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Sample records for ciliate mesodinium rubrum

  1. Potential risk of Mesodinium rubrum bloom in aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China: diurnal changes in the ciliate community structure in the surface water

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    Huaxue Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal changes in the structure of the ciliate community in surface waters were studied in the aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove,China. Two periods of heavy rainfall occurred during the study period, intensifying water column stratification and influencing the water'sproperties. A total of 21 ciliate taxa from 15 genera were identified; the dominant species was Mesodinium rubrum. The maximumabundance of M. rubrum reached 3.92 × 104 indiv. dm-3,contributing 95.1% (mean value to the total ciliate abundance.Diurnal changes in M. rubrum abundance were highly variable, the driving force probably being irradiance and food availability.The results suggest that M. rubrum may form blooms in aquaculture areas when there is a suitable physical regime with enriched nutrients,which is potentially harmful to the fish-farming industry.

  2. Interaction between Mesodinium rubrum and its prey: importance of prey concentration, irradiance and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldrup, Morten; Hansen, Per Juel

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The functional and numerical responses for the marine obligate mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum Lohmann, 1908 (=Myrionecta rubra Jankowsky, 1976) were studied at 2 irradiances (20 and 100 µE m2 s-1). Furthermore, its tolerance to high pH levels and response to starvation were studied...... was sufficient for maximum growth, but carbon contributions as high as 22% were observed to have no effect on growth. The pH experiments revealed that the growth of M. rubrum and Teleaulax sp. was impeded at pH levels in excess of 8.5 and 8.8, respectively. Experiments to reveal M. rubrum's response...

  3. Vibrios associated with red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Romalde, J L; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1990-01-01

    Vibrios were isolated from red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and also throughout the year in the Ria de Pontevedra, Spain. The isolates were grouped into 14 phena by numerical toxonomy. Strains associated with red tides were restricted to four phena: phena I and II were Vibrio alginolyticus, and phena III and IV were Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio anguillarum, respectively. V. anguillarum-like strains (phena V through XI) predominated throughout the year outside the red tide areas. Cytotoxic...

  4. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles, not only for water pumping in many active filter-feeding organisms, but also for the swimming activity of ciliates and other aquatic organisms that use cilia for propulsion. The present study concerns the effect of temperature-dependent viscosity of the amb...

  5. Bio-optical characteristics of a red tide induced by Mesodinium rubrum in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Laurencia; Varela, Ramón; Muller-Karger, Frank; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The bio-optical changes of the water induced by red tides depend on the type of organism present, and the spectral characterization of such changes can provide useful information on the organism, abundance and distribution. Here we present results from the bio-optical characterization of a non-toxic red tide induced by the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Particle absorption was high [ap(440) = 1.78 m- 1], as compared to measurements done in the same region [ap(440) = 0.09 ± 0.06 m- 1], with detrital components contributing roughly 11% [ad(440) = 0.19 m- 1]. The remainder was attributed to absorption by phytoplankton pigments [aph(440) = 1.60 m- 1]. These aph values were ~ 15 times higher than typical values for these waters. High chlorophyll a concentrations were also measured (52.73 μg L- 1), together with alloxanthin (9.52 μg L- 1) and chlorophyll c (6.25 μg L- 1). This suite of pigment is typical of the algal class Cryptophyceae, from which Mesodinium obtains its chloroplasts. Remote sensing reflectance showed relatively low values [Rrs(440) = 0.0007 sr- 1], as compared to other Rrs values for the region under high bloom conditions [Rrs(440) = 0.0028 sr- 1], with maxima at 388, 484, 520, 596 and 688 nm. Based on the low reflection in the green-yellow, as compared to other red tides, we propose a new band ratio [Rrs(688)/Rrs(564)] to identify blooms of this particular group of organisms.

  6. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Cao, Wenqing; Zheng, Lianming; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates (protozoa) are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida) were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  7. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

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    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  8. Distribution and Abundance of Interstitial Ciliates in Southampton Water in Relation to Physicochemical Conditions, Metal Pollution and the Availability of Food Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheid, K. A. S.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1995-07-01

    Sediment samples were collected at low tide from eight sandy and muddy shores around Southampton Water on one occasion in July and one occasion in September. The temperature and pH of the sediments were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The population densities of bacteria and microflagellates were determined and the ciliates in sub-samples were identified to genus level and enumerated. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and nickel in the interstitial water and in the dried sediments were measured by the dithizone and atomic absorption methods, respectively. These metal concentrations were compared with literature values for other British estuaries. Ciliates belonging to 23 genera were found in the sediments, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Bacterial numbers (mean ˜5×10 8 cm -3) at the various stations correlate with the surface area of the sediment particles and also correlate weakly with flagellate numbers (mean ˜2×10 4 cm -3). Total ciliate numbers (mean ˜1×10 3 cm -3) correlated quite strongly with flagellate numbers, but not with bacterial numbers. Euplotes, Strombidiumand Uronemawere common at all stations and generally dominated; Didinium, Mesodinium pulexand Pleuronemawere also found at all stations, and the latter two were often numerous; Uronychiawas found at seven stations. The distributions of Acinetopsis, Blepharisma, Lacrymaria, M. pulex, Paramecium, Spirostomum, Strombidiumand Vorticellashowed similar correlations to one another, and tended to favour sites nearer to sources of freshwater; these ciliates also showed a correlation with pH, river waters locally being alkaline. None of the ciliates showed correlations with any physical characteristics of the sediments. There were no negative correlations of ciliate distributions with metal pollutants. The levels of metal pollutants found in water drained

  9. The trophic role and impact of plankton ciliates in the microbial web structure of a tropical polymictic lake dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the plankton structures and dynamics in tropical and subtropical lakes has revealed important trends that set these lakes apart from temperate lakes, and one of the main differences is the enhanced importance of the microbial food web with respect to net plankton. Ciliates are a key component of subtropical and tropical microbial webs because of their role as dominant picoplankton grazers and their ability to channel picoplankton production to the uppermost trophic levels. Plankton ciliates have been found to play a crucial role in the survival of fish larvae in lakes that share several features with Lake Catemaco, a eutrophic tropical Mexican lake. Therefore, the plankton ciliate composition, abundance, and biomass of Lake Catemaco were studied to assess their role in the microbial food web. The data were obtained from surface and bottom water samples collected at eleven points during three surveys in 2011 and an additional survey in 2013, with the surveys covering the local climatic seasons. The most abundant components of the plankton ciliate assemblages were small prostomatids (Urotricha spp., choreotrichs (Rimostrombidium spp., cyclotrichs (Mesodinium and Askenasia, and scuticociliates (Cyclidium, Cinetochilum, Pleuronema, and Uronema. Other important ciliates in terms of abundance and/or biomass were haptorids (Actinobolina, Belonophrya, Monodinium, Paradileptus, and Laginophrya, Halteria, oligotrichs (Limnostrombidium and Pelagostrombidium, Linostomella, Bursaridium, Cyrtolophosis, and Litonotus. The ciliate abundance averaged 57 cells mL-1 and ranged from 14 to 113 cells mL-1. The mean ciliate biomass was 71 µg C L-1 and ranged from 10 to 202 µg C L-1. Differences were not detected in ciliate abundance or biomass between the sampling points or sampling depths (surface to bottom; however, significant differences were observed between seasons for both variables. Nano-sized filamentous cyanobacteria were the most

  10. Role of food uptake for photosynthesis, growth and survival of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    . Apart from the importance of prey concentration, data revealed that ingestion and growth of D. acuminata are, to a certain degree, dependent on the growth rate of its ciliate prey. Photosynthesis was studied in a culture of D. acuminata, initially grown at prey saturation (>1000 M. rubrum cells ml-1......Dinophysis acuminata is a mixotrophic dinoflagellate frequently causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. D. acuminata was isolated from Danish coastal waters and cultivated using the mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as prey. The roles of food uptake and photosynthesis for the growth...... and survival of D. acuminata were studied. The observed maximum growth rate was ca. 0.45 d-1 at an irradiance of 100 µmol photons m-2 s-1 when supplied with well-fed M. rubrum at concentrations >1000 M. rubrum ml-1. The corresponding ingestion rate per D. acuminata was about 9 M. rubrum d-1, or 3200 pg C d-1...

  11. Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration by Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, J E; Weaver, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata were able to grow anaerobically in the dark either by a strict mixed-acid fermentation of sugars or, in the presence of an appropriate electron acceptor, by an energy-linked anaerobic respiration. Both species fermented fructose without the addition of accessory oxidants, but required the initial presence of bicarbonate before fermentative growth could begin. Major products of R. rubrum fermentation were succinate, acetate, propionate, form...

  12. Analysis of part of the Trichophyton rubrum ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingling; JIN Qi; MA Li; LENG Wenchuan; YANG Jian; ZHU Junping; DONG Jie; XUE Ying; WAN Zhe; LI Ruoyu

    2004-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum(7.Rubrum)is the most common of the superficial fungi.In an effort to better understand the genetic and biochemical makeup of T.Rubrum,we generated Cdna libraries from 3 growth stages and used these to isolate 4002 unique expressed sequence tags(ESTs).Sequence comparisons with the Genbank database allowed 1226 of the ESTs to be assigned putative functions or matched with homologs from other organisms.Of the remaining ESTs,989 were only weakly similar to known sequences and 1787 had no identifiable functions,suggesting that they represent novel genes.We further analyzed the presence of several important genes involved in the growth,metabolism,signal transduction,pathogenesis and drug resistance in 7.Rubrum.This information was used to newly elucidate important metabolic pathways in T.Rubrum.Taken together,our results should form the molecular basis for continued research on the physiological processes and pathogenic mechanisms of T.Rubrum,and may lead to a better understanding of fungal drug resistance and identification of new drug targets.

  13. The Ciliate Colpoda: "Instant" Protozoan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne Muller; Giese, Arthur C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan which is able to survive in a dry, encysted state for long periods of time. Outlines the procedures for culturing the organism and producing cyst preparations, and recommends its use in the high school biology laboratory. (JR)

  14. Control of exocellular proteases in dermatophytes and especially Trichophyton rubrum.

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    Meevootisom, V; Niederpruem, D J

    1979-06-01

    The production of proteases was investigated during growth of dermatophytic fungi with special emphasis on Trichophyton rubrum. Exogenous glucose suppressed elastase production in all dermatophytes examined. The production of protease active guinea pig hair in keratin-salts broth by Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum was also suppressed by glucose. Various carbohydrates added to keratin-salts broth curtailed protease production by T. rubrum as did individual amino acids but ammonium phosphate did not. Enzyme activities against guinea pig hair were compared in twenty-one diverse clinical isolates of T. rubrum cultured in keratin-salts broth. Activity also occurred towards casein, bovine serum albumin, keratin, collagen and elastin after keratin-growth. Studies concerning the properties of enzyme activities in culture filtrates of T. rubrum after keratin-growth suggested that multiple proteases occurred here. Hydrolysis of guinea pig hair and elastin were optimal at pH7 while keratinase was most active at alkaline pH. Divalent cations stimulated protease(s). Ferric ion and mercuric ion stimulated keratinase but were inhibitory to guinea pig hair hydrolysis and elastase. Chelating agents inhibited elastase and the hydrolysis of guinea pig hair more severely than keratinase and all of those effects were reversed by excess calcium. A serine-protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), curtailed keratinase but was less inhibitory to elastase and guinea pig hair hydrolysis. Soybean trypsin inhibitor arrested each protease.

  15. : a database of ciliate genome rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Kukushkin, Denys; Lindblad, Kelsi; Chen, Xiao; Jonoska, Nataša; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated protists exhibit nuclear dimorphism through the presence of somatic macronuclei (MAC) and germline micronuclei (MIC). In some ciliates, DNA from precursor segments in the MIC genome rearranges to form transcriptionally active genes in the mature MAC genome, making these ciliates model organisms to study the process of somatic genome rearrangement. Similar broad scale, somatic rearrangement events occur in many eukaryotic cells and tumors. The (http://oxytricha.princeton.edu/mds_ies_db) is a database of genome recombination and rearrangement annotations, and it provides tools for visualization and comparative analysis of precursor and product genomes. The database currently contains annotations for two completely sequenced ciliate genomes: Oxytricha trifallax and Tetrahymena thermophila.

  16. Effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth and ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-li; XU Jing; ZHUO Feng-lin; WANG Li; XU Wei; XU Ying; ZHANG Xiao-yan; ZHAO Jun-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is the most common causative agent of dermatophytosis worldwide.In this study,we examined the effect of laser irradiation on the growth and morphology of T.rubrum.Methods Colonies of T.rubrum were isolated (one colony per plate),and randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups:Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment,long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser treatment,intense pulsed light (IPL)treatment,308 nm excimer laser treatment and the blank control group without treatment.Standardized photographs were obtained from grown-up fungal plates prior to treatment.Colonies were then exposed to various wavelengths and fluences of laser light.To compare the growth of colonies,they were re-photographed under identical conditions three and six days post-treatment.To investigate the morphology of T.rubrum,scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from specimens exposed to 24 hours of laser treatment.Results Growth of T.rubrum colonies was significantly inhibited following irradiation by 694 nm Q-switched and 1064nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG lasers.Other treatments exerted little or no effect.Q-switched laser irradiation exerted a stronger growth inhibitory effect than long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Following treatment by the Q-switched ruby laser system,T.rubrum hyphae became shrunken and deflated,and SEM images revealed rough,fractured hyphal surfaces,punctured with small destructive holes.TEM images showed that the hyphae were degenerating,as evidenced by the irregular shape of hyphae,rough and loose cell wall,and obscure cytoplasmic texture.Initially high elect(io)n density structure was visible in the cell; later,low-density structure appeared as a result of cytoplasmic dissolution.In contrast,the blank control group showed no obvious changes in morphology.Conclusion The Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment significantly inhibits the growth and changes the morphology of T.rubrum.

  17. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the Bla

  18. Global transcriptional profiles of Trichophyton rubrum in response to Flucytosine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is one of the most common human fungal pathogens that cause chronic infections of the skin and nails. To identify antifungal responsive genes, cDNA microarray analysis was performed for T. rubrum to reveal global transcriptional profiles of drug-specific responses to 5-Flucytosine (5-FC). cDNA microarray was constructed from the T. rubrum expressed sequence tag (ESTs) database, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-FC was determined, and microarray hybridization and data analysis were applied. The expression pattern of 7 genes observed by microarray was confirmed by the quantitative real-time reverser transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data analysis indicated that a total of 474 genes were found differentially expressed, 196 showed an increase in expression and 278 showed a decrease in expression. Marked down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism (such as CDC21), transcription (such as E2F1), and RNA processing (such as SGN1, RIM4 and NOP1) was observed. Other genes involved in signal transduction, chaperones, inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acid transport, lipid transport and potential drug resistance mechanism were also affected by 5-FC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of the selected genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray results. This is the first analysis of transcriptional profiles in response to 5-FC for T. rubrum. The findings may be valuable for the identification of genes involved in mechanisms of action and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance of 5-FC.

  19. Novel substrate (algal protein) for cultivation of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsala, T M; Rekha, R; Srividhya, R

    2011-10-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum was grown under light anaerobic conditions with phycocyanin (C-pc) extracted from Spirulina platensis as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. When grown under these conditions cellular components like lipids, carbohydrates, protein, carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll were similar to the one grown with malic acid and ammonium chloride. Growth of R. rubrum increased with increase in concentration of C-pc (200 to 1000 mg/l). R. rubrum also utilized C-pc under dark anaerobic condition. With both malic acid and C-pc as carbon sources C-pc was consumed only after exhaustion of malic acid under light anaerobic condition. No aberration of cell morphology was seen under scanning electron microscope (SEM). R. rubrum utilized both phycocyanobilin and phycoprotein individually as well as in combination. When grown with 1000 mg/l of phycoprotein 450 mg/l of biomass was obtained, and with combination of phycocyanobilin (75 mg/l) and phycoprotein (925 mg/l) 610 mg/l of biomass was obtained. Phycocyanobilin alone did not inhibit the growth of R. rubrum. Utilization of C-pc with protease like activity was observed in plate assay. Protease like activity was also observed as zones around the colonies in plates containing sterilized casein, gelatin and filter sterilized bovine serum albumin. No amino acids were detected in the supernatant when analyzed with ninhydrin. Extracellular protease like activity was highest when C-pc was used as substrate (2.8 U/ml). Intracellular protease like activity was not detected in cell free extracts. PMID:22013744

  20. Ciliates Expel Environmental Legionella-Laden Pellets To Stockpile Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Fuhito; Sato, Daisuke; Matsuo, Junji; Miyake, Masaki; Nakamura, Shinji; Kunichika, Miyuki; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Takemura, Hiromu; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    When Tetrahymena ciliates are cultured with Legionella pneumophila, the ciliates expel bacteria packaged in free spherical pellets. Why the ciliates expel these pellets remains unclear. Hence, we determined the optimal conditions for pellet expulsion and assessed whether pellet expulsion contributes to the maintenance of growth and the survival of ciliates. When incubated with environmental L. pneumophila, the ciliates expelled the pellets maximally at 2 days after infection. Heat-killed bact...

  1. Pyruvate-dependent diauxic growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum in light.

    OpenAIRE

    Solaiman, D; Uffen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    When Rhodospirillum rubrum mutant C was first exposed to radiant energy after long-term anaerobic dark growth, the cells often exhibited a diauxic growth response. This happened with pyruvate in the medium and when cultures were exposed to a less-than-growth-saturating white light intensity of about 6,460 lx. Under the growth-saturating light condition, mutant C photometabolized and growth was not affected by Na hypophosphite, an inhibitor of pyruvate fermentation. In lower intensity light, i...

  2. Sensibilidad al fluconazol de aislamientos de Trichophyton rubrum

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    Norma T Gross-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Trichophyton rubrum es el dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente: piel glabra, uñas de las manos y de los pies. El fluconazol es utilizado con frecuencia para el tratamiento de las onicomicosis en nuestra población, por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar la sensibilidad a este antifúngico, de aislamientos costarricenses de T. rubrum. Métodos: se investigó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol de 80 aislamientos de T. rubrum, obtenidos de muestras de piel y sus anexos. El método utilizado fue el de microdilución M-38A, descrito por el “National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards”. Las diluciones finales del fluconazol fueron de 0,25 a 128 μg/ml. Resultados: la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de uñas de los pies (68,75%. El 86,25% de los aislamientos analizados presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria entre 0,25-8 μg/ml, el 8,75% entre 16-32 μg/ml y un 5% > 64 μg/ml. De estos aislamientos resistentes, dos fueron de uñas de los pies y dos de plantas de pie. Conclusión: debido a que la mayoría de los aislamientos de T. rubrum demostraron ser sensibles al fluconazol, solo se recomienda realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a este antifúngico en casos de falla terapéutica, especialmente en pacientes con onicomicosis en la cual el tratamiento es prolongado.

  3. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  4. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

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    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  5. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis-Episkin(R)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan-Pan Liang; Xin-Zhu Huang; Jin-Ling Yi; Zhi-Rui Chen; Han Ma; Cong-Xiu Ye; Xian-Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood.An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.In this study, we intended to develop a new T.rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis-EpiSkin(R), and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T.rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose.During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation.Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis.The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.SEM observations further exhibited the process of T.rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way.Conclusions: We established the T.rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully.It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.

  6. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin ®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia and high-dose (4000 conidia T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation. Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. Conclusions: We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection.

  7. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  8. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts.

  9. TrED: the Trichophyton rubrum Expression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide. It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways. We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Description All publicly available ESTs and expression profiles of T. rubrum during conidial germination in time-course experiments and challenged with antifungal agents are deposited in the database. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included. ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. TrED provides functional analysis based on GenBank, Pfam, and KOG databases, along with KEGG pathway and GO vocabulary. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST. Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. rubrum and comparative results of dermatophytes. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. TrED is available from URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/TrED/.

  10. An approach to measure ciliate grazing on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.; González, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    persisted for several hours. Fluorescently labelled living flagellates (FLLF) were added into enriched natural assemblages of marine oligotrich ciliates and uptake of FLLF was monitored over time. Oligotrich ciliates did not incorporate fluorescent-labelled macromolecules but a linear FLLF uptake over time...... a direct approach to measure ciliate grazing specifically on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates....

  11. ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM, TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES AND TRICHOPHYTON VERRUCOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Zaini

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Since most of the studies on chemical compounds of dermatophytes have shown the existence of a relationship between their pathogenisity and proteolytec enzymes. Activities of 19 different enzymes in viable mycelia and cytoplasmic extracts of T.rubrum (CETr, T.mentagrophytes (CETm and T.verrucosum (CETv were investigated by the API-Zym System. The results showed that Viable mycelia of T.rubrm and T.mentagrophytes had valine arylamidase and cystine arylamidase activity where as no such activity was observed in CETr and CETm or in the viable mycelia and cytoplasmic extracts of T.verrucosum. Also the viable mycelia of T.rubrum showed α-mannosidase activity; gowever this enzyme was not detected in CETr, but was active in both the viable mycelia and CETv and CETm. Finally, only in viable mycelia and CETv and CETm was lipase (C14 activity observed. Furthermore none of the viable mycelia of these three species showed any α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, α-fucosidase,β-glucoronidase, trypsin or chymotrypsin activity.

  12. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reslewic, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhou, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Place, M. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhang, Y. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Briska, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Goldstein, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Churas, C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Runnheim, R. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Forrest, D. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lim, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lapidus, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Han, C. S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Roberts, G. P. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Schwartz, D. C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison

    2005-09-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium known for its unique and well-studied nitrogen fixation and carbon monoxide oxidation systems and as a source of hydrogen and biodegradable plastic production. To better understand this organism and to facilitate assembly of its sequence, three whole-genome restriction endonuclease maps (XbaI, NheI, and HindIII) of R. rubrum strain ATCC 11170 were created by optical mapping. Optical mapping is a system for creating whole-genome ordered restriction endonuclease maps from randomly sheared genomic DNA molecules extracted from cells. During the sequence finishing process, all three optical maps confirmed a putative error in sequence assembly, while the HindIII map acted as a scaffold for high-resolution alignment with sequence contigs spanning the whole genome. In addition to highlighting optical mapping's role in the assembly and confirmation of genome sequence, this work underscores the unique niche in resolution occupied by the optical mapping system. With a resolution ranging from 6.5 kb (previously published) to 45 kb (reported here), optical mapping advances a "molecular cytogenetics" approach to solving problems in genomic analysis.

  13. Imaging features of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Hua Fang; Dan-Jun Dong; Shi-Zheng Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a very rare cystic lesion of the liver that is histologically similar to bronchogenic cyst. We report one case of CHFC that was hard to distinguish from solid-cystic neoplasm in imaging features. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in differentiating these cysts from other lesions.

  14. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jegsen Melcher; Maciej Andrzej Zwieniecki

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (DPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on three year old potted A. rubrum plants also had no eff...

  15. Identification of chromatophore membrane protein complexes formed under different nitrogen availability conditions in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selao, Tiago Toscano; Branca, Rui; Chae, Pil Seok;

    2011-01-01

    The chromatophore membrane of the photosynthetic diazotroph Rhodospirillum rubrum is of vital importance for a number of central processes, including nitrogen fixation. Using a novel amphiphile, we have identified protein complexes present under different nitrogen availability conditions by the u...

  16. Ciliates and the rare biosphere: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunthorn, Micah; Stoeck, Thorsten; Clamp, John; Warren, Alan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief review of the rare biosphere from the perspective of ciliates and other microbial eukaryotes. We trace research on rarity from its lack of much in-depth focus in morphological and Sanger sequencing projects, to its central importance in analyses using high throughput sequencing strategies. The problem that the rare biosphere is potentially comprised of mostly errors is then discussed in the light of asking community-comparative, novel-diversity, and ecosystem-functioning questions.

  17. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solan...

  18. Exposure to heat-inactivated Trichophyton rubrum resulting in a limited immune response of human keratinocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-qiang; YI Jin-ling; YIN Song-chao; CHEN Rong-zhang; LI Mei-rong; GONG Zi-jian; LAI Wei; CHEN Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) represents the most important agent of dermatophytosis in humans.T.rubrum infection causes slight inflammation,and tends to be chronic and recurrent.It is suggested that it may result from the failure of epithelial cells to recognize T.rubrum effectively and initiate effective immune responses.The C-type lectin receptors (CLR) and toll-like receptors (TLR) are the two major pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize fungal components.Therefore,the purpose of the study was to analyze the expression of those PRRs and the cytokines in HaCaT cells stimulated with heat-inactivated T.rubrum conidia and hyphae,respectively.Methods HaCaT cells were unstimulated or stimulated with heat-inactivated T.rubrum conidia and hyphae (1×106 and 1.5×10s colony-forming unit (CFU) in 2 ml medium,respectively) for 6,12 and 24 hours.The mRNA expression of PRRs involved in recognizing fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and signaling molecules were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Meanwhile,surface toll-like receptor (TLR) 2,TLR4 and Dectin-1 were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) 24 hours after treatment.The cytokines were detected in cell culture supernatants of HaCaT cells in 12 and 24 hours after treatment.Results HaCaT cells constitutively expressed mRNA of membrane-bound TLR1,2,4 and 6,Dectin1 and DC-SIGN,but not Dectin-2 or Mincle.Heat-killed T.rubrum did not significantly upregulate gene transcriptions of the PRRs of HaCaT cells.Heat-inactivated T.rubrum conidia significantly reduced the surface expression of TLR2 and Dectin-1,and suppressed the secretions of interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) of HaCaT cells,while heat-killed T.rubrum hyphae significantly induced the secretions of IP-10 and MCP-1.Conclusion The cell-wall antigens of T.rubrum fail to activate transcriptional expression of PRRs and

  19. Purification and characterization of major extracellular proteinases from Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, M; Lindquist, R; Fukuyama, K; Apodaca, G; Epstein, W L; McKerrow, J H

    1985-11-15

    Two extracellular proteinases that probably play a central role in the metabolism and pathogenesis of the most common dermatophyte of man, Trichophyton rubrum, were purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and Chromatofocusing were used to purify the major proteinases 42-fold from crude fungal culture filtrate. The major enzyme has pI 7.8 and subunit Mr 44 000, but forms a dimer of Mr approx. 90 000 in the absence of reducing agents. A second enzyme with pI 6.5 and subunit Mr 36 000, was also purified. It is very similar in substrate specificity to the major enzyme but has lower specific activity, and may be an autoproteolysis product. The major proteinase has pH optimum 8, a Ca2+-dependence maximum of 1 mM, and was inhibited by serine-proteinase inhibitors, especially tetrapeptidyl chloromethane derivatives with hydrophobic residues at the P-1 site. Kinetic studies also showed that tetrapeptides containing aromatic or hydrophobic residues at P-1 were the best substrates. A kcat./Km of 27 000 M-1 X S-1 was calculated for the peptide 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme has significant activity against keratin, elastin and denatured type I collagen (Azocoll).

  20. Reality-and-Desire in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Hoogeboom, Hendrik Jan

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has a number of similarities with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both theories model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper, we show how the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, can be used in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  1. Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2014-05-01

    To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple ( Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ˜7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ˜16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.

  2. 低盐度围隔调控环境浮游纤毛虫群落结构与动态%Community structure and its dynamics of planktonic ciliate in controlled low salinity enclosure environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄斌; 查广才

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the effects of fertilization and water quality control on the planktons in farming waters, an investigation from June to October 2008 was made on the community structure and population dynamics of planktonic ciliate in controlled low salinity enclosure environment. Through living body observation and stained specimen observation, a total of 48 planktonic ciliate species were detected, belonging to 3 classes, 11 orders, and 37 genera, of which,8 species were of Oligotrichida, 7 species were peritrichida, and 6 species were of hypotrichida and scuticociliatida. The dominant species mostly enjoyed living in eutrophic water or were pollution-resistant species, e. g. , Tintinnopsis cylindrata , Stranbidium globosaneum , Pleuronema marinum, Mesodinium pulex, Coleps hirtus, and Cyclidium citrullus, etc. Different fertilization treatments had significant effects on the community composition and population dynamics of planktonic ciliate. In investigation period, the highest species number of planktonic ciliate in the enclosure environment was averagely 9, and the lowest one was averagely 4. In the test 10 control enclosures, the highest density of planktonic ciliate was averagely 112. 30 cells · ml-1 , and the lowest one was averagely 19. 50 cells · ml-1. The average species number and density of planktonic ciliate were 6-7 and 52. 56 cells · ml-1, respectively. In the enclosures applied with organic fertilizer,the ciliates addicted to entrophic water were the dominant species. There was a close relationship between the population dynamics of planktonic ciliates and planktonic algae. Their densities were lower in early and late periods and higher in intermediate period, and the diversity of planktonic ciliates of early and late periods was lower intermediate period while that of planktonic algae was.%为了解施肥与水质调控对养殖水体中原生动物的影响,2008年6-10月,对低盐度围隔调控环境中浮游纤毛虫种群结构及

  3. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Aleksandra; Bogdanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity (TAA) represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l) on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change i...

  4. Supplementation with Sterols Improves Food Quality of a Ciliate for Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik; Bec, Alexandre; Elert, Eric von

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results provide evidence that trophic interactions between ciliates and Daphnia are constrained by the comparatively low food quality of ciliates. The dietary sterol content is a crucial factor in determining food quality for Daphnia. Ciliates, however, presumably do not synthesize sterols de novo. We hypothesized that ciliates are nutritionally inadequate because of their lack of sterols and tested this hypothesis in growth experiments with Daphnia magna and the ciliate Colpidiu...

  5. 3-D Crystal Tectonics of Red Coral (Corallium Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielzeuf, D.; Garrabou, J.; Baronnet, A.; Grauby, O.; Marschal, C.

    2007-12-01

    A combination of analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, SEM, TEM, and EMP) has been used to characterize the internal physico-chemical structure of the red coral (corallium rubrum) skeleton. A section normal to the skeleton axis shows an inner medullar zone with a bulbous-tip cross shape, surrounded by a large circular domain composed of concentric rings (width of each ring ca 150 microns). Growth rings are revealed by the cyclic variation of concentration of the organic matter (OM) and oscillations of the Mg/Ca ratio. Experiments carried out in natural environment show that the detected growth rings are annual. Thus, both oscillations of concentration of OM and Mg/Ca ratio can be used to determine the age of the red coral colonies, some of which can be as old as a few tens (or even a few hundreds) of years. Concentric ring are riddled and display a succession of wavelets (wavelength ca 300 microns). The internal structure of each wavelet is complex, both physically and chemically: it is formed by the accumulation of strata with locally tortuous interfaces due to the presence of micro protuberances (ca 30 microns). This interlocked structure confers an exceptional stiffness on the red coral skeleton. Interfaces between strata sometimes display sharp discontinuities indicating interruption of the mineralizing process. This fact has important consequences on the ability of the whole structure to register external forcings with accuracy. SEM and TEM studies show that each stratum is made of submicron crystalline units (ca 200 nm) organized or not in polycrystalline fibers or blades (ca 1 to 10 microns). Porosity can be observed at all scales between the various structural units. HRTEM studies show that in spite of displaying single crystal scattering behavior, the submicron crystalline units are made of 2-5 nm nanodomains with intercalated nanopores. We interpret the nanodomains as nanograins aggregated by a mechanism of oriented attachment. The red coral

  6. The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata harbors permanent chloroplasts of cryptomomad prigin, not kleptochloroplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Lydia; Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Per Juel;

    2010-01-01

    Most species belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis have chloroplasts of cryptophyte origin. Whether these chloroplasts are temporarily sequestered from the prey, or permanently established under the control of the dinoflagellate is currently disputed. To investigate this, a culture...... of Dinophysis acuminata was established by feeding it the phototrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (= Myrionecta rubra), which again was fed the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia. Molecular analysis comprising the nucleomorph LSU and two chloroplast markers (tufA gene and a fragment from the end of 16S r......DNA to the beginning of 23S rDNA) resulted in identical sequences for the three organisms. Yet, transmission electron microscopy of the three organisms revealed that several chloroplast features separated D. acuminata from both T. amphioxeia and M. rubrum. The thylakoid arrangement, the number of membranes around...

  7. Experimental and modeling evidence of appendicularian-ciliate interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Eloire, Damien; Gobet, Angelique;

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between appendicularians and ciliates were observed over the life span of Oikopleura dioica in laboratory cultures and clarified with the use of mathematical modeling and microscopic observations. Complex interactions including competition, parasitism, predation, and histophagy occur...

  8. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  9. Expression dynamics of secreted protease genes in Trichophyton rubrum induced by key host's proteinaceous components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Wang, Jin; Li, Ruoyu; Jin, Qi

    2009-11-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of dermatophytosis, a disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. It has been widely recognized that proteases secreted by T. rubrum are the key virulence factors during host infection. However, our knowledge about the expression of its secreted proteases in host infection is still obscure. This investigation provides the expression patterns and dynamics of secreted protease genes belonging to the subtilisins (SUB) and metalloproteases (MEP) gene families in T. rubrum. The data was obtained under simulated host infection conditions through relative quantification of real time PCR. Keratin, collagen, and elastin induced the expression of similar protease genes, and the expression patterns and dynamics of these protease genes in media containing human skin sections were different from those in media containing individual protein substrates. According to the expression dynamics of these protease genes, we conclude that Sub3, Sub4, and Mep4 may be the dominant proteases secreted by T. rubrum during host infection, and that these proteases could be good targets for new antifungal chemotherapy and molecular diagnostic markers. This work presents useful molecular details to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis.

  10. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  11. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  12. Comparison of the In Vitro Activities of Newer Triazoles and Established Antifungal Agents against Trichophyton rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Zhang, C.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zhu, S.; Tan, X.; Wen, Y.; Huang, X.; Lei, W.; Zhou, Z.; Fang, W.; Shen, S.; Deng, D.; Pan, W.; Liao, W.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26

  13. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  14. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  15. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles James Newbold

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear.Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fibre degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in  phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterisation of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small entodiniium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  16. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described. PMID:26635774

  17. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Ege A.; Doner G.

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm m...

  18. The Tara Oceans voyage reveals global diversity and distribution patterns of marine planktonic ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmler, Anna; Korn, Ralf; de Vargas, Colomban; Audic, Stéphane; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Illumina reads of the SSU-rDNA-V9 region obtained from the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition allow the investigation of protistan plankton diversity patterns on a global scale. We analyzed 6,137,350 V9-amplicons from ocean surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum, which were taxonomically assigned to the phylum Ciliophora. For open ocean samples global planktonic ciliate diversity is relatively low (ca. 1,300 observed and predicted ciliate OTUs). We found that 17% of all detected ciliate OTUs occurred in all oceanic regions under study. On average, local ciliate OTU richness represented 27% of the global ciliate OTU richness, indicating that a large proportion of ciliates is widely distributed. Yet, more than half of these OTUs shared oceanic carbonate system and temperature. Planktonic ciliates displayed distinct vertical distributions relative to chlorophyll a. In contrast, the Tara Oceans dataset did not reveal any evidence that latitude is structuring ciliate communities. PMID:27633177

  19. Community Structure and Biodiversity of Soil Ciliates at Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest in Hainan Island, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Qingyu Liao; Mei Li; Jinhong Zhang; Nora Fungyee Tam; Runlin Xu

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The abundance, biodiversity, and community similarity of ciliates in fresh and air-dried soil with different, physical/chemical properties were analyzed. Three Classes, 11 Orders, 34 Genera, and 70 species of ciliates were found with the first dominant group being Hypotrichida. Ciliate biodiversities followed Site B < Site A < Site C in both fresh and...

  20. Evaluation of lugol solution used for counting rumen ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D'Agosto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a modification of the technique described by PURSER & MOIR (1959 for the quantitative evaluation of rumen ciliate based on an adaptation described by DEHORITY (I984. The modifying process includes: the replacement of two drops of brilliant green dye, for at least four hours, by three drops of lugol solution, for at least 15 minutes. It was made a comparative evaluation of these stainings. It was concluded that lugol solution can replace the brilliant green dye showing the following advantages: staining time reduction and subsequent speeding of sample processing; evidence of skeletal plates of entodiniomorphs making its identification easier; improved observation of small ciliates and inconspicuous structures; improved total counting and generic identification of the ciliates.

  1. Partial purification and characterization of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase from Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, S M; Budde, R J; Chollet, R

    1986-01-01

    We confirmed an earlier report (B. B. Buchanan, J. Bacteriol. 119:1066-1068, 1974) that the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum contains pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (EC 2.7.9.1) activity that is absolutely dependent upon all three substrates by performing enzyme assays in both the forward (phosphoenolpyruvate formation) and reverse (ATP formation) directions. Of the various carbon sources tested, photoheterotrophic growth on DL-lactate plus bicarbonate proved...

  2. The Effects of Oil Pollution on Free-living Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    ASADULLAYEVA, Esmira; ALEKPEROV, Ilham

    1999-01-01

    For the first time the effects of oil pollution on free-living ciliates at community level and also at cellular level were studied at the same time. The effects of various oil concentrations from two oil fields (Sangachal and Guneshli) on psammophile and periphyton ciliates were studied. As a result, the parameters using the oil pollution biotesting with the help of these test systems were determined. Oil from the Guneshli oil field was determined to be more toxic. The effects of oil pollutio...

  3. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; ZHANG Qian; QI YiPeng; JIN Qi; WANG LingLing; PENG JunPing; YU Lu; LIU Tao; LENG WenChuan; YANG Jian; CHEN LiHong; ZHANG WenLiang

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is correlated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins.The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction system were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration.This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expression, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  4. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  5. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, chlorobium phaeobacteroides, and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  6. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  7. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Kampo Medicine Water Extracts against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Xia; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Morita, Eishin

    2016-06-01

    Kampo medicines consist of a variety of crude animal, plant, and mineral extracts that have long been used to relieve different symptoms, and are relatively safe. However, their mechanisms of actions have not been well investigated. We screened 61 commercially available Kampo medicines to determine if they contain constituents with antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal effect of the Kampo medicines was determined by measuring the mean absorbance of treated fungal culture media. Lower absorbance values suggested a higher inhibition of the growth rate of T. rubrum by the Kampo medicines. We found that seven of the evaluated formulations exhibited a comparable antifungal activity to that of fluconazole at 14 mg/mL. The seven active Kampo medicines were Saiko-keishi-kankyou-to, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Saiko-keishi-to, Keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Dai-saiko-to, Bohu-tsu-sho-san, and Otsu-ji-to. The seven Kampo medicines with antifungal activity contain 30 different crude extracts, and Ou-gon (Scutellaria root) is a supplement contained in six of the seven formulations. Therefore, Ou-gon was considered to play a major role in their antifungal effect. The antifungal assay of the Ou-gon water extract showed that it significantly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Future studies will focus on the isolation and identification of the antifungal components of the crude extracts of Ou-gon, which may be potentially useful, new, and safe antifungal drugs. PMID:27534111

  8. Dermatofitose por Tricophyton rubrum como infecção oportunista em pacientes com doença de Cushing Dermatophytosis caused by Tricophyton rubrum as an opportunistic infection in patients with Cushing disease

    OpenAIRE

    Isy Peixoto; Gustavo Maquine; Valeska Albuquerque Francesconi; Fabio Francesconi

    2010-01-01

    O dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum é um agente comum nas micoses superficiais, podendo apresentar lesões extensas pauci-inflamatórias de evolução crônica, especialmente em imunocomprometidos. O hipercortisolismo, na síndrome de Cushing, aumenta o risco de infecções, resultado do efeito imunossupressor dos glicocorticóides. Os casos relatados apresentam duas formas distintas de dermatofitose, em pacientes com doença de Cushing, causadas por Tricophyton rubrum e posterior remissão após normaliza...

  9. New name for the soft coral Alcyonium rubrum Stokvis & van Ofwegen, 2006 (Alcyonacea, Alcyoniidae: Alcyonium burmedju nom. n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Sampaio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcyonium rubrum Stokvis & van Ofwegen, 2006, an encrusting soft coral (Figure 1, was described from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean based on specimens collected during the Dutch CANCAP VII Expedition to the Cape Verde Archipelago (Stokvis & van Ofwegen 2006. This species was later reported from the Azores (Braga-Henriques et al. 2013.A review on the taxonomic literature of octocorals by the first author revealed the existence of a species described from Scandinavia under the same name, Alcyonium rubrum Müller, 1776, which was also reported from Ireland (Hassal 1841. In such a case of primary homonomy, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Article 60, states that the junior homonym is invalid and needs to be replaced by a new name. We propose to replace Alcyonium rubrum Stokvis & van Ofwegen, 2006 by Alcyonium burmedju nom. n.

  10. Attempts to apply affinity labeling techniques to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. [Comparison of spinach leaf and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F. C.; Norton, I. L.; Stringer, C. D.; Schloss, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on carboxylases/oxygenases from different species may be necessary to confirm that a residue implicated as essential is indeed an active-site component. To provide an especially stringent test case for the identification of species invariant structural features the enzymes from two phylogenetically distant species, spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum, were compared. To date, the reactions of Br-butanone-P/sub 2/ and BrAcNHEtOP with the spinach enayme have been rather thoroughly characterized; only preliminary experiments have been completed with the R. rubrum enzyme. Both enzymes were isolated and assayed for carboxylase activity (spectrophotometrically or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-fixation) and for oxygenase activity.

  11. On computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene assembly in stichotrichous ciliates happening during sexual reproduction is one of the most involved DNA manipulation processes occurring in biology. This biological process is of high interest from the computational and mathematical points of view due to its close analogy with such concepts and notions in theoretical computer science as permutation and linked list sorting and string rewriting. Studies on computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates represent a good example of interdisciplinary research contributing to both computer science and biology. We review here a number of general results related both to the development of different computational methods enhancing our understanding on the nature of gene assembly, as well as to the development of new biologically motivated computational and mathematical models and paradigms. Those paradigms contribute in particular to combinatorics, formal languages and computability theories.

  12. Ultrastructure of extrusomes in hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yao; WANG Zhengjun; ZHANG Jun; GU Fukang

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of extrusomes of the hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova was observed in scanning and transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-cytochemistry. The results show that the distribution, morphological characteristics, morphogenesis process, and extrusive process of the extrusomes in P. nova are different from the trichocysts in Paramecium, suggesting that the extrusomes of P. nova can respond to environmental stimuli, play an important role in the defense of this species, and cannot be regarded as "trichocysts". The results also suggest that the extrusomes might be originated from the Golgi apparatus and mature in the cytoplasm; after the extrusion of mature extrusomes, the residual substance might be reabsorbed and reused by the ciliate cell via food vacuoles, and take part in material recycling of the cell.

  13. Phylogeny of intestinal ciliates, including Charonina ventriculi, and comparison of microscopy and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for rumen ciliate community structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Devente, Savannah R; Kirk, Michelle R; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups.

  14. Ciliated epithelial cell lifespan in the mouse trachea and lung

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Brigid L M Hogan

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state turnover of epithelial cells in the lung and trachea is highly relevant to investigators who are studying endogenous stem cells, manipulating gene expression in vivo, or using viral vectors for gene therapy. However, the average lifetime of different airway epithelial cell types has not previously been assessed using currently available genetic techniques. Here, we use Cre/loxP genetic technology to indelibly label a random fraction of ciliated cells throughout the airways of...

  15. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult ...

  16. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kenta Watanabe; Ryo Nakao; Masahiro Fujishima; Masato Tachibana; Takashi Shimizu; Masahisa Watarai

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling...

  17. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating compet...

