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Sample records for ciliate mesodinium rubrum

  1. Interaction between Mesodinium rubrum and its prey: importance of prey concentration, irradiance and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldrup, Morten; Hansen, Per Juel

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The functional and numerical responses for the marine obligate mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum Lohmann, 1908 (=Myrionecta rubra Jankowsky, 1976) were studied at 2 irradiances (20 and 100 µE m2 s-1). Furthermore, its tolerance to high pH levels and response to starvation were studied...... was sufficient for maximum growth, but carbon contributions as high as 22% were observed to have no effect on growth. The pH experiments revealed that the growth of M. rubrum and Teleaulax sp. was impeded at pH levels in excess of 8.5 and 8.8, respectively. Experiments to reveal M. rubrum's response...

  2. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles, not only for water pumping in many active filter-feeding organisms, but also for the swimming activity of ciliates and other aquatic organisms that use cilia for propulsion. The present study concerns the effect of temperature-dependent viscosity of the amb...

  3. Bio-optical characteristics of a red tide induced by Mesodinium rubrum in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Laurencia; Varela, Ramón; Muller-Karger, Frank; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The bio-optical changes of the water induced by red tides depend on the type of organism present, and the spectral characterization of such changes can provide useful information on the organism, abundance and distribution. Here we present results from the bio-optical characterization of a non-toxic red tide induced by the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Particle absorption was high [ap(440) = 1.78 m- 1], as compared to measurements done in the same region [ap(440) = 0.09 ± 0.06 m- 1], with detrital components contributing roughly 11% [ad(440) = 0.19 m- 1]. The remainder was attributed to absorption by phytoplankton pigments [aph(440) = 1.60 m- 1]. These aph values were ~ 15 times higher than typical values for these waters. High chlorophyll a concentrations were also measured (52.73 μg L- 1), together with alloxanthin (9.52 μg L- 1) and chlorophyll c (6.25 μg L- 1). This suite of pigment is typical of the algal class Cryptophyceae, from which Mesodinium obtains its chloroplasts. Remote sensing reflectance showed relatively low values [Rrs(440) = 0.0007 sr- 1], as compared to other Rrs values for the region under high bloom conditions [Rrs(440) = 0.0028 sr- 1], with maxima at 388, 484, 520, 596 and 688 nm. Based on the low reflection in the green-yellow, as compared to other red tides, we propose a new band ratio [Rrs(688)/Rrs(564)] to identify blooms of this particular group of organisms.

  4. Acquired phototrophy in Mesodinium and Dinophysis – A review of cellular organization, prey selectivity, nutrient uptake and bioenergetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Johnson, Matthew;

    2013-01-01

    Acquired phototrophy, i.e. the use of chloroplasts from ingested prey, can be found among some species of dinoflagellates and ciliates. The best studied examples of this phenomenon in these groups are within the ciliate genus Mesodinium and the dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis, both ecologically i...... growth. Both Mesodinium and Dinophysis spp. can survive for months in the light without food. The potential role for modeling in exploring the complex balance of phototrophy and phago-heterotrophy, and its ecological implications for the mixotroph and their prey, is discussed....

  5. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

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    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  6. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Cao, Wenqing; Zheng, Lianming; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates (protozoa) are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida) were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  7. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Wang

    Full Text Available Ciliates (protozoa are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  8. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  9. Ciliate community structure and interactions within the planktonic food web in two alpine lakes of contrasting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Koinig, Karin A; Rott, Eugen; Sommaruga, Ruben; Tartarotti, Barbara; Trattner, Florian; Sonntag, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Climate warming is accelerating the retreat of glaciers and recently, many 'new' glacial turbid lakes have been created. In the course of time, the loss of the hydrological connectivity to a glacier causes, however, changes in their water turbidity and turns these ecosystems into clear ones.To understand potential differences in the food-web structure between glacier-fed turbid and clear alpine lakes, we sampled ciliates, phyto-, bacterio- and zooplankton in one clear and one glacial turbid alpine lake, and measured key physicochemical parameters. In particular, we focused on the ciliate community and the potential drivers for their abundance distribution.In both lakes, the zooplankton community was similar and dominated by the copepod Cyclops abyssorum tatricus and rotifers including Polyarthra dolichoptera, Keratella hiemalis, Keratella cochlearis and Notholca squamula. The phytoplankton community structure differed and it was dominated by the planktonic diatom Fragilaria tenera and the cryptophyte alga Plagioselmis nannoplanctica in the glacial turbid lake, while chrysophytes and dinoflagellates were predominant in the clear one.Ciliate abundance and richness were higher in the glacial turbid lake (∼4000-27 800 Ind L(-1), up to 29 species) than in the clear lake (∼570-7150 Ind L(-1), up to eight species). The dominant species were Balanion planctonicum, Askenasia cf. chlorelligera, Urotricha cf. furcata and Mesodinium cf. acarus. The same species dominated in both lakes, except for Mesodinium cf. acarus and some particle-associated ciliates, which occurred exclusively in the glacial turbid lake. The relative underwater solar irradiance (i.e. percentage of PAR and UVR at depth) significantly explained their abundance distribution pattern, especially in the clear water lake. In the glacial turbid lake, the abundance of the dominating ciliate taxa was mainly explained by the presence of predatory zooplankton.Our results revealed an unexpected high

  10. Distribution and Abundance of Interstitial Ciliates in Southampton Water in Relation to Physicochemical Conditions, Metal Pollution and the Availability of Food Organisms

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    Al-Rasheid, K. A. S.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1995-07-01

    Sediment samples were collected at low tide from eight sandy and muddy shores around Southampton Water on one occasion in July and one occasion in September. The temperature and pH of the sediments were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The population densities of bacteria and microflagellates were determined and the ciliates in sub-samples were identified to genus level and enumerated. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and nickel in the interstitial water and in the dried sediments were measured by the dithizone and atomic absorption methods, respectively. These metal concentrations were compared with literature values for other British estuaries. Ciliates belonging to 23 genera were found in the sediments, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Bacterial numbers (mean ˜5×10 8 cm -3) at the various stations correlate with the surface area of the sediment particles and also correlate weakly with flagellate numbers (mean ˜2×10 4 cm -3). Total ciliate numbers (mean ˜1×10 3 cm -3) correlated quite strongly with flagellate numbers, but not with bacterial numbers. Euplotes, Strombidiumand Uronemawere common at all stations and generally dominated; Didinium, Mesodinium pulexand Pleuronemawere also found at all stations, and the latter two were often numerous; Uronychiawas found at seven stations. The distributions of Acinetopsis, Blepharisma, Lacrymaria, M. pulex, Paramecium, Spirostomum, Strombidiumand Vorticellashowed similar correlations to one another, and tended to favour sites nearer to sources of freshwater; these ciliates also showed a correlation with pH, river waters locally being alkaline. None of the ciliates showed correlations with any physical characteristics of the sediments. There were no negative correlations of ciliate distributions with metal pollutants. The levels of metal pollutants found in water drained

  11. The trophic role and impact of plankton ciliates in the microbial web structure of a tropical polymictic lake dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the plankton structures and dynamics in tropical and subtropical lakes has revealed important trends that set these lakes apart from temperate lakes, and one of the main differences is the enhanced importance of the microbial food web with respect to net plankton. Ciliates are a key component of subtropical and tropical microbial webs because of their role as dominant picoplankton grazers and their ability to channel picoplankton production to the uppermost trophic levels. Plankton ciliates have been found to play a crucial role in the survival of fish larvae in lakes that share several features with Lake Catemaco, a eutrophic tropical Mexican lake. Therefore, the plankton ciliate composition, abundance, and biomass of Lake Catemaco were studied to assess their role in the microbial food web. The data were obtained from surface and bottom water samples collected at eleven points during three surveys in 2011 and an additional survey in 2013, with the surveys covering the local climatic seasons. The most abundant components of the plankton ciliate assemblages were small prostomatids (Urotricha spp., choreotrichs (Rimostrombidium spp., cyclotrichs (Mesodinium and Askenasia, and scuticociliates (Cyclidium, Cinetochilum, Pleuronema, and Uronema. Other important ciliates in terms of abundance and/or biomass were haptorids (Actinobolina, Belonophrya, Monodinium, Paradileptus, and Laginophrya, Halteria, oligotrichs (Limnostrombidium and Pelagostrombidium, Linostomella, Bursaridium, Cyrtolophosis, and Litonotus. The ciliate abundance averaged 57 cells mL-1 and ranged from 14 to 113 cells mL-1. The mean ciliate biomass was 71 µg C L-1 and ranged from 10 to 202 µg C L-1. Differences were not detected in ciliate abundance or biomass between the sampling points or sampling depths (surface to bottom; however, significant differences were observed between seasons for both variables. Nano-sized filamentous cyanobacteria were the most

  12. : a database of ciliate genome rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Kukushkin, Denys; Lindblad, Kelsi; Chen, Xiao; Jonoska, Nataša; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated protists exhibit nuclear dimorphism through the presence of somatic macronuclei (MAC) and germline micronuclei (MIC). In some ciliates, DNA from precursor segments in the MIC genome rearranges to form transcriptionally active genes in the mature MAC genome, making these ciliates model organisms to study the process of somatic genome rearrangement. Similar broad scale, somatic rearrangement events occur in many eukaryotic cells and tumors. The (http://oxytricha.princeton.edu/mds_ies_db) is a database of genome recombination and rearrangement annotations, and it provides tools for visualization and comparative analysis of precursor and product genomes. The database currently contains annotations for two completely sequenced ciliate genomes: Oxytricha trifallax and Tetrahymena thermophila.

  13. Evaluating PHA productivity of bioengineered Rhodosprillum rubrum.

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    Huanan Jin

    Full Text Available This study explored the potential of using Rhodosprillum rubrum as the biological vehicle to convert chemically simple carbon precursors to a value-added bio-based product, the biopolymer PHA. R. rubrum strains were bioengineered to overexpress individually or in various combinations, six PHA biosynthetic genes (phaC1, phaA, phaB, phaC2, phaC3, and phaJ, and the resulting nine over-expressing strains were evaluated to assess the effect on PHA content, and the effect on growth. These experiments were designed to genetically evaluate: 1 the role of each apparently redundant PHA polymerase in determining PHA productivity; 2 identify the key gene(s within the pha biosynthetic operon that determines PHA productivity; and 3 the role of phaJ to support PHA productivity. The result of overexpressing each PHA polymerase-encoding gene indicates that phaC1 and phaC2 are significant contributors to PHA productivity, whereas phaC3 has little effect. Similarly, over-expressing individually or in combination the three PHA biosynthesis genes located in the pha operon indicates that phaB is the key determinant of PHA productivity. Finally, analogous experiments indicate that phaJ does not contribute significantly to PHA productivity. These bioengineering strains achieved PHA productivity of up to 30% of dry biomass, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the non-engineered control strain, indicating the feasibility of using this approach to produce value added bio-based products.

  14. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2014-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm(2) reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis.

  15. Analysis of part of the Trichophyton rubrum ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingling; JIN Qi; MA Li; LENG Wenchuan; YANG Jian; ZHU Junping; DONG Jie; XUE Ying; WAN Zhe; LI Ruoyu

    2004-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum(7.Rubrum)is the most common of the superficial fungi.In an effort to better understand the genetic and biochemical makeup of T.Rubrum,we generated Cdna libraries from 3 growth stages and used these to isolate 4002 unique expressed sequence tags(ESTs).Sequence comparisons with the Genbank database allowed 1226 of the ESTs to be assigned putative functions or matched with homologs from other organisms.Of the remaining ESTs,989 were only weakly similar to known sequences and 1787 had no identifiable functions,suggesting that they represent novel genes.We further analyzed the presence of several important genes involved in the growth,metabolism,signal transduction,pathogenesis and drug resistance in 7.Rubrum.This information was used to newly elucidate important metabolic pathways in T.Rubrum.Taken together,our results should form the molecular basis for continued research on the physiological processes and pathogenic mechanisms of T.Rubrum,and may lead to a better understanding of fungal drug resistance and identification of new drug targets.

  16. Control of exocellular proteases in dermatophytes and especially Trichophyton rubrum.

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    Meevootisom, V; Niederpruem, D J

    1979-06-01

    The production of proteases was investigated during growth of dermatophytic fungi with special emphasis on Trichophyton rubrum. Exogenous glucose suppressed elastase production in all dermatophytes examined. The production of protease active guinea pig hair in keratin-salts broth by Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum was also suppressed by glucose. Various carbohydrates added to keratin-salts broth curtailed protease production by T. rubrum as did individual amino acids but ammonium phosphate did not. Enzyme activities against guinea pig hair were compared in twenty-one diverse clinical isolates of T. rubrum cultured in keratin-salts broth. Activity also occurred towards casein, bovine serum albumin, keratin, collagen and elastin after keratin-growth. Studies concerning the properties of enzyme activities in culture filtrates of T. rubrum after keratin-growth suggested that multiple proteases occurred here. Hydrolysis of guinea pig hair and elastin were optimal at pH7 while keratinase was most active at alkaline pH. Divalent cations stimulated protease(s). Ferric ion and mercuric ion stimulated keratinase but were inhibitory to guinea pig hair hydrolysis and elastase. Chelating agents inhibited elastase and the hydrolysis of guinea pig hair more severely than keratinase and all of those effects were reversed by excess calcium. A serine-protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), curtailed keratinase but was less inhibitory to elastase and guinea pig hair hydrolysis. Soybean trypsin inhibitor arrested each protease.

  17. Electrophoretic molecular karyotype of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

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    Cervelatti Eliane P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic karyotype of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum was established using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF gel electrophoresis. Five chromosomal bands of approximately 3.0 to 5.8 megabase pairs (Mbp each were observed and together indicated that 22.05 Mbp of the total genome are organized as chromosomal macromolecules. In addition to establishing the number and size of T. rubrum chromosomes, these results open perspectives for the construction of chromosome-specific libraries and for the physical mapping of genes of interest, thus permitting future gene linkage studies in this pathogen. A detailed understanding of the karyotype and genomic organization of T. rubrum should contribute to further genetic, taxonomic and epidemiological studies of this dermatophyte.

