WorldWideScience

Sample records for ciliophora

  1. New records of Thecacineta cothurnioides and Trematosoma rotunda (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts on nematodes from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    , Suctoria) of the Ukrainian fauna. Vestnik Zoologii, Suppl., N2, 1–42 (in Russian with English summary). Dovgal I. V. 2002. Evolution, phylogeny and classification of Suctorea (Ciliophora). Protistol- ogy. 2, 194-270. Dovgal I., Chatterjee T. and Ingole B...- taculous ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctoria) in Ukrainian SSR. Deposit manuscript in All-Russian Institute of Scientific and Technical Information. 3135-88, 1-36 (in Russian). Dovgal I V 1996 Keys for identification of tentaculous infusoria (Ciliophora...

  2. The valid name for the genus Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Braconidae), preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foissner, W.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta: Braconidae) is preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora). The name previously used for Loxocephalus Foerster, Myiocephalus Marshall, 1897, becomes the valid name for the genus.

  3. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  5. First report of Limnoricus ponticus Dovgal and Lozowskiy (Ciliophora: Suctorea) as epibionts on Pycnophyes (Kinorhyncha) from the Indian Ocean with key to species of the genus Limnoricus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.

    ) for project entitled “Molecular characterization of microbial and invertebrate diversity from the west coast of India”. References Dovgal I.V. 1996. Keys for identification of tentaculous infusoria (Ciliophora,Suctoria) of the Ukrainian fauna. Vestnik Zoologii...) from the harpacticoid copepode of genus Tisbe. Vestnik zoologii, 42: 167-170. (In Russian with English summary). Dovgal I., Chatterjee T. & Ingole B. 2008. An owerviev of suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari...

  6. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    dedicated to 90 th anniversary of T. I. Vyazemsky Karadag Scientific Station and 25 th anniversary of Karadag Natural Reserve of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences). Book 2. Simferopol: Sonat. pp. 313–316. (In Rus- sian). Chatterjee, T., De Troch, M... Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter, 7, pp. 1–17. Dovgal, I.V. (1996) Keys for identification of tentaculous infusoria (Ciliophora,Suctoria) of the Ukrainian fauna. Vestnik Zoologii, Suppl., N2, 1–42. (In Russian). Dovgal, I.V. (2002) Evolution, phylogeny...

  7. Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Odontostomatida): An anaerobic ciliate hosting multiple cytoplasmic and macronuclear endocytobionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Paiva, Thiago; Küppers, Gabriela Cristina; Lahr, Daniel José Galafasse; Schweikert, Michael; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2017-01-19

    Odontostomatids are among the less studied representatives of the Ciliophora. They are anaerobic microeukaryotes usually occurring as rare species in sapropelic environments. Here we describe a novel species of Discomorphella, named Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov., using light and electron microscopy observations. Discomorphella pedroeneasi displays many complex morphological features, for which new terms are introduced, such as the auricules, epistomial fringe spacer, frontal awning, odontostomatid ciliary sockets, oral lips and ventral flap. Remarkably, D. pedroeneasi has at least six types of endocytobionts, including intramacronuclear ones, and organelles ultrastructurally similar to the M/H bodies of the odontostomatid Saprodinium dentatum. Based on the new data and revision of the literature, we propose two new diagnostic characters for species separation within Discomorphella: the fringe spacer ratio and the posterior fringe ratio. The taxonomy of Discomorphella is revised and an identification key is provided.

  8. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role.

  9. Phylogenetic position of Licnophora, Lechriopyla, and Schizocaryum, three unusual ciliates (phylum Ciliophora) endosymbiotic in echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Denis H; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela

    2002-01-01

    Various echinoderms are colonized by species from several classes of the Phylum Ciliophora, indicating that the echinoderm "habitat" has been invaded independently on numerous occasions throughout evolutionary history. Two "echinoderm" ciliates whose phylogenetic positions have been problematic are Licnophora macfarlandi Stevens, 1901 and Schizocaryum dogieli Poljansky and Golikova, 1957. Licnophora macfarlandi is an endosymbiont of the respiratory trees of holothuroids, and S. dogieli is found in the esophagus of echinoids. A third species, Lechriopyla mystax Lynch, 1930, is a plagiopylid ciliate found in the intestine of echinoids. Host echinoderms were collected near the Friday Harbor Laboratories, San Juan Island, WA. Specimens of S. dogieli and L. mystax were obtained from the esophagus and intestine, respectively, of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus. Specimens of L. macfarlandi were collected from the fluid obtained from the respiratory trees of Parastichopus californicus. Using small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) sequences of these three ciliates and a global alignment of SSrRNA sequences of other ciliates, we established the following. 1) Licnophora is a spirotrich ciliate, clearly related to the hypotrichs and stichotrichs; this is corroborated by its possession of macronuclear replication bands. 2) Lechriopyla is the sister genus to Plagiopyla and is a member of the Class Plagiopylea, which was predicted based on its cytology. 3) Schizocaryum clusters in the Class Oligohymenophorea and is most closely related to the scuticociliates; there are currently no morphological features known to relate Schizocaryum to the scuticociliates.

  10. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  11. Acute Toxicities of Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, and Lugol's Iodine Solution to a Marine Ciliate,Pleuronema coronatum ( Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yantao; SONG Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a commonly occurred ma-rine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the resultshighlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capabili-ty to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper,and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00 × 10-6 and 43.57 × 10 6, while those of Lugol's solutions were 90.13 and67.84 × 10 6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol' s iodine solutionand potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  12. On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution TEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatha, Sabine; Simon, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Tintinnids (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina) are occasionally the dominant ciliates in the marine plankton. The tintinnid loricae are minute artworks fascinating scientists for more than 230 years, but their chemical composition remained unclear, viz., chitinous or proteinaceous substances were discussed. Since sedimenting loricae contribute to the flux of elements and organic compounds in the oceans, knowledge about their nature is necessary in assessing their ecological role. Previous techniques and new methods, e.g. enzymatic digestion and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are applied in the present study. A chitinous nature of the loricae is rejected by the Van-Wisselingh test and failure of chitinase digestion. Only proteins might show a resistance against strong hot bases (KOH at 160°C for ~ 40 min. in tintinnid loricae) similar to that of chitin. Actually, the presence of nitrogen in the EDX analyses and the digestion of at least some loricae by proteinase K strongly indicate a proteinaceous nature. Furthermore, the crystal lattice revealed by high-resolution TEM in Eutintinnus loricae is similar to the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of archaea, and the striation recognizable in transverse sections of Eutintinnus loricae has a periodicity resembling that of the crystalline proteins in the extruded trichocysts of Paramecium and Frontonia. The proteolytic resistance of some loricae does not reject the idea of a proteinaceous nature, as proteins in S-layers of some archaea and in most naturally occurring prions show comparable reactions. The data from the present study and the literature indicate proteins in the loricae of thirteen genera. Differences in the proteolytic resistance and staining properties between genera and congeners are probably due to deviations in the protein composition and the additional substances, e.g. lipids, carbohydrates. At the present state of knowledge, correlations between lorica structure, wall texture

  13. An assessment of haplotype variation in ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA fragments suggests incomplete lineage sorting in some species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcz, Sebastian; Przyboś, Ewa; Surmacz, Marta

    2013-04-01

    The Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa) Sonneborn (1975) is composed of 15 sibling species, which are morphologically indistinguishable but sexually isolated. Therefore, the P. aurelia complex seems to be an ideal model for testing hypotheses about recent speciation events. Here we present two-locus (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-5'LSU rDNA and COI mtDNA) analyses using over 120 strains collected from around the world and representing all currently known species of the complex. According to our findings, the studied species show different levels of haplotype variability. Some of them appear on the obtained trees as polyphyletic (e.g., P. dodecaurelia), while others as monophyletic (e.g., P. quadecaurelia), clusters. The revealed discrepancies, which are manifested by different mating behavior and haplotypes not characteristic of particular species, may be explained by incomplete lineage sorting. Furthermore, the phenomena of hybridization and introgression are considered as another explanation for our results. Despite the above discrepancies, "polyphyletic taxa" should be considered true biological species based on the results of genetic crosses. Using a combination of both strain crosses (the biological species concept) and molecular methods (the phylogenetic species concept) seems to be the appropriate way of delimiting species in closely related eukaryotic microorganisms such as the P. aurelia complex.

  14. alpha-Tubulin of Histriculus cavicola (Ciliophora; Hypotrichea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, P; Villalobo, E; Díaz-Ramos, C; Calvo, P; Santos-Rosa, F; Torres, A

    1997-03-01

    An alpha-tubulin gene fragment amplified by PCR from the hypotrichous ciliate Histriculus cavicola has been sequenced. This fragment, 1,182 bp long, contains an in-frame "stop" codon (UAA), which in other hypotrichous species codes for a glutamine residue. The comparison of the alpha-tubulin genes from several ciliates classes have revealed amino acid positions which could serve to distinguish these taxonomic groups.

  15. Stomatogenesis in the ditransversal ciliate Homalozoon vermiculare (Ciliophora, Rhabdophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, D D; Oppelt, A; Hausmann, K; Foissner, W

    1992-05-22

    H. vermiculare possesses about 10 somatic kineties on the right lateral side, 3 somatic kineties on the left lateral side and a single circumoral kinety. The somatic kineties are composed of monokinetids exc\\~ept for the anterior ends of the brush kineties which are composed of dikinetids. The circumoral kinety consists of paired kinetosomes one of which is nonciliated and associated with a microtubular lamella and a nematodesma. Stomatogenesis commences when the anteriormost somatic kinetosomes in the opisthe are transformed into the nonciliated kinetosomes of the future oral dikinetid. They lose the somatic infraciliary fibers and the ciliary shaft and each gives rise to a nematodesma and a microtubular ribbon. Adjacent to each of the transformed somatic kinetosomes, a new kinetosome is assembled, thus producing an oral dikinetid anlage. The new anterior kinetosome bears a cilium and becomes the ciliferous kinetosome of the oral wreath of cilia. In protargol stained specimens, proliferation of kinetosomes can first be observed in the left lateral kineties but, eventually, each of the somatic kineties produces one kinetofragment. Thus, H. vermiculare has a holotelokinetal type of stomatogenesis. The cirumoral kinety arises from a counter-clockwise rotation (as viewed from outside the cell) of all 15 dikinetid kinetofragments and subsequent "head to tail" fusion of the fragments after cell division has been completed. The oral apparatus of the proter seems to be largely conserved during division. Some aspects of the evolution of the oral apparatus and the origin of the oral microtubular ribbons are discussed.

  16. Chemoattraction of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) theronts to host molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    1999-01-01

    to be present in fractions with host immunoglobulin and some still undetermined proteins. No clear association between enzyme activity and chemotactic potential was seen. The high chemoattractive effect of serum from various unrelated teleosts corresponds to the low host specificity of I. multifiliis...

  17. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of zoothamnium (ciliophora, peritrichia, sessilida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, John C; Williams, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The gene coding for 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in seven free-living, marine species of the sessiline peritrich genus Zoothamnium. These were Zoothamnium niveum, Zoothamnium alternans, Zoothamnium pelagicum, and four unidentified species. The ssu rRNA gene also was sequenced in Vorticella convallaria, Vorticella microstoma, and in an unidentified, freshwater species of Vorticella. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using these new sequences to test a previously published phylogenetic association between Zoothamnium arbuscula, currently in the family Zoothamniidae, and peritrichs in the family Vorticellidae. Trees constructed by means of neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods all had similar topologies. The seven new sequences of Zoothamnium species grouped into three well-supported clades, each of which contained a diversity of morphological types. The three clades formed a poorly supported, larger clade that was deeply divergent from Z. arbuscula, which remained more closely associated with vorticellid peritrichs. It is apparent that Zoothamnium is a richly diverse genus and that a much more intensive investigation, involving both morphological and molecular data and a wider selection of species, will be necessary to resolve its phylogeny. A greater amount of molecular diversity than is predicted by morphological data exists within all major clades of sessiline peritrichs that have been included in molecular phylogenies, indicating that characteristics of stalk and peristomial structure traditionally used to differentiate taxa at the generic level and above may not be uniformly reliable.

  18. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied.

  19. Taxonomic Redescription of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Se-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two pleurostomatid ciliates, Loxophyllum perihoplophorum Buddenbrock, 1920 and L. rostratum Cohn, 1866, were collected from the coastal waters of the East Sea, Korea. Their morphologies are described based on live observation and protargol staining, and morphometrics are provided. Loxophyllum perihoplophorum is characterized by the following features: 200-650 μm long in vivo; body slender leaf-shaped, flexible and contractile, with thin and wide extrusome-belted zone; 2 macronuclear nodules (Ma and 1 micronucleus (Mi; 7-9 contractile vacuoles (CV positioned along dorsal margin; extrusomes (Ex evenly distributed along edge of entire body, with about 10 dorsal warts (Wa; 9-11 left (LSK and 19-22 right somatic kineties (RSK, 4-5 furrows (Fu on left side. Loxophyllum rostratum is about 100-130 μm long in vivo; body oblate leaf-shaped, contractile, convex ventral side and S-shaped dorsal side, beak-like anterior end; 2 Ma and 1 Mi; 1 CV terminally located; Ex distributed along edge of entire body, with about 9-10 dorsal Wa; 7-8 LSK and 15-19 RSK, ca. 5 Fu on left body side. In addition, sequences of small subunit ribosomal DNA were determined from these two Loxophyllum species and compared with the known Loxophyllum sequences.

  20. New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-San Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC, 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC, 8-12 transverse cirri (TC, 1 buccal cirrus (BC, 9-12 midventral pairs (MP, 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK, and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC, 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.

  1. Phylogenetic study of Class Armophorea (Alveolata, Ciliophora) based on 18S-rDNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Paiva, Thiago; do Nascimento Borges, Bárbara; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2013-12-01

    The 18S rDNA phylogeny of Class Armophorea, a group of anaerobic ciliates, is proposed based on an analysis of 44 sequences (out of 195) retrieved from the NCBI/GenBank database. Emphasis was placed on the use of two nucleotide alignment criteria that involved variation in the gap-opening and gap-extension parameters and the use of rRNA secondary structure to orientate multiple-alignment. A sensitivity analysis of 76 data sets was run to assess the effect of variations in indel parameters on tree topologies. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses were used to explore how different analytic frameworks influenced the resulting hypotheses. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the relationships among higher taxa of the Intramacronucleata were dependent upon how indels were determined during multiple-alignment of nucleotides. The phylogenetic analyses rejected the monophyly of the Armophorea most of the time and consistently indicated that the Metopidae and Nyctotheridae were related to the Litostomatea. There was no consensus on the placement of the Caenomorphidae, which could be a sister group of the Metopidae + Nyctorheridae, or could have diverged at the base of the Spirotrichea branch or the Intramacronucleata tree.

  2. Phylogenetic study of Class Armophorea (Alveolata, Ciliophora based on 18S-rDNA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Paiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18S rDNA phylogeny of Class Armophorea, a group of anaerobic ciliates, is proposed based on an analysis of 44 sequences (out of 195 retrieved from the NCBI/GenBank database. Emphasis was placed on the use of two nucleotide alignment criteria that involved variation in the gap-opening and gap-extension parameters and the use of rRNA secondary structure to orientate multiple-alignment. A sensitivity analysis of 76 data sets was run to assess the effect of variations in indel parameters on tree topologies. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses were used to explore how different analytic frameworks influenced the resulting hypotheses. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the relationships among higher taxa of the Intramacronucleata were dependent upon how indels were determined during multiple-alignment of nucleotides. The phylogenetic analyses rejected the monophyly of the Armophorea most of the time and consistently indicated that the Metopidae and Nyctotheridae were related to the Litostomatea. There was no consensus on the placement of the Caenomorphidae, which could be a sister group of the Metopidae + Nyctorheridae, or could have diverged at the base of the Spirotrichea branch or the Intramacronucleata tree.

  3. Evolutionary relationship and species separation of four morphologically similar stichotrichous ciliates (Protozoa,Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenzhen Yi; John Clamp; Khaled A.S.A1-Rasheid; Abdulaziz A.Al-Khedhairy; Zigui Chen; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on ciliate protists using molecular approaches have been demonstrated to be very reliable to form strong conclusions and results.In the present work,species separation of some morphologically similar stichotrichous ciliates,two species of Pseudokeronopsis and two species of Apokeronopsis,was reexamined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (PCRRFLP).Five of 10 restriction enzymes revealed species-specific polymorphic patterns,of which four similar stichotrichs could be significantly separated and identified.Among them,EcoR I offered almost no significantly different restriction fragment patterns,but the four species could be separated from one another and identified with Hae III.Distinctly different restriction digestion haplotypes and similarity indices separated the species,and were used to construct a phylogeny.Phylogenies based on ITS2 nucleotide sequences and ITS2 secondary structures supported the separation of Pseudokeronopsis and Apokeronopsis using RFLP analysis,although three Pseudokeronopsis carnea populations did not cluster together.In addition,phylogenetic analyses using multiple algorithms confirmed that these two genera formed two distinct groups within the urostylids.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular characterization of Euplotidium rosati n. sp. (Ciliophora, Euplotida) from Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeo, Letizia; Petroni, Giulio; Lobban, Christopher S; Verni, Franco; Vannini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We combined morphological (i.e. live, stained, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy) with morphometric and molecular analysis to describe a ciliate species collected from shallow reefs in Guam, grown, and maintained in our laboratory. The species was recognized as a member of Euplotidium, and compared with established species of the genus: Euplotidium itoi Ito 1958; Euplotidium psammophilus (Vacelet 1961) Borror 1972; Euplotidium arenarium Magagnini and Nobili 1964; Euplotidium helgae Hartwig 1980; Euplotidium prosaltans Tuffrau 1985, and Euplotidium smalli Lei, Choi and Xu, 2002. To obtain more elements to compare the species, new morphometric data and additional SSU rRNA gene sequences of E. itoi and of E. arenarium are reported. On the basis of this comparison, we established the new species Euplotidium rosati that has a cirral pattern composed of 12 frontoventral and six transverse cirri, and lacks the left marginal cirrus. Euplotidium rosati harbors on its dorsal surface epixenosomes, the peculiar extrusive symbionts described in other Euplotidium species. The whole body of our observations together with the analysis of the data available in the literature leads us to propose a redefinition of the genus. The results may also be useful to clarify the tangled relationship between Euplotidium and Gastrocirrhus.

  5. A cover of glass: first report of biomineralized silicon in a ciliate, Maryna umbrellata (Ciliophora: Colpodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Weissenbacher, Birgit; Krautgartner, Wolf-Dietrich; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Using hydrofluoric acid, scanning electron microscope-assisted X-ray microanalysis, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, we present the first definite proof of biomineralized silicon [(SiO(2))](n) in a ciliophoran protist, Maryna umbrellata, a common inhabitant of ephemeral pools. In the trophic specimen, the amorphic silicon (glass) granules are accumulated in the anterior half of the body. When entering the dormant stage, most glass granules are excreted to form the surface cover of the globular resting cyst. Most likely, the silicon granules are synthesized in vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. First, nanospheres with a size of 20-40 nm are formed in a fibrous matrix; they grow to be spongious complexes, eventually becoming amorphous glass granules with an average size of 819 nm x 630 nm. In the transmission electron microscope, the silicon granules show the characteristic fracture pattern of glass known from many other silicon-bearing organisms. A literature survey suggests that silicon is very rare in ciliates. The fine structure and genesis of silicon granules in M. umbrellata are very similar to those of other organisms, including vascular plants and animals, indicating a common mechanism. Light perception and protection against mechanical stress and predators might be functions of the silicon granules in M. umbrellata. The palaeontological significance of glass cysts in ciliates is also discussed.

  6. On the marine ciliate, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, ciliophora, scuticociliatida) with comparison of its related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Ma, Hong-Wei; Song, Wei-Bo

    2002-09-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 (1 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the right of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  7. Identification of differentially expressed genes in parasitic phase Miamiensis avidus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia) using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Ki Hong

    2011-04-06

    Miamiensis avidus, a causative agent of scuticociliatosis in cultured marine fish, can live not only in seawater as a free-living organism but also in fish as a parasite. In this study, a cDNA library of representative mRNAs more specific to parasitic phase M. avidus was generated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), and 520 clones selected from the SSH library were single-run sequenced. The differential gene expression patterns were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Of the 510 SSH clones, 21 clones of 6 putative genes did not match sequences in the public database. The expectation values (E-values) of 117 clones encoding 9 putative genes were greater than 1 x 10(-5). The other 372 clones that met the criterion of E value <1 x 10-5 were matched to 26 known sequences in the database. Genes associated with signal transduction, cell proliferation, membrane transportation, protein translocation, and transcription regulation were preferentially expressed in parasitic phase M. avidus. The differential gene expression may be needed for the ciliates to survive in the host fish, and the corresponding proteins might be used as antigen candidates for development of scuticociliatosis vaccines.