  18. Phenotypic plasticity of leaf shape along a temperature gradient in Acer rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Royer

    Full Text Available Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic determination can be important for understanding how plants respond to environmental change. However, little is known about the plastic response of leaf teeth and leaf dissection to temperature. This gap is critical because these leaf traits are commonly used to reconstruct paleoclimate from fossils, and such studies tacitly assume that traits measured from fossils reflect the environment at the time of their deposition, even during periods of rapid climate change. We measured leaf size and shape in Acer rubrum derived from four seed sources with a broad temperature range and grown for two years in two gardens with contrasting climates (Rhode Island and Florida. Leaves in the Rhode Island garden have more teeth and are more highly dissected than leaves in Florida from the same seed source. Plasticity in these variables accounts for at least 6-19% of the total variance, while genetic differences among ecotypes probably account for at most 69-87%. This study highlights the role of phenotypic plasticity in leaf-climate relationships. We suggest that variables related to tooth count and leaf dissection in A. rubrum can respond quickly to climate change, which increases confidence in paleoclimate methods that use these variables.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Subunit G of the Vacuolar ATPase in Pathogen Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic fungus causing up to 90% of chronic cases of dermatophytosis. Several properties of this fungus have been investigated so far. However, a few studies were carried out in the field of molecular biology of this fungus. In the present study, we tried to identify the subunit G of its vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase. Pairs of 21 nt primers were designed from highly conserved regions of the V-ATPase subunit G genes in other fungi. Mentioned primers were utilized in PCR using isolated genomic DNA template as well as cytoplasmic RNA of T.rubrum and the PCR and RT-PCR fragments were then sequenced. About 469 nucleotides were sequenced which encoded a polypeptide with 119 amino acids. Nucleotide sequence comparison in gene data banks (NCBI, NIH for both the DNA and its deduced amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with V-ATPase subunit G genes and proteins of other eukaryotic cells. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein was about 84% identical to the sequence of V-ATPase subunit G from other fungi. In summary, we have cloned the first V-ATPase subunit G of dermatophytes and characterized it as a member of this gene family in other eukaryotic cells.

  20. Raman Investigations to Identify Corallium rubrum in Iron Age Jewelry and Ornaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fürst

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Central European Iron Age, more specifically between 600 and 100 BC, red precious corals (Corallium rubrum became very popular in many regions, often associated with the so-called (early Celts. Red corals are ideally suited to investigate several key questions of Iron Age research, like trade patterns or social and economic structures. While it is fairly easy to distinguish modern C. rubrum from bone, ivory or shells, archaeologists are confronted with ancient, hence altered, artifacts. Due to ageing processes, archaeological corals lose their intensive red color and shiny surface and can easily be confused with these other light colored materials. We propose a non-destructive multi-stage approach to identify archaeological corals amongst other biominerals used as ornament during the central European Iron Age with emphasis on optical examination and mobile Raman spectroscopy. Our investigations suggest that the noticeably high amount of misidentifications or at least uncertain material declarations existing in museums or even in the literature (around 15% could be overcome by the proposed approach. Furthermore, the range of different materials is higher than previously expected in archaeological research. This finding has implications for contemporary concepts of social structures and distribution networks during the Iron Age.

  1. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravaud, Stéphanie [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Watzlawick, Hildegard [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Industrielle Genetik, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Haser, Richard [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Mattes, Ralf [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Industrielle Genetik, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Aghajari, Nushin, E-mail: n.aghajari@ibcp.fr [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France)

    2006-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  2. Effect of ciliates on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Prast, M.; Bischof, Adrian A.; Waller, Uwe; Amann, R.; Berninger, U.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification in aquatic sediments is catalyzed by bacteria. While many autecological studies on these bacteria have been published, few have regarded them as part of the benthic microbial food web. Ciliates are important as grazers on bacteria, but also for remineralization of organic matter. We tested the hypothesis that ciliates can affect nitrification. Experiments with Baltic Sea sediments in laboratory flumes, with or without the addition of cultured ciliates, were conducted. We found i...

  3. Dermatofitose por Tricophyton rubrum como infecção oportunista em pacientes com doença de Cushing Dermatophytosis caused by Tricophyton rubrum as an opportunistic infection in patients with Cushing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isy Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum é um agente comum nas micoses superficiais, podendo apresentar lesões extensas pauci-inflamatórias de evolução crônica, especialmente em imunocomprometidos. O hipercortisolismo, na síndrome de Cushing, aumenta o risco de infecções, resultado do efeito imunossupressor dos glicocorticóides. Os casos relatados apresentam duas formas distintas de dermatofitose, em pacientes com doença de Cushing, causadas por Tricophyton rubrum e posterior remissão após normalização da cortisolemia.Trichophyton rubrum is a common agent found in superficial mycoses, which present ample nonin?ammatory lesions, with chronic evolution, especially in immunocompromised patients. The hypercortisolism in Cushing's syndrome increases the risk of infections as a result of the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids. The reported cases here refer to two different types of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in patients with Cushing's disease, resistant to antifungal treatment. The disease remitted after the levels of cortisol went back to normal.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of litostome ciliates (Ciliophora, Litostomatea) with emphasis on free-living haptorian genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strüder-Kypke, Michaela C; Wright, Andre-Denis G; Foissner, Wilhelm; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Lynn, Denis H

    2006-08-01

    The monophyly of the litostomes was tested using nine newly sequenced and four previously unpublished small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) gene sequences from free-living Haptoria as well as from endosymbiotic Trichostomatia: the vestibuliferids Balantidium coli and Isotricha prostoma, the cyclotrichiid Mesodinium pulex, and the haptorids Loxophyllum rostratum, Dileptus sp., Enchelyodon sp., Enchelys polynucleata, Epispathidium papilliferum (isolates A and B), Spathidium stammeri, Arcuospathidium muscorum, Arcuospathidium cultriforme, and the unusual Teuthophrys trisulca. Phylogenetic analyses depicted the litostomes as a monophyletic group consisting of the trichostomes (subclass Trichostomatia) and the free-living haptorians (subclass Haptoria). The cyclotrichiids Mesodinium and Myrionecta (order Cyclotrichiida) branched either basally within or outside the Litostomatea. In most analyses, the haptorians did not receive support as a monophyletic group. Instead, Dileptus branched basally to all litostome taxa, and Epispathidium papilliferum grouped with the Subclass Trichostomatia. Some subgroupings, however, of haptorian genera corresponded to suggested superfamilial taxa (e.g., orders Spathidiida and Pleurostomatida). Within the monophyletic trichostomes, we can distinguish three clades: (1) an Australian clade; (2) the order Entodiniomorphida; and (3) the order Vestibuliferida. However, Balantidium, currently classified in the Vestibuliferida, did not group with the other vestibuliferids, suggesting that this order may be paraphyletic. PMID:16843062

  5. Harmful Ciliates and Dominant Genus in Culture Ponds of Young Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建荣; 徐润林; 廖家遗

    2004-01-01

    By using the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the species composition and dominant genus of harmful, ciliates in young abalone culture ponds are studied. Totally 68 species of ciliates, belonging to 3 classes, 16 orders and 46 genus, are found. The dominant ciliate species are Aspidisca leptaspis, Vorticella sp. and Euplotes rariseta. During the young abalone cultivation, the numbers of young abalones increase first,and then show a trend of decreasing. The relationship between the density and composition of ciliates and the density of algae in the young abalone culture ponds is also discussed.

  6. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption of Cu2+ onto C.rubrum biomass at the equilibrium. Langmuir model fitted well the equilibrium data for all biosorbents. Maximum biosorption capacity of dried biomass was calculated 25.51 mg/g, while it was calculated 42.92 mg/g and 30.03 mg/g for sodium hydroxide modified and formaldehyde modified biomass, respectively. Modified biomasses have higher maximum biosorption capacities indicating that modification of biomass with NaOH and HCHOH may increase responsible active sites for biosorption on the C.rubrum.

  7. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifaz Alexandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychomycosis. At the end of the follow-up 17/32 patients had clinical and mycologic cure (53.12%, 5 had clinical improvement only (15.6%, and 10 (31.2% failed. Conclusion: Weekly alternate therapy with itraconazole + terbinafine represents a safe rescue treatment.

  8. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  9. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

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    Claudia eDziallas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  10. Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Carine; Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to elaborate calcium carbonate biominerals was apparently gained independently during animal evolution, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) family, which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 into HCO3-, are involved in the biomineralization process across metazoans. In the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum, inhibition studies suggest an essential role of CAs in the synthesis of two biominerals produced in this octocoral, the axial skeleton and the sclerites. Hitherto no molecular characterization of these enzymes was available. In the present study we determined the complete set of α-CAs in C. rubrum by data mining the genome and transcriptome, and measured their differential gene expression between calcifying and non-calcifying tissues. We identified six isozymes (CruCA1-6), one cytosolic and five secreted/membrane-bound among which one lacked two of the three zinc-binding histidines and was so referred to as a carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP). One secreted isozyme (CruCA4) showed specific expression both by qPCR and western-blot in the calcifying tissues, suggesting its involvement in biomineralization. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment of α-CAs for biomineralization within anthozoans. Finally, characterization of cnidarian CARPs highlighted two families: the monophyletic cytosolic CARPs, and the polyphyletic secreted CARPs harboring a cnidarian specific cysteine disulfide bridge. Alignment of the cytosolic CARPs revealed an evolutionary conserved R-H-Q motif in place of the characteristic zinc-binding H-H-H necessary for the catalytic function of α-CAs. PMID:27513959

  11. Metabolic Regulation as a Consequence of Anaerobic 5-Methylthioadenosine Recycling in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Justin A.; Sriram, Jaya; Chourey, Karuna; Ecker, Christopher D.; Sharma, Ritin; Wildenthal, John A.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a novel oxygen-independent, aerobic methionine salvage pathway (MSP) for recycling methionine from 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), the MTA-isoprenoid shunt. This organism can also metabolize MTA as a sulfur source under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also function anaerobically as well. In this study, deep proteomics profiling, directed metabolite analysis, and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed metabolic changes in response to anaerobic growth on MTA versus sulfate as sole sulfur source. The abundance of protein levels associated with methionine transport, cell motility, and chemotaxis increased in the presence of MTA over that in the presence of sulfate. Purine salvage from MTA resulted primarily in hypoxanthine accumulation and a decrease in protein levels involved in GMP-to-AMP conversion to balance purine pools. Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolic protein levels for lipid metabolism were lower in abundance, whereas poly-β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and storage were increased nearly 10-fold. The known R. rubrum aerobic MSP was also shown to be upregulated, to function anaerobically, and to recycle MTA. This suggested that other organisms with gene homologues for the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also possess a functioning anaerobic MSP. In support of our previous findings that ribulose-1,5-carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is required for an apparently purely anaerobic MSP, RubisCO transcript and protein levels both increased in abundance by over 10-fold in cells grown anaerobically on MTA over those in cells grown on sulfate, resulting in increased intracellular RubisCO activity. These results reveal for the first time global metabolic responses as a consequence of anaerobic MTA metabolism compared to using sulfate as the sulfur source. PMID:27406564

  12. High-level production of the industrial product lycopene by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin

    2012-10-01

    The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93-99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product.

  13. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Charles James Newbold; Gabriel ede la Fuente; Alejandro eBelanche; Eva eRamos-Morales; Neil eMcEwan

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear.Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult t...

  14. Grazing on autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton by ciliates isolated from Lake Kinneret, Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadas, O.; Malinsky-Rushansky, N.; Pinkas, R.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    The rates of ingestion of three ciliates (Colpoda steinii, Cyclidium sp. and Stylonichia sp.) on fluorescently labeled heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus P, CN) and a picoeukaryote isolated from Lake Kinneret were measured. Uptake values were 930, 35 and 1210 bacteria ciliate (

  15. New Primers Targeting Full-Length Ciliate 18S rRNA Genes and Evaluation of Dietary Effect on Rumen Ciliate Diversity in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Sun, Peng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene sequences of rumen ciliates is more reliable for taxonomical classification and diversity assessment than the analysis of partial hypervariable regions only. The objective of this study was to develop new oligonucleotide primers targeting the full-length 18S rRNA genes of rumen ciliates, and to evaluate the effect of different sources of dietary fiber (corn stover or a mixture of alfalfa hay and corn silage) and protein (mixed rapeseed, cottonseed, and/or soybean meals) on rumen ciliate diversity in dairy cows. Primers were designed based on a total of 137 previously reported ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 3'-terminal sequences of the newly designed primers, P.1747r_2, P.324f, and P.1651r, demonstrated >99% base coverage. Primer pair D (P.324f and P.1747r_2) was selected for the cloning and sequencing of ciliate 18S rRNA genes because it produced a 1423-bp amplicon, and did not amply the sequences of other eukaryotic species, such as yeast. The optimal species-level cutoff value for distinguishing between the operational taxonomic units of different ciliate species was 0.015. The phylogenetic analysis of full-length ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences showed that distinct ciliate profiles were induced by the different sources of dietary fiber and protein. Dasytricha and Entodinium were the predominant genera in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle, and Dasytricha was significantly more abundant in cows fed with corn stover than in cows fed with alfalfa hay and corn silage.

  16. New Primers Targeting Full-Length Ciliate 18S rRNA Genes and Evaluation of Dietary Effect on Rumen Ciliate Diversity in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Sun, Peng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene sequences of rumen ciliates is more reliable for taxonomical classification and diversity assessment than the analysis of partial hypervariable regions only. The objective of this study was to develop new oligonucleotide primers targeting the full-length 18S rRNA genes of rumen ciliates, and to evaluate the effect of different sources of dietary fiber (corn stover or a mixture of alfalfa hay and corn silage) and protein (mixed rapeseed, cottonseed, and/or soybean meals) on rumen ciliate diversity in dairy cows. Primers were designed based on a total of 137 previously reported ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 3'-terminal sequences of the newly designed primers, P.1747r_2, P.324f, and P.1651r, demonstrated >99% base coverage. Primer pair D (P.324f and P.1747r_2) was selected for the cloning and sequencing of ciliate 18S rRNA genes because it produced a 1423-bp amplicon, and did not amply the sequences of other eukaryotic species, such as yeast. The optimal species-level cutoff value for distinguishing between the operational taxonomic units of different ciliate species was 0.015. The phylogenetic analysis of full-length ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences showed that distinct ciliate profiles were induced by the different sources of dietary fiber and protein. Dasytricha and Entodinium were the predominant genera in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle, and Dasytricha was significantly more abundant in cows fed with corn stover than in cows fed with alfalfa hay and corn silage. PMID:26319789

  17. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem:effects on accumulation of ambient ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Hu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ciliated protozoa, Euplotes vannus and Uronema marinum, on accumulation of ammonia in marine waters are detected using experimental ecological method, in order to reveal the contributions and functions of ciliates to the marine ecosystem. During experiments, the concentrations of ammonia-N, and the densities of ciliates and bacteria are measured. The results reveal that ciliates can change the procedure of ammonia accumulation by their grazing activity, and maintain ambient ammonium at low levels through interrupting the stationary phase of bacteria population growth and enhancing their growth and metabolism. The present work confirms that ciliates, as bacteria-predators, play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in intensive mariculture biotopes.

  18. SHORT TIME DYNAMICS OF CILIATE ABUNDANCE IN THE BOHAI SEA (CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate community in the Bohai Sea (China) was studied from23 September to 7 October 1998. A hurricane struck the study area between the two grid station investigations, which were six days apart. Six tintinnid species(Favella panamensis, Leptotintinnus nordqvisti, Tintinnopsis butschlii, T. karajacensis, T. Radix and Wangiella dicollaria) were identified. Total cililate abundance in the surface layer ranged from 20 to 770 ind/l. In the first grid investigation, Tintinnopsis karajacensis dominated in the warm, low salinity waters at the Huanghe River mouth. Aloricate ciliate sp.1 dominated in the cold, high salinity waters in the northwest of the study area and the Bohai Strait. In the second grid investigation, T. Karajacensis almost disappeared. The abundance of aloricate ciliate sp.1 decreased drastically. The aloricate ciliate sp.2 dominatedat the Bohai Strait. The change of ciliate abundance may be due to the disturbance of hurricane.``

  19. Community Structure and Biodiversity of Soil Ciliates at Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest in Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The abundance, biodiversity, and community similarity of ciliates in fresh and air-dried soil with different, physical/chemical properties were analyzed. Three Classes, 11 Orders, 34 Genera, and 70 species of ciliates were found with the first dominant group being Hypotrichida. Ciliate bio diversities followed Site B 42-), but negatively with ph and total potassium (TK). Site A and Site B and Site B and Site C showed the highest similarity in fresh and dried samples, respectively. The ubiquitous characteristics of ciliate distribution suggested their important role in food webs and nutrient cycling. The presence of Colpodida was linked with mangrove plants.

  20. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one. PMID:27345662

  1. Functional interfacing of Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores to a conducting support for capture and conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, John W; Woronowicz, Kamil; Lamptey, Joana L; Awong, John; Baird, James; Moshar, Amir; Vittadello, Michele; Falkowski, Paul G; Niederman, Robert A

    2013-09-26

    Owing to the considerable current interest in replacing fossil fuels with solar radiation as a clean, renewable, and secure energy source, light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems offers a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. In particular, intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum provide a fully functional and robust photosynthetic apparatus, ideal for biophysical investigations of energy transduction and incorporation into biohybrid photoelectrochemical devices. These vesicular organelles, which arise by invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane, are the sites of the photochemical reaction centers and the light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex. The LH1 protein is responsible for collecting visible and near-IR radiant energy and funneling these excitations to the reaction center for conversion into a transmembrane charge separation. Here, we have investigated the morphology, fluorescence kinetics and photocurrent generation of chromatophores from Rsp. rubrum deposited directly onto gold surfaces in the absence of chemical surface modifications. Atomic force microscopy showed a significant coverage of the gold electrode surface by Rsp. rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of photochemistry was demonstrated in the photoactive films. Chronoamperometric measurements showed that the assembled bioelectrodes were capable of generating sustained photocurrent under white light illumination at 220 mW/cm(2) with a maximum current of 1.5 μA/cm(2), which slowly declines in about 1 week. This study demonstrates the possibility of photoelectrochemical control of robust chromatophore preparations from Rsp. rubrum that paves the way for future incorporation into functional solar cells. PMID:23789750

  2. Diverse modes of reproduction in the marine free-living ciliate Glauconema trihymene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufall Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most free-living ciliates reproduce by equal fission or budding during vegetative growth. In certain ciliates, reproduction occurs inside the cyst wall, viz. reproductive cysts, but more complex reproductive strategies have generally been thought to be confined to parasitic or symbiotic species, e.g. Radiophrya spp. Results In addition to equal fission, asymmetric binary division and reproductive cysts were discovered in the free-living bacterivorous scuticociliate Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. Asymmetric division is an innate physiological state that can be induced by sufficient food, and the higher the food concentration, the longer the asymmetric division persists. During asymmetric division, nuclear and somatic structures divide with transiently arrested cytokinesis and variable positioning of macronuclei. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA sequences, showed that the G. trihymene isolate studied here nests with typical scuticociliates and is paraphyletic to both the symbiotic apostome and astome ciliates, some of which also produce progeny by asymmetric division. Conclusions The asymmetric division in G. trihymene has no precedent among undisturbed free-living ciliates. The coexistence of multiple modes of reproduction may represent a previously undescribed reproductive strategy for ciliates living on food patches in coastal waters. This may also be indicative of similar reproductive strategies among other polyphenic ciliates, which have not been intensively studied. Asymmetric division provides a special opportunity for studying ciliates' phenotypic plasticity and may also illuminate the origins of multicellularity.

  3. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  4. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  5. The effects of different fertilizers on the ciliate communities of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of lime, mineral fertilizers and different composts on the ciliate communities (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of very acidified spruce forests were tested. In succession culture experiments species range, total numbers, abundance and dominance structure of the ciliate communities showed continued changes over a 90 day period. This method offers the opportunity not only to diagnose, but also to quantify effects of soil treatments. Investigations at the ARINUS-site Schluchsee (Black Forest) showed the following results: Liming led to a greater change in the ciliate communities than fertilization with magnesium-sulphate and ammonia-sulphate. Liming and treatment with compost, made from household garbage, and compost, made from chopped wood on the Beimerstetten site (Swabian Alb) led also to remarkably changes in the ciliate communities. The total ciliate numbers of the household garbage area were very low. In contrast, the ciliate community of the chopped wood compost areas were characterized by a great species number and high abundances of spirotrichuous ciliates, especially Halteria grandinella. (orig./UWA)

  6. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bols, Niels C., E-mail: ncbols@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  7. Contrasting Hydraulic Strategies during Dry Soil Conditions in Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in a Sandy Site in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Thomsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analyses were carried out for the dynamics of leaf water potential in two broad-leaf deciduous tree species in a sandy site under a range of air vapor pressure deficits and a relatively dry range of soil conditions. During nights when the soil is dry, the diffuse-porous, isohydric and shallow-rooted Acer rubrum does not recharge its xylem and leaf water storage to the same capacity that is observed during nights when the soil is moist. The ring-porous, deep-rooted Quercus rubra displays a more anisohydric behavior and appears to be capable of recharging to capacity at night-time even when soil moisture at the top 1 m is near wilting point, probably by accessing deeper soil layers than A. rubrum. Compared to A. rubrum, Q. rubra displays only a minimal level of down-regulation of stomatal conductance, which leads to a reduction of leaf water potential during times when vapor pressure deficit is high and soil moisture is limiting. We determine that the two species, despite typically being categorized by ecosystem models under the same plant functional type—mid-successional, temperate broadleaf—display different hydraulic strategies. These differences may lead to large differences between the species in water relations, transpiration and productivity under different precipitation and humidity regimes.

  8. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Federica; Carlesi, Lorenzo; Abbiati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC) were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations. PMID:23646109

  9. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Costantini

    Full Text Available While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations.

  10. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: report of first case in China and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秀军; 黄迪宇; 梁霄; 虞洪; 李伟; 王先法; 彭淑牖

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and review of literature to introduce the characteristics of this disease for doctors to recognize this disease.Method: Report the clinical procedure of diagnosis and treatment for the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and to review the embryologic genesis, incidence,clinical manifestation, radiologic features and therapeutic principle of this disease. Results: We performed the resection for ciliated hepatic foregut cyst under laparoscopy; the patient recovered well after the procedure. Conclusion: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is quite rare clinically, belongs to non-parasitic,solitary and unilocular cystic lesion, is always less than 4cm in diameter, mostly seen in the left lobe, and has the tendency of malignant change. It should be removed as soon as diagnosed.

  11. Benthic ciliate and meiofaunal communities in two contrasting habitats of an intertidal estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongfen; Xu, Kuidong; Warren, Alan; Lei, Yanli; Dai, Renhai

    2012-05-01

    Annual variations in benthic meiofaunal and ciliated protozoan communities were investigated using monthly samplings from June 2006 to May 2007 in two habitats characterized by different vegetal coverage in an estuarine intertidal wetland of Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay, China. The sediment composition was stable at each site: sediments densely covered with seagrass (Suaeda glauca) in the lower estuarine site (Station S) were finer, with higher content of organic matter, phaeopigments and water than sediments at the upper estuarine site (Station S-P) which was unvegetated other than for patches of S. glauca and common reed (Phragmites australis). Chlorophyll a exhibited a similar distribution in the two habitats. A total of 14 meiofaunal groups, and 249 species of ciliates belonging to 37 genera, 28 families and 16 orders, were isolated from the two sites. Univariate and multivariate measures of the communities were significantly different between the two habitats. There were higher abundances of ciliates and meiofauna, and a greater diversity of ciliates, at Station S than Station S-P (223 vs. 61 species). Herbivorous ciliates were numerically predominant in ciliate communities at both sites. The representative ciliates at Station S-P belonged to the Cyrtophorida and appeared to be a reduced subset of the assemblage at Station S, which was characterized by members of the Prostomatida, Cyrtophorida, Hypotrichida and Scuticociliatida. More than 96% of the total meiofauna were nematodes, accounting for 93% of the differences in the abundance compositions of the meiofaunal communities between habitats. The average individual weights of nematodes were nearly 3 times greater at Station S than Station S-P, indicating a distinctive species composition at each site. Temperature, salinity and food availability were key factors that regulated the ciliate and meiofaunal community structure. Nematodes were the dominant group in terms of the combined abundance, biomass and benthic

  12. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  13. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, M; Haguenauer, A; Chabrol, O; Klopp, C; Pontarotti, P; Aurelle, D

    2015-09-01

    The question of species survival and evolution in heterogeneous environments has long been a subject for study. Indeed, it is often difficult to identify the molecular basis of adaptation to contrasted environments, and nongenetic effects increase the difficulty to disentangle fixed effects, such as genetic adaptation, from variable effects, such as individual phenotypic plasticity, in adaptation. Nevertheless, this question is also of great importance for understanding the evolution of species in a context of climate change. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) lives in the Mediterranean Sea, where at depths ranging from 5 to 600 m, it meets very contrasted thermal conditions. The shallowest populations of this species suffered from mortality events linked with thermal anomalies that have highlighted thermotolerance differences between individuals. We provide here a new transcriptomic resource, as well as candidate markers for the study of local adaptation. We sequenced the transcriptome of six individuals from 5 m and six individuals from 40 m depth at the same site of the Marseilles bay, after a period of common garden acclimatization. We found differential expression maintained between the two depths even after common garden acclimatization, and we analysed the polymorphism pattern of these samples. We highlighted contigs potentially implicated in the response to thermal stress, which could be good candidates for the study of thermal adaptation for the red coral. Some of these genes are also involved in the response to thermal stress in other corals. Our method enables the identification of candidate loci of local adaptation useful for other nonmodel organisms.

  14. Probing the bacteriochlorophyll binding site by reconstitution of the light-harvesting complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum with bacteriochlorophyll a analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural features of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a that are required for binding to the light-harvesting proteins of Rhodospirillum rubrum were determined by testing for reconstitution of the B873 or B820 (structural subunit of B873) light-harvesting complexes with BChl a analogues. The results indicate that the binding site is very specific; of the analogues tested, only derivatives of BChl a with ethyl, phytyl, and geranylgeranyl esterifying alcohols and BChl b (phytyl) successfully reconstituted to form B820-and B873-type complexes. BChl analogues lacking magnesium, the C-3 acetyl group, or the C132 carbomethoxy group did not reconstitute to form B820 or B873. Also unreactive were 132-hydroxy BChl a and 3-acetylchlorophyll a. Competition experiments showed that several of these nonreconstituting analogues significantly slowed BChl a binding to form B820 and blocked BChl a-B873 formation, indicating that the analogues may competitively bind to the protein even though they do not form red-shifted complexes. With the R. rubrum polypeptides, BChl b formed complexes that were further red-shifted than those of BChl a; however, the energies of the red shifts, binding behavior, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were similar. B873 complexes reconstituted with the geranylgeranyl BChl a derivative, which contains the native esterifying alcohol for R. rubrum, showed in-vivo-like CD features, but the phytyl and ethyl B873 complexes showed inverted CD features in the near infrared. The B820 complex with the ethyl derivative was about 30-fold less stable than the two longer esterifying alcohol derivatives, but all formed stable B873 complexes

  15. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  16. Application of nested PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) for the analysis of ciliate communities in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Satoshi; Sambe, Mitsuo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates play important roles as prey and predators in ecosystems. Changes in the ciliate community can affect the composition and population of microfauna and microflora in ecosystems. To investigate the structure of ciliate communities, we developed a nested PCR-DGGE method, which combines a universal eukaryotic-specific primer set in the first PCR step with a ciliate-specific primer set in the second PCR step, to amplify 18S rRNA genes from ciliates. The 300 bp DGGE fragments generated more bands on the gel than the 600 bp DGGE fragments. Prior to bead beating, DNA extraction of ciliates from soil samples was optimized with a combination of freeze-thaw cycles and ultrasonication. We applied this nested PCR-DGGE method to agricultural soils amended with 0, 120, 300, and 600 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ of livestock slurry. The results from the DGGE profiles and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the supplement of slurry to soils influenced the ciliate communities. From phylogenetic analysis, 108 DGGE bands were assigned to six classes, which included Spirotrichea and Colpodea, of the subphylum Intramacronucleata, and one class of the subphylum Postciliodesmatophora. These results indicated that a wide variety of taxonomic groups were detected by DGGE profiling. Thus, the nested PCR-DGGE method described here could clearly differentiate between ciliate communities within soil samples and allowed for the phylogenetic identification of these ciliates at the class level.

  17. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment. PMID:27079173

  18. High cryptic soil ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) diversity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    The diversity and distribution of soil ciliates from Australia is poorly known. Thus, we studied eight taxa, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, silver impregnation, detailed morphometrics, ontogenesis, and reinvestigation of type slides. At first glance, the Australian taxa looked very similar to described species, however, detailed investigations resulted in the identification of six cryptic species: Afroamphisiella multinucleata minima nov. subspec., Cladotricha similis nov. spec., Erimophrya similis nov. spec., Heterogonostomum salinarum nov. gen., nov. spec., Pseudohemisincirra arabica australiensis nov. subspec., and Pattersoniella (Pattersoniellides) australiensis nov. subgen., nov. spec. This new subgenus is unique among all described hypotrichs in having reduced some anterior paroral dikinetids the fibrillar associates of which are, however, still present. Only two of the eight taxa are possibly cosmopolitans: Apourosomoida halophilaFoissner et al., 2002 and Urosoma karinaeFoissner, 1987. This supports the moderate endemicity model, i.e., that a third of protists have a restricted distribution (Foissner, Chao and Katz 2008). PMID:26844781

  19. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  20. Tintinnid ciliates of Amundsen Sea (Antarctica plankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dolan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea has been described as one of the most productive and dynamic pelagic systems in Antarctica and is one of the least studied. Based on samples from 15 stations in the Amundsen Sea, we describe for the first time the composition of the tintinnid ciliate assemblage of the microzooplankton. We compared the species compositions of coastal polynya sites, where the phytoplankton communities are dominated by Phaeocystis, to those of the offshore deep water sites, which are dominated by diatoms. We found a total of 15 species. Polynya sites were dominated by a few species of tintinnids, mostly those endemic to the Southern Ocean. In contrast, the deep-water sites contained many widespread tintinnid species, which are known from a wide variety of systems as well as other areas of the Southern Ocean. We examined polymorphism known to characterize the Antarctic tintinnid species Cymatocylis affinis/convallaria and Codonellopsis gaussi. We found that the types or forms found appeared unrelated to the type of microplankton community, defined by the identity of the dominant phytoplankton taxa. However, the number of different morphotypes found at a site appeared related to the overall concentration of the species, suggesting that different morphologies, previously considered distinct species, may simply be developmental stages.

  1. Hydrodynamical entrapment of ciliates at the air-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracci, Jonathan; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2012-11-01

    We found the new phenomenon of the entrapment of ciliates at the air-water interface, though they are not trapped by a solid interface. We first characterize the behaviours of cells at the interface by comparing it to those away from interfaces. The results showed that the cell's swimming velocity is considerably reduced at the air-water interface. In order to experimentally verify the possible physiological causes of the entrapment, we observed their behaviours in absence of positive chemotaxis for oxygen and the negative geotaxis. The results illustrated that the entrapment phenomenon was not dependent on these physiological conditions. The experiments using surfactant revealed that the entrapment phenomenon was strongly affected by the velocity-stress conditions at the interface. This fact was confirmed numerically by a boundary element method, i.e. the stress-free condition at the air-liquid interface is one of the main mechanisms of the entrapment phenomenon found in the experiments. Since the entrapment phenomenon found in this study affects the cell-cell interactions and the mass transport at the interface, the knowledge obtained in this study is useful for better understanding the complex behaviours of swimming microorganisms in nature. PhD student in the Physiological Flow Studies Laboratory.

  2. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  3. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum Ação fototóxica do diodo emissor de luz na viabilidade de Trichophyton rubrum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Faria Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. METHODS: The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. RESULTS: A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.FUNDAMENTOS: Trichophyton rubrum é o agente mais comum das micoses superficiais de pele e unhas causando infecções de longa duração e altas taxas de recidiva. As desvantagens do tratamento atual envolvem medicações tópicas as quais n

  4. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  5. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  6. Involvement of Crawling and Attached Ciliates in the Aggregation of Particles in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Arregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological community in activated sludge wastewater plants is organized within this ecosystem as bioaggregates or flocs, in which the biotic component is embedded in a complex matrix comprised of extracellular polymeric substances mainly of microbial origin. The aim of this work is to study the role of different floc-associated ciliates commonly reported in wastewater treatment plants-crawling Euplotes and sessile Vorticella- in the formation of aggregates. Flocs, in experiments with ciliates and latex beads, showed more compactation and cohesion among particles than those in the absence of ciliates. Ciliates have been shown to contribute to floc formation through different mechanisms such as the active secretion of polymeric substances (extrusomes, their biological activities (movement and feeding strategies, or the cysts formation capacity of some species. Staining with lectins coupled to fluorescein showed that carbohydrate of the matrix contained glucose, manose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and galactose. Protein fraction revealed over the latex beads surfaces could probably be of bacterial origin, but nucleic acids represented an important fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of ciliate origin.

  7. Magnesium ions improving the growth and organics reduction of Rhodospirillum rubrum cultivated in sewage through regulating energy metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Ru; Wu, Pan; Lang, Lang; Liu, Ri-Jia; Li, Jian-Zheng; Ji, Yu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum has the potential for biomass resource recycling combined with sewage purification. However, low biomass production and yield restricts the potential for sewage purification. This research investigated the improvement of biomass production, yield and organics reduction by Mg²⁺ in R. rubrum wastewater treatment. Results showed that with optimal dosage (120 mg/L), biomass production reached 4,000 mg/L, which was 1.5 times of that of the control group. Biomass yield was improved by 43.3%. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached over 90%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that Mg²⁺ enhanced the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content on respiration and photophosphorylation. These effects then enhanced ATP production, which led to more biomass accumulation and COD removal. With 120 mg/L Mg²⁺ dosage, the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content, ATP production were improved, respectively, by 33.3%, 50%, 67%, 41.3% compared to those of the control group.

  8. Complementation of a pleiotropic Nif-Gln regulatory mutant of Rhodospirillum rubrum by a previously unrecognized Azotobacter vinelandii regulatory locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Z; Yoch, D C

    1990-01-01

    A spontaneous pleiotropic Nif- mutation in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been partially characterized biochemically and by complementation analysis with recombinant plasmids carrying Azotobacter vinelandii DNA in the vicinity of ORF12 [Jacobson et al. (1989) J. Bacteriol 171: 1017-1027]. In addition to being unable to grow on N2 as a nitrogen source the phenotypic characterization of this and other metronidazole enriched spontaneous mutants showed (a) no nitrogenase activity, (b) the absence of NifHDK polypeptides, (c) a slower growth rate on NH4+, (d) approximately 50% higher glutamine synthetase (GS) activity than the wild-type, which was repressible, (e) an inability to switch-off GS activity in response to an NH4+ up-shift, and (f) an inability to modify (32P-label) the GS polypeptide. The apparent relationship between the absence of nifHDK expression and the absence of GS adenylylation cannot be explained in terms of the current model for nif gene regulation. However, R. rubrum transconjugants receiving A. vinelandii DNA which originated immediately upstream from nifH, restored all aspects of the wild-type phenotype. These data suggest a here-to-fore unrecognized relationship between nif expression and GS switch-off (adenylylation) activity, and the existence of a previously unidentified regulatory locus in Azotobacter that complements this mutation. PMID:1980582

  9. Eficacia de Medios de Cultivo con Infusiones de Variedades de Papa en la Identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Urcia A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca, Solanum chaucha (papa huayro y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla, para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar Papa Dextrosa (APDc. Las cepas de T. rubrum fueron inoculadas en los diferentes medios de cultivo, incubados a 2°C durante 10 días. Para la evaluación consideramos características culturales y microscópicas. Los resultados muestran que el medio de cultivo Agar Papa Huayro Dextrosa (APHD fue más eficiente en la producción del pigmento rojo vino, pero se obtuvo mayor esporulación en los medios de cultivo Agar Papa Blanca Dextrosa (APBD y Agar Papa Amarilla Dextrosa (APAD.

  10. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Dutz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates in live feed cultures can be a pest that lower production yields. This could dramatically affect the management and success of copepod cultures. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ciliate Euplotes sp. on egg production, specific egg production and egg hatching success...... of Acartia tonsa fed with Rhodomonas salina. We found that at a concentration of 2 cells ml-1, Euplotes sp. had no effect on the production and hatching success of eggs but increased/decreased the mortality/quality of non-subitaneous eggs. Euplotes sp. had a good fatty acid profile containing high proportion...... of unsaturated fatty acids, but the amount of fatty acids compared to their carbon weight was very low and, therefore, it was considered as a poor food source. We propose a short-term interruption of food supply to copepod cultures in order to mitigate bloom formation of ciliates. This will force copepods...

  11. Species Composition, Ecological Parameters and Seasonal Changes of Planktonic Ciliates Population in Bukan Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Azary

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Since there is no evidence to identify present species in the Bukan dam reservoir, therefore, this study was conducted to provide background for fisheries purposes. Approach: The abundance and species composition of ciliates were analyzed in the Bukan Dam reservoir (west Azerbaijan, Iran from January to December 2007. Surface water samples were collected at monthly intervals at two different points, open water (Station 1, 3 and in the shallowest area of the reservoir (Station 2, 4 and examined for planktonic protozoa composition and density. Chlorophyll a was analyzed and a few ecological parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity and temperature were measured. Results: Totally 50 ciliates species were found in Bukan dam reservoir. Concerning the protozoa density, a high-density period was detected from January to April with a mean number of 2.86×103 cells.L-1 protozoa at Stations 1, 3 and 4.16×103 cells.L-1 protozoa at shallowest areas at stations 2, 4 thanks to disappear of phytoplankton in the winter. The summer development of protozoa was possible thanks to the development of bacteria and moderate metazooplankton densities due to the appearance of non-edible algae. The density of ciliates was low during the rest of the year. The mean number of organisms at the high-density period was approximately 4-fold more than that obtained during the low-density one. The ciliates occurring at the highest densities were Coleps tessellates, Paradileptus elephantinus, Zosterograptus labiatus, Cyclidium citrullus. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was concluded that ciliates density have important role for saprobic condition of Bukan reservoir. Therefore, it can be recommended to determine more effective parameters for density of ciliates and management policies must be programmed in order to improve ecological condition for this reservoir.

  12. The identification and characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort. 1914) new comb. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) based on experimental evidence of the life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort, 1914) comb. n. has been completed experimentally. All of the developmental stages egg, miracidium, sporocyst, mother and daughter rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, and adult were examined and described. The miracidia infected freshwater snails of the genus Physa , P. gyrina and P. occidentalis. Attempts to infect snails of the genera Lymnaea, L. auricularis, L. peregra, L. truncatula and Bulinus, B. truncatus failed. Cercariae infected various pulmonate and prosobranch freshwater snails, mussels, frogs, water turtles and planarians. The adults developed in the small intestine of birds and mammals. The identity and major characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum are discussed. Synonyms of E. rubrum are Cercaria rubra Cort, 1914; Cercaria biflexa Faust, 1917; Cercaria chisolenata Faust, 1918; Echinostoma callawayensis Barker et Noll, 1915; Echinostoma revolutum of Johnson (1920); Echinoparyphium elegans of Cannon (1938), of Bain and Trelfall (1977), of Mahoney and Trelfall (1977); and Echinoparyphium recurvatum of Jilek (1977), Harley (1972), Sankurathri and Holmes (1976). Comparisons are made between E. rubrum and its 43-collar-spined allies: E. flexum from North America, E. cinctum from Europe, E. dunni from Asia and E. elegans from Africa.

  13. A static and dynamical Mössbauer study of photochemical biological switch of valence states in the respiratory pigments of rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R. P. M.; Iyengar, P. K.

    1986-04-01

    We have carried out a dynamical Mössbauer spectroscopy study of photochemical reversible biological switching of oxidation-reduction processes in iron atoms present in the respiratory pigments of Rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium. The experimental technique utilised enabled us to determine an upper limit to the reaction time of about 25 ms.

  14. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  15. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare;

    2015-01-01

    -old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct...

  16. Taxonomic list of ciliated protist (Protozoa: Ciliophora in Cojimar river, Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Caridad Ymas González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoan’s communities from Cojimar river (Havana city was determinated, over the study period. Samples were collected from six stations located along the river. The samples were cultured in Petri dishes and were main-tained in environmental temperature and natural ilumination. Species identification was made taking into account morphological characters and Levine’s et al.(1980 taxonomic classification was used. It were identified 49 species of ciliated protozoans, which are the first records for the locality. The species are distri-buted in three classes, ten orders, eighteen families and twenty-six genera.

  17. Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorni, A; Diamant, A

    2005-06-01

    Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:16060271

  18. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed regenerative life support system for future space flights developed by the European Space Agency. It consists of interconnected processes (i.e. bioreactors, higher plant compartments, filtration units,..) targeting the total recycling of organic waste into oxygen, water and food. Within the MELiSSA loop, the purple non-sulfur alpha-proteobacterium R. rubrum ATCC25903 is used to convert fatty acids released from the upstream raw waste digesting reactor to CO2 and biomass, and to complete the mineralization of aminoacids into NH4+ that will be forwarded to the nitrifying compartment. Among the numerous challenges of the project, the functional stability of the bioreactors in long term and under space flight conditions is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the life support system and consequently the crew safety. Therefore, the physiological and metabolic changes induced by space flight were investigated for R. rubrum. The bacterium grown on solid medium during 2 different 10-day space flights to the ISS (MES- SAGE2, BASE-A experiments) were compared to cells grown on Earth 1 g gravity or modeled microgravity and normal Earth radiation or simulated space flight radiation conditions in order to relate each single stress to its respective cellular response. For simulating the radiation environment, pure gamma and neutron sources were combined, while simulation of changes in gravity where performed using the Random Positioning Machine technology. Transcriptome analysis using R. rubrum total genome DNA-chip showed up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress response after a 10-day mission inside the ISS, without loss of viability. As an example, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, thioredoxin reductase and bacterioferritin genes are least 2 fold induced although the radiation dose experienced by the bacterium (4 mSv) is very low compared to its radiotolerance (D10 = 100 Sv

  19. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon;

    2012-01-01

    of analogues showed increased activity against the cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighted by 2'-benzyloxy-2'-demethoxy-griseofulvin, which showed low activity against both fungi but was among the most potent compounds against MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Tubulin has been proposed as the target of griseofulvin...... in both fungal and mammalian cells, but the differences revealed by this SAR study strongly suggest that the mode-of-action of the compound class toward fungi and mammalian cancer cells is different.......Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions...

  20. Isolation, Stereochemical Study, and Antioxidant Activity of Benzofuranone Derivatives from a Mangrove-derived Fungus Eurotium rubrum MA-150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Mándi, Attila; Li, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yang; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-01

    Enantiomers of a 2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one derivative [(-)- and (+)-] and four known analogs () were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a fungus obtained from the mangrove-derived rizospheric soil. Their structures were established by detailed interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the structure of (±)- was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configuration of the enantiomers (-)- and (+)- was determined by means of online high-performance liquid chromatography - electronic circular dichroism (HPLC-ECD) measurements and time-dependent Density Functional Theory - electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. Compounds (±)- as well as and exhibited potent DPPH radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 1.23, 2.26, and 3.99 μg/mL, respectively. Chirality 28:581-584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27376714

  1. Extracellular Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Three Common Species of Dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nano technology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25degreeC for 5-7 days. The cell-free filtrate of each culture was obtained and subjected to synthesize silver nanoparticles in the presence of 1 m M AgNO3. Results: The reduction of Ag+ ions in metal nanoparticles was investigated virtually by tracing the solution color which was switched into reddish-light brown after 72 h. For T. mentagrophytes, a UV-visible spectra demonstrating a strong, quite narrow peak located between 422 and 425 nm was obtained. For M. canis, a fairly wide peak centering at 441 nm and for T. rubrum, a weak spectrum to decipher were observed. According to transmission electron microscopy results, fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost less than 50 nm particles were forms in case of T. mentagrophytes. For the other two species, transmission electron microscopy images showed existence of small spherical nano silvers but not as small as nanoparticles synthesized by T. mentagrophytes. Conclusion: We observed that species belong to a single genus of the fungi have variable ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles extracellulary with different efficiency. Furthermore, the extracellular synthesis may make the process simpler and easier for following processes.