  18. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

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    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  19. Effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth and ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-li; XU Jing; ZHUO Feng-lin; WANG Li; XU Wei; XU Ying; ZHANG Xiao-yan; ZHAO Jun-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is the most common causative agent of dermatophytosis worldwide.In this study,we examined the effect of laser irradiation on the growth and morphology of T.rubrum.Methods Colonies of T.rubrum were isolated (one colony per plate),and randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups:Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment,long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser treatment,intense pulsed light (IPL)treatment,308 nm excimer laser treatment and the blank control group without treatment.Standardized photographs were obtained from grown-up fungal plates prior to treatment.Colonies were then exposed to various wavelengths and fluences of laser light.To compare the growth of colonies,they were re-photographed under identical conditions three and six days post-treatment.To investigate the morphology of T.rubrum,scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from specimens exposed to 24 hours of laser treatment.Results Growth of T.rubrum colonies was significantly inhibited following irradiation by 694 nm Q-switched and 1064nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG lasers.Other treatments exerted little or no effect.Q-switched laser irradiation exerted a stronger growth inhibitory effect than long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Following treatment by the Q-switched ruby laser system,T.rubrum hyphae became shrunken and deflated,and SEM images revealed rough,fractured hyphal surfaces,punctured with small destructive holes.TEM images showed that the hyphae were degenerating,as evidenced by the irregular shape of hyphae,rough and loose cell wall,and obscure cytoplasmic texture.Initially high elect(io)n density structure was visible in the cell; later,low-density structure appeared as a result of cytoplasmic dissolution.In contrast,the blank control group showed no obvious changes in morphology.Conclusion The Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment significantly inhibits the growth and changes the morphology of T.rubrum.

  20. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

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    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  1. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts.

  2. Detection of xanthomegnin in epidermal materials infected with Trichophyton rubrum.

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    Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Borst, I; Summerbell, R C

    2000-11-01

    Xanthomegnin, a mutagenic mycotoxin best known as an agent of nephropathy and death in farm animals exposed to food-borne Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, was first isolated about 35 y ago as a diffusing pigment from cultures of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton megninii. This study investigates the production of xanthomegnin by the most common dermatophytic species, Trichophyton rubrum, both in dermatologic nail specimens and in culture. In view of the labile nature of xanthomegnin, a chromatographic procedure was developed to allow high-performance liquid chromatography analysis within 1 h of sample extraction. In cultures, Tricho- phyton rubrum produced xanthomegnin as a major pigment that appears to give the culture its characteristic red colony reverse. Xanthomegnin was also repeatedly extracted from human nail and skin material infected by Trichophyton rubrum. The level of xanthomegnin present, however, varied among the clinical samples studied. Xanthomegnin was not detected in uninfected nails. These results show that patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections may be exposed to xanthomegnin, although the consequences of such an exposure are not currently known.

  3. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the Bla

  4. Global transcriptional profiles of Trichophyton rubrum in response to Flucytosine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is one of the most common human fungal pathogens that cause chronic infections of the skin and nails. To identify antifungal responsive genes, cDNA microarray analysis was performed for T. rubrum to reveal global transcriptional profiles of drug-specific responses to 5-Flucytosine (5-FC). cDNA microarray was constructed from the T. rubrum expressed sequence tag (ESTs) database, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-FC was determined, and microarray hybridization and data analysis were applied. The expression pattern of 7 genes observed by microarray was confirmed by the quantitative real-time reverser transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data analysis indicated that a total of 474 genes were found differentially expressed, 196 showed an increase in expression and 278 showed a decrease in expression. Marked down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism (such as CDC21), transcription (such as E2F1), and RNA processing (such as SGN1, RIM4 and NOP1) was observed. Other genes involved in signal transduction, chaperones, inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acid transport, lipid transport and potential drug resistance mechanism were also affected by 5-FC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of the selected genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray results. This is the first analysis of transcriptional profiles in response to 5-FC for T. rubrum. The findings may be valuable for the identification of genes involved in mechanisms of action and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance of 5-FC.

  5. Imaging features of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Hua Fang; Dan-Jun Dong; Shi-Zheng Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a very rare cystic lesion of the liver that is histologically similar to bronchogenic cyst. We report one case of CHFC that was hard to distinguish from solid-cystic neoplasm in imaging features. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in differentiating these cysts from other lesions.

  6. Sensibilidad al fluconazol de aislamientos de Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma T Gross-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Trichophyton rubrum es el dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente: piel glabra, uñas de las manos y de los pies. El fluconazol es utilizado con frecuencia para el tratamiento de las onicomicosis en nuestra población, por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar la sensibilidad a este antifúngico, de aislamientos costarricenses de T. rubrum. Métodos: se investigó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol de 80 aislamientos de T. rubrum, obtenidos de muestras de piel y sus anexos. El método utilizado fue el de microdilución M-38A, descrito por el “National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards”. Las diluciones finales del fluconazol fueron de 0,25 a 128 μg/ml. Resultados: la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de uñas de los pies (68,75%. El 86,25% de los aislamientos analizados presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria entre 0,25-8 μg/ml, el 8,75% entre 16-32 μg/ml y un 5% > 64 μg/ml. De estos aislamientos resistentes, dos fueron de uñas de los pies y dos de plantas de pie. Conclusión: debido a que la mayoría de los aislamientos de T. rubrum demostraron ser sensibles al fluconazol, solo se recomienda realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a este antifúngico en casos de falla terapéutica, especialmente en pacientes con onicomicosis en la cual el tratamiento es prolongado.

  7. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  8. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin ®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia and high-dose (4000 conidia T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation. Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. Conclusions: We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection.

  9. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis-Episkin(R)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan-Pan Liang; Xin-Zhu Huang; Jin-Ling Yi; Zhi-Rui Chen; Han Ma; Cong-Xiu Ye; Xian-Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood.An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.In this study, we intended to develop a new T.rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis-EpiSkin(R), and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T.rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose.During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation.Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis.The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.SEM observations further exhibited the process of T.rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way.Conclusions: We established the T.rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully.It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.

  10. Ultrastructure of the rumen ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Paul, R; Butler, R D; Williams, A G

    1989-04-14

    The ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium possesses cilia over the entire surface. Both the oral and somatic kineties are composed of monokinetids comprising a kinetosome, a tangential ribbon of 5 transverse microtubules, a weakly convergent bundle of 5 postciliary microtubules, a short kinetodesmal fibre, and a single microtubule homologous to T(2) of other litostomate ciliates [15]. The reversed orientation of the kineties within and around the vestibulum may be a consequence of the evolutionary migration of the vestibulum from the anterior to the posterior of the cell. The vestibulum leads to the cytostome and a cytopharynx of the rhabdos type [3]. Microtubules lining the exit canals of the posterior contractile vacuole and cytoproct are believed to originate from somatic kinetids. The ecto-endoplasmic boundary layer (eeb) is composed of two microfibrillar layers. A large extension of the eeb connects the vestibulum to the cell cortex but does not form a karyophore as seen in the closely related genus Isotricha [12].

  11. Ciliates and the rare biosphere: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunthorn, Micah; Stoeck, Thorsten; Clamp, John; Warren, Alan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief review of the rare biosphere from the perspective of ciliates and other microbial eukaryotes. We trace research on rarity from its lack of much in-depth focus in morphological and Sanger sequencing projects, to its central importance in analyses using high throughput sequencing strategies. The problem that the rare biosphere is potentially comprised of mostly errors is then discussed in the light of asking community-comparative, novel-diversity, and ecosystem-functioning questions.

  12. First report of folliculinid ciliates affecting Caribbean scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cróquer, A.; Bastidas, C.; Lipscomp, D.; Rodríguez-Martínez, R. E.; Jordan-Dahlgren, E.; Guzman, H. M.

    2006-05-01

    This is the first report of a ciliate of the genus Halofolliculina infecting hard coral species of six families (Acroporidae, Agaricidae, Astrocoeniidae, Faviidae, Meandrinidae and Poritidae) and milleporids in the Caribbean. Surveys conducted during 2004 2005 in Venezuela, Panama and México confirmed that this ciliate affects up to 25 scleractinian species. The prevalence of this ciliate at the coral community level was variable across sites, being most commonly found at Los Roques, Venezuela, and at Bocas del Toro, Panama (prevalence 0.2 2.5%), but rarely observed in the Mexican Caribbean. Ciliates were more prevalent within populations of acroporids ( Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis and Acropora prolifera) in Los Roques. Recent observations also corroborate the presence of these ciliates in Curacao and Puerto Rico. Our observations indicate that ciliates affecting corals have a wider distribution than previously thought, and are no longer exclusively found in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea.

  13. TrED: the Trichophyton rubrum Expression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide. It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways. We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Description All publicly available ESTs and expression profiles of T. rubrum during conidial germination in time-course experiments and challenged with antifungal agents are deposited in the database. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included. ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. TrED provides functional analysis based on GenBank, Pfam, and KOG databases, along with KEGG pathway and GO vocabulary. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST. Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. rubrum and comparative results of dermatophytes. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. TrED is available from URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/TrED/.

  14. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65 psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9 psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5 psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5 psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5 psu, 8.9 psu, 29.5 psu and 50.5 psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5 psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5 psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils.

  15. In vitro characterization of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Orlandi, C B; Sardi, J C O; Santos, C T; Fusco-Almeida, A M; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for a disease known as dermatophytosis. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. This paper describes, for the first time, the characteristics of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms. Biofilm formation was analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Both species were able to form mature biofilms in 72 h. T. rubrum biofilm produced more biomass and EPS and was denser than T. mentagrophytes biofilm. The SEM results demonstrated a coordinated network of hyphae in all directions, embedded within EPS in some areas. Research and characterization of biofilms formed by dermatophytes may contribute to the search of new drugs for the treatment of these mycoses and might inform future revisions with respect to the dose and duration of treatment of currently available antifungals.

  16. ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM, TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES AND TRICHOPHYTON VERRUCOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Zaini

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Since most of the studies on chemical compounds of dermatophytes have shown the existence of a relationship between their pathogenisity and proteolytec enzymes. Activities of 19 different enzymes in viable mycelia and cytoplasmic extracts of T.rubrum (CETr, T.mentagrophytes (CETm and T.verrucosum (CETv were investigated by the API-Zym System. The results showed that Viable mycelia of T.rubrm and T.mentagrophytes had valine arylamidase and cystine arylamidase activity where as no such activity was observed in CETr and CETm or in the viable mycelia and cytoplasmic extracts of T.verrucosum. Also the viable mycelia of T.rubrum showed α-mannosidase activity; gowever this enzyme was not detected in CETr, but was active in both the viable mycelia and CETv and CETm. Finally, only in viable mycelia and CETv and CETm was lipase (C14 activity observed. Furthermore none of the viable mycelia of these three species showed any α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, α-fucosidase,β-glucoronidase, trypsin or chymotrypsin activity.

  17. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reslewic, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhou, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Place, M. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhang, Y. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Briska, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Goldstein, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Churas, C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Runnheim, R. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Forrest, D. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lim, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lapidus, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Han, C. S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Roberts, G. P. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Schwartz, D. C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison

    2005-09-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium known for its unique and well-studied nitrogen fixation and carbon monoxide oxidation systems and as a source of hydrogen and biodegradable plastic production. To better understand this organism and to facilitate assembly of its sequence, three whole-genome restriction endonuclease maps (XbaI, NheI, and HindIII) of R. rubrum strain ATCC 11170 were created by optical mapping. Optical mapping is a system for creating whole-genome ordered restriction endonuclease maps from randomly sheared genomic DNA molecules extracted from cells. During the sequence finishing process, all three optical maps confirmed a putative error in sequence assembly, while the HindIII map acted as a scaffold for high-resolution alignment with sequence contigs spanning the whole genome. In addition to highlighting optical mapping's role in the assembly and confirmation of genome sequence, this work underscores the unique niche in resolution occupied by the optical mapping system. With a resolution ranging from 6.5 kb (previously published) to 45 kb (reported here), optical mapping advances a "molecular cytogenetics" approach to solving problems in genomic analysis.

  18. Reality-and-Desire in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Hoogeboom, Hendrik Jan

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has a number of similarities with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both theories model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper, we show how the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, can be used in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  19. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    of ciliate growth, the population of cystic ciliates increased 100-fold. We suggest that internal population regulation is the major factor governing ciliate encystment and that the rate of encystment depends on ciliate density. This model provides a quantitative explanation of ciliatostasis and can explain...

  20. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PSAMMOPHILIC CILIATES OF SUMGAIT CASPIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kh. Alekperov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative data on the species composition and species saprobic indicators of the psammon ciliates from Sumgait coast of the Caspian Sea are given.Methods. “Alive” samples were collected using a small clean plastic wide mouth bottles. Further processing was carried out under laboratory conditions. Small quantities of soil were examined under a binocular microscope MBS-9 . Ciliates detected microvessel caught and fixed castors for further impregnation kinetoma silver nitrate (Chatton et Lwoff, 1930 or silver proteinate. To determine the keys for ciliates used Foyssner’s major publications (Foissner et al., 1991, 1992, 1999 and “Free-living ciliates Atlas” (Alekperov, 2005.Results. We observed 75 species of ciliates during the studies, which species composition and distribution of the collection points are shown in table 1. Diagrams with average data were made relations groups psammophilous ciliates indicators saprobity different zones for each of the sites investigated Sumgait coast.Main conclusions. Environmental analysis using benthic ciliates indicators saprobity different zones showed that as expected, the industrial zone of Sumgayit coast coast, despite the decline in recent years, the total amount of pollution that is still highly contaminated portion of the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea.

  1. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  2. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  3. Hydrogen production by draTGB hupL double mutant of Rhodospirillum rubrum under different light conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ruiyan; WANG Di; ZHANG Yaoping; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    To increase H2 yield of Rhodospirillum rubrum in two-stage hydrogen production process,two deletion mutants were constructed. One is single mutant designated R. rubrum UR801 that deleted hupL gene encoding the large subunit of uptake hydrogenase, and the other is a double mutant designated R. rubrum UR805 lacked both draTGB encoding regulators for the activity of nitrogenase and hupL.Comparing H2 yields of two mutants with R. rubrum UR2 (wild type) and UR472 (△draTGB) under different light conditions, the results showed that the H2 yield of R. rubrum UR801 under continuous light is the highest (5700 mL of H2 per liter culture), and it is 1.56, 2.24 and 2.32-fold that of R. rubrum UR2,UR472 and UR805, respectively. However, the total H2 yield of R. rubrum UR805 in two-stage hydrogen production process is the highest (4303 mL/L), and it is 1.35, 1.21 and 1.04-fold that of R. rubrum UR2,UR801 and UR472, respectively. Thus, R. rubrum UR805 might be a valuable strain to produce a large amount of hydrogen in two-stage hydrogen production process.

