach showed that with further advances in the Non destructive assay measurement techniques for the determination of plutonium content in solutions and MOX powder would lead to development of the approach towards increase in effectiveness and decrease in the verification effort. 2 fig., 4 tab

  15. Intake and digestibility of range plants grown on plutonium contaminated soils as determined with grazing cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area 13 is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site contaminated with transuranics. Cattle were grazed on the area to study the botanical and chemical composition of the forage, the digestibility of range plants as selected by range cattle, and the intake of plutonium and americium by grazing cattle. The botanical and chemical composition of the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated range was determined. The major portion of the diet was browse plants which were high in fiber and ash but low in energy. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Cattle generally consumed over 2 kilograms per 100 kilograms body weight of dry matter daily which resulted in a daily intake of 3600 to 6600 picocuries of plutonium-238, 85,000 to 400,000 picocuries of plutonium-239, and 11,000 to 31,000 picocuries of americium-241. The soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal source of ingested plutonium and americium. This is not unexpected as plutonium oxide is one of the least soluble substances known and the range studied is one of very limited rainfall. As expected, the forage from an inner compound was contaminated to a greater extent than the range plants from an outer compound

  16. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L. [Rocky Mountain Peace Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  17. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors

  18. The quality evaluation program for plutonium pits at the U.S. DOE Pantex plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, L; Eifert, E

    2000-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy Pantex Plant quality evaluation program for plutonium pits is an extensive program that includes 1) weigh and leak check system; 2) radiography; and 3) dye penetrant testing. Successful completion of these diagnostics qualifies a pit to remain in the active status stockpile program. The use of lead aprons and a robot when handling the plutonium pits minimizes personnel exposures to ionizing radiation. All personnel exposures to ionizing radiation at Pantex Plant are As Low As Reasonably Achievable. PMID:11045519

  19. Plutonium disposition in the BN-600 fast-neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, D. L.; Chebeskov, A. N.; Matveev, V. I.; Vasiliev, B. A.; Maltsev, V. V.

    In 1996, the United States and the Russian Federation completed an initial joint study that evaluated the candidate options for the disposition of surplus weapons-derived plutonium in both countries. While Russia advocates building new reactors for converting weapons-derived plutonium to spent fuel, the cost is high, and the continuing joint study of the Russian options is considering only the use of the existing VVER-1000 LWRs in Russia (and possibly in Ukraine) and the existing BN-600 fast-neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant in Russia. The BN-600 reactor, which currently uses enriched uranium fuel, is capable with certain design modifications of converting up to 1.3 metric tons (MT) of surplus weapons-derived plutonium to spent fuel each year. The steps needed to convert BN-600 to a plutonium-burner core will be discussed. The step involving the hybrid core allows an early and timely start that takes advantage of the limited capacity for fabricating uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide fuel early in the disposition program. The design lifetime of BN-600 must safely and reliably be extended by 10 yr to at least 2020 so that a sufficient amount of plutonium (˜20 MT) can be converted to spent fuel.

  20. Plutonium disposition in the BN-600 fast-neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, the United States and the Russian Federation completed an initial joint study that evaluated the candidate options for the disposition of surplus weapons-derived plutonium in both countries. While Russia advocates building new reactors for converting weapons-derived plutonium to spent fuel, the cost is high, and the continuing joint study of the Russian options is considering only the use of the existing VVER-1000 LWRs in Russia (and possibly in Ukraine) and the existing BN-600 fast-neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant in Russia. The BN-600 reactor, which currently uses enriched uranium fuel, is capable with certain design modifications of converting up to 1.3 metric tons (MT) of surplus weapons-derived plutonium to spent fuel each year. The steps needed to convert BN-600 to a plutonium-burner core will be discussed. The step involving the hybrid core allows an early and timely start that takes advantage of the limited capacity for fabricating uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide fuel early in the disposition program. The design lifetime of BN-600 must safely and reliably be extended by 10 yr to at least 2020 so that a sufficient amount of plutonium (∝20 MT) can be converted to spent fuel. (orig.)

  1. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  2. THE DEACTIVATION, DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT, A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE'S HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington,; DC--and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (DandD) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP DandD effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  3. The Chemical Hazards Assessment Prior to D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, A. M.; Prevette, S. S.; Sherwood, A. R.; Fitch, L. R.; Ranade, D. G.; Oldham, R. W.

    2003-02-26

    This report describes the evaluation methods and results of a chemical safety status assessment of the process equipment at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation Plutonium Finishing Plant. This assessment, designated as the Plutonium Finishing Plant Residual Chemical Hazards Assessment, focused particular emphasis on the idle and inactive plant systems, though certain active areas also were examined to the extent that these were examined during a previous facility vulnerability assessment completed in 1999. The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that is situated in south central Washington State.

  4. Field test of new TASTEX system for plutonium product verification at the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the field test results of the New TASTEX system. This system consisting of the high resolution gamma spectrometer and the κ-edge densitometer can measure both isotopic abundances and concentration of plutonium simultaneously. Entire system is controlled by the multi-channel analyser and a multi-user computer. The system was designed and built under the Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS). The software of this system developed at LANL and LLNL has been installed in the system assembled at the Tokai reprocession plant (TRP) in July 1985. In the course of campaigns from 1985 till 1988, field tests have been carried out on plutonium product solutions of TRP. The results of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundances obtained by the κ-edge densitometer and the high resolution gamma spectrometer (HRGS) have been compared with those by controlled potential coulometer and mass spectrometer respectively. Precision of plutonium determination with κ-edge densitometer is estimated approximately 0.7% and 1.0% for the freshly processed plutonium and the aged plutonium respectively. The scatters in the relative differences between HRGS and the destructive analysis (DA) detected on the results of freshly processed plutonium sample were 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 8.0% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242 respectively, whereas those on the results of aged sample were 1.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 1.1% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 respectively

  5. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site's defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site's N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX's physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail

  6. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  7. Proposal to recirculate glove box and fabrication area air in a plutonium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recirculating glove box and fabrication area ventilation systems are proposed for a 40 Te/yr mixed plutonium--uranium oxide fuel fabrication plant. The ventilation design criteria are outlined, features of the fabricating plant relating to the ventilation system are shown and the recirculating systems are described. A method of operating and recirculating systems during unusual situations, energy conservation and system advantages are discussed. (U.S.)

  8. 77 FR 2718 - CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC's application...

  9. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  10. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans

  11. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE)

  12. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D R; Mayancsik, B A [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J A; Vejvoda, E J; Reddick, J A; Sheldon, K M; Weyns, M I [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Calculation note - Consequences of a fire in the sorting and repackaging glovebox in room 636 of bldg 2736-ZB - Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Calculation Note provides a conservative estimate of the grams of plutonium released from Building 2736-ZB of the Plutonium Finishing Plant as a result of a fire within Glovebox 636, without consideration of mitigation

  14. Evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant stored plutonium inventory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate reported inventories of plutonium contained in stored transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). From 1970 to 1989, this waste was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and placed in aboveground retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC)-Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). This evaluation was initiated to address potential uncertainty in quantities of stored plutonium reported in the Radioactive Waste Management Information System (RWMIS). The RWMIS includes radionuclide information from generators that shipped TRU waste to INEL for storage. Recent evaluations performed on buried TRU waste (1954-1970) resulted in significant revision to the original reported values of plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium. These evaluations were performed based on Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Inventory Difference (ID) records. This evaluation for stored TRU waste was performed to: (1) identify if significant discrepancies exist between RWMIS reported values and RFP ID records, (2) describe the methodology used to perform the RWMIS evaluation, (3) determine a Best Estimate (BE) and 95% Upper Confidence Bound (UB) on the plutonium inventory, (4) provide conclusions based on this evaluation, and (5) identify recommendations and/or actions that might be needed

  15. Project Plan For Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove SNM Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baseline to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviation to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process. The Remove SNM Materials project provides the necessary support and controls required for DOE-HQ, DOE-RL, BWHC, and other DOE Complex Contractors the path forward to negotiate shipped/receiver agreements, schedule shipments, and transfer material out of PFP to enable final deactivation

  16. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617,Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  17. Calibration Report for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of the calibration of the Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System (SGSAS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The calibration was performed in July, 2000 to qualify the system for assay of residues cans from PFP which will be packaged into pipe overpack containers for shipment to WIPP. The system was calibrated using NIST traceable fission product sources and initial calibration verification runs were performed using the same sources. Validation measurements for WIPP QAOs and the safeguards organization also were performed using NIST traceable plutonium standards. Initial validation results showed a bias that varied with the overall gram loading of the can. The safeguards organization developed a data correction equation for the results based on the system performance using a number of plutonium standards initially with gram loadings ranging from 9.6 g up to approximately 88 g of weapons grade plutonium. Later validation work prompted configuration changes to turn on a reference pulser, which was implemented once ground loop problems were resolved. At this point the safeguards organization developed a second set of data correction factors to apply to the assay results based on updated validation measurements. This initial calibration applies to analysis results from the initial configuration that was used up to September 21 and a second configuration that turned on the reference pulser and an updated transmission calibration performed on September 21. This is valid since the same energy and efficiency calibration was used for both analysis configurations

  18. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) sets forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) standards/requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction, operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

  19. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) sets forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) standards/requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction, operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment

  20. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item

  1. A literature study of the behaviour of cesium, strontium and plutonium in the soil-plant ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature on the occurrence of radiocesium (primarily 137CS) in the soil-plant system with emphasis on the influence of treatment on its root uptake, was reviewed. The aim was to study root uptake of radiocesium in order to estimate the applicability of suitable counter measures in cases of contamination of arable land with plutonium, radiostrontium and, in particular, radiocesium. To what extent 136CS is available to, and absorbed by, the plant and how it is distributed and absorbed in the soil is described. The physiological uptake of plutonium from soil through roots to plant parts lying above ground constitutes minor health hazards to population from the ingestion of vegetables. Extensive use of root fruits, might indicate that there is a risk present in areas of high plutonium soil concentration, because plutonium is adsorbed to root molecules, especially if soil and peel are not discarded. Another risk lies in the resuspension of plutonium deposited on the soil surface. As mentioned above, the impact of the leakage of plutonium from the Chernobyl accident was negligible in distant areas. The effects in the vicinity of the reactor, might have been important. In small areas with high levels of plutonium contamination removal of the top soil layer will be effective. Because of the high toxity and long half-life of plutonium, the risk involved merely in isolating such an area will be to high, because the plutonium may be further dispersed. In larger areas, deep ploughing to a depth of 30-40 cm or more, if feasible, is a possibility. Local factors have to be considered, e.g. position of bedrock, groundwater, soil parameters etc. Deep ploughing combined with previous dispersion of clay minerals, lime or humus or a combination, might be a solution, and should be followed by limiting crops to those with roots concentrated in the surface layer and with smallest attainable concentration ratios for plutonium. Cereals might fill this demand. 188 refs. (AB)

  2. Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that ∼5,500 m3 of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and decommissioning of the Pu Finishing Plant. The breakdown of the volumes and percentages of waste by category is 1% dangerous solid waste, 71% low-level waste, 21% transuranic waste, 7% transuranic mixed waste

  3. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  4. ORNL review of TRUEX flowsheet proposed for deployment at the Rockwell Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranium Extraction (TRUEX) process will be installed at the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purposes are to process the PFP waste to recover the plutonium, to isolate the americium, and to have the remaining waste converted to a non-TRU waste. Rockwell requested that ORNL provide an outside review of the process and its implementation. This review addresses the generation of the TRUEX feed, the chemical flowsheet, and the products and raffinates. It suggests that present PFP operations be modified to reduce the amount of transuranium elements that will be in the TRUEX process feed. This review also includes an assessment of the TRUEX solvent extraction flowsheet on the bases of material balance, adequate extraction and stripping stages, and solvent cleanup. The final part of the review includes results of three-party discussions [RHO, ORNL, and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] of some major issues

  5. A study of safeguards approach for the area of plutonium evaporator in a large scale reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study on a safeguards approach for the chemical processing area in a large scale reprocessing plant has been carried out. In this approach, plutonium inventory at the plutonium evaporator will not be taken, but containment and surveillance (C/S) measures will be applied to ensure the integrity of an area specifically defined to include the plutonium evaporator. The plutonium evaporator area consists of the evaporator itself and two accounting points, i.e., one before the plutonium evaporator and the other after the plutonium evaporator. For newly defined accounting points, two alternative measurement methods, i.e., accounting vessels with high accuracy and flow meters, were examined. Conditions to provide the integrity of the plutonium evaporator area were also examined as well as other technical aspects associated with this approach. The results showed that an appropriate combination of NRTA and C/S measures would be essential to realize a cost effective safeguards approach to be applied for a large scale reprocessing plant. (author)

  6. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125 degrees C and 250 degrees C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110 degrees C to 270 degrees C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252 degrees C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

  7. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  8. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT FOR PLANNING FUTURE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed

  9. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R ampersand D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ''strawman'' or ''point-of-departure'' plant layout that resulted from this study

  10. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  11. Upgrading a 1944 plutonium-extraction plant to a modern decontamination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington State, is currently undergoing extensive modifications as its mission changes from defense material production to one of waste management and environmental restoration. Starting in World War II, Hanford's mission for over four decades was the production of plutonium for defense needs. With the removal of such defense requirements over the last several years, the Hanford Site has refocused its efforts on the issues of cleanup and safety. The T Plant Complex is the first of the existing facilities to begin conversion from the old mission to the new. This conversion process and associated problems are described

  12. Experience gained with the Synroc demonstration plant at ANSTO and its relevance to plutonium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostsons, A.; Ridal, A.; Mercer, D.J.; Vance, E.R.L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    The Synroc Demonstration Plant (SDP) was designed and constructed at Lucas Heights to demonstrate the feasibility of Synroc production on a commercial scale (10 kg/hr) with simulated Purex liquid HLW. Since commissioning of the SDP in 1987, over 6000 kg of Synroc has been fabricated with a range of feeds and waste loadings. The SDP utilises uniaxial hot-pressing to consolidate Synroc. Pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing have also been studied at smaller scales. The results of this extensive process development have been incorporated in a conceptual design for a radioactive plant to condition HLW from a reprocessing plant with a capacity to treat 800 tpa of spent LWR fuel. Synroic containing TRU, including Pu, and fission products has been fabricated and characterised in a glove-box facility and hot cells, respectively. The extensive experience in processing of Synroc over the past 15 years is summarised and its relevance to immobilization of surplus plutonium is discussed.

  13. The AL-R8 SI: the next generation staging container for plutonium pits at the USDOE Pantex Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, E J; Vickers, L D

    1999-11-01

    The AL-R8 SI (sealed insert) is the next generation staging container for plutonium pits at the U.S. DOE Pantex Plant. The sealed insert is a stainless steel container that will be placed inside a modified AL-R8 container to stagepits. A pit is a hollow sphere of plutonium metal which is the primary fissionable material in nuclear weapons (warheads and bombs). It is hermetically sealed by a cladding material, which is usually stainless steel. Personnel exposures to ionizing radiation from the pits in storage are expected to decrease due to the attenuation provided by the new SI. All personnel exposures to ionizing radiation at Pantex Plant are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Pantex Plant secures the common defense and national security of the United States by safely staging plutonium pits in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. PMID:10527158

  14. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  15. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit (PFP Treatment and Storage Unit) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (4)(a) and (5). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is an interim status container management unit for plutonium bearing mixed waste radiologically managed as transuranic (TRU) waste. TRU mixed (TRUM) waste managed at the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore is not subject to land disposal restrictions [WAC 173-303-140 and 40 CFR 268]. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland Washington (Figure 1). Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  17. Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERZOG, K.R.

    1999-09-01

    A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts.

  18. Functional design criteria for the 242-A evaporator and PUREX [Plutonium-Uranium Extraction] Plant condensate interim retention basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the functional design criteria for a 26- million-gallon retention basin and 10 million gallons of temporary storage tanks. The basin and tanks will be used to store 242-A Evaporator process condensate, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process distillate discharge stream, and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate stream. Completion of the project will allow both the 242-A Evaporator and the PUREX Plant to restart. 4 refs

  19. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  20. Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Szaniszlo, P.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.

  1. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment

  2. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) SUB-GRADE EE/CA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES: A NEW MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was performed at the Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purpose of the EVCA was to identify the sub-grade items to be evaluated; determine the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) hazardous substances through process history and available data; evaluate these hazards; and as necessary, identify the available alternatives to reduce the risk associated with the contaminants. The sub-grade EWCA considered four alternatives for an interim removal action: (1) No Action; (2) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M); (3) Stabilize and Leave in Place (Stabilization); and (4) Remove, Treat and Dispose (RTD). Each alternative was evaluated against the CERCLA criteria for effectiveness, implementability, and cost

  3. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  4. Seismic evaluation of commercial plutonium fabrication plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's seismic assessment of six commercial plutonium fabrication plants licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before September 2, 1971. The seismic assessment generally has three parts: (1) documentation of the structural condition of each facility and its critical equipment; (2) characterization of the seismic hazard (i.e., determination of peak ground acceleration vs return period for each site); and (3) evaluation of seismic capacity to determine ground motion levels at which critical structures and equipment fail. The failure evaluation used structural capacities of median-centered strength characteristics of the as-built configurations from (1) and seismic hazard input from (2). Results of the assessment were partial input for an overall natural risks study by the NRC

  5. Project plan international atomic energy agency (IAEA) safeguards project plutonium finishing plant; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the PFP Integrated Project Management Plan (PMP), HNF-3617,Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP IAEA project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the IAEA project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  6. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) SUB-GRADE EE/CA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES A NEW MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2007-06-08

    An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was performed at the Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purpose of the EVCA was to identify the sub-grade items to be evaluated; determine the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) hazardous substances through process history and available data; evaluate these hazards; and as necessary, identify the available alternatives to reduce the risk associated with the contaminants. The sub-grade EWCA considered four alternatives for an interim removal action: (1) No Action; (2) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M); (3) Stabilize and Leave in Place (Stabilization); and (4) Remove, Treat and Dispose (RTD). Each alternative was evaluated against the CERCLA criteria for effectiveness, implementability, and cost.

  7. Environmental processes leading to the presence of organically bound plutonium in plant tissues consumed by animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long half-life of plutonium (Pu) and its possible entry into the environment as a result of the nuclear fuel cycle necessitate estimation of its availability to animals over thousands of years. A major uncertainty in this evaluation arises from the effects of physical and biogeochemical processes on Pu form and biological availability. However, a general understanding of the principal mechanisms governing Pu behavior in the terrestrial ingestion pathway is developing which ultimately should serve as a framework for estimation of long-term availability to animals. This review briefly integrates and synthesizes present information on the chemical/biochemical processes governing the form of Pu in soils and plants and the relationships of these phenomena to gut absorption in animals. A proposed model for Pu behavior will be used as a framework for integration of current knowledge

  8. Experience and activities in the field of plutonium recycling in civilian nuclear power plants in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union industry has established a world-wide leadership position in manufacturing and exploiting plutonium bearing fuel (MOX). About 15 to 20 tons of plutonium have been manufactured in the MOX fuel fabrication plants of E.U. companies. The current capacity of about 60 tons of MOX fuel per year is being upgraded to reach 400 tons/year by the year 2000. As a result, the excess amounts of separated plutonium, presently stored in the European Union, should no longer raise but should steadily decrease to converge to zero. Studies by the European Commission have indicated that the best use at present of weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium is to burn it in operating and future planned nuclear reactors. Disposing of plutonium by blending it with fission products or immobilising it into synthetic matrices appears to be far from being an industrially viable option. Following this path would mean to continue storing the excess plutonium of both military and civilian origin for an unknown, but very long period of time. For these and other reasons, the European Commission is striving to foster international cooperation between the European Union companies, having a long industrial experience accumulated in the field of recycling plutonium, and, so far, the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. This cooperation is aiming at supporting projects that could be mutually beneficial to all parties involved. To meet this objective, several programmes have been established either bilaterally or multilaterally, in particular within the framework of the International Science and Technology Centre (I.S.T.C.) in Moscow. Some examples of such collaborations will be described. (author)

  9. Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from 1948 to 1978 -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10-9 to 10-3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10-6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately 1300. As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. (orig.)

  10. Tracing discharges of plutonium and technetium from nuclear processing plants by ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical discharges of plutonium from the Russian nuclear processing plant at Mayak in the Urals have been traced in sediments, soils and river water using ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Significant advantages of AMS over other techniques are its very high sensitivity. which is presently ∼106 atoms (1 μBq), and its ability to determine the 240Pu/239Pu ratio. The latter is a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium, being very low (1-2%) for weapons grade plutonium, and higher (∼ 20%) for plutonium from civil reactors or fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Since this ratio has changed significantly over the years of discharges from Mayak, a measurement can provide important information about the source of plutonium at a particular location. Similar measurements have been performed on samples from the Kara Sea which contains a graveyard of nuclear submarines from the former Soviet Union. AMS techniques have also been developed for detection of 99Tc down to levels of a few femtograms. This isotope is one of the most prolific fission products and has a very long half-life of 220 ka. Hundreds of kg have been discharged from the nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield in the UK. While there may be public health issues associated with these discharges which can be addressed with AMS, these discharges may also constitute a valuable oceanographic tracer experiment in this climatically-important region of the world's oceans. Applications to date have included a human uptake study to assess long-term retention of 99Tc in the body, and a survey of seaweeds from northern Europe to establish a baseline for a future oceanographic study

  11. Analysis of mdr1-1Δ mutation of MDR1 gene in the “Cimarron Uruguayo” dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gagliardi B.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this paper is to analyze the frequency of the mdr1-1D mutation of the MDR1 gene in a dog sample of the Uruguayan Cimarron breed with the objective of increasing the knowledge of this breed’s genome. Materials and methods. Thirty-six animals of this breed were analyzed. The MDR1 gene region, which includes the location where the mutation would be present, was amplified by PCR. Results. The mutation was not detected in any of the analyzed Uruguayan Cimarron. Conclusions. The lack of described ivermectin intoxication cases in veterinary clinic in this breed is explained by the lack of the mutation object of this study. The sequence studied in Cimarron dogs is kept compared to other breeds, except Collies and related breeds (Border Collie, Bearded Collie, Old English sheepdog.

  12. Simulation study for purification, recovery of plutonium and uranium from plant streams of Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for removal of plutonium from the lean organic streams obtained after co-stripping of uranium -plutonium was developed. Plutonium from lean organic phase was stripped using U4+/hydrazine as the stripping agent. The effect of concentrations of stripping agent U4+ and feed Pu concentration in the lean organic phase was studied. Lean organic phases having higher plutonium concentration require three stages of stripping to bring plutonium concentration 4+ stabilized by hydrazine reduces Pu (IV) to Pu (III) thereby stripping plutonium from the organic phase. The non-extractability of Pu (III) by TBP was utilized for development of flow sheet for obtaining a uranium product lean of plutonium for ease of handling. (author)

  13. Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental

  14. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  15. Experience gained with nuclear material accounting and control in storage facility for plutonium dioxide of SChK radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task for the computerized accounting of containers at the storage with barcoding equipment for inventory taking has been performed at achieve the pre-commissioning phase. This gave the following upgrade: decrease of the time spent by the personnel in storage compartments with plutonium dioxide during inventory taking, this diminishing the dose for personnel; changeover from traditional record book to computerized accounting of nuclear materials at the storage, which will make it possible to include the local workstation of the storage into computer network for nuclear material (NM) accounting at the Radiochemical plant; test and improve technique for the use of barcoding equipment for further introduction at plants and storage facilities of the SChK. Works are underway for further improvement of the NM accounting at the storage for plutonium dioxide

  16. Non-destructive assay system for uranium and plutonium in input dissolver solution of Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive assay system for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in input dissolver solution of a nuclear reprocessing plant, named 'Richman's Densitometer', has been developed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The development of this system has been carried out as a part of Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS). The system is divided into two nondestructive assay parts, K-edge densitometer (KED) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. The K-edge densitometry is used to determine the uranium concentration, whereas XRF analysis is used to determine U/Pu weight ratio. The plutonium concentration can be calculated from both the measurement results. The principal of richman's densitometry and the experimental results are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. In situ remediation of plutonium from glovebox exhaust ducts at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium and other miscellaneous hold-up materials have been accumulating in the glovebox exhaust ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant over the 40 years of weapons production at the site. The Duct Remediation Project was undertaken to assess the safety impacts of this material, and to remove it from the ductwork. The project necessitated the development of specialized tools, equipment and methods to remediate the material from continuously operating ventilation systems. Special engineered access locations were also required to provide access to the ductwork, and to ensure that safety and system operability were not degraded as a result of the remediation efforts. Operations personnel underwent significant training and development, and became an important asset to the success of the project. In total, the project succeeded in removing over 40 kilograms of plutonium-bearing material from one of the major weapons production buildings at the plant

  18. Uptake of three plutonium isotopes in a plant-soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted on the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was concerned with uptake of 237Pu, 238Pu, and 239Pu by sweet corn from a southeastern soil. Concentrations of Pu associated with roots and standing vegetation were evaluated with the following variables: source of contamination; time of harvest; soil concentrations; and Pu isotope. Comparisons between concentrations of plutonium in the standing vegetation on the basis of source of contamination at harvest times of 30 and 50 days showed no statistically significant difference in the 239Pu standing vegetation concentration for either harvest time whether 239Pu was applied to soil in a nitrate form or was found in soil as a result of reprocessing plant releases. There was also no statistically significant difference between 238Pu standing vegetation concentrations for the two sources at 30 days, however, the vegetation concentration of 238Pu at 50 days from spiked soil was significantly greater than that grown on Savannah Reprocessing Plant soil. The standing vegetation concentration of 237Pu decreased significantly for a harvest time of 30 to 50 days with a resultant significant decrease in the concentration ratio. A similar decreasing trend was indicated in the data for 238Pu and 239Pu, however, these were not statistically significant. The concentration ratios for each isotope were inversely correlated with soil concentration resulting in from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude differences in the concentration ratios. Findings indicated that 237Pu may not be a suitable tracer for 238Pu. Additional studies were suggested to further delineate the influence of mass concentrations on Pu uptake

  19. TOTAL MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to determine the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) associated with Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) [1,2,3] measurements was developed and implemented in 2004 and 2005 [4]. This paper describes a condensed version of the TMU calculational model, including recent developments. Recent modifications to the TMU calculation model include a change in the attenuation uncertainty, clarifying the definition of the forward background uncertainty, reducing conservatism in the random uncertainty by selecting either a propagation of counting statistics or the standard deviation of the mean, and considering uncertainty in the width and height as a part of the self attenuation uncertainty. In addition, a detection limit is calculated for point sources using equations derived from summary equations contained in Chapter 20 of MARLAP [5]. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2007-1 to the Secretary of Energy identified a lack of requirements and a lack of standardization for performing measurements across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The DNFSB also recommended that guidance be developed for a consistent application of uncertainty values. As such, the recent modifications to the TMU calculational model described in this paper have not yet been implemented. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is continuing to perform uncertainty calculations as per Reference 4. Publication at this time is so that these concepts can be considered in developing a consensus methodology across the complex

  20. 77 FR 14010 - Rocky Ridge Wind Project, LLC, Blackwell Wind, LLC, CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC, Minco Wind Interconnection Services, LLC, Shiloh III Lessee, LLC, California Ridge Wind Energy LLC, Perrin Ranch Wind, LLC, Erie Wind, LLC: Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  1. 75 FR 16098 - Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization March 24, 2010. This is a supplemental notice in the...