  8. Genetic differentiation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit I gene in genus Paramecium (Protista, Ciliophora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene is being used increasingly for evaluating inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of ciliated protists. However, very few studies focus on assessing genetic divergence of the COI gene within individuals and how its presence might affect species identification and population structure analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the genetic variation of the COI gene in five Paramecium species for a total of 147 clones derived from 21 individuals and 7 populations. We identified a total of 90 haplotypes with several individuals carrying more than one haplotype. Parsimony network and phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that intra-individual diversity had no effect in species identification and only a minor effect on population structure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the COI gene is a suitable marker for resolving inter- and intra-specific relationships of Paramecium spp.

  9. First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This study characterises morphologically Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with Giemsa. Ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of T. heterodentata. Prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host. Trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. In relation to previous reports of T. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. This work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of T. heterodentata. A list of hosts and comparative measurements of T. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.

  10. First isolation of Pseudocohnilembus persalinus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) from freshwater-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon R M; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; LaPatra, Scott E

    2010-10-01

    Ciliated protists were isolated from the ovarian fluid of apparently healthy adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) maintained in freshwater. The organism was identified as Pseudocohnilembus persalinus based on morphometric and morphological analysis of silver-stained specimens obtained from culture and on analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequence of this organism also was characterized. This ciliate has been reported previously as free living only in saline environments and as an endosymbiont in a marine teleost, the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A cyst-like stage may have facilitated the novel occurrence of this organism as an endosymbiont in rainbow trout.

  11. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Gao, Shan; Min, Gi-Sik; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  12. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa,Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32x-9.51 (R2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was fotnd to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86x+0.89 (R2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2862.85e-0.0ax (R2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y = 127.15e-0.13x (R2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  13. Hyaline Tintinnina (Protozoa-Ciliophora-Oligotrichida from northeast Brazilian coastal reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sassi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of hyaline Tintinnina were obtained from plankton samples collected near the coastal reefs of Ponta do Seixas (Lat. 7º09'16"S, Long. 34º4735"W, Northeastern Brazil, from April 1981 to May 1982 and from April 1983 to May 1984: Amphorellopsis acuta (Schmidt, 1901, Dadayiella ganymedes (Entz Sr., 1884, Epiplocyloides reticulata (Ostenfeld & Schmidt, 1901, Eutintinnus tubulosus (Ostenfeld, 1899, Favella ehrenbergi (Claparède & Lachmann, 1858, Metacylis mereschkowskyi Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 and M. perspicax (Hada, 1938. The most frequent and abundant species were M. mereschkowskyi and F. ehrenbergi. Except/.ganymedes, E. reticulata and F. ehrenbergi all species are new records from Brazil. Metacylis perspicax is also the seventh world register. For all species we provide description, drawings, measurements, seasonal occurrence, world distribution and some systematic comments.

  14. Molecular phylogenetic lineage of Plagiopogon and Askenasia (Protozoa, Ciliophora) revealed by their gene sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Yi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2015-08-01

    Prostomates and haptorians are two basal groups of ciliates with limited morphological characteristics available for taxonomy. Morphologically, the structures used to identify prostomates and haptorians are similar or even identical, which generate heavy taxonomic and phylogenetic confusion. In present work, phylogenetic positions lineage of two rare genera, Plagiopogon and Askenasia, were investigated. Three genes including small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (hereafter SSU rDNA), internal transcribed spacer region (ITS region), and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) were analyzed, 10 new sequences five species each. Our findings included 1) class Prostomatea and order Haptorida are multiphyletic; 2) it may not be appropriate to place order Cyclotrichiida in subclass Haptoria, and the systematic lineage of order Cyclotrichiida needs to be verified further; 3) genus Plagiopogon branches consistently within a clade covering most prostomes and is basal of clade Colepidae, implying its close lineage to Prostomatea; and 4) Askenasia is phylogenetically distant from the subclass Haptoria but close to classes Prostomatea, Plagiopylea and Oligohymenophorea. We supposed that the toxicyst of Askenasia may be close to taxa of prostomes instead of haptorians, and the dorsal brush is a more typical morphological characteristics of haptorians than toxicysts.

  15. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system o f the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964 , collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by obser vation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton -Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13-14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1-2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the rig ht of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometri cally tabulated.

  16. Separation and relationship of ten marine scuticociliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using RAPD fingerprinting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Huimin; SONG Weibo

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the random amplified polymorphic DNA-fingerprinting (RAPD) method, 10 morphospecies of scuticociliates from 7genera, including 15 clones of 13 strains, Uronema rnarinum, Uronema cf marinum, Parauronerna virginianum, P. longurn, Metanophrys similis, M. sinensis, Paralembus digitiformis, Mesanophrys carcini, Paranophrys magna and Cohnilembus verminus were analysed using 8 oligonucleotide primers. The genetic similarity among the clones of the same strain measured by a band-sharing index is 0.97~0.98,while 0.40~0.52 among strains. This value measured is 0.39~0.46 among congeners of the same genus, whereas 0.16~0.47 between different genera. A distance tree was constructed based on 8-primer analysis, in which the scuticociliates investigated were separated into two clusters: one consists of 2 genera, Uronema and Parauronema, and the other was composed of five, Metanophrys, Mesanophrys,Paranophrys, Paralembus and Cohnilembus. It is demonstrated also that the morphospecies Parauronema virginianum may be a species-complex, i. e., it contains different genospecies.

  17. Phylogeny of subclass Scuticociliatia (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using combined data inferred from genetic, morphological, and morphogenetic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yangang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2010-07-01

    Gene sequence-based genealogies of scuticociliates are different from those produced by morphological analyses. For this reason, 11 representative scuticociliates and two ambiguously related genera were chosen to test the ability of combined phylogenetic analyses using both gene sequences and morphological/morphogenetic characteristics. Analyses of both the SSrRNA gene sequences and the combined datasets revealed a consistent branching pattern. While the terminal branches and the order level relationships were generally well resolved, the family level relationships remain unresolved. However, two other trees based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences and morphological/morphogenetic characters showed limited information, due to a lack of informative sites in these two datasets. Our data suggest, however, that the combined analysis of morphological/morphogenetic characters and gene sequences did produce some changes to the phylogenetic estimates of this group.

  18. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of Opisthonecta and related genera (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Clamp, John C

    2007-01-01

    The gene encoding 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in the sessiline peritrichs Opisthonecta minima and Opisthonecta matiensis, whose free-swimming, paedomorphic trophonts resemble telotrochs. Using these new sequences, phylogenetic trees were constructed with four different methods to test a previously published association between Opisthonecta henneguyi and members of the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae. All trees had similar topologies, with O. minima, O. henneguyi, Vorticella microstoma, and Astylozoon enriquesi forming a well-supported, certainly monophyletic clade. On the basis of genetic evidence, genera of the families Opisthonectidae and Astylozoidae are assigned to the family Vorticellidae, which already includes some species with free-swimming morphotypes. The ssu rRNA sequence of O. matiensis places it in the family Epistylididae; its taxonomic revision will be left to another group of authors. A close association of Ophrydium versatile with members of the family Vorticellidae was confirmed, casting doubt on the validity of the family Ophrydiidae. Epistylis galea, Campanella umbellaria, and Opercularia microdiscum are confirmed as comprising an extremely distinct, monophyletic, but morphologically heterogeneous clade that is basal to other clades of sessiline peritrichs.

  19. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia estimated from laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRP. Utz

    Full Text Available Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host, and proliferation (zooids/colony rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  20. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae. The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889 (Tokophrydae. Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que P. lineata constitui o microambiente de uma comunidade de protozoários ciliados que exibem interações tróficas complexas.

  1. A new flagship peritrich (Ciliophora, Peritrichida) from the River Rhine, Germany: Apocarchesium arndti n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norf, Helge; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    We discovered a free-living peritrich ciliate with outstanding features in the River Rhine. Its morphology and 18S rRNA gene sequence were studied with standard methods. Apocarchesium arndti n. sp. has several peculiarities. (i) There are ordinary zooids, macrozooids, and microzooids, which form a hemispherical rosette on a discoidal base, the stalk dish, locking the approximately 18 microm wide and up to 2 mm long, spirally contracting colony stalk. (ii) The stalk myoneme is connected only to the microzooids. (iii) A rosette contains up to 50 zooids not connected to each other but individually attached to the stalk dish with the scopula. (iv) The ordinary zooids are epistylidid, trumpet-shaped (approximately 6:1 length:width), about 180 x 30 microm in size, and have an ellipsoidal macronucleus subapically between oral cavity and dorsal side. (v) The myoneme system of the zooids, which can contract individually, forms a tube-like structure in the narrow posterior half of the cell. (vi) The silverline pattern belongs to the transverse-striate type. (vii) The oral apparatus is of usual structure, with kinety 1 of peniculus 3 distinctly shortened proximally. (viii) The 18S rRNA places A. arndti n. sp. as a distinct lineage near Vorticella and Carchesium. These data are used to provide an improved diagnosis of the genus Apocarchesium. Features (i)-(iii) and the molecular data indicate that Apocarchesium could be the type genus of a new peritrich family.

  2. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) estimated from laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, L R P

    2008-05-01

    Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host), and proliferation (zooids/colony) rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  3. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora) on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias; Sthefane D'ávila; Marta D'Agosto

    2006-01-01

    This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two ...

  4. Divisional morphogenesis in the marine ciliate Anteholosticha manca(Kahl,1932) Berger,2003(Ciliophora: Urostylida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liqiong; HU Xiaozhong; WARREN Alan; AL-RASHEID Khaled A S; AL - FARRAJ Saleh A; SHAO Chen; SONG Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The cortical development and macronuclear evolution of the marine hypotrichous ciliate Anteholosticha manca,collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao,China,were investigated using the protargol impregnation method.The morphogenesis of A.manca is generally typical for the genus,and can be characterized as the following features:(1) in the proter,a new oral primordium is formed on the bottom (beneath the pellicle) of the buccal cavity,disorganization of the parental undulating membranes do not contribute to the formation of this primordium; (2) FVT-cirral anlagen in both dividers develop independently,and very likely on-ly a few midventral cirri join in the formation of these primordia; (3) both marginal row and dorsal kinety anlagen develop intraki-netally within the parental structure; (4) at the middle stage,macronuclear segments fuse together to form a single mass as ob-served in most of its related forms.

  5. Morphological Studies on the Infraciliature of a Planktonic Ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis (Ciliophora: Tintinina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A poorly-described marine planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, collected from the Taiping Cape of Qingdao, China, was morphologically investigated based on permanent preparation after protargol impregnation and was compared with other related congeners. According to the infraciliature, three ciliary groups can be recognized, which reveals a very stable structure among specimens and denotes that the pattern of infraciliature is, apart from the features of the lorica, a highly reliable criterion for species identification.

  6. New records of epibiont Ciliates (Ciliophora) from Indian coast with descriptions of six new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Ramteke, D.; Ingole, B

    Six epibiont ciliates Cothurnia palkensis, C. nova, C. disper, C. dovgali, C. mannaerensis and C. clampi are described as new for science from the Indian coast. Acineta truncata Collin, 1909 and A. tuberosa Ehrenberg, 1834 are reported here...

  7. Studies on the cortical morphogenesis during cell division in Halteria grandinella (Muller, 1773) (Ciliophora, Oligotrichida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weibo

    1993-06-01

    Morphogenesis during cell division was investigated in oligotrichous ciliate, Halteria grandinella utilizing protargol impregnated specimens. The cortical morphogenetical pattern of Halteria grandinella is generally similar to that given by Fauré-Fremiet. The proter inherits the parental adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) apparently unchanged; in the opisthe the oral primordium develops de novo from a single. AZM-anlage; somatic cirri for both the proter and opisthe are separately differentiated from 10 (seldom 9) cirral primordia that originate de novo from 10 latitudinal developmental analagen. The anlage of paroral membrane of opisthe forms just to the right of the posterior end of the oral primordium. Each streak of cirral primordia develops 4 groups of basal body pairs: both of the anterior two consist of only one pair of basal bodies, on the contrary, each of the last two groups has 2 basal body pairs.

  8. Trichodina colisae (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae: new parasite records for two freshwater fish species farmed in Brazil Trichodina colisae (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae: novo registro de parasito para duas espécies de peixes de água doce cultivadas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tomas Jerônimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Family Trichodinidae comprises ciliate protozoa distributed worldwide; they are considered some of the main parasitological agents infecting cultivated fish. However, the trichodinidae parasitizing important fish species cultured in Brazil are unknown, and more taxonomic studies on this group of parasites are required. This research morphologically characterizes Trichodina colisae Asmat & Sultana, (2005 of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus and patinga hybrid (P. mesopotamicus × P. brachypomus cultivated in the central and southeast regions of the country. Fresh assemblies were made from mucus scraped from the skin, fins and gills, fixed with methanol and, subsequently, impregnated with silver nitrate and stained with Giemsa for assessment under light microscopy. This research reports not only the second occurrence of T. colisae in the world, but also its first occurrence in South America.Tricodinídeos são protozoários ciliados móveis com ampla distribuição mundial; são considerados um dos agentes parasitários que mais acometem peixes cultivados. No Brasil, a maioria dos tricodinídeos que parasitam importantes espécies de peixes cultivados são desconhecidos, o que requer mais estudos taxonômicos com esse grupo de parasitos. Este estudo caracteriza morfologicamente Trichodina colisae Asmat & Sultana, 2005 de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus e do híbrido patinga (P. mesopotamicus × P. brachypomus cultivados, respectivamente, no Centro-Oeste e Sudeste do Brasil. Foram feitas montagens a fresco do raspado de muco da pele, nadadeiras e brânquias, fixados com metanol e, posteriormente, impregnados com nitrato de prata e coradas com Giemsa para avaliação em microscopia óptica. O presente estudo relata não só a segunda ocorrência de T. colisae no mundo, mas também a primeira ocorrência na América do Sul.

  9. INFECÇÃO COM TROFOZOÍTOS DE Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (CILIOPHORA EM Poecilia vivipara (POECILIIDAE COMO HOSPEDEIRO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH TROPHOZOITES OF Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (CILIOPHORA IN Poecilia vivipara (POECILIIDAE AS AN EXPERIMENTAL HOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Camaras Berestinas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou o grau de parasitismo em Poecilia vivipara infectado experimentalmente com trofozoítos de Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Em frascos de 400 mL de água com aeração constante foram acondicionados quatro peixes, com duas réplicas e adicionadas as quantidades de 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 20 trofozoítos/peixe. Os valores médios da temperatura da água, pH e oxigênio dissolvido foram de 19,5±0,39ºC, 6,35±0,09 e 7,02±0,45mg/L, respectivamente. Antes de se proceder à infecção, os animais foram tratados com solução de formalina 1:4000 durante uma hora por dois dias consecutivos. Obtiveram-se os parasitos de cinco alevinos de Salminus brasiliensis infectados, mantidos em placas de Petri com água por trinta minutos. Coletaram-se os trofozoítos com pipeta Pasteur e adicionou-se o número respectivo em cada tratamento. Para evitar que os parasitos ficassem aderidos às placas, cada uma foi mantida no respectivo frasco durante o período. Após sete dias, os peixes foram sacrificados e examinados, exceto os expostos a 20 trofozoítos/peixe, os quais morreram em dois dias. O valor médio do tratamento com 20 trofozoítos/peixe foi significativamente maior (P<0,05 do que os tratamentos 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16. Indica-se o inóculo entre 1 e 16 trofozoítos/ peixe como viável para o estudo de infecção experimental na espécie estudada, pelo fato de os peixes permanecerem parasitados durante todo o período experimental. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, infecção experimental, Poecilia vivipara This experiment studied the parasitic degree in Poecilia vivipara experimentally infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis trophozoites. In flasks with 400 mL of water, four fish were maintained with constant aeration in two replicates and added 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 trophozoites/fish. Mean values of water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were 19.5±0.39ºC, 6.35±0.09 and 7.02±0.45mg/L, respectively. Before experimental infection the fish were treated with formalin solution 1:4000 for 1 hour in two consecutive days. The parasites were obtained from five infected Salminus brasiliensis that were maintained into Petri dishes with water for 30 minutes. Trophozoites were collected with pipette and the respective number of inoculums added. To avoid the parasite adherence, the plates were maintained into the respective flask. After seven days all fish were killed for exam, except for treatment 20 trophozoites/fish in which mortality occurred in two days. The mean value of treatment with 20 trophozoites/fish was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16. It is suggested that 1 to 16 trophozoites/fish is practicable to the study of experimental infection, by the fact that these fish were maintained parasitized during whole period. KEY WORDS: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, experimental infection, Poecilia vivipara.

  10. Predação e canibalismo entre protozoários ciliados (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae no rúmen de ovinos (Ovis aries Predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar ocorrências de predação e canibalismo em protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos. Foram analisadas amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cinco ovinos mestiços Santa Inês, fistulados no rúmen, mantidos em pastagem natural de caatinga, no município de Sertânia, Pernambuco. Foram obtidas seis amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cada ovino, totalizando 30 amostras, as quais foram fixadas em formalina 18,5% (v/v. De cada amostra foi retirada uma alíquota de 1 ml de conteúdo ruminal ao qual se adicionaram três gotas de solução de lugol para a coloração e identificação dos protozoários ciliados. Estas alíquotas foram analisadas utilizando-se lâminas e lamínulas, em campos determinados randomicamente. Constatou-se a ocorrência de interações do tipo predador-presa entre ciliados de Ophryoscolecidae Stein, 1859, onde Elytroplastron bubali (Dogiel, 1928 apresentou comportamento predatório sobre Enoploplastron triloricatum (Dogiel, 1925 e sobre outras espécies de Epidinium Crawley, 1923 e de Entodinium Stein, 1859. Foram ainda observados casos de canibalismo entre espécimes de E. bubali, o que consiste no primeiro registro deste tipo de interação nesta espécie. Registra-se, ainda, pela primeira vez a ocorrência de E. bubali no rúmen de ovinos no Brasil.The objective of the present study was to record the occurrence of predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans in the rumen of sheep. The analyzed samples consisted of ruminal contents of five fistulated Santa Inez crossbred sheep, maintained in a natural caatinga (scrubland pasture in the municipality of Sertânia, Pernambuco. Six samples of ruminal content were obtained from each sheep (total of 30 samples and fixed in formalin at 18.5% (v/v. One 1 ml aliquot was obtained from each sample of ruminal content and received tree drops of a lugol solution for staining and identification of protozoa ciliates. These aliquots were analyzed in slides and coverslips, at randomly determined fields. An instance of predator-prey interaction was observed among ciliates of Ophryoscolecidae Stein, 1859, where Elytroplastron bubali (Dogiel, 1928 preyed on Enoploplastron triloricatum (Dogiel, 1925 and on species of Epidinium Crawley, 1923 and Entodinium Stein, 1859. Cases of cannibalism were observed among specimens of E. bubali, which consist of the first record this type of interaction in this species. This is, moreover, the first record of occurrence of E. bubali in the rumen of sheep in Brazil.

  11. Feeding behavior of Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hymenostomatida under different environmental conditions in a lotic system Comportamento alimentar de Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hymenostomatida sob diferentes condições ambientais em um sistema lótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Júnio P. Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to record and describe the morphological changes and the ingestion mechanisms of Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg, 1833 according to the food type and to relate the food ingested with the different environmental conditions in a lotic system, namely São Pedro stream, located in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We sampled three points on a monthly basis from August 2002 to June 2003, each of which receiving different levels of untreated sewage. We prepared culture media for the ciliate specimens containing filtered water from each point and the types of food observed inside F. leucas (cyanobacteria, diatoms, desmids and testate amoebas. We observed the ingestion mechanisms of F. leucas in vivo, under a phase contrast optical microscope, using instantaneous sampling and sequence sampling as behavior observation methods, noting the following parameters: dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, conductivity and water temperature. We noted the F. leucas ciliates ingesting diatoms and desmids at collection point 1 and filamentous cyanobacteria, testate amoebas (Arcella and Centropyxis and rotifers at points 2 and 3. The present work records for the first time the ingestion of testate amoebas of the genus Centropyxis by F. leucas. We noted five ingestion mechanisms by F. leucas while feeding on cyanobacteria and testate amoebas of the genus Centropyxis, three of these related to the ciliary action and two involving physical changes in the cytoplasm. For ingestion of diatoms, desmid (Closterium and Arcella, the mechanisms involving ciliary action alone were sufficient for ingestion, since these preys are smaller than the ciliate under study. The autecological data registered for F. leucas were 1.98-8.01 mg l-1 O2, pH 6.9-8.73, 58-390 µS/cm and 19.5-26.2ºC, confirming its ample ecological valence.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi registrar e descrever as alterações morfológicas e os mecanismos de ingestão em Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg, 1833, conforme o tipo de alimento, e relacionar o alimento ingerido às diferentes condições ambientais de um sistema lótico, o córrego São Pedro, localizado no Município de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram amostrados mensalmente, de agosto de 2002 a junho de 2003, três pontos que recebem diferentes níveis de lançamento de esgoto doméstico in natura. Foram preparados meios de cultura dos espécimes do ciliado em estudo, contendo água filtrada de cada ponto e os tipos de alimento observados no interior de F. leucas (cianobactérias, diatomáceas, desmídeas e tecamebas. Os mecanismos de ingestão de F. leucas foram observados in vivo, sob microscópio óptico de contraste de fase, utilizando-se como métodos de observação do comportamento a amostragem instantânea e a amostragem de seqüência. Registraram-se os seguintes parâmetros: teor de oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade elétrica e temperatura da água. Os ciliados da espécie F. leucas foram observados ingerindo diatomáceas e desmídeas no ponto 1 de coleta e cianobactérias oscilatórias, tecamebas (Arcella e Centropyxis e rotíferos nos pontos 2 e 3. O presente trabalho registra pela primeira vez a ingestão de tecamebas do gênero Centropyxis por F. leucas. Foram observados cinco mecanismos de ingestão realizados por F. leucas ao se alimentarem de cianobactérias e de tecamebas do gênero Centropyxis, sendo três relacionados com a ação ciliar e dois envolvendo mudanças físicas no citoplasma. Para a ingestão de diatomáceas, desmídeas e tecamebas do gênero Arcella somente os mecanismos que envolvem a ação ciliar foram suficientes para a ingestão, uma vez que estes alimentos são menores que o ciliado em estudo. Os dados de auto-ecologia registrados para F. leucas foram 1,98-8,01 mg l-1 O2, pH 6,9-8,73, 58-390 µS/cm e 19,5-26,2ºC, confirmando sua ampla valência ecológica.