  4. Purification and characterization of major extracellular proteinases from Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, M; Lindquist, R; Fukuyama, K; Apodaca, G; Epstein, W L; McKerrow, J H

    1985-11-15

    Two extracellular proteinases that probably play a central role in the metabolism and pathogenesis of the most common dermatophyte of man, Trichophyton rubrum, were purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and Chromatofocusing were used to purify the major proteinases 42-fold from crude fungal culture filtrate. The major enzyme has pI 7.8 and subunit Mr 44 000, but forms a dimer of Mr approx. 90 000 in the absence of reducing agents. A second enzyme with pI 6.5 and subunit Mr 36 000, was also purified. It is very similar in substrate specificity to the major enzyme but has lower specific activity, and may be an autoproteolysis product. The major proteinase has pH optimum 8, a Ca2+-dependence maximum of 1 mM, and was inhibited by serine-proteinase inhibitors, especially tetrapeptidyl chloromethane derivatives with hydrophobic residues at the P-1 site. Kinetic studies also showed that tetrapeptides containing aromatic or hydrophobic residues at P-1 were the best substrates. A kcat./Km of 27 000 M-1 X S-1 was calculated for the peptide 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme has significant activity against keratin, elastin and denatured type I collagen (Azocoll).

  5. Investigation on mechanism of antifungal activity of eugenol against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Mendes, Juliana Moura; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2013-07-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a worldwide agent responsible for chronic cases of dermatophytosis which have high rates of resistance to antifungal drugs. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of aromatic compounds because of their promising biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal activity of eugenol against 14 strains of T. rubrum which involved determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial growth (dry weight), conidial germination and morphogenesis. The effects of eugenol on the cell wall (sorbitol protect effect) and the cell membrane (release of intracellular material, complex with ergosterol, ergosterol synthesis) were investigated. Eugenol inhibited the growth of 50% of T. rubrum strains employed in this study at an MIC = 256 μg/ml, as well as mycelial growth and conidia germination. It also caused abnormalities in the morphology of the dermatophyte in that we found wide, short, twisted hyphae and decreased conidiogenesis. The results of these studies on the mechanisms of action suggested that eugenol exerts antifungal effects on the cell wall and cell membrane of T. rubrum. Eugenol act on cell membrane by a mechanism that seems to involve the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. The lower ergosterol content interferes with the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Finally, our studies support the potential use of the eugenol as an antifungal agent against T. rubrum.

  6. The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata harbors permanent chloroplasts of cryptomomad prigin, not kleptochloroplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Lydia; Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Per Juel;

    2010-01-01

    Most species belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis have chloroplasts of cryptophyte origin. Whether these chloroplasts are temporarily sequestered from the prey, or permanently established under the control of the dinoflagellate is currently disputed. To investigate this, a culture...... of Dinophysis acuminata was established by feeding it the phototrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (= Myrionecta rubra), which again was fed the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia. Molecular analysis comprising the nucleomorph LSU and two chloroplast markers (tufA gene and a fragment from the end of 16S r......DNA to the beginning of 23S rDNA) resulted in identical sequences for the three organisms. Yet, transmission electron microscopy of the three organisms revealed that several chloroplast features separated D. acuminata from both T. amphioxeia and M. rubrum. The thylakoid arrangement, the number of membranes around...

  7. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-05-09

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress.

  8. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles James Newbold

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear.Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fibre degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in  phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterisation of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small entodiniium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  9. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  10. Colonization dynamics of ciliate morphotypes modified by shifting sandy sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams.

  11. Reduced activity of glutamine synthetase in Rhodospirillum rubrum mutants lacking the adenylyltransferase GlnE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Nordlund, Stefan; Teixeira, Pedro Filipe

    2009-10-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, the GlnE adenylyltransferase (encoded by glnE) catalyzes reversible adenylylation of glutamine synthetase, thereby regulating nitrogen assimilation. We have generated glnE mutant strains that are unable to adenylylate glutamine synthetase (GS). Surprisingly, the activity of GS was lower in the mutants than in the wild type, even when grown in nitrogen-fixing conditions. Our results support the proposal that R. rubrum can only cope with the absence of an adenylylation system in the presence of lowered GS expression or activity. In general terms, this report also provides further support for the central role of GS in bacterial metabolism.

  12. Evaluation of lugol solution used for counting rumen ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D'Agosto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a modification of the technique described by PURSER & MOIR (1959 for the quantitative evaluation of rumen ciliate based on an adaptation described by DEHORITY (I984. The modifying process includes: the replacement of two drops of brilliant green dye, for at least four hours, by three drops of lugol solution, for at least 15 minutes. It was made a comparative evaluation of these stainings. It was concluded that lugol solution can replace the brilliant green dye showing the following advantages: staining time reduction and subsequent speeding of sample processing; evidence of skeletal plates of entodiniomorphs making its identification easier; improved observation of small ciliates and inconspicuous structures; improved total counting and generic identification of the ciliates.

  13. 3-D Crystal Tectonics of Red Coral (Corallium Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielzeuf, D.; Garrabou, J.; Baronnet, A.; Grauby, O.; Marschal, C.

    2007-12-01

    A combination of analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, SEM, TEM, and EMP) has been used to characterize the internal physico-chemical structure of the red coral (corallium rubrum) skeleton. A section normal to the skeleton axis shows an inner medullar zone with a bulbous-tip cross shape, surrounded by a large circular domain composed of concentric rings (width of each ring ca 150 microns). Growth rings are revealed by the cyclic variation of concentration of the organic matter (OM) and oscillations of the Mg/Ca ratio. Experiments carried out in natural environment show that the detected growth rings are annual. Thus, both oscillations of concentration of OM and Mg/Ca ratio can be used to determine the age of the red coral colonies, some of which can be as old as a few tens (or even a few hundreds) of years. Concentric ring are riddled and display a succession of wavelets (wavelength ca 300 microns). The internal structure of each wavelet is complex, both physically and chemically: it is formed by the accumulation of strata with locally tortuous interfaces due to the presence of micro protuberances (ca 30 microns). This interlocked structure confers an exceptional stiffness on the red coral skeleton. Interfaces between strata sometimes display sharp discontinuities indicating interruption of the mineralizing process. This fact has important consequences on the ability of the whole structure to register external forcings with accuracy. SEM and TEM studies show that each stratum is made of submicron crystalline units (ca 200 nm) organized or not in polycrystalline fibers or blades (ca 1 to 10 microns). Porosity can be observed at all scales between the various structural units. HRTEM studies show that in spite of displaying single crystal scattering behavior, the submicron crystalline units are made of 2-5 nm nanodomains with intercalated nanopores. We interpret the nanodomains as nanograins aggregated by a mechanism of oriented attachment. The red coral

  14. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  15. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  16. Expression dynamics of secreted protease genes in Trichophyton rubrum induced by key host's proteinaceous components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Wang, Jin; Li, Ruoyu; Jin, Qi

    2009-11-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of dermatophytosis, a disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. It has been widely recognized that proteases secreted by T. rubrum are the key virulence factors during host infection. However, our knowledge about the expression of its secreted proteases in host infection is still obscure. This investigation provides the expression patterns and dynamics of secreted protease genes belonging to the subtilisins (SUB) and metalloproteases (MEP) gene families in T. rubrum. The data was obtained under simulated host infection conditions through relative quantification of real time PCR. Keratin, collagen, and elastin induced the expression of similar protease genes, and the expression patterns and dynamics of these protease genes in media containing human skin sections were different from those in media containing individual protein substrates. According to the expression dynamics of these protease genes, we conclude that Sub3, Sub4, and Mep4 may be the dominant proteases secreted by T. rubrum during host infection, and that these proteases could be good targets for new antifungal chemotherapy and molecular diagnostic markers. This work presents useful molecular details to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis.

  17. Trichophyton Rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype: the first report from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkit, Macit; Saraclı, Mehmet Ali; Yuksel, Tuba

    2011-02-01

    In modern taxonomy, Trichophyton rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype differs from the common strains of T. rubrum morphologically, physiologically, and clinically, despite genetic homogeneity. In this paper, we report the first autochthonous Turkish cases in a 24-year-old woman and her 26-year-old fiancé with tinea cruris and tinea manuum, respectively. The isolates were proven to be T. rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype by their morphological and physiological characteristics including the following: (1) granular colony surface, (2) profuse macroconidia and microconidia, (3) strongly positive urease activity after 3 days, (4) non-perforating hair, (5) restricted growth and producing no alkaline reaction on bromocresol purple-milk solids-glucose agar, and (6) restricted growth and producing no conidia on 3-9% NaCl-supplemented Sabouraud agar. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of both isolates were sequenced, and the assembled DNA sequences were examined using the Basic BLAST (nucleotide-nucleotide) software of the National Center for Biotechnology Information web database. Actually, the lack of epidemiological data on this variety is notable, and the actual prevalence is unknown. Otherwise, routine methods misidentified the strains as T. rubrum or unrecognized cases were underreported.

  18. Comparison of the In Vitro Activities of Newer Triazoles and Established Antifungal Agents against Trichophyton rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Zhang, C.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zhu, S.; Tan, X.; Wen, Y.; Huang, X.; Lei, W.; Zhou, Z.; Fang, W.; Shen, S.; Deng, D.; Pan, W.; Liao, W.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26

  19. An approach to measure ciliate grazing on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.; González, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    . Here we present an approach for the assessment of ciliate grazing on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Stationary phase cultures of a heterotrophic nanoflagellate (Cafeteria sp.) were live-stained by allowing them to take up fluorescently labelled macromolecules. Controls revealed that this label...

  20. Transposon domestication versus mutualism in ciliate genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vogt

    Full Text Available Ciliated protists rearrange their genomes dramatically during nuclear development via chromosome fragmentation and DNA deletion to produce a trimmer and highly reorganized somatic genome. The deleted portion of the genome includes potentially active transposons or transposon-like sequences that reside in the germline. Three independent studies recently showed that transposase proteins of the DDE/DDD superfamily are indispensible for DNA processing in three distantly related ciliates. In the spirotrich Oxytricha trifallax, high copy-number germline-limited transposons mediate their own excision from the somatic genome but also contribute to programmed genome rearrangement through a remarkable transposon mutualism with the host. By contrast, the genomes of two oligohymenophorean ciliates, Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia, encode homologous PiggyBac-like transposases as single-copy genes in both their germline and somatic genomes. These domesticated transposases are essential for deletion of thousands of different internal sequences in these species. This review contrasts the events underlying somatic genome reduction in three different ciliates and considers their evolutionary origins and the relationships among their distinct mechanisms for genome remodeling.

  1. Relationship of light quantity and anthocyanin production in Pennisetum setaceum Cvs. rubrum and red riding hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrea G; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Cameron, Arthur C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-02-11

    Pennisetum setaceum cvs. Rubrum and Red Riding Hood are purple-pigmented ornamental grasses when grown in high-light environments. In low-light environments, foliage appears light purple or green, and as a result, aesthetic appeal is reduced. The impact of light on anthocyanin pigmentation was compared for P. setaceum Rubrum foliage and flowers and Red Riding Hood foliage grown under different light intensities and light sources. Light environments included UV supplemental light in the greenhouse, high-pressure sodium supplemental light in the greenhouse, cool-white fluorescent light in a growth chamber, and full sun outside. Anthocyanins in two cultivars of P. setaceum were analyzed by HPLC and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral experiments. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, were identified in the leaves and flowers of both cultivars and quantified by HPLC analysis. The major anthocyanin in both cultivars was cyanidin 3-glucoside and had highest concentration (0.199% fresh weight) in Rubrum leaves grown under fluorescent lights in the growth chamber with a photoperiod of 24 h and a daily light integral (DLI) of 13.3 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1) and in Rubrum and Red Riding Hood leaves and flowers (0.097 and 0.12% fresh weight) from plants grown outside in full sun with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 42 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The minor anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, had the highest quantity in plants grown in low-light-intensity greenhouse environments with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 2.3-7.0 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The functional significance of anthocyanins in P. setaceum Rubrum is discussed.

  2. Transcriptional profiling reveals the expression of novel genes in response to various stimuli in the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino-Ferreira Roseli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous mycoses are common human infections among healthy and immunocompromised hosts, and the anthropophilic fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from such clinical cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional profile of T. rubrum exposed to various stimuli in order to obtain insights into the responses of this pathogen to different environmental challenges. Therefore, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST collection by constructing one cDNA library and nine suppression subtractive hybridization libraries. Results The 1388 unigenes identified in this study were functionally classified based on the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS categories. The identified proteins were involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular defense and stress, protein degradation, signaling, transport, and secretion, among other functions. Analysis of these unigenes revealed 575 T. rubrum sequences that had not been previously deposited in public databases. Conclusion In this study, we identified novel T. rubrum genes that will be useful for ORF prediction in genome sequencing and facilitating functional genome analysis. Annotation of these expressed genes revealed metabolic adaptations of T. rubrum to carbon sources, ambient pH shifts, and various antifungal drugs used in medical practice. Furthermore, challenging T. rubrum with cytotoxic drugs and ambient pH shifts extended our understanding of the molecular events possibly involved in the infectious process and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  3. On computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene assembly in stichotrichous ciliates happening during sexual reproduction is one of the most involved DNA manipulation processes occurring in biology. This biological process is of high interest from the computational and mathematical points of view due to its close analogy with such concepts and notions in theoretical computer science as permutation and linked list sorting and string rewriting. Studies on computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates represent a good example of interdisciplinary research contributing to both computer science and biology. We review here a number of general results related both to the development of different computational methods enhancing our understanding on the nature of gene assembly, as well as to the development of new biologically motivated computational and mathematical models and paradigms. Those paradigms contribute in particular to combinatorics, formal languages and computability theories.

  4. Ultrastructure of extrusomes in hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yao; WANG Zhengjun; ZHANG Jun; GU Fukang

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of extrusomes of the hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova was observed in scanning and transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-cytochemistry. The results show that the distribution, morphological characteristics, morphogenesis process, and extrusive process of the extrusomes in P. nova are different from the trichocysts in Paramecium, suggesting that the extrusomes of P. nova can respond to environmental stimuli, play an important role in the defense of this species, and cannot be regarded as "trichocysts". The results also suggest that the extrusomes might be originated from the Golgi apparatus and mature in the cytoplasm; after the extrusion of mature extrusomes, the residual substance might be reabsorbed and reused by the ciliate cell via food vacuoles, and take part in material recycling of the cell.

  5. Phylogeny of intestinal ciliates, including Charonina ventriculi, and comparison of microscopy and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for rumen ciliate community structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Devente, Savannah R; Kirk, Michelle R; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups.

  6. Synthesis, characterisation and antifungal activity of chemically and fungal-produced silver nanoparticles against Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Leonel; Dias, Nicolina; Carvalho,Juliana de; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterise and explore the potential in extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus oryzae and to investigate the antifungal effect of chemically vs. biologically synthesised AgNPs comparing with conventional antifungal drugs against Trichophyton rubrum. Methods and Results Chemically synthesised AgNPs (Chem-AgNPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesised by chemical reduction method with glucose in PV...