  2. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the

  3. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new

  4. Non-destructive assay system for uranium and plutonium in input dissolver solution of Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive assay system for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in input dissolver solution of a nuclear reprocessing plant, named 'Richman's Densitometer', has been developed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The development of this system has been carried out as a part of Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS). The system was designed, based upon the information of the Hybrid K-edge/XRF Densitometer presented by Ottmar et al., KfK. The instrument, composed of an X-ray generator, detectors, collimators and flow-type cells, was compactly designed and has been installed in a shielded cell. It has been confirmed that the precision for determining uranium concentration (approx. 180 g/l) by K-edge densitometer is 0.2% for 1000sec. counting, whereas XRF for plutonium (approx. 1.5 g/l) performs 1.7% of precision for 3000sec. counting. Further, the system was improved for obtain within 1% of plutonium measurement precision. (author)

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River in northwestern Oklahoma during...

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern...

  7. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to...

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge rate for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in...

  9. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Closure Plan - Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment Unit Glovebox HA-20MB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This closure plan describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) glovebox HA-20MB that housed an interim status ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' (RCRA) of 1976 treatment unit. This closure plan is certified and submitted to Ecology for incorporation into the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (HF RCRA Permit) in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement; TPA) Milestone M-83-30 requiring submittal of a certified closure plan for ''glovebox HA-20MB'' by July 31, 2003. Glovebox HA-20MB is located within the 231-5Z Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Currently glovebox HA-20MB is being used for non-RCRA analytical purposes. The schedule of closure activities under this plan supports completion of TPA Milestone M-83-44 to deactivate and prepare for dismantlement the above grade portions of the 234-5Z and ZA, 243-Z, and 291-Z and 291-Z-1 stack buildings by September 30, 2015. Under this closure plan, glovebox HA-20MB will undergo clean closure to the performance standards of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 with respect to all dangerous waste contamination from glovebox HA-20MB RCRA operations. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP treatment unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. Any information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. Clearance form only sent to

  10. Plutonium, americium and radiocaesium in the marine environment close to the Vandellos I nuclear power plant before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vandellos nuclear power plant (NPP), releasing low-level radioactive liquid waste to the Mediterranean Sea, is the first to be decommissioned in Spain, after an incident which occurred in 1989. The presence, distribution and uptake of various artificial radionuclides (radiocaesium, plutonium and americium) in the environment close to the plant were studied in seawater, bottom sediments and biota, including Posidonia oceanica, fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Seawater, sediments and Posidonia oceanica showed enhanced levels in the close vicinity of the NPP, although the effect was restricted to its near environment. Maximum concentrations in seawater were 11.6±0.5 Bq m-3 and 16.9±1.2 mBq m-3 for 137Cs and 239,240Pu, respectively. When sediment concentrations were normalized to excess 210Pb, they showed both the short-distance transport of artificial radionuclides from the Vandellos plant and the long-distance transport of 137Cs from the Asco NPP. Posidonia oceanica showed the presence of various gamma-emitters attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl accident, on which the effect of the NPP was superimposed. Seawater, sediment and Posidonia oceanica collected near the plant also showed an enhancement of the plutonium isotopic ratio above the fallout value. The uptake of these radionuclides by marine organisms was detectable but limited. Pelagic fish showed relatively higher 137Cs concentrations and only in the case of demersal fish was the plutonium isotopic ratio increased. The reported levels constitute a set of baseline values against which the impact of the decommissioning operations of the Vandellos I NPP can be studied

  11. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  12. Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for Criteria and Toxic Air Pollutant Emissions from Thermal Stabilization of Polycubes at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a notice of construction (NOC) application for thermal stabilization of plutonium in a polystyrene matrix (polycubes) in the muffle furnaces at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This NOC application is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-460-040. During the 1960's and 1970's, polycubes were thermally stabilized using a pyrolysis process at PFP. The proposed process of thermal stabilization of polycubes in muffle furnaces results in emissions of air contaminants not emitted since implementation of WAC 173-460 (effective 9/18/91). The new process and related air contaminants are the basis for this NOC application. The proposed activity would use the muffle furnaces in the 234-52 Building to stabilize polycubes. The resulting plutonium oxides would be packaged to meet storage requirements specified in Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials (DOE-STD-3013). The PFP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The PFP consists of several large and small buildings that are grouped to form the processing complex. The PFP activities are focused on the stabilization of plutonium-bearing materials to a form suitable for long-term storage; immobilization of residual plutonium-bearing materials; and removal of readily retrievable, plutonium-bearing materials left behind in process equipment and process areas

  13. Plutonium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  14. Preliminary studies of the genetic structure of “Cimarron uruguayo” dog using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gagliardi B.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To analyze the population structure, using microsatellite markers in a sample of “Cimarron Uruguayo” dogs. Materials and methods. Thirty dogs were analyzed in different areas of Uruguay with a set of nine molecular microsatellite markers using PCR. The population structure was analyzed using the free distribution software “Structure’’. Results. According to our data, the preliminary results show that it is not possible to establish a subdivision among the animals in the sample. Conclusions. The study supports the hypothesis that the currently existing canines derive from a founding nucleus that took refuge in the Northeastern region of the country. The distribution of the breed among the different areas of Uruguay continues nowadays, so there is no isolation among the different groups of animals, and the exchange is constant

  15. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  16. Plutonium Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  17. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D and D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D and D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D and D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  18. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  19. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification Enhancement Review of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of the verification enhancement review was for the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify contractor readiness for the independent DOE Integrated Safety Management System Verification (ISMSV) on the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Secondary objectives included: (1) to reinforce the engagement of management and to gauge management commitment and accountability; (2) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct public involvement; (3) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct worker involvement; (4) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of the panel-to-panel review approach; and, (5) to evaluate the utility of the review's methodology/adaptability to periodic assessments of ISM status. The review was conducted on December 6-8, 1999, and involved the conduct of two-hour interviews with five separate panels of individuals with various management and operations responsibilities related to PFP. A semi-structured interview process was employed by a team of five ''reviewers'' who directed open-ended questions to the panels which focused on: (1) evidence of management commitment, accountability, and involvement; and, (2) consideration and demonstration of stakeholder (including worker) information and involvement opportunities. The purpose of a panel-to-panel dialogue approach was to better spotlight: (1) areas of mutual reinforcement and alignment that could serve as good examples of the management commitment and accountability aspects of ISMS implementation, and, (2) areas of potential discrepancy that could provide opportunities for improvement. In summary, the Review Team found major strengths to include: (1) the use of multi-disciplinary project work teams to plan and do work; (2) the availability and broad usage of multiple tools to help with planning and integrating work; (3) senior management presence and accessibility; (4) the institutionalization of worker involvement; (5) encouragement of self-reporting and self

  20. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification Enhancement Review of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGGS, C.R.

    2000-02-09

    The primary purpose of the verification enhancement review was for the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify contractor readiness for the independent DOE Integrated Safety Management System Verification (ISMSV) on the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Secondary objectives included: (1) to reinforce the engagement of management and to gauge management commitment and accountability; (2) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct public involvement; (3) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct worker involvement; (4) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of the panel-to-panel review approach; and, (5) to evaluate the utility of the review's methodology/adaptability to periodic assessments of ISM status. The review was conducted on December 6-8, 1999, and involved the conduct of two-hour interviews with five separate panels of individuals with various management and operations responsibilities related to PFP. A semi-structured interview process was employed by a team of five ''reviewers'' who directed open-ended questions to the panels which focused on: (1) evidence of management commitment, accountability, and involvement; and, (2) consideration and demonstration of stakeholder (including worker) information and involvement opportunities. The purpose of a panel-to-panel dialogue approach was to better spotlight: (1) areas of mutual reinforcement and alignment that could serve as good examples of the management commitment and accountability aspects of ISMS implementation, and, (2) areas of potential discrepancy that could provide opportunities for improvement. In summary, the Review Team found major strengths to include: (1) the use of multi-disciplinary project work teams to plan and do work; (2) the availability and broad usage of multiple tools to help with planning and integrating work; (3) senior management presence and accessibility; (4) the

  1. Stop plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  2. Application of neutron well coincidence counting for plutonium determination in mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is an alternative to conventional enriched uranium oxide fuel in thermal reactors. Indian interest in plutonium recycle in thermal reactors is primarily due to the need to develop alternative indigenous fuel for two boiling water reactors (BWR) at Tarapur, which are designed to use imported light enriched uranium fuel. A few MOX assemblies have been fabricated and loaded into the reactors. Neutron well coincidence counting (NWCC) system has been successfully employed to check the enrichments of PuO2 in MOX blends. NWCC has also been successfully applied in developing dry recycling process of clean rejected oxide (CRO) and dirty rejected oxide (DRO). (author)

  3. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  4. Storage for the Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to relocate and store unirradiated Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The US Department of Energy has decided to cease fuel fabrication activities in the 308 Building in the 300 Area. This decision was based on a safety concern over the ability of the fuel fabrication portion of the 308 Building to withstand a seismic event. The proposed action to relocate and store the fuel is based on the savings that could be realized by consolidating security costs associated with storage of the fuel. While the 308 Building belowgrade fuel storage areas are not at jeopardy by a seismic event, the US Department of Energy is proposing to cease storage operations along with the related fabrication operations. The US Department of Energy proposes to remove the unirradiated fuel pins and fuel assemblies from the 308 Building and store them in Room 192A, within the 234-5Z Building, a part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, located in the 200 West Area. Minor modifications to Room 192A would be required to accommodate placement of the fuel. The US Department of Energy estimates that removing all of the fuel from the 308 Building would save $6.5 million annually in security expenditures for the Fast Flux Test Facility. Environmental impacts of construction, relocation, and operation of the proposed action and alternatives were evaluated. This evaluation concluded that the proposed action would have no significant impacts on the human environment

  5. In Plant Measurement and Analysis of Mixtures of Uranium and Plutonium TRU-Waste Using a {sup 252}Cf Shuffler Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-11-02

    The active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  6. Concentration of Plutonium in Desert Plants From Contaminated Area%钚在放射性污染区沙漠植物中的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉; 金玉仁; 田梅; 李伟平; 王耀芹; 王煜; 曾可

    2012-01-01

    研究沙漠植物中钚的含量,对于评估沙漠植物受钚污染状况,寻找钚指示和超积累植物有重要意义.本文采集某放射性污染区内的植物并分析其中239 Pu的含量,获得7种沙漠植物受239Pu污染的数据,据此分析影响植物体内核素含量的因素.所研究沙漠植物体内239 Pu含量平均值为(1.8士4.9)Bq/kg(干重),明显受到钚的污染.再悬浮是造成植物表面污染严重的重要因素之一.植物体内钚的含量与植物种类、生长期、地表污染程度等密切相关.所研究沙漠植物中钚含量的大小顺序为:河西苣>芦苇>盐穗木>盐生草>黑果枸杞>刚毛柽柳>沙拐枣,其中草本植物中钚的含量均大于木本植物.%The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyperaccumulator. The concentration of 239Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239Pu in plants was (1. 8 + 4. 9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites austra-lis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum ,Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum.

  7. Uranium Fuel Plant. Applicants environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Fuel Plant, located at the Cimarron Facility, was constructed in 1964 with operations commencing in 1965 in accordance with License No. SNM-928, Docket No. 70-925. The plant has been in continuous operation since the issuance of the initial license and currently possesses contracts extending through 1978, for the production of nuclear fuels. The Uranium Plant is operated in conjunction with the Plutonium Facility, each sharing common utilities and sanitary wastes disposal systems. The operation has had little or no detrimental ecological impact on the area. For the operation of the Uranium Fuel Fabrication Plant, initial equipment provided for the production of UO2, UF4, uranium metal and recovery of scrap materials. In 1968, the plant was expanded by increasing the UO2 and pellet facilities by the installation of another complete production line for the production of fuel pellets. In 1969, fabrication facilities were added for the production of fuel elements. Equipment initially installed for the recovery of fully enriched scrap has not been used since the last work was done in 1970. Economically, the plant has benefited the Logan County area, with approximately 104 new jobs with an annual payroll of approximately $1.3 million. In addition, $142,000 is annually paid in taxes to state, local and federal governments, and local purchases amount to approximately $1.3 million. This was all in land that was previously used for pasture land, with a maximum value of approximately 37,000 dollars. Environmental effects of plant operation have been minimal. A monitoring and measurement program is maintained in order to ensure that the ecology of the immediate area is not affected by plant operations

  8. Summary of active test of uranium-plutonium co-denitration facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to explain and discuss the active test results in the uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) co-denitration facility. We had previously performed the uranium test with depleted uranium from February of 2005 to January of 2006. Then, the active test has been in progress since March of 2006 toward the start of commercial operation. Plutonium nitrate (PuN) and uranium nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) are mixed at the ratio of approximately 1:1 from the non-proliferation viewpoint. The mixed solution is supplied into the denitration dish inside the denitration oven where the solution is denitrated by microwave heating and converted to MOX powder (PuO2-UO3). After denitration, the powder is converted to the product of MOX powder (PuO2-UO2) through some heating processes and stored in temporary canisters. The powder is transferred to the blender, and then filled into powder cans. 3 powder cans are packed into a canister and transferred to storage in the co-denitrated product powder storage building. Confirmation of the denitration ability of the mixed solution and characteristics of the product powder, (1) Stable and continuous operation in the target period, (2) Characteristics of the product powder, (3) Processing ability at each process, (4) Impurities in the product powder. The test results of the last step of the active test of the U-Pu co-denitration facility are presented; (1) Average throughput in 5 days at A and B lines was more than the target value. (2) Mean particle sizes and specific surface areas in MOX powder were within the standards. (3) Each process indicated good result. (4) Impurities in product powder were less than each limitation. (author)

  9. Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization

  10. The Chemical Hazards Assessments Prior to DandD of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All Hanford facilities, including the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) were evaluated for chemical hazards in 1997, 1998 and 2000. The hazard evaluation, known as the PFP Facility Vulnerability Assessment (FVA), was prompted when chemicals in Tank A-109 in the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) exploded in May 1997. Actions were undertaken to eliminate or reduce what were thought to be the worst hazards following that evaluation. In 2001, a new PFP team was organized to review the progress to date in reducing hazards and to reassess hazards that might still remain within the facility. This reassessment continued into 2002 and is referred to as the 2002 PFP Residual Chemical Hazards Reassessment (RCHR). This report explains the results of the 2001/2002 reassessment of the chemical hazards at PFP. This reassessment effort forms the basis of the RCHR. The RCHR relied on previous assessments as the starting point for the 2001/2002 evaluation and used ranking criteria very similar to previous efforts. The RCHR team was composed of professionals representing Industrial Hygiene, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Hazardous Materials Handling Specialists, Solid Waste Management Specialists and Environmental Specialists. All areas of concern that could be accessed were physically examined and photographed where possible. Information FR-om processing records, facility drawings and documents, design engineers, process engineers and work packages were compiled. The PFP vessel inventory was examined and expanded where required. New items listed in the vessel inventory were investigated. All items investigated were ranked using the hazard ranking criteria developed. This information was put on data sheets and compiled in a database

  11. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  12. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  13. DISPOSAL OF TRU WASTE FROM THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT IN PIPE OVERPACK CONTAINERS TO WIPP INCLUDING NEW SECURITY REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, A.M.; Sutter, C.; Hulse, G.; Teal, J.

    2003-02-27

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and cleanup of the DOE complex. As part of the cleanup and closure of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford site, the nuclear material inventory was reviewed to determine the appropriate disposition path. Based on the nuclear material characteristics, the material was designated for stabilization and packaging for long term storage and transfer to the Savannah River Site or, a decision for discard was made. The discarded material was designated as waste material and slated for disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Prior to preparing any residue wastes for disposal at the WIPP, several major activities need to be completed. As detailed a processing history as possible of the material including origin of the waste must be researched and documented. A technical basis for termination of safeguards on the material must be prepared and approved. Utilizing process knowledge and processing history, the material must be characterized, sampling requirements determined, acceptable knowledge package and waste designation completed prior to disposal. All of these activities involve several organizations including the contractor, DOE, state representatives and other regulators such as EPA. At PFP, a process has been developed for meeting the many, varied requirements and successfully used to prepare several residue waste streams including Rocky Flats incinerator ash, Hanford incinerator ash and Sand, Slag and Crucible (SS&C) material for disposal. These waste residues are packed into Pipe Overpack Containers for shipment to the WIPP.

  14. On line spectrophotometry with optical fibers. Application to uranium-plutonium separation in a spent fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization of mixer-settler operation for uranium-plutonium separation in the Purex process can be obtained by remote spectrophotometry with optical fibers. Data acquisition on uranium VI, uranium IV and plutonium III is examined in function of acidity and nitrate content of the solution. Principles for on line multicomponent monitoring and mathematical modelization of the measurements are described

  15. Plutonium removal from nitric acid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purifications operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1.4 (50-100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO (tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer

  16. Simulation of a complex chemical plant taking the example of uranium-plutonium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first extraction cycle of a reprocessing plant is simulated by means of the ABAS program system. A program-orientated modular arranged simulation system is presented and described with ABAS which is suitable for the simulation of stationary as well as instationary operation states of engineering plants. The program system can be flexibly applied and independently of computers by using the FORTRAN program language. The functioning ABAS is demonstrated by the example of the reprocessing plant of Eurochemic in Mol, Belgium which works according to the Purex process. The stationary concentration profile in the pulsed sieve diaphragm extraction column of this plant are calculated using the Backflow model. The agreement of the results with the operational data is good if one takes the deficiencies into account when determining the model parameters and equilibrium relationships applied. In the simulation of the transient behaviour of the plant, in the start-up procedure and in accidents, concentration maxima can arise as a result of competing extraction of the components taking part, which are not observed in systems only having one extractable component. (orig.)

  17. THE CREATIVE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & WORK FORCE INNOVATIONS TO THE D&D OF PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D&D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D&D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D&D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox cleanout. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP's approach to overcome these

  18. The Creative Application of Science, Technology and Work Force Innovations to the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D and D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D and D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D and D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and the condition and contents of process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox clean-out. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP

  19. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE AND BEHAVIOR IN PLANTS OF THE DESERT SOUTHWEST: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2011-03-01

    Eight species of desert vegetation and associated soils were collected from the Nevada National Security Site (N2S2) and analyzed for 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentrations. Amongst the plant species sampled were: atmospheric elemental accumulators (moss and lichen), the very slow growing, long-lived creosote bush and the rapidly growing, short-lived cheatgrass brome. The diversity of growth strategies provided insight into the geochemical behavior and bio-availability of Pu at the N2S2. The highest concentrations of Pu were measured in the onion moss (24.27 Bq kg-1 238Pu and 52.78 Bq kg-1 239+240Pu) followed by the rimmed navel lichen (8.18 Bq kg-1 and 18.4 Bq kg-1 respectively), pointing to the importance of eolian transport of Pu. Brome and desert globemallow accumulated between 3 and 9 times higher concentrations of Pu than creosote and sage brush species. These results support the importance of species specific elemental accumulation strategies rather than exposure duration as the dominant variable influencing Pu concentrations in these plants. Total vegetation elemental concentrations of Ce, Fe, Al, Sm and others were also analyzed. Strong correlations were observed between Fe and Pu. This supports the conclusion that Pu was accumulated as a consequence of the active accumulation of Fe and other plant required nutrients. Cerium and Pu are considered to be chemical analogs. Strong correlations observed in plants support the conclusion that these elements displayed similar geochemical behavior in the environment as it related to the biochemical uptake process of vegetation. Soils were also sampled in association with vegetation samples. This allowed for the calculation of a concentration ratio (CR). The CR values for Pu in plants were highly influenced by the heterogeneity of Pu distribution among sites. Results from the naturally occurring elements of concern were more evenly distributed between sample sites. This allowed for the development of a pattern of plant

  20. Effects of natural phenomena on the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Plutonium Fabrication Plant at the Parks Township site, Leechburg, Pennsylvania. Docket No. 70-364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is to issue a renewal to the full-term Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-414 (Docket No. 70-364) authorizing the Nuclear Material Division of the Babcock and Wilcox Company (BandW) to operate nuclear-fuel-fabrication facilities located in Leechburg, Pennsylvania. The plutonium fuel facility is presently being used to fabricate fuel for the fast test reactor under construction at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Implicit in Sections 70.22 and 70.23 of 10CFR70 is a requirement that existing plutonium fabrication plants be examined with the objective of improving, to the extent practicable, their abilities to withstand adverse natural phenomena without loss of capability to protect the public. In accordance with these regulations, an analysis was initiated of the effects of natural phenomena on the BandW Plutonium Fabrication Plant. Following completion of the analysis, a condensation was prepared of the effects of natural phenomena on the facility

  1. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from the Exxon Nuclear Mixed Oxide Fuel Plant at Richland, Washington as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential airborne releases of plutonium from postulated damage sustained by the Exxon Nuclear Company's Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant at Richland, Washington, as a result of various levels of wind and earthquake hazard, are estimated. The releases are based on damage scenarios that range up to 250 mph for wind hazard and in excess of 1.0 g ground acceleration for seismic hazard, which were developed by other specialists. The approaches and factors used to estimate the releases (inventories of dispersible materials at risk, damage levels and ratios, fractional airborne releases of dispersible materials under stress, atmosphere exchange rates, and source term ranges) are discussed. Release estimates range from less than 10-7 g to greater than 14 g of plutonium over a four-day period

  2. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from the Exxon Nuclear Mixed Oxide Fuel Plant at Richland, Washington as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Ayer, J.E.; Owzarski, E.L.

    1980-02-01

    The potential airborne releases of plutonium from postulated damage sustained by the Exxon Nuclear Company's Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant at Richland, Washington, as a result of various levels of wind and earthquake hazard, are estimated. The releases are based on damage scenarios that range up to 250 mph for wind hazard and in excess of 1.0 g ground acceleration for seismic hazard, which were developed by other specialists. The approaches and factors used to estimate the releases (inventories of dispersible materials at risk, damage levels and ratios, fractional airborne releases of dispersible materials under stress, atmosphere exchange rates, and source term ranges) are discussed. Release estimates range from less than 10/sup -7/ g to greater than 14 g of plutonium over a four-day period.