  2. Model-based derivation, analysis and control of unstable microaerobic steady-states--considering Rhodospirillum rubrum as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Lisa; Rumschinski, Philipp; Faulwasser, Timm; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Grammel, Hartmut; Findeisen, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Microaerobic (oxygen-limited) conditions are critical for inducing many important microbial processes in industrial or environmental applications. At very low oxygen concentrations, however, the process performance often suffers from technical limitations. Available dissolved oxygen measurement techniques are not sensitive enough and thus control techniques, that can reliable handle these conditions, are lacking. Recently, we proposed a microaerobic process control strategy, which overcomes these restrictions and allows to assess different degrees of oxygen limitation in bioreactor batch cultivations. Here, we focus on the design of a control strategy for the automation of oxygen-limited continuous cultures using the microaerobic formation of photosynthetic membranes (PM) in Rhodospirillum rubrum as model phenomenon. We draw upon R. rubrum since the considered phenomenon depends on the optimal availability of mixed-carbon sources, hence on boundary conditions which make the process performance challenging. Empirically assessing these specific microaerobic conditions is scarcely practicable as such a process reacts highly sensitive to changes in the substrate composition and the oxygen availability in the culture broth. Therefore, we propose a model-based process control strategy which allows to stabilize steady-states of cultures grown under these conditions. As designing the appropriate strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the system behavior, we begin by deriving and validating an unstructured process model. This model is used to optimize the experimental conditions, and identify properties of the system which are critical for process performance. The derived model facilitates the good process performance via the proposed optimal control strategy. In summary the presented model-based control strategy allows to access and maintain microaerobic steady-states of interest and to precisely and efficiently transfer the culture from one stable microaerobic steady

  3. Cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex as a fluorescent label of surface membranes in living ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Bottiroli, G; Giordano, P

    1981-12-01

    Labelling of surface membrane of living ciliates: Paramecium aurelia and Tetrahymena pyriformis with fluorescent compound--cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex (CDC) has been achieved. Fluorescence micrographs of the dried samples showed specific localization of CDC on the cell membrane without any intracellular penetration. On the contrary the ciliates which have been dead during labelling revealed a non-specific fluorescence of their whole bodies. Microspectrofluorimetric analysis of labelled Paramecium cells was performed with Leitz microspectrograph. Spectrum of fluorescence emission measured over the cell membrane level had maximum at 450 nm. Strikingly, the emission maximum of the cells dead at the moment of labelling was shifted 10 nm to a longer wavelength. The rate of photofading measured in this case was almost 3-fold higher than for the ciliates labelled as living ones. Fluorescence excitation spectra did not show any difference in the peak position. Thus CDC staining appears to be an useful method of supravital labelling of cell surface enabling also to distinguish--on the basis of spectral characteristics--the ciliates being alive from those dead at the moment of fluorochrome binding.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterial Symbiont TC1 in the Anaerobic Ciliate Trimyema compressum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Seikoh; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimoji, Makiko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Teruya, Kuniko; Hirano, Takashi; Yamada, Takanori; Nobu, Masaru K.; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Shirai, Yumi; Park, Sanghwa; Narihiro, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    A free-living ciliate, Trimyema compressum, found in anoxic freshwater environments harbors methanogenic archaea and a bacterial symbiont named TC1 in its cytoplasm. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the TC1 symbiont, consisting of a 1.59-Mb chromosome and a 35.8-kb plasmid, which was determined using the PacBio RSII sequencer. PMID:27660797

  5. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    microcosms, the active and total populations of ciliates, their potential prey (bacteria and small protozoa), their potential competitors (amoebae, flagellates, and nematodes), and their potential predators (nematodes). We sampled with short time intervals (2 to 6 days) and generated a data set, suitable...

  6. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors of the lung: a clinicopathologic analysis of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tsugumasa; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kosuge, Tomoo; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuta, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors (CMPTs) are rare peripheral nodules of the lung first described in 2002. Because of their rarity and nonstandardized diagnostic terminology, CMPTs have been poorly recognized among pathologists. To better characterize these lesions, we undertook a detailed clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 archival cases. Ten CMPTs occurred in 7 men and 3 women with a median age of 62 years. All were small peripheral nonendobronchial nodules with a mean diameter of 1.0 cm. All but 1 tumor were incidentally detected by computed tomography-based screening, all of which were radiologically interpreted as adenocarcinomas. Although limited surgery treated all but 1 CMPT, they followed a benign course with no recurrence at a mean follow-up of 43 months (range: 2 to 88 mo). Histologically, CMPTs showed glandular and/or papillary architecture, comprising a vaguely organized mixture of nonatypical ciliated columnar cells, mucous cells, and basal cells, often enveloped by copious intra-alveolar mucin. Micropapillary tufts of ciliated cells and seemingly discontinuous growth along alveolar walls were occasionally present, mimicking adenocarcinomas. Ciliated cells and basal cells were immunopositive for TTF-1 and p40, respectively, whereas mucous cells lacked HNF4α expression. CMPTs are rare, likely benign, underrecognized processes of the lung that should be distinguished from adenocarcinomas. PMID:25803171

  7. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  8. Isolation and in vitro cultivation of the fibrolytic rumen ciliate Eremoplastron (Eudiplodinium) dilobum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Pietrzak, Marta; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Wereszka, Krzysztof; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Hackstein, Johannes H P

    2015-02-01

    The rumen ciliate Eremoplastron dilobum was isolated from sheep rumen fluid and cultivated in vitro as a species population. Four different salt solutions were used to prepare the culture media. However, only the "Artificial rumen fluid" composed of (g/L): K2HPO4-3.48, NaHCO3-2.1, NaCl-0.76, CaCl2×6H2O-0.33, CH3COONa-6.12, MgCl2×6H2O-0.3, Na2HPO4-1.71, NaHPO4×H2O-1.01 and distilled water enabled cultivation of this species for over 56 weeks. The protozoa were able to grow in a medium consisting of culture salt solution and powdered meadow hay (0.6mg/ml per d). The addition of wheat gluten did not increase the population density of E. dilobum whereas the supplemented crystalline cellulose and/or barley flour improved the growth of ciliates (Pdensity of the ciliate population. The recommended food consisted of meadow hay, wheat gluten, crystalline cellulose and barley flour when supplied in the proportions of 0.6, 0.16, 0.12 and 0.12mg/mL per day. We observed morphological variation of the ciliates, involving partial or complete reduction of the caudal lobes. PMID:25660229

  9. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematic

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterial Symbiont TC1 in the Anaerobic Ciliate Trimyema compressum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Naoya; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Seikoh; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakano, Kazuma; Shimoji, Makiko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Hirano, Takashi; Yamada, Takanori; Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Shirai, Yumi; Park, Sanghwa; Narihiro, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    A free-living ciliate, Trimyema compressum, found in anoxic freshwater environments harbors methanogenic archaea and a bacterial symbiont named TC1 in its cytoplasm. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the TC1 symbiont, consisting of a 1.59-Mb chromosome and a 35.8-kb plasmid, which was determined using the PacBio RSII sequencer. PMID:27660797

  11. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  12. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  13. Influence of the attack of the fungus Polystigma rubrum (pers. dc (red leaf spot on nutritional value of fruits in different plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Valencia Labusca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out of the influence of Polystigma rubrum attack on the soluble and insoluble glucides content in the plum cultivars, with different degrees of resistance to fungus attack: Poroabe and Vinete româneşti (sensitive cultivars, Renclod violet and Grase româneşti (middle-resistant cultivars and Renclod verde (resistant cultivar, during the year 2008. Analyzing the results we observed that soluble glucides and insoluble glucides content with one exception was higher in healthy fruits comparatively with the attacked fruit. In generally, glucides was low in attacked fruit, but cannot establish a correlation between glucides content and the degree of resistance of the plum cultivars to attack of Polystigma rubrum

  14. Unusually abundant and large ciliate xenomas in oysters, Crassostrea virginica, from Great Bay, New Hampshire, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Emily Scarpa; Ford, Susan; Bushek, David

    2016-06-01

    During routine histological examination of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Great Bay, New Hampshire, USA, a high prevalence and intensity of ciliate xenomas has been noted since sampling began in 1997. Xenomas are hypertrophic lesions on the gills of bivalve molluscs caused by intracellular ciliates, likely Sphenophrya sp. Although not known to cause mortality in oysters, xenomas have not previously been reported at this high abundance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the xenomas, describe the ciliates, and gather baseline epizootiological data with correlations to environmental and biological parameters. Upon gross examination, xenomas appeared as white nodules, up to 3mm in diameter, located in the gill tissue and occasionally fusing into large masses along the gill filaments. Light microscopy of histological sections revealed xenomas located in the gill water tubes, which they often completely blocked. Higher magnification revealed dual nuclei, eight kineties, and conjugation of the ciliates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dual nuclei that varied in density, a maximum of twenty cilia in each kinety radiating from the oral apparatus to the posterior, and a 9+2 axoneme structure within the cilia. These traits place the ciliates into the Order Rhynchodida, but insufficient molecular data exist to confirm classification of this ciliate to the Genus Sphenophrya. Since 1997, xenoma prevalence has fluctuated with peaks in 2000, 2004, and 2011. Infected oysters generally contained 100, sharply contrasting the rare prevalence and low intensity reported elsewhere. Prevalence increased with oyster size, leveling off near 50% in oysters >60mm. Infection intensity peaked in 70-90mm oysters and declined in larger oysters. Individual oyster condition was not associated with xenoma intensity, but sites with oysters in higher condition generally had a greater prevalence and intensity of xenoma infections. Seasonal data indicated an infection

  15. Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kuidong; CHOI Joong Ki; LEI Yanli; YANG Eun Jin

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution. The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 μm. A total of 78 species were classified: 55 species at Station 2, 51 species each at Stations 1 and 4, and 47 species at Station 3. The mean number of species at each site was 29.2±2.0 (Station 1), 28.5±2.9 (Station 2), 27.8±1.7 (Station 3), and 24.5±2.3 (Station 4). The abundance was highly variable: 19 331±11 187 ind./L at Station 1, 7 960±5 639 ind./L at Station 2, 29 015± 12 999 ind./L at Station 3, and 8 190±4 658 ind./L at Station 4. Our results suggest that neither the simple chemical analysis (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate) nor the eutrophication/pollution index adequately described the water quality at the four stations. The same was true of the number of species and their abundance, both of which had no correlation with the chemical indices. In contrast, Margalef's diversity index values (3.12 at Station 2, 2.89 at Station 1, and 2.64 at Stations 3 and 4) generally discriminated the water quality status of the four stations. The difference in water quality among the stations was strongly supported by the pattern of species richness (i.e. the total number of species) of ciliates at each station. Our evaluation was consistent with the results of long-term water quality monitoring at the four stations. With increasing eutrophication, we observed also a compositional and functional shift in the ciliate assemblages from algivorous oligotrich/choreotrich to nonselective-omnivorous gymnostomatids to bacterivorous-detrivorous scuticociliatids. Thus, ciliates may be used to indicate the coastal water quality status of a given site.

  16. Colonization of periphytic ciliated protozoa on an artificial substrate in mariculture waters with notes on responses to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiqiu Li; Henglong Xu; Xiaofeng Lin; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Colonization of periphytic ciliates and their usefulness for monitoring water quality were evaluated using the glass slide method in two enclosed mariculture ponds used to culture crab larva and in a natural seawater reservoir. The results revealed that (1) the ciliate species composition and colonizing process differed between the culturing ponds and the natural reservoir and (2) the dominant ciliate species showed a greater distribution in terms of both the abundance and the occurrence frequency. This study also demonstrated that structural parameters were strongly related to water conditions. For example, the abundance was positively associated with NO-3-N and soluble reactive phosphate (P < 0.05), whereas the species number, species diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with nutrients (e.g. NO-3N and NH3-N) and temperature (P < 0.05). These findings support the evidence that periphytic ciliates are useful bioindicators of water quality in enclosed mariculture ecosystems.

  17. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. PMID:27231270

  18. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Massaroto, Bruna Gabriele; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of th...

  19. Transcription profile of Trichophyton rubrum conidia grown on keratin reveals the induction of an adhesin-like protein gene with a tandem repeat pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Macedo, Claudia; Franco, Matheus Eloy; Assis, Amanda Freire; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Stehling, Eliana Guedes; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Malavazi, Iran; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus that can infect human keratinized tissue (skin, nails and, rarely, hair) and is the major agent of all chronic and recurrent dermatophytoses. The dermatophyte infection process is initiated through the release of arthroconidial adhesin, which binds to the host stratum corneum. The conidia then germinate, and fungal hyphae invade keratinized skin structures through the secretion of proteases. Although arthroconidia play a cent...

  20. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  1. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Sánchez Medina; Miroslav Macek; Fernando Bautista-Reyes; Andrea Perz; Patricia Bonilla Lemus; Mario Chávez Arteaga

    2016-01-01

    noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010); the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (...

  2. Preferential Feeding by the Ciliates Chilodonella and Tetrahymena spp. and Effects of These Protozoa on Bacterial Biofilm Structure and Composition▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa are important components of microbial food webs, but protozoan feeding preferences and their effects in the context of bacterial biofilms are not well understood. The feeding interactions of two contrasting ciliates, the free-swimming filter feeder Tetrahymena sp. and the surface-associated predator Chilodonella sp., were investigated using biofilm-forming bacteria genetically modified to express fluorescent proteins. According to microscopy, both ciliates readily consumed cells from...

  3. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Akio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs. More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium. Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75% of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches.

  4. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  5. CT findings of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst mimicking metastasis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, In Hwan [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Sung [Medical School, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a rare benign lesion consisting of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, loose subepithelium, loose subepithelial connective tissue, a smooth muscle layer, and an outer fibrous capsule. we encountered a patient with retroperitoneal and posterior mediastinal neurilemmoma and additional CHFC mimicking metastasis. Abdominal CT examination demonstrated that the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneal lesions were lobulated, well-defined tumors with aneural foraminal extension that were pathologically confirmed as neurilemmomas. Unenhanced CT indicated that the additional lesion was a slightly hypodense mass relative to surrounding parenchyma at the medial segment of the left lobe of the liver, and after the IV administration of contrast material, the lesion did not show enhancement. (author)

  6. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    . Permanent slides of infested halacarids were deposited in the collections of the Department of Fauna and Systematics of invertebrate animals of Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine. Results and discussion The systematic..., Lim. ceter and T. calix, can be found on different benthic invertebrate animals. All of the above men- tioned ciliate species are found on marine or brackish water hosts. Acineta sulcata can also inhabit freshwater i f t h e i r...

  7. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to i...

  8. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley Clark

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by rivals and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via power or refrigeration cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and nonmodal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  9. A Rab-based view of membrane traffic in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    OpenAIRE

    Turkewitz, Aaron P.; Bright, Lydia J

    2011-01-01

    Biologists have long recognized that some single-celled organisms show striking morphological and behavioral complexity, and details of the genetic underpinnings can be mined from the trove of newly-sequenced genomes. Ciliates, among which Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia have received most attention, provide clear examples of a lineage in which, as in animal cells, the core pathways of membrane traffic have undergone dramatic expansion and elaboration to facilitate multiple...

  10. Taxonomic list of ciliated protist (Protozoa: Ciliophora) in Cojimar river, Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel de la Caridad Ymas González; Dania Prieto Trueba

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoan’s communities from Cojimar river (Havana city) was determinated, over the study period. Samples were collected from six stations located along the river. The samples were cultured in Petri dishes and were main-tained in environmental temperature and natural ilumination. Species identification was made taking into account morphological characters and Levine’s et al.(1980) taxonomic classification was used. It were identified 49 sp...

  11. Morphological Studies on the Infraciliature of a Planktonic Ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis (Ciliophora: Tintinina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A poorly-described marine planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, collected from the Taiping Cape of Qingdao, China, was morphologically investigated based on permanent preparation after protargol impregnation and was compared with other related congeners. According to the infraciliature, three ciliary groups can be recognized, which reveals a very stable structure among specimens and denotes that the pattern of infraciliature is, apart from the features of the lorica, a highly reliable criterion for species identification.

  12. Unfolding Thermodynamics of Cysteine-Rich Proteins and Molecular Thermal-Adaptation of Marine Ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cazzolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii and mesophilic (E. raikovi protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones.

  13. Ciliates and the rare biosphere-community ecology and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Application of deep sequencing technologies to environmental samples and some detailed morphological studies suggest that there is a vast, yet unexplored rare ciliate biosphere, tentatively defined in terms of operational taxonomic units. However, very few studies complemented molecular and phylogenetic data with morphological and ecological descriptions of the species inventory. This is mainly because the sampling effort increases strongly with decreasing species abundance. In spite of this limited knowledge, it is clear that species that are rare under certain environmental conditions (temporal rare biosphere) may become abundant when the physical, chemical, and biological variables of their habitat change. Furthermore, some species may always be present in low numbers if their dispersal rates are exceedingly high (accidental rare biosphere). An intriguing question is whether there are some species that are always rare, i.e., in every suitable environment. This permanent rare biosphere is conceptually different from the temporal rare biosphere. This review characterizes typical aquatic habitats of the rare ciliate biosphere, portrays different scenarios under which some or even many species may be permanently rare (background fauna), and identifies some fundamental questions that need to be addressed to achieve a better understanding of the population dynamics of the rare ciliate biosphere.

  14. Declines in both redundant and trace species characterize the latitudinal diversity gradient in tintinnid ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John R; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-09-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known biogeographic pattern. However, rarely considered is how a cline in species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another) or fewer trace species, those occurring in very low concentrations. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics, whereas those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. In lower latitudes there are more trace species, more size-classes and the dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates. Furthermore, the relatively small species pools of the northern high latitude assemblages suggest a low capacity to adapt to changing conditions. PMID:26990873

  15. Effect of adrenergic stimulation on clearance from small ciliated airways in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartengren, K; Philipson, K; Svartengren, M; Camner, P

    1998-01-01

    Mucociliary transport is an important clearance mechanism of larger airways, but in the smallest ciliated airways (bronchioles) it may be less effective. The present study aimed at investigating whether clearance from the bronchioles in subjects with healthy airways was stimulated by an adrenergic agonist (terbutaline sulphate). Tracheobronchial clearance was studied twice in 10 healthy subjects after inhalation of 6-micron (aerodynamic diameter) monodisperse Teflon particles labeled with 111In. At one exposure, oral treatment with terbutaline sulphate, known to stimulate clearance in large airways, began immediately after inhalation of the particles. The other exposure was a control measurement. The particles were inhaled at an extremely slow flow, 0.05 L/s, which gave deposition mainly in the small ciliated airways (bronchioles). Lung retention was measured at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Clearance was significant every 24 h for both exposures (p terbutaline sulphate, the subjects' pulse rates tended to be higher, but clearance rates did not increase. We found, as expected, no significant correlation between lung retention and lung function in either exposure. This study shows that an adrenergic agonist does not significantly influence overall clearance from the bronchiolar region in healthy subjects. This suggests that mucociliary transport does not significantly contribute to clearance from the smallest ciliated airways. Other mechanisms may be more important for the transportation of mucus from these airways. PMID:9555573

  16. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.

    2016-06-06

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species’ bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans.

  17. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  18. Substitution of valine for histidine 265 in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum affects activity and spectroscopic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, N J; Meyers, M R; Gierke, K L; Kerby, R L; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1998-02-13

    In carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, histidine 265 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis of the cooS gene. The altered form of CODH (H265V) had a low nickel content and a dramatically reduced level of catalytic activity. Although treatment with NiCl2 and CoCl2 increased the activity of H265V CODH by severalfold, activity levels remained more than 1000-fold lower than that of wild-type CODH. Histidine 265 was not essential for the formation and stability of the Fe4S4 clusters. The Km and KD for CO as well as the KD for cyanide were relatively unchanged as a result of the amino acid substitution in CODH. The time-dependent reduction of the [Fe4S4]2+ clusters by CO occurred on a time scale of hours, suggesting that, as a consequence of the mutation, a rate-limiting step had been introduced prior to the transfer of electrons from CO to the cubanes in centers B and C. EPR spectra of H265V CODH lacked the gav = 1.86 and gav = 1.87 signals characteristic of reduced forms of the active site (center C) of wild-type CODH. This indicates that the electronic properties of center C have been modified possibly by the disruption or alteration of the ligand-mediated interaction between the nickel site and Fe4S4 chromophore. PMID:9461598

  19. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (rutin and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no cytotoxic activity of fraction 3 or flavonoids 1 and 2 was observed against the tumor cells tested. However, analysis of the antifungal activity of flavonoids 1 and 2 revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, against the Trichophyton rubrum strains tested (wild type and mutant. This study demonstrates for the first time the antifungal activity of isolated flavonoids, validating the same activity for A. arvense.

  20. Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Satoru; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Maruyama, Sachie; Nakano, Toshiaki; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis. PMID:25384912

  1. Biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank bioreactor from synthesis gas by anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium: Rhodopirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Habibollah; Najafpour, Ghasem; Ku Ismail, Ku Syahidah; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen may be considered a potential fuel for the future since it is carbon-free and oxidized to water as a combustion product. Bioconversion of synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrogen was demonstrated in continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTBR) utilizing acetate as a carbon source. An anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum catalyzed water-gas shift reaction which was applied for the bioconversion of syngas to hydrogen. The continuous fermentation of syngas in the bioreactor was continuously operated at various gas flow rates and agitation speeds, for the period of two months. The gas flow rates were varied from 5 to 14 ml/min. The agitation speeds were increasingly altered in the range of 150-500 rpm. The pH and temperature of the bioreactor was set at 6.5 and 30 degrees C. The liquid flow rate was kept constant at 0.65 ml/min for the duration of 60 days. The inlet acetate concentration was fed at 4 g/l into the bioreactor. The hydrogen production rate and yield were 16+/-1.1 mmol g(-1)cell h(-1) and 87+/-2.4% at fixed agitation speed of 500 rpm and syngas flow rate of 14 ml/min, respectively. The mass transfer coefficient (KLa) at this condition was approximately 72.8h(-1). This new approach, using a biocatalyst was considered as an alternative method of conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthetic reactions, which were able to convert syngas into hydrogen.

  2. Identification and functional characterization of NifA variants that are independent of GlnB activation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Yu; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Li, Jilun; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P.

    2008-01-01

    The activity of NifA, the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene, is tightly regulated in response to ammonium and oxygen. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of NifA activity are quite different among various nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unlike the well-studied NifL–NifA regulatory systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii, in Rhodospirillum rubrum NifA is activated by a direct protein–protein interaction with the uridylylated form of GlnB, which ...

  3. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Zhu Huang; Pan-Pan Liang; Han Ma; Jin-Ling Yi; Song-Chao Yin; Zhi-Rui Chen; Mei-Rong Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues.These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner.Therefore,this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supematant derived from T.rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively.Methods: The culture supematants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes.The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage.Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants.Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test.Results: The T.rubrum strains (T1 a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media.The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants.HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1 a than TXHB.The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1 a supernatant than TXHB.The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB.After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h.Conclusion: The culture

  4. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Zhu Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, T XHB were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and T XHB released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2, TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than T XHB . The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than T XHB . The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than T XHB . After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after

  5. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Pomajbíková; Miroslav Oborník; Aleš Horák; Petrželková, Klára J.; J Norman Grim; Bruno Levecke; Angelique Todd; Martin Mulama; John Kiyang; David Modrý

    2013-01-01

    Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2). We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were compu...

  6. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  7. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system o f the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964 , collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by obser vation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton -Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13-14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1-2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the rig ht of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometri cally tabulated.

  8. Ciliate protozoa in the rumen of Kafue lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis, in Zambia, with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Yumura, S; Mulenga, A

    1992-01-01

    The composition of the rumen ciliate fauna in 76 Kafue lechwe inhabiting a limited area in Zambia was surveyed and five genera containing 24 species with 16 formae belonging to the family Ophryoscolecidae were identified. Four new species belonging to Diplodiniinae were recognized and described as Diplodinium lochinvarense n. sp., Diplodinium leche n. sp., Diplodinium zambiense n. sp., and Metadinium ossiculi n. sp. In addition, Ostracodinium gracile form fissilaminatum Dogiel, 1932 was found for the second time and described as Metadinium fissilaminatum n. comb. The species composition was fairly unusual. Seven of the species have been found only in African wild antelopes and these species were found more frequently than cosmopolitan species. There was no evidence of isotrichid species. The average density of ciliates per 1 ml of the rumen fluid was 25.7 x 10(4), and the number of ciliate species per head of host was 10.8.

  9. Several RNase T2 enzymes function in induced tRNA and rRNA turnover in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    RNase T2 enzymes are produced by a wide range of organisms and have been implicated to function in diverse cellular processes, including stress-induced anticodon loop cleavage of mature tRNAs to generate tRNA halves. Here we describe a family of eight RNase T2 genes (RNT2A-RNT2H) in the ciliate....... These results, the delineation of a broadened range of conditions that induce the accumulation of tRNA halves, and the demonstration of a predominantly ribonucleoprotein-free state of tRNA halves in cell extract suggest that ciliate tRNA halves are degradation intermediates in an autophagy pathway induced...

  10. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA, will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  11. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Pomajbíková

    Full Text Available Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2. We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Balantidium entozoon from edible frog and Buxtonella sulcata from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of B. coli, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of B. coli at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely B. entozoon, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from B. coli. Thus, we propose a new genus Neobalantidium for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes clustered with B. sulcata with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of Buxtonella and Neobalantidium are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of Buxtonella-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans.

  12. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Petrželková, Klára J; Grim, J Norman; Levecke, Bruno; Todd, Angelique; Mulama, Martin; Kiyang, John; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2). We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Balantidium entozoon from edible frog and Buxtonella sulcata from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of B. coli, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of B. coli at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely B. entozoon, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from B. coli. Thus, we propose a new genus Neobalantidium for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes) clustered with B. sulcata with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of Buxtonella and Neobalantidium are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of Buxtonella-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans. PMID:23556024

  13. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts. PMID:26894821

  14. ATP4 and ciliation in the neuroectoderm and endoderm of Xenopus embryos and tadpoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walentek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During gastrulation and neurulation, foxj1 expression requires ATP4a-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for ciliation of the gastrocoel roof plate (Walentek et al. Cell Rep. 1 (2012 516–527. and the mucociliary epidermis (Walentek et al. Dev. Biol. (2015 of Xenopus laevis embryos. These data suggested that ATP4a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulate foxj1 throughout Xenopus development. Here we analyzed whether foxj1 expression was also ATP4a-dependent in other ciliated tissues of the developing Xenopus embryo and tadpole. We found that in the floor plate of the neural tube ATP4a-dependent canonical Wnt signaling was required for foxj1 expression, downstream of or in parallel to Hedgehog signaling. In the developing tadpole brain, ATP4-function was a prerequisite for the establishment of cerebrospinal fluid flow. Furthermore, we describe foxj1 expression and the presence of multiciliated cells in the developing tadpole gastrointestinal tract. Our work argues for a general requirement of ATP4-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for foxj1 expression and motile ciliogenesis throughout Xenopus development.

  15. Identification and functional characterization of NifA variants that are independent of GlnB activation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Yu; Pohlmann, Edward L; Li, Jilun; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P

    2008-09-01

    The activity of NifA, the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene, is tightly regulated in response to ammonium and oxygen. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of NifA activity are quite different among various nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unlike the well-studied NifL-NifA regulatory systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii, in Rhodospirillum rubrum NifA is activated by a direct protein-protein interaction with the uridylylated form of GlnB, which in turn causes a conformational change in NifA. We report the identification of several substitutions in the N-terminal GAF domain of R. rubrum NifA that allow NifA to be activated in the absence of GlnB. Presumably these substitutions cause conformational changes in NifA necessary for activation, without interaction with GlnB. We also found that wild-type NifA can be activated in a GlnB-independent manner under certain growth conditions, suggesting that some other effector(s) can also activate NifA. An attempt to use Tn5 mutagenesis to obtain mutants that altered the pool of these presumptive effector(s) failed, though much rarer spontaneous mutations in nifA were detected. This suggests that the necessary alteration of the pool of effector(s) for NifA activation cannot be obtained by knockout mutations. PMID:18757802

  16. Factors involved in the distribution pattern of ciliates in the water column of a transparent alpine lake

    OpenAIRE

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; Summerer, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The recurrent depth preference of three ciliate species (two prostomatids and one haptorid) in a transparent alpine lake indicates the existence of niche partitioning among them involving potential factors such as avoidance of high UVR levels and zooplankton predation, as well as competition for food resources. (Sonntag, Bettina) (Summerer, Monika) (Sommaruga, Ruben) University...

  17. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa,Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32x-9.51 (R2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was fotnd to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86x+0.89 (R2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2862.85e-0.0ax (R2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y = 127.15e-0.13x (R2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  18. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  19. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  20. A simplified experimental model for clearance of some pathogenic bacteria using common bacterivorous ciliated spp. in Tigris river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Talib Hassan; Saleh, Dhuha Saad

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-specific uptake rates of three different protozoan taxa on a pure and mixed bacterial community was studied by means of a simplified and functionally reproducible experimental model. The bacterial species Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were isolated and classified from stool samples of patients suffering from diarrhea. Paramecium caudatum, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Halteria grandinella, free living ciliate Protozoans, were isolated and identified from Tigris river water. Pure and mixed ( E. coli + S. typhi), ( E. coli + Sh. flexneri) bacterial cultures were used with each ciliate genera to evaluate the following: predator duplication rate, prey reduction rate, clearance rate and net grazing rate. We used selective lactose fermentation phenomena of enteric bacteria on MacConkey medium for the quantification of bacteria cultural characteristics. The final bacteria concentration was reduced by growing protozoa of 98-99.9 % compared to protozoa-free controls. It showed that Tetrahymena pyriformis had the highest duplication rate (4.13 time/day) in both types of cultures (pure and mixed), followed by Paramecium caudatum and Halteria grandinella, respectively. Paramecium caudatum had the highest rate of ingestion in both types of cultures (26 × 103 bacteria/organism/hr) and yielded the longest time required for 90 % bacterial reduction in a pure suspension of S. typhi (166 h). Clearance rates of pathogenic bacteria by ciliates ranged between 106 nanoliter/organism/h by P. caudatum to S. typhi and 1.92 nanoliter/organism/h seen in T. pyriformis in ( E. coli + S. typhi) mixed culture. We used aquatic experimental microcosms under controlled conditions to explore bacteria-dependent ciliate growth and examined whether these ciliates could discriminate between equally sized bacterial preys in a mixture.

  1. Influence of ciliated protozoa and heterotrophic nanoflagellates on the fate of primary production in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; van Wambeke, France; Denis, Michel; Moutin, Thierry

    2005-07-01

    Heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates and their herbivorous activity were studied within the framework of the Programme Océan Multidisciplinaire Méso Echelle (POMME) in the northeastern Atlantic between 16°-22°W and 38°-45°N during winter, spring, and late summer/autumn 2001. Ciliate ingestion rates of Synechococcus and eukaryotic algae were measured using fluorescently labeled prey. Heterotrophic nanoflagellate ingestion rates of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus were also estimated. Heterotrophic nanoflagellate and ciliate standing stock within the surface layer (0-100 m) showed seasonal variation, with maximal values in spring (866 mg C m-2 and 637 mg C m-2, respectively). Oligotrichs dominated the ciliate assemblages, except at one site visited during spring, where a tintinnid bloom was observed. Ingestion of photosynthetic cells less than 10 μm in size was positively correlated (r = 0.7, p consumption reflected differences in the evolution of the phytoplankton bloom and in the structure of the microbial food web, both associated with the strong mesoscale hydrodynamic variability of the study area. In that context it is worthy to note that when tintinnids reached high abundances locally (1260 cells L-1), their impact as phytoplankton grazers was important and reached 69% of primary production. Generally, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates were relatively more important in determining the fate of phytogenic carbon during spring. Another interesting feature of primary production consumption was that during the autumn, when Prochlorococcus dominated the phytoplankton community, the protozoan grazing activity was ineffective in regulating the fate of primary producers.

  2. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  3. Thermodynamic Stability of Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Pheromones of the Protozoan Ciliate Euplotes

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    Kurt Wüthrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three psychrophilic protein pheromones (En-1, En-2 and En-6 from the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, and six mesophilic pheromones (Er-1, Er-2, Er-10, Er-11, Er-22 and Er-23 from the temperate-water sister species, Euplotes raikovi, were studied in aqueous solution for their thermal unfolding and refolding based on the temperature dependence of their circular dichroism (CD spectra. The three psychrophilic proteins showed thermal unfolding with mid points in the temperature range 55–70 °C. In contrast, no unfolding was observed for any of the six mesophilic proteins and their regular secondary structures were maintained up to 95 °C. Possible causes of these differences are discussed based on comparisons of the NMR structures of the nine proteins.

  4. Divisional morphogenesis in the marine ciliate Anteholosticha manca(Kahl,1932) Berger,2003(Ciliophora: Urostylida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liqiong; HU Xiaozhong; WARREN Alan; AL-RASHEID Khaled A S; AL - FARRAJ Saleh A; SHAO Chen; SONG Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The cortical development and macronuclear evolution of the marine hypotrichous ciliate Anteholosticha manca,collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao,China,were investigated using the protargol impregnation method.The morphogenesis of A.manca is generally typical for the genus,and can be characterized as the following features:(1) in the proter,a new oral primordium is formed on the bottom (beneath the pellicle) of the buccal cavity,disorganization of the parental undulating membranes do not contribute to the formation of this primordium; (2) FVT-cirral anlagen in both dividers develop independently,and very likely on-ly a few midventral cirri join in the formation of these primordia; (3) both marginal row and dorsal kinety anlagen develop intraki-netally within the parental structure; (4) at the middle stage,macronuclear segments fuse together to form a single mass as ob-served in most of its related forms.

  5. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

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    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  6. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    expressed during vegetative growth or sexual reorganization. In order to get an overview of medium-sized (40-500¿nt) RNAs expressed from the Tetrahymena genome, we created a size-fractionated cDNA library from macronuclear RNA and analyzed 80 RNAs, most of which were previously unknown. The most abundant......The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is an important eukaryotic model organism that has been used in pioneering studies of general phenomena, such as ribozymes, telomeres, chromatin structure and genome reorganization. Recent work has shown that Tetrahymena has many classes of small RNA molecules...... domain of ribosomal RNA. Of particular interest, we detected two methylations in the 5'-end of U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) that has an unusual structure in Tetrahymena. Further, we found a candidate for the first U8 outside metazoans, and an unusual U14 candidate. In addition, a number of candidates...

  7. New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea in South Korea

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    Kang-San Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC, 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC, 8-12 transverse cirri (TC, 1 buccal cirrus (BC, 9-12 midventral pairs (MP, 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK, and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC, 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.

  8. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X; Katz, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a "heteromeric" macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into "gene-sized" chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a "gene bank" that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using "nonmodel" organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. PMID:27189988

  9. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Henglong; ZHU Mingzhuang; JIANG Yong; GAO Shan; MIN Gi-Sik; AL-RASHEID Khaled A.S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  10. The Plastid Genome of the Cryptomonad Teleaulax amphioxeia.

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    Jong Im Kim

    Full Text Available Teleaulax amphioxeia is a photosynthetic unicellular cryptophyte alga that is distributed throughout marine habitats worldwide. This alga is an important plastid donor to the dinoflagellate Dinophysis caudata through the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the marine food web. To better understand the genomic characteristics of T. amphioxeia, we have sequenced and analyzed its plastid genome. The plastid genome sequence of T. amphioxeia is similar to that of Rhodomonas salina, and they share significant synteny. This sequence exhibits less similarity to that of Guillardia theta, the representative plastid genome of photosynthetic cryptophytes. The gene content and order of the three photosynthetic cryptomonad plastid genomes studied is highly conserved. The plastid genome of T. amphioxeia is composed of 129,772 bp and includes 143 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA operons and 30 tRNA sequences. The DNA polymerase III gene (dnaX was most likely acquired via lateral gene transfer (LGT from a firmicute bacterium, identical to what occurred in R. salina. On the other hand, the psbN gene was independently encoded by the plastid genome without a reverse transcriptase gene as an intron. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the algae with red-algal derived plastids, phylogenetic analyses of 32 taxa were performed, including three previously sequenced cryptophyte plastid genomes containing 93 protein-coding genes. The stramenopiles were found to have branched out from the Chromista taxa (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles, while the cryptophytes and haptophytes were consistently grouped into sister relationships with high resolution.

  11. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor of the lung: a newly defined low-grade malignant tumor with CT findings reminiscent of adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yoshinobu; Yuasa, Rena; Sato, Fumitomo; Otsuka, Hajime; Goto, Hidenori; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Mitsuda, Aki; Wakayama, Megumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Takagi, Keigo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    A ciliated muconodular papillary tumor has been reported to be a peripheral low-grade malignant tumor, consisting of ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells with basaloid cell proliferation. Although ciliated muconodular papillary tumors have not yet been classified according to the World Health Organization classification, they can pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Here we report a resected case of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor with computed tomography findings reminiscent of adenocarcinoma, showing a small irregular nodule adjacent to the intersegment pulmonary vein. There was no uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The patient underwent surgical resection, and a lobectomy was performed because intraoperative needle biopsy suggested neoplastic proliferation. No EGFR mutations were detected. No recurrence was noted during 24-month follow-up after lobectomy. PMID:23275641

  12. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  13. Importance and nutritional value of large ciliates for the reproduction of Acartia clausi during the post spring-bloom period in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Peters, J.

    2008-01-01

    enriched with large prey (> 20 mu m). The mineral (C, N) and lipid contents of the food suspensions were determined for size-fractionated samples to characterize the nutritional composition of prey. Large oligotrich ciliates and Strobiliidae dominated the seston biomass. Ciliates, particularly...... (> 97 %) and was particularly important in providing N to copepods. Ciliates were also rich in PUFA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is normally characteristic of diatoms. We conclude that large ciliates constitute an excellent food source for the reproduction of A. clausi. The occurrence......Shipboard experiments were performed to examine the qualitative importance of large marine microzooplankton for the reproduction of Acartia clausi in the North Sea. Feeding and egg production were compared in 2 treatments in which females were fed natural seston or natural seston selectively...

  14. Effects of sodium nitrite on Trichophywsis rubrum%亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌形态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟盼琢; 谢红霞; 杨云; 杨晓亮; 冯琴; 王冰心

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the morphological changes of cultured Trichophytosis rubrum treated by sodium nitrite in vitro. Methods: MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthia zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphen- yltetrazolium bromide] microdilution method was used to evaluate the inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum by sodium nitrite in vitro, according to the recommendations of the CLSI(M38-A). The ultrastructural morphology of the fungal strains before and after the sodium nitrite treatment was observed under the scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results: As the concentrations of sodium nitrite as 160 mmol/L, 80 mmol/L, 40 mmol/L, 20 mmol/L,10 mmoi/L, 5 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, or 1.25 mmol/L, the inhibition rates of Trichophyton rubrum were 73.62% ± 9.7%, 71.93% ±1.47%, 73.53% ± 1.14%, 70.80% ± 1.50%, 68.67% ± 1.27%, 41.76% ± 1.53%, 29.59% ± 1.90%, or 16.98% ± 1.82%, respectively.With the concentrations of sodium nitrite decreased, a statistically gradual reduction in the inhibition rate of Trichophyton rubrum was seen (P <0.05). The scanning electron microscopy showed the hyphae were damaged and broken, the surface of the hyphae became rough and shrunken, with many destructive fissures and small holes on it. The transmission electron microscopy showed the hyphae became deformed and irregular, the cell wall was roughly and loosely, the cytoplasm texture obscured and cellular nucleus was of syneresis and quassation. Conclusions: The growth of Trichophytosis rubrum could be inhibited by sodium nitrite in vitro and the morphology of Trichophytosis rubrum could be changed.%目的:观察亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌生长的抑制作用.方法:应用美国临床实验室标准化委员会(CLSI)制订的M38-A方案,采用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)微量稀释法测定亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌的体外抑制率.将亚硝酸钠作用前、后的红色毛癣菌制成标本.分别在扫描电子显微镜(扫描电镜)和透射电子显

  15. 红色毛癣菌感染 BalB/C 小鼠肉芽肿模型的构建%Establishment of a model of granuloma infected by Trichophyton rubrum in BalB/C mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苏扬; 孔庆涛; 沈永年; 杜雪; 杨瑞; 桑红; 刘维达

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trichophyton rubrum strains can cause superficial infection and also deep tissue infection, but relevant animal model has not been reported yet.The aim of this study was to construct an animal model of granuloma infected by T.rubrum. Methods Three T.rubrum strains isolated from clinical granuloma tissues, 2 T.rubrum strains isolated from tinea infection and a standard strain of ATCCMYA4438 were selected.Corticosteroids were given to the Balb/C mice before and after the injection of the T. rubrum and mucin suspension and the mice model of granuloma was established.Direct microcopy, culture and histopathologic method were adopt to verify the infection effects. Results The mice inoculated with the T.rubrum granuloma strains with mucin suspension were examined after 21 days in the condition of applying appropriate dose of glucocorticoids.Direct microscopic examination showed the slender mycelium, fungal culture showed the growth of colony and histopathology showed excessive keratinization of foot tissue, formation of granuloma in the dermis with inflammatory cell infiltration of neutro-philic granulocyte and lymphocytes.However, the mice inoculated with the T.Rubrum tinea strains with mucin suspension showed the negative result. Conclusion The rubrum granuloma mice model can be es-tablished using the clinical isolates of T.rubrum granuloma strains with the mucin and glucocorticoids interventions.%目的:红色毛癣菌不仅引起皮肤浅部感染还可引起深部感染,但相关动物模型研究报道较少。文中拟构建红色毛癣菌感染的癣菌性肉芽肿模型。方法选取临床培养分离出的3株红色毛癣菌肉芽肿菌株、2株体癣株和标准菌株ATCCMYA4438,经糖皮质激素预处理Balb/c鼠,接种红色毛癣菌与黏液素混悬液后追加应用糖皮质激素,构建小鼠红色毛癣菌肉芽肿模型;采用直接镜检、真菌培养和组织病理方法验证感染结果。结果在应用适当剂

  16. Ectopic Ciliated Cyst in the Mandible Secondary to Genioplasty and Lefort after Two Years: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Safoura; Sohanian, Shabnam; Khakbaz, Oveis; Abesi, Farida; Aliakbarpour, Fatemeh; Rayani, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The ectopic ciliated cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst which occurs as a delayed complication after maxillary sinus radical surgery; this lesion emerges due to the destruction of the sinus mucosa during the surgery and entrapment of the respiratory epithelium in the region. This lesion has been observed in very rare cases following genioplasty and bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Case Report: We reported a case of the ectopic ciliated cyst in in the mandible of a 37-year-old Iranian woman following genioplasty and Lefort 1 surgery after 2 years. Its treatment was enucleation. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up after cosmetic surgery of both jaws is recommended due to the probability of this cyst. PMID:27738612

  17. Bioassessment of water quality status using a potential bioindicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-09-15

    The feasibility of a potential ecological indicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates for bioassessment of water quality status were studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different water quality status during a 1-year period. The multivariate approach based on "bootstrap-average" analysis was used to summarize the spatial variation in functional structure of the samples. The functional patterns represented a significant spatial variability, and were significantly correlated with the changes of nutrients (mainly nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N), alone or in combination with dissolve oxygen and salinity among five stations. The functional diversity represented a clear spatial variation among five stations, and was found to be significantly related to the nutrient NO3-N. According to the results, we suggest that the ecological parameter based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates may be used as a potential bioindicator of water quality status in marine ecosystems. PMID:27318762

  18. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae, on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schefter, M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations. Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been documented in situ and that multi-scale patchiness has been reported for a benthic ciliate. Colonies were mapped and monitored; some patches over 1 m diameter were recorded. Since 2008, the distribution has again consisted of scattered colonies, as it did from 1999–2004.