  7. Elimination of Rubisco alters the regulation of nitrogenase activity and increases hydrogen production in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yaoping [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Welch, Emily; Roberts, Gary P. [Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Li, Jilun [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Nitrogenase not only reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, but also reduces protons to hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The nitrogenase system is the primary means of H{sub 2} production under photosynthetic and nitrogen-limiting conditions in many photosynthetic bacteria, including Rhodospirillum rubrum. The efficiency of this biological H{sub 2} production largely depends on the nitrogenase enzyme and the availability of ATP and electrons in the cell. Previous studies showed that blockage of the CO{sub 2} fixation pathway in R. rubrum induced nitrogenase activity even in the presence of ammonium, presumably to remove excess reductant in the cell. We report here the re-characterization of cbbM mutants in R. rubrum to study the effect of Rubisco on H{sub 2} production. Our newly constructed cbbM mutants grew poorly in malate medium under anaerobic conditions. However, the introduction of constitutively active NifA (NifA*), the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, allows cbbM mutants to dissipate the excess reductant through the nitrogenase system and improves their growth. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of cbbM alters the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity, resulting in partially active nitrogenase in the presence of ammonium. The combination of mutations in nifA, draT and cbbM greatly increased H{sub 2} production of R. rubrum, especially in the presence of excess of ammonium. Furthermore, these mutants are able to produce H{sub 2} over a much longer time frame than the wild type, increasing the potential of these recombinant strains for the biological production of H{sub 2}. (author)

  8. [Activation and inhibition of photoinduced proton absorption in Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores by detergents and solvents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikova, M G; Pakshina, E V; Shubin, V V; Krasnovskiĭ, A A

    1979-01-01

    The effects of detergents (Triton X-100) and solvents (diethyl ether, metanol) on the reversible light-induced proton uptake, photophosphorylation and band shift of the carotenoid in chromatophores from R. rubrum are described. All these compounds were found to stimulate the extent of light-induced proton uptake with subsequent inhibition when the concentrations were increased. Stimulation of proton uptake is accompanied by inhibition of both phosphorylation and carotenoid absorbance shift.

  9. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  10. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  11. Harmful Ciliates and Dominant Genus in Culture Ponds of Young Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建荣; 徐润林; 廖家遗

    2004-01-01

    By using the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the species composition and dominant genus of harmful, ciliates in young abalone culture ponds are studied. Totally 68 species of ciliates, belonging to 3 classes, 16 orders and 46 genus, are found. The dominant ciliate species are Aspidisca leptaspis, Vorticella sp. and Euplotes rariseta. During the young abalone cultivation, the numbers of young abalones increase first,and then show a trend of decreasing. The relationship between the density and composition of ciliates and the density of algae in the young abalone culture ponds is also discussed.

  12. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  13. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Guo

    Full Text Available Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups, six (containing 99% of all the sequences belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus, and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  14. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDziallas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  15. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  16. Actin evolution in ciliates (Protist, Alveolata) is characterized by high diversity and three duplication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Huang, Lijuan; Yang, Ran; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2016-03-01

    Ciliates possess two distinct nuclear genomes and unique genomic features, including highly fragmented chromosomes and extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Recent transcriptomic surveys have revealed that ciliates have several multi-copy genes providing an ideal template to study gene family evolution. Nonetheless, this process remains little studied in ciliated protozoa and consequently, the evolutionary patterns that govern it are not well understood. In this study, we focused on obtaining fine-scale information relative to ciliate species divergence for the first time. A total of 230 actin gene sequences were derived from this study, among which 217 were from four closely related Pseudokeronopsis species and 13 from other hypotrichous ciliates. Our investigation shows that: (1) At least three duplication events occurred in ciliates: diversification of three actin genes (Actin I, II, III) happened after the divergence of ciliate classes but before that of subclasses. And several recent and genus-specific duplications were followed within Actin I (Sterkiella, Oxytricha, Uroleptus, etc.), Actin II (Sterkiella), respectively. (2) Within the genus Pseudokeronopsis, Actin I gene duplication events happened after P. carnea and P. erythrina diverged. In contrast, in the morphologically similar species P. flava and P. rubra, the duplication event preceded diversification of the two species. The Actin II gene duplication events preceded divergence of the genus Pseudokeronopsis. (3) Phylogenetic analyses revealed that actin is suitable for resolving ciliate classes, but may not be used to infer lower taxon relationships.

  17. A BRIEF HISTORY OF CILIATE STUDIES (LATE XVII THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XX CENTURY)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The most prominent protistologists who worked with ciliates from the Leeuwenhoek time up to the beginning of the XX century are mentioned. Their achievements in ciliatology and especially in taxonomy of ciliates are briefly discussed on the basis of the original literature and reviews, published during the last 150 years.

  18. Grazing on autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton by ciliates isolated from Lake Kinneret, Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadas, O.; Malinsky-Rushansky, N.; Pinkas, R.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    The rates of ingestion of three ciliates (Colpoda steinii, Cyclidium sp. and Stylonichia sp.) on fluorescently labeled heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus P, CN) and a picoeukaryote isolated from Lake Kinneret were measured. Uptake values were 930, 35 and 1210 bacteria ciliate (

  19. The mitochondrial genomes of the ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R.M. de; Alen, T.A. van; Dutilh, B.E.; Kuiper, J.W.P.; Zoggel, H.J. van; Huynh, M.B.; Gortz, H.D.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are thousands of very diverse ciliate species from which only a handful mitochondrial genomes have been studied so far. These genomes are rather similar because the ciliates analysed (Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia) are closely related. Here we study the mitochondrial geno

  20. New Primers Targeting Full-Length Ciliate 18S rRNA Genes and Evaluation of Dietary Effect on Rumen Ciliate Diversity in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Sun, Peng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene sequences of rumen ciliates is more reliable for taxonomical classification and diversity assessment than the analysis of partial hypervariable regions only. The objective of this study was to develop new oligonucleotide primers targeting the full-length 18S rRNA genes of rumen ciliates, and to evaluate the effect of different sources of dietary fiber (corn stover or a mixture of alfalfa hay and corn silage) and protein (mixed rapeseed, cottonseed, and/or soybean meals) on rumen ciliate diversity in dairy cows. Primers were designed based on a total of 137 previously reported ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 3'-terminal sequences of the newly designed primers, P.1747r_2, P.324f, and P.1651r, demonstrated >99% base coverage. Primer pair D (P.324f and P.1747r_2) was selected for the cloning and sequencing of ciliate 18S rRNA genes because it produced a 1423-bp amplicon, and did not amply the sequences of other eukaryotic species, such as yeast. The optimal species-level cutoff value for distinguishing between the operational taxonomic units of different ciliate species was 0.015. The phylogenetic analysis of full-length ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences showed that distinct ciliate profiles were induced by the different sources of dietary fiber and protein. Dasytricha and Entodinium were the predominant genera in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle, and Dasytricha was significantly more abundant in cows fed with corn stover than in cows fed with alfalfa hay and corn silage.

  1. SHORT TIME DYNAMICS OF CILIATE ABUNDANCE IN THE BOHAI SEA (CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate community in the Bohai Sea (China) was studied from23 September to 7 October 1998. A hurricane struck the study area between the two grid station investigations, which were six days apart. Six tintinnid species(Favella panamensis, Leptotintinnus nordqvisti, Tintinnopsis butschlii, T. karajacensis, T. Radix and Wangiella dicollaria) were identified. Total cililate abundance in the surface layer ranged from 20 to 770 ind/l. In the first grid investigation, Tintinnopsis karajacensis dominated in the warm, low salinity waters at the Huanghe River mouth. Aloricate ciliate sp.1 dominated in the cold, high salinity waters in the northwest of the study area and the Bohai Strait. In the second grid investigation, T. Karajacensis almost disappeared. The abundance of aloricate ciliate sp.1 decreased drastically. The aloricate ciliate sp.2 dominatedat the Bohai Strait. The change of ciliate abundance may be due to the disturbance of hurricane.``

  2. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem:effects on accumulation of ambient ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Hu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ciliated protozoa, Euplotes vannus and Uronema marinum, on accumulation of ammonia in marine waters are detected using experimental ecological method, in order to reveal the contributions and functions of ciliates to the marine ecosystem. During experiments, the concentrations of ammonia-N, and the densities of ciliates and bacteria are measured. The results reveal that ciliates can change the procedure of ammonia accumulation by their grazing activity, and maintain ambient ammonium at low levels through interrupting the stationary phase of bacteria population growth and enhancing their growth and metabolism. The present work confirms that ciliates, as bacteria-predators, play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in intensive mariculture biotopes.

  3. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  4. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  5. Morphological changes of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum after photodynamic treatment: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smijs, Threes G M; Mulder, Aat A; Pavel, Stan; Onderwater, Jos J M; Koerten, Henk K; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for superficial mycosis caused by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum consist of the use of topical or oral antifungal preparations. We have recently discovered that T. rubrum is susceptible to photodynamic treatment (PDT), with 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) as a photosensitizer. The susceptibility appeared to depend on the fungal growth stage, with PDT efficacy higher with microconidia when compared to mycelia. The aim of this study was to investigate, with the use of scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes caused by a lethal PDT dose to T. rubrum when grown on isolated human stratum corneum. Corresponding dark treatment and light treatment without photosensitizer were used as controls. A sub-lethal PDT dose was also included in this investigation The morphologic changes were followed at various time points after the treatment of different fungal growth stages. Normal fungal growth was characterized by a fiber-like appearance of the surface of the hyphae and microconidia with the exception of the hyphal tips in full mycelia and the microconidia shortly after attachment to the stratum corneum. Here, densely packed globular structures were observed. The light dose (108 J/cm2) in the absence of Sylsens B, or the application of the photosensitizer in the absence of light, caused reversible fungal wall deformations and bulge formation. However, after a lethal PDT, a sequence of severe disruptions and deformations of both microconidia and the mycelium were observed leading to extrusion of cell material and emptied fungal elements. In case of a non-lethal PDT, fungal re-growth started on the remnants of the treated mycelium.

  6. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  7. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one.

  8. Attempts to apply affinity labeling techniques to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. [Comparison of spinach leaf and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F. C.; Norton, I. L.; Stringer, C. D.; Schloss, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on carboxylases/oxygenases from different species may be necessary to confirm that a residue implicated as essential is indeed an active-site component. To provide an especially stringent test case for the identification of species invariant structural features the enzymes from two phylogenetically distant species, spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum, were compared. To date, the reactions of Br-butanone-P/sub 2/ and BrAcNHEtOP with the spinach enayme have been rather thoroughly characterized; only preliminary experiments have been completed with the R. rubrum enzyme. Both enzymes were isolated and assayed for carboxylase activity (spectrophotometrically or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-fixation) and for oxygenase activity.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Subunit G of the Vacuolar ATPase in Pathogen Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic fungus causing up to 90% of chronic cases of dermatophytosis. Several properties of this fungus have been investigated so far. However, a few studies were carried out in the field of molecular biology of this fungus. In the present study, we tried to identify the subunit G of its vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase. Pairs of 21 nt primers were designed from highly conserved regions of the V-ATPase subunit G genes in other fungi. Mentioned primers were utilized in PCR using isolated genomic DNA template as well as cytoplasmic RNA of T.rubrum and the PCR and RT-PCR fragments were then sequenced. About 469 nucleotides were sequenced which encoded a polypeptide with 119 amino acids. Nucleotide sequence comparison in gene data banks (NCBI, NIH for both the DNA and its deduced amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with V-ATPase subunit G genes and proteins of other eukaryotic cells. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein was about 84% identical to the sequence of V-ATPase subunit G from other fungi. In summary, we have cloned the first V-ATPase subunit G of dermatophytes and characterized it as a member of this gene family in other eukaryotic cells.

  10. Investigating Effects of Nano- to Micro-Ampere Alternating Current Stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong Rak; Kwon, Hyunjung; Lee, Woo Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. Objective This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Methods Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader. Twelve Petri dishes were divided into four groups. The given amperage of electric current was 500 nA, 2 µA, and 4 µA in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No electric current was given in group D. Results In the first 48 hours, colonies only appeared in groups A and B (500 nA and 2 µA exposure). Colonies in group A (500 nA) were denser. Group C (4 µA) plates showed a barely visible film of fungus after 96 hours of incubation. Fungal growth became visible after 144 hours in the control group. Conclusion Lower intensities of electric current caused faster fungal growth within the amperage range used in this study. Based on these results, further studies with a larger sample size, various fungal species, and various intensities of electric stimulation should be conducted. PMID:27746636

  11. Raman Investigations to Identify Corallium rubrum in Iron Age Jewelry and Ornaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fürst

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Central European Iron Age, more specifically between 600 and 100 BC, red precious corals (Corallium rubrum became very popular in many regions, often associated with the so-called (early Celts. Red corals are ideally suited to investigate several key questions of Iron Age research, like trade patterns or social and economic structures. While it is fairly easy to distinguish modern C. rubrum from bone, ivory or shells, archaeologists are confronted with ancient, hence altered, artifacts. Due to ageing processes, archaeological corals lose their intensive red color and shiny surface and can easily be confused with these other light colored materials. We propose a non-destructive multi-stage approach to identify archaeological corals amongst other biominerals used as ornament during the central European Iron Age with emphasis on optical examination and mobile Raman spectroscopy. Our investigations suggest that the noticeably high amount of misidentifications or at least uncertain material declarations existing in museums or even in the literature (around 15% could be overcome by the proposed approach. Furthermore, the range of different materials is higher than previously expected in archaeological research. This finding has implications for contemporary concepts of social structures and distribution networks during the Iron Age.

  12. Diverse modes of reproduction in the marine free-living ciliate Glauconema trihymene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufall Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most free-living ciliates reproduce by equal fission or budding during vegetative growth. In certain ciliates, reproduction occurs inside the cyst wall, viz. reproductive cysts, but more complex reproductive strategies have generally been thought to be confined to parasitic or symbiotic species, e.g. Radiophrya spp. Results In addition to equal fission, asymmetric binary division and reproductive cysts were discovered in the free-living bacterivorous scuticociliate Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. Asymmetric division is an innate physiological state that can be induced by sufficient food, and the higher the food concentration, the longer the asymmetric division persists. During asymmetric division, nuclear and somatic structures divide with transiently arrested cytokinesis and variable positioning of macronuclei. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA sequences, showed that the G. trihymene isolate studied here nests with typical scuticociliates and is paraphyletic to both the symbiotic apostome and astome ciliates, some of which also produce progeny by asymmetric division. Conclusions The asymmetric division in G. trihymene has no precedent among undisturbed free-living ciliates. The coexistence of multiple modes of reproduction may represent a previously undescribed reproductive strategy for ciliates living on food patches in coastal waters. This may also be indicative of similar reproductive strategies among other polyphenic ciliates, which have not been intensively studied. Asymmetric division provides a special opportunity for studying ciliates' phenotypic plasticity and may also illuminate the origins of multicellularity.