  3. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants; Etude du comportement du plutonium au cours de la diagenese precoce des sediments marins: applications a deux environnements marins marques par les rejets issus d'usines de retraitement de combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouzy, A

    2004-12-15

    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  4. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  5. Release of plutonium isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has caused serious contamination in the environment. In this work, we summarize and analyze published studies related to the release of Pu from the FDNPP accident using environmental sample analysis and ORIGEN model simulation. Our analysis focuses on several aspects: first, the investigation of the distribution of Pu isotopes derived from the FDNPP accident in the environment; second, the determination of Pu isotopic composition of the FDNPP-derived Pu in the environment; third, the identification of sources of Pu release in the FDNPP-damaged reactors or spent fuel pools; and finally, the estimation of the amount of Pu isotopes released from the FDNPP. (author)

  6. Test and evaluation of the in-line plutonium solution K-absorption-edge densitometer at the Savannah River Plant. Phase I. Off-line testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in-line, plutonium-solution, K-edge absorption densitometer has been developed at Los Alamos and is currently undergoing test and evaluation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The first phase of the test and evaluation (off-line instrument calibration and solution assays) was completed, and preparations are under way to install the instrument in-line, as soon as process schedules permit. Calibration data in the design concentration range of 25 to 40 g Pu/L demonstrate routine achievement of densitometry assay precisions of 0.5% or better in 40 min. Plutonium assays at concentrations outside the calibration range were investigated in an effort to define better the limitations of the instrument and address other possible assay situations at SRP. Densitometry precisions obtained for 40-min assays range from 3% to 5 g Pu/L down to 0.4% at 70 g Pu/L. At higher plutonium concentrations, the precision deteriorated due to increasing gamma-ray absorption by the solution. In addition, with actinide concentrations above approximately 100 g/L, the assay accuracy also suffered because of enhanced small-angle scattering effects in the large sample cell. Measurements on mixed U/Pu solutions demonstrated the feasibility of accurate plutonium assays with correction for the large uranium matrix contributions being determined from the measurement data. The 239240Pu weight fractions and 241Pu/239Pu and 238Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios can be determined. In a mockup of the in-line solution plumbing system, all assay sequences, error conditions, and interlock criteria were exercised and verified to be working properly

  7. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  8. The Integration of the 241-Z Building Decontamination and Decommissioning Under Cercla with RCRA Closure at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 241-Z treatment and storage tanks, a hazardous waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) unit permitted pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act, RCW 70.105, , have been deactivated and are being actively decommissioned under the provisions of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) 42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq. The 241-Z TSD unit managed non-listed radioactive contaminated waste water, containing trace RCRA characteristic constituents. The 241-Z TSD unit consists of below grade tanks (D-4, D-5, D-7, D-8, and an overflow tank) located in a concrete containment vault, sample glovebox GB-2-241-ZA, and associated ancillary piping and equipment. The tank system is located beneath the 241-Z building. The 241-Z building is not a portion of the TSD unit. The sample glovebox is housed in the above-grade building. Waste managed at the TSD unit was received via underground piping from Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) sources. Tank D-6, located in the D-6 vault cell, is a past-practice tank that was taken out of service in 1972 and has never operated as a portion of the RCRA TSD unit. CERCLA actions will address Tank D-6, its containment vault cell, and soil beneath the cell that was potentially contaminated during past-practice operations and any other potential past-practice contamination identified during 241-Z closure, while outside the scope of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Closure Plan, 241-Z Treatment and Storage Tanks. Under the RCRA closure plan, the 241-Z TSD unit is anticipated to undergo clean closure to the performance standards of the State of Washington with respect to dangerous waste contamination from RCRA operations. The TSD unit will be clean closed if physical closure activities identified in the plan achieve clean closure standards for all 241-Z

  9. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is concerned with developing an advanced method to produce nuclear reactor fuels. Since 1968 EIR has worked successfully on the production of uranium-plutonium mixed carbide using wet gelation chemistry. An important part of the development is irradiating the fuel in materials test reactors and evaluating its performance. During 1979 the programme continued with principal activities of fuel fabrication development, preparation for irradiation testing, performance evaluation, and modelling and plant engineering. (Auth.)

  10. Plutonium, 137Cs and 90Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for 137Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 ± 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for 90Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  11. Plutonium, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maksimova, Svetlana, E-mail: soilzool@biobel.bas-net.b [Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya 27, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Szwalko, Przemyslaw [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow (Poland); Wnuk, Katarzyna [Holycross Cancer Center, Department on Nuclear Medicine, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Zagrodzki, Pawel [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Orlov, Olexandr, E-mail: station@zt.ukrpack.ne [Poleskiy Branch of Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agro-Forest-Amelioration, Prospect Mira 38, Zhytomyr 10004 (Ukraine)

    2010-06-15

    Results are presented for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for {sup 137}Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 +- 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for {sup 90}Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  12. Technological alternatives for plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the problems of large long term storage since stores at fabrication plants may depend on the form of plutonium ultimately chosen for transport. The paper's conclusion includes: MOX can be regarded as more proliferation resistant than PUO2 but no experience of long term storage is available, therefore further R and D is required; co-location of the store with reprocessing plants (and fuel fabrication plant) would appear to have advantages in non-proliferation, safeguards implementation, environmental protection and economic aspects; there are strong non-proliferation and security arguments for not moving plutonium away from the site where it was separated until there is an identifiable and scheduled end use. The design of the store, the form in which plutonium should be stored, particularly as MOX, and the costs and further R and D required are considered. The possible location of stores is also discussed and institutional questions briefly considered

  13. Cadarache - 20 years of plutonium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative and quantitative evolution of plutonium used is reviewed; more particularly, the isotopic composition of plutonium handled at the plutonium fuel fabrication plant of Cadarache has been considerably changing during these 20 last years. The evolution of fast neutron reactor fuel assemblies explains why the fabrication unit has to. The installations have been modified, as also the fuel assembly fabrication process. Changes can be classified in 3 categories: the transformations related to mass evolution, those related more particularly to the plutonium isotopic composition, finally those related to the waste treatment process. These transformations concerned workshops, apparatus and equipments, the reinforcement of protections, criticality accident prevention, and safeguards

  14. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  15. Seaborg's Plutonium ?

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B; Telhami, Kristina E

    2014-01-01

    Passive x-ray and gamma-ray analysis was performed on UC Berkeley's EH&S Sample S338. The object was found to contain Pu-239 and no other radioactive isotopes. The mass of Pu-239 contained in this object was determined to be 2.0 +- 0.3 micrograms. These observations are consistent with the identification of this object being the 2.77-microgram plutonium oxide sample described by Glenn Seaborg and his collaborators as the first sample of Pu-239 that was large enough to be weighed.

  16. The plutonium cycle under high surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium is a source of strong public anxiety because of the risk of uncontrolled nuclear weapons proliferation. Several countries have decided to adopt a politics of transparency by drawing up the inventory of plutonium stocks. Most of the plutonium available comes from the operation of nuclear power plants and from the dismantlement of US and Soviet nuclear weapons. A part of plutonium reserves can be burn in fast breeder reactors while the rest can be recycled to produce the Mox (mixed oxides) fuel made of 5 to 7 % of plutonium and 93 to 95 % of uranium 238. The Mox fuel is presently tested in 20 European reactor from which seven are French. The use of Mox requires some modifications of the reactor conception such as the addition of supplementary control rods. The expectations from now to the year 2000 are to use Mox in 28 French reactors, which represents half of the EdF (Electricite de France) units. The paper describes the Melox facility sited in Marcoule (Gard, France) and devoted to the fabrication of Mox fuel from uranium and plutonium oxides. The paper also focusses on the safety and security aspects of plutonium transportation and storage. In a second part, the plutonium isotopes properties are briefly described together with the possible use of plutonium for the fabrication of radiological weapons in the case of nuclear materials diversion. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos

  17. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 106 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 106 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  18. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  19. Determination of trace amounts of plutonium in low-active liquid wastes from spent nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants by flow injection-based solid-phase extraction/electrochemical detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection-based electrochemical detection system coupled to a solid-phase extraction column was developed for the determination of trace amounts of plutonium in low-active liquid wastes from spent nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. The oxidation state of plutonium in a sample solution was adjusted to Pu(VI) by the addition of silver(II) oxide. A sample solution was made up in 3 mol L-1 HNO3 and loaded onto a column packed with UTEVAR with 3 mol L-1 HNO3 as the carrier. Plutonium(VI) was adsorbed onto the resin, and interfering elements were removed by rinsing the column with 3 mol L-1 HNO3. Subsequently, the adsorbed Pu(VI) was eluted with 0.01 mol L-1 HNO3, and then introduced directly into the flow-through electrolysis cell with boron-doped diamond electrode. The eluted Pu(VI) was detected by an electrochemical amperometric method at a working potential of 0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The current produced on reduction of Pu(VI) was continuously monitored and recorded. The plutonium concentration was calculated from the relationship between the peak area and concentration of plutonium. The relative standard deviation of ten analyses was 1.1% for a plutonium solution of 25 μg L-1 containing 50 ng of Pu. The detection limit calculated from three-times the standard deviation was 0.82 μg L-1 (1.6 ng of Pu). (author)

  20. Estimation of plutonium in Hanford Site waste tanks based on historical records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estimation of plutonium in the Hanford Site waste storage tanks is important to nuclear criticality concerns. A reasonable approach for estimating the plutonium in the tanks can be established by considering the recovery efficiency of the chemical separation plants on the plutonium produced in the Hanford reactors. The waste loss from the separation processes represents the bulk of the plutonium in the waste tanks. The lesser contributor of plutonium to the waste tanks was the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). When the PFP waste is added to the plutonium waste from separations, the result is the total estimated amount of plutonium discharged to the waste tanks at the Hanford Site. This estimate is for criticality concerns, and therefore is based on conservative assumptions (giving higher plutonium values). The estimate has been calculated to be ∼981 kg of plutonium in the single- and double-shell high-level waste tanks

  1. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  2. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended

  3. On-line monitoring of plutonium in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the total and isotopic plutonium concentrations in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions blended with highly radioactive fission product nuclides and other radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137 and Co-60) has been investigated at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). An on-line total and isotopic plutonium monitoring system is being tested for its ability to assay the plutonium abundances in solutions as might be found in the process streams of a light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel processing plant. The monitoring system is fully automated and designed to be maintained remotely. It is capable of near real-time inventory of plutonium in process streams and provides the basis for on-line computerized accounting of special nuclear materials

  4. Plutonium use - Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of plutonium in thermal and fast reactors is a demonstrated, if not proven, technology. Moreover, plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct numerous breeders and thus to make the best use of plutonium, while considerably reducing uranium consumption. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Long delays in installing and adequate world reprocessing capacity are weakening the prospects for introducing breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation regarding reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burnup. The recycling of plutonium is now a well-known technique and any objections to it hardly bear analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units; and it can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel is a particularly safe form of concentrating plutonium, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Finally, recycling offers such flexibility that it represents no obstacle to fuel management at power plants with light-water reactors. These strategic considerations imply that the technology of using plutonium for fabricating thermal or fast reactor fuels is both technically reliable and economically viable. The methods used in industrial facilities are fully reassuring in this respect. Although various unsolved problems exist, none seems likely to impede current developments, while the industrial experience gained has enabled the economics and reliability of the methods to be improved appreciably. Apart from the techno-economic aspects, the plutonium industry must face extremely important problems in connection with the safety of personnel

  5. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.)

  6. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  7. In-place testing of multiple stage filter systems without disruption of plant operations in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has a number of multiple-stage air-cleaning systems. These systems operate on a continuous basis and economic considerations require that shutting down of the ventilation systems due to in-place testing be kept to a minimum. Earlier methods of testing multiple-stage filter systems required scheduled shut down of the filter system. Methods such as injecting the test aerosol between the stages have proven costly because of the need to install temporary injection ducts and completely close off the ventilation from the process area. Also, additional personnel were needed to install and move injection and bypass ducts from one system to another. After considering these costly methods, current methods of testing were improved to prevent interruption of plant operations. The modified procedure uses a laser particle size spectrometer that has the capability of counting single particles downstream of two filter stages where decontamination factors of the first stage and overall system effectiveness is established. This procedure is similar to that of Nuclear Standard NEF 3-4IT, ''In-Place Testing of HEPA filter systems by the Single-Particle, Particle-Size Spectrometer Method.'' Decontamination factors of 109 are measured downstream of two stages. Particle size analyses of the challenge and the aerosol penetrating the first and second stages have been established. A cost estimation comparing two test methods show considerable savings in operational costs

  8. Chemical behavior of plutonium in LWR fuel reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted to provide fundamental information that will be required for the satisfactory treatment of the actinide elements in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Three problem areas are described that could result in plutonium losses prior to or during Purex processing. They involve (1) decreasing plutonium distribution coefficients with successive extraction stages even in pure HNO3 solution; (2) Pu(IV) interaction with the ruthenium component of the feed solution; and (3) plutonium losses associated with precipitates of zirconia, zirconium molybdate, and plutonium molybdate. The results indicate that although small extraction losses do occur and significant plutonium losses can result from feed solution instabilities, it should be possible to avoid process conditions which promote this behavior; therefore, from the viewpoint of plutonium chemical behavior, very high plutonium recoveries (>99.9% should be possible

  9. Determination of Uranium and Plutonium Concentration in 1AF by Isotopic Dilution Mass Spectrometry Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is important data to measure uranium and plutonium concentration for the reprocessing plant control analysis. The determination of uranium and plutonium concentration in 1AF by isotopic dilution mass

  10. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  11. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide

  12. Distribution of plutonium in organs of extrapulmonary pool in remote periods after the beginning of inhalation in workers of radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of the health state and some dosimetric factors on the distribution of systemic Pu for workers of radiochemical plants is studied. Data were obtained on results of radiochemical analysis of soft tissue and bone samples taken at autopsy from 591 workers of the radiochemical plant. Alpha activity was measured with a low background alpha-radiometer. The patho-morphological state of the liver was taken into account. It is shown that the health state and the grade of the pathological process have an effect upon distribution of systemic Pu in humans. Skeleton to liver ratio is 50.3 : 42.3 = 1.2 for the practically healthy people. As the state of the health worsens and the pathology becomes more scenic, resulting in the fatty degeneration in the hepatocytes, the fractions of Pu deposition in liver decreases, while the fraction in the skeleton increases in the same degree. The individuals with serious liver diseases (cancer, massive metastases in the liver, cirrhosis, alcoholism) have got the ratio the skeleton : the liver = 77.9 : 14.9 = 5.5. The correlation between the state of the state of the health, some domestic factor and the distribution of systemic Pu was studied using the multifactorial regression analysis. These results indicated that Pu redistribution between the liver and the skeleton is the reciprocal process. Under pathological processes the element released from the liver is transported to the skeleton. The intensity of Pu translocation from the liver to the skeleton is higher under pathological processes (28 % for 1 - 2 years) than under the normal life conditions (1.4 % y-1). It should be assumed that for the persons with different heavy chronic diseases the skeleton and liver exposure doses may differ from the calculated ones, if the doses are evaluated from the models that do not take into account the plutonium recycling in systemic organs under the pathological processes

  13. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical review of the development of the very first quantities of plutonium produced during World War II in the United States and in Canada, as remembered by the French nuclear chemist, Mr Goldschmidt, who participated to the various programs which were involved in the development of the atomic bomb, and to the first steps of the French atomic program after the war. Mr Goldschmidt worked especially on organic solvent extraction, with the selection, in 1945, of non volatile tri glycol dichloride, and the development of the Chalk River plant. In 1949, at the Bouchet plant, his team has isolated the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide; and in 1952, the PUREX process was developed

  15. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  16. Transfer of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant and N Reactor irradiated fuel for storage at the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins, Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to remove irradiated fuel from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant and N Reactor at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to stabilize the facilities in preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) and to reduce the cost of maintaining the facilities prior to D ampersand D. DOE is proposing to transfer approximately 3.9 metric tons (4.3 short tons) of unprocessed irradiated fuel, by rail, from the PUREX Plant in the 200 East Area and the 105 N Reactor (N Reactor) fuel storage basin in the 100 N Area, to the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins (K Basins) in the 100 K Area. The fuel would be placed in storage at the K Basins, along with fuel presently stored, and would be dispositioned in the same manner as the other existing irradiated fuel inventory stored in the K Basins. The fuel transfer to the K Basins would consolidate storage of fuels irradiated at N Reactor and the Single Pass Reactors. Approximately 2.9 metric tons (3.2 short tons) of single-pass production reactor, aluminum clad (AC) irradiated fuel in four fuel baskets have been placed into four overpack buckets and stored in the PUREX Plant canyon storage basin to await shipment. In addition, about 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of zircaloy clad (ZC) and a few AC irradiated fuel elements have been recovered from the PUREX dissolver cell floors, placed in wet fuel canisters, and stored on the canyon deck. A small quantity of ZC fuel, in the form of fuel fragments and chips, is suspected to be in the sludge at the bottom of N Reactor's fuel storage basin. As part of the required stabilization activities at N Reactor, this sludge would be removed from the basin and any identifiable pieces of fuel elements would be recovered, placed in open canisters, and stored in lead lined casks in the storage basin to await shipment. A maximum of 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of fuel pieces is expected to be recovered

  17. Minimization of the volume and Pu content of the waste generated at a plutonium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of waste generated during 1987, 1989 and a past reference period have been reported in great detail. The main conclusions which can be drawn from these figures are: (i) for all kinds of waste, the waste-to-product ratio has decreased very substantially during the past few years. This reduction results partly from a scale effect, i.e. the better load factor of the plant, and partly from Belgonucleare's continuous effort to minimize the radioactive waste arisings; (ii) the ratio of the Pu content of the waste to the total Pu throughput of the plant has also decreased substantially; (iii) the mean Pu content of the solid Pu contaminated waste equals 1.39 g Pu per unit volume of 25 l. Only for a small fraction of this waste (<5% by volume) does the Pu content exceed 5 g per unit volume of 25 l; (iv) even after the implementation of waste reducing measures, some 45% of the solid Pu contaminated waste is generated by operations which involve the handling and transfer of powders. Finally, some 63% of the total amount of Pu in the waste can be imputed to these operations

  18. Radio-ecological researches in the Sea of Japan and northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean after accident on the Japanese nuclear power plant 'Fukushima-1': the content of plutonium isotopes and strontium-90 in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorova, A. [Research and Production Association - RPA Typhoon (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In April-May 2011 and in August-September 2012 'Roshydromet' has conducted radio ecological researches in the Sea of Japan and on the water area of northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean (Kuril-Kamchatka area and the area of the Kuroshio current), which had purpose to make assessment of contamination hazard that can be caused to the coast of Russian Far East because of emergency releases of radioactive materials on the nuclear power plant 'Fukushima-1'. During the research works was done the sampling and processing of sea water samples not only for detection of Cs{sup 134}, Cs{sup 137}, but also for such radio-ecological significant long-living radionuclides, as {sup 90}Sr, plutonium isotopes ({sup 239,240}Pu) and tritium. Information about radionuclides was required for correct assessment of nuclear power plant 'Fukushima-1' aftermath on the Far Eastern sea water areas, but was not available in the beginning of research. In the present report the radiochemical measuring results on content of plutonium isotopes and {sup 90}Sr in the sea water from researched areas are presented. Sampling was done from the various horizons. Surface and deep water samples were filtered via the compound filter which made it possible to filter particles bigger than 1 micron. Radiochemical testing of the {sup 90}Sr and plutonium isotopes content was done separately on a suspension and in a filtrate of sea water samples. The content of {sup 90}Sr in the filtrate of the sea water that had been selected in 2011, ranges 0,7-2,4 Bq/m{sup 3}, in suspensions the interval makes 0,0013-0,021 Bq/m3. The results received in researches in 2012 are in range of 0,5-2,6 Bq/m{sup 3} of the sea water filtrate. According to results of IAEA in 2000, the average content of {sup 90}Sr in surface water of the Sea of Japan made 1,6 Bq/m{sup 3}. Hereby, the data obtained in researches in 2011-2012 agrees with results which had been presented by IAEA before the accident. The

  19. Study of the formation, prevention, and recovery of plutonium from plutonium esters in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Plant uses the basic Purex process to separate 239Pu from 238U and fission products. Dark-brown, dense solids containing up to 30% Pu have previously occurred in rotameters in the plutonium finishing operations. The kinetics of formation of this mixture of DBP- and MBP-Pu esters suggest two methods to prevent the formation of the solids. A selective dissolution method using NaOH metathesis has been developed to separate the phosphate ester from the plutonium before dissolution of the residual plutonium hydroxide in a HNO3-HF medium

  20. Crystalline plutonium hosts derived from high-level waste formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has selected immobilization for disposal in a repository as one approach for disposing of excess plutonium (1). Materials for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium for repository disposal must meet the ''spent fuel standard'' by providing a radiation field similar to spent fuel (2). Such a radiation field can be provided by incorporating fission products from high-level waste into the waste form. Experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) into plutonium dispositioning materials to meet the spent fuel standard. A variety of materials and preparation techniques were evaluated based on prior experience developing waste forms for immobilizing HLW. These included crystalline ceramic compositions prepared by conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and glass formulations prepared by conventional melting. Because plutonium solubility in silicate melts is limited, glass formulations were intentionally devitrified to partition plutonium into crystalline host phases, thereby allowing increased overall plutonium loading. Samarium, added as a representative rare earth neutron absorber, also tended to partition into the plutonium host phases. Because the crystalline plutonium host phases are chemically more inert, the plutonium is more effectively isolated from the environment, and its attractiveness for proliferation is reduced. In the initial phase of evaluating each material and preparation method, cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium. For promising materials, additional preparation experiments were performed using plutonium to verify the behavior of cerium as a surrogate. These experiments demonstrated that cerium performed well as a surrogate for plutonium. For the most part, cerium and plutonium partitioned onto the same crystalline phases, and no anomalous changes in oxidation state were observed. The only observed

  1. Demolition of Building 12, an old plutonium filter facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the decommissioning and disposal of a plutonium-contaminated air filter facility that provided ventilation for the main plutonium processing plant at Los Alamos from 1945 until 1973. The health physics, waste management, and environmental aspects of the demolition are also discussed

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  3. Properties of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  4. Technical progress report on the metabolic studies of plutonium for month of August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1945-12-31

    This monthly report briefly describes ongoing studies including urinary and fecal excretion of Plutonium 238 by human subjects and by rats, exploring way to facilitate the removal of Plutonium 238 from rat bone, the absorption of Plutonium 238 by barley plants, and use of inert iodine to block absorption of Iodine-131 in the rat.

  5. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  6. A Versatile two-step process for immobilizing excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of weapon stockpile reduction and the associated shutdown of weapons production facilities, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium (both weapons-grade and non-weapons-grade) has been declared excess by the US. Recent experiments demonstrated the feasibility of using high-level waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to immobilize plutonium. The most effective plutonium host phase identified in these experiments was a plutonium zirconate solid solution. Results of recent experiments are reported that show the feasibility of using the highly durable plutonium zirconate host phase as a feed material for high and low temperature encapsulation processes, thereby increasing the potential applications of this material for plutonium dispositioning

  7. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  8. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  9. Perspective on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended as a brief overview on the element plutonium. Plutonium is the first primarily man-made element to play a significant role not only in technological development, but also in the economic growth of many countries. The importance of plutonium centers around its enormous energy making it ideal for wide-scale use in reactors, while the nuclear industry continues to work toward improving safety and efficiency of plutonium as a reactor fuel politicians and the public still debate over the safety and benefits of nuclear power. (30 refs.)