  19. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  20. The behaviour of both Listeria monocytogenes and rat ciliated ependymal cells is altered during their co-culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fadaee-Shohada, Mina J.; Hirst, Robert A; Andrew Rutman; Roberts, Ian S.; Chris O'Callaghan; Andrew, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ciliated ependymal cells line the cerebral ventricles and aqueducts separating the infected CSF from the brain parenchyma in meningitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Investigation of the interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with cultured rat brain ependymal cells showed that certain strains reduced the beat frequency of the cilia but all the strains studied significantly reduced the ciliary beat amplitude (the linear distance travelled by the tip of each cilium per beat cycle). CONCLUSION...

  1. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae), on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note)

    OpenAIRE

    Schefter, M.; Lobban, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations). Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been ...

  2. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294

  3. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  4. Acute Toxicities of Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, and Lugol's Iodine Solution to a Marine Ciliate,Pleuronema coronatum ( Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yantao; SONG Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a commonly occurred ma-rine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the resultshighlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capabili-ty to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper,and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00 × 10-6 and 43.57 × 10 6, while those of Lugol's solutions were 90.13 and67.84 × 10 6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol' s iodine solutionand potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  5. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem: effects of ammonium on the population growth of Euplotes vannus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Xu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ammonium on the population growth of the marine ciliate, Euplotes vannus, were examined using ecotoxicological method. It is showed that ammonium exerts inhibitory effects on the growth of the ciliate populations in a concentration-dependent way. Statistical analysis reveals that the population growth dynamics exposed to ammonium-N concentration over 100mg/L are significantly different from that in the control at P<0.05 level. Linear regression determined that the 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h and 84h IC50 values of ammonium-N are 19.68, 201.51, 167.49, 47.86, 50.43 and 43.11 concentration over 100mg/L, respectively (P<0.05; pH 8.2; salinity 28 ppt; temperature, 25℃). The results indicate that the tolerance to ammonium in E. vannus is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, such as cultured prawns and oysters. Therefore, it is believed that the high tolerance to ammonium is necessary for ciliated protozoa to play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in the intensive aquaculture waters with high-level ammonium. In addition, the correlation between IC50 values and exposure time was discussed.

  6. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Eisen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC, which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases, using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters, and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins. In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from

  7. Morphology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of two brackish urostylid ciliates (Protist, Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xumiao; Miao, Miao; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Xu, Kuidong; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of hypotrichous ciliates has encouraged numerous researchers to use a combination of morphological, morphogenetic, and phylogenetic data to provide a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this complex group. In this study, we investigate the morphology and morphogenesis of Pseudourostyla subtropica sp. nov., isolated from mangrove wetland. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the huge body size, many more adoral membranelles and marginal cirral rows, and numerous macronuclear nodules. In addition, we provide a morphological characterization of a population of Pseudourostyla nova Wiackowski 1988 from an estuarine habitat. The main events during binary fission of P. subtropica sp. nov. and the Chinese population of P. nova are also revealed to be conservative. The morphological, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequences corroborate the monophyly of Pseudourostyla Borror, 1972, which corresponds well with previous research. The phylogenetic analyses also show that Pseudourostyla and Hemicycliostyla Stokes, 1886, both of which are assigned to the family Pseudourostylidae based on morphological and morphogenetic data, in fact fall into separated clades. The approximately unbiased tests, however, do not reject the possibility that the family Pseudourostylidae is a monophyletic lineage. PMID:25040093

  8. Reconciling cladistic and genetic analyses in choreotrichid ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Oligotrichea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatha, Sabine; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela C

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-six features of halteriid, oligotrichid, and choreotrichid ciliates are cladistically analysed, including an updated hypothesis about the evolution of the somatic ciliary patterns. Based on its morphology, Lynnella clusters with Parastrombidinopsis, Parastrombidium, and Strombidinopsis, while it is basal to the other choreotrichids in the molecular phylogenies. The two clusters of Favella species in small subunit rRNA gene trees are supported by morphological features, justifying a separation at genus and family level. The genus Favella has a smooth lorica surface and a somatic ciliary pattern comprising a left and lateral ciliary field as well as two dorsal kineties and a monokinetidal ventral kinety abutting on the right ciliary field. The new genus Schmidingerella n. gen., established for the second Favella cluster, groups with Metacylis and Rhabdonella in the molecular trees. It differs from Favella in (i) a lorica wall with reticulate surface ridges and minute openings and (ii) a ventral kinety that is distinctly apart from the right ciliary field and composed of a monokinetidal anterior and a dikinetidal posterior portion. The genera Codonaria, Codonella, and Codonellopsis are affiliated with the family Dictyocystidae, whose diagnosis is improved to include the lorica sac.

  9. A re-description of the ciliate genus and type species, Balantidium entozoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, J Norman; Buonanno, Federico

    2009-08-01

    Members of the ciliate genus Balantidium possess a specialized "Villeneuve-Brachon's" field of somatic cilia to the right of the vestibule, or in a dextroral location. Specimens of the type species were collected in Italy and fixed for study by light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of the field in the type species and several other species of the genus indicates a need to re-describe the genus by including details of the ultrastructure of that field. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the field consists of one row of relatively short cilia of uniform length flanked on each side by 2-3 rows, or more, of very short cilia. Their kinetids have typical litostome structure in transmission electron micrographs. We speculate on a possible function for the Villeneuve-Brachon's field and also present morphometric data on the type species. The base sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Balantidium entozoon has been determined and found to differ by 5% from that of B. coli. Based on the location and ultrastructure, organelles found around the somatic kinetosomes and within inter-kinetal ridges of B. entozoon were identified as hydrogenosomes. PMID:19251405

  10. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julius C; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis.

  11. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion. (paper)

  12. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role.

  13. Calcium in ciliated protozoa: sources, regulation, and calcium-regulated cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Klauke, N

    2001-01-01

    In ciliates, a variety of processes are regulated by Ca2+, e.g., exocytosis, endocytosis, ciliary beat, cell contraction, and nuclear migration. Differential microdomain regulation may occur by activation of specific channels in different cell regions (e.g., voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cilia), by local, nonpropagated activation of subplasmalemmal Ca stores (alveolar sacs), by different sensitivity thresholds, and eventually by interplay with additional second messengers (cilia). During stimulus-secretion coupling, Ca2+ as the only known second messenger operates at approximately 5 microM, whereby mobilization from alveolar sacs is superimposed by "store-operated Ca2+ influx" (SOC), to drive exocytotic and endocytotic membrane fusion. (Content discharge requires binding of extracellular Ca2+ to some secretory proteins.) Ca2+ homeostasis is reestablished by binding to cytosolic Ca2+-binding proteins (e.g., calmodulin), by sequestration into mitochondria (perhaps by Ca2+ uniporter) and into endoplasmic reticulum and alveolar sacs (with a SERCA-type pump), and by extrusion via a plasmalemmal Ca2+ pump and a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Comparison of free vs total concentration, [Ca2+] vs [Ca], during activation, using time-resolved fluorochrome analysis and X-ray microanalysis, respectively, reveals that altogether activation requires a calcium flux that is orders of magnitude larger than that expected from the [Ca2+] actually required for local activation.

  14. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladão, Gustavo Moraes Ramos; Giannecchini, Luiz Gustavo; Martins, Maurício Laterça; de Pádua, Santiago Benites

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae), from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided. PMID:26154956

  15. Purification and partial characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Errafiy; Abdelaziz Soukri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,we purified the glycolytic enzymeglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)which is involved in cellular energy production and has important housekeeping functions,from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila using a three-step procedure.The enzyme was purified ~68 folds by ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by two steps of column chromatography (DEAE-cellulose and Mono-S).The purified enzyme is a homotetramer with a molecular weight of ~120 kDa.Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one basic GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 8.8.Western blot analysis showed a single 32-kDa band corresponding to the enzyme subunit using a monospecific polyclonal antibody against the T.thermophila GAPDH.The maximum of enzyme activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 30-35℃.The apparent Km values for both NAD+ and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate were 0.102±0.012 and 0.360 + 0.018 mM,respectively.The maximal velocity (Vmax) was 39.40 + 2.95 U/mg.The T.thermophila GAPDH is inhibited by oxidative and nitrosative stress reagents.

  16. Novel Discovery of Two Heterotrichid Ciliates, Climacostomum virens and Fabrea salina (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea: Heterotrichida in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Ji Hye

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two heterotrichid ciliates, Climacostomum virens (Ehrenberg, 1838 Stein, 1859 from brackish water and freshwater, and Fabrea salina Henneguy, 1890 from a solar saltern, were collected in Korea. They are novelly investigated in Korea by means of live observation, protargol staining and nuclear small subunit (SSU rRNA gene sequencing. Climacostomum virens is characterized by pouch-like body shape, body length of $200-370{\\mu}m$ 수식 이미지 in vivo, conspicuous cytopharyngeal tube, macronuclei ribbon-like shape, and one to four in number, with or without symbiont algae in cytoplasm, 34-66 somatic kineties, 67-113 adoral zone of membranelles, 8-42 peristomial kineties, 24-37 apical membranelles. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,591 bp and GC contents 48.52%. Fabrea salina is also characterized by scoop-like body shape with proboscis, body length of $190-240{\\mu}m$ 수식 이미지 in vivo, one to two rod-shaped macronuclei, oval micronuclei, grayish green cortical granules, 104-186 somatic kineties, 4-8 preoral kineties, 7-19 peristomial kineties and fragmented paroral membrane. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,598 bp and GC contents 47.50%.

  17. Electrochemical study of the interaction between Eu3+ and ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new species was formed when protein P23 (one segment of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin) was added to a solution of Eu3+. The interaction between P23 and Eu3+ was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 7.4) using a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The formal potential (Eo') of Eu3+ shifted from -0.61 to -0.84 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) after P23 was added to the Eu3+ solution. The diffusion coefficient (D), the charge-transfer coefficient (α) and the electron transfer standard rate constant (ks) were obtained in the absence and the presence of P23. The affinity constant of Eu3+ and P23 was determined to be (1.89 ± 0.51) x 104 M-1. The electrochemical investigation of europium bound to the protein provided useful data for the studies of calcium-binding proteins.

  18. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Sánchez Medina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010; the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (APP and flagellates were analysed using epifluorescence microscopy. Ciliates were evaluated either in DAPI stained samples (looking for pigmented organelles and/or ingested phototrophs or in quantitative protargol stain (QPS permanent preparations, where they were identified at the genus or species level. The end of the stratification period in Lake Alchichica was characterized by almost uniform heterotrophic picoplankton (HPP numbers (106 cells mL-1 throughout the water column. Meanwhile, APP showed epilimnetic and/or metalimnetic maxima of 105 cells mL-1 followed by an order of magnitude drop in the hypolimnion. A very important peak (105 cells mL-1 of the autotrophic or mixotrophic flagellate Pyramimonas sp. was observed repeatedly above and within the oxycline of Lake Alchichica. Ciliate biomass maxima were found around the oxycline and in the above-bottom layer. The top of the oxycline was dominated by Euplotes spp. and Spirostomum teres fine- to coarse-filter feeders (feeding upon APP, nanodiatoms and algae. Raptorial haptorids (in particular, Phialina sp. were the second most important group, generally occupying the layer below euplotids, followed by Holophrya and Prorodon facultative anaerobic prostomes. Sometimes, strictly anaerobic Caenomorpha sp. was found to be important in the anoxic hypolimnion. Minute picoplankton feeding species (both APP and heterotrophic bacteria feeders were important throughout the water column: in the epilimnion

  19. AÇÃO DO LASER DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE NA PRODUÇÃO DE METABÓLITOS SECUNDÁRIOS DO DERMATÓFITO TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Aparecida Waltrick de Brito Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ação do laser arseneto de gálio alumínio (GaAlAs nos comprimentos de onda 685nm e 830nm em cultura de Trichophyton rubrum, foi estudada visando obter  os metabólitos secundários e avaliar  a citotoxicidade dos mesmos em cultura de células. Foram utilizadas cepas do dermatófito T. rubrum provenientes do laboratório de Microbiologia da Universidade do Vale do Paraíba. O cultivo foi realizado em meio de cultura sólido de ágar Sabouraud (Merck, Alemanha em placa de Petri. A colônia de T. rubrum foi irradiada com o laser (GaAlAs a uma distância de 1cm da placa e incubadas em estufa 26ºC. Para o ensaio de citotoxicidade foi utilizada a linhagem ce-lular L929 (tecido conjuntivo de camundongo proveniente do laboratório Adolf Lutz em São Paulo. As células foram plaqueadas e incubadas com o extrato fúngico em diferentes concentrações, por 1 h. Após esta incubação foi reali-zado o teste de Metil tiazol tetrazólio (MTT para avaliação da citotoxicidade. Obteve-se uma diferença no cresci-mento das colônias controle e irradiadas a 685 nm estatisticamente significante (p<0,05. Na análise estatística com-parativa da citotoxicidade causada pelos extratos nas concentrações 2,5 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml, foi obtido p<0,05, o mesmo ocorreu entre as concentrações 25x10-2 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml. Na concentração de 25x10-2 mg/ml, observa-se uma elevação considerável (78,55% na atividade mitocondrial dos grupos com tratamento em relação ao controle. O laser GaAlAs, nas condições metodológicas deste estudo, apresentou efeitos no metabolismo celular, alteração de morfologia e da taxa de crescimento da colônia in vitro. O extrato fúngico das colônias irradiadas apre-sentou efeito bioestimulador quando comparado ao extrato obtido do grupo controle e sem tratamento com laser.

  20. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  1. Pigment exchange in the light collecting complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum purple bacteria and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy on metallo-bacterio-pheophytins a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light collecting complexes (antennas) in membranes of photosynthetic bacteria and plants capture solar light during photosynthesis and transmit the excitation energy to the reaction centre where it is transformed into energy which can be used by the organism. Antennas and reaction centres are made of polypeptides and pigments (bacterio-chlorophylls) which have a crucial role in solar energy capture, but also in subsequent energy transfers. Whereas three-dimensional structures of some antennas and reaction centres are already known with a high resolution, there is almost no quantitative data on interactions between polypeptides and pigments which however confer their specificity to these complexes. A possibility to obtain such data is to introduce chemically modified pigments within antennas and reaction centres. In this research thesis, some metallo-bacteriopheophytins a have been synthesized and studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Vibrations modes have been studied. A process of exchange of the bacterio-chlorophyll a in the LHI antenna of the Rhodospirillum rubrum purple bacteria has been developed to obtain a good efficiency in antennas containing zinc-bacterio-pheophytin a and nickel-bacterio-pheophytin a, as well as bacterio-pheophytin a. Absorption spectra are discussed as well as the occurring relationships between complexes, and the extent of the occurring exchange

  2. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  3. Effects of a radiosensitizer and radiation on the ciliated mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionated irradiation (2 Gy/F, TD:2-20 Gy) in vivo on the ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea, caused measurable physiological alternations ten consecutive days after completion of irradiation with an initial heightening of the ciliary activity after 2 and 4 Gy, followed by a dose-dependent decrease. On scanning electron microscopy-pictures, knobs were observed on the cilia with the number being related to the dose. The addition of misonidazole potentiated the effects described above, with an enhancement ratio ( physiologically) of 1.2 and an enhancement ratio (morphologically) of 1.6. Furthermore, administration of misonidazole to the rabbits caused an increased vascularity in the subepithelial layer of the trachea, directly correlated to an oedema in the same region. Single doses (2,2.5,5,10,15,20,25, and 30 Gy) were given to the trachea in vivo and daily investigation of the ciliary beating and morphologic examinations of the tissue were made for ten days. The ciliary activity showed a dose-dependent reduction of about 50% after 30 Gy. A development of damage, in relation to the dose, was observed in the cilia. The changes were blebs, swollen tips, bent and curved tips, and broken cilia clustered together. During in vitro irradiation with 10 Gy Single Dose, an increase of the ciliary activity to about 25 % of its original value was observed without any morphological changes, while in vivo irradiation and examinations during 10 days thereafter, showed three different phases, day 1-3: Stimulation phase, day 4-8: Damage-phase, day 9-10: Repair-phase. The ciliary epithelium offers an exceptional system for the study of early radiobiological effects, since mutual comparisons can be made between physiology and morphology. (Author)

  4. Gene expression in a paleopolyploid: a transcriptome resource for the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Aurélie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, a unicellular model that belongs to the ciliate phylum, has been shaped by at least 3 successive whole genome duplications (WGD. These dramatic events, which have also been documented in plants, animals and fungi, are resolved over evolutionary time by the loss of one duplicate for the majority of genes. Thanks to a low rate of large scale genome rearrangement in Paramecium, an unprecedented large number of gene duplicates of different ages have been identified, making this organism an outstanding model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of polyploidization. The most recent WGD, with 51% of pre-duplication genes still in 2 copies, provides a snapshot of a phase of rapid gene loss that is not accessible in more ancient polyploids such as yeast. Results We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray platform for P. tetraurelia genome-wide expression profiling and used the platform to measure gene expression during 1 the sexual cycle of autogamy, 2 growth of new cilia in response to deciliation and 3 biogenesis of secretory granules after massive exocytosis. Genes that are differentially expressed during these time course experiments have expression patterns consistent with a very low rate of subfunctionalization (partition of ancestral functions between duplicated genes in particular since the most recent polyploidization event. Conclusions A public transcriptome resource is now available for Paramecium tetraurelia. The resource has been integrated into the ParameciumDB model organism database, providing searchable access to the data. The microarray platform, freely available through NimbleGen Systems, provides a robust, cost-effective approach for genome-wide expression profiling in P. tetraurelia. The expression data support previous studies showing that at short evolutionary times after a whole genome duplication, gene dosage balance constraints and not functional change are

  5. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Covadonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate. Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan. BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value -5 hits and further Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289. Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

  6. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  7. 红椿育苗密度研究%Cultivation Density of Toona ciliate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴际友; 黄明军; 陈明皋; 程勇; 廖德志; 李艳; 刘球; 王旭军

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨2年生红椿苗最佳的育苗密度,开展了红椿育苗密度试验研究,结果表明:随着育苗密度增加,苗木的苗高和地径均减小,苗木的质量下降。因此,确定合理的育苗密度是培育优质红椿苗并取得最佳育苗效益的关键。研究表明:二年生的红椿苗木如只生产Ⅰ级苗,则合适的育苗密度为30株/m2;如Ⅰ、Ⅱ级苗均用于生产造林,则合适的育苗密度为40株/m2。%ln order to discuss the optimum seedling density of Toona ciliate, different seedling densities were studied. The results showed that seeding height and basal diameter decreased and quality of the seedlings declined with the increase of seedling density. The reasonable density of seedlings is key to cultivate high-quality seedlings and achieve the best seedling efficiency. The optimum density was 30 plants/m2 for the first class seedlings of biennial seedlings, and the optimum density of l and ll seedlings for production afforestation was 40 plants/m2.

  8. Cross-study analysis of genomic data defines the ciliate multigenic epiplasmin family: strategies for functional analysis in Paramecium tetraurelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravet Viviane

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sub-membranous skeleton of the ciliate Paramecium, the epiplasm, is composed of hundreds of epiplasmic scales centered on basal bodies, and presents a complex set of proteins, epiplasmins, which belong to a multigenic family. The repeated duplications observed in the P. tetraurelia genome present an interesting model of the organization and evolution of a multigenic family within a single cell. Results To study this multigenic family, we used phylogenetic, structural, and analytical transcriptional approaches. The phylogenetic method defines 5 groups of epiplasmins in the multigenic family. A refined analysis by Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA identifies structural characteristics of 51 epiplasmins, defining five separate groups, and three classes. Depending on the sequential arrangement of their structural domains, the epiplasmins are defined as symmetric, asymmetric or atypical. The EST data aid in this classification, in the identification of putative regulating sequences such as TATA or CAAT boxes. When specific RNAi experiments were conducted using sequences from either symmetric or asymmetric classes, phenotypes were drastic. Local effects show either disrupted or ill-shaped epiplasmic scales. In either case, this results in aborted cell division. Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Their affiliation with the distinctive structural groups of Paramecium epiplasmins demonstrates an interspecific multigenic family. Conclusion The epiplasmin multigenic family illustrates the history of genomic duplication in Paramecium. This study provides a framework which can guide functional analysis of epiplasmins, the major components of the membrane skeleton in ciliates. We show that this set of proteins handles an important developmental information in Paramecium since maintenance of epiplasm organization is crucial for cell morphogenesis.

  9. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen ; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 - 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1 - 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the fight of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  10. Role of essential lipids in copepod nutrition: no evidence for trophic upgrading of food quality by a marine ciliate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein Breteler, W.; Koski, Marja; Rampen, S.

    2004-01-01

    -quality Rhodomonas sp. diet. The specific mass of fatty acids in S. sulcatum was much lower than in the Dunaliella sp. diet, However, the fatty acid composition of the protozoan more or less resembled that of the food, lacking long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Sterols only occurred in Dunaliella sp......., although in low abundance of unuseful Delta7 sterols. Obviously, S. sulcatum did not biochemically enhance bacterial or algal food for subsequent use at higher trophic levels, and only transferred fatty acids without further conversion. The results indicate a deficiency in the ciliate of HUFAs and sterols...

  11. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Sagar; Bethani Sagar; Patel, Adam F.; Shak, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also th...

  12. Cultivation-independent analysis reveals a shift in ciliate 18S rRNA gene diversity in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using cultivation-independent methods the ciliate communities of a clay-rich soil with a 90-year record of pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (4.5 g kg−1 PAH) were compared with that of a nonpolluted soil collected in its vicinity and with similar properties. A ciliate-specific set of 18S rRNA gene targeting primers was designed and used to amplify DNA extracted from both soils (surface and 20 cm depth). Four clone libraries were generated with PCR products that covered an 18...

  13. Effect of the rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum, Epidinium ecaudatum and Eudiplodinium maggii, and combinations thereof, on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Amelchanka, Sergej L; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Wereszka, Krzysztof; Meile, Leo; Hartnack, Sonja; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2012-06-01

    The quantitative importance of individual ciliate species and their interaction in the rumen is still unclear. The present study was performed to test whether there are species differences in the influence on ruminal fermentation in vivo and if combinations of ciliates act additive in that respect. Six adult wethers fed a hay-concentrate diet were defaunated, then refaunated either with Entodinium caudatum (EC), Epidinium ecaudatum (EE) or Eudiplodinium maggii (EM) alone, then progressively with all possible species combinations. Feed, faeces, urine, ruminal fluid and gas were sampled for eight days always after at least 21 days of adaptation. With a linear mixed model, accounting for the 2 x 2 x 2 full factorial study design, mean marginal effect sizes, i.e., the magnitude of change in variables as caused by the presence of each ciliate species or of combinations of them, were estimated. The apparent digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre remained unaffected. The apparent N digestibility increased by 0.054 with EM (0.716 with defaunation). Ruminal ammonia increased by 1.6, 4.0 and 8.7 mmol/l in the presence of EM, EC and EE, respectively, compared to defaunation (6.9 mmol/l). In the EM + EE combination, ruminal ammonia was lower than would have been expected from an additive effect. With EE, total short-chain fatty acids increased by 23 mmol/l (100 mmol/l with defaunation), but not when EE was combined with EM. The acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased by 0.73 units in the presence of EE (4.0 with defaunation), but only when EE was the sole ciliate species in the rumen. In the presence of any ciliate species, the 16S rDNA copies of total Bacteria and major fibrolytic species decreased to 0.52- and 0.22-fold values, respectively of that found without protozoa. Total Archaea were unaffected; however, Methanobacteriales copies increased 1.44-fold with EC. The CH4-to-CO2 ratio of ruminal gas decreased by 0.036 with EM and 0.051 with EE (0.454 with

  14. The response of the ciliated epithelium during and after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the ciliated tissues of the body gives undesirable sideefects. In vitro irradiation (10 Gy) of the rabbit's trachea shows that 1.5 Gy of indirectly ionizing radiation (50 kV and 6 MV X-ray 60Co-gamma 1.25 MeV) causes a 20 per cent increase of the ciliary beat frequency lasting 5-10 seconds, followed by a decline to normal ciliary activity during the ensuing course of irradiation. Electron radiation (4 MeV) proved to be three times more effective than photon radiation in regard to the physiological response of the cilia to ionizing radiation. This finding led to introduction of the concept Relative Physiological Efficiency (RPE) in this study, complementing the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) concept. This momentary increase in frequency can be caused by a radiation-induced increased hydrolysis of the ATP available in the cilia. The ciliary activity was 20 per cent lower than normal at 45 min following irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray), whereupon it increased to 12 per cent above normal activity at two hours after initial irradiation. At re-irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) administered two hours after initial irradiation, the cilia showed a constant rate of activity. In vivo irradiation (10 Gy, 160 kV X-ray) of the trachea of the rabbit caused a heightened activity (10%) during the first three days after irradiation, indicating a stimulation of the ATP-synthesis. During days 4 to 8 after irradiation, the ciliary epithelium's morphology was damaged resulting in reduced transport ability. Repair took place during days 9 and 10 after irradiation, i.e. the function of the ciliary epithelium appeared to be restored. The membrane potential of the ciliary cell, registered during irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) showed no changes, which supports the assumption that the increased ciliary beat frequency recorded during irradiation can be due to rapid radiation-induced biochemical changes that are connected to the motility of the cilia. (author)

  15. Fate of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles in an aquatic environment and their toxicity toward 14 ciliated protist species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Pu, Zhichao; Du, Songyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on aquatic organisms have remained largely unknown. Therefore, the laboratory study featured herein was performed to determine the fate of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment and their toxicity towards 14 different ciliated protist species at a specified population level. An investigation of 48 h aggregation kinetics in the Dryl's solution showed the CeO2 NPs to be relatively stable. The pH values in three test medium were too far away from PZC, which explained the stability of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs generally elicited more toxicity with increasing NP concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. Nano-CeO2 resulted in greater toxicity in a particle state than when added as bulk material. LC50 values showed a negative correlation with the surface-to-volume ratio for these protists, suggesting that surface adsorption of CeO2 NPs might contribute to the observed toxicity. Additionally, acute toxic responses of 14 ciliated protist species to CeO2 NPs were not significantly phylogenetically conserved. The results of these observations provide a better insight into the potential risks of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment. PMID:26986089

  16. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  17. Characterization of pH-dependent conformational heterogeneity in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2 using 15N and 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15N-enriched ferricytochrome c2 from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied by 15N and 1H NMR spectroscopy as a function of pH. The 15N resonance of the heme and ligand τ nitrogen are broadened beyond detection because of paramagnetic relaxation. The 15N resonance of the ligand histidine π nitrogen was unambiguously identified at 184 ppm (pH 5.6). The 15N resonances of the single nonligand histidine are observed only at low pH, as in the ferrocytochrome because of the severe broadening caused by tautomerization. The dependence of the 15N and 1H spectra of the ferricytochrome on pH indicated that the ligand histidine π NH does not dissociate in the neutral pH range and is involved in a hydrogen bond, similar to that in the reduced state. Transitions having pKa's of 6.2, 8.6, and 9.2 are observed in the ferricytochrome. Structural heterogeneity leads to multiple resonances of the heme ring methyl at position 8. The exchange rate between the conformations is temperature dependent. The transition with a pKa of 6.2 is assigned to the His-42 imidazole group. The displacement of the ligand methionine causes gross conformational change near the heme center. There are multiple conformations at high pH, as judged by saturation-transfer experiments. The N-terminus of the ferricytochrome has a pKa of 8.6. In contrast to its partially restricted mobility in the reduced state, it is found to be very mobile, reflecting a looser structure of the ferricytochrome

  18. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψL) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (gwv) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (Pn), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and Pn demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  19. A Review of Some Basic Parasite Diseases in Culture Fisheries Flagellids, Dinoflagellides and Ichthyophthriasis, Ichtyobodiasis, Coccidiosis Trichodiniasis, Heminthiasis, Hirudinea Infestation, Crustacean Parsite and Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; O.F. Briyai; S.E. Bassey

    2011-01-01

    A review some basic parasite diseases in fish: flagellids, dinoflagellides and ichthyophthriasis in African fish was carried out to educate fish culturist and the private sector on some challenges faced in culture fisheries. Some common parasite diseases: Ichtyobodiasis, Coccidiosis, Ichtyopthiariasis, Trichodiniasis, Heminthiasis, Crustacean parasite, Hirudinea infestation, Flagellates and Ciliates, Taxonomy and diagnosis, Life cycle and biology, Epizootiology, pathology, control, Infections...

  20. Full-depth profiles of prokaryotes, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and ciliates along a transect from the equatorial to the subarctic central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrin, Rumi; Imazawa, Manabu; Fukuda, Hideki; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2010-08-01

    Studies in epipelagic waters report higher heterotrophic microbial biomass in the productive high latitudes than in the oligotrophic low latitudes; however, biogeographical data are scarce in the deep ocean. To examine the hypothesis that the observed latitudinal differences in heterotrophic microbial biomass in the epipelagic zone also occur at depth, abundance and biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, nanoflagellates (HNF), and ciliates were determined at depths of 5-5000 m in the central Pacific between August and September of 2005. Heterotrophic microbial biomass increased from the tropical to the subarctic region over the full water column, with latitudinal differences in prokaryotic biomass increasing from 2.3-fold in the epipelagic zone to 4.4-fold in the bathypelagic zone. However, the latitudinal difference in HNF and ciliate biomass decreased with depth. In the mesopelagic zone, the vertical attenuation rate of prokaryotic abundance, which was calculated as the linear regression slope of log-log plot of abundance versus depth, ranged from -0.55 to -1.26 and was more pronounced (steeper slope) in the lower latitudes. In contrast, the vertical attenuation rate of HNF in the mesopelagic zone (-1.06 to -1.27) did not differ with latitude. In the subarctic, the attenuation rate of HNF was 1.7 times steeper than for prokaryotes. These results suggest the accumulation of prokaryotes in the deep subarctic Pacific, possibly due to low grazing pressure. Although the vertical attenuation rate of ciliates was steepest in the bathypelagic zone, HNF abundance did not further decrease at depths below 1000 m, except for at 2000 m where HNF was lowest across the study area. Ciliate abundance ranged 0.3-0.8 cells l -1 at 4000 m, and were below the detection limit (cells l -1) at 5000 m. To our knowledge, this study presents the first data for ciliates below 2000 m.

  1. [Physiological and biochemical activity of bacteria during germination of cucumber seeds and impact of ciliates Colpoda steinii on this process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobotarova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the bacteria Bacillus subtilis B-7023 IMV produce indole-3-acetic acid and amino acids in the liquid medium Knoop. Processing cucumber seed suspension containing 10(7) cfu/ml as bacilli, and Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076, resulted in a decrease in the length of the roots of plants. Reduction of bacterial load bacilli to 10(6) cfu/ml followed by reduction of indole-3-acetic acid in the medium, and to an increase in the length of roots, shoots and total plant mass. During the cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 with ciliates Colpoda steinii reduced the amount of free forms of auxin in the medium to 5.5 times, and the related--to trace amounts. The content of histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and lysine significantly reduced. PMID:26036028

  2. The giant ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and its thiotrophic epibiont Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli: a model system to study interspecies cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eBright

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Symbioses between chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic bacteria and protists or animals are among the most diverse and prevalent in the ocean. They are extremely difficult to maintain in aquaria and no thiotrophic symbiosis involving an animal host has ever been successfully cultivated. In contrast, we have cultivated the giant ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and its obligate ectosymbiont Cand. Thiobios zoothamnicoli in small flow-through aquaria. This review provides an overview of the host and the symbiont and their phylogenetic relationships. We summarize our knowledge on the ecology, geographic distribution and life cycle of the host, on the vertical transmission of the symbiont, and on the cultivation of this symbiosis. We then discuss the benefits and costs involved in this cooperation compared with other thiotrophic symbioses and outline our view on the evolution and persistence of this byproduct mutualism.

  3. The behaviour of both Listeria monocytogenes and rat ciliated ependymal cells is altered during their co-culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina J Fadaee-Shohada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciliated ependymal cells line the cerebral ventricles and aqueducts separating the infected CSF from the brain parenchyma in meningitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Investigation of the interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with cultured rat brain ependymal cells showed that certain strains reduced the beat frequency of the cilia but all the strains studied significantly reduced the ciliary beat amplitude (the linear distance travelled by the tip of each cilium per beat cycle. CONCLUSION: The presence of the ependyma caused aggregation of some listeria strains and in some cases extracellular material also was seen in association with bacterial aggregates. These observations were dependent on the expression of genes required for invasion, intracellular survival and listerial cell to cell spread that are regulated by the transcriptional activator, positive regulatory factor A (PrfA.

  4. Directed Induction of Functional Multi-ciliated Cells in Proximal Airway Epithelial Spheroids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Konishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-ciliated airway cells (MCACs play a role in mucociliary clearance of the lung. However, the efficient induction of functional MCACs from human pluripotent stem cells has not yet been reported. Using carboxypeptidase M (CPM as a surface marker of NKX2-1+-ventralized anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs, we report a three-dimensional differentiation protocol for generating proximal airway epithelial progenitor cell spheroids from CPM+ VAFECs. These spheroids could be induced to generate MCACs and other airway lineage cells without alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, the directed induction of MCACs and of pulmonary neuroendocrine lineage cells was promoted by adding DAPT, a Notch pathway inhibitor. The induced MCACs demonstrated motile cilia with a “9 + 2” microtubule arrangement and dynein arms capable of beating and generating flow for mucociliary transport. This method is expected to be useful for future studies on human airway disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

  5. Complementary Notes on a‘Well-known' Marine Heterotrichous Ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859) Fraure-Fremiet,1936 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Daode; LIN Xiaofeng; SONG Weibo

    2004-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a heterotrichous ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859)Fraure-Fremiet, 1936, which was collected from the north coast of China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation techniques. As a new contribution, a redescription is presented: large Folliculinopsis of green to dark green in color, 800-1500μm in size; two peristomial lobes of approximately equal size, 300-400μm in length; adoral zone of membranelles containing about 1000 membranelles, lying along lobe margins and exhibiting two circles within buccal cavity;50-70 somatic kineties in mid-body; macronucleus miniliform, consisting of about 20 beads; lorica smooth, vase-shaped,(300 500)μm ×(90-130)μm in size, with 5-12 spiral ridges on neck tube; marine habitat.

  6. First Record and Redefinition of the Qingdao Population of Marine Ciliate Cardiostomatella vermiformis (Kahl, 1928) Corliss, 1960 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a marine ciliate, Cardiostomatella vermiformis isolated from a sand beach of the Jiaozhou Bay near Qingdao, China, were investigated by live observation, protargol and silver carbonate impregnation methods. Both the morphological and morphometric data largely agree with former records. Based on the data obtained, an improved diagnosis for Cardiostomatella vermiformis is supplied: Large marine Cardiostomatella with cylindrical body shape and several prolonged caudal cilia; cells in vivo about (90-500)μm × (30-120)μm; macronucleus beaded; single contractile vacuole caudally positioned; buccal apparatus conspicuously small, genus typical; three to six postoral kineties; 96-130 somatic kineties. This species is recorded for the first time in China.

  7. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies. PMID:26276254

  8. Laminin-332 alters connexin profile, dye coupling and intercellular Ca2+ waves in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakson, Brant E; Olsen, Colin E; Boitano, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Background Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events mediated by intercellular communication. We hypothesized that alterations in cell matrix, specifically type I collagen and laminin α3β3γ2 (LM-332) proteins within the matrix, directly affect intercellular communication in ciliated rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC). Methods Functional coupling of RTEC was monitored by microinjection of the negatively charged fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and Alexa 350, into ciliated RTEC grown on either a LM-332/collagen or collagen matrix. Coupling of physiologically significant molecules was evaluated by the mechanism and extent of propagated intercellular Ca2+ waves. Expression of connexin (Cx) mRNA and proteins were assayed by reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results When compared to RTEC grown on collagen alone, RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen displayed a significant increase in dye transfer. Although mechanical stimulation of RTEC grown on either LM-332/collagen or collagen alone resulted in intercellular Ca2+ waves, the mechanism of transfer was dependent on matrix: RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen propagated Ca2+waves via extracellular purinergic signaling whereas RTEC grown on collagen used gap junctions. Comparison of RTEC grown on collagen or LM-332/collagen matrices revealed a reorganization of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx46 proteins. Conclusion Alterations in airway basement membrane proteins such as LM-332 can induce connexin reorganizations and result in altered cellular communication mechanisms that could contribute to airway tissue function. PMID:16884540

  9. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoyan; HU Xiaozhong; Khaled A. S. AL-RASHEID; Saieh A. AL-FARRAJ; SONG Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and -αtubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxylricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  10. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  11. 红花檵木夏季扦插育苗技术研究%Cutting Seedlings Technology of Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润生

    2012-01-01

    于2011年夏季进行红花檵木不同基质(林地表土+0.5%钙镁磷肥、火烧土、细潮沙)、不同生根剂(ABT1号生根粉、NAA(萘乙酸)20%粉剂、清水对照处理)的扦插对比试验。结果表明:林地表土+0.5%钙镁磷肥和火烧土的扦插生根率均较高,分别达92.7%和93.3%,扦插的生根率、抽梢长度、≥5 cmⅠ级侧根数显著高于细潮沙;ABT1号生根粉和NAA(萘乙酸)20%粉剂处理插穗的扦插生根率均较高,分别达93.7%和93.0%,生根率、抽梢长度、≥5 cmⅠ级侧根数比清水处理均有显著提高。%The contrast test of cutting experimental of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum with different matrix(forest land surface soil + 0.5% Ca,Mg,P fertilizer,fired-soil and fine sand) and different rooting agent [ABT1 number rooting power,20% powder of NAA(naphthalene acid),control processing with clear water] was made in the summer of 2011.Results showed that the cutting rooting rate of forest land surface soil + 0.5% Ca,Mg,P fertilizer and fired-soil were 92.7% and 93.3%,respectively,significantly higher than the fine sand,and as well as quartile length and levelⅠlateral root number that ≥5 cm;The cutting rooting rate of ABT1 number rooting power and 20% powder of NAA(naphthalene acid) processing was 93.7% and 93.0%,respectively,significantly higher than control processing with clear water,and also the quartile length and levelⅠlateral root number that ≥5 cm were higher than control processing with clear water.

  12. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential. PMID:27322227

  13. Zygotic Expression of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motif Protein Drb2p Is Required for DNA Elimination in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Motl, Jason A.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM)-containing proteins play many roles in the regulation of gene transcription and translation, including some with tandem DSRMs that act in small RNA biogenesis. We report the characterization of the genes for double-stranded RNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (DRB1 and DRB2), two genes encoding nuclear proteins with tandem DSRMs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Both proteins are expressed throughout growth and development but exhibit distinct peaks of ...

  14. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  15. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  16. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours. PMID:20668402

  17. The use of multiple endpoints to assess cellular responses to environmental contaminants in the interstitial marine ciliate Euplotes crassus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, A; Sforzini, S; Dagnino, A; Nasci, C; Viarengo, A

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents the results of investigations on the suitability of Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, to be used as model organism in ecotoxicology and thereafter to evaluate the toxicity of estuarine and coastal sediments upon laboratory exposure. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have resulted in accumulation of metals and organic pollutants in the environment as well as in the food chain hence leading to serious ecological and human health problems. This may pose a risk to benthic and epibenthic organisms and it is crucial to discover toxicity tests that will identify adverse effects of sediment-associated chemicals on benthic organisms. Due to their nature as a eukaryotic cell/organism and their position in the food web, ciliated protozoa are suitable models for evaluating the effects of pollution on aquatic communities. Lethal and sublethal effects of exposure to inorganic and organic pollutants were tested on the cell mortality, replication rate, lysosomal membrane stability and endocytosis rate of E. crassus. Increasing nominal concentrations of individual and mixtures of mercury, copper, and benzo(a)pyrene were investigated in this study as they might be bioavailable in naturally occurring polluted sites. A significant decrease in the mean replication rate (ppollutants. At the same time, significant decreases of lysosomal membrane stability (ppollutants were performed showing both inorganic-organic and inorganic-inorganic additive and/or antagonist effects. Moreover, medium salinity was also varied to mimic estuarine-like environmental conditions linking biological response to ionic strengths. Under these conditions significant increases of both endocytosis rate and lysosomal membrane stability were observed and related to the increment of some Hg- and Cu-related toxic complexes. The studied biomarkers were always able to discriminate between the effects of organic and inorganic pollutants. Together with the short time and simplicity of

  18. GlnD is essential for NifA activation, NtrB/NtrC-regulated gene expression, and posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in the photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoping; Pohlmann, Edward L; Roberts, Gary P

    2005-02-01

    GlnD is a bifunctional uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme and is thought to be the primary sensor of nitrogen status in the cell. It plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation and metabolism by reversibly regulating the modification of P(II) proteins, which in turn regulate a variety of other proteins. We report here the characterization of glnD mutants from the photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum and the analysis of the roles of GlnD in the regulation of nitrogen fixation. Unlike glnD mutations in Azotobacter vinelandii and some other bacteria, glnD deletion mutations are not lethal in R. rubrum. Such mutants grew well in minimal medium with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, although they grew slowly with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source (MN medium) and were unable to fix N(2). The slow growth in MN medium is apparently due to low glutamine synthetase activity, because a DeltaglnD strain with an altered glutamine synthetase that cannot be adenylylated can grow well in MN medium. Various mutation and complementation studies were used to show that the critical uridylyltransferase activity of GlnD is localized to the N-terminal region. Mutants with intermediate levels of uridylyltransferase activity are differentially defective in nif gene expression, the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase, and NtrB/NtrC function, indicating the complexity of the physiological role of GlnD. These results have implications for the interpretation of results obtained with GlnD in many other organisms. PMID:15687189

  19. Estimation of divergence times in litostomatean ciliates (Ciliophora: Intramacronucleata), using Bayesian relaxed clock and 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes. PMID:26204556

  20. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean. PMID:27547525

  1. The water-born protein pheromones of the polar protozoan ciliate, Euplotes nobilii: Coding genes and molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Pedrini, Bill; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2010-08-01

    The protozoan ciliate Euplotes nobilii found in Antarctic and Arctic coastal waters relies on secretion of water-soluble cell type-specific signal proteins (pheromones) to regulate its vegetative growth and sexual mating. For three of these psychrophilic pheromones we previously determined the three-dimensional structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with protein solutions purified from the natural sources, which led to evidence that their adaptation to cold is primarily achieved by increased flexibility through an extension of regions free of regular secondary structures, and by increased exposure of negative charges on the protein surface. Then we cloned the coding genes of these E. nobilii pheromones from the transcriptionally active cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus) and characterized the full-length sequences. These sequences all contain an open reading frame of 252-285 nucleotides, which is specific for a cytoplasmic pheromone precursor that requires two proteolytic cleavages to remove a signal peptide and a pro segment before release of the mature protein into the extracellular environment. The 5‧ and 3‧ non-coding regions are two- to three-fold longer than the coding region and appear to be tightly conserved, probably in relation to the inclusion of intron sequences destined to be alternatively removed to play key regulatory roles in the mechanism of the pheromone gene expression.

  2. Molecular phylogeny and species delimitation within the ciliate genus Spirostomum (Ciliophora, Postciliodesmatophora, Heterotrichea), using the internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Vďačný, Peter; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Seok Won; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2016-09-01

    Morphological and molecular delimitation of Spirostomum species is currently under debate. We addressed species boundaries within the genus Spirostomum, using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the secondary structure of the ITS2 molecule, and 18S and 28S (D1D2) sequences additionally. The Spirostomum ITS region is among the shortest within the ciliates hitherto studied. The Spirostomum ITS2 molecule matches the "ring model", but exhibits only two helices radiating from a common loop. According to comparative analyses, they very likely correspond to helices II and III of other eukaryotes. Our phylogenetic analyses of the ITS region revealed a complex genealogical structure within the genus Spirostomum. However, boundaries among Spirostomum species could not be unambiguously determined either by phylogenetic trees, networks or sequence divergence cutoffs, because ITS2 sequences transcended species boundaries of the following morphospecies: S. ambiguum, S. minus, S. subtilis and S. teres. According to molecular diversity analysis, this is very likely caused by polymorphism in S. minus and S. teres, and by the lack of variability in S. ambiguum and S. subtilis. No compensatory base changes (CBCs) were detected in helices of the ITS2 molecule between different Spirostomum species, documenting that CBC analysis per se is not able to effectively discriminate Spirostomum species. PMID:27261253

  3. Estimation of divergence times in litostomatean ciliates (Ciliophora: Intramacronucleata), using Bayesian relaxed clock and 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes.