  13. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  14. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bols, Niels C., E-mail: ncbols@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  15. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  16. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption of Cu2+ onto C.rubrum biomass at the equilibrium. Langmuir model fitted well the equilibrium data for all biosorbents. Maximum biosorption capacity of dried biomass was calculated 25.51 mg/g, while it was calculated 42.92 mg/g and 30.03 mg/g for sodium hydroxide modified and formaldehyde modified biomass, respectively. Modified biomasses have higher maximum biosorption capacities indicating that modification of biomass with NaOH and HCHOH may increase responsible active sites for biosorption on the C.rubrum.

  17. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions...

  18. Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, M; Neeman, I

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes.

  19. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: report of first case in China and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秀军; 黄迪宇; 梁霄; 虞洪; 李伟; 王先法; 彭淑牖

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and review of literature to introduce the characteristics of this disease for doctors to recognize this disease.Method: Report the clinical procedure of diagnosis and treatment for the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and to review the embryologic genesis, incidence,clinical manifestation, radiologic features and therapeutic principle of this disease. Results: We performed the resection for ciliated hepatic foregut cyst under laparoscopy; the patient recovered well after the procedure. Conclusion: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is quite rare clinically, belongs to non-parasitic,solitary and unilocular cystic lesion, is always less than 4cm in diameter, mostly seen in the left lobe, and has the tendency of malignant change. It should be removed as soon as diagnosed.

  20. New records of epibiont Ciliates (Ciliophora) from Indian coast with descriptions of six new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Ramteke, D.; Ingole, B

    Six epibiont ciliates Cothurnia palkensis, C. nova, C. disper, C. dovgali, C. mannaerensis and C. clampi are described as new for science from the Indian coast. Acineta truncata Collin, 1909 and A. tuberosa Ehrenberg, 1834 are reported here...

  1. Benthic ciliate and meiofaunal communities in two contrasting habitats of an intertidal estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongfen; Xu, Kuidong; Warren, Alan; Lei, Yanli; Dai, Renhai

    2012-05-01

    Annual variations in benthic meiofaunal and ciliated protozoan communities were investigated using monthly samplings from June 2006 to May 2007 in two habitats characterized by different vegetal coverage in an estuarine intertidal wetland of Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay, China. The sediment composition was stable at each site: sediments densely covered with seagrass (Suaeda glauca) in the lower estuarine site (Station S) were finer, with higher content of organic matter, phaeopigments and water than sediments at the upper estuarine site (Station S-P) which was unvegetated other than for patches of S. glauca and common reed (Phragmites australis). Chlorophyll a exhibited a similar distribution in the two habitats. A total of 14 meiofaunal groups, and 249 species of ciliates belonging to 37 genera, 28 families and 16 orders, were isolated from the two sites. Univariate and multivariate measures of the communities were significantly different between the two habitats. There were higher abundances of ciliates and meiofauna, and a greater diversity of ciliates, at Station S than Station S-P (223 vs. 61 species). Herbivorous ciliates were numerically predominant in ciliate communities at both sites. The representative ciliates at Station S-P belonged to the Cyrtophorida and appeared to be a reduced subset of the assemblage at Station S, which was characterized by members of the Prostomatida, Cyrtophorida, Hypotrichida and Scuticociliatida. More than 96% of the total meiofauna were nematodes, accounting for 93% of the differences in the abundance compositions of the meiofaunal communities between habitats. The average individual weights of nematodes were nearly 3 times greater at Station S than Station S-P, indicating a distinctive species composition at each site. Temperature, salinity and food availability were key factors that regulated the ciliate and meiofaunal community structure. Nematodes were the dominant group in terms of the combined abundance, biomass and benthic

  2. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifaz Alexandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychomycosis. At the end of the follow-up 17/32 patients had clinical and mycologic cure (53.12%, 5 had clinical improvement only (15.6%, and 10 (31.2% failed. Conclusion: Weekly alternate therapy with itraconazole + terbinafine represents a safe rescue treatment.

  3. The Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation Dose on the Mechanical Performance of Red Maple (Acer rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Starr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand how electron beam irradiation affects wood physically and chemically, irradiated maple beams (Acer rubrum and veneers were examined using three-point bend tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, and NIR- and FTIR- spectroscopy. The MOR from the bending tests revealed a significant decline in the red maple’s strength after a dose of 80 kGy. DMA results showed evidence of crosslinking of the amorphous content of the wood at low doses, followed by degradation at higher doses, with the change in response occurring around 80 kGy. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the components of wood that were most impacted were the phenolic hydroxyl structures of lignin and cellulose hydroxyls, with the greatest effects being seen after 80 kGy.

  4. High-level production of the industrial product lycopene by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin

    2012-10-01

    The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93-99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product.

  5. In Silico Analog Design for Terbinafine Against Trichophyton rubrum: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Sudha; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2015-09-01

    The diseases caused by dermatophytes are common among several other infections which cause serious threat to human health. It is evident that enzyme squalene epoxidase is responsible for prolonged dermatophyte infection and it is appealing to note that this enzyme is also responsible for fatty acid synthesis in these groups of fungi. In the present study, terbinafine drug which targets enzyme squalene epoxidase has been explored to design its various novel analogues. The present study suggests that many more prominent drug analogues could be constituted which may be crucial towards designing new drug candidates. In the present study, we have designed a series of such analogues viz. [(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine, N-[8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]-2-(sulfoamino) acetamide, {[4-(dihydroxyamino)-8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]sulfanyl}methanol and (R)-{[4-({[(2E,6R)-6,7-dimethyloct-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)-5-[(hydroxysulfamoyl)amino]naphthalen-1-yl]amino}sulfinic acid. Moreover, further by molecular docking approach the binding between enzyme and designed analogues was further analysed. The present preliminary report suggested a considerably good docking interaction score of -338.75 kcal/mol between terbinafine and squalene epoxidase from Trichophyton rubrum. This preliminary study implies that few designed candidate ligands can be effectual towards the activity of this enzyme and can play crucial role in pathogenesis control of T. rubrum.

  6. Calcofluor white combination antifungal treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Kingsbury

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV(365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV(365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV(365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses.

  7. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  8. 红色毛癣菌菌株的PCR鉴定%Identification of Trichophyton rubrum by PCR-fingerprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红梅; 温海; 廖万清

    2002-01-01

    目的用PCR方法扩增红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA,观察PCR指纹的差异以及基因型与传统表型的关系, 建立一种红色毛癣菌分子生物学鉴定方法.方法采用寡核苷酸重复序列 (GACA)4, (GTG)5及M13中心序列(5'-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3')等3种引物,扩增 20株红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA,观察产物电泳带型的差异.结果在3种引物的扩增中,均可见红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌呈现出具种特异性的DNA指纹,并检出其中2株原据表型鉴定为须癣毛癣菌的红色毛癣菌.结论红色毛癣菌可以用PCR方法加以鉴定,以(GACA)4作引物区分这两种菌最为合适.%Objective To observe the unique DNA profile and the relationship between DNA profile and phenotype of Trichophyton rubrum, and establish an effective molecular method to identify T. rubrum.Methods Three primers, including (GACA)4, (GTG)5 and M13 core sequence (5'-GAGGGTG~GCGGTTCT-3'), were used to distinguish variations among 20 clinical isolates of T. rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.Results Different PCR-fingerprinting was seen between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes using three different primers. 2 stains of T. rubrum were identified among 6 supposed T. mentagrophytes.Conclusions T. rubrum can be distinguished using PCR, and (GACA)4 is the most suitable primer.

  9. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  10. Hydrodynamical entrapment of ciliates at the air-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracci, Jonathan; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2012-11-01

    We found the new phenomenon of the entrapment of ciliates at the air-water interface, though they are not trapped by a solid interface. We first characterize the behaviours of cells at the interface by comparing it to those away from interfaces. The results showed that the cell's swimming velocity is considerably reduced at the air-water interface. In order to experimentally verify the possible physiological causes of the entrapment, we observed their behaviours in absence of positive chemotaxis for oxygen and the negative geotaxis. The results illustrated that the entrapment phenomenon was not dependent on these physiological conditions. The experiments using surfactant revealed that the entrapment phenomenon was strongly affected by the velocity-stress conditions at the interface. This fact was confirmed numerically by a boundary element method, i.e. the stress-free condition at the air-liquid interface is one of the main mechanisms of the entrapment phenomenon found in the experiments. Since the entrapment phenomenon found in this study affects the cell-cell interactions and the mass transport at the interface, the knowledge obtained in this study is useful for better understanding the complex behaviours of swimming microorganisms in nature. PhD student in the Physiological Flow Studies Laboratory.

  11. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment. PMID:27079173

  12. Application of nested PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) for the analysis of ciliate communities in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Satoshi; Sambe, Mitsuo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates play important roles as prey and predators in ecosystems. Changes in the ciliate community can affect the composition and population of microfauna and microflora in ecosystems. To investigate the structure of ciliate communities, we developed a nested PCR-DGGE method, which combines a universal eukaryotic-specific primer set in the first PCR step with a ciliate-specific primer set in the second PCR step, to amplify 18S rRNA genes from ciliates. The 300 bp DGGE fragments generated more bands on the gel than the 600 bp DGGE fragments. Prior to bead beating, DNA extraction of ciliates from soil samples was optimized with a combination of freeze-thaw cycles and ultrasonication. We applied this nested PCR-DGGE method to agricultural soils amended with 0, 120, 300, and 600 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ of livestock slurry. The results from the DGGE profiles and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the supplement of slurry to soils influenced the ciliate communities. From phylogenetic analysis, 108 DGGE bands were assigned to six classes, which included Spirotrichea and Colpodea, of the subphylum Intramacronucleata, and one class of the subphylum Postciliodesmatophora. These results indicated that a wide variety of taxonomic groups were detected by DGGE profiling. Thus, the nested PCR-DGGE method described here could clearly differentiate between ciliate communities within soil samples and allowed for the phylogenetic identification of these ciliates at the class level.

  13. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  14. On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-07-01

    Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal "courtship" dances and contacts. Using simulated "social" trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to "suitors" and "rivals" when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing "harder-to-get" via metabolically wasteful avoidance displays that hinder the exchange of preconjugal touches between "courting" couples. Conversely, prudent savers conserve energy pending situations more favorable for conjugating a partner. These ciliates reply with lower avoidance frequencies, guaranteeing nearby conspecifics of being "easier-to-get". By deciding to switch from behavioral strategies signaling conspicuous consumption to those signaling prudent savings, fitter ciliates learn to altruistically sacrifice net payoffs and persuade suitors to participate in paired reproduction. Less fit ciliates, unable to sustain long periods of high response rates, switch their behavioral strategies of prudent savings to briefly emit conspicuous consumption and thus learn to opportunistically cheat superior rivals. Mating competency depends, in part, on the efficiency of heuristics formed from recursive strategy searches and use. Heuristics represent stored patterns of action which evolve into ordered computational networks supporting entire courting repertoires. As ciliates expand signaling skills over many trials, the connectivity between strategies strengthens from Hebbian-like learning, leading to faster decisions about the appropriateness of courting messages and replies. The best experts master signaling decisions at efficiencies comparable to finding target solutions from superposed states with Grover's quantum search algorithm. I here append these findings with a critique on the feasibility of serial behavioral strategies to

  15. The mitochondrial genomes of the ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Minh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are thousands of very diverse ciliate species from which only a handful mitochondrial genomes have been studied so far. These genomes are rather similar because the ciliates analysed (Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia are closely related. Here we study the mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus. These ciliates are only distantly related to Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia, but more closely related to Nyctotherus ovalis, which possesses a hydrogenosomal (mitochondrial genome. Results The linear mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of several Tetrahymena species, Paramecium aurelia and the partially sequenced mitochondrial genome of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis. This study reports new features such as long 5'gene extensions of several mitochondrial genes, extremely long cox1 and cox2 open reading frames and a large repeat in the middle of the linear mitochondrial genome. The repeat separates the open reading frames into two blocks, each having a single direction of transcription, from the repeat towards the ends of the chromosome. Although the Euplotes mitochondrial gene content is almost identical to that of Paramecium and Tetrahymena, the order of the genes is completely different. In contrast, the 33273 bp (excluding the repeat region piece of the mitochondrial genome that has been sequenced in both Euplotes species exhibits no difference in gene order. Unexpectedly, many of the mitochondrial genes of E. minuta encoding ribosomal proteins possess N-terminal extensions that are similar to mitochondrial targeting signals. Conclusion The mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus are rather different from the previously studied genomes. Many genes are extended in size compared to mitochondrial

  16. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  17. Contrasting Hydraulic Strategies during Dry Soil Conditions in Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in a Sandy Site in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Thomsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analyses were carried out for the dynamics of leaf water potential in two broad-leaf deciduous tree species in a sandy site under a range of air vapor pressure deficits and a relatively dry range of soil conditions. During nights when the soil is dry, the diffuse-porous, isohydric and shallow-rooted Acer rubrum does not recharge its xylem and leaf water storage to the same capacity that is observed during nights when the soil is moist. The ring-porous, deep-rooted Quercus rubra displays a more anisohydric behavior and appears to be capable of recharging to capacity at night-time even when soil moisture at the top 1 m is near wilting point, probably by accessing deeper soil layers than A. rubrum. Compared to A. rubrum, Q. rubra displays only a minimal level of down-regulation of stomatal conductance, which leads to a reduction of leaf water potential during times when vapor pressure deficit is high and soil moisture is limiting. We determine that the two species, despite typically being categorized by ecosystem models under the same plant functional type—mid-successional, temperate broadleaf—display different hydraulic strategies. These differences may lead to large differences between the species in water relations, transpiration and productivity under different precipitation and humidity regimes.

  18. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  19. Are freshwater mixotrophic ciliates less sensitive to solar ultraviolet radiation than heterotrophic ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Bettina; Summerer, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR.

  20. Are Freshwater Mixotrophic Ciliates Less Sensitive to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation than Heterotrophic Ones?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; SUMMERER, MONIKA; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR. PMID:21414057

  1. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  2. Involvement of Crawling and Attached Ciliates in the Aggregation of Particles in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Arregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological community in activated sludge wastewater plants is organized within this ecosystem as bioaggregates or flocs, in which the biotic component is embedded in a complex matrix comprised of extracellular polymeric substances mainly of microbial origin. The aim of this work is to study the role of different floc-associated ciliates commonly reported in wastewater treatment plants-crawling Euplotes and sessile Vorticella- in the formation of aggregates. Flocs, in experiments with ciliates and latex beads, showed more compactation and cohesion among particles than those in the absence of ciliates. Ciliates have been shown to contribute to floc formation through different mechanisms such as the active secretion of polymeric substances (extrusomes, their biological activities (movement and feeding strategies, or the cysts formation capacity of some species. Staining with lectins coupled to fluorescein showed that carbohydrate of the matrix contained glucose, manose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and galactose. Protein fraction revealed over the latex beads surfaces could probably be of bacterial origin, but nucleic acids represented an important fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of ciliate origin.