  10. Plutonium in the aquatic environment around the Rocky Flats facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Plant of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration has been fabricating and chemically recovering plutonium for over 20 years. During that time, small amounts of plutonium have been released with liquid process and sanitary waste discharges. The liquid waste flows through a series of holding ponds from which it is discharged into a creek that is part of a municipal drinking water supply. The water flows for about 1.5 km between the last holding pond and the municipal drinking water reservoir. In addition, liquid wastes containing high levels of chemical contaminants and plutonium concentrations less than allowable drinking water standards have been discharged to large evaporation ponds. The fate of the plutonium in both the surface and subsurface aquatic environment has been extensively monitored and studied. It has been found that plutonium does not move very far or very rapidly through subsurface water. The majority of the plutonium released through surface water has been contained in the sediments of the plant holding ponds. Small amounts of plutonium have also been found in the sediments of the draining creek and in the sediments of the receiving reservoir. Higher than normal amounts of plutonium were released from the waste treatment plants during times when suspended solids were high. Various biological species have been examined and plutonium concentration factors determined. Considerably less than 1% of the 210 mCi of plutonium released has been detected in biological systems including man. After more than 20 years of large scale operations, no health or environmental hazard has been identified due to the release of small amounts of plutonium. (author)

  11. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  12. Plutonium-enriched thermal fuel production experience in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the strategic aspects of nuclear energy such as availability and sufficiency of resources and independence of energy supply, most countries planning to use plutonium look mainly to its use in fast reactors. However, by recycling the recovered uranium and plutonium in light water reactors, the saving of the uranium that would otherwise be required could already be higher than 35%. Therefore, until fast reactors are introduced, for macro- or microeconomic reasons, the plutonium recycle option seems to be quite valuable for countries having the plutonium technology. In Belgium, Belgonucleaire has been developing the plutonium technology for more than 20 yr and has operated a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant since 1973. The past ten years of plant operation have provided for many improvements and relevant new documented experiences establishing a basis for new modifications that will be beneficial to the intrinsic quality, overall safety, and economy of the fuel

  13. Electrodeposition of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment for electrolytic deposition of plutonium from molten salt solutions was designed and built and was tested with cerium as a stand-in for plutonium. The electrolysis cell is a graphite crucible that serves as the anode; the cathode is a molybdenum rod. This paper discusses results of that test

  14. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238Pu and 239Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  15. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  16. The production control laboratories of the plutonium extraction Plant at Marcoule. Six years operating experience: 1957 - 1963; Les laboratoires de fabrication de l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule. Experience des 6 premieres annees de fonctionnement: 1957 - 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, A. [CEA Marcoule, Centre de Production de Plutonium, 30 (France)

    1964-07-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to sum up the conditions prevailing, after six years of operation, in the Laboratories of the Plutonium Extraction Plant. The origins and objectives are briefly reviewed, the technology and staff recruitment policy are examined, and progress made is shown. The methods used as well as the scope of application and limits imposed at the present state are considered. Past achievements and further possibilities in the next future are examined. An attempt has been made to bring out the outlooks for the more distant future and to investigate the conditions required for the successful carrying out of the program. (author) [French] Le present rapport tente, apres 6 ans de vie, de faire le point de la situation des Laboratoires du Service Extraction du Plutonium. Apres un rapide retour sur les origines et les objectifs, apres quelques considerations sur le recrutement et la technologie situant le contexte de leurs progres, nous etudierons les methodes, leurs domaines d'application, leurs limites actuelles. Nous ferons un bilan des realisations et des possibilites pour un avenir proche. Nous tenterons de degager quelques vues plus lointaines et les conditions pour les mener a bonne fin. (auteur)

  17. International and institutional aspects of reprocessing and plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various institutional alternatives applicable to reprocessing, plutonium management and recycle are considered, not as a definitive analysis but rather as a basis for identifying the institutional approaches and measures which the Working Group might wish to examine more thoroughly. Seven alternatives arrangements for reprocessing are presented. These range from suspending the operation of existing reprocessing plants through placing national facilities under safeguards to limiting reprocessing to a few large facilities subject to plutonium management, multinational or international control. Finally, the comprehensive alternative of an International Nuclear Fuel Authority with worldwide responsibility for reprocessing and plutonium management is considered. Plutonium management alternatives to complement the reprocessing options, are then outlined. These include national discretion on the separation and disposition of plutonium under safeguards, an agreed Code of Practice for plutonium management at national facilities and the international storage of plutonium. The advantages and disadvantages of the alternative are discussed tentatively. It is recognised that the alternatives are presented in a simplified form and that their elements can be combined or separated in many ways. Although strengthening the institutions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is imperative and can contribute to non-proliferation, such arrangements might open other proliferation risks through the spread of sensitive materials, facilities and technology. While there are risks with any fuel cycle, where plutonium in quantity is separated these risks are of a high order. Although these can be mitigated, they will have to be set against the energy and economic case for reprocessing and alternatives other than plutonium considered

  18. Plutonium utilization in different reactor types in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) penetration studies were carried out in France after the 1973 oil crisis. Since that period, several new facts have modified the possible scenarios. The energy (especially electricity) use increase was lower than anticipated. Consequently, uranium supplying difficulties and uranium cost increases will not occur until later. As a result, pressurized water reactor (PWR) plutonium recycling and studies of advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) putting plutonium to use will begin. In France many PWRs were built between 1973 and 1989. After the first lifetime studies, a 35- or 40-yr lifetime can be expected. Then after 2010 the first reactors must be changed and many new power plants must be started. At this time PWRs will have produced a great amount of plutonium. How will this plutonium be put to use? As regards the use of fissile materials, LMFBRs are the most efficient. But LMFBRs are more expensive than PWRs, and as a first step, uses of plutonium such as recycling in PWRs or APWRs can be considered. In this paper the authors consider PWRs, APWRs, and LMFBRs, from a physicist's point of view, which focuses on the problems of in-core and out-of-core plutonium isotopic composition evolution and plutonium supplying safeguards. In these studies, all the plutonium produced is used as soon as possible, not taking into consideration the economic aspects of plutonium utilization

  19. characteristics of fall-out plutonium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of samples have been tested to investigate the adsorption of plutonium in soil under natural conditions. In a soil sample containing only about 5% of organic materials, no significant leaching of plutonium was observed with three kinds of extractants, namely, 1N-ammonium acetate, 5%-EDTA and 0.1N-sodium citrate, while some plutonium was leached with 0.1N-citric acid. The results of solubility tests made with natural soil organic acids, namely, humic and fulvic acids, showed that solubilization of plutonium by these acids is unlikely to occur in this soil sample. On the other hand, in another soil sample rich in organic materials (about 50%), significant leaching of plutonium was observed with all the extractants tested. The leaching of plutonium was especially very high with 0.1N-sodium citrate (about 60%); sodium citrate showing an initial pH of 8.4 probably solubilized some of organic materials present. Experiments made on extraction of organic materials with alkali solution also suggested that as much as 60 - 70% of plutonium in this soil sample was associated with some organic acids, whose carbon content was assumed to be 30 - 40% of the total organic carbon in the soil sample. This finding is very important from a view point of the uptake of plutonium by plant because plutonium associated with such organic acids is presumed to exist abundantly in cultivated soils which are quite rich in organic materials. (author)

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations

  1. Civilian Uses and Production of Plutonium in the United States Of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of plutonium will be produced in thermal reactors according to present projections of die growth of nuclear power. Part of this plutonium will be recycled in such reactors and part will be used in the development of fast reactors. Estimates are given of the quantity and isotopic content of plutonium to be produced in the United States in nuclear power plants at present in operation, under construction, definitely planned, or projected for operation through 1980. Estimates are also given of the quantity and isotopic content of plutonium to be utilized in the United States in the development and application of plutonium recycle for thermal reactors and in the development of fast reactors during the next ten years. Existing facilities for recovery of plutonium from irradiated fuel and for fabrication of fuel containing plutonium are summarized. The effects on natural uranium feed and separative work requirements for enriched uranium fuel for light-water reactors using plutonium recycle are discussed. (author)

  2. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was written at the request of EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG ampersand G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG ampersand G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ''scaling.'' The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes

  3. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  4. Africanos, tráfico atlántico y cimarrones en las fronteras entre la Guyana Francesa y la América portuguesa, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio dos Santos Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las experiencias históricas de los cimarrones en un área de fronter atlántica continental entre la Guyana Francesa y la América portuguesa durante el siglo XVII. Las expectativas de los fugitivos africanos se abordan relacionando el movimiento del tráfico atlántico de esclavos-sus variaciones, los volúmenes y las procedencias-. De esta forma se reflexiona sobre los ambientes sociales, étnicos y geográficos que fueron encontrados y recreados en las selvas de estas zonas fronterizas. En un territorio de conflictos, enfrentamientos, disputas coloniales y expectativas de identidades, surgieron espacios de cooperación, donde los colonos europeos y las poblaciones de indígenas y de africanos se reinventaron como culturas y comunidades. Los circuitos demográficos del tráfico atlántico estaban conectados a la experiencia de africanos de diversas procedencias y a la posibilidad de encuentro de estos, a través de las fugas y de las comunidades transétnicas en una zona de frontera transnacional durante la Colonia.

  5. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  6. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  7. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  8. Glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilizing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported on several new glass and glass-ceramic waste formulations for plutonium disposition. The approach proposed involves employing existing calcined high level waste (HLW) present at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and an additive to: (1) aid in the formation of a durable waste form and (2) decrease the attractiveness level of the plutonium from a proliferation viewpoint. The plutonium, PuO2, loadings employed were 15 wt% (glass) and 17 wt% (glass-ceramic). Results in the form of x-ray diffraction patterns, microstructure and durability tests are presented on cerium surrogate and plutonium loaded waste forms using simulated calcined HLW and demonstrate that durable phases, zirconia and zirconolite, contain essentially all the plutonium

  9. Glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilizing plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Holleran, T.P.; Johnson, S.G.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Noy, M.; Wood, E.L. [Argonne National Lab.-West, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knecht, D.A.; Vinjamuri, K.; Staples, B.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Results are reported on several new glass and glass-ceramic waste formulations for plutonium disposition. The approach proposed involves employing existing calcined high level waste (HLW) present at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and an additive to: (1) aid in the formation of a durable waste form and (2) decrease the attractiveness level of the plutonium from a proliferation viewpoint. The plutonium, PuO{sub 2}, loadings employed were 15 wt% (glass) and 17 wt% (glass-ceramic). Results in the form of x-ray diffraction patterns, microstructure and durability tests are presented on cerium surrogate and plutonium loaded waste forms using simulated calcined HLW and demonstrate that durable phases, zirconia and zirconolite, contain essentially all the plutonium.

  10. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts.

  11. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts

  12. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author)

  13. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  14. The plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dangers of producing and storing more plutonium as a result of introducing fast breeder reactors into the nuclear programme are explored, including the risks of terrorism and how to decrease them. (U.K.)

  15. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  16. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory

  17. Field study to obtain plutonium contents of old field vegetation and soil under humid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil and vegetation at the Savannah River Plant were analyzed for plutonium. The data indicate that vacuumed samples have the greatest concentration of plutonium, that resuspension and fallout of plutonium is a principal contributor to the plutonium concentration of vegetation because the 238Pu concentrations are more closely aligned to source term values than soil values under field conditions, and that laboratory uptake studies may underestimate the plutonium content of vegetation growing under field conditions adjacent to a fuel reprocessing facility. (U.S.)

  18. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory.

  19. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  20. Plutonium in Baltic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediments accumulate the bulk of plutonium produced by nuclear tests. The nuclear power industry will form an additional source of plutonium, and it is important to determine the present background levels of plutonium in sediments and to compare the accumulation rate in the Baltic with that in other areas of the world. Plutonium was determined on four sediment cores collected from the Baltic Sea in 1974 and 1975. Two of the samples were from oxygenated coastal sediment with benthic life and two cores were collected from deep basins in the Baltic at depths of 183 m and 164 m where the bottoms were anoxic, with no benthic life, and where the rate of sedimentation is rather high. Data are presented on the Pu-239,240 content of the sediment cores as is pCi/kg dry wt in the different core sections. The highest plutonium concentrations were found near the surface, at depths of 0 to 8 cm. In all cores the plutonium concentration decreases sharply at a depth of about 6 to 8 cm

  1. Measurement of radiocaesium, radiostrontium, and plutonium in whole diets, following deposition of radioactivity in the UK originating from the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide contamination of whole diets as a result of the Chernobyl accident has been measured following the collection of individual diets from adults and children during 1 week in June 1986. The study was conducted in three different parts of the UK, to represent rural areas of both high and low deposition of Chernobyl fallout, and an urban area where the food supply was likely to be derived from a more diverse range of sources. The overall caesium-137 plus caesium-134 concentrations in the diets was less than 5 Bq kg-1 fresh weight, and ranged from less than 0.8 Bq kg-1 to 22 Bq kg-1, the highest levels being found in diets from the high deposition area. The isotopic ratios confirmed contamination to have been predominantly of Chernobyl origin. These levels of radiocaesium would have given rise to an average committed effective dose equivalent to age 70 of less than 0.4 microSv, with a range of less than 0.05 microSv to 1.9 microSv, from intakes in the study week. The opportunity was also taken to analyse the samples for weapons fallout contamination, that is, strontium-89/strontium-90 and plutonium-239/plutonium-240. No diet contained strontium above the reporting level of 0.2 Bq kg-1 but 18% of the diets contained plutonium above the limits of detection (0.1 mBq kg-1), the highest of these being 12 mBq kg-1, found in a diet from one of the low deposition areas

  2. Treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes by electrogenerated Ag(II): a new, simple and efficient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration is a very attractive technique for managing plutonium contaminated solid wastes, allowing for large volume and mass reduction factors. After waste incineration, the plutonium is concentrated in the ashes and an efficient method must be designed for its recovery. To achieve this goal, a process based on the dissolution of plutonium in nitric solution under the agressive action of electrogenerated Ag(II) was developed. This process is very simple, requiring very few steps. Plutonium recovery yields up to 98% can be obtained and, in addition, the plutonium bearing solutions generated by the treatment can be processed by the PUREX technique for plutonium recovery. This process constitutes the basis for the development of industrial facilities: 1) a pilot facility is being built in MARCOULE (COGEMA, UP1 plant), to treat active ash in 1990; 2) an industrial facility will be built in the MELOX plant under construction at MARCOULE (COGEMA plant)

  3. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236Pu/238Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors)

  4. HPAT: A nondestructive analysis technique for plutonium and uranium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experimental approaches for the nondestructive characterization of mixed solutions of plutonium and uranium, developed at BNEA - C.R.E. Casaccia, with the goal of measuring low plutonium concentration (<50 g/l) even in presence of high uranium content, are described in the following. Both methods are referred to as HPAT (Hybrid Passive-Active Technique) since they rely on the measurement of plutonium spontaneous emission in the LX-rays energy region as well as the transmission of KX photons from the fluorescence induced by a radioisotopic source on a suitable target. Experimental campaigns for the characterization of both techniques have been carried out at EUREX Plant Laboratories (C.R.E. Saluggia) and at Plutonium Plant Laboratories (C.R.E. Casaccia). Experimental results and theoretical value of the errors are reported. (author)

  5. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE's System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE's Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U02 plant design is discussed here

  6. Plutonium - radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the protection of persons exposed to plutonium isotopes and higher actinides there are five important requirements. First it is essential to evaluate all the appropriate data and develop basic dose standards for control of exposure of body organs, particularly bone, liver and lung; these must be comparable to standards for exposure to external gamma and X-radiation. Secondly, from these basic standards, values for maximum permissible concentrations in air and permissible annual intakes must be derived using metabolic models for plutonium in humans. As part of the biological monitoring of workers it is necessary to make assessments of the amount of plutonium in the body either by measurement of the excretion rate of plutonium in the urine or by external counting of gamma or X-radiations over the chest or contaminated wound site. For the treatment of cases of high over-exposure therapeutic techniques should be available for accelerating the excretion or removal of the radioactivity from the body. Finally, plans must be made to cover the possibility of a large release of plutonium into the environment and these should include acceptable values for ground contamination levels. (auth)

  7. Plutonium disproportionation: the ambiguity phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G L

    2003-05-01

    Plutonium oxidation-state studies may yield ambiguous results if the parameters are not carefully chosen. The effect can be related to environmental plutonium as illustrated by an example. PMID:12735968

  8. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme. Progress Report for 1983/84 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium contaminated material (PCM) is a generic term applied to a wide variety of materials which have become contaminated by plutonium compounds, by virtue of their use inside the primary containment of fuel cycle plants, but which generally have low beta gamma content. The report falls under the headings: introduction; organisation and role of the PCMWP; management practices; 1983/84 progress report (a) reduction of arisings; (b) plutonium measurement; (c) treatment of solid PCM; (d) treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes; (e) actinide chemistry; (f) engineering objectives. (U.K.)

  9. Evaluation of the plutonium content in the organism of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium-239 seems to be the basic dose forming nuclide of an internal exposure of workers of radiochemical and plutonium facilities of Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE). In this connection the control of this radionuclide content in SGCE workers' organism has been organized from the very beginning of these plants' functioning (1961). A bit later, from the middle of 60-ies when information on the presence of plutonium in the air of sublimating plant of uranium production at processing the regenerated raw materials became available, the selective control of the plutonium content in the organism of this plant' workers became possible to carry out. In the given article evaluations of the plutonium-239 content in SGCE workers' organism is given. The plutonium content was evaluated by a biophysical method based on determining the value of nuclide urinary excretion. Realization of this method called also the method of indirect dosimetryenables to evaluate the plutonium content in the basic organs of nuclide deposition after inhalation: in the lungs, bone and the liver. The method is carried out by two types of examination: out-patient and in the hospital. At present plutonium-239 evaluation methods the main stage providing the measurement of submicroquantity of alpha-active substance is a manufacturing of preparation to its measure. The method of measurement calledthe method of measurement of alpha-emitter activity in a layer of firm scintillatorwhich essentially differs from the ordinary scintillating method of activity determination is developed. All measurements of sample alpha-activity were carried out on home-produced alpha radiometers such as ?-2, ??-8, ???-03 ?, Progress-Bio or on the combined plants including the detector with photomultiplier, current source and evaluating plant. Out of all number of workers supervised on the internal exposure 1253 persons were examined in the hospital by natural excretion. 3525 persons were examined using pentacine

  10. Towards a Plutonium Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking as their starting point the various power reactor construction programmes, the authors estimate in the first part of the paper the production of plutonium in the non-socialist world for the period up to 1980. They also estimate the plutonium requirements of the various fast reactor programmes. For the period up to 1970-71, it is found that United States requirements will be satisfied only by drawing on the United States Atomic Energy Commission's stocks and through the exchange agreement with the United Kingdom. For the rest of the world, resources and requirements will be more or less in equilibrium. From 1971 onwards production will greatly exceed the requirements of fast reactors, which will still only be at the prototype stage. If it is assumed that the large-scale construction of fast reactors will not begin until ten years later, the only outlet for plutonium, for which there will no longer be a guarantee of repurchase by the USAEC in the case of enriched uranium reactors, will consist of recycling in thermal reactors. Storage with a view to re-use in breeders at a more remote and indeterminate date would impose an intolerable financial burden on power reactor operators. The question thus arises whether a collapse in the price of plutonium will occur after 1970. In the second part of the paper the authors attempt to predict the course of such a price collapse, followed by a rise as breeders enter service on a commercial basis. They discuss the effects that the absence of plutonium stocks and die competition of recycling in thermal reactors might have on the commercial introduction of breeders. Finally, an attempt is made to determine by what mechanisms a harmonious market for plutonium could be assured during the next fifteen years. (author)

  11. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology. The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the test results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization activities provide input to the license activity and waste qualification. The ultimate goal of the immobilization project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes of US surplus plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. The can-in-canister technology is accomplished by encapsulating the plutonium-containing ceramic forms within large canisters of high level waste glass

  12. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  13. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures

  14. Plutonium and transplutonian biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of knowledge in the field of plutonium and transplutonian biology is reviewed. The physico-chemical properties of these substances, the conditions in which they can contaminate human beings, their behaviour on mammals, their toxic effects and the correlative contamination treatment technique are analyzed successively. Plutonium and transplutonians, although relatively toxic, have as yet never caused severe injuries to humans. They cannot be transmitted to man through alimentary chains and constitute a hazard only for those who handle them. In this last case, the existing protection techniques offer such a high degree of efficiency that virtually all risk of contamination is eliminated

  15. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author)

  16. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-07-25

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples.

  17. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples

  18. The disposition of weapons plutonium in MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1994 and 1995, increasing interest has been shown worldwide in the management and disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Several basic solutions have been proposed and the U.S. Government has initiated preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) on plutonium disposition options. This presentation addresses aspects of the primary alternative that is favored by the National Academy of Sciences and by the ANS Blue Ribbon panel's report on plutonium disposition options, the use of plutonium from weapons in mixed uranium/plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel to generate electricity in presently operating Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The advantages of such an option are two-fold. First, an analogous large-scale industrial activity exists nowadays: civilian plutonium, separated in reprocessing plants, is steadily recycled in existing PWR and BWR European reactors. This gives the opportunity, if decided, to go ahead almost immediately with an effective disposition of military plutonium. On the other hand, several benefits can be withdrawn from this strategy, such as economic soundness, resource and energy conservation, environment credibility and proliferation resistance

  19. Catalyzed electrolytic plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalyzed electrolytic plutonium oxide dissolution (CEPOD) was first demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in early 1974 in work funded by the Exxon Corporation. The work, aimed at dissolution of Pu-containing residues remaining after the dissolution of spent mixed-oxide reactor fuels, was first publicly disclosed in 1981. The process dissolves PuO2 in an anolyte containing small (catalytic) amounts of elements that form kinetically fast, strongly oxidizing ions. These are continuously regenerated at the anode. Catalysts used, in their oxidized form, include Ag2+, Ce4+, Co3+, and AmO22+. This paper reviews the chemistry involved in CEPOD and the results of its application to the dissolution of the Pu content of a variety of PuO2-containing materials such as off-standard oxide, fuels dissolution residues, incinerator ash, contaminated soils, and other scraps or wastes. Results are presented for both laboratory-scale and plant-scale dissolves

  20. Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Schneider; Clemens Walther; Stefan Bister; Viktoria Schauer; Marcus Christl; Hans-Arno Synal; Katsumi Shozugawa; Georg Steinhauser

    2013-01-01

    The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu. By using accelerator...

  1. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, E V

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

  2. Plutonium in the Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1971 plutonium concentrations have been measured annually in Lake Michigan and Lake Ontario and at less frequent intervals in the other Great Lakes. The concentrations of plutonium in the water column have decreased only slightly during the 7 y of measurement. The residence times for plutonium in the lakes have been estimated by simple time-concentration models. The apparent sinking rates for plutonium have been found to be essentially constant in all the Great Lakes, which suggest that the basic processes that control the concentrations of dissolved plutonium are similar despite considerable differences in chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of the lakes. Analyses of plutonium in water, suspended solids, material from sediment traps, and sediment cores show that considerable resuspension of previously sedimented material into the hypolimnion occurs throughout a major part of the year. A mechanism is proposed to account for the seasonal cycling of plutonium in the epilimnion of Lake Michigan

  3. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As any other fissile material, the plutonium raises several utilization problems, particularly as far as diversion by sub-national groups or proliferation are concerned. The purpose of this paper is to show that these problems can be given reasonable solutions avoiding over penalties on energy production

  4. Plutonium safety training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This course seeks to achieve two objectives: to provide initial safety training for people just beginning work with plutonium, and to serve as a review and reference source for those already engaged in such work. Numerous references have been included to provide information sources for those wishing to pursue certain topics more fully. The first part of the course content deals with the general safety approach used in dealing with hazardous materials. Following is a discussion of the four properties of plutonium that lead to potential hazards: radioactivity, toxicity, nuclear properties, and spontaneous ignition. Next, the various hazards arising from these properties are treated. The relative hazards of both internal and external radiation sources are discussed, as well as the specific hazards when plutonium is the source. Similarly, the general hazards involved in a criticality, fire, or explosion are treated. Comments are made concerning the specific hazards when plutonium is involved. A brief summary comparison between the hazards of the transplutonium nuclides relative to 239Pu follows. The final portion deals with control procedures with respect to contamination, internal and external exposure, nuclear safety, and fire protection. The philosophy and approach to emergency planning are also discussed

  5. Plutonium: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element

  6. Recovery of plutonium from molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are jointly developing a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved PUCl3 and up to 2 wt % AmCl3. The objective is to develop a process to convert these residues to plutonium metal product and discardable waste. The first step of the conceptual process is to convert the actinides to a heterogenous scrub alloy with aluminum and magnesium. This step, performed at RFP, effectively separates the actinides from the bulk of the chloride. This scrub alloy will then be dissolved in a HNO3-HF solution at SRP. Residual chloride will be removed by precipitation with Hg2(NO3)2 followed by centrifugation. Plutonium and americium will be separated using the Purex solvent extraction process. The 241Am will be diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream where it can either be discarded to the waste farm or recovered. The plutonium will be finished via PuF3 precipitation, oxidation to a mixture of PUF4 and PuO2, followed by reduction to plutonium metal with calcium

  7. Environmental Behaviour of Plutonium Accidentally Released at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from the B-52 accident in 1968 at Thule was studied by scientific expeditions in 1968, 1970 and 1974. The contamination was mainly confined to the marine environment, where plutonium was preferentially located in the sediments and the benthic fauna....... Plutonium concentrations down through the sediment layers decayed exponentially with a half-depth of 1-2 cm. The horizontal distribution of the plutonium may be described by an exponential expression: mCi 239,240Pn km-2 = 460e-0.28R or by a power function: mCl 239,240Pu km-2 = 370 R-1.2, where R....... From 1968 to 1970 the 239,240Pu concentrations in the biota decreased by an order of magnitude, since 1970 the decrease has been less evident. In 1970 and 1974 there were no indications of increased plutonium concentrations in surface seawater or in sea plants or zooplankton. Higher animals...