  12. Molecular analysis (RAPD-PCR) of inter-strain hybrids of the Paramecium aurelia species complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Prajer, Małgorzata; Greczek-Stachura, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    RAPD-PCR analysis showed that species of the Paramecium aurelia complex possessed characteristic band patterns and that the majority were also polymorphic intra-specifically. A comparison of band patterns was performed for some inter-strain hybrids within P. primaurelia, P. tetraurelia, P. pentaurelia, P. septaurelia, P. octaurelia, P. decaurelia, P. dodecaurelia, P. tredecaurelia, and P. quadecaurelia to band patterns characteristic for the parental strains. The investigations, however, did not reveal a close correlation between the degree of inbreeding characteristic for the species and similarity of genotypes. A low similarity of hybrid and parental band patterns was observed in P. octaurelia, P. dodecaurelia, P. quadecaurelia and also P. primaurelia. A high similarity of band patterns of hybrid and parental strains was found in P. tetraurelia, P. septaurelia, P. decaurelia, and P. tredecaurelia.

  13. New, world-wide data on the distribution of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Surmacz, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This is the first report on the presence of P. biaurelia in Tasmania, an island that has probably never been investigated before for the occurrence of the P. aurelia species. P. tetraurelia was recorded in Brazil, another very poorly investigated country in terms of this species complex. New stands of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia were also recorded in Japan. We present data concerning the occurrence and distribution of the P. aurelia species on different continents as a background for the newly described stands of P. aurelia spp.

  14. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa) in the Mediterranean region (Italy, Greece, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Rautian, Maria

    2012-01-01

    New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex are presented in the paper, P. primaurelia recorded in Italy (Pisa) and in Morocco (Marrakesh), P. biaurelia in Italy (Calabria), P. triaurelia in Morocco (Ifrane), P. pentaurelia in Greece (Kastorya), and P. dodecaurelia in Italy (Padua).

  15. New Paramecium quadecaurelia strains (P. aurelia spp. complex, Ciliophora) identified by molecular markers (rDNA and mtDNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Dusi, Eike

    2013-08-01

    Paramecium quadecaurelia is a rare species (previously known only from two locations) belonging to the P. aurelia species complex. In the present paper, fragments of an rDNA gene (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-5' rDNA) and mtDNA genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b regions) were employed to assist in the identification and characterization of three new strains collected from Ecuador and Thailand. Molecular data were confirmed by mating reactions. In rDNA and mtDNA trees constructed for species of the P. aurelia complex, all P. quadecaurelia strains, including the three new strains discussed in this study and two known previously from Australia and Africa, form a monophyletic but differentiated clade. The present study shows that genetic differentiation among the strains of P. quadecaurelia is equal to or even greater than the distances between some other P. aurelia species, e.g., P. primaurelia and P. pentaurelia. Such great intra-specific differentiation may indicate a future splitting of the P. quadecaurelia species into reproductively isolated lines.

  16. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa) in Europe and South America (Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybós, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of species of the P. aurelia complex has been studied at a large scale in Europe and the majority of known species of the complex have been found there. However, a different number of habitats were studied in particular zones of Europe, the greatest number in the central zone. Herein new stands of several species of the Paramecium aurelia complex are presented from Europe including P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, P. octaurelia, P. novaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia. In South America, studies concerning the distribution of the P. aurelia species complex were carried out only occasionally and the presence of some cosmopolitan species of the complex has been recorded, i.e. P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. tetraurelia. Recently, new stands of P. primaurelia and P. septaurelia were found in Ecuador. Ciliate biogeography and distribution is also discussed.

  17. Taxonomic Studies on a New Marine Ciliate, Apocoleps magnus gen. nov., spec. nov. (Ciliophora, Colepidae),Isolated from Qingdao, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiangrui; Alan Warren; SONG Weibo

    2009-01-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of a new marine colepid ciliate, Apocoleps magnus gen. nov., spee. nov., are described based on living observations and silver impregnations. The new genus Apocoleps is characterized by having 8 (vs. 6 in most other related genera) armour tiers, spines at both ends of the cell, 3 adoral organelles and plates with 4 reniform uni-windows. Apocoleps magnus spec. nov. is defined by the following features: body elongated and slightly curved, about 100-120μm×35-45 μm in vivo; anterior tertiary tier plate with four uni-windows, most secondary and main tier plates with four uni-windows, posterior tertiary tier plate with two uni-windows; left plate margin slightly serrated; on average 23 transverse and 22 longitudinal ciliary rows; one terminal contractile vacuole; marine habitat.

  18. Morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequence of Blepharisma sinuosum Sawaya, 1940 (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Noemi Mendes; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Senra, Marcus Vinicius Xavier; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; da Silva Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2013-11-01

    The morphology and morphometric data of seven populations of Blepharisma sinuosum from southeastern Brazil were investigated. The description is based on live observations, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy. Blepharisma sinuosum measures 75-255μm in length and 25-93μm in width and has a spindle-shaped body, pink color, a single contractile vacuole located at the posterior end, 50 adoral membranelles, a conspicuous paroral, 17-35 somatic kineties, a moniliform macronucleus with 2-7 connected nodules, and 3-20 micronuclei. Morphological comparisons with similar species were performed and suggest that B. americanum is the junior synonym of B. sinuosum. The 18S rDNA gene sequence of B. sinuosum was obtained and compared with that of other Blepharisma species. The length and GC content of the obtained sequence is 1652bp and 47.03%, respectively, and has a very high structural similarity (99.9%) with the B. undulans sequence. The validity of the classification of Blepharisma species in morphonuclear subgenera is also discussed.

  19. Reconciling classical and molecular phylogenies in the stichotrichines (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), including new sequences from some rare species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foissner, W.; Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Staay, G.W.M. van der; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Krautgartner, W.D.; Berger, H.

    2004-01-01

    We performed a comparative morphological and molecular study on oxytrichid and urostylid stichotrichs (= part of the former hypotrichs). Included are new small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from five rare oxytrichids (Gonostomum namibiense, Cyrtohymena citrina, Hemiurosoma terric

  20. Estimation of divergence times in litostomatean ciliates (Ciliophora: Intramacronucleata), using Bayesian relaxed clock and 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes.

  1. Morphology and morphogenesis of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Hartmannula sinica nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chen; Song, Weibo; Gong, Jun

    2008-02-01

    The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Hartmannula sinica nov. spec., collected from Qingdao, north China, have been investigated. The new species is characterized by: size in vivo 90-130 x 40-50 microm, body long elliptical in outline, cilium-free field covered with a conspicuous alveolar layer; 24-31 ventral kineties, the rightmost 6-9 of which extend apically; 20-24 nematodesmal rods; about 15 sparsely distributed contractile vacuoles; a yellowish pigment spot is always present near the anterior tip of the cell. Morphogenetic events exhibit a pattern, which is homologous with that of related cyrtophorids. The main features are as follows: (1) preoral and circumoral kineties of opisthe develop from the oral primordium that forms in mid-body from sections of 3 postoral kineties, while parental preoral and circumoral kineties are retained; (2) parental cytostome and nematodesmal rods are resorbed in middle divisional stages and then replaced by newly formed structures; (3) the heteromerous macronucleus unifies in the late divisional stage.

  2. Morphology, ontogeny and molecular phylogeny of a novel saline soil ciliate, Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Lyu, Zhao; Warren, Alan; Wang, Feng; Shao, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new ciliate, Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp., collected from saline soil in Weinan, China, were studied in vivo and after protargol staining. Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp. is characterized as follows: body elongate-elliptical with no tail, flexible and slightly contractile; cortical granules dark-brown, 0.5μm across, arranged in short irregular rows; about 33 adoral membranelles; 14 frontoventral-transverse cirri; right and left marginal rows not confluent posteriorly; two macronuclear nodules. Morphogenesis of U. paragiliformis n. sp. corresponds well with that of other Urosomoida-species except that in reorganisers the oral primordium develops membranelles that replace those at the proximal end of the old adoral zone, whereas in dividers the entire parental adoral zone of membranelles is inherited by the proter. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequence data suggest a close relationship between U. paragiliformis n. sp. and Paraurosomoida indiensis. A new combination is made: Oxytrichella subtropica (Fan et al., 2015) comb. nov. (basionym Urosomoida subtropica).

  3. The influence of environmental characteristics on the distribution of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora in an urban stream of southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJP. Dias

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the ciliated protozoa community at three sampling stations that receive different levels of domestic sewage along the São Pedro Stream in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to determine the influence of organic pollution on this community and to assess the feasibility of using ciliates as water quality indicators. Four physical-chemical parameters of the water samples were evaluated: dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, pH and temperature. The sediment was obtained manually, using dredges with capacity of 300 mL, at each collection point. Point 1 was located in a rural region that receives a low sewage load, while Points 2 and 3 were located in populated regions receiving high sewage loads. We found 22 ciliate species, of which 18 are included in the saprobic system and are considered bioindicators. These showed beta-mesosaprobic environments at Point 1 and alfa-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic environments at Points 2 and 3. The low levels of dissolved oxygen and the high electrical conductivity values at Points 2 and 3, together with the strong similarity between the ciliate taxocenoses of these points and the weak similarity between Point 1 and the other two, confirm the high sewage loads received at the latter two points. The combination of the biological indicators and physical-chemical analyses therefore proved itself to be an efficient method of evaluating water quality, and has excellent potential to support decisions on the conservation of headwaters and recuperation of degraded environments in lotic systems.

  4. Ontogeny and Molecular Phylogeny of Apoamphisiella vernalis Reveal Unclear Separation between Genera Apoamphisiella and Paraurostyla (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotricha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Noemi Mendes; Schlegel, Martin; Paiva, Thiago da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Morphology and divisional morphogenesis of the hypotrich ciliate Apoamphisiella vernalis are investigated based on two populations from Brazil. Typical specimens of A. vernalis replicates its ventral ciliature from six fronto-ventral-transverse (FVT) anlagen independently formed for proter and opisthe, plus one or more short anlagen located between IV and V, which form surplus transverse cirri. Dorsal morphogenesis occurs as in typical oxytrichid dorsomarginalians, viz., with formation of three anlagen and fragmentation of the rightmost one. Dorsomarginal kineties are formed near anterior end of right marginal cirral row anlagen. Various anomalous specimens exhibiting more than two long ventral rows were found, which are explained by increasing the number of FVT anlagen and/or the number of cirri produced by anlagen. Comparative ontogeny and phylogenetic analyses based on the 18S rDNA reveal that Apoamphisiella vernalis is closely affine to North American and European strains of the Paraurostyla weissei complex. Their reduced genetic distances and conspicuous morphological variability show that both genera can overlap, which implies the necessity of re-evaluating the contextual relevance of some morphological characters commonly used for genus-level separation within hypotrich taxa. PMID:27196427

  5. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoyan; HU Xiaozhong; Khaled A. S. AL-RASHEID; Saieh A. AL-FARRAJ; SONG Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and -αtubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxylricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  6. Phylogenetic position of Dysteria derouxi (Ciliophora:Phyllopharyngea: Dysteriida) inferred from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The complete small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene sequence of a marine ciliate, Dysteria derouxi Gong and Song, 2004, was determined to be of 1 708 nucleotides. The phylogenetic position of this species within the class Phyllopharyngea was deduced using distance matrix, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Dysteria derouxi, together with other available ciliates of the class Phyllopharyngea, forms a monophyletic clade with strong bootstrap support in the distance matrix, maximum parsimony and likelihood tree construction methods, while the dysterids are, as a monophyletic group, phylogenetically close to the clade of chlamydodontids [values of 100% LS(least-squares), 100% NJ(neighbor-joining)]. In addition, the trees indicate that dysteriids may be a higher or specialized group within the class, which corresponds well to the morphology and infraciliature.

  7. New SSU-rDNA sequences for eleven colpodeans (Ciliophora, Colpodea) and description of Apocyrtolophosis nov. gen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Bourland, William A; Wolf, Klaus W; Stoeck, Thorsten; Dunthorn, Micah

    2014-02-01

    Using 11 new SSU-rDNA sequences, we analyze relationships within the class Colpodea, especially of some uncommon taxa, such as Kalometopia duplicata, Cyrtolophosis minor, and Jaroschia sumptuosa. The sequences do not change the basic structure of the molecular Colpodea tree, i.e., all belong to one of the four molecular clades recognized by Foissner et al. (2011): Colpodida, Cyrtolophosidida, Bursariomorphida, and Platyophryida. The addition of three Colpoda sequences strengthens the observation that species of this genus are distributed over the whole molecular Colpodea tree. Very likely, this is caused by a fast radiation of Colpoda, several species of which then evolved independently, forming new genera and families. Cyrtolophosis minor, which belongs to the molecular Pseudocyrtolophosis clade, is referred to a new genus, Apocyrtolophosis nov. gen., characterized by a comparably large, deltoid oral opening, an unciliated posterior region, and the absence of an oblique kinety in the left oral polykinetid. Bryometopus triquetrus does not erase the paraphyly of its genus. Platyophrya vorax, P. spumacola, and P. bromelicola form a highly supported clade in the order Platyophryida. Platyophryides and Ottowphrya are close genetically but differ in the silverline pattern (colpodid vs. platyophryid).

  8. Morphology and ontogenesis of Psilotrichides hawaiiensis nov. gen., nov. spec. and molecular phylogeny of the Psilotrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Domingo; Stoeck, Thorsten; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The Psilotrichidae are a family of middle-sized hypotrichs with unique morphological and ontogenetic features (e.g. the oral primordium develops in a deep pouch) that, however, did not provide a definite phylogenetic signal. Thus, we studied the 18S rRNA gene of Urospinula succisa (Müller 1786) Esteban et al., 2001 as well as the morphology and ontogenesis of Psilotrichides hawaiiensis, a new genus and species from an ephemeral swamp on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The molecular data classify the psilotrichids into the oxytrichids but without clear branching position. A brief revision, using the structure of the oral apparatus, the location of the contractile vacuole, and three ontogenetic features, showed four distinct genera: Psilotricha Stein, 1859; Urospinula Corliss, 1960; Hemiholosticha Gelei, 1954; and Psilotrichides nov. gen., which differs from the confamilials mainly by the obliquely oriented buccal cavity and the shape of the undulating membranes as well as by a distinct ridge along the right buccal margin. The pyriform species, P. hawaiiensis, is about 65 × 45 μm in size and is easily recognized by the table tennis racket-shaped appearance due to the elongated last cirrus of the left marginal row. Refined diagnoses are provided for the family Psilotrichidae Bütschli, 1889 and the genera contained.

  9. Report of epibiont Thecacineta calix (Ciliophora: Suctorea) on deep sea Desmodora (Nematoda) from the Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Singh, R.; Sautya, S.; Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.

    in 5% formalin. Nematodes were identified to genus/species level according to Platt & Warwick (1983) and using on-line recent literature (www.nemys.ugent.be). Measurements of ciliates were made using the computer program Scope Photo v. 2... of the United Kingdom, 2010 doi:10.1017/S1755267209990777; Vol. 3; e46; 2010 Published online together made C2441% of the nematode population. Among 17 individuals of D. sphaerica collected, 13 (76%) were infested with suctorians and among 12 individuals of D...

  10. Biodiversity of marine scuticociliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from China: Description of seven morphotypes including a new species, Philaster sinensis spec. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Yi, Zhenzhen; Li, Jiqiu; Ma, Honggang; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2015-04-01

    Seven marine scuticociliates, Philaster sinensis spec. nov., Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans and Thompson, 1964. J. Protozool. 11, 344, Parauronema virginianum Thompson, 1967. J. Protozool. 14, 731, Uronemella filificum (Kahl, 1931. Tierwelt. Dtl. 21, 181) Song and Wilbert, 2002. Zool. Anz. 241, 317, Cohnilembus verminus Kahl, 1931, Parauronema longum Song, 1995. J. Ocean Univ. China. 25, 461 and Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. J. Protozool. 13, 393, collected from Chinese coastal waters, were investigated using live observations, silver impregnation methods, and, in the case of the new species, SSU rDNA sequencing. Philaster sinensis spec. nov. can be recognized by the combination of the following characters: body cylindrical, approximately 130-150 × 35-55 μm in vivo; apical end slightly to distinctly pointed, posterior generally rounded; 19-22 somatic kineties; M1 triangular, consisting of 13 or 14 transverse rows of kinetosomes; M2 comprising 10-12 longitudinal rows; CVP positioned at end of SK1; marine habitat. We also provide improved diagnoses for Pseudocohnilembus hargisi, Parauronema virginianum, Uronemella filificum and Parauronema longum based on their original descriptions as well as the present work. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the genus Philaster.

  11. Three-gene based phylogeny of the Urostyloidea (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotricha), with notes on classification of some core taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Chen, Zigui; Song, Weibo; Berger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of the Urostyloidea were mainly based on morphology and morphogenesis. Since molecular phylogeny largely focused on limited sampling using mostly the one-gene information, the incongruence between morphological data and gene sequences have risen. In this work, the three-gene data (SSU-rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU-rDNA) comprising 12 genera in the "core urostyloids" are sequenced, and the phylogenies based on these different markers are compared using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms and tested by unconstrained and constrained analyses. The molecular phylogeny supports the following conclusions: (1) the monophyly of the core group of Urostyloidea is well supported while the whole Urostyloidea is not monophyletic; (2) Thigmokeronopsis and Apokeronopsis are clearly separated from the pseudokeronopsids in analyses of all three gene markers, supporting their exclusion from the Pseudokeronopsidae and the inclusion in the Urostylidae; (3) Diaxonella and Apobakuella should be assigned to the Urostylidae; (4) Bergeriella, Monocoronella and Neourostylopsis flavicana share a most recent common ancestor; (5) all molecular trees support the transfer of Metaurostylopsis flavicana to the recently proposed genus Neourostylopsis; (6) all molecular phylogenies fail to separate the morphologically well-defined genera Uroleptopsis and Pseudokeronopsis; and (7) Arcuseries gen. nov. containing three distinctly deviating Anteholosticha species is established.

  12. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of an Antarctic population of Paraholosticha muscicola (Kahl, 1932) Wenzel, 1953 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Ho; Park, Kyung-Min; Min, Gi-Sik; Berger, Helmut; Kim, Sanghee

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of an Antarctic soil population of Paraholosticha muscicola, type species of Paraholosticha, is described from life and after protargol preparation. The data agree rather well with that of relevant descriptions, but the total variability of several features is relatively high in this species. Paraholosticha ovata and P. lichenicola are very likely junior synonyms. In addition, we sequenced the SSU rRNA gene of P. muscicola and thus we can estimate for the first time the phylogenetic position of a member of the Keronopsidae, the sole hypotrichs that divide in cysts. The molecular data basically support the position derived from morphological concepts, that is, P. muscicola branches off outside the Dorsomarginalia because kinety fragmentation and dorsomarginal rows are lacking. However, as in many other molecular analyses, discrepancies with morphology-based hypothesis are present. The misclassification of Paraholosticha and its sister-group Keronopsis in the Keronidae, with Kerona pediculus as type species, is discussed.