  3. [Comparison of ciliate diversity in biodisc reactors which purify industrial wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Pabello, V M; Durán De Bazúa, C; Aladro-Lubel, M A

    1995-01-01

    The comparative study of the ciliate populations present in rotating biological reactors (biodiscs reactors) of 20 l working volume, treating three different wastewaters is the aim of this project. Wastewaters chosen were those of a maize mill, of a sugarcane/ethyl alcohol plant, and of a recycled paper mill. Its dissolved organic contents, measured as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), were 2040 mg COD/l and 585 mg BOD5/l for maize mill effluents (nejayote), 2000 mg COD/l and 640 mg BOD5/l for sugarcane/ethanol effluents (vinasses), and 960 mg COD/l and 120 mg BOD5/l for whitewaters of the paper industry. Results obtained indicate that ciliate proliferate in all chambers of reactors treating these wastewaters. The ciliates were more abundant in vinasses, followed by nejayote, and then whitewaters. Among protozoa, ciliates were present as follows: 19 species in total. Three of them were common for the three systems. Free swimming ciliates were in higher proportion than pedunculated ones. Its diversity was higher for the whitewaters system, next for nejayote, and the lesser, for vinasses, corroborating the fact that less polluted waters have higher organisms' diversity.

  4. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (pIR spectroscopy. This effect might be attributed to the possible transfer of lipid compounds from culture to cell

  5. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Royer

    Full Text Available The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2 concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2 has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2 conditions. The CO(2 treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  6. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L

    2012-01-01

    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2) has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple) in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2) conditions. The CO(2) treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  7. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat.

  8. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Dutz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates in live feed cultures can be a pest that lower production yields. This could dramatically affect the management and success of copepod cultures. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ciliate Euplotes sp. on egg production, specific egg production and egg hatching success...... of Acartia tonsa fed with Rhodomonas salina. We found that at a concentration of 2 cells ml-1, Euplotes sp. had no effect on the production and hatching success of eggs but increased/decreased the mortality/quality of non-subitaneous eggs. Euplotes sp. had a good fatty acid profile containing high proportion...

  9. [Suppression of telomerase activity leukemic cells by mutant forms of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Zhdanov, D D; Eldarov, M A; Aleksandrova, S S; Veselovskiy, A V; Pokrovskiy, V S; Grishin, D V; Gladilina, Ju A; Sokolov, N N

    2017-01-01

    The active and stable mutant forms of short chain cytoplasmic L-asparaginase type I of Rhodospirillum rubrum (RrA): RrA+N17, D60K, F61L, RrA+N17, A64V, E67K, RrA+N17, E149R, V150P, RrAE149R, V150P and RrAE149R, V150P, F151T were obtained by the method of site-directed mutagenesis. It is established that variants RrA-N17, E149R, V150P, F151T and RrАE149R, V150P are capable to reduce an expression hTERT subunit of telomerase and, hence, activity of telomeres in Jurkat cells, but not in cellular lysates. During too time, L-asparaginases of Escherichia coli, Erwinia carotovora and Wolinella succinogenes, mutant forms RrА+N17, D60K, F61L and RrА+N17, A64V, E67K do not suppress of telomerase activity. The assumption of existence in structure RrA of areas (amino acids residues in the position 146-164, 1-17, 60-67) which are responsible for suppression of telomerase activity is made. The received results show that antineoplastic activity of some variants RrA is connected both with reduction of concentration of free L-asparagine, and with expression suppression of hTERT telomerase subunit, that opens new prospects for antineoplastic therapy.

  10. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, M; Haguenauer, A; Chabrol, O; Klopp, C; Pontarotti, P; Aurelle, D

    2015-09-01

    The question of species survival and evolution in heterogeneous environments has long been a subject for study. Indeed, it is often difficult to identify the molecular basis of adaptation to contrasted environments, and nongenetic effects increase the difficulty to disentangle fixed effects, such as genetic adaptation, from variable effects, such as individual phenotypic plasticity, in adaptation. Nevertheless, this question is also of great importance for understanding the evolution of species in a context of climate change. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) lives in the Mediterranean Sea, where at depths ranging from 5 to 600 m, it meets very contrasted thermal conditions. The shallowest populations of this species suffered from mortality events linked with thermal anomalies that have highlighted thermotolerance differences between individuals. We provide here a new transcriptomic resource, as well as candidate markers for the study of local adaptation. We sequenced the transcriptome of six individuals from 5 m and six individuals from 40 m depth at the same site of the Marseilles bay, after a period of common garden acclimatization. We found differential expression maintained between the two depths even after common garden acclimatization, and we analysed the polymorphism pattern of these samples. We highlighted contigs potentially implicated in the response to thermal stress, which could be good candidates for the study of thermal adaptation for the red coral. Some of these genes are also involved in the response to thermal stress in other corals. Our method enables the identification of candidate loci of local adaptation useful for other nonmodel organisms.

  11. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  12. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  13. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is an important eukaryotic model organism that has been used in pioneering studies of general phenomena, such as ribozymes, telomeres, chromatin structure and genome reorganization. Recent work has shown that Tetrahymena has many classes of small RNA molecules ...

  14. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematic

  15. Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB-activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Rossetto, Renato; Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB-activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

  16. Cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex as a fluorescent label of surface membranes in living ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Bottiroli, G; Giordano, P

    1981-12-01

    Labelling of surface membrane of living ciliates: Paramecium aurelia and Tetrahymena pyriformis with fluorescent compound--cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex (CDC) has been achieved. Fluorescence micrographs of the dried samples showed specific localization of CDC on the cell membrane without any intracellular penetration. On the contrary the ciliates which have been dead during labelling revealed a non-specific fluorescence of their whole bodies. Microspectrofluorimetric analysis of labelled Paramecium cells was performed with Leitz microspectrograph. Spectrum of fluorescence emission measured over the cell membrane level had maximum at 450 nm. Strikingly, the emission maximum of the cells dead at the moment of labelling was shifted 10 nm to a longer wavelength. The rate of photofading measured in this case was almost 3-fold higher than for the ciliates labelled as living ones. Fluorescence excitation spectra did not show any difference in the peak position. Thus CDC staining appears to be an useful method of supravital labelling of cell surface enabling also to distinguish--on the basis of spectral characteristics--the ciliates being alive from those dead at the moment of fluorochrome binding.

  17. Eficacia de medios de cultivo con infusiones de variedades de papa en la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Flor Urcia A; Miriam Guevara R

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca), Solanum chaucha (papa huayro) y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla), para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar...

  18. Effects of histamine on ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from guinea pigs nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengwei; Xing, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lei

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through combining high-speed digital microscopy and patch-clamp technology. Ciliated cells were obtained from septum and turbinate of 90-120-day-old healthy male guinea pigs. Tight seal was formed by applying negative pressure on the glass electrode after the drawing and pushing progress. Then, we enrolled high-speed digital microscopy to measure CBF before and after treatment with histamine of different concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol/L in Hank's solution and D-Hank's solution as well as after administrating adenosine triphosphate. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical comparisons. Glass electrode fix up ciliated cell is available at tip diameter of 2-5 μm and negative pressure of 10-20 cmH2O column. The baseline CBF in Hank's solution was higher than in D-Hank's solution. Treatment with 10(-6)-l0(-3) mol/L histamine of concentrations can stimulate a rise of CBF. Nevertheless, CBF in all groups decreased to baseline CBF within 20 min. Generally, 10(-2) mol/L histamine can stimulate a rise of CBF; meanwhile, the high concentration of histamine killed 50% ciliated cell. Histamine at 10(-1) mol/L killed all ciliated cells. Ciliary beating activity decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution. Moreover, adenosine triphosphate could increase CBF effectively after the stimulation effect of histamine. We construct an effective technology integrating patch-clamp technique with CBF measurements on ciliated cells. Extracellular histamine stimulation could increase CBF effectively.

  19. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  20. De novo transcriptomes of a mixotrophic and a heterotrophic ciliate from marine plankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana F Santoferrara

    Full Text Available Studying non-model organisms is crucial in the context of the current development of genomics and transcriptomics for both physiological experimentation and environmental characterization. We investigated the transcriptomes of two marine planktonic ciliates, the mixotrophic oligotrich Strombidium rassoulzadegani and the heterotrophic choreotrich Strombidinopsis sp., and their respective algal food using Illumina RNAseq. Our aim was to characterize the transcriptomes of these contrasting ciliates and to identify genes potentially involved in mixotrophy. We detected approximately 10,000 and 7,600 amino acid sequences for S. rassoulzadegani and Strombidinopsis sp., respectively. About half of these transcripts had significant BLASTP hits (E-value <10-6 against previously-characterized sequences, mostly from the model ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Transcriptomes from both the mixotroph and the heterotroph species provided similar annotations for GO terms and KEGG pathways. Most of the identified genes were related to housekeeping activity and pathways such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and vitamins. Although S. rassoulzadegani can keep and use chloroplasts from its prey, we did not find genes clearly linked to chloroplast maintenance and functioning in the transcriptome of this ciliate. While chloroplasts are known sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS, we found the same complement of antioxidant pathways in both ciliates, except for one enzyme possibly linked to ascorbic acid recycling found exclusively in the mixotroph. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find qualitative differences in genes potentially related to mixotrophy. However, these transcriptomes will help to establish a basis for the evaluation of differential gene expression in oligotrichs and choreotrichs and experimental investigation of the costs and benefits of mixotrophy.

  1. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  2. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum Ação fototóxica do diodo emissor de luz na viabilidade de Trichophyton rubrum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Faria Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. METHODS: The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. RESULTS: A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.FUNDAMENTOS: Trichophyton rubrum é o agente mais comum das micoses superficiais de pele e unhas causando infecções de longa duração e altas taxas de recidiva. As desvantagens do tratamento atual envolvem medicações tópicas as quais n

  3. Eficacia de Medios de Cultivo con Infusiones de Variedades de Papa en la Identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Urcia A

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca, Solanum chaucha (papa huayro y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla, para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar Papa Dextrosa (APDc. Las cepas de T. rubrum fueron inoculadas en los diferentes medios de cultivo, incubados a 2°C durante 10 días. Para la evaluación consideramos características culturales y microscópicas. Los resultados muestran que el medio de cultivo Agar Papa Huayro Dextrosa (APHD fue más eficiente en la producción del pigmento rojo vino, pero se obtuvo mayor esporulación en los medios de cultivo Agar Papa Blanca Dextrosa (APBD y Agar Papa Amarilla Dextrosa (APAD.

  4. Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from unrelated carbon sources in engineered Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniel; Raberg, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Different genes encoding pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenases (pntAB, udhA) and acetoacetyl-CoA reductases (phaB) were heterologously overexpressed in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. A recombinant strain, which harbored the gene encoding the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB from Escherichia coli MG1655 and the phaB1 gene coding for an NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase from Ralstonia eutropha H16, accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [Poly(3HB-co-3HV)] with a 3HV fraction of up to 13 mol% from fructose. This was a 13-fold increase of the 3HV content when compared to the wild-type strain. Higher contents of 3HV are known to reduce the brittleness of this polymer, which is advantageous for most applications. The engineered R. rubrum strain was also able to synthesize this industrially relevant copolymer from CO2 and CO from artificial synthesis gas (syngas) with a 3HV content of 56 mol%. The increased incorporation of 3HV was attributed to an excess of propionyl-CoA, which was generated from threonine and related amino acids to compensate for the intracellular redox imbalance resulting from the transhydrogenase reaction. Thereby, our study presents a novel, molecular approach to alter the composition of bacterial PHAs independently from external precursor supply. Moreover, this study also provides a promising production strain for syngas-derived second-generation biopolymers.

  5. Magnesium ions improving the growth and organics reduction of Rhodospirillum rubrum cultivated in sewage through regulating energy metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Ru; Wu, Pan; Lang, Lang; Liu, Ri-Jia; Li, Jian-Zheng; Ji, Yu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum has the potential for biomass resource recycling combined with sewage purification. However, low biomass production and yield restricts the potential for sewage purification. This research investigated the improvement of biomass production, yield and organics reduction by Mg²⁺ in R. rubrum wastewater treatment. Results showed that with optimal dosage (120 mg/L), biomass production reached 4,000 mg/L, which was 1.5 times of that of the control group. Biomass yield was improved by 43.3%. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached over 90%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that Mg²⁺ enhanced the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content on respiration and photophosphorylation. These effects then enhanced ATP production, which led to more biomass accumulation and COD removal. With 120 mg/L Mg²⁺ dosage, the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content, ATP production were improved, respectively, by 33.3%, 50%, 67%, 41.3% compared to those of the control group.

  6. Colonization of periphytic ciliated protozoa on an artificial substrate in mariculture waters with notes on responses to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiqiu Li; Henglong Xu; Xiaofeng Lin; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Colonization of periphytic ciliates and their usefulness for monitoring water quality were evaluated using the glass slide method in two enclosed mariculture ponds used to culture crab larva and in a natural seawater reservoir. The results revealed that (1) the ciliate species composition and colonizing process differed between the culturing ponds and the natural reservoir and (2) the dominant ciliate species showed a greater distribution in terms of both the abundance and the occurrence frequency. This study also demonstrated that structural parameters were strongly related to water conditions. For example, the abundance was positively associated with NO-3-N and soluble reactive phosphate (P < 0.05), whereas the species number, species diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with nutrients (e.g. NO-3N and NH3-N) and temperature (P < 0.05). These findings support the evidence that periphytic ciliates are useful bioindicators of water quality in enclosed mariculture ecosystems.

  7. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  8. [Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum. Ten-year period (1996-2006) data collection in a Dermatology Department in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Carbajal-Pruneda, Patricia; Fernández Martínez, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis in the world up to 80% caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in a dermatological outpatient clinic during a ten years period, from 1996 to 2005. We collected the data from patients with a dermatophytosis from which we have isolated T. rubrum. A total of 776 patients with dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum were found. A slight predominance of female patients (56.2%) was observed. The most commonly affected age group was those in the third to the fifth decade of life, and house working women (33.5%) were predominant. Onychomycosis was found in 63% of the cases, tinea pedis in 22.7%, tinea corporis in 5.2% and tinea cruris in 2.8%. In onychomycosis, the first toe nail was the most commonly affected (58.9%) and the dystrophic type was seen in 50.7% of them.

  9. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare;

    2015-01-01

    -old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct...