  8. Plutonium contents of field crops in the southeastern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural crops were grown at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Plant (SRP) and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on soils at field sites containing plutonium concentrations above background levels from nuclear weapon tests. Major US grain crops were grown adjacent to a reprocessing facility at SRP, which releases low chronic levels of plutonium through an emission stack. Major vegetable crops were grown at the ORNL White Oak Creek floodplain, which received plutonium effluent wastes in 1944 from the Manhattan Project weapon development. In general, the concentration ratios of vegetative parts of crops at SRP were approximately one order of magnitude higher than those at ORNL, which indicates the influence of aerial deposition of plutonium at the SRP site

  9. High-Temperature Oxidation of Plutonium Surrogate Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, Joshua C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA) is a nuclear non-proliferation agreement designed to remove 34 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from Russia and the United States. While several removal options have been proposed since the agreement was first signed in 2000, processing the weapons-grade plutonium to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel has remained the leading candidate for achieving the goals of the PMDA. However, the MOX program has received its share of criticisms, which causes its future to be uncertain. One alternative pathway for plutonium disposition would involve oxidizing the metal followed by impurity down blending and burial in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This pathway was investigated by use of a hybrid microwave and a muffle furnace with Fe and Al as surrogate materials. Oxidation occurred similarly in the microwave and muffle furnace; however, the microwave process time was significantly faster.

  10. Plutonium releases from the 1957 fire at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment sponsored a study to reconstruct contaminant doses to the public from the Rock Flats nuclear weapons plant. This analysis of the September 1957 fire in a plutonium fabrication building that breached the building air filtration system is part of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment study. The plutonium release from this fire is estimated using environmental data collected around the time of the fire and an air dispersion model. The approximate upper bound on the total plutonium release from the fire is 1.9 GBq (0.05 Ci), with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Off-site air concentrations and deposition of plutonium resulting from the approximate upper-bound release are estimated. The highest predicted off-site effective dose resulting from the approximate upper-bound release is about 13 μSv (1.3 mrem)

  11. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per

    2005-09-01

    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources. PMID:16096501

  12. Use of plutonium for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panel reviewed available information on various aspects of plutonium utilization, such as physics of plutonium, technology of plutonium fuels in thermal and fast reactors, behaviour of plutonium fuel under reactor irradiation, technological and economic aspects of plutonium fuel cycle. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Strong association of fallout plutonium with humic and fulvic acid as compared to uranium and 137Cs in Nishiyama soils from Nagasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the formation of mobile organic plutonium, the plutonium contents of the fulvic (FA) and humic (HA) acids were analyzed from the soil samples obtained at Nishiyama, Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of the plutonium bound strongly to HA and to FA vs. the total plutonium in the soil were 5-10% and 1%, respectively, at the depth of 0-0.1 m, much higher values than those of 137Cs and uranium. After being weathered for 51 years under a temperate climate, the initial highfired oxides of fallout plutonium have become as chemically reactive plutonium from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. (author)

  14. Reactor-grade plutonium inventory taking in the RT-1 storage production association Mayak site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General characterization of plutonium physical inventory taking (PIT) system at the RT-1 plant is given in the paper. The proposed PIT procedure is based on measuring indirect parameters of inventory plutonium, the so called attributes of items - containers with plutonium. The method how to assess quality of item attribute measurements is proposed. If any defect is detected, the container is sent back to the place where it been filed and packed in order to perform direct measurements of plutonium mass. Taking into account the above-mentioned techniques and the availability of several access control means it is proposed the period between two PIT procedures be equal to 12 months

  15. Functional Design Criteria - plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years

  16. Functional Design Criteria plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, D.W.

    1999-09-02

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years.

  17. Plutonium isotopic analysis of nondescript samples by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma-ray spectrometry system has been developed for the Savannah River Plant that when coupled with calorimetry will allow a complete nondestructive assay of various plutonium product and waste materials contained in sealed cans. The computer-based system employs two germanium detectors to obtain spectral information that is analyzed in a unique fashion to obtain plutonium isotopic ratios

  18. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  19. Oxidation of plutonium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Vitos, Levente; Andersson, David A; Johansson, Börje

    2004-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the actinide elements form the scientific basis for rational handling of nuclear materials. In recent experiments, most unexpectedly, plutonium dioxide has been found to react with water to form higher oxides up to PuO(2.27), whereas PuO(2) had always been thought to be the highest stable oxide of plutonium. We perform a theoretical analysis of this complicated situation on the basis of total energies calculated within density functional theory combined with well-established thermodynamic data. The reactions of PuO(2) with either O(2) or H(2)O to form PuO(2+delta) are calculated to be endothermic: that is, in order to occur they require a supply of energy. However, our calculations show that PuO(2+delta) can be formed, as an intermediate product, by reactions with the products of radiolysis of water, such as H(2)O(2). PMID:15034561

  20. Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-01-23

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

  1. Development of isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Akiyama, T. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We are studying the feasibility of determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic distribution of highly radioactive, spent-fuel dissolver solutions by employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The study involves gamma-ray plutonium isotopic analysis for both dissolver and spiked dissolver solution samples, after plutonium is eluted through an ion-exchange column and absorbed in a small resin bead bag. The spike is well characterized, dry plutonium containing {approximately}98% of {sup 239}Pu. By using measured isotopic information, the concentration of elemental plutonium in the dissolver solution can be determined. Both the plutonium concentration and the isotopic composition of the dissolver solution obtained from this study agree well with values obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Because it is rapid, easy to operate and maintain, and costs less, this new technique could be an alternative method to IDMS for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  3. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  4. A mechanism for plutonium pyrophoricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-stage mechanism of plutonium pyrophoricity, based on metal warm-up under impact of heat released by Pu2O3 layer oxidation, preliminarily formed as a result of dioxide layer reduction on plutonium surface, is proposed. It is shown that the above mechanism satisfactorily explains the available experimental data, including effect of various factors on ignition temperature of metallic plutonium. 48 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.)

  6. Experience in mining plutonium for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium contamination from nuclear tests in 1962 is present at Johnston Atoll in soil throughout a 10-ha site. Since the middle 1980s, the Defense Nuclear Agency has been developing a mining operation to cleanup the contaminated soil. A plant now routinely mines plutonium from soil to make most of the soil clean and suitable for beneficial use. Before this initiative, the mining paradigm was to concentrate a valuable substance and leave waste tailings. Mining for cleanup represents a paradigm shift as it concentrates the radioactive substance for waste disposal and leaves the valuable substance, clean soil. The cleanup plant combines conventional mining and milling technology, radiation detection equipment, and microprocessor computer controls. A variety of technologies have been evaluated since the plant was first started in 1990. Success has come from soil sorters and classifiers. To May 1993, there were 37 weeks with some soil cleanup. The plant processed 17,000 tons of soil and made 98% clean. Production at 1,000 tons/week is routine. The plant concentrate will be further processed to reduce waste below 2%

  7. Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic mixtures associated with different fuel types, in order to better reflect the risks and to better focus their controls. The author proposes the adoption of three categories of plutonium. (author)

  8. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  9. ''Distribution and behaviour of plutonium in the waters of the channel and of the seine estuary''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess dissolved plutonium has been measured in the coastal waters of the Channel, from Granville to Boulogne, probably due to sorption-desorption processus. In the Seine estuary, in situ measurements and experimental studies showed that the plutonium desorbs himself from particles in low salinity waters. The desorbed plutonium originates in marine and/or fluvial dissolved Pu. Marine dissolved Pu(V), originating from La Hague plant discharges and from atlantic waters, is reduced and sorbed when the salinity decreases onto estuarial particles: Isotopic Activity Ration 238Pu/239, Pu(IR) of marine dissolved Pu(V) is about 0.7. Fluvial dissolved plutonium originates from atmospheric fallout and from an internal river source: fallout plutonium (IR=0.05) is unreactive with salinity while 45% of river plutonium (IR>1.7) flocculates at 0.5 g l-1. Desorbed plutonium may have various origins, depending on the Seine liquid discharges and on the tidal coefficient. When the marine waters do not migrate upstream, the low salinity waters encounters particles marked essentially with marine plutonium and the IR of desorbed Pu is about 0.7. The activities of desorbed plutonium are too low to have any influence on the distribution of plutonium in the coastal waters on the Seine Bay. When the marine waters migrate upstream, the low salinity waters meet particles marked essentially with river plutonium (IR>1.7) and desorbed plutonium has a very high IR. These estuarine conditions are encountered five to seven month a year and implicate an increase of the IR of 0.1 of the plutonium present in the coastal waters of the Seine bay (1.2.-1.3.). (author)

  10. COLLABORATIVE NEGOTIATIONS A SUCCESSFUL APPROACH FOR NEGOTIATING COMPLIANCE MILESTONES FOR THE TRANSITION OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP), HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION, AND HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J.; Yerxa, J.; Romine, L.; Hopkins, AM; Piippo, R.; Cusack, L.; Bond, R.; Wang, Oliver; Willis, D.

    2003-02-27

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is a former U. S. Department of Energy Defense Production Site. The site is currently listed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and is undergoing cleanup and environmental restoration. The PFP is a former Plutonium metal production facility. The operating mission of the PFP ended with a DOE Headquarters shutdown letter in October of 1996. Generally, the receipt of a shutdown letter initiates the start of Transition (as the first step of Decommissioning) of a facility. The Hanford site is subject to the Hanford Federal Facilities Compliance Act and Consent Order (HFFCCO), an order on consent signed by the DOE, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE). Under the HFFCCO, negotiations for transition milestones begin within six months after the issuance of a shutdown order. In the case of the PFP, the Nuclear Materials disposition and stabilization activities, a DOE responsibility, were necessary as precursor activities to Transition. This situation precipitated a crisis in the negotiations between the agencies, and formal negotiations initiated in 1997 ended in failure. The negotiations reached impasse on several key regulatory and operational issues. The 1997 negotiation was characterized by a strongly positional style. DOE and the regulatory personnel took hard lines early in the negotiations and were unable to move to resolution of key issues after a year and a half. This resulted in unhappy stakeholders, poor publicity and work delays as well as wounded relationships between DOE and the regulatory community. In the 2000-2001 PFP negotiations, a completely different approach was suggested and eventually initiated: Collaborative Negotiations. The collaborative negotiation style resulted in agreement between the agencies on all key issues within 6 months of initiation. All parties were very

  11. COLLABORATIVE NEGOTIATIONS A SUCCESSFUL APPROACH FOR NEGOTIATING COMPLIANCE MILESTONES FOR THE TRANSITION OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP), HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION, AND HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is a former U. S. Department of Energy Defense Production Site. The site is currently listed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and is undergoing cleanup and environmental restoration. The PFP is a former Plutonium metal production facility. The operating mission of the PFP ended with a DOE Headquarters shutdown letter in October of 1996. Generally, the receipt of a shutdown letter initiates the start of Transition (as the first step of Decommissioning) of a facility. The Hanford site is subject to the Hanford Federal Facilities Compliance Act and Consent Order (HFFCCO), an order on consent signed by the DOE, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE). Under the HFFCCO, negotiations for transition milestones begin within six months after the issuance of a shutdown order. In the case of the PFP, the Nuclear Materials disposition and stabilization activities, a DOE responsibility, were necessary as precursor activities to Transition. This situation precipitated a crisis in the negotiations between the agencies, and formal negotiations initiated in 1997 ended in failure. The negotiations reached impasse on several key regulatory and operational issues. The 1997 negotiation was characterized by a strongly positional style. DOE and the regulatory personnel took hard lines early in the negotiations and were unable to move to resolution of key issues after a year and a half. This resulted in unhappy stakeholders, poor publicity and work delays as well as wounded relationships between DOE and the regulatory community. In the 2000-2001 PFP negotiations, a completely different approach was suggested and eventually initiated: Collaborative Negotiations. The collaborative negotiation style resulted in agreement between the agencies on all key issues within 6 months of initiation. All parties were very

  12. Assessment of plutonium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fifth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. These are living documents, each to be revised and updated on a two-year schedule. This document describes the sources of plutonium in the environment, its release from SRS, environmental transport and ecological concentration of plutonium, and the radiological impact of SRS releases to the environment. Plutonium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite SNAP 9-A, plane crashes involving nuclear weapons, and small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants. Plutonium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors and released in small quantities during the processing of fuel and targets in chemical separations facilities. Approximately 0.6 Ci of plutonium was released into streams and about 12 Ci was released to seepage basins, where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A smaller quantity, about 3.8 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. Virtually all releases have occurred in F- and H-Area separation facilities. Plutonium concentration and transport mechanisms for the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water releases have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases to the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a total dose of 15 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.18 mrem (liquid), compared with the dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time (1954--1989). Plutonium releases from SRS facilities have resulted in a negligible impact to the environment and the population it supports

  13. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-11-13

    A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

  14. Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control

  15. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  16. Plutonium managing - slogan or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles of accumulation, processing and management of plutonium are considered in ecological aspect and from the viewpoint of international control of fissionable material propagation. It is shown that the hazard of plutonium handling is not unusual as compared to the risk of handling other harmful substances both in nature and in technical sphere

  17. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  18. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-02-26

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems.

  19. Association of plutonium with soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant association of environmental plutonium with the organic components of U.K. soils has recently been demonstrated by sequential leaching experiments on samples influenced by discharges from both the Dounreay and Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This relationship has been further studied by alkali extraction, fractional precipitation, and dialysis to isolate both the humic and fulvic acid fractions of a Cumbrian soil. The /sup 239,240/Pu activities of these extracts were 31 and 7.7 Bq g-1, respectively, greater than the activity of the bulk soil (5.9 Bq g-1). Gel filtration on Sephadex gels G-50 and G-150 further showed that the humic acid extract is composed of relatively large molecules, with approximately 65% of the plutonium in the largest of these; fulvic acid is of lower molecular weight, and its plutonium content is distributed more evenly throughout the molecular weight spectrum. In both humic and fulvic acids, iron is concentrated in the largest molecular weight (>150,000) fractions

  20. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems

  1. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques. Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  2. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques, Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  3. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Preparation of plutonium hexafluoride. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to study the influence of various physical factors on the rate of fluorination of solid plutonium tetrafluoride by fluorine. In a horizontal oven with a circulation for pure fluorine at atmospheric pressure and 520 deg. C, at a fluorine rate of 9 litres/hour, it is possible to transform 3 g of tetrafluoride to hexafluoride with about 100 per cent transformation and a recovery yield of over 90 per cent, in 4 to 5 hours. The fluorination rate is a function of the temperature, of the fluorine flow-rate, of the crucible surface, of the depth of the tetrafluoride layer and of the reaction time. It does not depend on the diffusion of the fluorine into the solid but is determined by the reaction at the gas-solid interface and obeys the kinetic law (1 - TT)1/3 = kt + 1. The existence of intermediate fluorides, in particular Pu4 F17, is confirmed by a break in the Arrhenius plot at about 370 deg. C, by differences in the fluorination rates inside the tetrafluoride layer, and by reversible colour changes. The transformation to hexafluoride occurs with a purification with respect of the foreign elements present in the initial plutonium. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross: The study is based on the transformation of occluded plutonium particles to gaseous hexafluoride which is then decomposed thermally to the tetrafluoride which can be reintroduced directly in the production circuit. Under the conditions considered this process is not applicable industrially. After milling, it is possible to separate the dross into enriched (75 per cent Pu in 2.6 per cent by weight of dross) and depleted portions. By prolonged fluorination (16 hours) of the various fractions it is possible to recover about 80 per cent of the plutonium. A treatment plant using fluidization, as described at the end of this study, should make it possible to substantially improve the yield. (author)

  5. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D and T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D and T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D and T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology, this is accomplished by encapsulating the

  6. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers

  7. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  10. Plutonium again (smuggling and movements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A link is discounted between nuclear proliferation and the recently discovered smuggled plutonium from the former Soviet Union at Munich airport and other places in Germany. It is argued that governments wishing to obtain nuclear materials to develop a weapons programme would not arrange to have it smuggled in a suitcase. Instead, it is speculated that a link exists between the plutonium smuggling incidents and the desire to promote the production of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Such incidents, by further raising public anxiety, may be intended to turn public opinion in favour of MOX fuel production as a sensible way of getting rid of surplus plutonium. (UK)

  11. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized δ-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol−1.

  12. Plutonium oxidation states in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in the ocean illustrate the need to characterize seawater by means of the pH, the EH, and quantitative complexation parameters. The parameters are combined in an easy-to-use equation that determines the fractions of the four oxidation states. Similar analyses have been applied to plutonium in other solutions, and the same methods can be applied to seawater. An appendix shows how to estimate and interpret the alpha coefficient for tetravalent plutonium using published information for tetravalent thorium

  13. Pyrochemical conversion of weapon-grade plutonium into plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives of the French-Russian studies conducted from 1993 to 1996 under the AIDA-MOX 1 program was to define a reference process for converting the weapon-grade plutonium excess (designated W-Pu) into plutonium dioxide for further use as MOX fuel in existing nuclear reactors. Among the different selected options, one is performed in molten alkali chlorides bath at high temperature. Several laboratory-scale tests have permitted to demonstrate the feasibility of this conversion in this medium. The main results described in this paper -conversion yield, plutonium purification beside gallium, americium and other impurities, - tend to confirm that pyrochemical processes could offer potential interests if however the plutonium oxide sinterability is proved in next tests. (authors)

  14. Learning more about plutonium; En savoir plus sur le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  15. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS

  16. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  17. Plutonium's human guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, the inquiry of an American journalist, Eileen Welson, has revealed to the general public that in the 1940s and 1950s people were used as human samples to study the effects of radiation, without their knowledge. The shock, occurred in American opinion has led to the creation of an inquiry commission, which keeps revealing new documents. The latter shows the existence of so many hundreds of experiments of this type carried out in a spirit too close to that of the Nazi physicians. Injections of plutonium sub 2 sub 3 sub 8 and sub 2 sub 3 sub 9 or enriched uranium, exposition to radioactive clouds, massive irradiation by x-rays,... etc. those practice have persisted till the 1970s. (author). 22 refs., 10 figs

  18. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

  19. Estimation of environmental transfer of plutonium and the dose to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to examine the behaviour of individual radionuclides in the environment is stressed. Sometimes unique pathways of exposure exist and more specialized methods of dose estimation could be considered. The toxicity of the alpha emitting plutonium isotopes is of concern and their long half-lives lead to persistence in the environment and long-term potential for exposing man. Some formulas are therefore presented for making preliminary estimates of environmental transfer and dose for the radioisotopes of the element plutonium. Exposure of man to plutonium in the environment may occur by inhalation or ingestion - the inhalation and ingestion intake rates for which specific pathways have been considered are listed. The primary pathway to man is the inhalation intake; the most important ingestion intake is the consumption of plant foods due to the greater concentration achieved and the higher consumption rates of these foods. Also discussed is plutonium in the nuclear fuel cycle, the release of plutonium from current nuclear installations, the occurrence of plutonium from weapons fallout, airborne releases of plutonium (concentration in the air, deposition rate, resuspension, transfer to plants - foliar and root uptake - transfer to milk, etc.), liquid release (concentration in water, transfer to drinking water, to fish, to plants by irrigation, to milk, to meat). The importance of the release situation and local environment conditions including land and water utilization, population factors and habits for any further investigation is pointed out

  20. Vertical distributions of plutonium isotopes in marine sediment cores off the Fukushima coast after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Bu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident led to the release of large amounts of radionuclides into the atmosphere as well as direct discharges into the sea. In contrast to the intensive studies on the distribution of the released high volatility fission products, such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, similar studies of the actinides, especially the Pu isotopes, are limited. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination of Pu from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, we determined the activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu in sediment core samples collected in the western North Pacific off Fukushima from July 2011 to July 2012. We also measured surface sediment samples collected from seven Japanese estuaries before the FNDPP accident to establish the comprehensive background baseline data. The observed results of both the Pu activities and the Pu atom ratios for the sediments in the western North Pacific were comparable to the baseline data, suggesting that the FDNPP accident did not cause detectable Pu contamination to the studied regions prior to the sampling time. The Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific 30 km off the Fukushima coast originated from global fallout and Pacific Proving Ground close-in fallout.

  1. Plutonium disposition study phase 1b final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of the Westinghouse activities performed as part of the Plutonium Disposition Study Phase 1b. These activities, which took place from May 16, 1993 to September 15, 1993, build upon the work completed in Phase 1a, which concluded on May 15, 1993. In Phase 1a, three Plutonium Disposal Reactor (PDR) options were developed for the disposal of excess weapons grade plutonium from returned and dismantled nuclear weapons. This report documents the results of several tasks that were performed to further knowledge in specific areas leading up to Phase 2 of the PDR Study. The Westinghouse activities for Phase 1b are summarized as follows: (1) resolved technical issues concerning reactor physics including equilibrium cycle calculations, use of gadolinium, moderator temperature coefficient, and others as documented in Section 2.0; (2) analyzed large Westinghouse commercial plants for plutonium disposal; (3) reactor safety issues including the steam line break were resolved, and are included in Section 2.0; (4) several tasks related to the PDR Fuel Cycle were examined; (5) cost and deployment options were examined to determine optimal configuration for both plutonium disposal and tritium production; (6) response to questions from DOE and National Academy of Scientists (NAS) reviewers concerning the PDR Phase 1a report are included in Appendix A

  2. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants

  3. 福岛核事故向环境释放的 Pu研究进展%Plutonium Isotopes Released f rom Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident into Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪有意; 卜文庭; 郭秋菊; 胡丹; 许宏

    2015-01-01

    On March 11 , 2011 , a catastrophic tsunami induced by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused the terrible Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) acci‐dent ,leading to the release of a large amount of radionuclides into the environment .T he published studies on plutonium isotopes in the environment after the FDNPP accident were reviewed in this paper .The total atmospheric released amounts of Pu from the FDNPP accident were estimated to be 109 Bq ,that is only 1/10 000 of that released from the Chernobyl accident .The Pu isotopes were released from the damaged reactors ,not from the spent fuel pools in the FDNPP .The Pu isotopic ratios (240 Pu/239 Pu ,241 Pu/239 Pu) and activity ratios of A(238 Pu)/A(239+ 240 Pu) were significantly different from that of global fallout ,serving as powerful fingerprints for Pu source identification .To date , the plutonium isotopes from the accident in the terrestrial environment within the 30 km zone around the FDNPP site have been widely observed and there are no strong positive correlations between the Pu isotopes contamination levels and the distances from the FDNPP site .The influence of the FDNPP accident on Pu distributions in the marine environment is limited .No detectable Pu contamination from the accident is observed even in the near coastal (5 km off the FDNPP site) marine sediments .%福岛核事故向环境释放的放射性核素中包含了锕系元素Pu ,其中以极毒组的239 Pu、240 Pu和高毒组的241 Pu为主。本文总结并分析了针对福岛核事故向环境释放的 Pu的相关研究。据估计,福岛核事故向环境中排放的239+240 Pu总量约为109 Bq ,是切尔诺贝利核事故排放量的万分之一。此次事故排放的Pu同位素原子比(240 Pu/239 Pu和241 Pu/239 Pu)及活度比(A (238 Pu)/A (239+240 Pu))明显异于全球沉降值,可作为事故中Pu溯源的判定依据。事故所排放的Pu全部来源于核电站1~3号反应堆堆芯

  4. Determination of plutonium isotopes in marine sediments off the Fukushima coast following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Bu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident led to the release of large amounts of radionuclides into the atmosphere as well as direct discharges into the sea. In contrast to the intensive studies on the distribution of the released high volatility fission products, such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, similar studies of the actinides, especially the Pu isotopes, are limited. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination of Pu from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, we determined the activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu / 239Pu and 241Pu / 239Pu in sediment core samples collected in the western North Pacific off Fukushima from July 2011 to July 2012. We also measured surface sediment samples collected from seven Japanese estuaries before the FNDPP accident to establish the comprehensive background baseline data. The observed results of both the Pu activities and the Pu atom ratios for the sediments in the western North Pacific were comparable to the baseline data, suggesting that the FDNPP accident did not cause detectable Pu contamination to the studied regions prior to the sampling time. The Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific 30 km off Fukushima coast originated from global fallout and Pacific Proving Ground close-in fallout.

  5. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re-used. (author)

  6. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  7. IODATE METHOD FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, R.W.; Duffield, R.B.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for removing radioactive fission products from aqueous solutions containing such fission products together with plutonium. This is accomplished by incorporating into such solutions a metal iodate precipitate to remove fission products which form insoluble iodates. Suitable metal iodates are those of thorium and cerium. The plutonium must be in the hexavalent state and the pH of the solution must be manintained at less than 2.

  8. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  9. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  10. Method of processing plutonium and uranium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions of plutonium nitrate solutions and uranyl nitrate recovered in the solvent extraction step in reprocessing plants and nuclear fuel production plants are applied with low temperature treatment by means of freeze-drying under vacuum into residues containing nitrates, which are denitrated under heating and calcined under reduction into powders. That is, since complicate processes of heating, concentration and dinitration conducted so far for the plutonium solution and uranyl solution are replaced with one step of freeze-drying under vacuum, the process can be simplified significantly. In addition, since the treatment is applied at low temperature, occurrence of corrosion for the material of evaporation, etc. can be prevented. Further, the number of operators can be saved by dividing the operations into recovery of solidification products, supply and sintering of the solutions and vacuum sublimation. Further, since nitrates processed at a low temperature are powderized by heating dinitration, the powderization step can be simplified. The specific surface area and the grain size distribution of the powder is made appropriate and it is possible to obtain oxide powders of physical property easily to be prepared into pellets. (N.H.)