  13. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen ; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 - 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1 - 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the fight of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  14. Reevaluation of cortical developmental patterns in Euplotes (s. l.), including a morphogenetic redescription of E. charon (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Euplotida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chen; Ma, Honggang; Gao, Shan; Khaled, Al-Rasheid A.; Song, Weibo

    2010-05-01

    We documented the pattern of cell development in Euplotes charon. The ontogenesis of this species was similar to many of its congeners, except for the formation of the caudal cirri. In E. Charon, a caudal cirrus is formed posterior to each of the rightmost two or three dorsal kinety anlage in the proter, and the second rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. In addition, two caudal cirri are formed posterior to the rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. This pattern of development represents a completely new type. Based on our evaluation, and in comparison with previous studies, we also conclude that the pattern of cell development is variable among species in the Euplotes genera. The variation is particularly evident during the formation of frontoventral and caudal cirri. Based on the segmentation pattern of frontal-midventral transverse cirral anlagen, cirri reduction, and migration of frontoventral cirri, we identified five types: the affinis-type, the eurystomus-type, the charon-type, the raikovi-type and orientalis-type. Euplotes (s. l.) can also be divided into three types based on the formation of caudal cirri: focardii-type, vannus-type and charon-type. Indeed, we conclude that the number (one or two) of marginal cirri should be given as much consideration as the genetic separation. Given this, we reassessed the validity of using genetic separation to classify the group. Generally, the morphogenetic data disagreed with the molecular data (SSrRNA gene sequences). Given these discrepancies, it is too early to draw conclusions on the systematic arrangement of this species-rich taxon.

  15. First Record and Redefinition of the Qingdao Population of Marine Ciliate Cardiostomatella vermiformis (Kahl, 1928) Corliss, 1960 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a marine ciliate, Cardiostomatella vermiformis isolated from a sand beach of the Jiaozhou Bay near Qingdao, China, were investigated by live observation, protargol and silver carbonate impregnation methods. Both the morphological and morphometric data largely agree with former records. Based on the data obtained, an improved diagnosis for Cardiostomatella vermiformis is supplied: Large marine Cardiostomatella with cylindrical body shape and several prolonged caudal cilia; cells in vivo about (90-500)μm × (30-120)μm; macronucleus beaded; single contractile vacuole caudally positioned; buccal apparatus conspicuously small, genus typical; three to six postoral kineties; 96-130 somatic kineties. This species is recorded for the first time in China.

  16. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  17. Notes on Two Marine Ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China: Placus salinus and Strombidium apolatum (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dapeng; SONG Weibo; HU Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of two rare marine ciliates, Placus salinus Dietz, 1964 and Strombidium apolatum Wilbert and Song, 2005, collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation technique. The improved diagnosis for Placus salinus is as follows: medium-sized marine Placus, in vivo (50 -60) μm × (30 -40)μm; cell elliptical to barrel-shaped; 28 -31 somatic kineties; single macronucleus usually ellipsoid and one micronucleus located in the indention of the macronucleus; one contractile vacuole posteriorly positioned. Strombidium apolatum is characterized by: marine strombidium (40-60) μm × (30-45) μm in vivo, cordiform in shape with somewhat pointed posterior end and conspicuous apical protrusion; extrusomes prominent, about 15μm in length and evenly arranged along the circle kinety; about 16 collar and 5-6 buccal membranelles; one elongate macronucleus and one micronucleus; circle and ventral kineties consisting of about 53 and 45 dikinetids respectively.

  18. Complementary Notes on a‘Well-known' Marine Heterotrichous Ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859) Fraure-Fremiet,1936 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Daode; LIN Xiaofeng; SONG Weibo

    2004-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a heterotrichous ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859)Fraure-Fremiet, 1936, which was collected from the north coast of China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation techniques. As a new contribution, a redescription is presented: large Folliculinopsis of green to dark green in color, 800-1500μm in size; two peristomial lobes of approximately equal size, 300-400μm in length; adoral zone of membranelles containing about 1000 membranelles, lying along lobe margins and exhibiting two circles within buccal cavity;50-70 somatic kineties in mid-body; macronucleus miniliform, consisting of about 20 beads; lorica smooth, vase-shaped,(300 500)μm ×(90-130)μm in size, with 5-12 spiral ridges on neck tube; marine habitat.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of oligotrich genera Omegastrombidium and Novistrombidium (Protozoa, Ciliophora) for the systematical relationships within Family Strombidiidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Yi, Zhenzhen; Xu, Dapeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Gong, Jun; Song, Weibo

    2010-07-01

    The phylogeny of the oligotrich ciliates is currently a hot debate despite the availability of both morphological and molecular data. In the present paper, further small subunit rRNA (SS rRNA) genes were analyzed from the Genera Omegastrombidium and Novistrombidium, as well as from Strombidium, and combined with three new SS rRNA sequences from Strombidium basimorphum, S. sulcatum population QD-1, and Novistrombidium testaceum population GD. The phylogenetic positions of these organisms were inferred using Bayesian inference, Maximum Likelihood, and Maximum Parsimony methods. The main results are: (1) the SS rRNA gene sequence analyses match the recent findings about the molecular evolution of oligotrichs, indicating that the family Strombidiidae is paraphyletic; (2) the Genus Omegastrombidium is separated from the Genus Strombidium, as shown in recent cladistic analyses; (3) morphospecies in Genus Novistrombidium, based on similarity of somatic ciliature, are separated from each other in all topological trees, indicating that this genus could be a paraphyletic group; (4) the molecular data indicate a possibility of paraphyly for the genus Strombidium; and (5) the similarities of the SS rRNA gene of specimens identified as S. sulcatum and S. inclinatum are 99.8%-100%. However, present knowledge on the oligotrichs sensu stricto is still insufficient and further studies based on both molecular and other technologies are required.

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of subclass Peritrichia (Ciliophora: Oligohymenophorea) based on expanded analyses of 18S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Laura R P; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among peritrich ciliates remain unclear in spite of recent progress. To expand the analyses performed in previous studies, and to statistically test hypotheses of monophyly, we analyzed a broad sample of 18s rRNA sequences (including 15 peritrich genera), applying a conservative alignment strategy and several phylogenetic approaches. The main results are that: (i) the monophyly of Peritrichia cannot be rejected; (ii) the two main clades of Sessilida do not correspond to formally recognized taxa; (iii) the monophyly of genera Vorticella and Epistylis is significantly rejected; and (iv) morphological structures commonly used in peritrich taxonomy may be evolutionarily labile.

  1. Taxonomic characterization of Vorticella fuscaPrecht, 1935 and Vorticella parapulchella n. sp., two marine peritrichs (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2006-01-01

    Two marine peritrich ciliates, Vorticella fuscaPrecht (1935) and Vorticella parapulchella n. sp. were discovered in the littoral zone of Qingdao, northern China. Their morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system were described using live observation and silver impregnation. The poorly known species V. fusca is redescribed, adding information about the oral infraciliature and pellicular morphology. Vorticella parapulchella n. sp. is superficially similar to Vorticella pulchellaSommer (1951) but is distinguished from it by being markedly smaller and having much more widely spaced pellicular ridges. The infundibular infraciliature of V. parapulchella is extremely unusual in having infundibular polykinety 3 reduced to two rows, one of which has almost disappeared.

  2. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Some Peritrichs (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) from Tank Bromeliads, Including Two New Genera: Orborhabdostyla and Vorticellides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Blake, Natalie; Wolf, Klaus; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2010-01-22

    Using standard methods, we studied the morphology and 18S rDNA sequence of some peritrich ciliates from tank bromeliads of Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Ecuador. The new genus Orborhabdostyla differs from Rhabdostyla by the discoidal macronucleus. Two species from the literature and a new species from Ecuadoran tank bromeliads are combined with the new genus: O. previpes (Claparède and Lachmann, 1857) nov. comb., O. kahli (Nenninger, 1948) nov. comb., and O. bromelicola nov. spec. Orborhabdostyla bromelicola is a slender species with stalk-like narrowed posterior half and operculariid/epistylidid oral apparatus. An epistylidid relationship is also suggested by the gene sequence. Vorticella gracilis, described by Dujardin (1841) from French freshwater, belongs to the V. convallaria complex but differs by the yellowish colour and the number of silverlines. The classification as a distinct species is supported by the 18S rDNA, which differs nearly 10% from that of V. convallaria s. str. Based on the new data, especially the very stable yellowish colour, we neotypify V. gracilis with the Austrian population studied by Foissner (1979). Vorticella gracilis forms a strongly supported phyloclade together with V. campanula, V. fusca and V. convallaria, while Vorticellides astyliformis and Vorticella microstoma branch in a separate, fully-supported clade that includes Astylozoon and Opisthonecta. The new genus Vorticellides comprises five small (usually < 60 μm), barrel-shaped species with two epistomial membranes: V. aquadulcis (Stokes, 1887) nov. comb., V. astyliformis (Foissner, 1981) nov. comb., V. platysoma (Stokes, 1887) nov. comb., V. infusionum (Dujardin, 1841) nov. comb., and V. (Spinivorticellides) echini (King, 1931) nov. comb. Two of these species are redescribed in the present study: V. astyliformis and V. aquadulcis, which is neotypified with a Costa Rican population. Pseudovorticella bromelicola nov. spec. differs from the congeners by the location of the two contractile vacuoles and the number of silverlines.

  3. Morphology of four cyrtophorian ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Yangtze Delta, China, with notes on the phylogeny of the genus Phascolodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongbo; Wang, Liqing; Jiang, Jiamei; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    The morphology of four cyrtophorian ciliates, Dysteria ovalis, D. semilunaris, Phascolodon vorticella, and Chlamydonellopsis calkinsi, were investigated using living observation and protargol-staining. The morphology of D. ovalis is revealed in detail for the first time, and it is characterized by the following combination of features: size 40-50×20-30μm in vivo; oval in outline; four right kineties, including two frontoventral kineties and one shortened leftmost right kinety; three left frontal kineties; two ventrally located contractile vacuoles; marine habitat. New Chinese populations of three other species correspond well with previous descriptions, but a well-developed alveolar layer on the cell surface of P. vorticella is reported for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences clustered Dysteria ovalis with Mirodysteria decora, whereas D. semilunaris is grouped with D. lanceolata. Although Phascolodon appeared as sister to Pseudochilodonopsis in the present work, its accurate phylogenetic position is still uncertain because AU test did not reject the possibility that it clustered with Odontochlamys and Chilodonella.

  4. Morphologic and Genetic Variability in the Marine Planktonic Ciliate Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia), with Notes on its Ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGATHA, SABINE; STRÜDER-KYPKE, MICHAELA C.; BERAN, ALFRED

    2010-01-01

    Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 is a conspicuous oligotrich ciliate in the marine plankton. In order to compare different populations, the morphology of specimens from the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, and Irish Sea was investigated using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the PCR-amplified products of the SSrRNA gene from a monoclonal culture of L. strobila from the Mediterranean Sea were sequenced and aligned with sequences of other oligotrichs, including a population of L. strobila from the Atlantic coast of the USA. Finally, the data from the ecological literature were summarized and the cultivation methods were described. The SSrRNA gene sequences of the two distantly located L. strobila populations from the North Atlantic are identical. Likewise, the morphometrics of most populations so far investigated after protargol impregnation (i.e. from the North Atlantic) do not show obvious differences. In all computed phylogenetic trees, L. strobila groups with Strombidium species, forming a monophyletic taxon corresponding to the subclass Oligotrichia. These results are corroborated by the ontogenetic comparison. Since no type species was fixed for Laboea Lohmann, 1908, L. strobila was designated in the present paper. PMID:15218695

  5. Phylogenetic position of three Condylostoma species(Protozoa,Ciliophora,Heterotricheal inferred from the small subunit rRNA gene sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Guo; Shan Gao; Weibo Song; Khaled A.S.A1-Rasheid; Chen Shao; Miao Miao; Saleh A.A1-Farraj; Saleh A.A1-Qurishy; Zigui Chen; Zhenzhen Yi

    2008-01-01

    The systematically poorly known ciliate genus Conadylostoma was erected by Vincent in 1826.About 10 morphotypes have been reported,but any molecular investigations concerning this group SO far are lacking.In this work,the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SS rRNA)gene of three marine Conaylostoma species was sequenced,by which the phylogenetic trees were constructed by distance-matrix,maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods.The results show that(1)all the trees have similar topologies with high supports;(2)Condylostoma is mostly related to the genus Condylostentor;and(3)three Condylostoma species as well as Conadylostentor auriculatus cluster together and form a sister group with other heterotrichs.This is moderately consistent with the assessment of phylo-genetic relationships of Conaylostoma-related heterotrichs from the morphological information.The phylogenetic relationship of some other related heterotrichs,Peritromus,Fotlictllina,Stentor and Blepharisma,has been also discussed.

  6. Trichodina sp. ( Ciliophora: Peritrichida ) in eel Anguilla anguilla in recirculation systems in Denmark : host-parasite relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.C.K.; Buchmann, Kurt; Mellergaard, Stig

    2000-01-01

    Farmed eel cultured in recirculation systems in Denmark were found infected by Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958. Associations between parasite abundance and fish size was examined in 2 different production systems. In one system, stocked with relatively well-nourished eels (3 to 31 g), most...... of the parasites (66%) were found on the dorsal part on the skin and relatively few were found on the gills (approx. 8%). The infection level was significantly positively correlated both with fish weight and length. In the other system, stocked with relatively malnourished small eels (0.5 to 4 g), significantly...

  7. Morphology, morphogenesis and gene sequence of a freshwater ciliate, Pseudourostyla cristata (Ciliophora, Urostyloidea) from the ancient Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xumiao; Li, Zicong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Kusuoka, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    The urostyloid freshwater ciliate Pseudourostyla cristata was recorded for the first time from Lake Biwa, a 4-million-year-old lake located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Its morphology and morphogenesis were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation, and the SSU ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced. Based on the current observations and previous descriptions, this species is readily recognized mainly by the following characters: body slender or broadly oval to elliptical, and dark grey in color; size in vivo about 170-400 x 40-150 microm; pellicle flexible and contractile, with extrusomes forming a hyaline seam underneath; ciliature comprising about 60-130 adoral membranelles, usually 1 buccal cirrus, 20-24 frontal, 2 frontoterminal, 17-26 pairs of midventral, and 5-16 transverse cirri, 4-6 left and 4-5 right marginal rows, and 8-10 dorsal kineties; 15-83 macronuclear nodules and 2-9 micronuclei; freshwater habitat. The main morphogenetic developments are: (1) the oral primordium for the proter originates de novo on the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity, and the dedifferentiated undulating membranes and some parental proximal membranelles join in the primordial development; the old adoral zone will be partly replaced by new structures; (2) the oral primordium for the opisthe occurs epiapokinetally left of the midventral complex between the adoral zone and the transverse cirri; (3) the fronto-midventral transverse cirral (FVT) anlagen develop separately in both dividers by dedifferentiation of most of the midventral cirri; (4) the single buccal cirrus is generated from the posterior end of FVT anlage II; (5) the leftmost frontal cirrus is derived from the anterior end of the undulating membranes anlage (FVT anlage I); (6) the marginal rows of each side are formed from a single anlage which arises within the rightmost row; (7) the dorsal kineties develop by intrakinetal basal body proliferation; and (8) the most posterior FVT anlage contributes the two fronto-terminal cirri at its anterior end. The present observations indicate that P. cristata has a wide geographic distribution, and possesses constant morphological and morphogenetic traits. Phylogenetic trees inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences suggest paraphyly of the genus Pseudourostyla.

  8. Delimiting Species Boundaries within a Paraphyletic Species Complex: Insights from Morphological, Genetic, and Molecular Data on Paramecium sonneborni (Paramecium aurelia species complex, Ciliophora, Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria; Sawka, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    The demarcation of boundaries between protist species is often problematic because of the absence of a uniform species definition, the abundance of cryptic diversity, and the occurrence of convergent morphology. The ciliates belonging to the Paramecium aurelia complex, consisting of 15 species, are a good model for such systematic and evolutionary studies. One member of the complex is P. sonneborni, previously known only from one stand in Texas (USA), but recently found in two new sampling sites in Cyprus (creeks running to Salt Lake and Oroklini Lake near Larnaca). The studied Paramecium sonneborni strains (from the USA and Cyprus) reveal low viability in the F1 and F2 generations of interstrain hybrids and may be an example of ongoing allopatric speciation. Despite its molecular distinctiveness, we postulate that P. sonneborni should remain in the P. aurelia complex, making it a paraphyletic taxon. Morphological studies have revealed that some features of the nuclear apparatus of P. sonneborni correspond to the P. aurelia spp. complex, while others are similar to P. jenningsi and P. schewiakoffi. The observed discordance indicates rapid splitting of the P. aurelia-P. jenningsi-P. schewiakoffi group, in which genetic, morphological, and molecular boundaries between species are not congruent.

  9. Relationships of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Protozoa, Ph. Ciliophora, Cl. Oligohymenophorea) based on sequences of the histone H4 gene fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Skotarczak, Bogumiła

    2006-01-01

    A fragment ofhistone H4 gene (160 bp long) was sequenced in the standard strains of P. primaurelia (DQ067620), P. biaurelia (DQ067621), P. tetraurelia (DQ067622), P. pentaurelia (DQ067623), P. septaurelia (DQ067624), P. octaurelia (DQ067625), P. decaurelia (DQ067626), P. undecaurelia (DQ067627), P. dodecaurelia (DQ067628), P. tredecaurelia (DQ067629), and P. quadecaurelia (DQ067630). The tree constructed according to the Kimura model presents two main species clusters, one comprising P. undecaurelia, P. octaurelia, P. septaurelia, and the second cluster with P. pentaurelia, P. tredecaurelia, P. quadecaurelia, P. tetraurelia, P. decaurelia, P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia. P. dodecaurelia was recovered as a separate branch. The tree constructed on the basis of the maximum likelihood method also presents two species clusters, one with P. undecaurelia, P. octaurelia, P. septaurelia, and the second with P. primaurelia, P. decaurelia, P. pentaurelia, P. tredecaurelia, P. quadecaurelia, P. tetraurelia. P. biaurelia forms a basal clade to the latter cluster, and P. dodecaurelia was recovered as a clearly distinct branch from the clusters.

  10. Morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequence of Spirostomum minus and Spirostomum teres (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi M. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Species of Spirostomum Ehrenberg, 1838 are widely used as model organisms in ecological studies of environmental impacts and symbioses between ciliates and human pathogenic bacteria. However, the taxonomy of this genus is confused by the superficiality of the morphological descriptions of its included species, and the use of only a few characters for their differentiation. The present study provides details of total infraciliature, nuclear apparatus, morphometric data and 18S rDNA gene sequences of Spirostomum teres Claparède & Lachmann, 1858 and Spirostomum minus Roux, 1901, isolated from a sewage treatment plant and a freshwater lake in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, respectively. For the morphological descriptions of S. teres and S. minus, living cells were observed using bright-field and differential interference contrast (DIC microscopy, the total infraciliature and nuclear apparatus were revealed by staining with protargol, and ciliary patterns were observed also with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The complete sequences of the 18S rDNA of S. teres and S. minus were obtained using eukaryotic universal primers, and then compared with sequences of other species and populations of Spirostomum deposited in the GenBank database. Living S. minus measured 400-800 µm in length and 55-115 µm in width, with the following characteristics: adoral zone of membranelles approximately 112 µm long; inconspicuous paroral kinety; 30-40 kineties in somatic ciliature; moniliform macronucleus with 9-25 nodes, approximately 12 micronuclei; single and posterior contractile vacuole; and yellow-brown cytoplasm. Living and fully extended S. teres measured approximately 250 µm in length and 65 ìm in width, with the following characteristics: adoral zone of membranelles approximately 92 µm long; approximately 30 somatic kineties; compact macronucleus, approximately five micronuclei; macronuclear groove present; single and posterior contractile vacuole; and colorless cytoplasm. Evidence from 18S rDNA sequences confirms the identification of S. teres and suggests the existence of cryptic species closely related to S. minus. The use of silver impregnation technique (protargol allowed the observation and description of a greater number of characters in S. minus and S. teres, thus assisting the research that require identification of these species.

  11. Description of the rare marine ciliate, Uronychia multicirrus song, 1997 (Ciliophora; Euplotida) based on morphology, morphogenesis and SS rRNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhuo; Shao, Chen; Gao, Shan; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiqiu; Hu, Xiaozhong; Song, Weibo

    2009-01-01

    A population of the marine euplotid ciliate, Uronychia multicirrus Song 1997, found in the littoral zone of the Daya Bay, Guangdong, South China, was investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation method. This species is diagnosed by possessing a long row of ventral cirri, which has never been seen in all other known congeners. Divisional process, described based on protargol-impregnated specimens, is typical of the genus regarding its general pattern: (1) the oral primordia in both proter and opisthe develop de novo in two subcortical pouches, while the UM-anlage forms de novo (i.e. does not develop from the oral primordium); (2) five frontoventral-transverse (FVT)-cirral anlagen develop in a primary-mode on the cell surface, and almost all the cirri are derived from the FVT-anlagen, except the first frontal cirri, which are formed de novo in both dividers; (3) the species characteristic ventral row derives from the right-most FVT-anlage; (4) the parental structures do not take part in the construction of the marginal anlagen, and (5) the caudal cirri originate in the right-most two dorsal kineties in a multi-segmentation mode. The small subunit rRNA gene of U. multicirrus (GenBank accession number: EU267929) is 1,773 bp and differs by 0.9-1.41% from its closely related congeners.