  10. Molecular evidence that phylogenetically diverged ciliates are active in microbial mats of deep-sea cold-seep sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Kakizoe, Natsuki; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Cold seeps are areas of the seafloor where hydrogen sulfide- and methane-rich fluid seepage occurs, often sustaining chemosynthetic ecosystems. It is well known that both archaea and bacteria oxidize sulfides and methane to produce chemical energy and that several endemic animals use this energy to thrive in cold seeps. On the other hand, there is little knowledge regarding diversity and ecology of microbial eukaryotes in this ecosystem. In this study we isolated environmental RNA and DNA from microbial mats of cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan, and retrieved eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences with polymerase chain reaction methods followed by clone library construction. Most RNA-derived clones obtained were from ciliates, although DNA-derived clones were mainly from the fungus Cryptococcus curvatus, suggesting that ciliates are active in the environment. The ciliate sequences were phylogenetically diverse, and represented eight known class lineages as well as undesignated lineages. Because most ciliates are bacterivorous, it is highly likely that the ciliates for which sequences were recovered play a role in the food web of this ecosystem as grazers of microbial mats. In addition, given that the environment studied is under highly reduced (anoxic) conditions, based on the prokaryotic community structure deduced from T-RFLP profiles, the ciliates detected may be obligatory or facultative anaerobes.

  11. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Akio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs. More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium. Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75% of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches.

  12. The bacterivory of interstitial ciliates in association with bacterial biomass and production in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Sascha; Cleven, Ernst-Josef

    2007-07-01

    Rates of bacteria ingestion by interstitial ciliates were estimated and compared to bacterial biomass and production. Investigation was carried out in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream. FISH was applied to quantitatively determine bacteria within the ciliate's food vacuoles. To estimate bacteria ingestion rates using FISH, we had to strike a new path. When numbers of bacteria in the food vacuoles remains constant with time (bacterial digestion and ingestion are at equilibrium), ingestion rate can be estimated based on the digestion time and the average number of bacteria per cell. Ciliate community was predominantly composed of bacterivorous ciliates. FISH-signals deriving from ingested bacteria were detected in Cinetochilum margaritaceum, 'other small scuticociliates', Pleuronema spp., and Vorticella spp. Ingestion rates for these taxa were 78, 150, 86, and 38 bacteria ind(-1) h(-1), respectively. The grazing impacts on bacterial biomass and carbon production were calculated based on these ingestion rates. Ciliate grazing caused a decrease in bacterial biomass of 0.024% day(-1) and in bacterial carbon production of 1.60%. These findings suggest that interstitial ciliate grazing impact on bacteria biomass and production was too low to represent an important link in the carbon flow of the hyporheic zone under study.

  13. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high-altitude warm-monomictic saline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestová, Dana; Macek, Miroslav; Elena Martínez Pérez, María

    2008-02-01

    The impact of feeding on autotrophic picoplankton (APP) on the ciliate composition of the assemblage was surveyed monthly along a depth gradient in the maar crater, athalassohaline, warm monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico) from June 2003 to December 2005. Numbers of APP were evaluated from their autofluorescence. DAPI staining and the Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria technique were employed to count ciliates and estimate their feeding rates. A total of 38 taxa of ciliates have been identified using Quantitative Protargol Staining. Peritrichs followed by minute spirotrichs (particularly Halteria grandinella) often numerically dominated the ciliate assemblage and emerged as the most efficient APP feeders. A maximum of 54 ciliate cells ml(-1) was observed in the surface layer at the end of the mixing period, during the development of diatoms (Cyclotella alchichicana), the cyanobacterial bloom (Nodularia sp.) and its decay. Vorticellids (Pelagovorticella natans, Vorticella sp.) had the highest APP uptake (median 130 APP cil(-1) h(-1)). Mixotrophic Euplotes cf. daidaleos were important APP grazers near the oxycline. Scuticociliates (Cyclidium glaucoma, Uronema nigricans and an anaerobic cf. Isocyclidium globossum), were numerically dominant within the hypolimnetic assemblages and did not ingest APP. Generally, APP were not an important food source for the majority of the ciliate assemblage, being positively selected by a few species during the APP decay in aerobic and microaerobic conditions.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  15. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    Full Text Available Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates. Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems.

  16. Necessity Is the Mother of Invention: Ciliates, Transposons, and Transgenerational Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah E; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    Ciliates are a fascinating model system for the study of the interaction between eukaryotic germlines and somatic lines, especially with regard to the invasion and defence against transposable elements. They separate their germline and somatic line into two nuclei within the same cell, and they silence transposons and repetitive elements by way of deleting them from their somatic genome. This large-scale deletion event uses a series of intricate sequence targeting pathways involving small RNAs and transposases, part of which consists of a transnuclear comparison between maternal soma and daughter germline. We present recent progress in this dynamic field, and argue that these DNA targeting pathways provide an optimal system for the transgenerational inheritance of acquired traits. Ciliates thus also demonstrate the evolutionary value of transposable elements, both as sources of sequence diversity and also as drivers of adaptive evolution by necessitating defensive systems.

  17. Dependence of reproductive rate on cell size and temperature in freshwater ciliated protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Reproductive rates have been calculated for ten species of ciliated protozoa in defined conditions. Interspecific double log regressions of generation time vs. cell volume have been computed at each of three temperatures (8.5/sup 0/C, 15/sup 0/C, and 20/sup 0/C) indicating a significant dependence of reproductive rate on cell size. Recorded generation times varied from 6.38 h in Vorticella microstoma at 20/sup 0/C to 1004 h in Spirostomum teres at 8.5/sup 0/C. These values correspond to a range in r/sub m/ (day)/sup -1/ of 2.607 to 0.017 and lambda (day)/sup -1/ of 13.554 to 1.017. The relationship between these data and similar published data for marine ciliates is examined and the value of such regressions in ecological studies of the protozoa is discussed.

  18. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley Clark

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by rivals and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via power or refrigeration cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and nonmodal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  19. Assessing mariculture water quality with the structural and functional characteristics of a ciliate community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiqiu; XU Henglong; LIN Xiaofeng; AL-RASHEID Khaled A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in micro-ecosystems, especially in marine biotopes. However, few studies have been carried out on the periphytic, or aufwuch, forms in mariculture waters so far. In this study, we sampled periphytic ciliate communities in two closed mariculture ponds (ponds CP1 and CP2) and a natural seawater reservoir (pond RP) using a glass slide method to evaluate their colonizing processes and general ecological features, as well as their application as water quality indicators. We analyzed species compositions, structural parameters (species number, richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and dBP) and functional parameters (G, Seq, and T90%). Pond RP was characterized by higher levels of structural parameters (except for abundance and dBp) and more equal proportion of the major taxonomic groups. The values of 5eq were significantly higher in pond RP and similar in both pond CP1 and CP2. It was also demonstrated that environmental factors, including NO2-H, NO3-H, NH3-H, soluble reactive phosphate, temperature and pH, were the first principal factors affecting the communities. Among them, temperature and chemical factors were all significantly and negatively correlated with species number (P<0.01), richness (P<0.01), diversity (P<0.01), and positive correlated with abundance (P<0.01). Opposite correlations between pH and structural parameters were observed. This study showed that there were significant differences in species composition, structural parameters and functional parameters of the periphytic ciliate communities among the ponds, which were in agreement with the water quality. Results of this study confirmed the periphytic ciliate communities to be useful bioindicators of water quality in intensive mariculture waters.

  20. Morphological Studies on the Infraciliature of a Planktonic Ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis (Ciliophora: Tintinina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A poorly-described marine planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, collected from the Taiping Cape of Qingdao, China, was morphologically investigated based on permanent preparation after protargol impregnation and was compared with other related congeners. According to the infraciliature, three ciliary groups can be recognized, which reveals a very stable structure among specimens and denotes that the pattern of infraciliature is, apart from the features of the lorica, a highly reliable criterion for species identification.

  1. A study on anti dermatophytic potential of selected ethno medicinalplants against Trichophyton rubrum, a common etiologic agent in and around Visakhapatnam region (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai deviT; Jyothi padmajaI; Nagendra sastryY; NagamaniA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical patterns and etiology of dermatophytosis and the anti dermatophytic potentiality of some selected medicinal plants used by tribal people in and around Visakhapatnam region, India. Methods: 62 patients with dermatophytosis who attended the dermatology clinic of King George hospital, Visakhapatnam were studied. Isolation and identification was done by direct microscopic observation, cultural characteristics and by using biochemical tests in the microbiology laboratory. Some ethno medicinal plant parts like Albizia lebbeck bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark, Cassia fistula leaf, Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf were tested for anti dermatophytic activity by agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies were carried out by broth dilution assay. Results: 51 patients out of 62 were positive (82.2%) by direct smear and culture. Tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis which was predominantly caused by Trichophyton rubrum in and around Visakhapatnam. Two dermatophyte species were isolated and identified. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent isolate (58.8%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.6%). Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata bark and leaf extracts showed inhibitory against T. rubrum while Cassia fistula leaf extract did not show significant inhibitory activity. Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf extracts did not show inhibitory activity. Conclusions: The results showed that tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis in and around Visakhapatnam region. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common etiologic agent. Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark extracts showed potential inhibitory activity against Trichophyton rubrum than other tested ethno medicinal plants.

  2. Lethal giant larvae 2 regulates development of the ciliated organ Kupffer's vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Hwee Goon; Schulze, Sabrina K; Compagnon, Julien; Foley, Fiona C; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Yost, H Joseph; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2013-04-01

    Motile cilia perform crucial functions during embryonic development and throughout adult life. Development of organs containing motile cilia involves regulation of cilia formation (ciliogenesis) and formation of a luminal space (lumenogenesis) in which cilia generate fluid flows. Control of ciliogenesis and lumenogenesis is not yet fully understood, and it remains unclear whether these processes are coupled. In the zebrafish embryo, lethal giant larvae 2 (lgl2) is expressed prominently in ciliated organs. Lgl proteins are involved in establishing cell polarity and have been implicated in vesicle trafficking. Here, we identified a role for Lgl2 in development of ciliated epithelia in Kupffer's vesicle, which directs left-right asymmetry of the embryo; the otic vesicles, which give rise to the inner ear; and the pronephric ducts of the kidney. Using Kupffer's vesicle as a model ciliated organ, we found that depletion of Lgl2 disrupted lumen formation and reduced cilia number and length. Immunofluorescence and time-lapse imaging of Kupffer's vesicle morphogenesis in Lgl2-deficient embryos suggested cell adhesion defects and revealed loss of the adherens junction component E-cadherin at lateral membranes. Genetic interaction experiments indicate that Lgl2 interacts with Rab11a to regulate E-cadherin and mediate lumen formation that is uncoupled from cilia formation. These results uncover new roles and interactions for Lgl2 that are crucial for both lumenogenesis and ciliogenesis and indicate that these processes are genetically separable in zebrafish.

  3. Lethal giant larvae 2 regulates development of the ciliated organ Kupffer’s vesicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Hwee Goon; Schulze, Sabrina K.; Compagnon, Julien; Foley, Fiona C.; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Yost, H. Joseph; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Amack, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Motile cilia perform crucial functions during embryonic development and throughout adult life. Development of organs containing motile cilia involves regulation of cilia formation (ciliogenesis) and formation of a luminal space (lumenogenesis) in which cilia generate fluid flows. Control of ciliogenesis and lumenogenesis is not yet fully understood, and it remains unclear whether these processes are coupled. In the zebrafish embryo, lethal giant larvae 2 (lgl2) is expressed prominently in ciliated organs. Lgl proteins are involved in establishing cell polarity and have been implicated in vesicle trafficking. Here, we identified a role for Lgl2 in development of ciliated epithelia in Kupffer’s vesicle, which directs left-right asymmetry of the embryo; the otic vesicles, which give rise to the inner ear; and the pronephric ducts of the kidney. Using Kupffer’s vesicle as a model ciliated organ, we found that depletion of Lgl2 disrupted lumen formation and reduced cilia number and length. Immunofluorescence and time-lapse imaging of Kupffer’s vesicle morphogenesis in Lgl2-deficient embryos suggested cell adhesion defects and revealed loss of the adherens junction component E-cadherin at lateral membranes. Genetic interaction experiments indicate that Lgl2 interacts with Rab11a to regulate E-cadherin and mediate lumen formation that is uncoupled from cilia formation. These results uncover new roles and interactions for Lgl2 that are crucial for both lumenogenesis and ciliogenesis and indicate that these processes are genetically separable in zebrafish. PMID:23482490

  4. Unfolding Thermodynamics of Cysteine-Rich Proteins and Molecular Thermal-Adaptation of Marine Ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cazzolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii and mesophilic (E. raikovi protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones.

  5. Chromosome copy number variation and control in the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Spring

    Full Text Available Copy number variations are widespread in eukaryotes. The unusual genome architecture of ciliates, in particular, with its process of amitosis in macronuclear division, provides a valuable model in which to study copy number variation. The current model of amitosis envisions stochastic distribution of macronuclear chromosomes during asexual reproduction. This suggests that amitosis is likely to result in high levels of copy number variation in ciliates, as dividing daughter cells can have variable copy numbers of chromosomes if chromosomal distribution during amitosis is a stochastic process. We examined chromosomal distribution during amitosis in Chilodonella uncinata, a ciliate with gene-size macronuclear chromosomes. We quantified 4 chromosomes in evolving populations of C. uncinata and modeled the amitotic distribution process. We found that macronuclear chromosomes differ in copy number from one another but that copy number does not change as expected under a stochastic process. The chromosome carrying SSU increased in copy number, which is consistent with selection to increase abundance; however, two other studied chromosomes displayed much lower than expected among-line variance. Our models suggest that balancing selection is sufficient to explain the observed maintenance of chromosome copy during asexual reproduction.

  6. Integrative taxonomy of ciliates: Assessment of molecular phylogenetic content and morphological homology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2017-02-24

    The very diverse and comparatively complex morphology of ciliates has given rise to numerous taxonomic concepts. However, the information content of the utilized molecular markers has seldom been explored prior to phylogenetic analyses and taxonomic decisions. Likewise, robust testing of morphological homology statements and the apomorphic nature of diagnostic characters of ciliate taxa is rarely carried out. Four phylogenetic techniques that may help address these issues are reviewed. (1) Split spectrum analysis serves to determine the exact number and quality of nucleotide positions supporting individual nodes in phylogenetic trees and to discern long-branch artifacts that cause spurious phylogenies. (2) Network analysis can depict all possible evolutionary trajectories inferable from the dataset and locate and measure the conflict between them. (3) A priori likelihood mapping tests the suitability of data for reconstruction of a well resolved tree, visualizes the tree-likeness of quartets, and assesses the support of an internal branch of a given tree topology. (4) Reconstruction of ancestral morphologies can be applied for analyzing homology and apomorphy statements without circular reasoning. Since these phylogenetic tools are rarely used, their principles and interpretation are introduced and exemplified using various groups of ciliates. Finally, environmental sequencing data are discussed in this light.