  4. Morphology and morphogenesis of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Hartmannula sinica nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chen; Song, Weibo; Gong, Jun

    2008-02-01

    The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Hartmannula sinica nov. spec., collected from Qingdao, north China, have been investigated. The new species is characterized by: size in vivo 90-130 x 40-50 microm, body long elliptical in outline, cilium-free field covered with a conspicuous alveolar layer; 24-31 ventral kineties, the rightmost 6-9 of which extend apically; 20-24 nematodesmal rods; about 15 sparsely distributed contractile vacuoles; a yellowish pigment spot is always present near the anterior tip of the cell. Morphogenetic events exhibit a pattern, which is homologous with that of related cyrtophorids. The main features are as follows: (1) preoral and circumoral kineties of opisthe develop from the oral primordium that forms in mid-body from sections of 3 postoral kineties, while parental preoral and circumoral kineties are retained; (2) parental cytostome and nematodesmal rods are resorbed in middle divisional stages and then replaced by newly formed structures; (3) the heteromerous macronucleus unifies in the late divisional stage.

  5. Notes on Two Marine Ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China: Placus salinus and Strombidium apolatum (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dapeng; SONG Weibo; HU Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of two rare marine ciliates, Placus salinus Dietz, 1964 and Strombidium apolatum Wilbert and Song, 2005, collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation technique. The improved diagnosis for Placus salinus is as follows: medium-sized marine Placus, in vivo (50 -60) μm × (30 -40)μm; cell elliptical to barrel-shaped; 28 -31 somatic kineties; single macronucleus usually ellipsoid and one micronucleus located in the indention of the macronucleus; one contractile vacuole posteriorly positioned. Strombidium apolatum is characterized by: marine strombidium (40-60) μm × (30-45) μm in vivo, cordiform in shape with somewhat pointed posterior end and conspicuous apical protrusion; extrusomes prominent, about 15μm in length and evenly arranged along the circle kinety; about 16 collar and 5-6 buccal membranelles; one elongate macronucleus and one micronucleus; circle and ventral kineties consisting of about 53 and 45 dikinetids respectively.

  6. Infraciliature and morphogenesis in three rumen Diplodinium ciliates, Diplodinium polygonale, Diplodinium leche, and Diplodinium nanum, observed by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2005-01-01

    Infraciliature and morphogenesis of three rumen ophryoscolecid ciliates, Diplodinium polygonale Dogiel, 1925, Diplodinium leche Imai et al., 1992, and Diplodinium nanum Imai, 1988, are described from pyridinated silver carbonate-impregnated specimens. These three species have two polybrachykineties in the buccal area and a polybrachykinety in the dorsal ciliary zone. The vestibular polybrachykinety (VP) of D. polygonale and D. leche arises from the dorsal extremity of the adoral polybrachykinety (AP) as in Entodinium species, extending toward the left in D. polygonale and toward the left posterior in D. leche. The VP of D. nanum arises from the inner side of the AP, separate from its dorsal extremity, as in other Diplodinium species and extends toward the left posterior. These series of the polybrachykinety arrangements in D. polygonale, D. leche, and D. nanum can be regarded as transitional forms in the evolution of an Entodinium-like ancestor to Diplodinium. Morphogenesis of these three Diplodinium species is not different from that of other Diplodinium species.

  7. Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    Full Text Available Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety. Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

  8. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Alejandra; Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean. PMID:27547525

  9. Pequenas Parmelia S.L. (Líquens: Ascomycotina ciliadas dos cerrados brasileiros Little ciliate Parmeliae in the brazilian cerradoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Marcelli

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi baseado em coletas realizadas em todos os tipos estruturais de cerrado, incluindo formações de altitude e rochosas. São apresentadas descrições detalhadas, chave de identificação e ilustrações das espécies de Bulboíhrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 e Hypotrachyna (3 encontradas. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli e B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli são descritas como novas. E feita a combinação nova Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale é nova para o Brasil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale e Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale são novas para o Continente Americano. Há um grande número de primeiras citações para vários estados e várias segundas referências para o Brasil.This work deals with species of the lichen genera Bulboihrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 and Hypotrachyna (3 (ciliate species growing in the brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. All types of cerradoes were investigated, since almost open fields to forestal formations and including altitude rock fields, gallery forests and others placed inside cerrado areas. Altogether 30 species were found and are described in detail. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli and B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli are new species. The new combination Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli is done. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale is new for Brazil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale and Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale are new for the American Continent.

  10. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  11. Mating of the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax induces production of a class of 27 nt small RNAs derived from the parental macronucleus.

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    Alan M Zahler

    Full Text Available Ciliated protozoans possess two types of nuclei; a transcriptionally silent micronucleus, which serves as the germ line nucleus, and a transcriptionally active macronucleus, which serves as the somatic nucleus. The macronucleus is derived from a new diploid micronucleus after mating, with epigenetic information contributed by the parental macronucleus serving to guide the formation of the new macronucleus. In the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax, the macronuclear DNA is highly processed to yield gene-sized nanochromosomes with telomeres at each end. Here we report that soon after mating of Oxytricha trifallax, abundant 27 nt small RNAs are produced that are not present prior to mating. We performed next generation sequencing of Oxytricha small RNAs from vegetative and mating cells. Using sequence comparisons between macronuclear and micronuclear versions of genes, we found that the 27 nt RNA class derives from the parental macronucleus, not the developing macronucleus. These small RNAs are produced equally from both strands of macronuclear nanochromosomes, but in a highly non-uniform distribution along the length of the nanochromosome, and with a particular depletion in the 30 nt telomere-proximal positions. This production of small RNAs from the parental macronucleus during macronuclear development stands in contrast to the mechanism of epigenetic control in the distantly related ciliate Tetrahymena. In that species, 28-29 nt scanRNAs are produced from the micronucleus and these micronuclear-derived RNAs serve as epigenetic controllers of macronuclear development. Unlike the Tetrahymena scanRNAs, the Oxytricha macronuclear-derived 27 mers are not modified by 2'O-methylation at their 3' ends. We propose models for the role of these "27macRNAs" in macronuclear development.

  12. Ciliates (Protozoa from dried sediments of a temporary pond from Argentina Ciliados (Protozoa de sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la Argentina

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    Gabriela Cristina Küppers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds represent special environments that are inhabited by organisms adapted to changing environmental conditions. Ciliates are able to survive complete loss of water in these transient habitats through cyst formation. However, ciliates from the Neotropical region in general have been poorly studied with modern techniques. The main goal of this study is to describe the ciliates in dried sediments of a temporary pond from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, through sampling efforts that were performed 2003-2005. Soil samples were obtained during drought phases and re wetted in laboratory to establish raw and enriched cultures. Ciliates were then studied both in vivo and after impregnation with protargol. In this study, we present 4 new records for Argentina (Gonostomum affine (Stein, 1859 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia bifaria (Stokes, 1887 Berger, 1999, Pleurotricha lanceolata (Ehrenberg, 1835 Stein, 1859, Meseres corlissi Petz and Foissner, 1992, 1 for South America (Blepharisma americanum (Suzuki, 1954 Hirshfield, Isquith and Bhandary, 1965, and 2 for the Neotropical Realm (Gonostomum strenuum (Engelmann, 1862 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia lemnae Ammermann and Schlegel, 1983.Los cuerpos de agua temporarios son ambientes particulares que se encuentran habitados por organismos adaptados a condiciones fluctuantes. Los ciliados son capaces de sobrevivir a la pérdida completa de agua del ambiente gracias a la formación de estructuras de resistencia. Por otra parte, los ciliados de la región Neotropical han sido poco investigados con técnicas modernas. El objetivo de este estudio es referir los ciliados que se desarrollaron a partir de los sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en la que se realizaron muestreos durante el período 2003-2005. Las muestras de suelo fueron obtenidas durante las fases de sequía y luego resuspendidas en el laboratorio para realizar cultivos naturales y enriquecidos. Los

  13. Identification of cAMP-dependent phosphorylated proteins involved in the formation of environment-resistant resting cysts by the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus

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    Y Sogame

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus, an elevation of the intracellular cAMP concentration was reported to be involved in environment-resistant resting cyst formation. In the present study, cAMP-dependently phosphorylated proteins of encystment-induced C. cucullus were isolated with Phos-tag agarose phosphate-affinity beads and subsequent SDS-PAGE. In a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of these phosphoproteins, 27-, 37- and 43-kDa proteins (p27, p37 and p43 were identified as Rieske iron-sulfur protein, histone H4 (hyperacetylated form, and actin, respectively.

  14. Phylogenetic positions of two marine ciliates, Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), inferred from complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene was sequenced for two marine scuticociliates Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi. The results show that this gene comprises 1763 and 1753 nucleotides in the two marine ciliates respectively.Metanophrys similis is phylogenetically closely related to the clade containing Mesanophrys carcini and Anophyroides haemophila, which branches basally to other species within the order Philasterida. Pseudocohnilembus hargisi groups with its congener, P. marinus, with strong bootstrap support. Paranophrys magna groups with the clade including Cohnilembus and Uronema, representing a sister clade to that containing the two Pseudocohnilembus species.

  15. Probing the effect of the binding site on the electrostatic behavior of a series of carotenoids reconstituted into the light-harvesting 1 complex from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum detected by stark spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Katsunori; Suzuki, Satoru; Fujii, Ritsuko; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Nango, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2008-08-01

    Reconstitutions of the LH1 complexes from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 were performed with a range of carotenoid molecules having different numbers of C=C conjugated double bonds. Since, as we showed previously, some of the added carotenoids tended to aggregate and then to remain with the reconstituted LH1 complexes (Nakagawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Fujii, R.; Gardiner, A.T.; Cogdell, R.J.; Nango, M.; Hashimoto, H. Photosynth. Res. 2008, 95, 339-344), a further purification step using a sucrose density gradient centrifugation was introduced to improve purity of the final reconstituted sample. The measured absorption, fluorescence-excitation, and Stark spectra of the LH1 complex reconstituted with spirilloxanthin were identical with those obtained with the native, spirilloxanthin-containing, LH1 complex of Rs. rubrum S1. This shows that the electrostatic environments surrounding the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules in both of these LH1 complexes were essentially the same. In the LH1 complexes reconstituted with either rhodopin or spheroidene, however, the wavelength maximum at the BChl a Qy absorption band was slightly different to that of the native LH1 complexes. These differences in the transition energy of the BChl a Qy absorption band can be explained using the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of this absorption band, i.e., the polarizability change Tr(Deltaalpha) and the static dipole-moment change |Deltamu| upon photoexcitation, as determined using Stark spectroscopy. The local electric field around the BChl a in the native LH1 complex (ES) was determined to be approximately 3.0x10(6) V/cm. Furthermore, on the basis of the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of the carotenoids in the reconstituted LH1 complexes, it is possible to suggest that the conformations of carotenoids, anhydrorhodovibrin and spheroidene, in the LH1 complex were similar to that of rhodopin glucoside in crystal structure of

  16. Morphology, morphogenesis and gene sequence of a freshwater ciliate, Pseudourostyla cristata (Ciliophora, Urostyloidea) from the ancient Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xumiao; Li, Zicong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Kusuoka, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    The urostyloid freshwater ciliate Pseudourostyla cristata was recorded for the first time from Lake Biwa, a 4-million-year-old lake located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Its morphology and morphogenesis were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation, and the SSU ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced. Based on the current observations and previous descriptions, this species is readily recognized mainly by the following characters: body slender or broadly oval to elliptical, and dark grey in color; size in vivo about 170-400 x 40-150 microm; pellicle flexible and contractile, with extrusomes forming a hyaline seam underneath; ciliature comprising about 60-130 adoral membranelles, usually 1 buccal cirrus, 20-24 frontal, 2 frontoterminal, 17-26 pairs of midventral, and 5-16 transverse cirri, 4-6 left and 4-5 right marginal rows, and 8-10 dorsal kineties; 15-83 macronuclear nodules and 2-9 micronuclei; freshwater habitat. The main morphogenetic developments are: (1) the oral primordium for the proter originates de novo on the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity, and the dedifferentiated undulating membranes and some parental proximal membranelles join in the primordial development; the old adoral zone will be partly replaced by new structures; (2) the oral primordium for the opisthe occurs epiapokinetally left of the midventral complex between the adoral zone and the transverse cirri; (3) the fronto-midventral transverse cirral (FVT) anlagen develop separately in both dividers by dedifferentiation of most of the midventral cirri; (4) the single buccal cirrus is generated from the posterior end of FVT anlage II; (5) the leftmost frontal cirrus is derived from the anterior end of the undulating membranes anlage (FVT anlage I); (6) the marginal rows of each side are formed from a single anlage which arises within the rightmost row; (7) the dorsal kineties develop by intrakinetal basal body proliferation; and (8) the most posterior FVT anlage contributes the two

  17. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts. PMID:27460894

  18. Separate Culture and Morphological Observation of Free Living Amoebae and Ciliates%自生阿米巴和纤毛虫的分离培养与观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳爱梅; 刘营; 谭叶; 丛慧; 林佳慧; 张英杰; 张忠广

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the methods of cultivation and morphological observation of free living amoebae and ciliates and observe the growth and species change of parasites in different time and vegetables. Methods Various green vegetable juice were prepared for cultivating the amoebae and ciliates at 37℃ The growth of free living amoebae and ciliates were observed using microscope. Results Rotary motion of ciliates was observed after cultivation for 48 hours.Decreased quantity and activity of ciliates and increased quantity and activity of free living amoebae were observed after cultivation for 72 hours. Decreased quantity of free living amoebae and ciliates were observed even disappeared but the cysts appeared after cultivation for 144 hours. And various green vegetable juice showed differences in culturing the amoebae and ciliates; between 72 h to 120 h ciliates could be found in celery juice, while free living amoebae were found between 96 h to 120 h. Ciliates could be easier to observe in rape flower juice between 72 h to 96h and free living amoebae easier to see in caraway juice between 72 h to 120 h. Conclusion This method is simple and convenient to observe the living amoebae and ciliates. It is useful in the parasitology teaching.%目的 研究建立自生阿米巴和纤毛虫的培养方法,观察不同菜种在不同时间寄生虫的生长情况及种类的变化.方法 制作不同蔬菜叶的悬液,37℃恒温培养,镜下观察不同时间自生阿米巴和纤毛虫的生长情况.结果 培养48 h后,可观察到纤毛虫活跃的旋转运动;72 h后纤毛虫数量减少,活动度降低,自生阿米巴出现,蠕动活跃;144 h后自生阿米巴、纤毛虫数量减少甚至观察不到,包囊出现,不同菜种在不同时间自生阿米巴、纤毛虫数量、种类也相应变化,如芹菜中纤毛虫在72~120 h、阿米巴在96~120 h数量最多,最易观察到,油菜中纤毛虫在72~96 h最易观察到,香菜中阿米巴在72~120 h

  19. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  20. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  1. 亚硝基胍诱变选育高转化率异麦芽酮糖菌株%Screening of high isomaltulose-conversion rate protaminobacter rubrum strain by NTG mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢汉浪; 许黎明; 吕军; 蒋永强

    2012-01-01

    异麦芽酮糖作为一种新型的功能性蔗糖替代品,特别适合应用于运动型、功能性和健康型的食品和饮料中,目前工业化生产是以蔗糖为主要原料通过蔗糖异构酶转化形成,产蔗糖异构酶的主要菌种包括红色精朊杆菌、大黄欧文氏菌等.但是由于异麦芽酮糖生产工艺长、能耗多和蔗糖原料成本高,抑制了它的市场成长率,因此提高蔗糖的收率、降低生产成本成为亟需解决的问题.本文利用亚硝基胍在0.2mg/mL的浓度下处理60min对处于对数生长期的红色精朊杆菌进行诱变,采用班氏试剂和高效液相色谱法筛选出酶活力显著提高、遗传稳定且转化蔗糖生成异麦芽酮糖的比例较高的菌株,干细胞酶活力最高为1230U/g,异麦芽酮糖在蔗糖完全转化溶液中占固型物的最高比例为87.7%,分别比原始菌株提高了一倍和7.48%.%As a new functional sugar substitute, Isomaltulose is perfectly for all sports, functional and wellness food and beverages. At present isomaltulose is industrially produced by a enzyme - converting process in which sucrose is transformed into isomaltulose. The main strains which can produce sucrose isomerase include Protaminobacter rubrum, Erwinia rhqpontici. However, the market growth of isomaltulose was inhibited because of the long production processes , high energy consumption and high costs of sucrose. In this study, a highly active sucrose isomerase and high isomaltulose - convertion rate Protaminobacter rubrum mutant strain was screened using nitrosoguanidine (NTG) - mutated method. The wild strain was mutated 60 minutes by 0. 2mg/mL NTG in the exponential phase, and the mutant strain was screened by Benedict reagent and HPLC. The mutant strain showed excellent genetic stability and the activity of sucrose isomerase could reach 1230U per gram of dried cell. Then the mutant strain was used in converting sucrose to isomaltulose. The maximum content of

  2. Induction and cultivation of haploid callus of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum%红花檵木花粉单倍体愈伤组织的诱导与培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炎林; 于晓英; 熊兴耀; 陈己任; 朱杰辉

    2011-01-01

    For obtaining the complete genome sequence of Loropetalum chinense var. Rubrum, haploid callus was induced and cultivated based on previous data of meiosis and microspore development of Loropetalum chinense var. Rubrum 'xiyemeihong'. The outer characteristics of the flower bud corresponding to specific development stages were primarily determined and monocaryotic phase of 'xiyemeihong' was selected for induction of haploid callus. SNGM medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-Benzyladenine and sucrose concentration 30 g/L turned out to be the optimum callus-induction medium. And B5 medium with supplements the same to the induction medium was the optimum medium for semi-solid-state cultivation of pollen callus and for liquid cultivation of anther callus under the rotation speed of 110 r/minand the temperature of 25 °C. Flow cytometry showed that the absorption peak of the pollen callus was about half of that of the leave callus (the control). Chromosome counting indicated haploids of pollen callus possessed 12 chromosomes while diploids 24 and haploids were detected in 63.1% of pollen callus cells.%为通过红花檵木单倍体愈伤组织获得红花檵木全基因组序列,在红花檵木‘细叶玫红’减数分裂和小孢子发育进程研究的基础上,初步明确了与小孢子不同发育时期相对应的花蕾外部特征,筛选出‘细叶玫红’单核靠边期花粉进行花药愈伤组织培养.诱导培养基以SNGM为基本培养基,添加2.5 mg/L NAA +0.5 mg/L 6-BA+30g/L蔗糖;花粉愈伤组织培养的最优培养基为B5培养基,添加物同诱导培养基;花药愈伤组织悬浮培养体系为B5液体培养基,添加物同诱导培养基,转速为110 r/min,培养温度为25℃.经流式细胞仪检测,红花檵木花粉愈伤组织最大吸收峰值约为叶片愈伤组织的50%;用染色体压片计数法观察到叶片愈伤组织细胞染色体数为24条,花粉愈伤组织为12条,单倍体细胞占63.1%,表明

  3. Biomonitoring of Lake Garda: Identification of ciliate species and symbiotic algae responsible for the "black-spot" bloom during the summer of 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Sandra; Buonanno, Federico; Pellegrini, Giovanna; Pozzi, Sabrina; Ballarini, Patrizia; Miceli, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    At the end of July 2004, a "black-spot" appeared in the western portion of Lake Garda, an oligomictic lake classified as meso-oligotrophic. A few days later, this phenomenon spread throughout the lake. A first analysis by optical microscopy revealed that the origin of the black spot was a ciliated protozoan. Ciliates represent a small percentage of the total zooplanktonic community of Lake Garda and have never produced bloom episodes. Using morphological and molecular analysis, we characterized the protozoan responsible for the bloom as Stentor amethystinus and its symbiotic algae as a Chlorella sp. Continuous monitoring of the northeast of Lake Garda showed that the apex of the S. amethystinus bloom took place during the first 20 days of August, and the highest density of S. amethystinus occurred in the euphotic zone. During this period, high chlorophyll a values were obtained in water samples collected from the euphotic zone due to the presence of the endosymbiont Chlorella. After early September, the black spot completely disappeared, and the causative organism was detected at low concentration only in the southern basin of the lake. The results obtained on the progress of the black spot phenomenon led us to hypothesize that: (i) S. amethystinus was recently introduced in Lake Garda by anthropogenic activities or it was already a member of the zooplanktonic community but at a very low concentration; (ii) S. amethystinus blooms may have been driven by an unusual high availability of total phosphorous in the euphotic zone and (iii) Lake Garda is not the preferred habitat for S. amethystinus.

  4. Effect of high levels of the rotifer Lecane inermis on the ciliate community in laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyda, Janusz; Babko, Roman; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kocerba-Soroka, Wioleta; Sobczyk, Mateusz; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Due to its ability to feed on filamentous bacteria, the rotifer Lecane inermis has already been recognized as a potential control agent of activated sludge bulking, which is usually caused by the excessive growth of filamentous microorganisms. However, their effectiveness depends, in part, on their abundance. We studied the influence of high densities of L. inermis on the protozoan community in activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in 4 laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs). Two treatments and two controls were subjected to nutrient removal system in process similar to that used in a WWTP. The experiment lasted 9 days and was repeated in 24-h cycles, including phases of agitation with feeding, aeration and agitation and sedimentation with decantation at the end of the cycle. In total, 32 taxa were identified, among which 25 were ciliated protozoa, 4 were amoebae, 2 were flagellates, and one was a nematode. Rotifers were then introduced to 2 bioreactors at a final concentration of 500ind.mL(-1), and the taxonomic composition and abundance of the activated sludge microfauna were assessed 2, 5 and 8 days thereafter. The mean density of ciliates on the first day of experiment was 12,610ind.mL(-1) and diminished to 4868±432ind.mL-±432ind.mL(-1) in the control and 5496±638ind.mL(-1) in the rotifer-treated group on the last day. Thus, even extremely high densities of artificially introduced rotifers did not negatively affect the protozoan community. On the contrary, the protozoan community was more diverse in the treatment group than in the control.

  5. 深红红螺菌固氮酶调控机理验证实验设计及实践%Experimental design and practice for verification of mechanism of Rhodospirillum rubrum nitrogenase regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭涛; 关国华; 姜伟; 李颖; 李季伦

    2012-01-01

    从科学研究中汲取教学素材,根据实际情况优化条件,设计出一项适合微生物生理学教学的新实验,验证了光照和铵对深红红螺菌固氮酶合成和活性的调控.实验让学生认识了红螺菌代谢灵活性、营养及环境条件对其生长的影响,加深了解固氮酶的底物多样性、固氮酶的氧敏感性和固氮酶的调控机理;实验不仅有效激发了学生学习的兴趣,培养了严谨、认真的科研作风,还提高了分析问题、解决问题的能力.实践证明,科研成果转化为教学实验是提高教学水平、培养创新型人才的重要举措.%An experimental instruction suitable for microbial physiology experiments from scientific research is introduced. Rhodospirillum rubrum is cultured and nitrogenase activity is assayed by gas chromatograph. Students not only master some experimental skills on anaerobic or light cultivation, but also study gas chromatograph technique and nitrogenase activity assay by the experiment. The experiment is helpful for students to understand the principle of microbial metabolic flexibility, the mechanism of oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase and the theory of regulation of nitrogense synthesis and activity. The students' interests in microbial physiology are increased , and their independent innovation abilities are improved. Practice shows that research is an important way for teaching.

  6. 施肥对围隔中浮游纤毛虫种群动态的调控分析%Study on Fertilization to the Population Dynamics of Planktonic Ciliates in Low Salinity Control Enclosures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄斌; 查广才

    2011-01-01

    The community structure and population dynamics of planktonic ciliates in controlled enclosure environment at low salinity levels were studied and analyzed.A total of 48 planktonic ciliates species were indentified,belonged to 3 classes,11 orders and 37 genera,including 8 species of oligotrichida,7 species of peritrichida,and 6 species of hypotrichida and scuticociliatida among them.The dominant species mostly enjoyed living in eutrophic water or were pollution-resistant species.Different treatment had significant effects on the community structure and population dynamics of planktonic ciliates.The proper fertilizer volume and of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer matches executes of 5 tank enclosures,and apply merchandise compound fertilizers alone of No.7 enclosures and No.9 enclosures,the planktonic ciliates species more abundant and with an average of 6.7 species of detectd each time,the population densities were 112.30,91.15 and 111.00 cells/mL,respectively.In the enclosure applied with organic fertilizer,the planktonic ciliates appeared earlier,the ciliates addicted to eutrophic water were the dominant species.The densities were lower in early and late periods and higher in intermediate period of planktonic ciliates and planktonic algae,and the diversity of planktonic ciliates of early and late periods was lower and intermediate period was higher,while that of planktonic algae was negative.The study provided the theoretical bases for healthy culture and ecological regulation and management of prawns.%通过不同的施肥处理,对低盐度对虾养殖围隔环境中浮游纤毛虫群落结构动态变化进行了研究,共检测到浮游纤毛虫48种,分属于3纲、11目、37属;其中,寡毛目(Oligotrichida)8种,缘毛目(Peritrichida)7种,腹毛目(Hypotrichida)和盾纤目(Scuticociliatida)均为6种;优势种多为富营养化水体中的耐污性种类。不同施肥处理对纤毛虫的种群结构与动态变化影响显

  7. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model org...

  8. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model orga...

  9. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely relat...

  10. 红花檵木叶片花色素提取及其性质研究%Extraction and Characterization of Anthocyanidins from Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辛雷; 李纪元; 范正琪

    2011-01-01

    The anthocyanidinsins in Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh leaves were extracted by solvent extraction method and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties.The best extraction conditions were found as follows: 99.5% methanol as extraction solvent at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5(g/mL) for 2 h extraction at 60 ℃.The pigments were unstable to light and heating but stable to strongly acidic environments and had a different color in slightly acidic and nearly neutral environments.Their tolerance to H2O2 and Na2SO3 was poor and their sensitivity to EDTA and sodium benzoate was high.Glucose and sucrose had little effect on the pigments.Salt,citric acid and some metal ions such as A13+,Ca2+ and Co2+ had hyperchromic effect on them and vitamin C and other metal ions such as Cu2+,Mg2+,Zn2+,Mn2+,K+ and Sn2+ had hypochromic effect.Moreover,Fe2+,Fe3+ and Pb2+ affected the stability of the pigments.%以红花檵木叶片为材料,对其花色素的提取条件及理化性质进行研究。结果表明,红花檵木叶片花色素提取的最佳条件为:99.5%的甲醇、料液比1:5(g/mL)、浸提温度60℃、浸提时间2h。红花檵木叶片花色素具光、热不稳定性;在强酸性时稳定,微酸近中性时变色。色素抗氧化、还原能力差;对螯合剂、苯甲酸钠敏感。葡萄糖、蔗糖对色素无明显影响,食盐、柠檬酸有增色作用,VC具减色作用。金属离子A13+、Ca2+、Co2+等具增色作用,Cu2+、Mg2+、Zn2+、Mn2+、K+、Sn2+等有减色作用,Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+影响色素稳定性。

  11. Distribution of planktonic ciliates in autumn and winter in the shelf areas of the East China Sea%秋冬季东海陆架区浮游纤毛虫的生态分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠霞; 张武昌; 赵楠; 肖天

    2011-01-01

    于2006年11月19日至12月23日(秋季)和2007年2月22日至3月11日(冬季)在东海陆架区(25°-33°N,12°-127°30'E)的6个断面(E1-E6)调查分析了浮游生活的寡毛目纤毛虫的生态分布特点.结果表明:秋季纤毛虫丰度为0~1 795个/dm,生物量(C)为0~2.36 μg/dm;冬季纤毛虫丰度为0~22 695个/dm,生物量(C)为0~10.87 μg/dm.秋季在外陆架区和中陆架区纤毛虫丰度与生物量高于内陆架区,冬季中陆架区纤毛虫丰度和生物量高于外陆架区和内陆架区.纤毛虫水柱丰度和水柱生物量高值秋季时出现在靠近外陆架北部的E2断面和南部E5断面,冬季出现在北部断面陆架中心位置.秋季和冬季纤毛虫主要分布在水体中上层.丰度上,两个季节都是无壳纤毛虫占优势;生物量上,秋季砂壳纤毛虫对生物量的贡献大于无壳纤毛虫.ESD(Equiva-lent Spherical Diameter)为10~20 μm的小型纤毛虫分别占秋季和冬季纤毛虫丰度的63%和82%.与已有的资料对比发现,东海陆架区浮游纤毛虫的生态分布没有发生明显变化.%Abundance, biomass and size structure of planktonic oligotrich ciliate were investigated in the shelf areas of East China Sea (25°~33°N, 120°~127°30'E) at six transects (E1-E6) during two cruises in autumn (11.19-12.23) 2006 and winter (2.22-3.11) 2007.Ciliate abundance and biomass ranged from 0 to 1795 ind./L and from 0 to 2.36 μg C/L, respectively, in autumn.Ciliate abundance and biomass were in the range of 0 to 22 695 ind./L and 0 to 10.87 μg C/L, respectively, in winter.In autumn, ciliate abundance and biomass in outer and middle shelf was greater than inner shelf water.However, in winter the middle shelf had more ciliates than outer and inner shelf.High water column integrated ciliate abundance distributed in the northern transect E2 and southern transect E5 near the outer shelf in autumn and in center area of northern transects in winter.Vertically, ciliates mainly

  12. Sulphur-cycling bacteria and ciliated protozoans in a Beggiatoaceae mat covering organically enriched sediments beneath a salmon farm in a southern Chilean fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Carlos P; Valenzuela, Cristian; Matamala, Yessica; Godoy, Félix A; Aranda, Nicol

    2015-11-15

    The colourless mat covering organically enriched sediments underlying an intensive salmon farm in Estero Pichicolo, southern Chile, was surveyed by combined 454 PyroTag and conventional Sanger sequencing of 16S/18S ribosomal RNA genes for Bacteria and Eukarya. The mat was dominated by the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Candidatus Isobeggiatoa, Candidatus Parabeggiatoa and Arcobacter. By order of their abundances, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were represented by diverse deltaproteobacterial Desulfobacteraceae, but also within Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. The eukaryotic PyroTags were dominated by polychaetes, copepods and nematodes, however, ciliated protozoans were highly abundant in microscopy observations, and were represented by the genera Condylostoma, Loxophyllum and Peritromus. Finally, the abundant Sulfurimonas/Sulfurovum also suggest the occurrence of zero-valence sulphur oxidation, probably derived from Beggiatoaceae as a result of bacteriovorus infaunal activity or generated as free S(0) by the Arcobacter bacteria. The survey suggests an intense and complex sulphur cycle within the surface of salmon-farm impacted sediments.

  13. Molecular phylogeny and species separation of five morphologically similar Holosticha-complex ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using ARDRA riboprinting and multigene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Jun; Al-Rasheid Khaled, A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2010-05-01

    To separate and redefine the ambiguous Holosticha-complex, a confusing group of hypotrichous ciliates, six strains belonging to five morphospecies of three genera, Holosticha heterofoissneri, Anteholosticha sp. pop1, Anteholosticha sp. pop2, A. manca, A. gracilis and Nothoholosticha fasciola, were analyzed using 12 restriction enzymes on the basis of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Nine of the 12 enzymes could digest the DNA products, four ( Hinf I, Hind III, Msp I, Taq I) yielded species-specific restriction patterns, and Hind III and Taq I produced different patterns for two Anteholosticha sp. populations. Distinctly different restriction digestion haplotypes and similarity indices can be used to separate the species. The secondary structures of the five species were predicted based on the ITS2 transcripts and there were several minor differences among species, while two Anteholosticha sp. populations were identical. In addition, phylogenies based on the SSrRNA gene sequences were reconstructed using multiple algorithms, which grouped them generally into four clades, and exhibited that the genus Anteholosticha should be a convergent assemblage. The fact that Holosticha species clustered with the oligotrichs and choreotrichs, though with very low support values, indicated that the topology may be very divergent and unreliable when the number of sequence data used in the analyses is too low.

  14. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-05-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  15. Description of the rare marine ciliate, Uronychia multicirrus song, 1997 (Ciliophora; Euplotida) based on morphology, morphogenesis and SS rRNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhuo; Shao, Chen; Gao, Shan; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiqiu; Hu, Xiaozhong; Song, Weibo

    2009-01-01

    A population of the marine euplotid ciliate, Uronychia multicirrus Song 1997, found in the littoral zone of the Daya Bay, Guangdong, South China, was investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation method. This species is diagnosed by possessing a long row of ventral cirri, which has never been seen in all other known congeners. Divisional process, described based on protargol-impregnated specimens, is typical of the genus regarding its general pattern: (1) the oral primordia in both proter and opisthe develop de novo in two subcortical pouches, while the UM-anlage forms de novo (i.e. does not develop from the oral primordium); (2) five frontoventral-transverse (FVT)-cirral anlagen develop in a primary-mode on the cell surface, and almost all the cirri are derived from the FVT-anlagen, except the first frontal cirri, which are formed de novo in both dividers; (3) the species characteristic ventral row derives from the right-most FVT-anlage; (4) the parental structures do not take part in the construction of the marginal anlagen, and (5) the caudal cirri originate in the right-most two dorsal kineties in a multi-segmentation mode. The small subunit rRNA gene of U. multicirrus (GenBank accession number: EU267929) is 1,773 bp and differs by 0.9-1.41% from its closely related congeners.

  16. 纤毛类原生动物中宿主-共生体系统的研究%Studies on the Host-Symbiont System in Ciliates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾福康; 孙军; 何远; 田沁

    2001-01-01

    目前已经在100多种纤毛虫中观察到细菌、藻类和其他微生物等共生体。对纤毛虫中宿主-共生体系统的研究表明,双小核草履虫中卡巴粒的遗传为细胞质遗传理论提供了例证;含细菌共生体的许多厌氧纤毛虫无线粒体,共生体对宿主代谢有重要作用;尾草履虫-钝状全孢螺菌共生作用中,共生菌感染形式的39kDa、15kDa周质蛋白可分别与IF-3-1、IF-3-2两种单抗反应,其共生体早期感染过程中两种抗原的量发生显著变化,并且共生体生殖 形式选择性地合成63kDa蛋白质,该蛋白质可能是与共生作用有联系的关键分子;绿草履虫-小球藻共生系统中,共生藻中存在葡糖胺硬性壁是其与草履虫发生共生关系的基本条件,其中,共生藻参与宿主代谢,与宿主形成相互受益的专一性关系,并且藻类共生体的作用可能影响了宿主草履虫基因组有关结构,改变了其基因表达。作者推测,探索共生体对宿主基因结构及其表达产物的影响可能是对纤毛虫中共生作用研究的主要趋势,这对于深入了 解真核细胞中宿主-共生体双方的相互作用、物质交流在分子水平上的调控机理、细胞结构与功能的关系等细胞生命活动规律是有意义的。%To date, bacterial,algal and other microbial symbionts have been found in more than 100 species of ciliates. The study of the host-symbiont system in ciliates shows that: ( 1 ) The inheritance of kappa particles in the cytoplasm of Paramecium aurelia is a classic example of the cytoplasmic inheritance theory. (2) Bacterial symbionts in some anerobic ciliates that lack mitochondria play the major role in the host's metabolism. (3) In the P. Caudatum-Holospora obtusa system, 39- and 15-kDa periplasmic pro teins of the infectious H. Obtusa reacted with IF-3-1 and IF-3-2 monoclonal antibodies respectively. The amounts of both antigens were reduced during

  17. The use of protozoa in ecotoxicology: application of multiple endpoint tests of the ciliate E. crassus for the evaluation of sediment quality in coastal marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, A; Dagnino, A; Nasci, C; Viarengo, A

    2013-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of surveys describing adverse effects of contaminated sediments on marine organisms, few studies have addressed protists. In this study, the free-crawling marine ciliate Euplotes crassus was evaluated as the test organism for the screening of sediment toxicity using sediments from both coastal and estuarine sites of the Venice Lagoon (Marghera harbour [MH], Valle Millecampi [MV], Murano island [MI] and Lido inlet [LI]). Two endpoints of high ecological value, mortality (Mry) and replication rate (RpR), were assessed in combination with the two sublethal biomarkers of stress, endocytotic rate (Ecy) and lysosomal membrane stability (NRRT). The results showed a significant inhibition of RpR, Ecy and NRRT paralleled by a small and insignificantly increased Mry of the exposed specimens. Our results thus demonstrate that only a combination of mortality and sublethal biomarkers was able to characterise an exposure-related stress syndrome. The suite of biomarkers described here was also able to detect and resolve a pollution-induced stress syndrome at an early stage of pollution. The contamination level of the sediments was assessed using chemical analysis, by estimating bioavailability and by computing a toxic pressure coefficient (TPC) to account for potential additive effects of different pollutants. The observed biological responses were consistent with the contamination levels in sediments, suggesting a high potential for using Protozoa in bioassays to assess environmental risk in coastal marine systems.

  18. Zygotic Expression of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motif Protein Drb2p Is Required for DNA Elimination in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Jason A.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM)-containing proteins play many roles in the regulation of gene transcription and translation, including some with tandem DSRMs that act in small RNA biogenesis. We report the characterization of the genes for double-stranded RNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (DRB1 and DRB2), two genes encoding nuclear proteins with tandem DSRMs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Both proteins are expressed throughout growth and development but exhibit distinct peaks of expression, suggesting different biological roles. In support of this, we show that expression of DRB2 is essential for vegetative growth while DRB1 expression is not. During conjugation, Drb1p and Drb2p localize to distinct nuclear foci. Cells lacking all DRB1 copies are able to produce viable progeny, although at a reduced rate relative to wild-type cells. In contrast, cells lacking germ line DRB2 copies, which thus cannot express Drb2p zygotically, fail to produce progeny, arresting late into conjugation. This arrest phenotype is accompanied by a failure to organize the essential DNA rearrangement protein Pdd1p into DNA elimination bodies and execute DNA elimination and chromosome breakage. These results implicate zygotically expressed Drb2p in the maturation of these nuclear structures, which are necessary for reorganization of the somatic genome. PMID:22021239

  19. Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengchao; Xing, Yi; Li, Jiamei; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; He, Songke; Shao, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, morphogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate Perisincirra paucicirrata, isolated from north China, were investigated. Perisincirra paucicirrata differs from its congeners in: (1) having a body length to width ratio in vivo of 4:1, (2) its adoral zone occupying between 15% and 25% of the total body length, and (3) the presence of two parabuccal cirri, three left (with 10-16 cirri each) and two right marginal rows (with 14-24 cirri each), and three dorsal kineties. Our study offers a first attempt to begin to map the morphogenetic processes of the genus, which are mainly characterised by the following: the formation of four frontal ventral transverse anlagens for each daughter cell, with the proter's anlage I originating from the reorganised anterior part of the parental paroral; the paroral and endoral anlage developed from the reorganised old endoral and do not contribute the first frontal cirrus; the frontoventral transverse anlage I contributing the left frontal cirrus; anlage II generating the middle frontal and the buccal cirri; anlage III developing the right frontal cirrus and the anterior parabuccal cirrus; and anlage IV contributing the posterior parabuccal cirrus. As an additional contribution, we judge that the inner one or the two right rows of P. kahli and P. longicirrata are marginal rows. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences suggests that Perisincirra is related to sporadotrichids, but provides no credible evidence for its taxonomic position.

  20. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  1. Arsenic Speciation and Seasonal Changes in Nutrient Availability and Micro-plankton Abundance in Southampton Water, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. G.; Comber, S. D. W.; Kifle, D.; Antai, E. E.; Purdie, D. A.

    1995-04-01

    The links between dissolved arsenic speciation, biological activity and the availabilities of the nitrogen and phosphorus plant nutrients have been investigated in a seasonal survey of Southampton Water (U.K.). Southampton Water (Hampshire, southern England) is an approximately 10 km long, and 2 km wide north-westerly extension of the Solent, receiving water from the rivers Test and Itchen. It is a partially mixed estuary bordered by broad intertidal mudflats with shingle and sand on the eastern side, and a salt marsh to the west. Two sites were chosen: NW Netley Buoy is in a sheltered high-salinity estuarine environment whilst Calshot Buoy lies just outside Southampton Water and in a more exposed location of less-variable salinity. The first evidence of arsenic(III) production at both sites occurred in the second half of April, during the decay of a major Skeletonema costatumdiatom bloom. Arsenic(III) levels rose as Skeletonemawas replaced by a numerically smaller but more chlorophyll-rich bloom of another diatom, Rhizosolenia delicatula. Rhizosoleniais therefore implicated as a possible source of arsenic(III). Methylated arsenic was absent whilst the water temperature was low and during the initial Skeletonemabloom, but a week later, during the growth phase of the succeeding bloom of the diatom R. delicatula, they became detectable. Methylated arsenic levels gradually increased through the spring to a broad maximum covering the mid-summer, when Mesodinium rubrum, Scrippsiella trochoideaand associated microflagellates also peaked. No subsequent single organism could be linked to the release of methylated arsenic into Southampton Water; organoarsenicals having been observed in the presence of flagellates, diatoms and ciliates. A large bacterial maximum was observed following blooms of S. trochoideaand M. rubrumbut laboratory culture experiments of natural bacteria from Netley failed to produce significant changes in the concentration of any arsenic species

  2. SSU rDNA sequence diversity and seasonally differentiated distribution of nanoplanktonic ciliates in neritic Bohai and Yellow Seas as revealed by T-RFLP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    Full Text Available Nanociliates have been frequently found to be important players in the marine microbial loop, however, little is known about their diversity and distribution in coastal ecosystems. We investigated the molecular diversity and distribution patterns of nanoplanktonic oligotrich and choreotrich (OC ciliates in surface water of three neritic basins of northern China, the South Yellow Sea (SYS, North Yellow Sea (NYS, and Bohai Sea (BS in June and November 2011. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries generated from three summertime samples (sites B38, B4 and H8 were analyzed and revealed a large novel ribotype diversity, of which many were low-abundant phylotypes belonging to the subclass Oligotrichia, but divergent from described morphospecies. Based on the data of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of all 35 samples, we found that the T-RF richness was generally higher in the SYS than in the BS, and negatively correlated with the molar ratio of P to Si. Overall, multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the community turnover demonstrated a distinct seasonal pattern but no basin-to-basin differentiation across all samples. Nevertheless, significant community differences among basins were recognized in the winter dataset. Mantel tests showed that the environmental factors, P:Si ratio, water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, determined the community across all samples. However, both biogeographic distance and environment shaped the community in winter, with DO being the most important physicochemical factor. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric ratio of P:Si is a key factor, through which the phytoplankton community may be shaped, resulting in a cascade effect on the diversity and community composition of OC nanociliates in the N-rich, Si-limited coastal surface waters, and that the Yellow Sea Warm Current drives the nanociliate community, and possibly the

  3. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  4. La estria supranuclear de las células ciliadas en la rinitis alérgica Supranuclear stria of ciliated cells in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zerdiew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 80 pacientes adultos alérgicos, que cursaron con los siguientes cuadros clínicos: 16 casos de rinitis intermitente y 64 de rinitis persistente. Se realizó el recuento porcentual de la estría supranuclear de las células ciliadas, respecto de los leucocitos presentes en los extendidos obtenidos por toma endonasal. Con los datos obtenidos se clasificaron los extendidos en 4 grupos; Grupo A (N=23: predominio leucocitario eosinófilo con eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo B (N=15: abundantes leucocitos neutrófilos y eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo C (N=29: con escasos leucocitos, Grupo D (N=13: con abundantes leucocitos de predominio neutrófilo sin eosinofilia. Se observó que el incremento porcentual de estría supranuclear se correlacionó con eosinofilia nasal >10% y con las muestras que presentaron escasos leucocitos. Sin embargo se evidenció una marcada disminución del porcentaje de estría supranuclear en la leucocitosis neutrófila de etiología bacteriana.Nasal secretions were studied in 80 allergic adults patients: 16 with intermittent rhinitis and 64 with persistent rhinitis. The percentage of supranuclear stria of ciliated cells with regard to leucocytes was studied by nasal scraping. Four groups of patients were classified according to nasal leucocytic predominance: patients with eosinophilic predominance with eosinophils > 10% in Group A (N=23, patients with abundant neutrophils and eosinophils >10% in Group B (N=15, patients with scant leucocytes in Group C (N=29, patients with neutrophilic predominance without eosinophils in Group D (N=13. An increase of supranuclear stria percentage was correlated to eosinophils > 10% and also correlated to scant leucocytes. Nevertheless, a significant decrease of supranuclear stria percentage was observed in neutrophilic leukocytosis of bacterial etiology.