  11. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242Pu or 244Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  12. Stabilizing plutonium materials at Hanford: systems engineering for PFP transition project effort on DNFSB 94-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, T.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-02

    This report discusses the basic objectives of the stabilization and packaging activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant that satisfy the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 by transforming the plutonium materials at hanford into forms or conditions which are suitable for safe storage to appropriate storage criteria; or discard that meets appropriate waste acceptance criteria.

  13. Health physics manual of good practices for plutonium facilities. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Heid, K.R.; Herrington, W.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Munson, L.F.; Munson, L.H.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    This manual consists of six sections: Properties of Plutonium, Siting of Plutonium Facilities, Facility Design, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, and Decontamination and Decommissioning. While not the final authority, the manual is an assemblage of information, rules of thumb, regulations, and good practices to assist those who are intimately involved in plutonium operations. An in-depth understanding of the nuclear, physical, chemical, and biological properties of plutonium is important in establishing a viable radiation protection and control program at a plutonium facility. These properties of plutonium provide the basis and perspective necessary for appreciating the quality of control needed in handling and processing the material. Guidance in selecting the location of a new plutonium facility may not be directly useful to most readers. However, it provides a perspective for the development and implementation of the environmental surveillance program and the in-plant controls required to ensure that the facility is and remains a good neighbor. The criteria, guidance, and good practices for the design of a plutonium facility are also applicable to the operation and modification of existing facilities. The design activity provides many opportunities for implementation of features to promote more effective protection and control. The application of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principles and optimization analyses are generally most cost-effective during the design phase. 335 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. The Hanau plutonium processing factories ALKEM and NUKEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Red/Green government in Hesse was overthrown over the fact that the Nukem plant and its daughter plants are still working without the licenses required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1975. The Alkem plant processes plutonium without having made the necessary safety provisions. Two managers of the plant and three officials of the Hessian Ministry of Economics will now have to justify themselves in court. The court will have to investigate whether the accusations put forward are really justified and whether Sect. 7 of the Atomic Energy Act has been observed. (orig./HP)

  15. ``Distribution and behaviour of plutonium in the waters of the channel and of the seine estuary``; ``Distribution et comportement du plutonium dans les eaux de la manche et de l`estuaire de la seine``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K.

    1997-12-31

    Excess dissolved plutonium has been measured in the coastal waters of the Channel, from Granville to Boulogne, probably due to sorption-desorption processus. In the Seine estuary, in situ measurements and experimental studies showed that the plutonium desorbs himself from particles in low salinity waters. The desorbed plutonium originates in marine and/or fluvial dissolved Pu. Marine dissolved Pu(V), originating from La Hague plant discharges and from atlantic waters, is reduced and sorbed when the salinity decreases onto estuarial particles: Isotopic Activity Ration {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239}, Pu(IR) of marine dissolved Pu(V) is about 0.7. Fluvial dissolved plutonium originates from atmospheric fallout and from an internal river source: fallout plutonium (IR=0.05) is unreactive with salinity while 45% of river plutonium (IR>1.7) flocculates at 0.5 g l{sup -1}. Desorbed plutonium may have various origins, depending on the Seine liquid discharges and on the tidal coefficient. When the marine waters do not migrate upstream, the low salinity waters encounters particles marked essentially with marine plutonium and the IR of desorbed Pu is about 0.7. The activities of desorbed plutonium are too low to have any influence on the distribution of plutonium in the coastal waters on the Seine Bay. When the marine waters migrate upstream, the low salinity waters meet particles marked essentially with river plutonium (IR>1.7) and desorbed plutonium has a very high IR. These estuarine conditions are encountered five to seven month a year and implicate an increase of the IR of 0.1 of the plutonium present in the coastal waters of the Seine bay (1.2.-1.3.). (author).

  16. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km2, the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  17. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  18. Plutonium monitor: data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of the real time determination of air voluminal activity from the measurement of the activity of the filter. The ''Pu'' measurement processing has to comple the Pu/natural radioactivity discrimination that the sampler cannot do alone. The basic process of the measurement processing is described. For the operation checkout and the examination of performance of the processing, and for the technical success of a measurement-processing system, it is possible to use a real-time simulation of the different sensors; in the case of ''Pu'' processing, a mockup of the sampler has been prefered; it gives the elementary countings due to the natural radioactivity for the two ''Pu'' and ''RaA'' windows; it has been associated to a simulator giving the pulses corresponding in the ''Pu'' window to only ''Pu'', according the chosen profile. The main results obtained after several hundreds simulations are given; eight diagrams, quite representative, are presented. To concludes the performence of the BFSA monitor, for plutonium aerosol monitoring, in which the TMAPU2 measurement processing system and a performant detection head are associated, are reviewed

  19. Conceptual design report, plutonium stabilization and handling,project W-460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-03-06

    Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, encompasses procurement and installation of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) provides conceptual design details for the vault modification, site preparation and site interface with the purchased SPS. Two concepts are described for vault configuration; acceleration of this phase of the project did not allow completion of analysis which would clearly identify a preferred approach.

  20. Optimisation of deep burn incineration of reactor waste plutonium ina PBMR DPP-400 core

    OpenAIRE

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In this article an original set of coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulation results for the VSOP 99/05 diffusion code are presented for advanced fuel cycles for the incineration of weapons-grade plutonium, reactor-grade plutonium and reactor-grade plutonium with its associated Minor Actinides in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. These results are also compared to those of the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g/fuel sphere U/Pu fuel cycle. The weapons-grad...

  1. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0{sub 2} plant design is discussed here.

  2. Plutonium and americium in sediments of Lithuanian lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of contribution of the global and the Chernobyl NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) accident plutonium and americium to plutonium pollution in sediments of Lithuanian lakes is presented. Theoretical evaluation of activity ratios of 238Pu/239+240Pu and 241Pu/239+240Pu in the reactor of unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP before the accident was performed by means of the ORIGEN-ARP code from the SCALE 4.4A program package. Non-uniform distribution of radionuclides in depositions on the Lithuanian territory after nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident is experimentally observed by measuring the lake sediment pollution with actinides. The activity concentration of sediments polluted with plutonium ranges from 2.0 ± 0.5 Bq/kg d.w. (dry weight) in Lake Asavelis to 14 ± 2 Bq/kg d.w. in Lake Juodis. The ratio of activity concentrations of plutonium isotopes 238Pu/239+240Pu measured by α-spectrometry in the 10-cm-thick upper layer of bottom sediment varies from 0.03 in Lake Juodis to 0.3 in Lake Zuvintas. The analysis of the ratio values shows that the deposition of the Chernobyl origin plutonium is prevailing in southern and south-western regions of Lithuania. Plutonium of nuclear weapon tests origin in sediments of lakes is observed on the whole territory of Lithuania, and it is especially distinct in central Lithuania. The americium activity due to 241Pu decay after the Chernobyl NPP accident and global depositions in bottom sediments of Lithuanian lakes has been evaluated to be from 0.9 to 5.7 Bq/kg. (author)

  3. Migration of plutonium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of their work was to assess the migration features of plutonium in various types of soils and to compile a tentative long-term forecasting of the plutonium travel from the point of its entry. For this purpose, experimentally obtained vertical profiles of the plutonium distribution in the soils of the USSR and several countries of the Northern hemisphere were analyzed for various times Δt, i.e., times which had passed between t0 of the beginning of migration and the data t of sampling. In research on the migration of global plutonium, years 1954, when the observation of the environmental contamination by this element was initiated, and 1963, which is characterized by the maximum of the plutonium arrival from the atmosphere through radioactive fallout, were taken as t0. The latter year was used in calculations for forecasting the 137Cs migration in soils. For the local technogenic contamination of soils, the time of the 137Cs arrival in the environment was taken as t0

  4. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  5. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  6. A World made of Plutonium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture by Engelbert Broda was written for the 26th Pugwash Conference in Mühlhausen, Germany, 26 – 31 August 1976: Public doubts about nuclear energy are generally directed at the problems of routine emissions of radionuclides, of catastrophic accidents, and of terminal waste disposal. Curiously, the most important problem is not being given sufficient attention: The use of plutonium from civilian reactors fpr weapons production. According to current ideas about a nuclear future, 5000 tons (order of magnitude) of plutonium are to be made annually by year 2000, and about 10 000 tons will all the time be in circulation (transport, reprocessing, reproduction of fuel elements, etc.). It is a misconception that plutonium from power reactors is unsuitable as a nuclear explosive. 5000 tons are enough for several hundred thousand (!) of bombs, Nagasaki type. By the year 2000 maybe 40 – 50 countries will have home-made plutonium. Plutonium production and proliferation are the most serious problems in a nuclear world. (author)

  7. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooksbank, R. E.; Bigelow, J. E.; Campbell, D. O.; Kitts, F. G.; Lindauer, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with /sup 238/U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial.

  8. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates

  9. Development of Remote Plutonium Valence State Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, the separation of uranium and plutonium depends on the capability extracting state plutonium ions with various valence by TBP. The separate degree of

  10. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  11. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, J. D.; Baldwin, C. E.

    1977-04-27

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products.

  12. Review of operating experience at the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Facility, 1963-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the operation of the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Plant at Technical Area 21 for the period 1964 through 1977. During that period, approximately 1568 kg of plutonium metal, > 99.95% pure, was produced in 653 runs from 1930 kg of metal fabrication scrap, 99% pure. General considerations of the electrorefining process and facility operation and recommendations for further improvement of the process are discussed

  13. Ecological relationships of plutonium in Southwest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive summary of results was prepared on plutonium distribution and transport in Los Alamos and Trinity Site study areas. Despite differences in ecosystems and plutonium source, there are several similarities in plutonium distribution between Los Alamos and Trinity Site study areas. The soils/sediment component contains virtually all the plutonium inventory, with vegetation and rodents containing less than 0.1% of the total in all cases

  14. Plutonium and U-233 mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made among second generation reactor systems fuelled primarily with fissile plutonium and/or U-233 in uranium or thorium. This material is obtained from irradiated fuel from first generation CANDU reactors fuelled by natural or enriched uranium and thorium. Except for plutonium-thorium reactors, second generation reactors demand similar amounts of reprocessing throughput, but the most efficient plutonium burning systems require a large prior allocation of uranium. Second generation reactors fuelled by U-233 make more efficient use of resources and lead to more flexible fuelling strategies, but require development of first generation once-through thorium cycles and early demonstration of the commercial viability of thorium fuel reprocessing. No early implementation of reprocessing technology is required for these cycles

  15. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  16. Plutonium behavior in the soil/water environment. Part I. Sorption of plutonium by soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behavior of plutonium was investigated using equilibrium sorption and column elution techniques. Plutonium nitrate solutions were used as the source of plutonium. Equilibrium sorption was measured for 13 soils at plutonium concentration levels of 10-6, 10-7, and 10-8 molar. Three characteristics of plutonium sorption were apparent from the sorption data. First, the initial concentration of plutonium has an effect, in some cases, on the amount of plutonium sorbed, although on the basis of the percent of plutonium sorbed, this effect is small. Second, the rate of plutonium sorption is rapid. Third, plutonium sorption is quite high. Sixty-two percent of the time the equilibrium sorption of plutonium is 99% or higher; 87% of the time it is 96% or higher. Only 5% of the time is the equilibrium sorption less than 90% and in no case is it less than 87%. Three soils were used to investigate the column elution behavior of plutonium. In two of these there were prompt pulses of plutonium through the column in the initial 20 ml effluent fractions. Subsequent elution fractions contained continually decreasing amounts of plutonium. In the third soil, there was no pulse of plutonium throughout the entire elution. Instead, the plutonium concentration in the effluent fractions varied randomly throughout the entire elution. In none of the soils was more than 2% of the added plutonium eluted from the column. Statistically significant relationships were found between plutonium sorption and cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay, and sand contents of the soils. Although this would tend to indicate that a conventional ion exchange process is responsible for the sorption of plutonium, the total data and knowledge about the chemistry of plutonium would indicate that there are other variables and cause/effect relationships that have not been identified

  17. Analysis of plutonium dioxide by coulometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions for dissolution of plutonium dioxide have been determined. To transfer plutonium dioxides quantitatively in solution it should be heated with an HCl + HI mixture and boiled down three times in nitric acid. The disolution was monitored by potential scanning coulometry. The plutonium quantity was determined on a PKU-2 coulometric unit. Metrological parameters of the method have been evaluated

  18. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here...... of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging....

  19. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  20. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  1. Plutonium microdistribution in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount and location of plutonium in bone from three humans injected during the mid-1940's has been studied by autoradiography and alpha particle spectrometry. Concentrations are similar on endosteal surfaces, Haversian canal surfaces and periosteal surfaces of long bone midshafts 17 months after injection. Endosteal surface concentrations are higher in the axial skeleton than in the appendicular skeleton 15 and 17 months post injection. For dosimetric purposes, volume deposits may be considered to be infinitely thick whereas surface deposits may be considered to have zero thickness. Secondary surface deposits are dosimetrically important, even when the plutonium is almost completely deposited in bone volume

  2. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  3. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  4. Design concepts for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was chosen as the preferred site for the location of the special isotope separation (SIS) production plant. The SIS plant will use the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to ionize the undesirable isotopes of plutonium (238Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu) in the metal vapor and separate them electrostatically from the desirable isotope 239Pu. Feed to the plant will be reactor-grade plutonium oxide, and the product will be weapons-grade plutonium metal. The SIS plant uses both pyrochemical and aqueous processes. An analytical laboratory, the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), was designed for making chemical measurements for process control, material control and accountability, and criticality safety

  5. Design concepts for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support plutonium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.A.; Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was chosen as the preferred site for the location of the special isotope separation (SIS) production plant. The SIS plant will use the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to ionize the undesirable isotopes of plutonium ([sup 238]Pu, [sup 240]Pu, and [sup 241]Pu) in the metal vapor and separate them electrostatically from the desirable isotope [sup 239]Pu. Feed to the plant will be reactor-grade plutonium oxide, and the product will be weapons-grade plutonium metal. The SIS plant uses both pyrochemical and aqueous processes. An analytical laboratory, the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), was designed for making chemical measurements for process control, material control and accountability, and criticality safety.

  6. A case of internal contamination with plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a case of plutonium and americium internal contamination due to an accidental glove-box explosion involving plutonium dioxide powder at the Casaccia Plutonium Plant in 1974. The person received a small contaminated wound to the face, a diffused contamination on the hair and considerable activity in the nose. Details are given of the actions taken to reduce the initial contamination and to obtain the maximum information on the residual contamination and on the dose commitment. Results were obtained for 1) the levels of activity in the wound and hair both before and after DTPA treatment; 2) direct lung counting performed at intervals up to 70 days after the incident; 3) the urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium and americium for up to 140 days after contamination; and 4) the levels of activity in blood. Using the data supplied by the lung counting and the excretion curves, the committed dose equivalents were calculated to be lung 1.2 + 4.8 rem, bone 40 rem, liver 100 rem and kidneys 3 rem. The effective total body committed dose equivalent was 7.5 + 8 rem. (U.K.)

  7. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas

  8. Preparation of plutonium waste forms with ICPP calcined high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass and glass-ceramic forms developed for the immobilization of calcined high-level wastes generated by Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) fuel reprocessing activities have been investigated for ability to immobilize plutonium and to simultaneously incorporate calcined waste as an anti-proliferation barrier. Within the forms investigated, crystallization of host phases result in an increased loading of plutonium as well as its incorporation into potentially more durable phases than the glass. The host phases were initially formed and characterized with cerium (Ce+4) as a surrogate for plutonium (Pu+4) and samarium as a neutron absorber for criticality control. Verification of the surrogate testing results were then performed replacing cerium with plutonium. All testing was performed with surrogate calcined high-level waste. The results of these tests indicated that a potentially useful host phase, based on zirconia, can be formed either by devitrification or solid state reaction in the glass studied. This phase incorporates plutonium as well as samarium and the calcined waste becomes part of the matrix. Its ease of formation makes it potentially useful in excess plutonium dispositioning. Other durable host phases for plutonium and samarium, including zirconolite and zircon have been formed from zirconia or alumina calcine through cold press-sintering techniques and hot isostatic pressing. Host phase formation experiments conducted through vitrification or by cold press-sintering techniques are described and the results discussed. Recommendations are given for future work that extends the results of this study

  9. RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-03-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

  10. Incineration of simulated plutonium-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis rate data are presented which will enable larger pyrolyser furnaces to be made for processing solid plutonium-contaminated materials at throughputs of up to 20 kg/h using either 1 or 2.5 kg packages as feed. The influence of liquids, such as water, kerosene or oil, on the pyrolysis process has also been assessed. The products of pyrolysis for a range of individual materials and their mixtures have been defined. The oxidation rates for both static and stirred beds of char have been obtained. The implications of both the pyrolysis and char-oxidation processes for plant design are discussed. This work has been commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management programme. The results will be used in the formulation of government policy, but as this stage they do not necessarily represent that policy

  11. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  12. On plutonium, journalism and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial comments on the furore resulting from three lay articles published by E. Welsome in the Albuquerque Tribune for 15 November 1993, concerning the injection of plutonium into humans in the 1940s, and discusses the ethics of administration of radioactive materials with and without informed consent. (Author)

  13. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author)

  14. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  15. The first weighing of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man

  16. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  17. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the development of the (UPu)C sphere-pac fuel project during 1978. In particular, the problems encountered in obtaining good fuel quality in the fabrication process and their solution is discussed. The development of a fabrication pilot plant is considered, and the post-irradiation examination of fuel pins is presented. (Auth.)

  18. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, T.

    1998-07-01

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology

  19. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here

  20. Influence of environmental factors on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of plutonium and americium from the gastrointestinal tract was studied, using adult hamsters and rabbits. Both actinides were administered as inorganic compounds, as organic complexes with naturally occurring chelating agents, and in a biologically incorporated form in liver tissues. The absorption of the tetravalent and hexavalent forms of plutonium were compared and the effect of protracted administration at very low concentrations was investigated. In addition, plutonium uptake from contaminated sediments and grass, collected near a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, was measured. The results of these studies suggest that chronic exposure of man to plutonium and americium in food and water will not lead to any substantial increase in their gastrointestinal absorption above the values currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection to define the occupational exposure of workers

  1. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  2. Evaluation of TASTEX task H: measurement of plutonium isotopic abundances by gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnink, R.; Prindle, A.L.; Asakura, Y.; Masui, J.; Ishiguro, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Kataoka, S.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes a computer-based gamma spectrometer system that was developed for measuring isotopic and total plutonium concentrations in nitric acid solutions. The system was installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant where it is undergoing testing and evaluation as part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Exercise (TASTEX). Objectives of TASTEX Task H, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometer for Plutonium Isotopic Analysis, the methods and equipment used, the installation and calibration of the system, and the measurements obtained from several reprocessing campaigns are discussed and described. In general, we find that measurements for gamma spectroscopy agree well with those of mass spectrometry and of other chemical analysis. The system measures both freshly processed plutonium from the product accountability tank and aged plutonium solutions from storage tanks. 14 figures, 15 tables.

  3. Development and evaluation of an alpha spectrometer for precise measurement of activity ratio of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reprocessing plants, alpha spectrometry is used for the determination of plutonium concentration by isotope dilution alpha spectrometry. 238Pu content and for isotope correlations to calculate the specific activity and isotope composition of plutonium. All these studies involve the use of an alpha spectrometer to measure the activity ratio of 238Pu/(239Pu+240Pu) precisely. Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division (TPPED) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, India has recently developed an alpha spectrometer, performance evaluation of which has been carried out by employing it to determine the activity ratio measurements of plutonium. Comparison of its performance with a commercially available system demonstrates that the indigenously developed instrument does provide acceptable levels of precision and accuracy for the activity ratio measurements of plutonium. (author)

  4. EdF gets set for commercial plutonium recycle in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of nuclear reactor operation when using plutonium fuel charges are considered. The decision about the use of plutonium fuel charges at French NPPs, made in 1985, was realized in 1987, when 16 fuel assemblies with mixed oxide fuel were charged to the 900 MW Saint Laurent-1 unit. New plutonium assemblies are scheduled to be charged to this reactor in 1988, and the first fuel assemblies wih plutonium fuel - to the second reactor. It is planned to conduct 4-5 chargings of other reactors with such fuel assembly installation in them between 1989 and 1993. After 1993, when mixed oxide fuel production plant will be started up, it will be possible to charge up to 10 reactors per year with such fuel assemblies

  5. Development of analytical method for the determination of uranium in presence of plutonium by complexometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium determination in the plant samples by conventional Davies Gray method generates radioactive wastes bearing plutonium. Uranium determination by complexometric titration using 2,6 Pyridine di-carboxylic acid (PDCA) as titrant is a well established. It had been observed that the presence of plutonium increases bias in the determination of uranium. Hence for the Plutonium bearing process samples such as strip products, feed samples of the Plutonium reconversion, Uranium estimation through PDCA method is optimized by employing ethylene diamine tetra acetic (EDTA) as the masking agent. It is found that beyond 0.075 m moles of EDTA bias for determination of uranium increased; therefore EDTA of 0.05 mmoles is maintained in the titration medium. The precision for determination of uranium in absence of Pu for a range of 3-10 mg was found be less than 0.5 %. A bias of 6 % is observed for uranium determination with two different ratios of U and Pu. (author)

  6. How not to reduce plutonium stocks. The danger of MOX-fuelled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is a radioactive by-product of nuclear reactor operation and one of the most toxic substances known. The world would be a safer place if the governments of countries with stocks of it, including Britain, would adopt effective policies for reducing and managing them. Two recent authoritative reports recommend that the British government take urgent action to reduce its 'civil' plutonium stock - currently one quarter of the world's total and set to rise to about two-thirds by the year 2010. The March 1999 House of Lords report, Management of Nuclear Waste, concludes that British government policy on plutonium 'should be the maintenance of the minimum strategic stock, and the declaration of the remainder as waste'. A report from the Royal Society, Britain's main learned society, meanwhile states that: 'In addition to disposing of some of the plutonium already in the stockpile, steps should be taken to reduce the amount added to it each year, primarily by reducing the amount of reprocessing carried out'. The government's reply to the House of Lords is expected to be followed by a public consultation before changes in legislation are proposed. But, at the same time, the government is considering an application from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), the government-owned company which separates plutonium from spent nuclear fuel rods, for a licence to operate a new plant at Sellafield in Cumbria to produce mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel from its plutonium stockpile. The nuclear industry justifies the Sellafield MOX plant as one way of reducing plutonium stocks. But critics point out that this is not a rational way to manage plutonium. This briefing aims to contribute to an informed debate during the current flurry of British government nuclear policy making by explaining why

  7. How not to reduce plutonium stocks. The danger of MOX-fuelled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is a radioactive by-product of nuclear reactor operation and one of the most toxic substances known. The world would be a safer place if the governments of countries with stocks of it, including Britain, would adopt effective policies for reducing and managing them. Two recent authoritative reports recommend that the British government take urgent action to reduce its 'civil' plutonium stock - currently one quarter of the world's total and set to rise to about two-thirds by the year 2010. The March 1999 House of Lords report, Management of Nuclear Waste, concludes that British government policy on plutonium 'should be the maintenance of the minimum strategic stock, and the declaration of the remainder as waste'. A report from the Royal Society, Britain's main learned society, meanwhile states that: 'In addition to disposing of some of the plutonium already in the stockpile, steps should be taken to reduce the amount added to it each year, primarily by reducing the amount of reprocessing carried out'. The government's reply to the House of Lords is expected to be followed by a public consultation before changes in legislation are proposed. But, at the same time, the government is considering an application from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), the government-owned company which separates plutonium from spent nuclear fuel rods, for a licence to operate a new plant at Sellafield in Cumbria to produce mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel from its plutonium stockpile. The nuclear industry justifies the Sellafield MOX plant as one way of reducing plutonium stocks. But critics point out that this is not a rational way to manage plutonium. This briefing aims to contribute to an informed debate during the current flurry of British government nuclear policymaking by explaining why. (author)

  8. Evaluation report Sandia Plutonium Protection System operational demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia Laboratories of Albuquerque, New Mexico, has developed an advanced plutonium storage system. The system provides protection for and accountability of material in storage and controls personnel access to storage areas. This storage system has been installed and operationally demonstrated at the Rockwell Hanford Operations Z-Plant facility. All demonstration transactions were performed by Z-Plant personnel. The demonstration was carried out to evaluate the system operation using special nuclear material in an operational environment. This document is the evaluation report of the operational demonstration

  9. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the project Fuel Development in 1976 was marked by three important developments. Firstly, the reproduceability of the process to produce sphere pac carbide fuel by a gelation process was established. Secondly, in the post irradiation examination of the fuel pins from the BR-2 reactor, the fuel reached approximately 5.5% FIMA without failure. Thirdly, outside interest in sphere pac material became more apparent. These developments are discussed, and plans to construct a fuel pilot plant to go into operation in the 1980's are revealed. (Auth.)