  12. First record of three African trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia with re-evaluation of their host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh; Al Ghamdi, Ali; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2017-02-18

    Saudi Arabia has a developing aquaculture industry that farms primarily tilapia. Although trichodinids are presumably the most usually encountered protozoan parasites in these cultured fish, they have rarely been studied in this context, and there is no data on the species that might infect cultured tilapia in Saudi Arabia. The present study was therefore carried out as a general survey to investigate the occurrence and identify the species of trichodinids that can infect cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia. A total of 500 tilapia fish were collected from fish farms in Riyadh city and examined in order to determine the species of trichodinids present in the positive specimens. Three species of trichodinids (Trichodina maritinkae, T. centrostrigeata and T. frenata) were isolated and described as new records in Saudi Arabia. These trichodinids were found simultaneously in the same fish with overall prevalence of 20% (100/500). The identification and characterization of these three species are documented based on Riyadh specimens, for the first time. Additionally, the present paper confirms the existence of T. frenata for the second time globally and establishes this trichodinid as a new parasite for O. niloticus. T. maritinkae is highly specific to clariids, and previously, it has not been reported from any fish species other than clariids. The present work also confirmed that T. centrostrigeata can also infest cichlid fish. The list of host records of these species is expanded and their host specificity re-evaluated based on the results of this study in addition to the previously published data. We conclude that there is a need for further study of the impacts of these Trichodina spp. on Saudi Arabian fishery sector.

  13. Two vicariant Semispathidium species from tropical Africa and central Europe: S. fraterculum nov. spec. and S. pulchrum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Haptorida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Hess, Sebastian; Al-Rasheid, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Using standard methods, we describe two new Semispathidium species from semiterrestrial habitats of tropical Africa and central Europe. Semispathidium fraterculum nov. spec. and S. pulchrum nov. spec. differ from each other and from two Namibian (Southwest African) congeners by body size, the shape and location of the extrusomes; the shape of the macronucleus, the number of ciliary rows, the number of cilia within the rows, and the number of dikinetids comprising the dorsal brush rows. The globular resting cyst of S. fraterculum is unique in having countless granules on the inside of the external layer, forming sharp-angled rows. The distribution of these and two further, not yet described south African species indicates that the genus Semispathidium evolved in subtropical Africa. Semispathidium fraterculum and S. pulchrum are highly similar, both morphologically and ecologically, differing in mainly one important feature: the shape and location of the extrusomes used for prey capture. This suggests that they evolved from a common ancestor whose areal was divided by a vicariant event, causing an independent evolution of the split populations. We argue that this and other species pairs indicate that the vicariance speciation model is applicable to protists.

  14. Abundance and species composition of planktonic Ciliophora from the wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sonia Barría de Cao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific composition and abundance variation of the ciliate community from a wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, were studied all throughout a year, from June 1995 to May 1996. The polluted area exhibited high values of particulate organic matter and nutrients, particularly phosphates. Aloricate ciliates were represented by 15 species belonging to the genera Strombidium Claparède & Lachmann, 1859; Strombidinopsis Kent, 1881; Cyrtostrombidium Lynn & Gilron, 1993; Strobilidium Schewiakoff, 1983; Lohmmanniella Leegaard, 1915 and Tontonia Fauré-Fremiet, 1914. Tintinnids were represented by nine species belonging to the genera Tintinnidium Kent, 1881, Tintinnopsis Stein, 1867 and Codonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924. The total abundance of aloricate ciliates reached a peak of 1,800 ind. 1-1 and the total abundance of tintinnids reached a peak of 9,400 ind. 1-1. Tintinnidium balechi Barría de Cao, 1981 was the most abundant ciliate in the community. Considerations on the presence and abundance of ciliates are made in relation to physicochemical and biochemical parameters.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Urosomoida agilis, and new combinations: Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov., and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal

    2015-02-01

    For years, systematics of three species, Urosomoida agilis (Engelmann, 1862) Hemberger in Foissner, 1982, Urosomoida longa (Gelei and Szabados, 1950) Foissner et al., 1991 and Oxytricha lanceolata Shibuya, 1930, has remained unresolved due to lack of adequate molecular data. Though, it is known since several years that the three species are not very closely related. In the present paper, 18S rRNA gene sequences for two key species, U. agilis and U. longa, and their morphology and morphometry have been analyzed. Molecular phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood, neighbour joining and maximum parsimony methods has adequately removed ambiguity over their systematics. In phylogenetic trees, U. agilis clustered consistently with non-stylonychine oxytrichids. Both Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata clustered consistently away from U. agilis and O. granulifera, the type species of the genera Urosomoida and Oxytricha, respectively. As a result of the current molecular phylogenetic investigation and based on previously inferred morphological and morphogenetic data it is proposed to remove Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata from Urosomoida and incertae sedis in Oxytricha, respectively, and establish two new generic combinations, Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov. and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. for them.

  16. Phylogeny and establishment of a new ciliate family, Wilbertomorphidae fam. nov. (Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), a highly specialized taxon represented by Wilbertomorpha colpoda gen. nov., spec. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Jiamei; Song, Weibo; Warren, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new marine interstitial karyorelictean ciliate, Wilbertomorpha colpoda gen. nov., spec. nov., isolated from a sandy beach at Qingdao, China, are investigated. The ciliature is mainly on the right surface with the left surface barren except for a single marginal kinety, which is typical of the order Loxodida. Nevertheless, other morphological features, such as the highly reduced buccal structure, the absence of a buccal cavity and the presence of extremely specialized cortical granules, prevent its assignation to any known family. Furthermore, the secondary structure of the variable region 2 of the SSU rRNA gene is unique among loxodids. Thus, we establish a new family, Wilbertomorphidae fam. nov. for the genus Wilbertomorpha. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data suggest that this taxon is a sister group to the family Geleiidae which belongs to the order Protoheterotrichida. However, morphologically Wilbertomorpha bears a much stronger resemblance to Loxodidae which belongs to the order Loxodida. Based on these findings, we tentatively place Wilbertomorphidae nov. fam. incertae sedis within Karyorelictea.

  17. [Morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of astome ciliates Almophrya bivacuolata and A. maediovacuolata (protozoa: ciliophora) endocommensal of terricolous oligochaetes in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, P A; Ngassam, P; Fokam, Z; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Coffe, G; Sime, Gando T; Zébazé, Togouet S H

    2010-12-01

    The silver impregnation supplemented by DAPI and Feulgen nuclear coloration enabled us to study the morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of two species of endocommensal Astome ciliates, Almophrya bivacuoloata (de Puytorac & Dragesco, 1968) and A. mediovocuolata (Ngassam, 1983). We highlighted important digitations and the presence of dark bands in the structure of the "H" macronucleus of the small cellular types as well as the presence of intermediate forms between "H" and "X" in these two species.

  18. TINTINNID CILIATES FROM QINGDAO (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, TINTINNIDA)%青岛沿海砂壳纤毛虫(原生动物,纤毛门,砂纤目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大鹏; 宋微波

    2005-01-01

    对采自青岛沿海的9属26种砂壳纤毛虫进行了形态学描述,其中11种为中国新纪录种:简单薄铃虫Leprotintinnus simplex Schmidt,1901,波特薄铃虫Leprotintinnus bottnicus(Nordqvist,1890)Jorgensen,1912,波罗的拟铃虫Tintinnopsis baltica Brandt,1896,长形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis elongata Daday,1887,盾形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis urnula Meunier,1910,弯叶拟铃虫Tintinnopsis lobiancoi Daday,1887,管状拟铃虫Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier,1910,小拟铃虫Tintinnopsis minuta Wailes,1925,塔拉卡拟铃虫Favella taraikaensis Hada,1932,太平洋领细壳虫Stenosemella pacifica Kofoid et Campbell,1929和贪婪铃壳虫Codonella rapa Kofoid et Campbell,1929.

  19. [Ecological analysis of the fauna of infusoria of the family Trichodinidae Claus, 1874 (Ciliophora Dofflein, 1901, Peritrichida F. Stein, 1859) in pond fishes of Kaliningrad province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, E V; Evdokimova, E B; Zaostrovtseva, S K

    2012-01-01

    A total of 21 Infusoria species of the family Trichodinidae parasitize in pond fishes of Kaliningrad Province. Species of the genus Trichodina dominate, being represented by 15 species. The majority of revealed Infusoria are characterized by wide specificity. Narrow specificity is characteristic of Trichodina urinaria (the bass) and Trichodinella lotae (the burbot). Extensiveness and intensity of the invasion depends on host species, its biology, and the character of the reservoir.

  20. Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengchao; Xing, Yi; Li, Jiamei; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; He, Songke; Shao, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, morphogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate Perisincirra paucicirrata, isolated from north China, were investigated. Perisincirra paucicirrata differs from its congeners in: (1) having a body length to width ratio in vivo of 4:1, (2) its adoral zone occupying between 15% and 25% of the total body length, and (3) the presence of two parabuccal cirri, three left (with 10-16 cirri each) and two right marginal rows (with 14-24 cirri each), and three dorsal kineties. Our study offers a first attempt to begin to map the morphogenetic processes of the genus, which are mainly characterised by the following: the formation of four frontal ventral transverse anlagens for each daughter cell, with the proter's anlage I originating from the reorganised anterior part of the parental paroral; the paroral and endoral anlage developed from the reorganised old endoral and do not contribute the first frontal cirrus; the frontoventral transverse anlage I contributing the left frontal cirrus; anlage II generating the middle frontal and the buccal cirri; anlage III developing the right frontal cirrus and the anterior parabuccal cirrus; and anlage IV contributing the posterior parabuccal cirrus. As an additional contribution, we judge that the inner one or the two right rows of P. kahli and P. longicirrata are marginal rows. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences suggests that Perisincirra is related to sporadotrichids, but provides no credible evidence for its taxonomic position.

  1. Influence of crude oil and pulp and paper mill effluent on mixed infections of Trichodina cottidarium and T. saintjohnsi (Ciliophora) parasitizing Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus and M. scorpius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.A.; Barker, D.E.; Williams-Ryan, K.; Hooper, R.G. (Memorial Univ., St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Samples of longhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) were exposed to sediment contaminated with crude oil or pulp and paper mill effluent for periods up to 13 months in the laboratory. Other samples were collected at sites where crude oil or effluent from a pulp and paper mill are discharged. The intensity of gill infections of Trichodina spp. on exposed fish was significantly higher than on controls 5, 9, and 13 months after exposure. The intensity of the ciliates was also greater on sculpins collected near an oil-receiving terminal than on those sampled 5 km from the polluted site. Field collections of longhorn and shorthorn (Myoxocephalus scorpius) sculpins at and distant from a pulp and paper mill had high and low intensities of the ciliates, respectively. Similarly, the intensity of trichodinid ciliates was also significantly greater in longhorn sculpins exposed to effluent-contaminated sediment than in controls 5 months after exposure. The results suggest that the intensity of gill-inhibiting species such as trichodinids in susceptible fish hosts increases after chronic exposure to crude oil and to pulp and paper mill effluent, and the parasites may serve as indicators of pollution. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Phylogenetic positions of two marine ciliates, Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), inferred from complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene was sequenced for two marine scuticociliates Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi. The results show that this gene comprises 1763 and 1753 nucleotides in the two marine ciliates respectively.Metanophrys similis is phylogenetically closely related to the clade containing Mesanophrys carcini and Anophyroides haemophila, which branches basally to other species within the order Philasterida. Pseudocohnilembus hargisi groups with its congener, P. marinus, with strong bootstrap support. Paranophrys magna groups with the clade including Cohnilembus and Uronema, representing a sister clade to that containing the two Pseudocohnilembus species.

  3. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-10-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Aspidisca (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Euplotida) revealed by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Yi, Zhenzhen; Miao, Miao; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2011-03-01

    The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8S rRNA genes were sequenced in six populations of four Aspidisca species, namely A. leptaspis, A. orthopogon, A. magna and A. aculeata. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by means of Bayesian inference (BI), Maximum Parsimony (MP), Neighbor-Joining (NJ), and Maximum Likelihood (ML) to assess the inter- and intra-species relationships within the genus Aspidisca. All trees show similar topologies with stable supports and indicate that: (1) four well known groups, i.e., Oligotrichia, Stichotrichia, Choreotrichia and Hypotrichia, are distinctly outlined within the class Spirotrichea, and all are monophyletic other than Hypotrichia; (2) members of Aspidisca can be distinguished well, based on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences, and A. leptaspis and A. magna shared a closer relationship than other species; (3) Aspidisca and Euplotes branch early in the subclass Hypotrichia. To compare the phylogenetic relationships based on different genes, SSU rRNA trees were also constructed with nearly the same species inclusion, which revealed different topologies of inter-species, inter-genera and inter-subclasses.

  5. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

  6. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Gewik, Mohamed M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Morphology of four new solitary sessile peritrich ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China, with description of an unidentified species of Paravorticella (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Warren, Alan; Ma, Honggang

    2017-02-01

    Sessile peritrichs are a large assemblage of ciliates that have a wide distribution in soil, freshwater and marine waters. Here, we document four new and one unidentified species of solitary sessile peritrichs from aquaculture ponds and coastal waters of the northern Yellow Sea, China. Based on their living morphology, infraciliature and silverline system, four of the five forms were identified as new members belonging to one of three genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella and Scyphidia, representing two families, Vorticellidae and Scyphidiidae. The other isolate was found to be an unidentified species of the poorly known genus Paravorticella. Vorticella chiangi sp. nov. is characterized by its inverted bell-shaped zooid, short row 3 in infundibular polykinety 3 and marine habitat. Pseudovorticella liangae sp. nov. posseses a thin, broad peristomial lip and a granular pellicle. Pseudovorticella haiboensis sp. nov. is differentiated from its congeners by having an elongated zooid that is covered by a layer of thin pellicular vesicles, and two rows of kineties in infundibular polykinety 3. Scyphidia perezuzae sp. nov. and Paravorticella sp. are stalkless ectoparasites or ectocommensals of aquatic animals. The former has a short, plump body, a narrow peristomial lip and a conspicuous, flattened, disc-shaped scopula for adhesion. Paravorticella sp. has an extremely elongated clavate body, a broad peristomial lip, and a narrow scopula.

  8. Reconsideration of the phylogenetic positions of five peritrich genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Zoothamnopsis, Zoothamnium, and Epicarchesium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida), based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lifang; Song, Weibo; Warren, Alan; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Chen, Zigui; Ji, Daode; Sun, Ping

    2008-01-01

    In order to re-evaluate the systematics of sessilid peritrich ciliates, small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were determined for 12 species belonging to five genera: Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Epicarchesium, Zoothamnium, and Zoothamnopsis. Phylogenetic trees were deduced using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that (1) sessilids which have stalks with continuous myonemes that contract in a zig-zag fashion form a separate clade from those which have stalks that contract independently and in a spiral fashion, supporting the separation of the family Zoothamniidae from the family Vorticellidae and (2) Epicarchesium and Pseudovorticella, both of which have reticulate silverline systems, are more closely related to each other than to other vorticellids, suggesting that differences in the silverline system (i.e. transverse vs. reticulate) may be the result of genuine evolutionary divergence among sessilid peritrichs. However, the newly sequenced Zoothamnopsis sinica, which has a reticulate silverline pattern, nests within the unresolved Zoothamnium species that have transverse silverline patterns. Thus, there were at least two evolutions of the reticulate silverline pattern character state from a plesiomorphic transverse state in the peritrichid ciliates. The molecular work demonstrates the genus Zoothamnium to be paraphyletic in relation to morphological studies, and suggests that Astylozoon, Opisthonecta, and Vorticella microstoma possibly share a SSU rRNA secondary structure in the helix E10-1 region.

  9. Characterization of the spasmin 1 gene in Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe (protozoa, ciliophora) and its relation to other spasmins and centrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Asai, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe is a giant sessile peritrich ciliated protozoa that possesses a contractile organelle called a spasmoneme. We report here on the molecular characterization and provide an opportunity to discuss the evolutionary relationships of the Z. arbuscula spasmin; spasmins belong to the calmodulin superfamily and are the major components of spasmoneme filaments. We analysed and obtained the whole sequence of the spasmin 1 gene and a partial sequence of the spasmin 2 gene. It is surprising that the sequence of spasmin 1 does not contain introns and encodes an open reading frame of 531 bp. It predicts a product of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19659 Da and a pI of 4.68. The amino acid sequence has two putative calcium-binding domains. One of them is a functional domain, as defined by the EF-hand consensus. The varieties of spasmins were revealed by comparison with amino acid components and molecular relationships of spasmin 1 protein and other spasmins. A comparison of the amino acid sequence between the Z. arbuscula spasmin and known centrins indicates that spasmins have a one residue deletion in the EF-hand domain-2 and four residue insertions in domain-4, as does the Vorticella spasmin. However, there are large variations in the amino acid sequence at domain-4 within spasmin 1, spasmin 2 and the Vorticella spasmin.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the family Vorticellidae (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) using combined datasets with a special emphasis on the three morphologically similar genera Carchesium, Epicarchesium and Apocarchesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Clamp, John C; Xu, Dapeng; Kusuoka, Yasushi; Hori, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the phylogeny of the family Vorticellidae at the generic level because few comprehensive analyses of molecular phylogenetic relationships between members of this group have, so far, been done. As a result, the phylogenetic positions of some genera that were based originally on morphological analyses remain controversial. In the present study, we performed phylogenetic analyses of vorticellids based on the sequence of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, including one species of the genus Apocarchesium, for which no sequence has previously been reported. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with SSU rRNA gene sequences by using four different methods (Bayesian analysis, maximum-likelihood, neighbour-joining and maximum-parsimony) and had a consistent branching pattern. Members of the genera Vorticella (except V. microstoma) and Carchesium formed a clearly defined, well supported clade that was divergent from the clade comprising members of the genera Pseudovorticella and Epicarchesium, suggesting that the differences in the silverline system (transverse vs reticulate) among vorticellids may be the result of genuine evolutionary divergence. Members of the newly established genus Apocarchesium clustered within the family Vorticellidae basal to the clade containing members of the genera Pseudovorticella and Epicarchesium and were distinct from members of the genus Carchesium, supporting the validity of Apocarchesium as a novel genus. Additional phylogenetic analyses of 21 strains representing seven genera from the families Vorticellidae and Zoothamniidae were performed with single datasets (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, ITS2 alone) and combined datasets (SSU rRNA+ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, SSU rRNA+ITS2) to explore further the phylogenetic relationship between the three morphologically similar genera Carchesium, Epicarchesium and Apocarchesium, using characteristics not included in previous analyses. The phylogenetic trees reconstructed with combined datasets were more robust and therefore more reliable than those based on single datasets and supported the results of trees based on SSU rRNA sequences.

  11. Pelagostrobilidium neptuni (Montagnes and Taylor, 1994) and Strombidium biarmatum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Oligotrichea): phylogenetic position inferred from morphology, ontogenesis, and gene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatha, Sabine; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela C.; Beran, Alfred; Lynn, Denis H.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological data from life, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy were combined with genetic data not only to describe the marine plankton ciliates Pelagostrobilidium neptuni (Montagnes and Taylor, 1994) Petz, Song, and Wilbert, 1995 and Strombidium biarmatum nov. spec., but also to elucidate their phylogenetic relationships. Additionally, the ontogenesis of P. neptuni was studied and the diagnosis of the genus Pelagostrobilidium was improved due to further data from the newly affiliated species P. epacrum (Lynn and Montagnes, 1988) nov. comb. (basionym: Strobilidium epacrum Lynn and Montagnes, 1988). The phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes matched the morphologic and ontogenetic assigning of P. neptuni to the choreotrichid family Strobilidiidae. The considerable genetic distance of d = 0.074 between P. neptuni and Strobilidium caudatum corroborated the morphological differences and thus the maintenance of the genus Pelagostrobilidium. Strombidium biarmatum nov. spec. is a typical member of the genus, except for the two types of extrusomes (“trichites”): ~12 × 0.5 μm, needle-shaped ones attached anterior to the girdle kinety and ~6 × 0.5 μm, rod-shaped ones at the distal end of the intermembranellar ridges. Its flask-shaped resting cysts have several strong spines. In accordance with the morphologic data, S. biarmatum is placed within the order Oligotrichida by gene sequence analysis. The great genetic distances within the oligotrichids support the diversity found in morphologic and ontogenetic studies. PMID:22427721

  12. An improved description of Strombidium sulcatum Claparède & Lachmann, 1859 (Ciliophora) from slides of Fauré-Fremiet, and a designation of type material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Angélica P; Montagnes, David J S

    2003-01-01

    Strombidium sulcatum, the type species of the genus, is examined using silver-stained material made by Fauré-Fremiet in the 1950s and 1960s. We found that the stained specimens possessed a prominent protuberance, as previously described; the number of anterior polykinetids (APk) differed between the accounts (15 this study, 12 previous reports); although previously illustrated, no contractile vacuole was observed; and the macronuclear shape, position, and size differed from those previously reported. Our work provides the first detailed re-analysis of the silver-stained material of S. sulcatum. We use data on S. sulcatum to distinguish it from a morphologically similar species, Strombidium inclinatum. Type material for S. sulcatum has been deposited in the Natural History Museum, London.