  5. Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dongxia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of

  6. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervia, Davide, E-mail: d.cervia@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  7. Protocruzia,a highly ambiguous ciliate(Protozoa;Ciliophora):Very likely an ancestral form for Heterotrichea,Colpodea or Spirotrichea? With reevaluation of its evolutionary position based on multigene analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thorsten; STOECK; Shin; Mann; Kyoon; Al-Rasheid; Khaled; A.; S.; Al-Khedhairy; Abdulaziz; A.

    2010-01-01

    The ciliate genus Protocruzia belongs to one of the most ambiguous taxa considering its systematic position,possibly as a member of the classes Heterotrichea,Spirotrichea or Karyorelictea,which is tentatively placed into Spirotrichea in Lynn’s 2008 system.To test these hypotheses,multigene trees(Bayesian inference,evolutionary distance,maximum parsimony,and maximum likelihood) were constructed using the small subunit rRNA(SSU rRNA) gene,internal transcribed spacer 2(ITS2) and a protein coding gene(histone H4).All analyses agree that:(1) four morphotypes of Protocruzia from different geographical origins group together and form a monophyletic clade,which cannot be assigned to any of the eleven described ciliate classes;(2) it is invariably positioned on an isolated branch separated from the class Spirotrichea suggesting that this clade should be clearly removed from Spirotrichea;(3) this leads us to hypothesize that this taxon may indeed represent a lineage on a class rank.Based on the fact that it is,both morphologically and in molecular features,closely related to the heterotrichs,Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea,Protocruziida might be an ancestral form for the subphylum Intramacronucleata in the evolutionary line from the class Heterotrichea(subphylum Postciliodesmatophora) to higher taxa.

  8. ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS OF COPEPOD NAUPLII AND CILIATES IN JIAOZHOU BAY%胶州湾桡足类幼虫和浮游生纤毛虫的丰度与生物量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents data of ciliates and copepod nauplii abundance and biomass from eight cruises (September, December, 1997; February, April, August, November, 1998; February, May, 1999) in Jiaozhou Bay. Water samples were taken by 2L Niskin Bottles at ten stations during every cruise. One liter water was preserved in plastic bottle with Lugol's (1%). The sample scheme of water layer was surface, middle and bottom according to water depth. The samples were examined with the method of Utermohl (1958) one month after sampling. Carbon:volumn ratio was 0.05 pgC/μm3 for copepod nauplii (Mullin, 1969), 0.19pgC/μm3 for ciliates (Putt et al, 1989). Body volume of tintinnids was assumed to be 50% of that of the lorica (Beers et al, 1969).   Copepod nauplii dominated in September 1997. The aloricate oligotrichous ciliates were dominant through December 1997 to February 1999. Tintinnids dominated in May 1999. The maximum abundance of copepod nauplii, aloricate ciliates and tintinnids were 850 (August, 1998), 21300 (August, 1998) and 1720 ind/L (May, 1999) respectively. The total abundance of the above three in the surface layer was 10—22350 ind/L, with larger abundance in the inner part of the bay. There was no obvious trend in the vertical distribution. The total biomass of copepod nauplii, aloricate ciliates and tintinnids in the surface layer was in the range of 0.10—380.27μgC/L, water column biomass 0.20—1426.02mgC/m2.%1997年9月、12月,1998年2月、4月、8月、11月以及1999年2月和5月在胶州湾采集桡足类幼虫和浮游生纤毛虫的样品。样品用Lugol's试剂固定(最后浓度1%),用显微镜计数桡足类幼虫和浮游生纤毛虫的丰度,并计算总生物量(表层生物量和水体生物量)。桡足类幼虫、无壳纤毛虫和砂壳纤毛虫的最大丰度分别为850ind/L(1998年8月)、21300ind/L(1998年8月)和1720ind/L(1999年5月)。表层的总丰度为10—22630ind/L,水平分布湾内比湾外多。表层纤

  9. 2种除草剂及混用对红花檵木容器苗杂草的防除效果%Weed Control Efficacy of Two Kinds of Herbicide and Their Mixture in Container Seedling Breeding of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金久宏

    2012-01-01

    A weed control experiment was conducted for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum container seedlings with 24% oxyfluorfen EC, 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC, and the combination of 24% oxyfluorfen EC and 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC. The results showed that the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 30 days after application was 90.3% out of the plants, and 87. 8% by the fresh weight. While the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 40 days after application was 91.7% out of the plants, and 91.6% by the fresh weight. The weed control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC was better than that of the other two types of herbicide. It was also safer to the container seedlings of L chinense var. rubrum, so it should be further extended to larger area.%用24.0%乙氧氟草醚乳油,10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油及这2种药剂的混合共3种处理对红花槛木容器苗进行杂草除治试验,结果表明:喷施24%乙氧氟草醚乳油20mL/667m2后,第30天的株防效为90.3%、鲜质量防效为87.8%;第40天的株防效为91.7%、鲜质量防效为91.6%,均明显好于另外2种药剂处理的除草效果,且对苗木较为安全,基本上能达到除治杂草的目的,可进一步推广应用.

  10. Predação e canibalismo entre protozoários ciliados (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae no rúmen de ovinos (Ovis aries Predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar ocorrências de predação e canibalismo em protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos. Foram analisadas amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cinco ovinos mestiços Santa Inês, fistulados no rúmen, mantidos em pastagem natural de caatinga, no município de Sertânia, Pernambuco. Foram obtidas seis amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cada ovino, totalizando 30 amostras, as quais foram fixadas em formalina 18,5% (v/v. De cada amostra foi retirada uma alíquota de 1 ml de conteúdo ruminal ao qual se adicionaram três gotas de solução de lugol para a coloração e identificação dos protozoários ciliados. Estas alíquotas foram analisadas utilizando-se lâminas e lamínulas, em campos determinados randomicamente. Constatou-se a ocorrência de interações do tipo predador-presa entre ciliados de Ophryoscolecidae Stein, 1859, onde Elytroplastron bubali (Dogiel, 1928 apresentou comportamento predatório sobre Enoploplastron triloricatum (Dogiel, 1925 e sobre outras espécies de Epidinium Crawley, 1923 e de Entodinium Stein, 1859. Foram ainda observados casos de canibalismo entre espécimes de E. bubali, o que consiste no primeiro registro deste tipo de interação nesta espécie. Registra-se, ainda, pela primeira vez a ocorrência de E. bubali no rúmen de ovinos no Brasil.The objective of the present study was to record the occurrence of predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans in the rumen of sheep. The analyzed samples consisted of ruminal contents of five fistulated Santa Inez crossbred sheep, maintained in a natural caatinga (scrubland pasture in the municipality of Sertânia, Pernambuco. Six samples of ruminal content were obtained from each sheep (total of 30 samples and fixed in formalin at 18.5% (v/v. One 1 ml aliquot was obtained from each sample of ruminal content and received tree drops of a lugol solution for staining and identification of protozoa ciliates. These aliquots were analyzed in

  11. A novel trypanoplasm-like flagellate Jarrellia atramenti n. g., n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Bodonidae) and ciliates from the blowhole of a stranded pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (Physeteridae): morphology, life cycle and potential pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, S L; Whitaker, B R; Heinrich, A B

    2001-04-10

    The successful 6 mo rehabilitation of a stranded juvenile pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps afforded the opportunity to study the poorly known protozoan fauna of the upper respiratory tract of cetaceans. Mucus samples were collected by holding either a petri dish or glass slides over the blowhole for 3 to 5 exhalations; preparations were examined as wet mounts, and then stained with Wrights-Giemsa or Gram stain. Blood smears were stained with Wrights-Giemsa. Unidentified spindle-shaped and unidentified broad ciliates, reported from the blowhole of the pygmy sperm whale for the first time, were seen only initially, while yeast-like organisms and bacteria were seen intermittently. Epithelial cells and white blood cells were often present in the blowhole mucus, but red blood cells were never seen. A novel trypanoplasm-like bodonid kinetoplastid biflagellate (Order Kinetoplastida) was commonly encountered in the blowhole mucus, but never in the blood. Both mature flagellates and those undergoing longitudinal binary fission were present. The elongate flagellate had a long whiplash anterior flagellum; the recurrent flagellum was attached along at least two-thirds of the body length, forming a prominent undulating membrane, and the trailing portion was short. The kinetoplast was irregularly fragmented. The flagellates were either free-swimming, or attached to host material via the free portion of the posterior flagellum. The prominent undulating membrane was characteristic of Trypanoplasma, while the fragmented kinetoplast was characteristic of some species of Cryptobia. For the novel bodonid kinetoplastid, with its unique combination of morphological features (prominent undulating membrane and fragmented kinetoplast), we propose the creation of a new genus Jarrellia. We believe this to be the first published description of a flagellate from a marine mammal, and among the first reports of a trypanoplasm-like flagellate from a warm-blooded host. We expect that a diversity

  12. CX3CR1 Is Expressed in Differentiated Human Ciliated Airway Cells and Co-Localizes with Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Cilia in a G Protein-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Il Jeong

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the principal cause of bronchiolitis in infants and a significant healthcare problem. The RSV Glycoprotein (G mediates attachment of the virus to the cell membrane, which facilitates interaction of the RSV Fusion (F protein with nucleolin, thereby triggering fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. However, a host protein ligand for G has not yet been identified. Here we show that CX3CR1 is expressed in the motile cilia of differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE cells, and that CX3CR1 co-localizes with RSV particles. Upon infection, the distribution of CX3CR1 in these cells is significantly altered. Complete or partial deletion of RSV G results in viruses binding at least 72-fold less efficiently to cells, and reduces virus replication. Moreover, an antibody targeting an epitope near the G protein's CX3CR1-binding motif significantly inhibits binding of the virus to airway cells. Given previously published evidence of the interaction of G with CX3CR1 in human lymphocytes, these findings suggest a role for G in the interaction of RSV with ciliated lung cells. This interpretation is consistent with past studies showing a protective benefit in immunizing against G in animal models of RSV infection, and would support targeting the CX3CR1-G protein interaction for prophylaxis or therapy. CX3CR1 expression in lung epithelial cells may also have implications for other respiratory diseases such as asthma.

  13. Potential distribution of sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliate in China (Hemiptera : Tingidae)%悬铃木方翅网蝽在我国的潜在分布分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耿平; 王晓静; 刘国卿; 卜文俊

    2012-01-01

    运用生态位模型MaxEnt和GARP对悬铃木方翅网蝽Corythucha ciliate (Say)在我国的潜在分布进行了模拟,并结合其寄主植物悬铃木在我国的分布进行了分析.实验采用悬铃木方翅网蝽在我国的分布数据,结合6种气候变量和海拔数据构建模型,并将MaxEnt和GARP的输出结果进行合意.研究显示MaxEnt和GARP的模拟结果基本一致,均能较好的模拟悬铃木方翅网蝽在我国的分布,二者均显示山东西南部和中部、四川中部和东部、重庆、陕西中部、河南中部和东部、安徽、江苏、上海、贵州、湖南、江西、浙江、福建中部和北部、云南中部等地区为悬铃木方翅网蝽的适宜分布区,此外,河北中部和南部、山东东部,广东和广西的北部亦具潜在分布的可能性.与MaxEnt输出结果相比,GARP相对较为保守.MaxEnt输出结果显示年平均气温和极端低温对悬铃木方翅网蝽地理分布的限制作用最大.考虑到该虫对高低温度的耐受性,我国二球悬铃木栽培的南界(南宁和广州)和北界(大连、北京、石家庄、太原)需要重视和监控起来.%Potential distribution of Corythucha ciliate (Say) in China were predicted using two ecological niche modelling algorithms (i.e. , MaxEnt and GARP). The models were calibrated using domestic records and 6 bioclimatic variables plus elevation. These potential distributions were then evaluated with respect to the distribution of pest host plant ( i. e. , Platanus spp. ). Significant variables associating with the bug' s occurrence were identified. Both models performed good discriminability compared to random prediction. Result of GARP was a little conservative compared to MaxEnt. High suitable areas identified by the consensus of two models including; southwestern and central Shandong, eastern and central Sichuan, Chongqing, central Shaanxi, eastern and central Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang

  14. Separation and electrophysiology of ciliated olfactory receptor neu-rons in Bostrychus sinensis%中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅神经元的分离及其电生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓健; 洪万树; 杨薇

    2013-01-01

    The ciliated olfactory receptor neurons (cORNs) in the olfactory sac were dissociated from Bostrichthys sinensis by enzymatic and mechanical methods. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the resting potential, action potential and voltage-gated ion channel current. The results showed that the B. sinensis cORN was a bipolar neuron, containing cell body, axon and dendrites with olfactory knobs and cilia. The resting and action potential peaks of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons were (–57 ± 6.37) mV and (38.30 ± 0.95) mV, respec-tively. In response to depolarizing voltage steps pulse stimulation from –60 ~ +80 mV, the transient inward current was activated between –60 mV and –40 mV, and reached a peak averaging (–69.08 ± 44.15) pA at −20 to 0 mV; the outward current reached a peak averaging (267.55 ± 73.67) pA at +40 mV. The present study provides a base theory for research in the electrophysiological mechanisms of sex pheromones with their receptors and the application of sex pheromones.%  应用酶消化和机械吹打相结合的方法,快速分离出中华乌塘鳢(Bostrychys sinensis)嗅囊中纤毛嗅觉感受神经元.再应用全细胞膜片钳技术记录中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅觉感受神经元的静息电位、动作电位及电压门控离子通道电流等电生理学特征.结果表明,中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅觉感受神经元具有典型的双级神经元结构特征,包括细胞体,轴突,树突以及树突顶端的嗅结和纤毛.嗅觉感受神经元静息电位为(−57±6.37) mV,动作电位峰值为(38.30±0.95) mV.在−60~+80 mV 的阶梯去极化脉冲刺激中,内向电流在−60~−40 mV 激活,−20~0 mV 达到最大值,内向电流峰值为(−69.08±44.15) pA.外向电流在+40 mV 时达最大值,峰值为(267.55±73.67) pA.本研究结果为纤毛嗅觉感受神经元上性信息素受体感受性信息素的电生理机制以及性信息素的应用提供了方法和理论基础.

  15. 夏季蓝藻水华期间太湖河口区和敞水区纤毛虫群落组成及水平分布%COMMUNITY COMPOSITIONS AND HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF CILIATES IN LAKE TAIHU DURING THE CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOM IN SUMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 卢文轩; 张雷燕; 陈非洲

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ciliate samples were collected from 10 sites in the estuary zones and 14 sites in the pe-lagic zones in the northern area of Lake Taihu in July 2009. The ciliate species and their horizontal distribution were analyzed with quantitative protargol stain (QPS) method. We also explored the relationship between the ciliate commu-nity compositions and the environmental variables. We observed 105 species that represented 60 genera, 15 orders and 3 classes. The numbers of the species in different order were counted and compared. Orders Haptorida (21 species) and Oligotrichida (20 species) ranked the first and second, followed by orders Prostomatida (12 species), Peritrichida (11 species), and Hypotrichida (11 species). These five orders were predominant in the samples, while less species belonged to the other ten orders -- Karyorelictida, Pleurostomatida, Colpodida, Nassulida, Cyrophorida, Suctoria, Hy-menostomatida, Synhymeniida, Scuticociliatida, and Heterotrichida. Halteria bifurcate Tamar, H. grandinella Dujardin, Rimostrombidium brachykinetum Krainer, Tintinnopsis cylindrata Kofoid & Campbell and Cyclidium glaucoma Müller were the dominant species in both estuary (3.1%-12.3% in abundance) and pelagic (4.5%-18.1%) zones, followed by Urotricha farcta Claparède & Lachmann, Codonella cratera Leidy, R. humile Penard, Strombidium mirabile Penard, Tintinnidium pusillum Entz, Vorticella aquadulcis complex and V. campanula Ehrenberg. The abundance of ciliate was higher in the estuary zones than that in the pelagic zones, which fell in the range of 1600 to 80900 cells/L (average 31407 cells/L) and 1225 cells/L to 36000 cells/L (average 18618 cells/L), respectively. The biomass of ciliate showed the same pattern which was 1322.6μg/L and 543.6μg/L on average in the estuary and pelagic zones, respectively. Nei-ther the abundance nor the biomass of ciliates showed significant differences (P>0.05). Among the functional feeding groups, bactivorous and

  16. Using the Ciliate Protozoan Vorticella in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alick R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for collection, culture, observation, and making permanent stained preparations of the protozoan vorticella. Suggestions are made for experiments to investigate growth, reproduction, settlement, ecology, feeding, and osmoregulation. (CS)

  17. Sex determination: ciliates' self-censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gareth

    2014-07-01

    Differentiation involves the expression of certain latent cellular characteristics and the repression of others. A new study has revealed how Paramecium uses short RNAs to delete information from the somatic genome of one of its two sexes. PMID:25004369

  18. Sex determination: ciliates' self-censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gareth

    2014-07-01

    Differentiation involves the expression of certain latent cellular characteristics and the repression of others. A new study has revealed how Paramecium uses short RNAs to delete information from the somatic genome of one of its two sexes.

  19. 甘肃徽县水阳江铅锌污染段纤毛虫群落特征及对水质的评价%Community Characteristics of Ciliates and Water Quality Assessment in the Pb-Zn-Contaminated Section of the Shuiyangjiang River in Huixian County,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马正学; 贺鹏辉; 杨镇; 宁应之

    2009-01-01

    2006年10月至2008年5月,在甘肃徽县水阳江铅锌污染段选择4个样点,分别在3个水期采集水样,研究了纤毛虫物种多样性及群落结构.共鉴定到纤毛虫52种,隶属于3纲12目29科33属.利用纤毛虫群落特征指标对水阳江铅锌污染段的水质进行了初步评价.综合评价结果显示,4个样点受污染程度为县城>厂区>牟坝>对照,污染级别为中度至重度.初步筛选出瓜形膜袋虫(Cyclidium citrullus)、尾草履虫(Paramoecium caudatum)、薄漫游虫(Litonotus lamella)作为铅锌污染水体的指示物种.%Species diversity and community structure of ciliates in the Pb-Zn-Contaminated section of the Shuiyangjiang River were studied during the period from October 2006 to May 2008,using water samples collected from 4 sampling sites in that section in 3 different periods.In the water samples,52 species of ciliates,sorted into 3 classes,12 orders,29 family and 33 genus,were identified,based on which water quality of that section of the Shuiyangjiang River was preliminarily evaluated.Results show that pollution of the water varied in degree between the four sampling sites in the section,following a decreasing order of Xiancheng>Changqu>Muba>Duizhao,from severe to moderate.Ciliates of Cyclidium citrullus,Paramecium caudatum,and Litonotus lamella were screened out to be indicators of Pb-Zn-contamination of water bodies.

  20. 广东沿海的砂壳纤毛虫及3种国内新纪录%TINTINNID CILIATES FROM COASTAL WATERS OFF GUANGDONG, WITH NOTES ON THREE NEW RECORDS OF CHINA (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 姜勇; 李继秋; 马洪钢; 许恒龙

    2012-01-01

    Tintinnid ciliates are an important component of plankton communities and widely distribute in the coastal waters. However, in morphological studies, the tintinnids belonged to the poorly known groups, especially in the water of the South China Sea. In the winter of 2008, the tintinnids sampled from the coastal waters in the South China Sea (Guangdong) were investigated. The water temperature was 17-20℃ and the salinity was about 30‰-31‰. Samples were collected by a horizontal tow net from 1.5 m under the water surface. Part of samples were immediately stored in 4℃ for in vivo observation and the others were fixed in formalin at a final concentration of 5% for future observations of lorica characteristics. The morphological characteristics including lorica features were observed and described by using light microscopical method. In this present study, 16 species were indentified and they belonged to Tintinnopsis, Codonella, Stenosemella and Favella. Three of them were believed to be the first records of China, Codonella apicata Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis turbo Meunier, 1919 and Stenosemella expansa Wailes, 1925. In addition, another three species were the first records in the semi-tropical and tropical areas of China, Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier, 1910; Tintinnopsis lohmanni (Jorgensen, 1927) Laackmann, 1906, and Codonella rapa Kofoid & Campbell, 1929. The other 10 species included Tintinnopsis beroidea Stein, 1867, Tintinnopsis acuminata (Daday, 1887) Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis tocantinensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier, 1910, Tintinnopsis tublosa Levander, 1900, Tintinnopsis clongata Daday, 1887, Tintinnopsis lohmanni (Jorgensen, 1927) Laackmann,, 1906, Stenosemella parvicollis (Marshall, 1934) Hada, 1935, Favella campanula (Schmidt, 1901)J(o)rgensen, 1924, and Codonella rapa Kofoid & Campbell, 1929.%对广东沿海的砂壳纤毛虫进行了初步研究,涉及7属16种,其中3种确定为中

  1. Fontes de lipídeos e monensina na alimentação de novilhos Nelore e sua relação com a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen Effects of feeding monensin and different sources of fat on the ruminal population of ciliate protozoa in Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Camilo Valinote

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos Nelore, fistulados e canulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4, para avaliar o caroço de algodão e o sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos como fontes de gordura assim como o efeito da monensina em dietas com caroço de algodão, sobre a população de protozoários ciliados e o pH do rúmen. Os tratamentos experimentais foram: dieta controle (CTRL, dieta com sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos (SC, dieta com caroço de algodão (CA e dieta com caroço de algodão sem monensina (CASM. Amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram colhidas às 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação. Foi utilizada câmara de contagem de Sedgwick-Rafter com capacidade de 1mL e microscópio ótico comum provido de retículo com área de 0,4362 mm², para identificação dos gêneros de ciliados. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para o pH do rúmen. Os tratamentos com caroço de algodão reduziram todos os gêneros de protozoários ciliados, em especial de Entodinium, provavelmente pela gordura liberada. Os protozoários dos gêneros Diplodinium, Epidinium e Eudiplodinum e o número total de protozoários foram os únicos que sofreram influência do tempo de alimentação. Sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos foram suficientemente inertes no ambiente ruminal, não afetando o número de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos Nelore. A utilização de monensina em dietas contendo caroço de algodão e alto concentrado não influenciou o número de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos Nelore.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 4 x 4 latin square to study the effects of feeding monensin (M and different sources of fat on the ruminal population of ciliate protozoa and ruminal pH. The experimental diets contained (DM basis 19% of sugar cane and were supplemented with M [control (CTRL], M plus calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA, M plus whole cottonseed (MWCS, or only WCS

  2. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamae, Karin; Berge, Terje;

    2016-01-01

    obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed......Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acute takes control over "third-hand" chloroplasts...... that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1). While a acute cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts...

  3. Abundância de ciliados planctônicos em reservatórios em cascata do rio Paranapanema, Brasil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1532 Abundance of planktonic ciliates in a cascading reservoirs of the Paranapanema River, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1532

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Cláudia Zolin Perenha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os padrões de distribuição espacial e temporal da densidade e biomassa dos ciliados planctônicos em reservatórios em cascata do rio Paranapanema (22o 18’ - 23o 35’ S; 49o 30’ - 52o 50’ W. Pretende-se testar a hipótese de que, ao longo da série de reservatórios, observa-se um decréscimo da abundância desses organismos no sentido montante-jusante. Para tal, foram coletadas amostras em sete reservatórios, no ano de 2001, em dois períodos hidrológicos distintos, à sub-superfície da região lacustre, com o auxílio de uma garrafa de Van Dorn de 5 litros. Alíquotas de um litro foram obtidas e sua fixação realizada com solução fixadora composta de lugol alcalino, formol e tiossulfeto de sódio. Os valores obtidos para a abundância (densidade e biomassa de ciliados nos diferentes reservatórios (0,4 a 16,6 células.mL-1; 0,23 a 20,7 µg.C.L-1, respectivamente foram inferiores aos resultados encontrados em ambientes eutróficos, porém similares àqueles registrados em ambientes oligo-mesotróficos. A análise dos resultados de distribuição da abundância ao longo da série de reservatórios não corroborou a hipótese preconizada de uma diminuição de densidade e biomassa no sentido montante-jusante, em função da expectativa de uma possível oligotrofização rio abaixo. Em relação aos diferentes grupos funcionais de ciliados, foi constatada a dominância dos Oligotrichida, principalmente os de menor porte (The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of density and biomass of the planktonic ciliates, in a reservoir serie of the Paranapanema River (22o 18’ - 23o 35’ S; 49o 30’ - 52o 50’ W. We intend to test the hypothesis that, along reservoirs serie, there is a decrease of abundance from river towards the dam. Samplings were carried out in seven reservoirs, during 2001, in two distinct hydrological periods, at subsurface

  4. Níveis de proteína degradável para novilhas em crescimento sobre a concentração de protozoários ciliados e outros parâmetros ruminais Levels of degradable protein given to heifers for the ciliate protozoa concentration and other ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Balcells

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Em um ensaio de controle de parâmetros ruminais (pH, ritmo de trânsito (%h, volume ruminal (l, e concentração de protozoários ciliados, foram utilizadas quatro novilhas Holstein, canuladas no rúmen e duodeno, recebendo dietas com 4 níveis de proteína degradável, sem suplementar ou suplementadas com 25, 50 e 75 gramos de proteína degradável por quilo de concentrado em forma de uréia e caseína (98,2 e 93,2% de matéria orgânica e proteína bruta, respectivamente. As rações experimentais foram compostas por 25% de palha de cevada sem tratar e 75% de concentrado formulado em base a diferentes proporções (25/75 e 75/25 de milho/cevada, com 5% de resíduo de trigo e 5% de suplemento vitamínico mineral. Uma contínua infusão de marcador de fluxo de fase líquida (Cr-EDTA foi executada. Os oito tratamentos experimentais (2 dietas x 4 níveis de infusão foram administrados em 8 períodos de balanço em um delineamento cross-over, em esquema fatorial. O nível de infusão de N degradável afetou de forma significativa os valores médios ponderados de pH, que decresceram ao aumentar a suplementação (p 3/mL que de cevada (59,5 x 103/mL; p Entodinium alcançou 87,8% da população total. O gênero Epidinium apresentou menores valores com a dieta de cevada (3,73 vs. 1,89x103/mL, p 3/mL, p 5/mL, p In this experiment four Holstein heifers fitted with rumen and duodenum canulae were utilized to evaluate the rumen parameters as pH, passage rate (%/h, volume (L and ciliated protozoa concentration, when fed diets with four levels of rumen degradable protein. This was achieved supplementing 0, 25, 50 or 75 grams of degradable protein per kg of concentrate as a urea and casein (98.2% OM and 93.2% CP. The diets had 25% of barley straw without treatment and 75% concentrate formulated to contain different proportions (25/75 and 75/25 of corn and barley and also 5% of wheat residue and 5% of mineral and vitamin supplement. A continuous infusion of

  5. Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos e bubalinos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com monensina ou própolis Ruminal ciliate protozoa of cattle and buffalo fed on diet supplemented with monensin or extracts from propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Barros Ríspoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas suplementadas com monensina ou produtos à base de própolis, nas populações de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos (Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis. Quatro bovinos da raça Holandesa e quatro búfalos da raça Murrah adultos, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino (4x4. A dieta constituiu-se de 50% de silagem de milho e 50% de concentrado à base de milho em grãos e farelo de soja, com adição de monensina sódica ou aditivo à base de própolis LLOSA2 ou LLOSC1. As amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram coletadas duas horas após a alimentação. O gênero Entodinium foi o mais representativo em todos os tratamentos, para ambas as raças de ruminantes. Em búfalos, foi observado o efeito redutor do tratamento LLOSC1 nas populações do gênero Entodinium, além do efeito redutor dos tratamentos monensina e LLOSA2 sobre os gêneros da subfamília Diplodiniinae. A média de ciliados foi maior em bubalinos (56x10(4 mL-1 do que em bovinos (26x10(4 mL-1. Houve aumento do pH ruminal dos bovinos no tratamento com monensina. O extrato de própolis LLOSC1 reduziu os ciliados do rúmen em bubalinos.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with monensin or with extracts of propolis, on the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Four Holstein cattle and four Murrah buffalo, fistulated in the rumen, were distributed in 4x4 Latin square design. The diet was constituted by 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate based on corn grain and soybean meal, and the supplementation of monensin sodium or propolis extracts LLOSA2 or LLOSC1. Samples of ruminal contents were collected two hours after feeding. The genus Entodinium was the most common in all treatments for both cattle and buffalo. The LLOSC1 treatment reduced the populations of the genus Entodinium in buffalo

  6. REDESCRIPTIONS OF TWO MARINE CILIATES, DIOPHRYS SCUTUM (DUJARDIN,1841) KAHL, 1932 AND DIOPHRYS APOLIGOTHRIX SONG ET AL., 2009 (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA)%盾圆双眉虫与伪寡毛双眉虫的形态学重描述(原生动物,纤毛门)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许媛; 李继秋; 胡晓钟

    2011-01-01

    研究对采自青岛沿海的两种海洋纤毛虫-盾圆双眉虫与伪寡毛双眉虫做了形态学重描述.盾圆双眉虫与前人所报道的种群具有十分相似的纤毛图式,但在额-腹棘毛分布、大核片段、小膜及背触毛数目等方面表现出细微的变异性.此外,该青岛种群个体较小.统计学比较还表明,迄今缺乏研究的一海洋种,泥生双眉虫极可能为盾圆双眉虫(Diophrys scutum)的同物异名.伪寡毛双眉虫(Diophrys apoligothrix)为一新近报道的罕见种,研究基于新采集种群对其进行了补充性观察和描述.%Diophrys species are a group of marine cosmopolitan free-living ciliates, therefore there are many reports concerning their morphology and diversity. However, species identification remains problematic owing to the fact that many previous descriptions were basically based on live observation and morphometric, and infraciliature data still remain lacking for some known species. The aims of this paper were to supply new information and to clarify confusions of two known Diophrys species, D. scutum (Dujardin, 1841) Kahl, 1932 and D. apoligothrix Song et al, 2009. Both organisms were collected from the upper layer of sandy sediments in the intertidal region in Qingdao, China, where the water temperature was about 18 ℃ and the salinity was 18‰. After isolation, pure cultures were kept, to which some rice grains were added to enrich bacterial food. Ciliates were examined in vivo using bright field and differential interference contrast microscopy. The infraciliature was revealed with protargol staining method. Counts and measurements of stained specimens were performed at a magnification of 1250 ×. Based on present and previous studies, an improved diagnosis was presented here for D. scutum: marine Diophrys, broadly oval body outline, in vivo 80-200 μm long;43-80 adoral membranelles and the distal end of adoral zone was strongly curved; 5-8 frontoventral, 5-6 transverse,2

  7. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW OLIGOTRICH GENUS VARISTROMBIDIUM GEN.NOV.AND THE MORPHOLOGY AND PHYLOGENY OF A MARINE CILIATE, VARISTROMBIDIUM KIELUM (MAEDA AND CAREY,1985)NOV.COMB.(PROTISTA,CILIOPHORA)%寡毛类纤毛虫变游虫新属的建立及基尔变游虫(新属,新组合)的形态学重描述与系统地位分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大鹏; 孙萍; John C.CLAMP; 马洪钢; 宋微波

    2011-01-01

    A Chinese population of the oligotrich ciliate Strombidium kielum Maeda & Carey,1985 was discovered in sand on the coast of Qingdao,China,and an analysis of morphological data from live cells and protargol preparations allowed this poorly described species to be redefined.A unique,heretofore undescribed pattern of somatic ciliation was discovered that revealed this species to be separated from other taxa in its family at the genetic level.Therefore,it was assigned to the new genus Varistrombidium,which is characterized by possession of 5 somatic kineties that run obliquely across the ventral side of the cell and having somatic kinedes 1 and 2 extending to the dorsal side and ending at the caudal area.Also,the secondary structure of variable region 2 of SSrRNA gene in V.kielum was predicted and compared with its morphologically similar congeners.Furthermore,some supplementary data of Apostrombidium pseudokiekum Xu et al.,2009,a newly reported organism,is also provided.%利用蛋白银染色技术对采自青岛沿海砂隙的寡毛类纤毛虫Strombidium kielum进行了形态学重描述,发现该种在寡毛类纤毛虫中具有独一无二的纤毛下器模式,因此为其建立了1新属Varistrombidium,特征为具有5条斜穿虫体的体动基列,其中体动基列l和2延伸到虫体背部,终止于虫体尾端.对Varistrombidium kielum(Maeda&Carey,1985) nov.comb.的小亚基RNA序列分析表明,该种位于Strombidiidae科内,与其形态学相近种Omegastrombidium elegans聚在一起.同时对其小亚基RNA序列可变区2的二级结构进行了预测并与其形态学相似种进行了比较.还对Apostrombidium pseudokielum Xu et al.,2009进行了补充性描述.

  8. Mercury concentration in phytoplankton in response to warming of an autumn - winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Kobos, Justyna

    2016-08-01

    Among other climate changes in the southern Baltic, there is a tendency towards warming, especially in autumn-winter. As a result, the ice cover on the coastal zone often fails to occur. This is conducive to the thriving of phytoplankton, in which metals, including mercury, can be accumulated. The dry deposition of atmospheric Hg during heating seasons is more intense than in non-heating seasons, owing to the combustion of fossil fuels for heating purposes. This has resulted in studies into the role of phytoplankton in the introduction of Hg into the first link of trophic chain, as a function of autumn and winter warming in the coastal zone of the lagoon. The studies were conducted at two stations in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, in the Puck Lagoon, between December 2011 and May 2013. The obtained results show that, in the estuary region, the lack of ice cover can lead to a 30% increase and during an "extremely warm" autumn and winter an increase of up to three-fold in the mean annual Hg pool in phytoplankton (mass of Hg in phytoplankton per liter of seawater). The Hg content in phytoplankton was higher when Mesodinium rubrum was prevalent in the biomass, while the proportion of dinoflagellates was small. PMID:27176763

  9. Ecotoxicity assessment using ciliate cells in millifluidic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Rico; Burkart, Corinna; Pfitzner, Daniel; Jungmann, Dirk; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-03-01

    Precise analysis of the aquatic cells and their responses to the toxic chemicals, i.e., water disinfective agents, is of crucial importance due to their role in the ecosystem. We demonstrate the application of the droplets based millifluidic tool for isolating and longtime monitoring of single Paramecium tetraurelia cells using a large number of water-in-oil emulsion droplets. Due to the automated monitoring of the fluorescence signal, the droplets containing cells are distinguished from the empty reservoirs. A viability indicator is used to follow the metabolic dynamic of the cells in every single droplet. Finally, we perform ecotoxicity tests in droplets, exposing the encapsulated paramecia cells to silver nitrate for determination of EC50 levels, and compare the output with the conventional microtiter plate assay. PMID:27051472

  10. Act together - implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziallas, Claudia; Allgaier, Martin; Monaghan, Michael T.;

    2012-01-01

    are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic...... relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes...

  11. Cultivo en biorreactores de rhodospirillum rubrum en condiciones fotoheterotróficas

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello Bergillos, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    La presente tesis está enmarcada en el desarrollo de los sistemas de soporte de vida biológicos, de especial aplicación para los viajes espaciales tripulados de larga duración. Concretamente, este trabajo se centra en el estudio, análisis, modelización y escalado de uno de los cinco compartimentos que integran el bucle MELiSSA, el compartimento fotoheterotrófico. Los experimentos han sido encaminados a determinar la influencia de la naturaleza de la radiación, de la irradiancia incidente y de...

  12. Molluscs associated with a Sardinian deep water population of Corallium rubrum (Linnι, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molluscan species living in association with Corallium rubrumcolonies are poorly known. Specimensfound on the branches of red coral colonies located off Capo Caccia (Alghero – SS, West Sardinia,Mediterranean Sea were studied by analyzing red coral branches collected at a depth of between 100 and120 m; their assemblage was made up of 44 species, all belonging to the classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia.Some data on the geographical distribution, ecology, taxonomy and dominance of these species, bothalive and dead, are given and the most interesting are commented on. Among the recorded species Triviamultilirata, Simnia purpurea, Coralliophila brevis, Ocinebrina paddeui, Pleurotomella demosia, Palliolumstriatum and Pseudamussium sulcatum deserve attention. Moreover, the second finding of livingspecimens of Asperarca secreta, described only on loose valves, is reported, and finally the prey-predatorrelationships among several gastropods and Cnidarians are confirmed.

  13. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell) Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo; Vanessa Colnaghi Fernandes; Sônia Zingaretti; Rene Oliveira Beleboni; Ana Maria Soares Pereira; Mozart Marins; Sílvia Helena Taleb-Contini; Paulo Sérgio Pereira; Ana Lúcia Fachin

    2013-01-01

    Anemopaegma arvense (Vell) Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside) (rutin) and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside) were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no...

  14. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale) var. Rubrum) With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanudin; Rochmadi; Wiratni; Meri Yulvianti; Dhena Ria Barleany; Widya Ernayati

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentration against the emulsio...

  15. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP concentration against the emulsion droplet size and determine the encapsulation efficiency of red ginger oleoresin. Encapsulation method was done by mixing 2% chitosan solution with 1% acetic acid, 1% sodium alginate and 8 g of red ginger oleoresin. The mixture was stirred and added sodium tripolyphosphate (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5%, respectively, emulsion preparation process was done by adding tween 80 (3, 4 and 5%, respectively and then stirred using homogenizer with a speed of 22,000 rpm, emulsions formed were analyzed using nano-particle analyzer. Emulsion formed was flowed on to the spray dryer inlet temperature of 180°C to form a powder encapsulation. Powder products were analyzed for determining encapsulation efficiency and morphology of red ginger oleoresin powder using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Based on the research results, the smallest droplet size of the emulsion was obtained at 481.5 nm and the largest encapsulation efficiency was as high as 70.59%.

  16. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Beth A.; Snyder, Peter K.; Steiner, Allison L.; Twine, Tracy E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5-6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs.

  17. A Cladistic Approach for the Classification of Oligotrichid Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatha, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    Currently, gene sequence genealogies of the Oligotrichea Bütschli, 1889 comprise only few species. Therefore, a cladistic approach, especially to the Oligotrichida, was made, applying Hennig's method and computer programs. Twenty-three characters were selected and discussed, i.e., the morphology of the oral apparatus (five characters), the somatic ciliature (eight characters), special organelles (four characters), and ontogenetic particulars (six characters). Nine of these characters developed convergently twice. Although several new features were included into the analyses, the cladograms match other morphological trees in the monophyly of the Oligotrichea, Halteriia, Oligotrichia, Oligotrichida, and Choreotrichida. The main synapomorphies of the Oligotrichea are the enantiotropic division mode and the de novo-origin of the undulating membranes. Although the sister group relationship of the Halteriia and the Oligotrichia contradicts results obtained by gene sequence analyses, no morphologic, ontogenetic or ultrastructural features were found, which support a branching of Halteria grandinella within the Stichotrichida. The cladistic approaches suggest paraphyly of the family Strombidiidae probably due to the scarce knowledge. A revised classification of the Oligotrichea is suggested, including all sufficiently known families and genera.

  18. Comparative Proteome Bioinformatics: Identification of Phosphotyrosine Signaling Proteins in the Unicellular Protozoan Ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Steen; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Joachimiak, Marcin;

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH......Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH...

  19. Amebae and ciliated protozoa as causal agents of waterborne zoonotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-12-01

    The roles free-living amebae and the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Balantidium coli play as agents of waterborne zoonotic diseases are examined. The free-living soil and water amebae Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris are recognized etiologic agents of mostly fatal amebic encephalitides in humans and other animals, with immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts among the victims. Acanthamoeba spp. are also agents of amebic keratitis. Infection is through the respiratory tract, breaks in the skin, or by uptake of water into the nostrils, with spread to the central nervous system. E. histolytica and B. coli are parasitic protozoa that cause amebic dysentery and balantidiasis, respectively. Both intestinal infections are spread via a fecal-oral route, with cysts as the infective stage. Although the amebic encephalitides can be acquired by contact with water, they are not, strictly speaking, waterborne diseases and are not transmitted to humans from animals. Non-human primates and swine are reservoirs for E. histolytica and B. coli, and the diseases they cause are acquired from cysts, usually in sewage-contaminated water. Amebic dysentery and balantidiasis are examples of zoonotic waterborne infections, though human-to-human transmission can occur. The epidemiology of the diseases is examined, as are diagnostic procedures, anti-microbial interventions, and the influence of globalization, climate change, and technological advances on their spread. PMID:15567581

  20. An electron microscopic study of the phosphatases in the ciliate Balantidium coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, B; Kołodziejczyk, L

    2005-11-01

    The localisation and activity of D glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) in the trophozoites of Balantidium coli isolated from pig intestine content were investigated using ultrastructural and cytochemical methods. The activity of G-6-Pase was demonstrated on the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, particularly in the cortical part of the trophozoites. In addition, the product of the reaction to G-6-Pase was concentrated in the vesicular structures, which were distributed along the reticular membranes. These structures were described as vesicles similar to glycosomes, containing enzymes of glycogenolysis. It is very likely that hydrolases in B. coli are formed on the rough reticular membranes without the involvement of cisterns of the Golgi complex. The ultrastructural deposits of the reaction to G-6-Pase and AlP in the trophozoites of B. coli described here indicate that some membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and small vacuoles with a strong reaction to these enzymes can play a similar role to the Golgi complex. PMID:16425154

  1. Immunostaining Phospho-epitopes in Ciliated Organs of Whole Mount Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Sarah C; Francescatto, Ludmila; Tombes, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of cells, the tissue-specific expression of genes and the emergence of signaling networks characterize early embryonic development of all vertebrates. The kinetics and location of signals - even within single cells - in the developing embryo complements the identification of important developmental genes. Immunostaining techniques are described that have been shown to define the kinetics of intracellular and whole animal signals in structures as small as primary cilia. The techniques for fixing, imaging and processing images using a laser-scanning confocal compound microscope can be completed in as few as 36 hr. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a desirable organism for investigators who seek to conduct studies in a vertebrate species that is affordable and relevant to human disease. Genetic knockouts or knockdowns must be confirmed by the loss of the actual protein product. Such confirmation of protein loss can be achieved using the techniques described here. Clues into signaling pathways can also be deciphered by using antibodies that are reactive with proteins that have been post-translationally modified by phosphorylation. Preserving and optimizing the phosphorylated state of an epitope is therefore critical to this determination and is accomplished by this protocol. This study describes techniques to fix embryos during the first 72 hr of development and co-localize a variety of relevant epitopes with cilia in the Kupffer's Vesicle (KV), the kidney and the inner ear. These techniques are straightforward, do not require dissection and can be completed in a relatively short period of time. Projecting confocal image stacks into a single image is a useful means of presenting these data. PMID:26967668

  2. Ciliate protozoa of the forestomach of llamas (Lama glama) from locations at different altitude in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, María Cerón; Marcoppido, Gisela; Dekker, Anna; Fondevila, Manuel; Fuente, Gabriel De La; Morici, Gabriel; Cravero, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the diversity and concentration of the protozoal population from the forestomach of llamas in Argentina at three altitudinal locations. Protozoal diversity was studied in samples from eight llamas from Hurlingham (Buenos Aires, 43 m altitude), four from Tilcara (Jujuy, 2465 m altitude) and six llamas from Cieneguillas (Jujuy, 3800 m altitude). The total concentrations of protozoa in the forestomach contents were 7.9, 9.1 and 4.1 cells x 104 ml-1 in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively (P>0.05). Entodinium spp. represented 97.9, 92.3 and 71.4% of the protozoal community in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively, and the remaining protozoa belonged to the Eudiplodinium genus. Entodinium spp. were identified as E. caudatum (mostly morphotype dubardi), E. longinucleatum, E. parvum, E. bovis, E. exiguum, E. dubardi, and a minor presence of E. bimastus (in three animals) and E. ovibos (in one animal). In regards to the rest of protozoal species, Eudiplodinium maggii is the first reported host record for the genus in llamas. This species was present in the forestomach of 14 out of 18 llamas tested, and in one case it was the unique protozoal species. The vestibuliferids, Dasytricha and Isotricha were absent from the forestomach of llamas. Similarly, other species such as those from the Caloscolex genus, Diplodinium cameli and Entodinium ovumrajae, commonly found in Old World Camelids, were also absent from llamas. PMID:27395861

  3. Contribution by the methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic ciliates to methane production in Dutch freshwater sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Alen, T.A.; Vogels, G.D.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic methane contributes substantially to the atmospheric methane concentration and thus to global warming. This trace gas is predominantly produced by strictly anaerobic methanogenic archaea, which thrive in the most divergent ecological niches, e. g. paddy fields, sediments, landfills, and the

  4. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  5. Primary structure of the mating pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffioni, S; Luporini, P; Chait, B T; Disper, S S; Bradshaw, R A

    1988-12-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the mating pheromone Er-1 purified from Euplotes raikovi homozygous for mat-1 was determined by automated Edman degradation of the whole protein and peptides generated by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and chymotrypsin. The proposed sequence is: Asp-Ala-Cys-Glu-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ile-Gln-Cys-Val-Glu-Ser-Ala-Cys-Glu-Ser-Leu- Cys-Thr-Glu-Gly-Glu-Asp-Arg-Thr-Gly-Cys-Tyr-Met-Tyr-Ile-Tyr-Ser-Asn-Cys- Pro-Pro-Tyr-Val The calculated molecular weight is 4411.0, which is in agreement with the averaged mass of 4410.2 obtained by fission fragment ionization mass spectrometry. Previously reported values of the native molecular weight, determined by gel filtration, have ranged from 9,000 to 12,000. Thus, the native structure is likely a dimer (or larger aggregate) of identical subunits with the three disulfide bonds present occurring as intrachain links. Secondary structure predictions suggest a helical structure at the amino terminus. A comparison of the Er-1 amino acid sequence with known protein sequences did not reveal any significant similarities. PMID:3142868

  6. The ciliate Paramecium shows higher motility in non-uniform chemical landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffre, Carl; Hinow, Peter; Vogel, Ryan; Ahmed, Tanvir; Stocker, Roman; Consi, Thomas R; Strickler, J Rudi

    2011-04-11

    We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of "uniform distribution" (or lack thereof). Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants.