  10. Aqueous recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrochemical processes provide rapid methods to reclaim plutonium from scrap residues. Frequently, however, these processes yield an impure plutonium product and waste residues that are contaminated with actinides and are therefore nondiscardable. The Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant are jointly developing new processes using both pyrochemistry and aqueous chemistry to generate pure product and discardable waste. An example of residue being treated is that from the molten salt extraction (MSE), a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, PuCl3, AmCl3, PuO2, and Pu0. This mixture is scrubbed with molten aluminum containing a small amount of magnesium to produce a nonhomogeneous Al-Pu-Am-Mg alloy. This process, which rejects most of the NaCl-KCl-MgCl2 salts, results in a product easily dissolved in 6M HNO3 -0.1M HF. Any residual chloride in the product is removed by precipitation with Hg(I) followed by centrifuging. Plutonium and americium are then separated by the standard Purex process. The americium, initially diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream, can either be recovered or sent to waste

  11. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J.; Choquet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  12. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  13. Chemistry and metallurgy of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is a strategic element with unique chemistry and metallurgy. It has five valence states with close redox potentials and many of them coexist in solutions. It is a hard Lewis acid and forms strong complexes with hard Lewis bases. Its redox and complexing characteristics are useful in its separation and analytical chemistry. Plutonium metal has several allotropic forms even though its melting point is only 639.5℃. It is a metal with very high density and one of the few metals which shrinks on heating. It holds promise of abundant nuclear energy, but also has potential for being diverted towards nuclear explosive devices. This paper is a brief compilation from available literature. (author)

  14. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  15. Micrometallurgy of plutonium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article prepared but not published in 1958 as the report on the 2. Geneva conference on peaceful use of atomic energy is presented. The article contains data on preparation pioneered in the USSR trace mounts of metal plutonium and uranium and is great scientific and historical interest. Procedures on the preparation of metal halide salts, investigations on the development of protective chambers, equipment for the preparation of salts, equipment for the reduction, refractory ceramics as well as investigation into the operating regime, feature required for the purity of metal are performed. The developed strategy for the preparation of trace amounts of uranium and plutonium salts and procedure for their reduction by alkaline earth metal vapors provide a useful preparation of other metal trace amounts

  16. Accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate volume measurement system for a large amount of plutonium nitrate solution stored in a reprocessing or a conversion plant has been developed at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) Tokai Works. A pair of differential digital quartz pressure transducers is utilized in the volume measurement system. To obtain high accuracy, it is important that the non-linearity of the transducer is minimized within the measurement range, the zero point is stabilized, and the damping property of the pneumatic line is designed to minimize pressure oscillation. The accuracy of the pressure measurement can always be within 2Pa with re-calibration once a year. In the PCDF, the overall uncertainty of the volume measurement has been evaluated to be within 0.2 %. This system has been successfully applied to the Japanese government's and IAEA's routine inspection since 1984. (author)

  17. Demolition and removal of plutonium-contaminated facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful demolition and cleanup of a plutonium-contaminated facility at the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration Hanford Plant in Washington State are described. Several new materials, along with special techniques and equipment, were utilized for the containment and control of plutonium contamination during the course of the demolition work. The use of light-capacity fiber-glassed plywood boxes for long-term (20 yr, min) storage of the contaminated materials in underground transuranic waste trenches has led to the development, design, and use of larger capacity, modular, fiber-glassed plywood boxes that are replacing standard carbon steel boxes at less than one-third the cost, and without the potential for early failure from normal soil or atmospheric corrosion

  18. Interaction of Plutonium with Bacteria in the Repository Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (1) sorption, (2) intracellular accumulation, and (3) transformation speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a {gamma}-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  19. The interaction of plutonium with bacteria in the repository environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (i) sorption, (ii) intracellular accumulation, and (iii) transformation of chemical speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a g-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  20. Demolition and removal of plutonium-contaminated facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful demolition and cleanup of a plutonium-contaminated facility at the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration Hanford Plant in Washington State are described. Several new materials, along with special techniques and equipment, were utilized for the containment and control of plutonium contamination during the course of the demolition work. The use of light-capacity fiberglassed plywood boxes for long-term (20-year, minimum) storage of the contaminated materials in underground transuranic waste trenches has led to the development, design and use of larger capacity modular fiberglassed plywood boxes that are replacing standard carbon steel boxes at less than one-third the cost, and without the potential for early failure from normal soil or atmospheric corrosion. (U.S.)

  1. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

    1997-10-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

  2. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  3. Chemical quality control of plutonium fuels: potassium plutonium sulphate as a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium plutonium sulphate, K4Pu(SO4)4 prepared in our division has been proposed as a reference material for plutonium. The suitability of the material as a reference standard in the quality assurance of plutonium fuels has been demonstrated by its regular use in our laboratory over the past six months. Results of the analysis of the standard by potentiometric and biamperometric methods were in close agreement with the theoretical plutonium content. (author)

  4. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  5. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, δ-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal

  6. The Vapour Pressure of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vapour pressure of liquid plutonium has been determined over the temperature range 1100 to 1800°K by the Knudsen effusion method. The least-squares equation which fits the data is log10p(atm) = -17 420/T(°K) + 4.913. The standard deviation corresponds to about ±10% in the pressures calculated from this equation. The heat of vaporization computed from the temperature dependence of the experimental data is ΔH0298 = 82.3 kcal/g-at. The heat computed by combining independent entropy and heat capacity data with the present measurements is ΔH0298 = 82.1 kcal/g-at. Effects of oxygen upon the volatility of liquid plutonium were sought by comparing the vapour pressures observed with the liquid in contact with tantalum, tantalum carbide, magnesia, and plutonium sesquioxide. No differences were found. In addition, the vapour pressure was measured with different degrees of vacuum in the system. No effect was found here either, except that in very poor vacuums a surface film of oxide apparently formed and reduced the volatility by about a factor of 2. (author)

  7. Use of plutonium in pebble bed HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a summary of the current status of world-wide inventories of weapon-grade plutonium and plutonium from reprocessing of power reactor fuel. It addresses the use of pebble bed HTGRs for consumption of the plutonium in terms of the fuel cycle options. The requirements and neutronics aspects, and results from parameter studies conducted using pebble bed reactor types, are discussed, along with proliferation and waste disposal aspects. (author)

  8. Aqueous chemistry of neptunium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief historical survey of studies on the chemistry of neptunium and plutonium in the USSR is given. In this paper topics discussed are reduction-oxidation reactions of these elements, compositions of the species formed, their behavior in extraction, and sorption processes. Special attention is paid to accurate and sensitive determination methods (including coulometry, luminescence, and radiometry) for microgram amounts of neptunium and nanogram amounts of plutonium in complex solutions. Methods of detecting plutonium is natural objects are also described

  9. Migration of Chernobyl plutonium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various geochemically linked landscapes were studied for the distribution of Chernobyl plutonium in soils. Significant behaviour of the Chernobyl plutonium may be observed only in case of its fall out with finely dispersed fuel. Within the areas polluted with the volatile ejection products, the plutonium migration forecast may be based on previous estimations obtained for the forest and forest-steppe zones. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO2-ZrO2-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO2) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er2O3) or europium oxide (Eu2O3) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl4-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  11. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  12. Microbial transformation of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical results indicate the reaction of Pu and fungal metabolites possibly occurs in the cell and the Pu compounds are then released into the exocellular media. Research has demonstrated that Pu-resistant microorganisms which have the ability to change the chemical form of a highly stable Pu complex can be isolated from soil. Continued research will be directed toward determination of the ability of Pu-resistant soil microbial isolates (maintained in stock cultures) to alter the solubility and mobility of the largely insoluble forms of Pu present in the environment. Since these studies involve a systematic investigation of the major classes of soil organisms, determination of their ability to alter Pu form in soil as well as in vitro and evaluation of the soil and environmental factors influencing their ability to transform Pu, the results should ultimately provide a realistic evaluation of the behavior of Pu in soil and the availability of Pu metabolites to plants

  13. Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2013-10-01

    The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 +/- 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor (239+240Pu activity concentration 0.49 Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated.

  14. Determination and behaviour of plutonium emitted with liquid effluents and exhaust air into the environment of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium concentrations in the surroundings of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) are in the range of variation of the global plutonium contamination caused by fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests. Exclusively in the sediments of the Old River Rhine, which serves as main canal for the liquid effluents, higher plutonium concentrations could be detected. The dose exposure of the population living in the environment of the KfK caused by the measured plutonium concentrations is negligible low. From the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) and the facilities needed to decontaminate radioactive wastes 0.48 GBq (13 mCi) plutonium alpha activity has been emitted within 11 years of operation until 1982 - 1/3 with the liquid effluents and 2/3 with the exhaust air. Following the pathway with the exhaust air, plutonium concentrations in the environment of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant were measured in groundlevel air, in soil, in plants, in food and in animal tissues. Radioecological parameters like dispersion factors, deposition velocities, migration velocities in soil and transfer soil-to-plant were investigated. Following the pathway with the liquid effluents, plutonium concentrations were measured in surface waters, sediments, water plants, plankton and animals. Dilution and sedimentation behaviour were studied as well as the transfer water-to-plant and water-to-animals. (orig.)

  15. Plutonium use in foreign countries (02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2002 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oside (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  16. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  17. Plutonium generated by commercial reactors presents danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes a 1995 keynote address by Dr. Paul Cunningham, Program Director for Nuclear Materials at Los Alamos National Laboratory which highlights the growing plutonium problem. Plutonium production for weapons use has ceased in the US and the former Soviet Union, but the production in commercial reactors, where it is considered a waste product, continues. The amount of plutonium already existing in spent reactor fuel is 5 times as large as the amount both countries have for their weapons. One solution is to use plutonium to generate power

  18. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  19. Work and disproportionation for aqueous plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G L

    2003-10-01

    The relation of two plutonium work integrals has recently been illustrated. One of the integrals applies to the work of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in 1 M acid and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper generalizes the disproportionation work integral so that it can be applied to tetravalent plutonium at any acid concentration. An equation is provided that can be used to verify work estimations obtained by integration. It applies to oxidation and disproportionation processes and it is easy to use. PMID:14522227

  20. Reactions of oxidation of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation into preparation of the powdery plutonium oxides under the reaction of metal plutonium with moist (5 % H2O) air and moist (5 % H2O) argon was carried out. The kinetic dependences in the 250 - 400 Deg C range are demonstrated. The vicissitude of the oxidation is shown, the activation energy is calculated for every stage. The mechanism of the metal plutonium oxidation is proposed. The obtained plutonium oxides were shown to have a high reaction ability at 300 - 400 Deg C in the moist air and moist argon media, and to be feasible for the further chemical treatment - dissolving in nitric acid, fluorination and chlorination

  1. Thermodynamics of the conversion of plutonium dioxide to plutonium monocarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study contains an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of the Pu--C--O system and a discussion from an equilibrium thermodynamic point of view of the direct carbothermic reduction and two-step carbothermic-hydrogen reduction of PuO2 to PuC/sub 1-x/. Included are considerations of the partial pressures of the various species in the Pu--C--O and Pu--C--H systems, the process parameters required for conversion of the oxide to the carbide, and the loss of plutonium due to vapor species

  2. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix B, Part 1: Rocky Flats site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important vulnerability on a frequency basis is that liquids containing plutonium are stored in containers that are being attacked by the solutions. These containers are presently failing on a random basis. The most important vulnerability on a material at risk basis is that solid plutonium is packaged for short-term storage. These conditions are presently degrading the containers, potentially to failure, which allows release of the material in the building. This assessment comprehensively evaluated environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities resulting from the storage and handling of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Plant. The term ES and H vulnerability, for the purpose of this assessment, means any condition, other than diversion of material, that could lead to unnecessary or increased exposure of workers and the public to radiation or to the release of radioactive materials to the environment

  3. Plutonium concentrations in forest fire smoke plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air filter samples from four forest logging slash burns were analyzed for plutonium. Although airborne concentrations were low, one fire definitely released fallout plutonium since the measured concentration in the smoke was one order of magnitude greater than ambient background measured upwind the same day

  4. The occurrence of plutonium in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Charles A.; Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1950-11-29

    Plutonium has been chemically separated from seven different ores and the ratios of plutonium to uranium determined. This ratio was found to be fairly constant in pitchblende and monazite ores, in which the uranium content varied from 50% t o 0.24%, and substantially less in carnotite and fergusonite.

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-04-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form.

  6. Risk of plutonium: Estimate and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of plutonium for man is compared with radiation risks due to other fission products as well as natural radiation sources. Furthermore, the principles of controlling the risks of plutonium by a system of radiation protection standards and corresponding technical and medical measures are described. The report is based to a great extent on publications prepared by international scientific commissions. (orig.)

  7. Problems relevant to plutonium utilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the concept of the nuclear fuel cycle in Russia. The specific features and programme of civil and weapon's grade plutonium utilization are discussed. It is emphasized that plutonium is a valuable nuclear fuel the use of which is economically beneficial. It is also emphasized that the international conference GLOBAL-95 held in Versailles is important and urgent. (author)

  8. Plutonium disproportionation: the relation of work integrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G L

    2003-04-01

    Two plutonium work integrals have been demonstrated in recent years. One of them applies to the work of disproportionation and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper illustrates the connection of the integrals by an example and a diagram. PMID:12672623

  9. Development and active demonstration of acid digestion of burnable plutonium bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations were focused on the active demonstration of the process in a technical scale plant by treatment of 790 kg of waste which contained about 7 kg of plutonium. Complete oxidation of the waste material is achieved within 15 min in sulfuric acid (kept under oxidizing condition by nitric acid) at 250 deg C. At 250 deg C with permanent stirring a rate of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulfate conversion of up to 99.9% is obtained within 8 hours. The waste oxidation product, besides offgas, is a residue of 320 g per kg waste digested. Precipitation of plutonium is achieved with an efficiency of 88% using cetylpyridinium nitrate. Active process demonstration was performed in a plant of 10 kg capacity per daily run from March 1983 until June 1985. The average waste throughput achieved was 4.1 kg waste per run (maximum 10.4 kg). The plutonium decontamination factors were 1010 for the cleaned offgas and 106 for the liquid secondary waste. Tantalum as a potential construction material for the digester does not exhibit specific corrosion; its surface corrosion is 0.1 mm per annum at the maximum

  10. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  11. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  12. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  13. Application of PGNAA to plutonium surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a well-established tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we are investigating the use of PGNAA as a diagnostic tool for a number of applications, particularly matrix characterization for nondestructive assay and plutonium surveillance. Surveillance is an essential feature of most plutonium facility operations, including routine material processing and research, short-term storage, and processing operations prior to disposal or long-term storage. The ability to identify and assay specific elements from gamma-ray-produced active neutron interrogation (e.g., by neutron capture, nonelastic scattering, and the decay of activation products) makes PGNAA an ideal tool for surveillance. For example, PGNAA can help confirm item descriptions (for example, plutonium chloride versus plutonium oxide). This feature is particularly important in operations involving poorly characterized legacy materials where the material form could adversely impact plutonium-processing operations

  14. Application of PGNAA to plutonium surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Foster, L.A.; Staples, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a well-established tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we are investigating the use of PGNAA as a diagnostic tool for a number of applications, particularly matrix characterization for nondestructive assay and plutonium surveillance. Surveillance is an essential feature of most plutonium facility operations, including routine material processing and research, short-term storage, and processing operations prior to disposal or long-term storage. The ability to identify and assay specific elements from gamma-ray-produced active neutron interrogation (e.g., by neutron capture, nonelastic scattering, and the decay of activation products) makes PGNAA an ideal tool for surveillance. For example, PGNAA can help confirm item descriptions (for example, plutonium chloride versus plutonium oxide). This feature is particularly important in operations involving poorly characterized legacy materials where the material form could adversely impact plutonium-processing operations.

  15. Japan's civil use of foreign military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to propose one of the MOX options of international cooperation for safer and more secured management of excess military plutonium. The proposal was made with special reference to the Japanese public's view. Owing to the domestic plutonium shortage anticipated soon after the 200 in Japan, some specific reactors will be available to get rid of foreign excess weapon plutonium. According to the Japan AEC's new long-term programme, the shortage will be approximately 0.5 tonne of plutonium per annum, which is a sort of the least amount that Japan can buy from a certain external source. With international requests for a more positive Japanese contribution, however, the amount of Japanese purchase would be increased. It follows from the preliminary estimate shown in this paper that roughly 2 tonnes of plutonium can be burned annually in the reactors without any major modifications concerning safe reactor operation. (author)

  16. Remediation of plutonium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, S.; Coudace, I.; Voss, J

    2005-07-15

    The effectiveness of paramagnetic separation to remove plutonium from soils from the Aldermaston (UK) site has been investigated and reported to the commissioners of the project, AWE plc, and also subsequently at the WM'05 Conference (Tucson, AZ). The results showed that plutonium can be effectively concentrated in soils using magnetic separation and size fractionation. The work also investigated other methods to enhance the separation process. These approaches were: the use of sodium hexametaphosphate (ca. 1% by weight soil) to disperse the clay minerals; roasting to remove organic matter and to oxidise any organically-compIexed plutonium; ultrasonic vibration to break physical bonds between any plutonium oxide and soil particles; leaching of the <75mm fractions with selected reagents to extract plutonium. As a result of this work, engineering concepts are being developed which will enable more than 95% of some of the AWE contaminated soils to be rated for free release. (author)

  17. Nuclear legacy. Democracy in a plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have already been a few hundred known incidents of nuclear smuggling, mostly of small quantities not close to weapons grade material - but one gram of plutonium is more than sufficient to cause significant harm and to pose a substantial threat. The potential for further thefts is growing as the world produces ever more quantities of plutonium, not only from the dismantling of nuclear weapons but also from the separation out of plutonium from spent uranium nuclear reactor fuel elements. Trying to prevent the theft of gram quantities of plutonium would require levels of protection and surveillance unacceptably high in a democratic society. It is unlikely, therefore, that democracy could survive in a plutonium economy

  18. Robot vision system for remote plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tons of weapons-usable plutonium has been declared surplus to the national security needs of the United States. The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a US Department of Energy sponsored program to place excess plutonium in a stable form and make it unattractive for reuse. A vision system was developed as part of PIP robotic and remote systems development. This vision system provides visual feedback to a can-loading robot that places plutonium/ceramic pucks in stainless steel cans. Inexpensive grayscale CCD cameras were used in conjunction with an off-the-shelf video capture card and computer to build an effective two-camera vision system. Testing demonstrates the viability of this technology for use in the Plutonium Immobilization Project facility, which is scheduled to begin operations in 2008

  19. The nuclear energy utilisation discontinuation concept lacks a plutonium disposal scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quick discontinuation of nuclear energy utilisation envisaged by the new Federal German Government leaves the problem of how to dispose of the plutonium produced so far in the course of reconditioning. More than 22 tons are here involved, envisaged for recycling as new fuel elements and at present stored in France and Great Britain. There are no very great safeguard differences between reactor plutonium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. This means that a form of repository must be found for reactor plutonium which is self-protecting against unauthorised access, as is the case for exhausted fuel elements on account of their high radioactivity. The demand for self-protection and thereafter disposal can be fulfilled by sealing the plutonium in glass in the same manner as practised so far with the highly active waste from reconditioning (glass canisters). This form of repository is self-protecting for plutonium only when highly radioactive waste from reconditioning is mixed with the glass melt. To dispose of the present existing amount of German plutonium in this manner, 3200 cubic metres of highly radioactive waste (activity inventory 3,7x1019 Becquerel) would be required. In addition thereto a vitrification plant with corresponding performance would be needed, because such a processing project would produce about 6000 glass canisters. For example, the vitrification plant 'PAMELA' which has been operated in Mol in Belgium, would have to run non-stop for 17 years. According to the arguments presented by the three authors, the difficulties of such a disposal method are so immense that one should refrain therefrom. Instead, the authors recommend return of the plutonium as MOX-fuel in light water reactors, as envisaged so far by the concept for utilising the plutonium. The demand for self-protection can be fulfilled therewith. At the same time this method for disposal would be sensible on considerations of energy economy, because as much energy can be produced from

  20. Regional distribution of Chernobyl-derived plutonium deposition in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides containing, amongst other materials, plutonium isotopes. The regional deposition of these nuclides in Finland has been assessed, based on samples of lichen, peat, precipitation, surface soil and grass. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and the 1960's, the deposition in Finland from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed. Even then, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 239,240Pu in the most contaminated regions of Finland was only around 10% of the global fallout from weapons tests. The total amount of 239,240Pu deposited in Finland was 1 x 1011 Bq (∼25 g), i.e., approximately half of a percent of the activity deposited in the 1950's and the 1960's. In addition to the alpha-emitting Pu isotopes, the Chernobyl plume also contained a significant amount of the beta-emitting 241Pu, which is the precursor of the long-lived alpha-emitter 241Am. The highest plutonium deposition values were found in a relatively narrow swath from the southwestern coast of Finland northeastwards across the country. This is related to the calculated route of the air parcel trajectory associated with the initial explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. The high deposition values found in the northeastern part of the plume route over Finland can be attributed to the simultaneous occurrence of precipitation. The relatively high plutonium deposition in the southwestern part of Finland occurred, however, without concurrent precipitation. This indicates that the plutonium was at least partly associated with relatively large particles having a substantial deposition velocity due to gravitational setting. (author)

  1. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  2. Design concepts for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support plutonium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.A.; Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1990-08-31

    Design concepts were developed for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support the plutonium processing functions of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. These concepts include pneumatic sample delivery, total containment of samples during analyses, robotic-based dry sample storage, continuous flow air locks for introducing supplies into the gloveboxes, and a within-laboratory sample transport system capable of multiple, simultaneous transfers.

  3. Design concepts for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design concepts were developed for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support the plutonium processing functions of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. These concepts include pneumatic sample delivery, total containment of samples during analyses, robotic-based dry sample storage, continuous flow air locks for introducing supplies into the gloveboxes, and a within-laboratory sample transport system capable of multiple, simultaneous transfers

  4. Plutonium technology in Germany: History and present status (Preprint no. IT-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium technology started in Germany in 1964 from Lab scale by fabricating units containing (U,Pu)O2 for SNEAK-critical assembly in Karlsruhe. Until now a variety of MOX- and FBR-fuel elements have been produced in the Hanau-plant, containing altogether more than 5 tons Pu. (author)

  5. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  6. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  7. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  8. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  9. Current status of the plutonium hot particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information now available on the question of lung irradiation from particulate plutonium is reviewed. Careful consideration of the available data shows that particulate plutonium is not more hazardous than the same amount of plutonium distributed uniformly. The data also suggest that the potential hazard from plutonium increases as the dispersion throughout the lung becomes more uniform

  10. Pyrochemical technology of plutonium and americium preparation and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrochemical tecnology of metallic plutonium and americium preparation and purification is considered. Investigations into plutonium dioxide reduction up to metal; plutonium electrolytic refining in molten salts; plutonium extraction from the molten salts and preparation of americium dioxide and metallic americium from its tetrafluoride are described

  11. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables

  12. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  13. Preparation of hexavalent plutonium and its determination in the presence of tetravalent plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the eventual reduction of plutonium from the VI-valent state to the IV-valent state, in sulphuric medium, under the influence of its own α radiation or of the γ-rays from a cobalt-60 source, we have developed a method for preparing pure hexavalent plutonium and two methods for determining solutions containing tetravalent and hexavalent plutonium simultaneously. Hexavalent plutonium was prepared by anodic oxidation at a platinum electrode. Study of the oxidation yield as a function of various factors has made it possible to define experimental conditions giving complete oxidation. For concentrations in total plutonium greater than 1.5 x 10-3 M, determination of the two valencies IV and VI was carried out by spectrophotometry at two wavelengths. For lower concentrations, the determination was done by counting, after separation of the tetravalent plutonium in the form of fluoride in the presence of a carrier. (author)

  14. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  15. Glovebox line for plutonium fuel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design is described of a line for the analysis of plutonium and mixed (U, Pu) fuels. The design meets the requirement that the line should allow a continuous analysis of plutonium nuclear fuels using chemical methods oriented to oxidation-reduction titration techniques. This determined the nature of operations which should take place on the line. The specifications are given of the individual details as are parameters affecting the correct line operation in the analysis of plutonium fuels. (author) 7 figs., 2 refs

  16. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996

  17. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  18. Combined evaluation. Plutonium transports in France. Problems of safety and reliability of transport container FS47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the safety and the protection of plutonium dioxide transported from Cogema La Hague to the mixed oxide fuel plant of Marcoule and Cadarache. The French approach of the transport safety is based on the combining of two essential principles: the first one affirms that the performances of the FS47 container in regard of containment (norms TS-R-1 from IAEA for the accidental conditions) is conceived to resist in any situation even terrorism or sabotage. In fact, the IAEA norm follows a probabilistic study without a voluntary attack such a terrorist one. The second principle rests on the ability to prevent the treat of terrorism acts, because of a secrecy policy on the plutonium transport. It appeared that the Green peace association has succeeded several times to know exactly the hours, the trips of the plutonium transport and this simple thing raises more questions than it solves. (N.C.)