  13. New insights into the molecular phylogeny of Balantidium (Ciliophora, Vetibuliferida) based on the analysis of new sequences of species from fish hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Grim, J Norman; Wang, Chong; Nilsen, Frank

    2014-12-01

    We obtained sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for two new isolates of Balantidium from fishes, Balantidium polyvacuolum and Balantidium ctenopharingodoni. This is the first introduction of molecular data of Balantidium species from fish hosts in the phylogenetic analyses of the ciliate subclass Trichostomatia. Despite the fact that these species share morphological characteristics common to other species of Balantidium, the phylogenetic analysis of their sequences has shown that they are to be placed in a different branch closely related to the so-called Australian clade. Thus, our results indicate that the genus Balantidium is polyphyletic and possibly should be represented by two different genera; however, the analysis of more species from other poikilothermic hosts (amphibians, reptiles) should be made before a revised taxonomical proposal could be made.

  14. New record of Apoholosticha sinica (Ciliophora, Urostylida) from the UK: morphology, 18S rRNA gene phylogeny and notes on morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaozhong; Fan, Yangbo; Warren, Alan

    2015-08-01

    The benthic urostylid ciliate Apoholosticha sinicaFan et al., 2014 was isolated from a salt marsh at Blakeney, UK, and reinvestigated using light microscopy and small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing. Morphologically, it corresponds well with the original description. Several stages of divisional morphogenesis and physiological reorganization were also observed from which the following could be deduced: (i) the oral apparatus is completely newly built in the proter; (ii) frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlage II does not produce a buccal cirrus; (iii) each of the posteriormost three or four anlagen contributes one transverse cirrus at its posterior end; (iv) a row of frontoterminal cirri originates from the rearmost frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlage; (v) the last midventral row is formed from the penultimate frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlage. Based on new data, two diagnostic features were added to the genus definition: (i) the midventral complex is composed of midventral pairs and midventral row and (ii) pretransverse ventral cirri are absent. Based on a combination of morphological and morphogenetic data, the genus Apoholosticha is assigned to the recently erected subfamily Nothoholostichinae Paiva et al., 2014, which is consistent with sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene data. It is also concluded that this benthic species, previously reported only from China, is not an endemic form.

  15. Taxonomy and phylogeny of two species of the genus Deviata (Protista, Ciliophora) from China, with description of a new soil form, Deviata parabacilliformis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengchao; Lv, Zhao; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Shao, Chen

    2014-11-01

    The morphology and morphogenesis of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Deviata parabacilliformis sp. nov., isolated from northern China, were investigated. D. parabacilliformis measures about 75-210 × 25-60 µm in vivo, with an elongate and flexible body. It possesses one right marginal row, two to four left marginal rows and three dorsal kineties. The main morphogenetic features of D. parabacilliformis are: (i) the oral primordium originates de novo; (ii) anlage IV of the opisthe originates from parental frontoventral row V, anlage V originates de novo, and anlage VI forms from frontoventral row VI; and (iii) anlage I of the proter originates from the anterior portion of the parental paroral, anlage II originates from the buccal cirrus, anlage III originates from the parabuccal cirri, anlage IV originates from parental frontoventral row IV and anlage V forms from the anterior of parental frontoventral row VI. The morphology of an edaphic population of another species of the genus Deviata, Deviata bacilliformis (Gelei 1954) Eigner 1995, was also investigated. This work also provides the first record of SSU rRNA gene sequences for species of the genus Deviata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that Deviata is not monophyletic, and its position is poorly resolved due to weak phylogenetic signal of the 18S marker in the Stichotrichida.

  16. Re-evaluation of the phylogenetic position of the genus Dexiotrichides (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) inferred from stomatogenetic and molecular information for Dexiotrichides pangi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Weibo; Alan WARREN; David ROBERTS; SHANG Huimin; MA Hongwei; Norbert WILBERT; MIAO Miao; YI Zhenzhen

    2005-01-01

    The divisional process and systematic position of the marine scuticociliate Dexiotrichides pangi are studied. Based on both stomatogenetic data and 18S rDNA gene sequences, the phylogeny and morphogenetic characteristics of this taxon, and of other related genera, are analyzed and discussed. Both the divisionary events and the molecular biological data indicate that this species/genus, together with certain other genera in the Dexiotricha-complex, occupies an intermediate position between the tetrahymenids and the "typical" scuticociliate, which suggests that the Dexiotricha-like taxa should be excluded from the "true" scuticociliates. As a further contribution, the process of stomatogenesis in D. pangican be summarized as follows: (1) The oral primordia in the opisthe are formed only by the proliferation of basal bodies in the scutica field, which subsequently develop intothree membranelles, while the new paroral membrane seems to be generated by the sub-anterior portion of somatic kinety 1 (the 1st postoral intercalary kinety). The latter character exhibits a mode similar to Tetrahymena. (2) In the proter the parental membranelles are retained and remain unchanged throughout the entire division process; only the old paroral membrane is disassembled and differentiated into the anlage, which then gives rise to the new paroral membrane and the scutica of the proter. The 18S rRNA gene sequence reported here isthe first one for a ciliate in the Dexiotricha-complex.

  17. 纤毛虫念珠异列虫射出胞器的超微结构观察%Observations on the Ultrastructure of Extrusomes in Anteholosticha monilata (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小翠; 翟羽佳; 倪兵; 顾福康

    2012-01-01

    By using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the present study demonstrates a great number of extrusomes distributed in the cortical cytoplasm of a hypotrichous ciliate Anteholosticha monilata. The extrusive organelles in early phase were seen to be located in the deep part of the cytoplasm. There were three kinds of vesicles with different structural characteristics. The mature extrusomes moved towards the pellicle, which consisted three parts: a body consisting of strateform structures of uneven electron density, an elongated shaft located at the centre of the body and a cap including multilayer membrane-structure. The organelles broke through the pellicle and discharged part of their internal structural substances when suffered from the external stimulus, and the extruded structures were mushroom-shaped. The results indicated that the extrusomes play a protective/defensive role when the outer environment changes. Extrusomes may be originated from the vesicles of Golgi apparatus. In the close relationship of ciliates, their extrusomes may have similar characteristics in structure.%应用扫描电镜术和透射电镜术显示,纤毛虫念珠异列虫(Anteholosticha monilata)的射出胞器早期发生在细胞质深处,附近有不同类型的囊泡结构.成熟后射出胞器向表膜迁移,结构由不同电子密度片层的体部、结晶状的中心轴杆部和多层膜的帽部组成.受外界刺激时胞器冲破皮层射出,形态呈“蘑菇”状.据上述观察结果推测:该射出胞器具有防御作用,它可能起源于高尔基体活动产生的小泡;在亲缘关系较近的纤毛虫中,其射出胞器可能具有相似的分化特征.

  18. 广东沿海的砂壳纤毛虫及3种国内新纪录%TINTINNID CILIATES FROM COASTAL WATERS OFF GUANGDONG, WITH NOTES ON THREE NEW RECORDS OF CHINA (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 姜勇; 李继秋; 马洪钢; 许恒龙

    2012-01-01

    Tintinnid ciliates are an important component of plankton communities and widely distribute in the coastal waters. However, in morphological studies, the tintinnids belonged to the poorly known groups, especially in the water of the South China Sea. In the winter of 2008, the tintinnids sampled from the coastal waters in the South China Sea (Guangdong) were investigated. The water temperature was 17-20℃ and the salinity was about 30‰-31‰. Samples were collected by a horizontal tow net from 1.5 m under the water surface. Part of samples were immediately stored in 4℃ for in vivo observation and the others were fixed in formalin at a final concentration of 5% for future observations of lorica characteristics. The morphological characteristics including lorica features were observed and described by using light microscopical method. In this present study, 16 species were indentified and they belonged to Tintinnopsis, Codonella, Stenosemella and Favella. Three of them were believed to be the first records of China, Codonella apicata Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis turbo Meunier, 1919 and Stenosemella expansa Wailes, 1925. In addition, another three species were the first records in the semi-tropical and tropical areas of China, Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier, 1910; Tintinnopsis lohmanni (Jorgensen, 1927) Laackmann, 1906, and Codonella rapa Kofoid & Campbell, 1929. The other 10 species included Tintinnopsis beroidea Stein, 1867, Tintinnopsis acuminata (Daday, 1887) Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis tocantinensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier, 1910, Tintinnopsis tublosa Levander, 1900, Tintinnopsis clongata Daday, 1887, Tintinnopsis lohmanni (Jorgensen, 1927) Laackmann,, 1906, Stenosemella parvicollis (Marshall, 1934) Hada, 1935, Favella campanula (Schmidt, 1901)J(o)rgensen, 1924, and Codonella rapa Kofoid & Campbell, 1929.%对广东沿海的砂壳纤毛虫进行了初步研究,涉及7属16种,其中3种确定为中国的新纪录:僧帽壳铃虫Codonella apicata Kofoid&Campbell,1929,陀螺形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis turbo Meunier,1919和膨胀细壳虫Stenosemella expansa Wailes,1925.另有3种为我国亚热带海域的新纪录:筒状拟铃虫Tintinnopsis tubu-losoides Meunier,1910,罗氏拟铃虫Tintinnopsis lohmanni (J(o)rgensen,1927) Laackmann,1906和贪婪铃壳虫Codonella rapa Kofoid&Campbell,1929.其余10种为常见种:百系拟铃虫Tintinnopsis beroidea Stein,1867,尖底拟铃虫Tintinnopsis acuminata (Daday,1887) Kofoid et Campbell,1929,妥肯丁拟玲虫Tintinnopsis to-cantinensis Kofoid&Campbell,1929,筒状拟铃虫Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier,1910,管状拟玲虫Tintinnopsis tublosa Levander,1900,长形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis clongata Daday,1887,罗氏拟铃虫Tintinnopsislohmanni (J(o)rgensen,1927) Laackmann,1906,小领细壳虫Stenosemella parvicollis (Marshall,1934) Hada,1935,钟状网纹虫Favella campanula(Schmidt,1901)J(o)rgensen,1924和贪婪铃壳虫Codonella rapa Kofoid&Campbell,1929.文章对其形态分类学做了简要描述.

  19. Protocruzia,a highly ambiguous ciliate(Protozoa;Ciliophora):Very likely an ancestral form for Heterotrichea,Colpodea or Spirotrichea? With reevaluation of its evolutionary position based on multigene analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thorsten; STOECK; Shin; Mann; Kyoon; Al-Rasheid; Khaled; A.; S.; Al-Khedhairy; Abdulaziz; A.

    2010-01-01

    The ciliate genus Protocruzia belongs to one of the most ambiguous taxa considering its systematic position,possibly as a member of the classes Heterotrichea,Spirotrichea or Karyorelictea,which is tentatively placed into Spirotrichea in Lynn’s 2008 system.To test these hypotheses,multigene trees(Bayesian inference,evolutionary distance,maximum parsimony,and maximum likelihood) were constructed using the small subunit rRNA(SSU rRNA) gene,internal transcribed spacer 2(ITS2) and a protein coding gene(histone H4).All analyses agree that:(1) four morphotypes of Protocruzia from different geographical origins group together and form a monophyletic clade,which cannot be assigned to any of the eleven described ciliate classes;(2) it is invariably positioned on an isolated branch separated from the class Spirotrichea suggesting that this clade should be clearly removed from Spirotrichea;(3) this leads us to hypothesize that this taxon may indeed represent a lineage on a class rank.Based on the fact that it is,both morphologically and in molecular features,closely related to the heterotrichs,Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea,Protocruziida might be an ancestral form for the subphylum Intramacronucleata in the evolutionary line from the class Heterotrichea(subphylum Postciliodesmatophora) to higher taxa.

  20. Variations morphologiques de l’appareil nucléaire chez les ciliés Astomes Almophrya bivacuolata et A. mediovacuolata (Protozoa : Ciliophora endocommensaux d’oligochètes terricoles du Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana P.A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’imprégnation argentique complétée par la coloration nucléaire de Feulgen et la coloration au DAPI nous ont permis d’étudier les variations morphologiques de l’appareil nucléaire chez deux espèces de ciliés Astomes, Almophrya bivacuolata (de Puytorac et Dragesco, 1968 et A. mediovacuolata (Ngassam, 1983 endocommensaux. Nous avons mis en évidence d’importantes digitations et la présence de bandes sombres dans la structure du macronoyau en “H” des petits types cellulaires ainsi que la présence de formes intermédiaires entre “H” et “X” dans ces deux espèces.

  1. STUDIES ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND INFRACILIATURE OF VORTICELLA CAMPANULA (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, PERITRICHIDA)%钟形钟虫形态学及表膜下纤维系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施心路; 余育和; 沈韫芬

    2003-01-01

    利用活体观察及蛋白银染色技术对钟形钟虫的形态学及表膜下纤维系统进行了研究,分别给出活体及蛋白银制片后标本的鉴别特征及表膜下纤维系统.本种活体鉴定主要特征为虫体呈宽钟状,细胞质不透明,镜下明显可见有散布的脂滴存在.蛋白银制片特征为口器明显呈横位,第1(P1)和第2咽膜(P2)汇合后形成的短咽膜弯曲程度较甚.纵向纤维粗壮而稀疏 ,40-50条;口围盘纤维网粗壮,呈轮辐状排布,相邻两轮辐外部末端多呈闭合态;第3咽膜(P3)由3排毛基索组成,其靠近P2侧的一列毛基索在P1与P3的汇合处终止,其长度只及另外两条毛基索长度的一半,故由P1和P3汇合后所组成的咽膜共由5排毛基索构成.对以上特征在分类学上的意义进行了讨论.

  2. Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophora, Peritrichia) is a grade not a clade: redefinition of Vorticella and the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae using molecular characters derived from the gene coding for small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Clamp, John; Xu, Dapeng; Kusuoka, Yasushi; Miao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses of the peritrich genus Vorticella have suggested that it might be paraphyletic, with one Vorticella species - Vorticella microstoma grouping with the swimming peritrichs Astylozoon and Opisthonecta in a distant clade. These results were based on very limited taxon sampling and thus could not be accepted as conclusive evidence for revising the generic classification. We tested paraphyly of the genus Vorticella by making a new analysis with a broad range of samples from three continents that yielded 52 new sequences of the gene coding for small subunit rRNA. Our results, together with the available sequences in Genbank, form a comprehensive set of data for the genus Vorticella. Analyses of these data showed that Vorticella microstoma morphotypes, Astylozoon, and Opisthonecta form a well-supported, monophyletic clade, that is distinct from and basal to the family Vorticellidae containing other species of Vorticella. Paraphyly of the genus Vorticella and family Vorticellidae was strongly confirmed by these results. Furthermore, the two clades of Vorticella identified by the SSU rRNA gene are so genetically diverse whereas the genetic distances within the one containing Vorticella microstoma morphotypes, Astylozoon, and Opisthonecta were so slight, which marked it as a separate family that must be defined by molecular characters in the absence of unifying morphological and morphogenetic characters. An emended characterization and status of the genus Vorticella, the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae are presented and discussed.

  3. 一种淡水缘毛类纤毛虫——沟钟虫的形态学研究%MORPHOLOGY OF A FRESHWATER PERITRICHOUS CILIATE,VORTICELLA CONVALLARIA (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA,PERITRICHIDA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施心路; 王文敬; 刘桂杰; 彭晓辉

    2007-01-01

    利用活体观察及蛋白银染色技术对一淡水缘毛目纤毛虫--沟钟虫(Vorticella convallaria)的形态学和表膜下纤维系进行了研究.结果表明:沟钟虫的活体个员自然伸展时外形较稳定,并呈明显的倒置钟状,长宽约为50-85μm×40-75μm;口围缘完全外展时为虫体最宽处;伸缩泡一个,较大,位于口围唇下方及口前庭的左侧.胞质均匀而透明,无脂肪滴存在,游泳体呈圆柱形.细胞表面横纹从口围唇到反口纤毛环为74-78条,自反口纤毛环到帚胚为18-24条.大核呈大幅度盘绕的长肠状,两端高度弯曲,纵贯于细胞内.蛋白银制片后表膜下纤维系特征为:虫体纵向纤维稀疏而粗壮,37-42条,似灯笼状;口围盘纤维呈典型的倾斜态分布,并呈放射状排列.第三咽膜(P3)在近口末端处呈明显的分离态,可视为该物种重要的分类学依据.

  4. In vitro assessment of the chemotherapeutic action of a specific hydrogen peroxide, peracetic, acetic, and peroctanoic acid-based formulation against the free-living stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picón-Camacho, Sara M; Marcos-Lopez, Mar; Beljean, Alexandre; Debeaume, Sylvain; Shinn, Andrew P

    2012-02-01

    Traditionally, malachite green administrated as in-bath treatment was the most effective and common strategy used in freshwater aquaculture systems to control infections of the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876. After the ban of malachite green in the USA and Europe to be used in fish for human consumption, there has been extensive research destined to find efficacious replacements. Recently, peracetic acid-based compounds have demonstrated a strong cytotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo against I. multifiliis. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide, peracetic, acetic and peroctanoic acid-based formulation (HPPAPA) to eliminate the free-living stages of I. multifiliis (tomonts, cysts and theronts). The results obtained showed that the administration of low doses (8, 12 or 15 mg/l) of a specific HPPAPA-based product during a short window of exposure (60 min) kills nearly all free-living stages of I. multifiliis (theronts, tomonts and cysts) within the window of treatment (∼100% mortality for all the stages; one-way ANOVA, P ≤ 0.001). Of note, even the lowest concentration of HPPAPA tested (8 mg/l) was able to disrupt normal cyst development and therefore theront release. The demonstrated in vitro efficacy of the peracetic acid-based product tested on the present study suggests its great potential to control I. multifiliis infections in commercial aquacultural systems.

  5. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisla Boehs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  6. 海洋喇叭虫rRNA基因18S-ITS1序列及其系统发育分析%18S-ITS1 rDNA SEQUENCE AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF MARISTENTOR DINOFERUS (CILIOPHORA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅诚杰; 缪炜; LOBBAN Chris; 沈韫芬

    2004-01-01

    海洋喇叭虫Maristentor dinoferus 1996年在关岛(Guam)的珊瑚暗礁上被发现,至今尚未阐明其确切的系统发育地位.克隆到的海洋喇叭虫的18S-ITS1-5.8S rDNA序列包括222 bp的18S序列,77 bp的ITS1序列和22 bp的5.8S序列.比较分析了纤毛虫主要类群的ITS1序列后得出:短的ITS1序列可能是异毛类纤毛虫的特征.根据18S序列,利用邻接法构建,最大简约法和最大似然法构建系统发育树.其拓扑结构显示海洋喇叭虫属于异毛纲纤毛虫,但并不隶属喇叭虫科,应予以新的分类地位.%Maristentor dinoferus was described in 2002, after it was first discovered on the coral reefs on Guam in 1996. However, until now its phylogenetic position has been puzzling. The 18S-ITS1-5.8S rDNA sequence of M. dinoferus is 320 bp including 222 bp from 18S rRNA gene, 77 bp from ITS1 region and 22 bp from 5.8S rRNA gene. Comparison of lengths of the ITS1 domain from the main ciliate groups (classes) was done, and it shows that short ITS1 may be the characteristics of heterotrichs. 18S rDNA sequence of M. dinoferus was analyzed using distance-matrix, maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. In all three phylogeny trees M. dinoferus is clustered with heterotrichs and as a basal clade within the heterotrich lineage, whilst not grouped with three Stentor species which were clustered with Climacostomum as a terminal clade.This topology suggests that Maristentor is a holotrichous ciliate (the class Heterotrichea) and should not be placed in the family Stentoridae, but be given a new taxonomic position.