  7. The ciliate Paramecium shows higher motility in non-uniform chemical landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Giuffre

    Full Text Available We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of "uniform distribution" (or lack thereof. Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants.

  8. New records of epibiont Ciliates (Ciliophora) from Indian coast with descriptions of six new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Ramteke, D.; Ingole, B.S.

    lining or septum that can contain a mesostyle. The zooid may attach to lorica directly or via a endostyle (Warren & Paynter, 1991; Lynn & Small, 2000). Cothurnia palkensis sp. nov. (Figs. 2, 16, 17) Locality Palk Bay Stn. 22 Etymology Named... and can occupy only the posterior area of the lorica. Mesostyle and endostyle are conspicuous and broad. The external stalk was short and attached via a large disk (Figs. 3, 18, 19). Measurements: lorica length, 51.0-55.5 µm; lorica width (maximum...

  9. Sulfide assimilation by ectosymbionts of the sessile ciliate, Zoothamnium niveum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røy, Hans; Vopel, Kay; Huettel, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    was the free-flowing water although the size of the colonies suggests that they live partly submerged in the diffusive boundary layer. We showed that the filtered volume allows Z. niveum to assimilate sufficient sulfide to sustain the symbiosis at a few micromoles per liter in ambient concentration. Numerical...

  10. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  11. Ciliated cultured dermal fibroblasts in a patient with hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haust, M D

    1995-10-01

    Hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria (HHH)-syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle, probably caused by a defect in ornithine transport across the hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane. Single rudimentary cilia were present in approximately ten percent of post-divisional or dividing fibroblasts cultured from the skin of a patient with the HHH-syndrome, whereas no such organelles were observed in dermal fibroblasts cultured from normal controls. Since single rudimentary ("primary," "oligo," "solitary") cilia have been observed in a variety of cells in animals and men but the stimuli for their formation and their significance remain controversial, a brief report on their presence in the as yet unreported condition (HHH-syndrome) was considered of interest; hopefully, it might contribute to the ultimate unravelling of some of the unresolved problems. It is of note that unlike the author's previous findings of these unusual organelles in cells affected by a pathological process (atherosclerosis), the rudimentary cilia were observed in the present instance in dividing or postdivisional cells. The implications of these (and other) observations must await further work.

  12. Functional intron+ and intron- rDNA in the same macronucleus of the ciliate Tetrahymena pigmentosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    alleles was followed in the total culture and in single cells during their vegetative segregation and it was observed that replication was non-preferential with respect to the two alleles. The diallelic clones were also used to demonstrate that intron-containing rDNA was transcribed and the transcript......Diallelic clones of Tetrahymena pigmentosa containing equal amounts of intron+ and intron- rDNA in the macronucleus were constructed. The macronucleus of the resulting strains divides amitotically during vegetative growth and the diallelic genotype is therefore unstable. The coexistence of the two...

  13. Spatial-temporal Distribution and Hazard Grading of Red Tide and Variation of Red-tide Species in Qingdao Adjacent Sea Area%青岛近海赤潮灾害分级与时空分布及赤潮生物的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霜; 张继民; 张洪亮; 李钦亮; 崔文林

    2014-01-01

    根据赤潮发生面积和赤潮藻类的危害类型,将青岛近海发生的赤潮划分为特大、重度、中度、轻度和轻微共计5个灾害级别。结果表明,1990-2013年青岛近海共计发生赤潮33次,以轻微灾害和轻度灾害为主,其它级别尚未发生;其中,发生面积小于10 km2赤潮占总数的51.5%,60.6%的赤潮由基本无害的赤潮种类引起,发生范围以胶州湾和浮山湾近海为主;赤潮次数和面积基本呈现4~5年的波动周期,高发期集中在每年的6-8月;主要赤潮生物种类是红色中缢虫(Mesodinium rubrum)和夜光虫(Noctiluca scintillans);引发赤潮的生物种类逐渐增多,甲藻比例升高,罕见种类逐渐出现。赤潮种类的变化反映出青岛近海浮游植物的种类组成发生了改变,与期间青岛近岸海洋环境的变化密切相关。%Red tides occurred in Qingdao adjacent sea area were classified into five levels,i,e.,extra large, large,moderate,mild and slight,according to the red tide scales and hazard types.Thirty-three red tide events were recorded from 1990 to 2013 with the main types of slight red tide and mild red tide.Among them,the scale of red tides was less than 10 km2 accounting for 5 1 .5%of the total red tides and 60.6%of the red tides were caused by harmless red tide species.Jiaozhou Bay and Fushan Bay adjacent sea area were the red tide-frequent-occurrence areas.The frequencies and scales of red tides peaked every four to five years from June to August,with the main red tide species of Mesodinium rubrum and Noctiluca scintillans.The species of red tide gradually increased with a rising tendency of Pyrrophyta occurrence frequency,even rare species have appeared in the past few years.The changes of the red tide species indicated that the species composition of phytoplankton in Qingdao inshore area has changed,which is closely related to the marine environment of Qingdao near-shore areas.

  14. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    OpenAIRE

    Maximillan Leite Santos; Chaiana Froés Magalhães; Marcelo Barcellos da Rosa; Daniel Assis Santos; Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Leandro Machado de Carvalho; Marcelo Barreto da Silva; Carlos Leomar Zani; Ezequias Pessoa de Siqueira; Rodrigo Loreto Peres; Anderson Assunção Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  17. Pemanfaatan Pati Jahe Merah (Zingiber Officinale Var Rubrum) sebagai Modifikasi Tepung Terigu dalam Pembuatan Kue Bawang dan Analisis Gizinya serta Daya Terimanya oleh Masyarakat

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ratih

    2016-01-01

    Food diversification is the governments effort to realize food security. Hence, as an effort to support the food diversification program, so did the utilization of red ginger starch is by product from making instant red ginger as modified of wheat flour in making onions chips. The type of research was an experiment conducted by completely randomized design. There were 2 treatment, the first treatment with composition red ginger starch 30%, cassava flour 20%, wheat flour 50% ...

  18. Seasonal variability of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum associated to lipophilic shellfish toxins in a strongly stratified Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Varela, Daniel; Contreras, Cristóbal; de La Iglesia, Pablo; Fernández, Pamela; Hipp, Byron; Hernández, Cristina; Riobó, Pilar; Reguera, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Diogène, Jorge; García, Carlos; Lagos, Néstor

    2014-03-01

    The fine scale vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum (potential producers of lipophilic shellfish toxins, LSTs) and its relation with LSTs in shellfish was studied in Reloncaví fjord, a strongly stratified system in Southern Chile. Samples were taken over two years from late spring to early autumn (2007-2008 period) and from early spring to late summer (2008-2009 period). Dinophysis spp., in particular Dinophysis acuminata, were always detected, often forming thin layers in the region of the salinity driven pycnocline, with cell maxima for D. acuminata of 28.5×103cellsL-1 in March 2008 and 17.1×103cellsL-1 in November 2008. During the 2008-2009 sampling period, blooms of D. acuminata co-occurred with high densities of cryptophyceans and the ciliate Mesodinium spp. The highest levels of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2; 2.2ng L-1) were found in the plankton in February 2009, associated with moderate densities of D. acuminata, Dinophysis tripos and Dinophysis subcircularis (0.1-0.6×103cellsL-1). However, only trace levels of PTX-2 were observed in bivalves at that time. Dinophysistoxin (DTX-1 and DTX-3) levels in bivalves and densities of Dinophysis spp. were not well correlated. Low DTX levels in bivalves observed during a major bloom of D. acuminata in March 2008 suggested that there is a large seasonal intraspecific variability in toxin content of Dinophysis spp. driven by changes in population structure associated with distinct LST toxin profiles in Reloncaví fjord during the study period. A heterogeneous vertical distribution was also observed for P. reticulatum, whose presence was restricted to summer months. A bloom of this species of 2.2×103cellsL-1 at 14m depth in February 2009 was positively correlated with high concentrations of yessotoxins in bivalves (51-496ngg-1) and plankton samples (3.2ngL-1). Our results suggest that a review of monitoring strategies for Dinophysis spp. in strongly stratified fjord systems should be

  19. Laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Bruns

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: This case report suggests that laparoscopy may be safe and effective for resection of CHFCs with favorable anatomy such as peripheral location and noninvolvement of key vascular and biliary structures.

  20. Age-dependent occurrence of the intestinal ciliate Balantidium coli in pigs at a Danish research farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindsbo, O; Nielsen, C V; Andreassen, J; Willingham, A L; Bendixen, M; Nielsen, M A; Nielsen, N O

    2000-01-01

    A cross sectional study of the prevalence and intensity of Balantidium coli in pigs was carried out on a Danish research farm. The prevalence of B. coli infection increased from 57% in suckling piglets to 100% in most pig groups > or = 4 weeks old. The mean number of cysts per gram faeces (CPG) of pigs aged 12 weeks and younger were 52 weeks had significantly higher counts of > or = 865 CPG. Although some lactating sows had very high CPG's, no significant differences in CPG could be detected between the intensities of pregnant sows, lactating sows and empty and dry sows. No human cases of B. coli infection have been published in Denmark though it is zoonotic. PMID:10920478

  1. 纤毛虫中的编程性翻译移码%Programmed translational frameshifting in ciliates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李禄琴; 胡苗清; 梁爱华

    2014-01-01

    编程性翻译移码现象存在于病毒、原核生物和真核生物中.单细胞真核生物游仆虫基因组中含有的编程性翻译移码基因远远高于其他真核生物基因组.游仆虫中已经报道的编程性翻译移码基因的滑动序列特征为AAA-UAR-V,其上游都有SD(Shine-Dalgarno sequence)相似序列CAAGAA.同时,编程性移码的发生受肽链释放因子eRF1和tRNALys的影响.

  2. ROLE OF CA2+ AND CAMP IN A CELL SIGNALING PATHWAY FOR RESTING CYST FORMATION OF CILIATED PROTOZOAN COLPODA CUCULLUS

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Tatsuomi; Kondoh, Asuka; Sabashi, Kunihisa; Nagano, Nobuaki; Akematsu, Takahiko; Kida, Akemi; Iino, Ryota

    2009-01-01

    Resting cyst formation (encystment) of Colpoda cucullus is caused by an increase in an external Ca2+ concentration or overpopulation of Colpoda vegetative cells. The Ca2+-mediated or overpopulation-mediated encystment was suppressed by Ca2+ channel blockers (Cd2+, La3+, Ni2+), Ca2+-chelating reagents (EGTA, BAPTA), calmodulin antagonists (W-7, trifluoperazine), Rp-cAMPS (an cAMP analog antagonist) and 2-deoxyadenosine (a P-site inhibitor of adenylate cyclase). On the other hand, by the additi...

  3. TPP1 is a homologue of ciliate TEBP-β and interacts with POT1 to recruit telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huawei; Liu, Dan; Wan, Ma; Safari, Amin; Kim, Hyeung; Sun, Wen; O'Connor, Matthew S.; Songyang, Zhou

    2007-02-01

    Telomere dysfunction may result in chromosomal abnormalities, DNA damage responses, and even cancer. Early studies in lower organisms have helped to establish the crucial role of telomerase and telomeric proteins in maintaining telomere length and protecting telomere ends. In Oxytricha nova, telomere G-overhangs are protected by the TEBP-α/β heterodimer. Human telomeres contain duplex telomeric repeats with 3' single-stranded G-overhangs, and may fold into a t-loop structure that helps to shield them from being recognized as DNA breaks. Additionally, the TEBP-α homologue, POT1, which binds telomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), associates with multiple telomeric proteins (for example, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1) to form the six-protein telosome/shelterin and other subcomplexes. These telomeric protein complexes in turn interact with diverse pathways to form the telomere interactome for telomere maintenance. However, the mechanisms by which the POT1-containing telosome communicates with telomerase to regulate telomeres remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that TPP1 is a putative mammalian homologue of TEBP-β and contains a predicted amino-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold. TPP1-POT1 association enhanced POT1 affinity for telomeric ssDNA. In addition, the TPP1 OB fold, as well as POT1-TPP1 binding, seemed critical for POT1-mediated telomere-length control and telomere-end protection in human cells. Disruption of POT1-TPP1 interaction by dominant negative TPP1 expression or RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in telomere-length alteration and DNA damage responses. Furthermore, we offer evidence that TPP1 associates with the telomerase in a TPP1-OB-fold-dependent manner, providing a physical link between telomerase and the telosome/shelterin complex. Our findings highlight the critical role of TPP1 in telomere maintenance, and support a yin-yang model in which TPP1 and POT1 function as a unit to protect human telomeres, by both positively and negatively regulating telomerase access to telomere DNA.

  4. Acute effects of heavy metals on the expression of glutathione-related antioxidant genes in the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Significant higher increases in the relative ROS and total GSH levels were observed after exposure to heavy metals. • Real-time PCR data showed expression levels of GPx and GR mRNA were sensitively modulated within 8 h of exposure to heavy metals. • E. crassus GPx and GR genes may be involved in cellular defense mechanisms against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. • E. crassus GPx and GR genes will be useful as potential molecular markers for monitoring heavy metal contamination. - Abstract: Euplotes crassus, a single-celled eukaryote, is directly affected by environmental contaminants. Here, exponentially cultured E. crassus were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc and then the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Subsequently, the transcriptional modulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. After an 8-h exposure, significantly higher increases in the relative ROS and total GSH levels were observed in exposed group, compared to the controls. Real-time PCR data revealed that the expression levels of GPx and GR mRNA were sensitively modulated within 8 h of exposure to all heavy metals. These findings suggest that these genes may be involved in cellular defense mechanisms by modulating their gene expression against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. Thus, they may be useful as potential molecular biomarkers to assess sediment environments for contaminants

  5. Southampton water and the Solent: Biological effects of the multi-use of an estuarine system.

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, A

    1985-01-01

    An outline is provided of (1) some factors which have influenced the clam and oyster populations of the area (2) the effect of nutrient load on phytoplankton production (3) the correlation between Mesodinium blooms and the summer oxygen levels in the stratified part of the estuary and (4) a description of the fauna and flora in regions adjacent to some industrial inputs.

  6. 干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响%Drought Effects on Growth and Physiological Traits of Loropetalum chinense Var·rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 周兰英

    2015-01-01

    【目的】研究土壤干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响。【方法】采用盆栽控水法,设置4个水分处理,测定在各水分处理下红花檵木的生长和生理指标,分析其差异。【结果】随胁迫程度的加深和时间的延长旱害表现越严重,营养生长和生殖生长受抑,RWC 下降,相对电导率值和 MDA 含量增加,Pro、SS、SP 不断积累,SOD、POD、CAT 活性总体上升。【结论】红花檵木对干旱胁迫较为敏感,轻度胁迫即可引起各项生理指标显著变化,但植株表观形态变化不明显;随胁迫程度的加深,各项指标变幅加剧,形态变化明显。红花檵木具有一定的抗旱性,能在中度干旱胁迫下继续存活,并能忍受连续60d 不供水的重度干旱胁迫。%Objective]The aim of the study was to study effects of soil drought on growth and physiological traits of L.chinense .[Method]Tn this study,there were four different water treat-ments.The growth and physiological indicators were measured and differences among treatments were analyzed.[Results]The damage magnitude was increased with increasing drought stress and time.RWC,nutrition and reproduction growth and was inhibited.However,relative conductivi-ty,MDA,SOD,POD and CAT were increased.Pro,SS and SP were accumulated.[Conclusion]L.chinense was sensitive to drought stress.Slight drooght treatments can cause significant chan-ges in various physiological indexes but the apparent features were not clear.The physiological and morphological indexes were affected substantially with increasing drought stress.Overall,L. chinense had strong resistance to drought.It could survive in moderate drought stress and endure severe drought stress that without water supplying for 60 days.

  7. Increased fucosyl glycoconjugate by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances adherences of Pasteurella multocida type A in the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; KANG, Ikjae; Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of how Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances secondary Pasteurella multocida type A infection which leads to porcine enzootic pneumonia in infected pigs. Sixteen pigs were experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae and then euthanized at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post inoculation. In situ hybridization for M. hyopneumoniae DNA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin histochemistry for fucosyl glycoconjugate, w...

  8. Investigations of the effects of UV and X-ray radiation and the repair of radiation damage in the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the example of Stylomychia mytilus, the effects of UV-radiation and ionizing X-ray radiation are compared. The effects on cell division and on the repair of radiation damage in DNA are compared. Sensitivity to UV radiation differs between the stages of the cell cycle while the effects of X-ray radiation are independent of phase. There is no difference in repair processes. (AJ) 891 AJ/AJ 892 MKO

  9. 纤毛虫与养殖刺参的"腐皮综合症"%Ciliates and “cankered cutis disease” of Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓云; 范瑞青; 谭金山; 高澜

    2005-01-01

    @@ 近年伴随刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)养殖业的快速发展,病害问题日趋突出.2004年山东沿海多处养殖海参发病,有些地方海参的死亡率高达50%以上.许多专家对刺参的病因和病原进行了研究,将发生于2004年春季的养殖刺参爆发性疾病称之为"腐皮综合症"或"化皮病",并定性其为细菌性疾病.

  10. TINTINNID CILIATES FROM QINGDAO (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, TINTINNIDA)%青岛沿海砂壳纤毛虫(原生动物,纤毛门,砂纤目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大鹏; 宋微波

    2005-01-01

    对采自青岛沿海的9属26种砂壳纤毛虫进行了形态学描述,其中11种为中国新纪录种:简单薄铃虫Leprotintinnus simplex Schmidt,1901,波特薄铃虫Leprotintinnus bottnicus(Nordqvist,1890)Jorgensen,1912,波罗的拟铃虫Tintinnopsis baltica Brandt,1896,长形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis elongata Daday,1887,盾形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis urnula Meunier,1910,弯叶拟铃虫Tintinnopsis lobiancoi Daday,1887,管状拟铃虫Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier,1910,小拟铃虫Tintinnopsis minuta Wailes,1925,塔拉卡拟铃虫Favella taraikaensis Hada,1932,太平洋领细壳虫Stenosemella pacifica Kofoid et Campbell,1929和贪婪铃壳虫Codonella rapa Kofoid et Campbell,1929.

  11. 肺炎患者痰中检出纤毛虫1例%Ciliated protozoan in sputum of a pneumonia patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志敏

    2007-01-01

    患者,女性,56岁,初中文化,绍兴市越城区人,现已退休,养鸟史2年余,无疫水接触史。2006年12月17日,因不明原因发热,来院就诊。主诉:畏寒,少量咳嗽,无痰。查体:体温高达40℃;血常规检查:白细胞总数7.9×109/L,中性粒细胞78.9%。血液沉降率9mm/h;血压120/90mmHg,

  12. Design and validation of four new primers for next-generation sequencing to target the 18S rRNA genes of gastrointestinal ciliate protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-09-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen.

  13. The fenestrin antigen in submembrane skeleton of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is proposed as a marker of cell polarity during cell division and in oral replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczanowska, Janina; Joachimiak, Ewa; Kiersnowska, Mauryla; Krzywicka, Anna; Golinska, Krystyna; Kaczanowski, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila cells have two types of polarized morphogenesis: divisional morphogenesis and oral reorganization (OR). The aim of this research is the analysis of cortical patterns of immunostaining during cell division and in OR using previously characterized antibodies against fenestrin and epiplasm B proteins. During cell division, the anarchic field of basal body proliferation of the new developing oral apparatus (AF) showed concomitant strong binding of the fenestrin antigen and withdrawal of a signal of the epiplasm B antigen. At a specific stage, the fenestrin antigen also appeared as a character of the anterior cortex pole, with a co-localized decrease in the detected epiplasm B antigen. The fenestrin antigen also showed a polarity of duplicating basal bodies in ciliary rows. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling experiments were performed in the absence and presence of an inhibitor of activity of serine/threonine kinases, 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) as an inducer of the oral replacement process. In the presence of 6-DMAP, one class of cells started OR, and some others were trapped and affected in cell division. Both types of cells showed an instability of oral structures and formed enlarged primordial oral fields. These anarchic fields (AFs) bind the fenestrin antigen, with disappearance of epiplasmic antigen staining. Only one protein (about 64 kDa) is detected in western blots by the anti-fenestrin antibody and it accumulated in 6-DMAP-treated cells that are involved in uncompleted morphogenetic activity. At a defined stage of oral development, both during cell division and in OR, the fenestrin antigen served as a marker of polarity of the cell of the anterior pole character.

  14. Seasonal Changes of Planktonic Ciliate Communities in Yuexiu Lake, An Urban Lake of Guangzhou City%广州市区越秀湖浮游纤毛虫群落的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐润林; 郑永利

    2000-01-01

    从1997年4月到1998年3月之间,应用定性观察和定量分析的方法对广州市的城市湖泊--越秀湖进行了浮游纤毛虫群落的种类组成、群落的生物多样性、丰度、生物量、优势种的种群季节变化等群落结构参数进行了研究.共发现了76种浮游纤毛虫;最大丰度为69.1×103ind.@L-1;最大生物量为7.16mg@L-1;群落中的优势种为大弹跳虫(Halteria grandinella ) 、尾毛虫(Urotricha spp.)、尾侠盗虫(Strobilidium caudatum) 、小侠盗虫(Strobilidium humile )和膜袋虫(Cyclidium spp.);群落的生物多样性指数在2.4到3.0之间.分析了这个湖泊浮游纤毛虫群落结构参数的季节变化.通过与文献报道的比较、分析,从纤毛虫的优势种、总丰度和生物量确定了该城市湖泊的富营养状况为重度富营养化.

  15. Description of two marine amphisiellid ciliates, Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 and A. sinica sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Hypotrichia), with notes on their ontogenesis and SSU rDNA-based phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiong; Zhao, Xiaolu; Ji, Daode; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    The morphology and taxonomy of two marine Amphisiella species, isolated from mariculture waters in northern China, were investigated using standard techniques. One species corresponds well with the original description of the poorly known Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 by remarkable characteristics, inter alia, (i) the additional cirri between the left frontal cirrus and the buccal cirrus, and (ii) ring-shaped structure in the anterior and posterior body portion (posterior one sometimes lacking). The detailed description of the cirral pattern and an informative ontogenetic stage first reveal that the additional cirri, which are uniformly absent in all congeners, originate from the frontal-ventral transverse cirral anlage I. The other species represents a new species of Amphisiella, A. sinica sp. nov. It is distinguished from its most closely related congener A. annulata (Kahl, 1928) Borror, 1972 by having numerous ring-shaped structures with a shallow brim more or less densely centralised at both ends of the body. Brief notes on the cell division and phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence for both organisms are also supplied in order to get further understanding of their systematic positions. The molecular information indicates that both organisms belong to two separate clades and confirms that the genus Amphisiella might be polyphyletic. PMID:27156119

  16. Symbiotic Chlorella variabilis incubated under constant dark conditions for 24 hours loses the ability to avoid digestion by host lysosomal enzymes in digestive vacuoles of host ciliate Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Endosymbiosis between symbiotic Chlorella and alga-free Paramecium bursaria cells can be induced by mixing them. To establish the endosymbiosis, algae must acquire temporary resistance to the host lysosomal enzymes in the digestive vacuoles (DVs). When symbiotic algae isolated from the alga-bearing paramecia are kept under a constant dark conditions for 24 h before mixing with the alga-free paramecia, almost all algae are digested in the host DVs. To examine the cause of algal acquisition to the host lysosomal enzymes, the isolated algae were kept under a constant light conditions with or without a photosynthesis inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea for 24 h, and were mixed with alga-free paramecia. Unexpectedly, most of the algae were not digested in the DVs irrespective of the presence of the inhibitor. Addition of 1 mM maltose, a main photosynthetic product of the symbiotic algae or of a supernatant of the isolated algae kept for 24 h under a constant light conditions, did not rescue the algal digestion in the DVs. These observations reveal that unknown factors induced by light are a prerequisite for algal resistance to the host lysosomal enzymes.

  17. Influence of Corythucha ciliate hazards on photosynthesis of two types of Platanus acerifolia%方翅网蝽对两种类型悬铃木光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德斌; 刘桂华; 唐燕平; 杨春材; 张栋

    2011-01-01

    于2010年4-8月通过对两种不同类型悬铃木的叶片净光合速率、叶绿素含量和方翅网蝽危害程度进行了测定,并运用多元逐步回归和通径分析方法分析了光合作用与环境因子之间的相互关系.结果表明,虫口密度与叶绿素含量呈负相关关系,且不同类型悬铃木间叶绿素含量差异显著;方翅网蝽危害使叶绿素含量减少是影响光合作用的最直接和最重要的原因.生长季节各月所选典型天气下的Pn大小顺序表现为7月>8月>6月>5月>4月;其中4、5月悬铃木净光合速率(Pn)日变化呈现"单峰"曲线,经分析发现大气温度、光合有效辐射、气孔导度是影响Pn变化的主要因子;6-8月Pn日变化呈现"双峰"曲线,环境因子大气水汽压差、相对湿度和胞间CO2浓度成为主要影响因子.由此可见,悬铃木生长季节光合作用存在较大差异,同时各环境因子对光合作用的影响及影响程度也各不相同.%From April to August in 2010, the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of the net photosynthesis rate, the chlorophyll content and the degree of Corythucha ciliata hazards in two types of Platanus acerifolia were determined and the relationships between the dynamics and environmental factors were analyzed by the stepwise multiple regression and the path analysis. The results showed there was a negative relationship between the insect density and the chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll content was remarkably different between the two types of P. acerifolia. The reluction of chlorophyll content in the leaves resulted from C. ciliata hazards was the most directly and the most important reason for affecting the photosynthesis. The daily mean net photosynthesis rate (Pn) for each month was in the order of July > August > June > May > April.The diurnal change of Pn was a "one peak" curve in April and in May respectively, while it was a "two peaks" pattern in June to August. The dynamics of Pn was very sensitive to the air temperature, photosynthetic active radiation and stomatal conductance in April and May,and to vapor pressure deficit, relative humidity and Ci in June, July and August. It was suggested that there existed greater differences in the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of Pn in the growth period of Platanus acerifolia, and the effects of the environmental factors on Pn were different.

  18. Ultrastructural features of the uterus in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus during periods of ovarian inactivity and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-C. Madekurozwa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the surface epithelium and tubular glands of the uterus in the immature ostrich is described. In ostriches with inactive ovaries the uterus is lined by a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium, with basally located heterochromatic nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these non-ciliated cells have a dense microvillous cover. A simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, comprised of non-ciliated and ciliated cells, lines the uterus in birds with active ovaries. The ciliated cells possess a wide luminal region, which contains a nucleus and various organelles. An accumulation of secretory granules was observed in the apical regions of the non-ciliated cells, as well as in a few ciliated cells. In addition to non-ciliated and ciliated cells, a cell type with rarefied cytoplasm was also identified. These cells appear to correspond to calcium secreting cells identified in other avian species. The results of this study indicate that, although uterine differentiation is present in immature ostriches with active ovaries, the production of secretory product appears to occur mainly in non-ciliated epithelial cells.

  19. Environ: E00541 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00541 Mica mineral clay Halloysitum rubrum Crude drug Kaolinite, Iron(III) oxide, ...inite, containing a large amount of iron(III) oxide Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals E00541 Mica mineral clay ...

  20. Two-dimensional self-organization of the light-harvesting polypeptides/BChl a complex into a thermostable liposomal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, K; Kiriyama, H; Fukai, A; Konings, WN; Nango, M

    2001-01-01

    The detergent-isolated light-harvesting polypeptide (LR)/bacteriochlorophyll alpha (BChl alpha) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was organized in thermostable liposomal membranes comprising membrane-spanning tetraether lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius to develop a

  1. Biological and chemical data determined in mesocosm experiments by Dauphin Island Sea Lab in June and August of 2011 (NODC Accession 0118680)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abundances of viruses, prokaryotes, diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates were determined over time in mesocosm experiments measuring...

  2. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  3. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  4. Population growth performance and productivity of ciliated protozoa community under two different industrialized grouper larval rearing systems%石斑鱼工厂化育苗水体浮游原生动物种群增长与生产量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珺; 陈国华; 林彬; 黄宗文; 王永波; 郭仁湘; 杨薇

    2011-01-01

    An in situ experiment was conducted to study the population growth performance and productivity of protozoa community under two different industrialized grouper larval rearing systems. In the bacteria-added group, 13 new species of protozoa were recorded. and the total population density and the total biomass of protozoa community were 87. 3×103 ind . L-1 and 502. 9 mg · m-3; in the microalgae-added group, there were 9 new species derived, and the total population density and the total biomass of protozoa community were 60. 8 × 103 ind · L-1 and 70. 3 mg · m-3 , respectively. For these two groups, Phyllomitus sp. , Strobilidium gyrans , and Oxytricha sp. were the dominant species. The species with relatively high population growth rate in the bacteria-added group were Strombidinopsis sp. ( 0. 0578 ) , Halteria sp. ( 0. 0493 ) , Cyclidium litomesum (0. 0405 ) , Actinophrys sp. (0. 0383 ) , and Mesodimium sp. (0. 0373 ) , and those in the microalgae-added group were Lacrymaria sp. (0. 0153 ) , Strobilidium gyrans (0. 0144) , Strombidium sp. (0. 0117) and Phyllomitus sp. (0. 0100). The total protozoa community productivity varied with rearing-system, being 10. 232 mg · m-3 · h-1 in bacteria-added group and 1. 22 mg · m-3 · h-1 in microalgae-added group. In bacteria-added group, Euplotes eurystoma , Strobilidium gyrans, Amoeba sp. , and Oxytricha sp. had higher productivity than other species; and in microalgae-added group, the species with relatively higher productivity were Actinophrys sp. , Strobilidium gyrans , Phyllomitus sp. , and Mesodimium sp. Overall, the ponds with bacteria added had more abundant diversity, higher biomass, and population growth rate of protozoa community than the ponds with microalgae added, and hence, the water culturing regime with bacteria added could attain more live preys during the mouth-opening period of grouper fry. In the cultured water, some species had high population growth rate, but their biomass was not large. The density of these species in breeding ponds was controlled by large zooplanktons, indicating that these plankton species probably played an important role in the balance of artificial ecosystem in the cultured water.%设计二种石斑鱼工厂化育苗方法,测定水体的浮游原生动物种类组成、生物量,采用原位测定法研究水体原生动物的种群增长和生产量.结果表明:加菌组出现原生动物13种,总密度87.3×1023ind·L-1,总生物量502.9 mg·m-3,生物量较大的种类有阔口游仆虫(Euplotes eurystoma)、叶鞭虫(Phyllomitus sp.)、旋回侠盗虫(Strobilidium gyrans)、尖毛虫(Oxytricha sp.)等;加藻组出现原生动物9种,总密度60.8×103ind·L-1,总生物量70.3 mg·m-3,生物量较大的种类有尖毛虫、旋回侠盗虫、叶鞭虫等.加菌组种群增长率较高的种类有拟急游虫(Strombidinopsis sp.)0.0578、弹跳虫(Halteria sp.)0.0493、周毛虫(Cyclidium litomesum)0.0405、太阳虫(Actinophrys sp.)0.0383、中缢虫(Mesodimium sp.)0.0373;加藻组种群率增长较高的种类有匕口虫(Lacrymaria sp.)0.0153、旋回侠盗虫0.0144、急游虫(Strombidium sp.)0.0117、叶鞭虫0.0100.加菌组原生动物群落总生产量10.232 mg·m-3·h-1,生产量较高的种类有阔口游仆虫6.543、旋回侠盗虫0.992、变形虫(Amoeba sp.)0.462、尖毛虫0.413 mg·m-3·h-1;加藻组原生动物总生产量1.22mg·m-3·h-1,生产量较高的种类有太阳虫0.437、旋回侠盗虫0.350、叶鞭虫0.194、中缢虫0.159 mg·m-3·h-1.分析认为,加菌组原生动物种类更丰富、生物量较大,相同种类的种群增长率也较高,表明加菌的方法进行石斑鱼育苗能为石斑鱼仔鱼提供更丰富的开口期饵料.育苗水体中,一些种类的种群增长率较高,但生物量并不大,这些种类在育苗池中的密度被大型浮游动物所控制,暗示着这些种类在育苗人工生态系统的物质循环中具有重要的作用.

  5. Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Terrence L; Small, Hamish J; Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Gibbs, David A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of an unidentified ciliate have occurred on several occasions in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay held during winter months in flow-through systems. The parasite was initially thought to be Mesanophrys chesapeakensis, but molecular analysis identified it as Orchitophyra stellarum, a facultative parasite of sea stars (Asteroidea). We investigated the host-parasite association of O. stellarum in the blue crab host. Crabs were inoculated with the ciliate, or they were held in bath exposures after experimentally induced autotomy of limbs in order to determine potential mechanisms for infection. Crabs inoculated with the ciliate, or exposed to it after experimental autotomy, rapidly developed fatal infections. Crabs that were not experimentally injured, but were exposed to the ciliate, rarely developed infections; thus, indicating that the parasite requires a wound or break in the cuticle as a portal of entry. For comparative purposes, fiddler crabs, Uca minax, were inoculated with the ciliate in a dose-titration experiment. Low doses of the ciliate (10 per crab) were sometimes able to establish infections, but high intensity infections developed quickly at doses over 500 ciliates per crab. Chemotaxis studies were initiated to determine if the ciliate preferentially selected blue crab serum (BCS) over other nutrient sources. Cultures grown on medium with BCS or fetal bovine serum showed some conditioning in their selection for different media, but the outcome in choice experiments indicated that the ciliate was attracted to BCS and not seawater. Our findings indicate that O. stellarum is a facultative parasite of blue crabs. It can cause infections in exposed crabs at 10-15°C, but it requires a portal of entry for successful host invasion, and it may find injured hosts using chemotaxis.

  6. Growth and grazing on the 'Texas brown tide' alga Aureoumbra lagunensis by the tintinnid Amphorides quadrilineata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hyatt, C.; Buskey, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Growth and ingestion by the loricate ciliate Amphorides quadrilineata exposed to increasing dietary doses of the Texas brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis were investigated. The ciliate grew at a maximum rate of 0.38 d(-1), ingesting 0.032 ppm (similar to6.4 x 10(2) cells) prey d(-1) on a diet....... lagunensis by increasing the turning rate per unit time. This study suggests that efficient top-down control of A. lagunensis by heterotrophic protozoans such as the studied ciliate may not happen as long as phytoplankton organisms other than A. lagunensis make up a minor part of the standing phytoplankton...

  7. Clinico-mycological profile of superficial mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinico-mycological study of 2743 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses attending skin and VD OPD of VSS Medical College during the year 1995 - 96 was conducted. Male predominance was observed. Highest incidence of tinea versicolor was found. T. rubrum was the commonest fungus isolated.

  8. A case of tinea corporis on the radiation port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriue, Tetsuya; Ishihama, Yukiyo; Nakagawa, Toshifumi; Takaiwa, Takashi [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    We herein report a 51-year old man in whom tinea corporis developed within a radiation field while he was receiving X-ray radiation therapy for the squamous cell carcinoma of hypopharynx. At a dose of 23 Gy approximately 10 days after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to complain of a pruritic eruption on the irradiated skin. A physical examination revealed diffuse erythema, and red papules on both sides of the neck. A fungal culture grew Tricophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). The eruption completely resolved after 3 weeks of topical treatment with 1% clotrimazole cream. We next investigated the effect of X-rays on the growth of T. rubrum and the number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis. One hundred Gy of X-rays did not cause any inhibition of growth of T. rubrum. On the other hand, 25 Gy of X-rays markedly reduced the number of epidermal Langerhans cells. These results show that dermatophytes are resistant to X-rays, while epidermal Langerhans cells, which play a crucial role in the skin immune system, are sensitive to it. These are some of the reasons why tinea corporis developed in the above case entirely within the radiation field during X-ray therapy. (author)

  9. Clinico-mycological profile of superficial mycoses

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra M; Mishra S; Singh P; Mishra B.

    1998-01-01

    Clinico-mycological study of 2743 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses attending skin and VD OPD of VSS Medical College during the year 1995 - 96 was conducted. Male predominance was observed. Highest incidence of tinea versicolor was found. T. rubrum was the commonest fungus isolated.

  10. Fleming's penicillin producing streain is not Penicillium chrysogenum but P. rubens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    not produce these metabolites. Fleming’s original penicillin producing strain and the full genome sequenced strain of P. chrysogenum are re-identified as P. rubens. Furthermore, the well-known claim that Alexander Fleming misidentified the original penicillin producing strain as P. rubrum is discussed....

  11. Onychomycosis is rare in young children, and treatment is a task for dermatological specialists.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Skov, Lone; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling;

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis was diagnosed in a two-year-old girl. The infection was caused by Trichophyton rubrum, which is the most frequent cause of toenail onychomycosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and culture. She was treated with orally given terbinafine and topic...

  12. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  13. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  14. Secondary metabolites from Eurotium species, Aspergillus calidoustus and A. insuetus common in Canadian homes with a review of their chemistry and biological activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slack, G.J.; Puniani, E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.; Miller, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. The

  15. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NB Dhayanithi; TT Ajith Kumar; M Kalaiselvam; T Balasubramanian; N Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge,Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods: The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophytonmentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results: The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 μg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 μg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 μg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion: Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery.

  16. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed hardwoo

  17. New and redescribed encrusting species of Alcyonium from the Atlantic Ocean (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea: Alcyoniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, F.R.; Ofwegen, van L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Three new species of Alcyonium are described and illustrated: Alcyonium megasclerum and A. rubrum from the Cape Verde Islands, and A. profundum from the Mid Atlantic Ridge. Two species are redescribed and figured: A. grandiflorum Tixier-Durivault & d’Hondt, 1975 and A. maristenebrosi Stiasny, 1937.

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Abercrombie, L. G.; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I. C.; Beldade, R.; Bernardi, G.; Boubou, A.; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F.; Bruford, M. W.; Buonamici, A.; Burnett, R. K.; Canal, D.; Cardenas, H; Caullet, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata luge...

  19. Intersite epibiosis characterization on dominant mangrove crustacean species from Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Hanamura, Y.; Siow, R.; Chee, P.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Epibiosis was studied in dominant mangrove crustacean species in several areas in Malaysia. The observed basibionts were the crustaceans Mesopodopsis orientalis, Acetes japonicus, Acetes sibogae, Acetes indicus and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and the epibionts found were the protozoan ciliates Acinet

  20. Ultrastructural studies of the transitional zone in the nasopharyngeal epithelium, with special reference to the keratinizing process in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T

    1986-01-01

    In the nasopharynx of the SMA mouse, the 'intermediate epithelium' occupies the transitional zone between the ciliated columnar and the stratified squamous epithelia. The intermediate epithelium showed gradations ranging from ciliated stratified low-columnar through stratified cuboidal to stratified squamous type. It is suggested that the intermediate epithelium shows the various stages of the epithelium transforming from the ciliated columnar to the stratified squamous epithelium, and that the basal cells of the ciliated columnar epithelium serve as the germinal layer for the transformation. The intermediate epithelium containing a few keratohyalin granules and many membrane-coating granules represented earlier stages of keratinization. The width of the microprojections in the stratified squamous epithelium was about doubled compared to that in the intermediate epithelium. It is suggested that the difference in width is caused by cell membrane distortion associated with keratinization and is regarded as an important marker of the start of keratinization.

  1. Studies on the associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India were studied. Among the epizoic forms two species of ciliates infesting copepods were new records from Indian waters. Eight species of suctorians were found epizoic...

  2. Hydrographic and productivity characteristics along 45 degrees E longitude in the southwestern Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean during austral summer 2004

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jasmine, P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Madhu, N.V.; AshaDevi, C.R.; Alagarsamy, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Jayan, Z.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Sahayak, S.

    loop within STZ, STFZ and SAZ and the multivorous food web ecology within the PFZ. Dominance of ciliates in the microzooplankton community may be one factor resulting in the maintenance of a high mesozooplankton standing stock in SAZ. In contrast...

  3. Seasonal variations and trophic ecology of microzooplankton in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshaDevi, C.R.; Jyothibabu, R.; Sabu, P.; Jacob, J.; Habeebrehman, H.; Prabhakaran, M.P.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    and cyanobacteria, the most preferred food of ciliates. On the other hand, the dominance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates during the monsoon periods could be linked to their ability to graze larger diatoms which were abundant during the monsoon periods. The overall...

  4. Studies on the microzooplankton from the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.; Mohanraju, R.; Madhupratap, M.

    Numerical abundance and composition of microzooplankton in the upper 200 m were studied from the central and eastern Arabian Sea during three seasons. Protozoans, comprising of ciliates (loricates and aloricates), flagellates and sarcodines were...

  5. Non-invasive sources of cells with primary cilia from pediatric and adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajzenberg, H.; Slaats, G.G.; Stokman, M.F.; Arts, H.H.; Logister, I.; Kroes, H.Y.; Renkema, K.Y.; Haelst, M.M. van; Terhal, P.A.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Knoers, N.V.; Lilien, M.R.; Jewett, M.A.; Giles, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ciliopathies give rise to a multitude of organ-specific pathologies; obtaining relevant primary patient material is useful for both diagnostics and research. However, acquisition of primary ciliated cells from patients, particularly pediatric patients, presents multiple difficulties. Bio

  6. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  7. Estudios histológico e histoquímico del sistema digestivo de la almeja catarina Argopecten ventricosus (Sowerby, 1842)

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, C.; Alarcón, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Histological and histochemical studies on the digestive system of Argopecten ventricosus (Sowerby, 1842) was carried out. Lips show a ciliated columnar epithelium with glycoproteins and acid and alkaline phosphatases, and α-D glucosidase activity. Esophagus and lips epitheliums are similar. Acid and alkaline phosphatases, α-D glucosidase and leucil aminopeptidase activities were detected. The epithelium of the stomach is ciliated and contains glands which secrete glycoproteins. Acid and alkal...