  19. Plan for the Initiation of HA-211 Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan provides a phased approach authorizing the use of three additional muffle furnaces for thermal stabilization. Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given

  20. A plutonium safety training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multimedia training program to prepare personnel at Argonne National Laboratory's Idaho Site (ANL-W) to work with plutonium-bearing fuels has been developed. The objective has been to produce a self-taught course for persons of varied backgrounds. The primary instruction tool is a videotape assisted by a short text and a workbook for each of three topics. Successful completion of this program is mandatory for all employees assigned to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). Another tape and text are used to orient personnel who enter HFEF on an occasional basis. Annual requalification is required, and test scores are maintained to provide an auditable record for the Department of Energy. Both the basic properties of Pu and specific features of HFEF are covered in the program. (Author)

  1. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the fuel cycle of LWR type reactors: accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological impact of the fuel cycle of LWR type reactors using enriched uranium may be changed by plutonium recycle. The differences, which result from accidents which may occur in the different stages of the fuel cycle, are estimated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Community is estimated for the recycle of 10t of plutonium metal, taking into consideration some characteristic accidents of each stage of the fuel cycle: fuel fabrication, reactor operation, fuel reprocessing and conversion, and, transport between the different units of the fuel cycle. Each unit is supposed built on an European ''average'' site (mean distributions of the populations and of the agricultural productions, reference meteorological situations). The recycle of plutonium in the fuel cycle involves a few per cent decrease of the radiological impact of the accident choosed for the nuclear power plants. The accidents of transport of plutonium, of new fuels and of plutonium wastes, as also thoses choosed for the fuel fabrication plant involve an increase of the impact for these types of transport and this plant. Finally, the differential radiological impact of the fuel reprocessing plant is positive but low

  2. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  3. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  4. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO2PuO2-x, and Pu4O7 phases, of about 1μm or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 μm to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix

  5. Leaching behavior of particulate plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different size cuts of 238PuO2 particles were mixed with deionized water at two temperatures in a shaker bath. The gross plutonium concentration in the water was measured, as well as that portion of the plutonium retained on a 0.1-μm pore filter. The concentration of the plutonium released was primarily a function of the surface area of the particles. The release rate of plutonium into the water for the size cut with particles having diameters between 30 and 20 μm was 3 ng/m2/s; this rate is within the range observed in past experiments involving aquatic environments. The amount of material retained by the 0.1-μm filters decreased with increasing time, suggesting that size reduction or removal processes occurred. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Plutonium fallout observed in Tsukuba, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium in monthly deposition samples collected in Tsukuba (the Meteorological Research Institute), Japan from 1990 to end of 2001 is reported. The annual deposition of 239,240Pu during the period from 1990 to 2001 shows no systematic inter-annual variation. However, monthly 239,240Pu depositions show a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring season (March to April), which corresponds to seasonal cycle of soil dusts originating from the East Asian arid area. Plutonium isotopic ratios in the deposition samples suggest that significant amounts of the recent 239,240Pu deposition observed in Japan are attributed to the resuspension of plutonium-bearing surface soil particles; resuspended plutonium originates from the East Asian arid areas. Recent increase tendency of 239,240Pu contents in residue in deposition samples may reflect desertification in the East Asian continent. (author)

  7. Waste minimization at a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) mission to reduce the nuclear danger throughout the world, the plutonium processing facility at LANL maintains expertise and skills in nuclear weapons technologies as well as leadership in all peaceful applications of plutonium technologies, including fuel fabrication for terrestrial and space reactors and heat sources and thermoelectric generators for space missions. Another near-term challenge resulted from two safety assessments performed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and the U.S. Department of Energy during the past two years. These assessments have necessitated the processing and stabilization of plutonium contained in tons of residues so that they can be stored safely for an indefinite period. This report describes waste streams and approaches to waste reduction of plutonium management

  8. Laboratory Building for Accurate Determination of Plutonium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The accurate determination of plutonium is one of the most important assay techniques of nuclear fuel, also the key of the chemical measurement transfer and the base of the nuclear material balance. An

  9. Leaching behavior of particulate plutonium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Heaton, R.C.

    1985-08-01

    Different size cuts of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles were mixed with deionized water at two temperatures in a shaker bath. The gross plutonium concentration in the water was measured, as well as that portion of the plutonium retained on a 0.1-..mu..m pore filter. The concentration of the plutonium released was primarily a function of the surface area of the particles. The release rate of plutonium into the water for the size cut with particles having diameters between 30 and 20 ..mu..m was 3 ng/m/sup 2//s; this rate is within the range observed in past experiments involving aquatic environments. The amount of material retained by the 0.1-..mu..m filters decreased with increasing time, suggesting that size reduction or removal processes occurred. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  11. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  12. Storage of weapons-grade plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the end of the cold war, the United States has started to reduce its nuclear weapons stockpiles and will place special nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) into storage. The existing plutonium storage facilities are designed for short-term storage or to support operation of adjacent processing facilities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to construct and operate a new plutonium storage facility as part of the reconfigured weapons complex, called Complex-21, to provide safe and secure long-term storage of plutonium materials. This facility will be required to meet new, more stringent requirements such as potential third-party inspection, enhanced safeguard and security requirements, and reduced personnel radiation exposure limits

  13. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10+3 μg (4 x 10-2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10-4. For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10-2 and (7.4+ 4.1) x 10-4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10-4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10-4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10-3 would provide better safety margin

  14. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for dissolving plutonium metal, the process. It comprises: heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate and potassium fluoride; and immersing the plutonium in the mixture; the nitric acid having a concentration of not more than 2M, the hydroxylammonium nitrate having a concentration of between approximately 0.33 M and 1 M, and the potassium fluoride having a concentration between approximately 0.05 M approximately 0.1 M

  15. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the beagle has been determined to be 0.066 +- 0.014% of the amount administered. This result is quite comparable with the results reported for the dog by other workers, and a factor of 3 smaller than that observed by us for mice. On the average, the retained plutonium was found to be almost equally divided between the liver and the skeleton

  16. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium has already been transported within the UK over a period of 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 60's. Experience is recounted with regard to the forms of plutonium transported, regulations, insurance, container design, mode of transport, volume of traffic, physical protection, safety analysis and costs. It is concluded that this traffic could be expanded in the future without danger to the community or the environment

  17. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  18. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  19. Applications of plutonium dioxide oxydising dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory investigations having demonstrated the outstanding effectiveness of Ag2+ ions for the dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitric medium, two applications of this method were developed at the CEA: dissolution of off-standard PuO2, recovery of the plutonium contained in ashes produced by incineration of solid wastes. With respect to PuO2 dissolution, the parametric investigation of the electrogeneration of Ag (II) and of its reaction with PuO2, led to the development of a process and of the equipment required for its implementation. The prototype facility used to dissolve in 4 hours 1 kg of plutonium, in oxide form, was built and tested in the laboratory. This equipment was used to dissolve 30 kg of plutonium oxide in batches of about 700 grams. An in-line spectrophotometric method was developed for process control. The application of this process to the recovery of plutonium from incineration ash is currently being developed. Tested on the scale of about 1 kg of ash, the process helps to recover the plutonium with yields higher than 98 %

  20. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of lung tumors by various types of radiation is of paramount concern to the nuclear industry. The data presented were obtained by exposing the pulmonary system of Syrian hamsters to particles of zirconium oxide containing various amounts of either plutonium-238 or -239 as the alpha radiation source. These particles were injected intravenously and lodged permanently in the capillary bed of the lung. When less than 20% of the lung tissue was irradiated, simulating the ''hot particle'' mode, tumors were not evident with lung burdens up to 500 nCi plutonium. More diffuse irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence, with lung burdens of 50 to 150 nCi. When plutonium-laden microspheres were administered intratracheally, tumor production was considerably increased and the addition of 3 mg of iron oxide intratracheally further increased the incidence. Using the zirconium oxide matrix for the carrier of plutonium in aerosol particles produced tumor incidences of up to 50% in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation. Initial pulmonary (alveolar) burdens reached 100 nCi of plutonium. Similar inhalation studies using plutonium dioxide alone (no matrix) failed to produce any increase in lung tumorigenesis. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms necessary for lung carcinogenesis. (H.K.)

  1. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today`s laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

  2. On complexe oxalates of plutonium(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium compounds of general composition MPu(C2O4)2xnH2O, where M=Li, Na, NH4, K, Cs and n=0.5-3.5, have been separated from solutions of alkali metal and ammonium oxalates and identified using the methods of X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses. The behaviour of plutonium (3) differs from that of americium (3) in solutions of lithium- and sodium oxalates, but the difference decreases with the increase in the monovalent cation radius, so that in the cesium oxalate solution plutonium (3) behaves in the same manner as americium (3). The reaction of the compounds NH4Pu(C2O4)2xH2O and CsPu(C2O4)2x0.5H2O to heating is studied. Ammonium salt of plutonium oxalate begins to rapidly decompose at 250 deg C. At approximately 350 deg C the formation of PuO2 completes. Rapid decomposition of cesium salt of plutonium oxalate is observed above 300 deg C. The study of the IR spectra of double plutonium (3) with ammonium-or-cesium oxalates permitted to draw certain conclusions on the nature of chemical bonds in the compounds

  3. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today's laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  4. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today's laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  5. Development of analytical method for plutonium in high active liquid waste solution by high performance spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitsukata, Syu [Joyo Industries, Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Niitsu, Yoshinobu [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan); Kuno, Takehiko; Sato, Soichi; Kurosawa, Akira [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    It was required from IAEA to determine a small amount of plutonium in the high active liquid waste solutions (HALW) in the tokai reprocessing plant. High performance spectrophotometer (HPSP), which could be obtained lower detection limit than conventional spectrophotometer, is studied to be applied to the inspection and verification analysis by the IAEA. -Cold Test- Neodymium, showing an absorption peak near the absorption wavelength of plutonium (VI), was used as an alternative element to plutonium, in order to review the calculation method of the peak intensity. As a result, the three-point correction method was found to be simple and effective. -Hot Test- Plutonium nitrate solution was used the fundamental test of this method. Since the method is known to be influenced by acidity, suspended sludge and coexistent elements in a sample, each dependency was examined. It was found that measurement results varied about 14% at a nitric acid concentration of 2-4 mol/L. Sludge should be removed by filtration before the measurement. The effect of coexisting elements could be eliminated adjusting the optical balance between reference and sample beam intensity. In the case of measuring a low concentration plutonium solution sample, a ratio of the peak intensity to the background intensity (S/B ratio) is relatively small. Therefore a method should be improved the S/B ratio by analyzing the obtained spectra. Accumulated average method, moving average method and Fourier transform method was tested. The results showed that a combination of the accumulated average method and the moving average method was the optimum method for the purpose. Linearity of the calibration curve was found between 0-11 mgPu/L. Synthetic sample solution, which simulated the actual constituents of the HALW with plutonium showed a good linear relation at 0-11 mgPu/L. The detection limit for plutonium concentration was 0.07 mgPu/L. When the synthetic HALW solution containing plutonium was measured, the

  6. Handling and Measurement of Plutonium Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major forms in which power reactor plutonium can be shipped are metal, nitrate solution, and oxide. In this paper, recent studies on the measurement problems associated with handling and shipping plutonium are summarized. Factors affecting the stability of plutonium in these forms have been identified and current procedures evaluated. Gas evolution, hydrogen ion consumption, and precipitation may occur in plutonium nitrate solutions. Conditions which lead to these effects have been defined. With proper control of these effects, nitrate shipments can be made with average shipper-receiver differences under 0.2%. The standard deviation of the difference can be kept under + 0.3%. Compositions in the range of 50-250 g Pu/litre, 2-10 N nitric acid, and up to 5000 ppm metallic impurities have been tested. Procedures for bulk measurements (both weight and volume), complete transfer, sampling, and analysis of plutonium nitrate in batches up to 10 litres are available. The major contributor to shipper-receiver differences in shipments studied was the analytical determination of plutonium in solution. Many methods have been reported. However, interplant comparisons have shown biases between widely used methods. Smallest differences are observed when the same analytical method is used for both shipper and receiver measurements. Plutonium oxide cans may pressurize during shipment if the oxide is low-fired, causing loss of material when the can is opened. However, properly prepared oxide can be shipped in batches of 2-12 kg with a measured loss of less than 0.2%. Procedures for blending, sampling and transferring have been tested. Thermal and radiation effects have been measured. Moisture adsorption and desorption on oxide must be controlled if shipper-receiver differences are to be minimized. Calorimetric assay of the plutonium can eliminate sampling errors and reduce analytical cost. Accuracy and precision of calorimetric and ''wet'' methods are comparable. Metal shipments

  7. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  8. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question; Aval du cycle la question du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zask, G. [Electricite de France, EDF/DAC, 75 - Paris (France); Rome, M. [Electricite de France, EDF, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Delpech, M. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs/SPRC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)] [and others

    1998-06-29

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Preparation of plutonium hexafluoride. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross (1962); Preparation de l'hexafluorure de plutonium. Recuperation du plutonium des scories d'elaboration (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendre, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the influence of various physical factors on the rate of fluorination of solid plutonium tetrafluoride by fluorine. In a horizontal oven with a circulation for pure fluorine at atmospheric pressure and 520 deg. C, at a fluorine rate of 9 litres/hour, it is possible to transform 3 g of tetrafluoride to hexafluoride with about 100 per cent transformation and a recovery yield of over 90 per cent, in 4 to 5 hours. The fluorination rate is a function of the temperature, of the fluorine flow-rate, of the crucible surface, of the depth of the tetrafluoride layer and of the reaction time. It does not depend on the diffusion of the fluorine into the solid but is determined by the reaction at the gas-solid interface and obeys the kinetic law (1 - T{sub T}){sup 1/3} = kt + 1. The existence of intermediate fluorides, in particular Pu{sub 4} F{sub 17}, is confirmed by a break in the Arrhenius plot at about 370 deg. C, by differences in the fluorination rates inside the tetrafluoride layer, and by reversible colour changes. The transformation to hexafluoride occurs with a purification with respect of the foreign elements present in the initial plutonium. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross: The study is based on the transformation of occluded plutonium particles to gaseous hexafluoride which is then decomposed thermally to the tetrafluoride which can be reintroduced directly in the production circuit. Under the conditions considered this process is not applicable industrially. After milling, it is possible to separate the dross into enriched (75 per cent Pu in 2.6 per cent by weight of dross) and depleted portions. By prolonged fluorination (16 hours) of the various fractions it is possible to recover about 80 per cent of the plutonium. A treatment plant using fluidization, as described at the end of this study, should make it possible to substantially improve the yield. (author) [French] L'objet de l'etude est l

  10. Entry tank calibration in TOR pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is the description of calibration measurements used for determining the uranium and plutonium mass entry in the fast neutron fuel reprocessing pilot plant (TOR) of Marcoule

  11. Removal of plutonium from drinking water by community water treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium removal factors (RF) averaged 14 +- 10 during a study of the effectiveness of three drinking-water treatment plants for removing Pu from Savannah River water. Plutonium concentrations between 0.1 and 3.5 femtocurie/l were measured in raw and finished water samples. From 50 to 10,000 liter samples of water were concentrated by ion exchange techniques and processed to determine the concentrations of 239Pu and 240Pu and to derive Pu RF's. The similarity between RF's observed for both Pu and suspended solids suggests a colloidal behavior for Pu. Plutonium RF's may be limited by low-level buildup on the treatment facility filters and subsequent bleeding into finished water, and thus may be higher during abnormal Pu releases to the environment. Flocculation and filtration appear to be the primary factors in the water treatment process contributing to Pu removal. The similarity between the plutonium contents of finished water from treatment facilities upstream and downstream of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) indicates that there is no measurable dose-to-man from SRP Pu releases in the water. The 70-year bone dose commitment to an individual from consumption for one year of 1.65 liters per day of treated Savannah River water, based on the Pu concentrations of finished waters from the three treatment facilities, is 5 x 10-5 em

  12. Plutonium emission from the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11th March 2011 initiated a severe accident in units 1 to 4 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, resulting in substantial releases of radionuclides. While much has since been published 00 environmental contamination and exposure to radio--iodine and radio-caesium, little is known about releases of plutonium and other non-volatile elements. Although the total activities of released 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs are of the same order of magnitude as of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the contribution of little volatile elements, including Pu, is much smaller in Fukushima fallout. The reason is the different physical nature of the accident sequence which led to a release of some 10-5% of the core inventories only (to be compared with 3.5% from Chernobyl). In this contribution the available data on Pu in Fukushima fallout will be reviewed. Data sources are mainly reports and press releases by Japanese authorities and a few scientific articles. The mean ratio 239+240Pu: 137Cs in the near field around the NPP (mainly part of Fukushima prefecture and districts of adjacent prefectures) can be assumed about 3 x 10-7, to be compared to nearly 0.01 in the vicinity of Chernobyl, down to about 3 x 10 -6 in Central Europe. Isotopic ratios 238Pu: 239+240 Pu are about 2.2 (0.46 and 0.035 in Chemobyl and global fallout, respectively). Activity concentrations of Fukushima- 239+240 Pu in surface soil were found up to above 0.1 Bq/kg d.m. in the immediate vicinity of the Fukushima NPP and about one order of magnitude less in Fukushima city, about 60 km away. The 239+240 Pu activity released into the atmosphere is roughly estimated some 109 Bq (Chemobyl : almost 1014 Bq). (author)

  13. Plutonium-237: an important research tool for studies of environmental plutonium kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and use of the photon-emitting isotope plutonium-237 in investigations of the uptake, retention, and distribution of monomeric plutonium (IV) both in an aquatic vertebrate, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and in a littoral aquatic micro-ecosystem, are presented. The rationale for use of plutonium-237 in environmental studies is discussed. Chelation can either enhance or reduce the uptake of ingested plutonium relative to plutonium hydroxide (monomer) in channel catfish. The highest observed retention (whole body) at 63 days was 3.8% of ingested dose for plutonium-237 citrate, while retention of the fulvate was 0.6%. Reduced uptake of the fulvate complex is due either to its high molecular weight (>10,000) or to its stability in metabolic systems. Increased uptake of plutonium-237 citrate is attributable to instability of the complex in metabolic systems. Tissue distribution studies revealed that relatively little (less than or equal to 10%) of intracardially injected plutonium citrate was excreted. Blood clearance rates were similar to those found in small mammals, with the plutonium being primarily associated with the plasma protein transferrin. The fractional body burdens in bone, liver, and kidney 17 days after injection were 31%, 24%, and 9% of the injection dose, respectively. High kidney burdens relativity to mammals are expected, since the kidney functions as the major site of homopoiesis in teleosts. Absence of significant excretion indicates that a short half-life component of elimination following gut clearance in gavage studies is due to plutonium labeling of the gut

  14. Some aspects of a technology of processing weapons grade plutonium to nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept by Russia to use fissile weapons-grade materials, which are being recovered from nuclear pits in the process of disarmament, is based on an assessment of weapons-grade plutonium as an important energy source intended for use in nuclear power plants. However, in the path of involving plutonium excessive from the purposes of national safety into industrial power engineering there are a lot of problems, from which effectiveness and terms of its disposition are being dependent upon. Those problems have political, economical, financial and environmental character. This report outlines several technology problems of processing weapons-grade metallic plutonium into MOX-fuel for reactors based on thermal and fast neutrons, in particular, the issue of conversion of the metal into dioxide from the viewpoint of fabrication of pelletized MOX-fuel. The processing of metallic weapons-grade plutonium into nuclear fuel is a rather complicated and multi-stage process, every stage of which is its own production. Some of the stages are absent in production of MOX-fuel, for instance the stage of the conversion, i.e. transferring of metallic plutonium into dioxide of the ceramic quality. At this stage of plutonium utilization some tasks must be resolved as follows: I. As a result of the conversion, a material purified from ballast and radiogenic admixtures has to be obtained. This one will be applied to fabricate pelletized MOX-fuel going from morphological, physico-mechanical and technological properties. II. It is well known that metallic gallium, which is used as an alloying addition in weapons-grade plutonium, actively reacts with multiple metals. Therefore, an important issue is to study the effect of gallium on the technology of MOX-fuel production, quality of the pellets, as well as the interaction of gallium oxide with zirconium and steel shells of fuel elements depending upon the content of gallium in the fuel. The rate of the interaction of gallium oxide

  15. Plutonium titration by controlled potential coulometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LAMMAN (Nuclear Materials Metrology Laboratory) is the support laboratory of the CETAMA (Analytical Method Committee), whose two main activities are developing analytic methods, and making and characterizing reference materials. The LAMMAN chose to develop the controlled potential coulometry because it is a very accurate analytical technique which allows the connection between the quantity of element electrolysed to the quantity of electricity measured thanks to the Faraday's law: it does not require the use of a chemical standard. This method was first used for the plutonium titration and was developed in the Materials Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM), for upgrading its performances and developing it to the titration of other actinides. The equipment and the material used were developed to allow the work in confined atmosphere (in a glove box), with all the restrictions involved. Plutonium standard solutions are used to qualify the method, and in particular to do titrations with an uncertainty better than 0.1 %. The present study allowed making a bibliographic research about controlled potential coulometry applied to the actinides (plutonium, uranium, neptunium, americium and curium). A full procedure was written to set all the steps of plutonium titration, from the preparation of samples to equipments storage. A method validation was done to check the full procedure, and the experimental conditions: working range, uncertainty, performance... Coulometric titration of the plutonium from pure solution (without interfering elements) was developed to the coulometric titration of the plutonium in presence of uranium, which allows to do accurate analyses for the analyses of some parts of the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of developing this method to other actinides than plutonium was highlighted thanks to voltammetric studies, like the coulometric titration of uranium with a working carbon electrode in sulphuric medium. (author)

  16. Treatability studies for plutonium removal from desert soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of the development of nuclear weapons, the U.S. has detonated several safety shots in different locations in the Nevada desert. Safety shot was a term used to denote those tests which simulate the accidental fall of an airplane which carries a nuclear device. Such testing has scattered finely divided plutonium over several thousands of acres of desert soil. Paramag Corporation has developed equipment and procedures for testing the separation of plutonium particles from soils. Paramag uses a combination of soil washing techniques and magnetic separation techniques based on the Kolmreg-sign Separator, a 6 tesla superconducting magnet equipped with proprietary internals. Paramag has formed a partnership with Process Systems International, PSI, the world leader in ultra-low temperature helium refrigerators and cryogenic engineering. The partnership is able to provide true design-build capabilities under a single-roof. Other mineral beneficiation equipment and techniques were developed by Paramag, in order to provide an integrated system. Paramag has formed an association with ENSR, a subsidiary of American NuKEM, the 4th largest hazardous waste engineering company in the U.S. to offer state-of-the-art management controls, QA/QC and ES ampersand H controls. In a recent project at the Nevada Test Site, as a subcontractor to the site contractor Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo), Paramag has assembled a pilot-plant on-site to perform the following soil process steps: (1) Soil Feeding; (2) Attrition Scrubbing; (3) Hydrosizing; (4) Kolm Separation and (5) Water Treatment. The results from the first tests with plutonium in desert soils has shown decontamination factors of about 0 and volume reduction factors of at least 70%. Because Paramag's competitors are still involved in their testing, this paper provides a limited disclosure of the procedures and results

  17. Recycling of plutonium and uranium in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the meeting was to make a review of the present knowledge relevant to plutonium and uranium recycling, MOX fuel, on-going programmes, today's industrial capabilities and future plans for development. For countries with commitments to reprocessing, MOX fuel is attractive and will be more so as discharge burnups increase and as the time between discharge and reprocessing optimized. Fabrication experience on MOX fuel has accumulated for many years in several countries and one has been able to cope with the extension of capacities of the plants, as required by MOX fuel implementation, and with the requirements specific to massive use in power reactors. Standards fabrication processes have proven to be adaptable in large quantities and have yielded products satisfying all present specifications. A large body of irradiation experience for some time on various MOX and RepU materials. On the basis of a comparison with UO2, no adverse effect has been observed. Problems like isotopic homogeneity, solubility, alternative processes like gelation deserve further attention. It is encouraging to note that parameters linked to materials obtained by different fabrication routes can be taken into account by existing codes, to an extent similar to various UO2 fuels, provided an adequate data base is available. The fabrication capacities are the limiting factor for MOX penetration in reactors, where a 30 to 50% recycling rate is therefore sufficient. The use of plutonium in 100% MOX reactors or in more advanced reactors deserves more study. The increase of plutonium inventory may influence safety and licensing analysis, but all the safety criteria can be met. On the whole, the experience reported in this meeting pointed to a general consensus of the attractiveness of recycling and the already demonstrated ability of several countries to cope with all questions raised by MOX substitution of UO2 fuel. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 15-year postexposure period. During the 12 1/2 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of ≥ 80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. 4 figures, 7 tables

  19. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for life span dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 16-year post exposure period. During the 13 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of ≥ 80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton

  20. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pnuemonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 14-year postexposure period. During the 11 1/2 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of greater than or equal to80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. 5 figures, 7 tables