  7. 小球藻绿钟虫--中国东北淡水生缘毛类纤毛虫的形态学重述%Morphological redescription of a peritrichous ciliate Vorticella chlorellata(Stiller,1940)(Protozoa:Ciliophora:Peritrichida) from Harbin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文敬; 施心路; 胡晓钟

    2004-01-01

    The morphology, infraciliature and myonemic system of Vorticella chlorellata (Stiller, 1940), collected from a eutrophic freshwater pond near Harbin, China, was studied using living and protargol-impregnated specimens. No recent data derived from silver impregnation on this species are available, and an emended diagnosis and description of it are provided. Freshwater Vorticella, zooid in vivo 53- 63 × 41 -62 μm, stout in shape; cell conspicuously green-colored with symbiotic green algae; one macronucleus "J" -shape, but rather curved in both end. The number of transverse striations from peristomial area to aboral ciliary wreath was 33- 36, from aboral ciliary wreath (ACW) to scopula, 15 - 18.The adstomal end of peniculus 3 is rather dispersed. Peristomial disc fibers are conspicuously oblique radiate assignment,with dichotomous end in each fiber. Through the study of characteristics of the green Vorticella species, we found there still existed some confusions and believed it was wrong to identify V. chlorellata with Vorticella chlorostigma in many descriptions. The green species redescribed in this paper was V. chlorellata, but not V. chlorostigma [ Acta ZoologicaSinica 50 (5): 817-822, 2004].%小球藻绿钟虫(Vorticella chlorellata Stiller,1940)采自哈尔滨附近水域.本文在活体观察基础上,利用蛋白银染色技术对其形态学进行了研究,给出了该种染色后的特征.小球藻绿钟虫因其细胞内充满共生小球藻呈鲜绿色而得名.该种自然伸展时呈稳定的矮钟状,体长53-63×41-62 μm;大核"J"型,两端明显盘绕,纵贯于体内.细胞表面具横纹,蛋白银制片后可见从口围唇到反口纤毛环之间有33-36条纹,从反口纤毛环到帚胚有条纹15-18条;第三咽膜(P3)由三列毛基列组成,最内侧一列长度仅是另外两列的一半,并显著分离;口围盘纤维斜向并呈轮辐式放射状排列,纤维末端分叉.通过对本文描述的绿色钟虫一小球藻绿钟虫的研究,发现对绿色钟虫的描述与归属问题仍存在一些混淆.本文认同将小球藻绿钟虫与绿钟虫严格分立的观点[动物学报50(5):817 822,2004].

  8. Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region Fauna parasitária de oito espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce do médio Rio Negro na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1% were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%, followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora (20.6%, Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora (4.0%, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida (1.3%, Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora (0.89%, and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda (0.4%. All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata.Para estudos parasitológicos, 27 espécimes de cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosa-céu Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 peixes borboleta Carnegiella strigata e 26 Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó ou cascudo Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 peixes-lápis Nannostomus eques e 38 Nannostomus unifasciatus

  9. Cytochrome b sequence data suggest rapid speciation within the Paramecium aurelia species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Dana; Przyboś, Ewa; Fokin, Sergei I; Schlegel, Martin; Berendonk, Thomas U

    2008-11-01

    We investigated mitochondrial Cytochrome b sequences from all 15 members of the enigmatic Paramecium aurelia species complex (Ciliophora). The analysis revealed high genetic distances between the different P. aurelia species (6.1-19.8%) and a largely unresolved, star-like phylogenetic tree. This result strongly supports a rapid radiation in the evolutionary history of this species complex and it correlates well with the hypothesis that the extant species diversity may have originated from the neutral consequences of a whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of P. aurelia.

  10. Parasites of economically important bivalves from the southern coast of Bahia State, Brazil Parasitos de bivalves de interesse econômico no Litoral Sul do Estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Calvi Zeidan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the parasites of three commercially important bivalve species (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella guyanensis and Lucina pectinata from the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 540 specimens were collected in August 2009 and February 2010, at three localities. The bivalve specimens were measured on their longest axis, opened, and macroscopically examined for the presence of parasites or signs of disease. They were then fixed in Davidson' solution and subjected to routine histological processing, with paraffin embedding and H&E staining; next, the specimens were examined under a light microscope. No parasites were observed associated with L. pectinata. Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Sphenophrya sp. (Ciliophora, Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa, Urastoma sp. (Turbellaria and Bucephalus sp. (Digenea were observed in both C. rhizophorae and M. guyanensis, as well as Ancistrocoma sp. (Ciliophora and Tylocephalum sp. (Cestoda in the former. A high prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was seen, but caused no apparent damage to the host. Bucephalus sp. caused the destruction of tissues, with castration, but showed low prevalence. The other parasites occurred in low prevalence and intensity, without causing significant damage.Neste estudo foram investigados os parasitos de três espécies de bivalves de interesse econômico (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella guyanensis e Lucina pectinata da Bahia. Foram analisados 540 exemplares, obtidos em duas coletas (agosto-2009 e fevereiro-2010, em três localidades. Os bivalves foram medidos quanto ao seu maior eixo, abertos e examinados macroscopicamente quanto à presença de parasitos ou sinais de enfermidades. Depois disso, foram fixados em solução de Davidson e processados por rotina de histologia, com inclusão em parafina e coloração com H&E. O material foi examinado ao microscópio de luz. Nenhum parasito esteve associado a L. pectinata. Bactérias do tipo RLOs (organismos assemelhados a

  11. Microparasites of worldwide mullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcharenko, Mykola

    2015-01-01

    The present review is focus on parasitic organisms, previously considered as protozoans. Viral, prokaryotic and fungal parasites caused diseases and disorders of worldwide mullets were also observed. Most of the known viruses associated with a high mortality of mullets were detected in Mugil cephalus. Prokaryotic microparasites were registered in M. cephalus, Moolgarda cunnesiu, Liza ramada and Mugil liza. Fungal pathogens were associated with representatives of the genera Aphanomyces, Achlya, Phialemonium, Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus sp. can be considered as a potential threat for marine fish aquaculture, especially in culture conditions. A new hyperparasitic microsporidium like organism was recorded in myxozoan Myxobolus parvus infecting grey mullet Liza haematocheilus in the Russian coastal zone of the Sea of Japan. The protozoan representatives of the phyla Dinoflagellata, Euglenozoa, Ciliophora and Apicomplexa were reviewed and analyzed. The review of myxosporean parasites from grey mullets includes 64 species belonging to 13 genera and 9 families infecting 16 fish species

  12. Parasitofauna de cachara cultivado em tanque-rede no rio Paraguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tomas Jeronimo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fauna parasitária de cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum cultivado em tanque-rede, no rio Paraguai. Dez peixes com peso médio de 598,0±81,3 g e comprimento total médio de 38,6±1,6 cm foram examinados. Todos os peixes necropsiados apresentaram infestação por pelo menos duas espécies de parasitos. Entre os parasitos, foram encontrados Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, Myxobolus sp. e Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa, Monogenoidea, Choanoscolex abscissus e Nominoscolex sudobim (Cestoda, Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea e Digenea. O protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis foi o parasito com maior prevalência.

  13. Systemic Scuticociliatosis (Philasterides dicentrarchi) in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidworthy, M F; Garner, M M; Bradway, D S; Westfall, B D; Joseph, B; Repetto, S; Guglielmi, E; Schmidt-Posthaus, H; Thornton, S M

    2014-05-01

    Scuticociliatosis is an economically important, frequently fatal disease of marine fish in aquaculture, caused by histophagous ciliated protozoa in the subclass Scuticociliatida of the phylum Ciliophora. A rapidly lethal systemic scuticociliate infection is described that affected aquarium-captive zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum), Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni), and a Japanese horn shark (Heterodontus japonicus). Animals died unexpectedly or after a brief period of lethargy or behavioral abnormality. Gross findings included necrohemorrhagic hepatitis and increased volumes of celomic fluid. Histologically, 1 or more of a triad of necrotizing hepatitis, necrotizing meningoencephalitis, and thrombosing branchitis were seen in all cases, with necrotizing vasculitis or intravascular fibrinocellular thrombi. Lesions contained variably abundant invading ciliated protozoa. Molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction from formalin-fixed tissues identified these as the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi (syn. Miamiensis avidus), a novel and potentially emergent pathogen in sharks.

  14. Diversity and distribution of parasites from potentially cultured freshwater fish in Nakhon Si Thammarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species from 16 genera of potentially cultured freshwater fish were examined for external and internal parasites. Ten individuals of each fish species were sampled from various places in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Eight groups, 72 species were identified and the majority was external (52 spp.. The parasites found were ciliated protozoan (2 spp., myxozoan (2 spp., monogenean (44 spp., digenean (7 spp., cestode (6 spp., nematode (6 spp., acanthocephalan (2 spp. and crustacean (3 spp.. Monogenean was regarded as a major group of parasites with 44 species. Dactylogyrus (Monogenea had the highest number of species (12 spp., whereas Trichodina pediculus (Ciliophora was the most widely distributed species observed from at least 7 fish species (7 families. Most of the parasites (72 % found in this study were specific to their host species.

  15. Fauna parasitária de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Characidae cultivado em tanque-rede no estado do Amapá, Amazônia oriental Parasitic fauna of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum(Characidae farmed in cages in the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Freitas Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi estudar a parasitofauna e a relação hospedeiro- parasito em tambaqui Colossoma macropomum cultivados em tanques-rede no Rio Matapi, município de Santana, estado do Amapá, região da Amazônia oriental, Brasil. Foram examinados 60 tambaquis, dos quais 96,7% estavam parasitados por protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora e Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideas Mymarotheciun boegeri e Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae e sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. Os maiores níveis de parasitismo foram causados por protozoários I. multifiliis e P. pillulare e os menores por sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. Porém, os índices de infestação não tiveram efeitos na saúde dos peixes hospedeiros, uma vez que o fator de condição relativo (Kn não foi estatisticamente (pThe purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parasitic fauna and the host-parasite relationship in Colossoma macropomum farmed in cages of Matapi River, municipally of Santana, State of Amapá, in eastern Amazon, Brazil. Of 60 specimens of tambaqui examined, 96.7% were parasitized by protozoans Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideans Mymarotheciun boegeri and Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae, and leeches Glossiphoniidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. The higher infestation levels were caused by protozoans I. multifiliis and P. pillulare, while the lower infestation levels were caused by leeches. No effects of parasitic infestation rates on fish health were observed. The relative condition factor (Kn was not correlated with the intensity of parasites found. This was the first record of I. multifiliis and P. pillulare in C. macropomum farmed in cages in the Brazilian Amazon.

  16. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Africa and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautian, Maria; Przyboś, Ewa; Surmacz, Marta; Lebedeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of geographical distribution and the roles of dispersal and spatial isolation during the speciation of microorganisms are nowadays of great interest. The Paramecium aurelia species complex is a perfect model system to explore these questions given its long history as a study subject and broad distribution. However, the world-wide distribution of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) still needs study, e.g., sampling in the southern hemisphere has been quite limited, while Europe has been investigated for years, with the majority of aurelia species isolated from here. Recently, new stands of species of the P. aurelia complex were found in southern Europe (Malta, Bulgaria, Cyprus) and in the Czech Republic (P. primaurelia, P. triaurelia, P. octaurelia). In Africa (Republic of South Africa), new stands of P. primaurelia, P. triaurelia, and P. octaurelia were found. Interestingly, the rare species P. triaurelia, and P. octaurelia were found to co-occur both in South Africa (SA 13) and the Czech Republic (CKV 8). Newly established strains were identified to species by crossing with the test strains (the reference strains for the particular species).

  17. New Stands of Species of the Paramecium aurelia Complex in Yakutia, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautian, Maria; Przyboś, Ewa; Beliavskaia, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is one of the most studied genera among ciliates. In particular, it is a model organism for investigation of the sibling species problem (also known as the cryptic species problem), spatial distribution, and its role in speciation. The global distribution of Paramecium species and of sibling species belonging to the P. aurelia species complex (Ciliophora, Protista) still need study, e.g. sampling in some territories has been quite limited, while Europe has been investigated for years with the majority of the P. aurelia species isolated from here. The large territory of Yakutia (republic Sakha in the Russian Federation), known for its climate extremes and continuous permafrost that extended over several glacial and interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene, has not been studied before. In the present study we collected paramecia in the central part of Yakutia. Newly established strains were identified to species according to morphology and, in case of the P. aurelia complex, by crossing with the test strains (the reference strains for the particular species). New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia and P. novaurelia were described from the territory of Yakutia.

  18. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore–offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity in a deep artificial lake plankton community revealed by PCR-DGGE fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Xu; Wei, Yuquan; Qiu, Linlin; Wei, Zimin; Li, Fuheng

    2015-05-01

    To explore the spatial heterogeneity of plankton communities in a deep artificial lake (Songhua Lake, China), samples were collected at seven sites. Samples were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S and 18S rRNA genes and specific bands were sequenced. Cluster analysis of the DGGE profiles revealed that all of the samples grouped into two distinct clusters, in accordance with sampling site; while in each cluster, the divergence of sub-clusters correlated with sampling depth. Sequence analysis of selected dominant DGGE bands revealed that most sequenced phylotypes (84%) exhibited ≥97% similarity to the closest sequences in GenBank, and were affiliated with ten common freshwater plankton phyla ( Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Pyrrophyta, Cryptophyta, Ciliophora, Stramenopiles, and Rotifera). Several of these groups are also found worldwide, indicating the cosmopolitan distribution of the phylotypes. The relationships between DGGE patterns and environmental factors were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results suggested that, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and CODMn concentrations, and water temperature were strongly correlated with the variation in plankton composition.

  20. Diversity and dynamics of active microbial eukaryotes in the anoxic zone of a freshwater meromictic lake (Pavin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILE eLEPERE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial eukaryotes play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning and oxygen is considered to be one of the strongest barriers against their local dispersal. However, diversity of microbial eukaryotes in freshwater habitats with oxygen gradients has previously received very little attention. We applied high-throughput sequencing (V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene in conjunction with quantitative PCR (DNA and RNA and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses, to provide an unique spatio-temporal analysis of microbial eukaryotes diversity and potential activity in a meromictic freshwater lake (lake Pavin. This study revealed a high genetic diversity of unicellular eukaryotes in the permanent anoxic zone of lake Pavin and allowed the discrimination of active vs. inactive components. 42 % of the OTUs (Operational taxonomic Units are exclusively present in the monimolimnion, where Alveolata (Ciliophora and Dinophyceae and Fungi (Dikarya and Chytrids are the most active phyla and are probably represented by species capable of anaerobic metabolism. Pigmented eukaryotes (Haptophyceae and Chlorophyceae are also present and active in this zone, which opens up questions regarding their metabolism.

  1. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore-offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  2. Free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated drinking water supplies, identified by phylogenic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valster, Rinske M; Wullings, Bart A; Bakker, Geo; Smidt, Hauke; van der Kooij, Dick

    2009-07-01

    Free-living protozoan communities in water supplies may include hosts for Legionella pneumophila and other undesired bacteria, as well as pathogens. This study aimed at identifying free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated groundwater supplies, using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. For this purpose, samples (Eukaryotic communities were studied using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments and a Hartmannella vermiformis-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR). In both supplies, highly diverse eukaryotic communities were observed, including free-living protozoa, fungi, and metazoa. Sequences of protozoa clustered with Amoebozoa (10 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]), Cercozoa (39 OTUs), Choanozoa (26 OTUs), Ciliophora (29 OTUs), Euglenozoa (13 OTUs), Myzozoa (5 OTUs), and Stramenopiles (5 OTUs). A large variety of protozoa were present in both supplies, but the estimated values for protozoan richness did not differ significantly. H. vermiformis was observed in both supplies but was not a predominant protozoan. One OTU with the highest similarity to Acanthamoeba polyphaga, an opportunistic human pathogen and a host for undesired bacteria, was observed in supply A. The high level of NOM in supply B corresponded with an elevated level of active biomass and with elevated concentrations of H. vermiformis in distributed water. Hence, the application of qPCR may be promising in elucidating the relationship between drinking water quality and the presence of specific protozoa.

  3. Phylum-specific environmental DNA analysis reveals remarkably high global biodiversity of Cercozoa (Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, David; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    This study presents the first 18S rRNA multi-library environmental PCR survey of a single protozoan phylum, Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith 1998, from a range of different habitats. Phylogenetic analysis reveals at least nine novel clades within the phylum, several possibly at the level of order or above. Further experiments are described to ascertain the true ecological and geographical distributions of some clades that might be inferred from the tree to be restricted in either or both ways. These results suggest that the diversity of cercozoan taxa may run into thousands of lineages, making it comparable in diversity to the largest better-characterized protozoan phyla, e.g. Ciliophora (ciliates and suctorians) and Foraminifera. New sequences of cultured Spongomonas, Metromonas and Metopion are also presented. In the light of these additions, and the increased taxon sampling from the environmental libraries, some revisions of cercozoan classification are made: the transfer of Spongomonadea from Reticulofilosa to Monadofilosa; the removal of Metopiida from Sarcomonadea; and the creation of the new order Metromonadida, currently containing the single genus Metromonas. Although Metromonas groups with weak to moderate support with Chlorarachnea, it is here placed in superclass Monadofilosa, to which it is morphologically more similar.

  4. Competitive advantages of Caedibacter-infected Paramecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jürgen; Czubatinski, Lars; Wegmann, Silke; Hubner, Markus; Alter, Margret; Albrecht, Petra

    2002-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Caedibacter limit the reproduction of their host, the freshwater ciliate Paramecium. Reproduction rates of infected strains of paramecia were significantly lower than those of genetically identical strains that had lost their parasites after treatment with an antibiotic. Interference competition occurs when infected paramecia release a toxic form of the parasitic bacterium that kills uninfected paramecia. In mixed cultures of infected and uninfected strains of either P tetraurelia or of P novaurelia, the infected strains outcompeted the uninfected strains. Infection of new host paramecia seems to be rare. Infection of new hosts was not observed in either mixtures of infected with uninfected strains, or after incubation of paramecia with isolated parasites. The competitive advantages of the host paramecia, in combination with their vegetative reproduction, makes infection of new hosts by the bacterial parasites unnecessary, and could be responsible for the continued existence of "killer paramecia" in nature. Caedibacter parasites are not a defensive adaptation. Feeding rates and reproduction of the predators Didinium nasutum (Ciliophora) and Amoeba proteus (Amoebozoa, Gymnamoebia) were not influenced by whether or not their paramecia prey were infected. Infection of the predators frequently occurred when they preyed on infected paramecia. Caedibacter-infected predators may influence competition between Paramecium strains by release of toxic parasites into the environment that are harmful to uninfected strains.

  5. 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov.: considerations on evolutionary history, host range and shift of early divergent rickettsiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schrallhammer

    Full Text Available "Neglected Rickettsiaceae" (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora; furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria.

  6. Trade-off between taxon diversity and functional diversity in European lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Lars; Beisser, Daniela; Bock, Christina; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Jensen, Manfred; Preisfeld, Angelika; Psenner, Roland; Rahmann, Sven; Wodniok, Sabina; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-12-01

    Inferring ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services through inspections of the species inventory is a major aspect of ecological field studies. Ecosystem functions are often stable despite considerable species turnover. Using metatranscriptome analyses, we analyse a thus-far unparalleled freshwater data set which comprises 21 mainland European freshwater lakes from the Sierra Nevada (Spain) to the Carpathian Mountains (Romania) and from northern Germany to the Apennines (Italy) and covers an altitudinal range from 38 m above sea level (a.s.l) to 3110 m a.s.l. The dominant taxa were Chlorophyta and streptophytic algae, Ciliophora, Bacillariophyta and Chrysophyta. Metatranscriptomics provided insights into differences in community composition and into functional diversity via the relative share of taxa to the overall read abundance of distinct functional genes on the ecosystem level. The dominant metabolic pathways in terms of the fraction of expressed sequences in the cDNA libraries were affiliated with primary metabolism, specifically oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis and the TCA cycle. Our analyses indicate that community composition is a good first proxy for the analysis of ecosystem functions. However, differential gene regulation modifies the relative importance of taxa in distinct pathways. Whereas taxon composition varies considerably between lakes, the relative importance of distinct metabolic pathways is much more stable, indicating that ecosystem functioning is buffered against shifts in community composition through a functional redundancy of taxa.

  7. Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Pantoja MF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

  8. Classification of the peritrich ciliate Opisthonecta matiensis (Martín-Cereceda et al. 1999) as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb., based on new observations and SSU rDNA phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; Guinea, Almudena; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Dyal, Patricia; Novarino, Gianfranco; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2007-11-01

    New observations on Opisthonecta matiensis Martín-Cereceda et al. [1999. Description of Opisthonecta matiensis n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora), a new peritrich ciliate from wastewater. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46, 283-289] especially the lack of an epistomial membrane, reveal that the species does not belong to the genus Opisthonecta, but to Telotrochidium, the other genus within the family Opisthonectidae Foissner, 1975. The contractile vacuole and the cytopyge are on the dorsal wall of the vestibulum and the trochal band is limited distally and proximally by rows of narrowly spaced pellicular pores. Thus the species is redefined as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb. The morphological, cortical and nuclear events occurring during conjugation are illustrated, compared with those in other species, and phylogenetically discussed. Invariably, the microconjugants attach to and penetrate the lateral side of the macroconjugants. Nuclear processes are very similar to those reported from other peritrichs. The small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) is sequenced and the phylogeny within Opisthonectidae and peritrichs examined. T. matiense is more closely related to Epistylis (63% Maximum Parsimony (MP), 85% Maximum Likelihood (ML)) than to any other genus, while another representative of the family, viz., Opisthonecta henneguyi, is closely related to Vorticella microstoma, Astylozoon enriquesi and clone RT3n18 (100% MP, 100% ML). Morphology and gene sequences suggest that Telotrochidium and Opisthonecta have derived from different lineages of stalked peritrichs: Opisthonecta could have arisen from peritrichs with stalk myonemes, while Telotrochidium probably evolved from peritrichs without stalk myonemes.