  8. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  9. alpha-Tubulin of Histriculus cavicola (Ciliophora; Hypotrichea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, P; Villalobo, E; Díaz-Ramos, C; Calvo, P; Santos-Rosa, F; Torres, A

    1997-03-01

    An alpha-tubulin gene fragment amplified by PCR from the hypotrichous ciliate Histriculus cavicola has been sequenced. This fragment, 1,182 bp long, contains an in-frame "stop" codon (UAA), which in other hypotrichous species codes for a glutamine residue. The comparison of the alpha-tubulin genes from several ciliates classes have revealed amino acid positions which could serve to distinguish these taxonomic groups.

  10. Tolerance of sewage treatment plant microorganisms to mosquitocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Olson, M A; Hester, P G; Moore, J J

    1993-12-01

    Beneficial protozoa and rotifers collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Panama City, FL, were tested for tolerance to 11 commonly used mosquito larvicides and adulticides in the laboratory. The acute effects were assessed using selected concentrations of the adulticides fenthion, malathion, naled, permethrin, and resmethrin; and the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, diflubenzuron, larviciding oil, methoprene, and temephos for the following microorganism taxa: ameoboids, flagellates, free-swimming ciliates, stalked ciliates, and rotifers. PMID:8126488

  11. Influence of palm fatty acid distillate on rumen degradability and protozoa population in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Vilas Boas Soares

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil and fat as energy sources at low cost are relevant in ruminant nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD on the degradability and ciliate protozoa population in buffalo. Four rumen fistulated buffaloes were fed a basal diet in a Latin square (4x4 design trial. Treatments were designed with four of different levels of PFAD added directly into the rumen: 0; 200; 420 and 500 g/animal/d. High levels of PFAD (420 and 500 g/d promoted higher degradation of the soluble fraction and lower in potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF with lower values of potential and effective degradability in two evaluated grasses, bermudagrass and brachiariagrass. Significant decreases in the total number of protozoa/mL of rumen content, Entodinium and ciliates belonging to subfamily Diplodiniinae were observed at higher level of PFDA addition in the rumen. Also, Epidinium and Holotrich ciliates disappeared from the rumen. Significant correlations were observed of the ciliate concentration and composition as a function of dietary lipids content. Entodinium composition increased from 68.0% to 99.6% and Diplodiniinae reduced from 30.4% to 0.4% with increasing PFAD level indicating higher fat toxicity effect on the Diplodiniinae ciliates than Entodinium species and direct action of the larger ciliates on the fibre degradation.

  12. Porpostoma guamensis n. sp., a philasterine scuticociliate associated with brown-band disease of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, Christopher S; Raymundo, Laurie M; Montagnes, David J S

    2011-01-01

    Brown band disease of coral is caused by a ciliate that consumes the tissue of the corals in the genus Acropora. We describe the ciliate associated with this disease on Guam, based on: general morphology, division stages, and ciliature observed on live and protargol-stained specimens; modification of the oral structures between divisional stages, observed on protargol-stained specimens; and some aspects of behavior in field and laboratory studies. Porpostoma guamensis n. sp. is elongate and has ciliature typical for the genus; live cells are 70-500 × 20-75 μm; the macronucleus is sausage-like, elongate but often bent, positioned centrally along the main cell axis; the oral ciliature follows a basic pattern, being composed of three adoral polykinetidal regions, as described for other species in the genus, although there is variability in the organization, especially in large cells where the three regions are not easily distinguished. Ciliates fed on coral with their oral region adjacent to the tissue, which they engulfed, leaving the coral a bare skeleton. Both zooxanthellae and nematocysts from coral occurred in the ciliates. Zooxanthellae appeared to be ingested alive but deteriorated within 2-3 days. Ciliates formed thin-walled division cysts on the coral and divided up to 3 times. Cysts formed around daughter cells within cysts. We provide some observations on the complex division pattern of the ciliate (i.e. tomont-trophont-cyst) and propose a possible complete pattern that requires further validation.

  13. Influence of palm fatty acid distillate on rumen degradability and protozoa population in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Franzolin

    Full Text Available Oil and fat as energy sources at low cost are relevant in ruminant nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD on the degradability and ciliate protozoa population in buffalo. Four rumen fistulated buffaloes were fed a basal diet in a Latin square (4x4 design trial. Treatments were designed with four of different levels of PFAD added directly into the rumen: 0; 200; 420 and 500 g/animal/d. High levels of PFAD (420 and 500 g/d promoted higher degradation of the soluble fraction and lower in potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF with lower values of potential and effective degradability in two evaluated grasses, bermudagrass and brachiariagrass. Significant decreases in the total number of protozoa/mL of rumen content, Entodinium and ciliates belonging to subfamily Diplodiniinae were observed at higher level of PFDA addition in the rumen. Also, Epidinium and Holotrich ciliates disappeared from the rumen. Significant correlations were observed of the ciliate concentration and composition as a function of dietary lipids content. Entodinium composition increased from 68.0% to 99.6% and Diplodiniinae reduced from 30.4% to 0.4% with increasing PFAD level indicating higher fat toxicity effect on the Diplodiniinae ciliates than Entodinium species and direct action of the larger ciliates on the fibre degradation.

  14. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae decreases cilia beating via protein kinase C epsilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kristina L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilus influenzae infection of the nasal epithelium has long been associated with observations of decreased nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF and injury to the ciliated epithelium. Previously, we have reported that several agents that slow CBF also have the effect of activating protein kinase C epsilon (PKCϵ activity in bronchial epithelial cells. The subsequent auto-downregulation of PKCϵ or the direct inhibition of PKCϵ leads to the specific detachment of the ciliated cells. METHODS: Primary cultures of ciliated bovine bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to filtered conditioned media supernatants from non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi cultures. CBF and motile points were measured and PKCϵ activity assayed. Results NTHi supernatant exposure significantly and rapidly decreased CBF in a dose-dependent manner within 10 minutes of exposure. After 3 hours of exposure, the number of motile ciliated cells significantly decreased. Direct measurement of PKCϵ activity revealed a dose-dependent activation of PKCϵ in response to NTHi supernatant exposure. Both CBF and PKCϵ activity changes were only observed in fresh NTHi culture supernatant and not observed in exposures to heat-inactivated or frozen supernatants. Conclusions Our results suggest that CBF slowing observed in response to NTHi is consistent with the stimulated activation of PKCϵ. Ciliated cell detachment is associated with PKCϵ autodownregulation.

  15. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  16. Characteristics of microfauna and their relationships with the performance of an activated sludge plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kexin; XU Muqi; LIU Biao; CAO Hong

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and abundance of the microfauna groups were compared with the physico-chemical and operational parameters of the Baoding Lugang Sewage Treatment Plant in China. Attached and crawling ciliates were the dominant groups of ciliates. Crawling ciliates and testate amoebae showed a strong association with effluent BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand). Therefore, these two groups are likely to be useful bioindicators since their number decreased as the process produced poor quality effluent. Testate amoebae also had significant negative correlations with effluent TN (total nitrogen), NH4+-N, SS (suspended solids) and SVI (sludge volumetric index), which means that this group of ciliates may be indicators of good performance of the activated sludge system. Carnivorous ciliates and flagellates had significant positive correlations with SVI, suggesting that these two groups may be indicators of bad settlement conditions of sludge. As identification of the microfauna species is difficult and time-consuming, we recommend using microfauna functional groups to evaluate the performance of the activated sludge system.

  17. Abundance and species composition of planktonic Ciliophora from the wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sonia Barría de Cao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific composition and abundance variation of the ciliate community from a wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, were studied all throughout a year, from June 1995 to May 1996. The polluted area exhibited high values of particulate organic matter and nutrients, particularly phosphates. Aloricate ciliates were represented by 15 species belonging to the genera Strombidium Claparède & Lachmann, 1859; Strombidinopsis Kent, 1881; Cyrtostrombidium Lynn & Gilron, 1993; Strobilidium Schewiakoff, 1983; Lohmmanniella Leegaard, 1915 and Tontonia Fauré-Fremiet, 1914. Tintinnids were represented by nine species belonging to the genera Tintinnidium Kent, 1881, Tintinnopsis Stein, 1867 and Codonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924. The total abundance of aloricate ciliates reached a peak of 1,800 ind. 1-1 and the total abundance of tintinnids reached a peak of 9,400 ind. 1-1. Tintinnidium balechi Barría de Cao, 1981 was the most abundant ciliate in the community. Considerations on the presence and abundance of ciliates are made in relation to physicochemical and biochemical parameters.

  18. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues.

  19. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates—ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems—on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885–3,190 and 2,387–2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function. PMID:27431197

  20. Secondary metabolites from Eurotium species, Aspergillus calidoustus and A. insuetus common in Canadian homes with a review of their chemistry and biological activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slack, G. J.; Puniani, E.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2009-01-01

    As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus....... The latter have been recently assigned as the new species A. insuetus and A. calidoustus. E. amstelodami produced neoechinulin A and neoechinulin B, epiheveadride, flavoglaucin, auroglaucin, and isotetrahydroauroglaucin as major metabolites. Minor metabolites included echinulin, preechinulin and neoechinulin...... E. E. rubrum produced all of these metabolites, but epiheveadride was detected as a minor metabolite. E. herbariorum produced cladosporin as a major metabolite, in addition to those found in E. amstelodami. This species also produced questin and neoechinulin E as minor metabolites. This is the first...

  1. Dermatophytosis Agents in Patients Who Attending to Dermatology Clinic of Fırat University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Dilek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the types of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in Elazığ region to provide appropriate information for therapy planning and public health prevention.Methods: A total of 652 patients who attending to outpatient clinic between June 2007 – May 2008 with clinical signs of dermatophytosis were included in this study. All samples, including with negative results on direct microscopy were cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, mycobiotic agar (Acumedia and potato dextrose agar (Oxoid. Results: Dermatophytes were isolated in 142 (21.8% out of all samples. Of the isolates 70.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 15.4% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 4.2% were , 4.2% were Microsporum canis, 2.8% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 2.11% were Trichophyton violaceum, 0.7% were Trichophyton tonsurans.Conclusion: Trichophyton rubrum was most frequently isolated dermatophytosis agent in Elazığ region.

  2. Antifungal activity of violacein purified from a novel strain of Chromobacterium sp. NIIST (MTCC 5522).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Anju; Sasidharan, Nishanth Kumar; Amma, Dileepkumar Bhaskaran Nair Saraswathy; Vasu, Radhakrishnan Kokkuvayil; Nataraja, Anupama Vijaya; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    A novel strain of Chromobacterium sp. NIIST (MTCC 5522) producing high level of purple blue bioactive compound violacein was isolated from clay mine acidic sediment. During 24 h aerobic incubation in modified Luria Bertani medium, around 0.6 g crude violacein was produced per gram of dry weight biomass. An inexpensive method for preparing crystalline, pure violacein from crude pigment was developed (12.8 mg violacein/L) and the pure compound was characterized by different spectrometric methods. The violacein prepared was found effective against a number of plant and human pathogenic fungi and yeast species such as Cryptococcus gastricus, Trichophyton rubrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium expansum, and Candida albicans. The best activity was recorded against Trichophyton rubrum (2 -g/ml), a human pathogen responsible for causing athlete-s foot infection. This is the first report of antifungal activity of purified violacein against pathogenic fungi and yeast. PMID:26428920

  3. Variation in lipid and free fatty acid content during spawning in two temperate octocorals with different reproductive strategies: surface versus internal brooder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladrich, Núria; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Georgios; Chocarro, Blanca; Martínez-Quitana, Angela; Ambroso, Stefano; Madurell, Teresa; Rossi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the energetic investment during spawning of two Mediterranean gorgonians characterized by different reproductive strategies: Corallium rubrum (internal brooder) and Paramuricea clavata (surface brooder). Sexual products (number of oocytes and spermatic sacs) were quantified, and biochemical characteristics (lipid content and free fatty acid content and composition) were determined to investigate the parental energetic investment and demand in reproduction. Results suggested that the majority of the energetic cost was due to reproductive activity (i.e., gametogenesis and spawning). The two species exhibited different life history strategies, with P. clavata investing more energy in reproduction than C. rubrum. However, P. clavata is reproductively more sensitive to inter-annual changes in environmental conditions.

  4. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  5. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF LEAF GALLS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; Adina MATICA; Mădălina SCURTU

    2010-01-01

    The present study contains the results of our research on the galls makers that attack the woody species in the urban environment. The presence of a gall-forming arthropods within leaves has been observed on 8 species: Juglans regia, Prunus domestica, Malus domestica, Tilia tomentosa, Alnus glutinosa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Ribes rubrum and Vitis vinifera. We identified a number of 10 gall-forming species. These species belong to 8 different genera, from 5 families and 4 orders. Levels of in...

  6. Effective Single Photodynamic Treatment of ex Vivo Onychomycosis Using a Multifunctional Porphyrin Photosensitizer and Green Light

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Chelsea; Visser, Jasper; Haas, Ellen; Incrocci, Luca; Smijs, Threes

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is predominantly caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton tonsurans. The main treatment obstacle concerns low nail-plate drug permeability. In vitro antifungal photodynamic treatment (PDT) and nail penetration enhancing effectiveness have been proven for multifunctional photosensitizer 5,10,15-tris(4-N-methylpyridinium)-20-(4-(butyramido-methylcysteinyl)-hydroxyphenyl)-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (PORTHE). This study invest...

  7. Establishing trees on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bussières; S. Boudreau; L. Rochefort

    2008-01-01

    Four major tree-planting trials on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada were surveyed in 2002, in order to evaluate the potential use of trees in rehabilitation following horticultural peat extraction. At one of the sites, an experiment to determine the appropriate fertilisation rate for trees planted on cut-over peatlands was also conducted over several years. Tree performance was assessed by measuring survival, total height and annual growth of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), tamarack (Larix la...

  8. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina Salazar, Daniel Iván; Hoyos Sánchez, Rodrigo Alberto; Fernando OROZCO SÁNCHEZ; Myrtha ARANGO ARTEAGA; Luisa Fernanda GÓMEZ LONDOÑO

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were...

  9. Clinical And Mycological Study Of Superficial Mycoses In Amritsar

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal Aruna; Arora Usha; Khanna Saroj

    2002-01-01

    A clinical and mycological study of 500 cases of superficial mycoses was conducted. Two hundred fifty two samples from various sites, viz., skin, nail and hair were positive on culture. The most prevalent clinical type was tinea corporis (36.2%) and the most prevalent aetiological agent was Trichophyton rubrum (62.3%). Nondermatophytic filamentous fungi and candida species were also isolated in 17 (6.74%) cases. It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, nondermatoph...

  10. Non- dermatophytes as emerging opportunistic causal agents of superficial mycoses at Balaghat (M.P)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh S; Barde A

    1990-01-01

    A clinico-mycological study of 75 suspected cases of superficial mycoses occurring at Balaghat (MP) was done. Out of these 51 cases were both KOH as well as culture positive. Among these 51 cases, 33 were of onychomycosis and in the rest of the cases either skin and/ or both nails were infected. Among the isolates recovered, 27 were of dermatophytes, 22 non- dermatophytes and 4 yeasts. Trichophyton rubrum was the only species recovered among dermatophytes. The most prevalent among non dermato...

  11. A New Antimicrobial Flavonol Glycoside from Alchornea davidii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new flavonol glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-xyloside, was isolated from the extract of leaves and twigs of Alchornea davidii (Euphorbiaceae). Its structure was established on the basis of the spectral analysis and chemical degradation. Antimicrobial assay showed that it moderately inhibited the growth of test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton rubrum) with MICs at 50 μg/Ml.

  12. Harvesting effects, recovery mechanisms, and management strategies for a long-lived and structural precious coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Montero-Serra

    Full Text Available Overexploitation is a major threat for the integrity of marine ecosystems. Understanding the ecological consequences of different extractive practices and the mechanisms underlying the recovery of populations is essential to ensure sustainable management plans. Precious corals are long-lived structural invertebrates, historically overfished, and their conservation is currently a worldwide concern. However, the processes underlying their recovery are poorly known. Here, we examined harvesting effects and recovery mechanisms of red coral Corallium rubrum by analyzing long-term photographic series taken on two populations that were harvested. We compared the relative importance of reproduction and re-growth as drivers of resilience. Harvesting heavily impacted coral populations causing large decreases in biomass and strong size-class distribution shifts towards populations dominated by small colonies. At the end of the study (after 4 and 7 years only partial recovery was observed. The observed general pattern of low recruitment and high mortality of new recruits demonstrated limited effects of reproduction on population recovery. Adversely, low mortality of partially harvested adults and a large proportion of colonies showing new branches highlighted the importance of re-growth in the recovery process. The demographic projections obtained through stochastic models confirmed that the recovery rates of C. rubrum can be strongly modulated depending on harvesting procedures. Thus, leaving the basal section of the colonies when harvesting to avoid total mortality largely enhances the resilience of C. rubrum populations and quickens their recovery. On the other hand, the high survival of harvested colonies and the significant biomass reduction indicated that abundance may not be an adequate metric to assess the conservation status of clonal organisms because it can underestimate harvesting effects. This study highlights the unsustainability of current

  13. Pubic Majocchi's Granuloma Unresponsive to Itraconazole Successfully Treated with Oral Terbinafine

    OpenAIRE

    Rallis, Efstathios; Katoulis, Alexandros; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Majocchi's granuloma (MG) is an uncommon deep fungal infection. It is usually caused by Trichophyton rubrum and may develop in any hair-bearing skin, commonly on the face and the extremities. We present a 27-year-old female with MG of the pubic area treated unsuccessfully with itraconazole capsule 100 mg for 4 weeks. The medication was discontinued and switched to terbinafine, which proved efficacious. The pubic tinea clinically presented in conjunction with fever, lymphadenopathy, inflammato...

  14. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  15. Trace elements in Corallium spp. as indicators for origin and habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rahman M., Azizur; Luan, Nguyen Trong; Maki, Teruya; Iwasaki, Nozumu

    2012-01-01

    Precious corals have been commercially exploited for many centuries around the world. The skeletons of these corals consist of calcium carbonate, and have been used as amulets or gemstones since ancient times. Different Corallium species of Coralidae family (e.g., Corallium rubrum, Corallium elatus, Corallium konojoi, and Paracorellium japonicum) were collected from different locations of the Mediterranean Sea (off Italy) and Pacific Ocean (off Japan and off Midway Island), and trace elements...

  16. Application of PCR fingerprinting using (GACA 4 primer in the rapid discrimination of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Elavarashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Superficial fungal infections have a major impact on cosmetic health, affecting more than 20-25% of the global population, which is predominantly caused by dermatophytes. As per literature search, molecular strain typing of dermatophytes has not been investigated in India. Therefore, the present study was carried out to characterise the dermatophyte species and strains by molecular methods. Objective: To analyse the genotype variability by applying polymerase chain reaction (PCR fingerprinting using a simple sequence repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA 4 primer to identify the species and strain variations among the dermatophytes isolated from a tertiary care centre in Chennai. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2010, 81 dermatophytes were isolated and included for the present study. A simple sequence repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA 4 was used as a single primer in the amplification process. Results: The (GACA 4 -based PCR successfully amplified all the clinical isolates. Trichophyton rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii produced identical band profiles, where the latter could not be differentiated from the T. rubrum, which are being reported for the first time from south India. Epidermophyton floccosum produced species-specific band profiles. Intra-species variability was not observed among the T. rubrum and E. floccosum isolates. T. mentagrophytes produced three simple, distinct band patterns, which are surprisingly different from the earlier studies. Conclusion: The PCR-based genotype using the short primer is rapid and precise in direct identification of dermatophyte isolates by one-step PCR to the species level and strain discrimination of the T. mentagrophytes variants.

  17. Applying cathodically polarised substrata to the restoration of a high value coral

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Alessandro; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Gerogios; Faimali, Marco; Pavanello, Giovanni; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep Maria; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Larval settlement of the high value red coral, Corallium rubrum, was studied on three different CaCO3 substrata, viz. lithogenic (marble), electro-accreted calcium carbonate in the presence and in the absence of cathodic polarisation. The last two substrata consisted of stainless steel plates galvanically coupled with Zn anodes. The electrochemical characterization of the settlement device was studied in order to investigate correlations between cathodic parameters (polarisation potential, cu...

  18. Synthesis of new 4-methyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines as potent antifungal compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Leonor Y. Vargas [Universidad Santo Tomas, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales; Zacchino, Susana A. [Universidad Nacional del Rosario, (Argentina). Lab. de Farmacognosia; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Lab. de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological results of new series of 2-(4-pyridyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and their closer precursors, -N-aryl-N-[1-(4-pyridyl)but-3-enyl] amines are reported. It was found that both g-pyridyl substituted precursors and final products, tetrahydroquinolines, showed very good antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (author)

  19. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  20. A genome phylogeny for mitochondria among alpha-proteobacteria and a predominantly eubacterial ancestry of yeast nuclear genes

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, C.; Ahmadinejad, N.; C. Wiegand; Rotte, C.; Sebastiani, F.; Gelius-Dietrich, G; Henze, K; Kretschmann, E.; Richly, E.; Leister, D.; Bryant, D; Steel, M; Lockhart, P; Penny, D; Martin, W

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of 55 individual and 31 concatenated protein data sets encoded in Reclinomonas americana and Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial genomes revealed that current methods for constructing phylogenetic trees are insufficiently sensitive (or artifact-insensitive) to ascertain the sister of mitochondria among the current sample of eight alpha-proteobacterial genomes using mitochondrially-encoded proteins. However, Rhodospirillum rubrum came as close to mitochondria as any alpha-proteobacter...

  1. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  2. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  3. Synthesis of new 4-methyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines as potent antifungal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological results of new series of 2-(4-pyridyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and their closer precursors, -N-aryl-N-[1-(4-pyridyl)but-3-enyl] amines are reported. It was found that both g-pyridyl substituted precursors and final products, tetrahydroquinolines, showed very good antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (author)

  4. Harvesting effects, recovery mechanisms, and management strategies for a long-lived and structural precious coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Linares, Cristina; García, Marina; Pancaldi, Francesca; Frleta-Valić, Maša; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Zuberer, Frederic; Merad, Djamel; Drap, Pierre; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Overexploitation is a major threat for the integrity of marine ecosystems. Understanding the ecological consequences of different extractive practices and the mechanisms underlying the recovery of populations is essential to ensure sustainable management plans. Precious corals are long-lived structural invertebrates, historically overfished, and their conservation is currently a worldwide concern. However, the processes underlying their recovery are poorly known. Here, we examined harvesting effects and recovery mechanisms of red coral Corallium rubrum by analyzing long-term photographic series taken on two populations that were harvested. We compared the relative importance of reproduction and re-growth as drivers of resilience. Harvesting heavily impacted coral populations causing large decreases in biomass and strong size-class distribution shifts towards populations dominated by small colonies. At the end of the study (after 4 and 7 years) only partial recovery was observed. The observed general pattern of low recruitment and high mortality of new recruits demonstrated limited effects of reproduction on population recovery. Adversely, low mortality of partially harvested adults and a large proportion of colonies showing new branches highlighted the importance of re-growth in the recovery process. The demographic projections obtained through stochastic models confirmed that the recovery rates of C. rubrum can be strongly modulated depending on harvesting procedures. Thus, leaving the basal section of the colonies when harvesting to avoid total mortality largely enhances the resilience of C. rubrum populations and quickens their recovery. On the other hand, the high survival of harvested colonies and the significant biomass reduction indicated that abundance may not be an adequate metric to assess the conservation status of clonal organisms because it can underestimate harvesting effects. This study highlights the unsustainability of current harvesting practices

  5. Interactive Effects of Imazapyr plus Triclopyr ester and Imazapyr plus Glyphosate Mixtures on Woody Weed Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Nespeca, Mathew C.

    1997-01-01

    A rapid primary herbicide screening experiment was conducted to determine if synergism or antagonism occurs with imazapyr(Arsenal®) plus triclopyr ester (Garlon 4®) and imazapyr plus glyphosate(Accord®) mixtures applied to woody weed seedlings. Using a booth sprayer, 66 herbicide treatments were applied to greenhouse grown black cherry (Prunus serotina), winged elm (Ulmus alata), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), red maple (Acer rubrum), black ...

  6. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  7. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Final report, August 31, 1990--September 3, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Johnson, E.R.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Based upon the results of this culture screening study, Rhodospirillum rubrum is recommended for biocatalysis of the water gas shift reaction and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is recommended for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Both bacteria require tungsten light for growth and can be co-cultured together if H{sub 2}S conversion is not complete (required concentration of at least 1 ppM), thereby presenting H{sub 2} uptake by Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. COS degradation may be accomplished by utilizing various CO-utilizing bacteria or by indirectly converting COS to elemental sulfur after the COS first undergoes reaction to H{sub 2} in water. The second alternative is probably preferred due to the low expected concentration of COS relative to H{sub 2}S. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. Rhodospirillum rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is also a photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, and converts H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur.

  8. A Rapid Method for the Extraction and Analysis of Carotenoids and Other Hydrophobic Substances Suitable for Systems Biology Studies with Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Sawodny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%–100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum.

  9. Evaluation of clinicomycological aspects of onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of onychomycosis has increased tremendously in recent times. Relatively little work has been done on this problem in our country. Research in past has been concentrated mainly on superficial mycoses of the skin. Aim: It is a well-established fact that geographical distribution of the fungi may change from time to time; hence, this study was planned to analyze clinical, epidemiological, and mycological features of onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients clinically suspected and microscopically proven to have onychomycosis were taken up for the study. Nail samples, collected by scraping in 30 patients and by using a dental drill in the rest, were examined microscopically and cultured for fungus. Results and Conclusions: Forty-five fungal isolates were obtained from 60 patients. Trichophyton rubrum was the commonest fungus isolated (46.67%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans accounted for 20% and 15.56% isolates, respectively. Two cases showed mixed growth of Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus niger in one and Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus fumigatus in the other. Isolation rate was higher by drilling compared to scraping, the rates being 83.33% and 66.67%, respectively. Superficial mycotic infections were present in 27 patients (45%.

  10. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq. C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae Leave Extracts and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mayumi Koroishi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF. Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.

  11. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Quarterly] technical report No. 2-1, September 5, 1991--December 4, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  12. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  13. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  14. A clinical and mycologic study of tinea corporis and pedis in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M; Sánchez, J L

    1984-10-01

    A study of the causative agents of tinea corporis and pedis in Puerto Rico in 1982 disclosed four different dermatophytes from a total of 97 cases. Among the total of 49 fungus specimens collected in tinea corporis, the mycologic flora consisted of four different fungus species: Trichophyton rubrum, 42 isolates (85.7%); Epidermophyton floccosum, 4 (8.1%); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 2 (4%); and Microsporum ferrugineum, 1 (2%). Among the total of 48 fungus specimens collected in tinea pedis, the mycologic flora consisted of 3 different fungus species as follows: T. rubrum, 35 isolates (72.9%); T. mentagrophytes 8 (16.6%); and E. floccosum, 5 (10.4%). Trichophyton rubrum caused 77 of 97 fungal isolates (79.3%). One surprising finding was the isolation of M. ferrugineum in a case of tinea corporis, documenting the first autochtonous case of this species in the island. This dermatophyte had previously been known only in Japan and adjacent areas of the Far East, Southern Europe, and Africa. PMID:6500796

  15. Cyc17, a meiosis-specific cyclin, is essential for anaphase initiation and chromosome segregation in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guan-Xiong; Dang, Huai; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Jing; Shodhan, Anura; Ning, Ying-Zhi; Xiong, Jie; Miao, Wei

    2016-07-17

    Although the role of cyclins in controlling nuclear division is well established, their function in ciliate meiosis remains unknown. In ciliates, the cyclin family has undergone massive expansion which suggests that diverse cell cycle systems exist, and this warrants further investigation. A screen for cyclins in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila showed that there are 34 cyclins in this organism. Only 1 cyclin, Cyc17, contains the complete cyclin core and is specifically expressed during meiosis. Deletion of CYC17 led to meiotic arrest at the diakinesis-like metaphase I stage. Expression of genes involved in DNA metabolism and chromosome organization (chromatin remodeling and basic chromosomal structure) was repressed in cyc17 knockout matings. Further investigation suggested that Cyc17 is involved in regulating spindle pole attachment, and is thus essential for chromosome segregation at meiosis. These findings suggest a simple model in which chromosome segregation is influenced by Cyc17. PMID:27192402

  16. Linking foraging strategies of marine calanoid copepods to patterns of nitrogen stable isotope signatures in a mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Frank; Saage, A.; Santer, B.;

    2005-01-01

    The foraging modes of calanoid copepods differ in that stationary suspension-feeding is more easily detected by prey with strong escape responses (ciliates) than is 'cruising' or 'ambushing' feeding. Thus, the ability of a copepod to include heterotrophic prey in its diet may be associated with its...... copepod delta(15)N to generally increase with decreasing copepod density because of increased food availability, and predicted stronger increases for cruising than for stationary suspension-fee ding species. As an assemblage, copepods had a pronounced impact on the food web: diatoms and ciliates decreased...... longicornis, a stationary suspension-feeder, showed a uniform isotopic increase in all mesocosms, which we believe resulted from nutritional stress arising from poor feeding on both ciliates (too fast for ingestion by T. longicornis) and nanoflagellates (too small). However, Pseudocalanus elongatus, a species...

  17. Microbial food web structure in a naturally iron-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean (Kerguelen Plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Van Wambeke, F.; Veldhuis, M.; Garcia, N.; Catala, P.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study in the framework of the KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study, 2005-2007 (KEOPS) project was to examine the microbial food web structure within a phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization. Integrated bacterial production (BP, 0-100 m) varied 12-fold over the study area (23.5-304 mg C m -2 d -1), while bacterial abundance (0-100 m) varied only by a factor of 2.8. Highest bacterial abundances and rates of BP were observed in the center of the diatom-dominated bloom, and substantial decreases in BP towards the later bloom stage were detectable. The abundance of bacterial predators (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, HNF) showed a significant coupling with BP in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area only. In the core of the bloom, BP consumed by HNF was 27%, 29%, 52% and 34% during the four consecutive visits that extended over 4 weeks and was much higher (80-95%) in HNLC waters. The relative contribution of the small-sized (important within (224 mg C m -2, 0-100 m) than outside the bloom (30.5 mg C m -2, 0-100 m). This difference was attributable mainly to tintinnids Cymatocyclis spp. accounting for 30-80% of the total ciliate biomass within the Kerguelen bloom but being rare in the HNLC water. Mixotrophic ciliate biomass accounted for 40-60% of the total aloricate ciliate biomass all over the studied area. This was mainly due to the relatively large size of mixotrophic ciliates present in the samples ( Tontonia antarctica, Strombidium spp. and Laboea strobila). Overall, our results suggest a strong response of bacteria, weak response of HNF, and strong controlling effects on ciliates. The weak coupling between heterotrophic bacteria and HNF and the low abundance of ciliates suggest a low transfer of carbon from the microbial to the classical food web within the Kerguelen bloom.

  18. 胶州湾赤潮生物种类及其生态分布特征%Harmful algae bloom species in Jiaozhou Bay and the features of distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑天; 邹景忠; 张永山

    2004-01-01

    近年来,胶州湾赤潮发生频繁,对海水养殖业、海洋环境乃至人类健康与安全都构成威胁,作者根据 1997年 6~ 9月和 1998年 4~ 9月采于胶州湾东北部富营养化海域的样品及有关历史资料,报道了赤潮生物 69种, 其中已发生过的赤潮种类有 7种,分析了中肋骨条藻 Skeletonema costatum、圆筛藻 Coscinodiscus sp.、冰河拟星杆藻(日本星杆藻) Asterionellopsis glacialis、劳氏角毛藻 Chaetoceros lorenzianus、红色中缢虫 Mesodinium rubrum等主要赤潮生物的生态分布特征.

  19. Balantidium coli-infection in a Finnish horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Kummala, Elina; Sukura, Antti

    2008-11-25

    Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoan that inhabits the large intestine of swine, man, rodents, and nonhuman primates. Frequently this organism is associated with enteric diseases in man and nonhuman primates, with rare manifestations of disease in swine and other mammalian species. This report describes a case of B. coli-induced enteric disease in a 15-yr-old, mare, Finnish Horse after an acute onset of colic. Severe hemorrhagic and eosinophilic colitis with intense infiltration of intralesional B. coli-like ciliated protozoan were found histologically. PMID:18922641

  20. Differential lectin binding patterns in the oviductal ampulla of the horse during oestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Desantis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the oligosaccharide sequence of glycoconjugates, mainly sialoglycoconjugates, in the horse oviductal ampulla during oestrus by means of lectin and pre-lectin methods such as the KOH-neuraminidase procedure to remove sialic acid residues and incubation with N-glycosidase F to cleave N-linked glycans. Ciliated cells displayed Nlinked oligosaccharides throughout the cytoplasm. The cilia glycocalyx expressed both N- and O-linked (mucin-type oligosaccharides, both showing a high variety of terminal sequences. In the most non-ciliated cells, the whole cytoplasm contained N-linked oligosaccharides with terminal aGal as well as mucin-type glycans with terminal Forssman pentasaccharides. In a few scattered non-ciliated cells, the whole cytoplasm displayed sialylated N-linked oligosaccharides with terminal Neu5Ac-GalNAc and O-linked glycans terminating with neutral and/or aGalNAc, Neu5Aca2,6Gal/ GalNAc, Neu5AcGalb1,3GalNAc. Supra-nuclear granules, probably Golgi zones, of non-ciliated cells showed mainly Olinked glycans rich in sialic acid residues. The luminal surface of non-ciliated cells showed N-linked oligosaccharides, containing terminal/internal aMan/aGlc, bGlcNAc and terminal aGal, as well as mucin-type oligosaccharides terminating with a large variety of either neutral saccharides or sialylated sequences. Apical protrusions containing O-linked oligosaccharides with terminal Forssman pentasaccharide, Neu5Ac-Galb1,4GlcNAc, Neu5Ac-GalNAc were seen in nonciliated cells scattered along the epithelium. These findings show the presence of sialoglycoconjugates in the oviductal ampulla epithelium of the mare and the existence of different lectin binding profiles between ciliated and non-ciliated (secretory cells, as well as the presence of non-ciliated cell sub-types which might determine functional differences along the ampullary epithelium of mare oviduct.

  1. On combinatorial properties of elementary intramolecular operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we tackle a problem from biology in terms of discrete mathematics. We are interested in a complex DNA manipulation process happening in eukaryotic organisms of a subclass of ciliate species called {\\it Stichotrichia} during so-called gene assembly. This process is in particular interesting since one can interpret gene assembly in ciliates as sorting of permutations. We survey here results related to studies on sorting permutations with some specific rewriting rules that formalize elementary intramolecular gene assembly operations. The research question is ``what permutation may be sorted with our operations?"

  2. Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Forró, Barbara; Lengyel, György; Székely, Csaba; Varga, Ádám; Molnár, Kálmán

    2016-06-01

    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes. PMID:27342092

  3. A multi-Species Microalgae Bloom in Bahia de La Paz, Gulf of California, México (June 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Gárate Lizárraga, Ismael; Band Schmidt, Christine Johanna; AGUIRRE BAHENA, FERNANDO; GRAYEB DEL ALAMO, TANOS

    2009-01-01

    Red tides Patches were observed in Bahía de La Paz in June 17 and 18 of 2008. According to temperature and wind data this bloom occurred under upwelling-like conditions. Examination of the red tide samples showed that the ciliate Myrionecta rubra and two naked dinoflagellates Gyrodinium instriatum and Katodinium glaucum as the main species responsible for this bloom Total density (microalgae and ciliate) at the sampling stations was similar on both days, varying from 4607 × 103 to cells L-1 t...

  4. Ammonium assimilation and regeneration by size-fractionated plankton in permanently well-mixed temperate waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LeCorre, P.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Helguen, S.L.; Maguer, J.F.

    by over four orders of magni- tude (Leakey etal., 1993). Nevertheless, several recent studies can be cited in sup- port of the importance of ciliates in N recycling at the level of the microbial food web. They are a significant and often dominant component...,R.W. and TurnerJ.T. (1992) Ecology of planktonic ciliates in marine food webs. Rev. AquaL ScL, 6,139-181. Platt,T. and U.W.K.W. (eds) (1986) Photosynthetic Picoplankton. Can. Bull Fish. AquaL 5c/., 214. Probyn.T.A. (1985) Nitrogen uptake by size...

  5. The role of Scgb1a1+ Clara cells in the long-term maintenance and repair of lung airway, but not alveolar, epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Okubo, Tadashi; Xue, Yan; Brass, David M; Auten, Richard L.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Fan; Hogan, Brigid L.M.

    2009-01-01

    To directly test the contribution of Scgb1a1+ Clara cells to postnatal growth, homeostasis and repair of lung epithelium, we generated a Scgb1a1-CreERTM “knock-in” mouse line for lineage tracing these cells. Under all conditions tested the majority of Clara cells in the bronchioles both self-renew and generate ciliated cells. In the trachea, Clara cells give rise to ciliated cells but do not self-renew extensively. Nevertheless, they can contribute to tracheal repair. In the postnatal mouse l...

  6. Qualitative importance of the microbial loop and plankton community structure in a eutropic lake during a bloom of Cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.

    1990-01-01

    , supporting the idea that ciliates are an important link between bacteria and higher trophic levels. During and after the bloom of Aphanizornenon, major fluxes of carbon between bacteria, ciliates and crustaceans were observed, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates played a minor role in the pelagic food web...... carbon accounted for only 4-9% of bacterial carbon demand. Cyclopoid copepods and smallsized cladocerans started to grow after the culmination, but food limitation probably controlled the biomass after the collapse of the bloom. Grazing of micro- and macrozooplankton were estimated from in situ...

  7. Fate of pathogenic Bacillus cereus spores after ingestion by protist grazers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Santos, Susana; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse;

    to the evolution of Bacillus cereus group bacteria (e.g. B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis) as a pathogen. It has been hypothesized that the spore stage protects against digestion by predating protists. Indeed, B. thuringiensis spores have been shown to be readily ingested by ciliated protists but failed...

  8. The life cycle of the free-living marine nematode Innocuonema tentabunda De Man 1890

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.R.

    laid eggs in a mass of secreted mucilage, which also favoured the growth of unidentified micro-algae and ciliates, as these were also observed in the mucus. Measurement of egg diameter and the length of each developmental stage was done daily...

  9. Mechanical filtering by the boundary layer and fluid-structure interaction in the superficial neuromast of the fish lateral line system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHenry, Matthew J.; Strother, James A.; van Netten, Sietse M.

    2008-01-01

    A great diversity of aquatic animals detects water flow with ciliated mechanoreceptors on the body's surface. In order to understand how these receptors mechanically filter signals, we developed a theoretical model of the superficial neuromast in the fish lateral line system. The cupula of the neuro

  10. Evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced Chinese herbal medicines against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a widespread ciliated ectoparasite and results in severe economic loss in the aquaculture industry. Since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat I. multi...

  11. Life history of a free-living marine nematode Daptonema normandicum reared in laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    dark: 12 hr light conditions. The food consists primarily of an unidentified bacterium and mixed algae, but diatom and ciliates were also observed in culture. Females produced first batch of eggs at the age of 23 days. Gravid female normally carry 8...

  12. Vertical distribution, grazing and egg production of calanoid copepods during winter-spring in Gullmarsfjorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Tiselius, P.

    1998-01-01

    were superfluous throughout the water column. Copepods and ciliates were never correlated. Ingestion as determined from gut fluorescence and egg production analyses suggested a higher degree of herbivory during the spring bloom than before and after. There was potential for copepod predation control of...

  13. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria on plankton assemblage : community development during decay of Nodularia spumigena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström-Öst, J.; Koski, Marja; Schmidt, K.;

    2002-01-01

    We studied the development of the plankton community in an artificially created toxic Nodularia spumigena bloom during a 2 wk enclosure study at the SW coast of Finland in the Baltic Sea. We measured bacterial abundance, dominant phytoplankton groups and ciliates, as well as concentrations of phy...

  14. External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male: a comparative study of Symbion pandora and S. americanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Funch, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    microscopy. In both species, anterior and ventral ciliated fields, as well as paired lateral sensorial organs, were identified, thus confirming previous observations. However, new details are described herein such as the penial pouch that encloses the penis. We compare our findings on both Symbion species...

  15. Ciliocytophthoria in clinical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziyannis, E; Yen-Lieberman, B; Hall, G; Procop, G W

    2000-08-01

    Direct immunofluorescence assays (DFAs) are used in the clinical virology laboratory for the rapid detection of viruses. An assessment of the cellularity of specimens submitted for DFA is necessary for the most effective use of this assay. This assessment ensures that an adequate number of the appropriate cells are present for examination. During this assessment, clinical virologists may encounter unfamiliar cellular elements or cellular fragments. One of these elements, ciliocytophthoria, has been misinterpreted as a parasite in specimens submitted for cytologic testing. We describe a similar case in which a technologist thought that ciliocytophthoria possibly represented a ciliated parasite in a nasopharyngeal specimen sent for respiratory syncytial virus DFA. After a thorough morphologic examination, the staff dismissed the possibility of a ciliated parasite. We confirmed this entity as ciliocytophthoria using morphologic criteria and the Diff-Quik stain. This near misidentification of ciliocytophthoria as a ciliated parasite affords us the opportunity to raise the awareness of clinical virologists about ciliocytophthoria. Additionally, we briefly review useful features for differentiating ciliocytophthoria from the only ciliate parasitic for humans, Balantidium coli. Finally, we present the utility of a commonly used cytologic stain, the Diff-Quik stain, for the confirmation of ciliocytophthoria. PMID:10923088

  16. A case report of an uncommon parasitic infection of human balantidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manochitra; Rajkumari, Nonika; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, S C

    2016-01-01

    Balantidium coli, a large, ciliated pathogen, is known to cause balantidiasis in humans. We report a case of B. coli infection in a 37-year-old male with tuberculosis and presenting with fever, anorexia, mild abdominal pain, and episodes of loose stools for 1 week. PMID:26998438

  17. Trophic role and top-down control of a subarctic protozooplankton community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    Plankton succession was investigated in the subarctic Godthåbsfjord, Western Greenland, from March to August 2010. The trophic role of protozooplankton (ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates) was evaluated with emphasis on their seasonal succession and as prey for the copepod community...

  18. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    to the atmosphere for a period of 14 months. Bacteria and flagellates occurred in high numbers after 25 days. Ciliates reached high abundance levels after 137 days, followed by amoebae after 245 days. Numbers of distinguishable protozoan morpho-types increased until 245 days after exposure and declined thereafter...

  19. Meeting on the Microbiology of Soils, Autumn 2001: Estimation of protozoan diversity in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Different methods of estimating protozoan diversity in soil are discussed in this paper, with the major emphasis on heterotrophic flagellates. Although many species of ciliates and testate amoebae seem to be unique to the soil environment, the communities of heterotrophic flagellates and naked am...

  20. Rapid identification of rumen protozoa by restriction analysis of amplified 18S rRNA gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensbogenova, M.; Kisidayova, S.; Michalowski, T.; Javorsky, P.; Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Hackstein, J.H.P.; McEwan, N.R.; Jouany, J.P.; Newbold, J.C.; Pristas, P.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for molecular identification of rumen ciliates without the need for cultivation. Total DNA was isolated from single protozoal cells by the Chelex method and nearly complete protozoal 18S rRNA genes were amplified and subjected to restriction fragment length polymorp