  9. High protists diversity in the plankton of sulfurous lakes and lagoons examined by 18s rRNA gene sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-12-01

    Diversity of small protists was studied in sulfidic and anoxic (euxinic) stratified karstic lakes and coastal lagoons by 18S rRNA gene analyses. We hypothesized a major sulfide effect, reducing protist diversity and richness with only a few specialized populations adapted to deal with low-redox conditions and high-sulfide concentrations. However, genetic fingerprinting suggested similar ecological diversity in anoxic and sulfurous than in upper oxygen rich water compartments with specific populations inhabiting euxinic waters. Many of them agreed with genera previously identified by microscopic observations, but also new and unexpected groups were detected. Most of the sequences matched a rich assemblage of Ciliophora (i.e., Coleps, Prorodon, Plagiopyla, Strombidium, Metopus, Vorticella and Caenomorpha, among others) and algae (mainly Cryptomonadales). Unidentified Cercozoa, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Discoba were recurrently found. The lack of GenBank counterparts was higher in deep hypolimnetic waters and appeared differentially allocated in the different taxa, being higher within Discoba and lower in Cryptophyceae. A larger number of populations than expected were specifically detected in the deep sulfurous waters, with unknown ecological interactions and metabolic capabilities.

  10. Bacterial and eukaryotic biodiversity patterns in terrestrial and aquatic habitats in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbels, Dagmar; Verleyen, Elie; Mano, Marie-José; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Sweetlove, Maxime; Tytgat, Bjorn; Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; De Wever, Aaike; D'hondt, Sofie; Ertz, Damien; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The bacterial and microeukaryotic biodiversity were studied using pyrosequencing analysis on a 454 GS FLX+ platform of partial SSU rRNA genes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the Sør Rondane Mountains, including soils, on mosses, endolithic communities, cryoconite holes and supraglacial and subglacial meltwater lenses. This inventory was complemented with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis targeting Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. OTUs belonging to the Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Tardigrada, Ciliophora, Cercozoa, Fungi, Bryophyta, Bacillariophyta, Collembola and Nematoda were present with a relative abundance of at least 0.1% in the eukaryotic communities. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, FBP and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Multivariate analyses of the pyrosequencing data revealed a general lack of differentiation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to habitat type. However, the bacterial community structure in the aquatic habitats was dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya and appeared to be significantly different compared with those in dry soils, on mosses, and in endolithic habitats. A striking feature in all datasets was the detection of a relatively large amount of sequences new to science, which underscores the need for additional biodiversity assessments in Antarctic inland locations.

  11. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  12. Depth shapes α- and β-diversities of microbial eukaryotes in surficial sediments of coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Shi, Fei; Ma, Bin; Dong, Jun; Pachiadaki, Maria; Zhang, Xiaoli; Edgcomb, Virginia P

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the relative influence of historic processes and environmental gradients on shaping the diversity of single-celled eukaryotes in marine benthos. By combining pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes with data on multiple environmental factors, we investigated the diversity of microeukaryotes in surficial sediments of three basins of the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem. A considerable proportion (about 20%) of reads was affiliated with known parasitoid protists. Dinophyta and Ciliophora appeared dominant in terms of relative proportion of reads and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. Overall, OTU richness of benthic microeukaryotes decreased with increasing water depth and decreasing pH. While community composition was significantly different among basins, partial Mantel tests indicated a depth-decay pattern of community similarity, whereby water depth, rather than geographic distance or environment, shaped β-diversity of benthic microeukaryotes (including both the abundant and the rare biosphere) on a regional scale. Similar hydrographic and mineralogical factors contributed to the biogeography of both the abundant and the rare OTUs. The trace metal vanadium had a significant effect on the biogeography of the rare biosphere. Our study sheds new light on the composition, diversity patterns and underlying mechanisms of single-celled eukaryote distribution in surficial sediments of coastal oceans.

  13. The phylogenetic position of red algae revealed by multiple nuclear genes from mitochondria-containing eukaryotes and an alternative hypothesis on the origin of plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Takahara, Manabu; Misumi, Osami; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Hasegawa, Masami; Shin-i, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Ogasawara, Naotake; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-04-01

    primary and secondary plastid-containing lineages (green plants, glaucophytes, euglenoids, heterokonts, and apicomplexans), Ciliophora, Kinetoplastida, and Heterolobosea. The red algae represented the sister lineage to Group B. Using 34 OTUs for which essentially the entire amino acid sequences of the four genes are known, MP, distance, quartet puzzling, and two types of maximum likelihood (ML) calculations all robustly resolved the monophyly of Group B, as well as the basal position of red algae within eukaryotic organisms. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated 4639-amino-acid sequence for 12 nuclear genes (excluding the EF-2 gene) of 12 mitochondria-containing OTUs (including C. merolae) resolved a robust non-sister relationship between green plants and red algae within a robust monophyletic group composed of red algae and the eukaryotic organisms belonging to Group B. A new scenario for the origin and evolution of plastids is suggested, based on the basal phylogenetic position of the red algae within the large clade (Group B plus red algae). The primary plastid endosymbiosis likely occurred once in the common ancestor of this large clade, and the primary plastids were subsequently lost in the ancestor(s) of the Discicristata (euglenoids, Kinetoplastida, and Heterolobosea), Heterokontophyta, and Alveolata (apicomplexans and Ciliophora). In addition, a new concept of "Plantae" is proposed for phototrophic and nonphototrophic organisms belonging to Group B and red algae, on the basis of the common history of the primary plastid endosymbiosis. The Plantae include primary plastid-containing phototrophs and nonphototrophic eukaryotes that possibly contain genes of cyanobacterial origin acquired in the primary endosymbiosis.

  14. Haematological and gill responses in parasitized tilapia from valley of Tijucas River, SC, Brazil Respostas hematológica e branquial de tilápia parasitada do vale do Rio Tijucas, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maslowa Pegado de Azevedo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Santa Catarina there is no information about haematological and parasitological characteristics of fish maintained in feefishing operations and manured ponds. This work compared the haematological characteristics of Nile tilapia parasitized or not, captured in a property situated in Nova Trento, SC, Brazil, between August 2003 and July 2004. During the studied period, the water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, ammonia and transparency were measured. Ten fish were collected monthly either in a feefishing or in a pond receiving pig manure, and anesthetized with benzocaine solution for haematological, parasitological and histopathological exams. From a total of 360 analyzed fish, 64 (17.8% were parasitized with Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp. (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae, 20 (5.5% with Trichodina sp. (Protozoa: Ciliophora, and four (1.1% with Lamproglena sp. (Crustacea: Lernaeidae. The total number of erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leucocytes, glucose rate and the percentages of hematocrit, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils did not show relation with parasitism. Histopathological analysis showed moderate hyperplasia and absence of congestion. The low level of parasitism found in the animals was not responsible for haematological alterations.No Estado de Santa Catarina não existe informação sobre características hematológicas e parasitológicas que compare peixes mantidos em pesque-pague e com dejetos de suínos. Este trabalho estudou as características hematológicas da tilápia do Nilo parasitada ou não, capturada numa propriedade em Nova Trento, SC, Brasil, entre agosto de 2003 e julho de 2004. Durante o período a temperatura da água, pH, oxigênio, alcalinidade e transparência foram medidos. Dez peixes foram mensalmente coletados no pesque-pague e num viveiro que recebia dejetos de suínos, anestesiados com benzocaína para análise hematológica, parasitológica e histopatol

  15. Phylogeny of ultra-rapidly evolving dinoflagellate chloroplast genes: a possible common origin for sporozoan and dinoflagellate plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Green, B R; Cavalier-Smith, T

    2000-07-01

    Complete chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes from five peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (Heterocapsa pygmaea, Heterocapsa niei, Heterocapsa rotun-data, Amphidinium carterae, and Protoceratium reticulatum) were amplified by PCR and sequenced; partial sequences were obtained from Thoracosphaera heimii and Scrippsiella trochoidea. Comparison with chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes of other organisms shows that dinoflagellate chloroplast genes are the most divergent and rapidly evolving of all. Quartet puzzling, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and LogDet trees were constructed. Intersite rate variation and invariant sites were allowed for with quartet puzzling and neighbor joining. All psbA and 23S rRNA trees showed peridinin-containing dinoflagellate chloroplasts as monophyletic. In psbA trees they are related to those of chromists and red algae. In 23S rRNA trees, dinoflagellates are always the sisters of Sporozoa (apicomplexans); maximum likelihood analysis of Heterocapsa triquetra 16S rRNA also groups the dinoflagellate and sporozoan sequences, but the other methods were inconsistent. Thus, dinoflagellate chloroplasts may actually be related to sporozoan plastids, but the possibility of reproducible long-branch artifacts cannot be strongly ruled out. The results for all three genes fit the idea that dinoflagellate chloroplasts originated from red algae by a secondary endosymbiosis, possibly the same one as for chromists and Sporozoa. The marked disagreement between 16S rRNA trees using different phylogenetic algorithms indicates that this is a rather poor molecule for elucidating overall chloroplast phylogeny. We discuss possible reasons why both plastid and mitochondrial genomes of alveolates (Dinozoa, Sporozoa and Ciliophora) have ultra-rapid substitution rates and a proneness to unique genomic rearrangements.

  16. ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS DA COMUNIDADE DE PARASITOS EMDUAS ESPÉCIES DE LORICARIIDAE DA BACIA IGARAPÉ FORTALEZA, ESTADO DO AMAPÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Alves Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitos têm sido reconhecidos como importantes componentes dos ecossistemas. Esses usam o ambiente para a sua transmissão e podem infectar diversas espécies de peixe no ecossistema. O presente estudo investigou a ecologia parasitária em Squaliforma emarginata e Harttia duriventris da bacia Igarapé Fortaleza, região de Macapá, estado do Amapá, Norte do Brasil. Para ambos os peixes houve similar nível de infecção por Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, parasito dominante e com dispersão agregada. Spironucleus sp. (Hexamitidae ocorreu somente nas brânquias de H. duriventris, enquanto Trinigyrus mourei (Monogenoidea e Procamallanus inopinatus (Camallanidae foram encontrados somente S. emarginata. O índice de Brillouin, riqueza de espécies de parasitos, uniformidade e dominância de Berger-Parker foram maiores em S. emarginata, mas paraambos os hospedeiros a comunidade parasitária foi caracterizada por baixa diversidade e baixa uniformidade. Em H. duriventris e S. emarginata, o baixo parasitismo não afetou o fator de condição relativo (Kn dos hospedeiros. Em S. emarginata houve correlação positiva da abundância de I. multifiliis com o comprimento, peso e Kn dos hospedeiros,enquanto que em H. druventris somente o peso e Kn mostram correlação com a abundância desse ciliado. Este foi o primeiro registro de I. multifiliis, Spironucleus sp. e P.inopinatus para H. duriventris e S. emarginata. Palavras-chave: Amazônia, Diversidade, Parasitos, Peixes de água doce, Metazoários. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p15-21

  17. Water quality and potamoplankton evaluation of the Nile River in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Otify

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The composition, abundance, community structure of potamoplankton and major physical and chemical variables of the Nile water in Upper Egypt were investigated to assess its status in different seasons during 2007.MethodsWater samples were collected seasonally during 2007 from six investigated sites from variable depths at levels of 0, 2.5 and 5 m. The area of this investigation is defined as the southern 120 Km of the main stream of the Nile in Upper Egypt (24° 04’ – 25° 00’ latitudes and 32° 51’ – 32° 54’ longitudes, downstream of Aswan Old Dam.ResultsAltogether, 121 potamoplankton species, of which 85 related to phytoplankton and 36 appertaining to zooplankton were recorded. Most numerous phytoplankton were Chlorophyceae (42 species followed by Bacillariophyceae (30 species. Cyanobacteria and Dinophyceae were less numerous with only 11 and 2 species, respectively. Zooplankton species were mainly belonging to three systematic groups namely; Rotifera (24 species, Copepoda (3 species and Cladocera (9 species. Besides, other rare zooplankton including Platyhelminthes, Nemata and Ciliophora were sparsely encountered. The main hydrological conditions characterizing the investigated area include water level fluctuations (˂82 - ˃85 m above sea level, relatively high current velocity (0.8 - 1.3 m sec–1 and disposal of wastewater. Plankton populations were variably but rather weakly dependent on the major nutrients due to their excessive availability in accessible form for uptake by the producers. For phytoplankton, the community structure was categorized in relation to temperature, pH, SO42– and Mg2+. For zooplankton, the community structure was categorized in relation to conductivity as well as Mg2+. Sampling intervals were inadequate to demonstrate the existing successional pattern of the Nile potamoplankton community. Alterations in the phytoplankton community structure accompanied changes in water temperature represented

  18. DESCRIPTION DE LA ZOOÉPIBIOSE DE L’ÉCREVISSE SIGNAL (PACIFASTACUS LENIUSCULUS, DANA EN ASTACICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUELLAR M. C.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Des recherches ont été effectuées concernant la zooépibiose de l’écrevisse signal (Pacifastacus leniusculus, D., provenant d’un centre d’astaciculture espagnol, au cours de la période 1997-1998. Les organismes épibiotiques dominants trouvés sur l’exosquelette appartiennent aux groupes zoologiques d’Invertébrés suivants : Mastigophora (Bodo, Cilliophora (Stentor, Epistylis, Zoothamnium, Acineta, Turbelaria (Temnocephala, Rotifera (Brachionus, Annelida (Branchiobdella, Acarina (Hygrobates et Ostracode (Eucypris ou Enthocytera, on souligne le nombre élevé de Branchiobdellides de l’espèce Branchiobdella instabilia M., dont les quantités minimum et maximum, en mâles et femelles, oscillent de 12 à 139 et de 7 à 130, respectivement. Les hyperbranchiobdelloses provoquent des automutilations, des décollements des pinces et autres appendices, des mues anormales, des lésions cuticulaires, de l’hémocytopénie et des changements éthologiques. Les colonisations maximales d’Ostracodes de l’espèce Eucypris virens, J.O., Enthocytera heterodonta, R., dans les poches d’incubation des femelles donnent lieu à une coloration rougeâtre des oeufs et à leur perte postérieure. Compte tenu de leur nombre limité et de la période d’épibiose, les genres des sous-types Mastigophora, Ciliophora, Turbelaria, Rotifera et Arachnida ne représentent aucun danger pour les écrevisses. En ce qui concerne la zooépibiose associée aux appendices et aux régions du corps des écrevisses du Pacifique, les chélipèdes ou pinces constituent le substrat où se place de préférence le genre Branchiobdella ; le céphalothorax sert de support à tous les groupes taxonomiques d’épibiontes identifiés.

  19. Assessing Aquatic Ecological Risk of Aniline by Species Sensitivity Distributions%应用物种敏感性分布评估苯胺的水生生态风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡习邦; 曾东; 王俊能; 贺德春; 许振成

    2016-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was used to assess the ecological risk of aniline for freshwater organisms. The hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC5) was calculated, and the distinguished character of hazardous concentrations of aniline to different species was analyzed. The acute ecological risks of the aniline and the sensitivity of different freshwater species were assessed in the different surface water body in China, including environmental accident water. The results showed that different organisms have different tolerance range of aniline. That was in the order of Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Crustacean < Amphibia < Worms < Fishes < Ciliophora < Annelida. The wider tolerance range of aniline for organisms indicated that the increasing trend of ecological risk would slow down when the aniline’s concentration increased. The HC5 for all the species from low to high was in the order of Crustacean < Worms < Fishes < Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Amphibia < Ciliophora < Algae < Annelida < Arthropod < Molluscas < Amphibia. The lower HC5 is, the higher ecological risk of aniline for species is. Crustacean was the most sensitive specie among all the freshwater species with the HC5 of 2.29μg·L-1. Meanwhile, the HC5 for all of the freshwater species came up to 4.72μg·L-1. The value of Potential affected fraction (PAF) reflected the different damage degree in different pollution scenario. There was very low aquatic ecological riskby using SSD to assess the acute ecological risk assessment of aniline from several surface water body in China, which the PAF value was close to 0. It was obviously posed ecological damage to crustacean and worms during the aniline spilling accident in Shanxi Province.%应用物种敏感性分布(Species Sensitivity Distribution,SSD)方法构建了淡水生物对苯胺(Aniline)的敏感性分布曲线,计算了苯胺对不同生物的5%危害浓度(HC5),分析比较不同类别生物

  20. 程海浮游动物种群特征与数量的周年变化%Annual Changes of Population Characteristics and Quantities of Zooplankton in Chenghai Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云仙; 王忠泽

    2013-01-01

    为深入了解程海湖泊生态系统的状况,2009年10月至2010年7月对程海浮游动物进行了季节性调查.结果表明,程海有浮游动物34科、59属、86种;其中,原生动物13科、18属、28种,轮虫10科、23属、34种,枝角类5科、7属、11种,桡足类2科、7属、9种,其他浮游动物4科、4属、4种.原生动物纤毛虫类(Ciliophora)四季均为优势类群,溞钟虫(Vorticella kahli)春季数量较多,而急游虫(Strombidium sp.)和湖累枝虫(Epistylis lacustris)在秋季数量达到高峰.轮虫优势种为暗小异尾轮虫(Trichocerca pusilla)、奇异巨腕轮虫(Pedalia mira)、裂痕龟纹轮虫(Anuraeopsis flasa)和萼花臂尾轮虫(Brachionus calyciflorus).枝角类种类少、数量多,主要是棘爪网纹溞(Ceriodaphnia reticulata)、短尾秀体潘(Diaphanosoma brachyurum)、透明溞(Daphnia hyaline)、园形盘肠溞(Chydorus sphaericus)和长肢秀体溞(D.leuchtenbergianum);桡足类种类少、数量低,近剑水蚤(Tropocyclops sp.)、锯齿真剑水蚤(Eucyclops macruroides deticulatus)、透明温剑水蚤(Thermocyclops hyalinus)常见并有一定优势.浮游动物数量为3 316.9个/L;其中,春季2 635.6个/L,夏季3 010.7个/L,秋季3 998.0个/L,冬季3 623.5个/L;水平分布南部明显偏高,东部数量高于西部,湖心明显偏少.相关分析表明,影响浮游动物数量变动的主要因子是温度、食物和鱼类摄食.在水体富营养化和太湖新银鱼(Neosalanx taihuensis)的强大摄食压力下,程海浮游动物小型化趋势明显.

  1. 深海热液口化能合成共生作用的研究进展%Research Progress of the Chemosynthetic Symbioses in the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕明; 林荣澄; 黄丁勇

    2013-01-01

    海洋无脊椎动物和细菌间的化能合成共生作用的发现,改变了人们对深海热液口初级生产力主要来源的认知.近年的研究表明,营化能合成共生的动物隶属于纤毛门、软体动物门、环节动物门和节肢动物门;其中无脊椎动物作为宿主在与共生菌的长期共生过程中,伴随着部分器官和功能的退化或消失,逐渐形成和演化出了与此相适应的形态结构,并产生了一些特殊的行为;在深海热液口发现的所有化能合成共生菌都属于革兰氏阴性菌,它们的宿主大致可以分为2个群体;通过16 SrRNA基因编码分析,不同代谢类型的共生菌在系统发育中通常处于不同分支,形态也有所差异;共生菌独特的传播方式和进化模式也使其更加适应共生生活;由无脊椎动物和化能合成细菌构成的共生体系与环境相互作用,影响了深海热液口生态系统的演化.对共生菌蛋白质及代谢组学的研究,以及对宿主生理和代谢机制的研究将成为未来热液口化能合成共生作用研究的新热点.%The discovery of the chemosynthetic symbioses between marine invertebrates and bacteria revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity in the deep sea.Chemosynthetic host were classified within four major group including Ciliophora,Mollusca,Annelida and Arthropoda; Symbiotic invertebrates with anatomical adaptations of chemosynthetic associations are usually characterized by rudimentary or absent digestive system.Effective behavioural and physiological strategies are also used by animals to supply their symbionts with both reductants and oxidants.All the symbionts are Gram negative bacteria,and clustered in two different branches related to symbiont type in the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences,distinct differences in morphology were also observed between the two groups.The transmission and evolution strategy utilized