  7. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day.

  8. The ability of the rumen ciliate protozoan Diploplastron affine to digest and ferment starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereszka, K; Michałowski, T

    2012-07-01

    The ciliate Diploplastron affine is known as a common species of the rumen fauna in cattle and sheep. This protozoon is able to digest cellulose, whereas its amylolytic activity is not well known. The objective of the reported studies was to examine the ability of D. affine to digest starch and to use this polysaccharide to cover the requirement for energy. The enzymatic studies showed that the protozoal cell extract degraded starch to reducing products with the rate being equivalent to 2.4 ± 0.47 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. Maltose, maltotriose and a small quantity of glucose were the end products of starch degradation. The degradation rate of maltose was only 0.05 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. Two peaks in α-amylase and a single peak in maltase activity were found following molecular filtration of ciliate cell extract, whereas three starch-degrading enzymes were identified by a zymographic technique. Incubation of the bacteria-free ciliates with starch in the presence of antibiotics resulted in a release of volatile fatty acids with the net rate of 25 pmol per protozoan per h. Acetic acid followed by butyric acid was the main product of starch fermentation. The results confirmed the ability of D. affine to utilize starch in energy-yielding processes.

  9. Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Wolfgang; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Schiftner, Uwe; Quesada, Antonio; Cynan Ellis-Evans, J

    2007-02-01

    Ciliate diversity was investigated in situ in freshwater ecosystems of the maritime (South Shetland Islands, mainly Livingston Island, 63 degrees S) and continental Antarctic (Victoria Land, 75 degrees S), and the High Arctic (Svalbard, 79 degrees N). In total, 334 species from 117 genera were identified in both polar regions, i.e. 210 spp. (98 genera) in the Arctic, 120 spp. (73 genera) in the maritime and 59 spp. (41 genera) in the continental Antarctic. Forty-four species (13% of all species) were common to both Arctic and Antarctic freshwater bodies and 19 spp. to both Antarctic areas (12% of all species). Many taxa are cosmopolitans but some, e.g. Stentor and Metopus spp., are not, and over 20% of the taxa found in any one of the three areas are new to science. Cluster analysis revealed that species similarity between different biotopes (soil, moss) within a study area was higher than between similar biotopes in different regions. Distinct differences in the species composition of freshwater and terrestrial communities indicate that most limnetic ciliates are not ubiquitously distributed. These observations and the low congruence in species composition between both polar areas, within Antarctica and between high- and temperate-latitude water bodies, respectively, suggest that long-distance dispersal of limnetic ciliates is restricted and that some species have a limited geographical distribution.

  10. Ciliates and the rare biosphere-community ecology and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Application of deep sequencing technologies to environmental samples and some detailed morphological studies suggest that there is a vast, yet unexplored rare ciliate biosphere, tentatively defined in terms of operational taxonomic units. However, very few studies complemented molecular and phylogenetic data with morphological and ecological descriptions of the species inventory. This is mainly because the sampling effort increases strongly with decreasing species abundance. In spite of this limited knowledge, it is clear that species that are rare under certain environmental conditions (temporal rare biosphere) may become abundant when the physical, chemical, and biological variables of their habitat change. Furthermore, some species may always be present in low numbers if their dispersal rates are exceedingly high (accidental rare biosphere). An intriguing question is whether there are some species that are always rare, i.e., in every suitable environment. This permanent rare biosphere is conceptually different from the temporal rare biosphere. This review characterizes typical aquatic habitats of the rare ciliate biosphere, portrays different scenarios under which some or even many species may be permanently rare (background fauna), and identifies some fundamental questions that need to be addressed to achieve a better understanding of the population dynamics of the rare ciliate biosphere.

  11. Chloroplast symbiosis in a marine ciliate: ecophysiology and the risks and rewards of hosting foreign organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, George B; Schoener, Donald M; Haberlandt, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous use of both heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolism ("mixotrophy") is common among protists. Strombidium rassoulzadegani is a planktonic mixotrophic marine ciliate that saves chloroplasts from its algal food and obtains a nutritional subsidy via photosynthesis. Cultures from the northeast, northwest, and southwest Atlantic Ocean show similar numerical response parameters (maximum growth rate, food concentration at which growth is half its maximum, and threshold food concentration for growth), and some isolates have been maintained in vitro for over 3 years. This ciliate grows equally well when fed on the green alga Tetraselmis chui (strain PLY429) or the cryptophyte Rhodomonas lens (strain RHODO). It appears to be an obligate mixotroph, requiring both food and light to achieve positive growth, when feeding on either of these algae. However, it has also been grown for several weeks (>10 generations) heterotrophically on the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (strain EXUV) during which it grows better in dark than in light. In this paper, we review the ecology of S. rassoulzadegani, discuss some aspects of its photo- and feeding physiology, and speculate on benefits and costs to the ciliate of chloroplast symbiosis.

  12. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost.

  13. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed regenerative life support system for future space flights developed by the European Space Agency. It consists of interconnected processes (i.e. bioreactors, higher plant compartments, filtration units,..) targeting the total recycling of organic waste into oxygen, water and food. Within the MELiSSA loop, the purple non-sulfur alpha-proteobacterium R. rubrum ATCC25903 is used to convert fatty acids released from the upstream raw waste digesting reactor to CO2 and biomass, and to complete the mineralization of aminoacids into NH4+ that will be forwarded to the nitrifying compartment. Among the numerous challenges of the project, the functional stability of the bioreactors in long term and under space flight conditions is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the life support system and consequently the crew safety. Therefore, the physiological and metabolic changes induced by space flight were investigated for R. rubrum. The bacterium grown on solid medium during 2 different 10-day space flights to the ISS (MES- SAGE2, BASE-A experiments) were compared to cells grown on Earth 1 g gravity or modeled microgravity and normal Earth radiation or simulated space flight radiation conditions in order to relate each single stress to its respective cellular response. For simulating the radiation environment, pure gamma and neutron sources were combined, while simulation of changes in gravity where performed using the Random Positioning Machine technology. Transcriptome analysis using R. rubrum total genome DNA-chip showed up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress response after a 10-day mission inside the ISS, without loss of viability. As an example, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, thioredoxin reductase and bacterioferritin genes are least 2 fold induced although the radiation dose experienced by the bacterium (4 mSv) is very low compared to its radiotolerance (D10 = 100 Sv

  14. Evaluation of mass-transfer and kinetic parameters for Rhodospirillum rubrum in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Gupta, A.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States))

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been evaluated for its ability to produce hydrogen from carbon monoxide and water in a continuous stirred tank reactor according to the water-gas shift reaction. An assessment of mass-transfer parameters and reaction kinetics was made for this sparingly soluble substrate system. Experiments were conducted in a nonsteady-state fashion with continuous liquid and gas flow, which allowed for separation of the mass-transfer and kinetic-limited regions. Based on the data obtained, mass-transfer coefficients for the system were determined, and a mathematical expression for the reaction kinetics was formulated. The results showed that the hydrogen production was inhibited by elevated levels of dissolved carbon monoxide in the liquid. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Escape response of planktonic protists to fluid mechanical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The escape response to fluid mechanical signals was examined in 6 protists, 4 ciliates and 2 dinoflagellates. When exposed to a siphon flow. 3 species of ciliates, Balanion comatum, Strobilidium sp., and Mesodinium pulex, responded with escape jumps. The threshold deformation rates required...

  16. Phylogenetic position of Licnophora, Lechriopyla, and Schizocaryum, three unusual ciliates (phylum Ciliophora) endosymbiotic in echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Denis H; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela

    2002-01-01

    Various echinoderms are colonized by species from several classes of the Phylum Ciliophora, indicating that the echinoderm "habitat" has been invaded independently on numerous occasions throughout evolutionary history. Two "echinoderm" ciliates whose phylogenetic positions have been problematic are Licnophora macfarlandi Stevens, 1901 and Schizocaryum dogieli Poljansky and Golikova, 1957. Licnophora macfarlandi is an endosymbiont of the respiratory trees of holothuroids, and S. dogieli is found in the esophagus of echinoids. A third species, Lechriopyla mystax Lynch, 1930, is a plagiopylid ciliate found in the intestine of echinoids. Host echinoderms were collected near the Friday Harbor Laboratories, San Juan Island, WA. Specimens of S. dogieli and L. mystax were obtained from the esophagus and intestine, respectively, of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus. Specimens of L. macfarlandi were collected from the fluid obtained from the respiratory trees of Parastichopus californicus. Using small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) sequences of these three ciliates and a global alignment of SSrRNA sequences of other ciliates, we established the following. 1) Licnophora is a spirotrich ciliate, clearly related to the hypotrichs and stichotrichs; this is corroborated by its possession of macronuclear replication bands. 2) Lechriopyla is the sister genus to Plagiopyla and is a member of the Class Plagiopylea, which was predicted based on its cytology. 3) Schizocaryum clusters in the Class Oligohymenophorea and is most closely related to the scuticociliates; there are currently no morphological features known to relate Schizocaryum to the scuticociliates.

  17. Influence of the attack of the fungus Polystigma rubrum (pers. dc (red leaf spot on nutritional value of fruits in different plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Valencia Labusca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out of the influence of Polystigma rubrum attack on the soluble and insoluble glucides content in the plum cultivars, with different degrees of resistance to fungus attack: Poroabe and Vinete româneşti (sensitive cultivars, Renclod violet and Grase româneşti (middle-resistant cultivars and Renclod verde (resistant cultivar, during the year 2008. Analyzing the results we observed that soluble glucides and insoluble glucides content with one exception was higher in healthy fruits comparatively with the attacked fruit. In generally, glucides was low in attacked fruit, but cannot establish a correlation between glucides content and the degree of resistance of the plum cultivars to attack of Polystigma rubrum

  18. Macronuclear genome structure of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis: Single-gene chromosomes and tiny introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landweber Laura F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nyctotherus ovalis is a single-celled eukaryote that has hydrogen-producing mitochondria and lives in the hindgut of cockroaches. Like all members of the ciliate taxon, it has two types of nuclei, a micronucleus and a macronucleus. N. ovalis generates its macronuclear chromosomes by forming polytene chromosomes that subsequently develop into macronuclear chromosomes by DNA elimination and rearrangement. Results We examined the structure of these gene-sized macronuclear chromosomes in N. ovalis. We determined the telomeres, subtelomeric regions, UTRs, coding regions and introns by sequencing a large set of macronuclear DNA sequences (4,242 and cDNAs (5,484 and comparing them with each other. The telomeres consist of repeats CCC(AAAACCCCn, similar to those in spirotrichous ciliates such as Euplotes, Sterkiella (Oxytricha and Stylonychia. Per sequenced chromosome we found evidence for either a single protein-coding gene, a single tRNA, or the complete ribosomal RNAs cluster. Hence the chromosomes appear to encode single transcripts. In the short subtelomeric regions we identified a few overrepresented motifs that could be involved in gene regulation, but there is no consensus polyadenylation site. The introns are short (21–29 nucleotides, and a significant fraction (1/3 of the tiny introns is conserved in the distantly related ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. As has been observed in P. tetraurelia, the N. ovalis introns tend to contain in-frame stop codons or have a length that is not dividable by three. This pattern causes premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and potentially degradation of unspliced mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Conclusion The combination of short leaders, tiny introns and single genes leads to very minimal macronuclear chromosomes. The smallest we identified contained only 150 nucleotides.

  19. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  20. On the marine ciliate, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, ciliophora, scuticociliatida) with comparison of its related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Ma, Hong-Wei; Song, Wei-Bo

    2002-09-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 (1 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the right of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  1. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system o f the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964 , collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by obser vation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton -Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13-14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1-2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the rig ht of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometri cally tabulated.

  2. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initi...

  3. Ciliate protozoa in the rumen of Kafue lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis, in Zambia, with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Yumura, S; Mulenga, A

    1992-01-01

    The composition of the rumen ciliate fauna in 76 Kafue lechwe inhabiting a limited area in Zambia was surveyed and five genera containing 24 species with 16 formae belonging to the family Ophryoscolecidae were identified. Four new species belonging to Diplodiniinae were recognized and described as Diplodinium lochinvarense n. sp., Diplodinium leche n. sp., Diplodinium zambiense n. sp., and Metadinium ossiculi n. sp. In addition, Ostracodinium gracile form fissilaminatum Dogiel, 1932 was found for the second time and described as Metadinium fissilaminatum n. comb. The species composition was fairly unusual. Seven of the species have been found only in African wild antelopes and these species were found more frequently than cosmopolitan species. There was no evidence of isotrichid species. The average density of ciliates per 1 ml of the rumen fluid was 25.7 x 10(4), and the number of ciliate species per head of host was 10.8.

  4. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  5. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Guohui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum.

  6. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Pomajbíková

    Full Text Available Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2. We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Balantidium entozoon from edible frog and Buxtonella sulcata from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of B. coli, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of B. coli at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely B. entozoon, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from B. coli. Thus, we propose a new genus Neobalantidium for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes clustered with B. sulcata with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of Buxtonella and Neobalantidium are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of Buxtonella-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans.

  7. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts.

  8. Differential localization and functional specialization of centrin analogs in the parasitic ciliate Trichodina pediculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguès, Bernard; Colombet, Jonathan; Damaj, Raghida

    2016-09-01

    Trichodinids are ciliated protozoans that reversibly attach to the tegument of marine and freshwater host-organisms via an adhesive disc. In this study, we have used permeabilized cell models of Trichodina pediculus to examine the distribution of centrins, a Ca(2+)-binding protein associated with centrioles and/or contractile filamentous structures in a large number of protists. The previous finding that filamentous material of the adhesive disc comprised a 23-kDa centrin analog suggested that this protein might be a disc-specific isoform. This possibility was explored through immunolabeling methods using two distinct antibodies, anti-ecto-endoplasmic boundary (EEB) and anti-Hscen2 previously shown to react respectively with centrin-based filament networks and with centrioles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that anti-EEB reacts with filamentous material of the disc but not with basal bodies. Conversely, anti-Hscen2 cross-reacted with basal bodies but failed to label any type of structure occurring in the disc area. More detailed data on localization of this protein was obtained by immunoelectron microscopy showing gold particles deposits in the lumen of basal bodies. The different patterns revealed by this immunochemical approach suggest that the two protein antigens concerned by this study are distinct centrin isoforms that presumably perform organelle-specific function in the ciliate T. pediculus.

  9. Evolutionary relationship and species separation of four morphologically similar stichotrichous ciliates (Protozoa,Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenzhen Yi; John Clamp; Khaled A.S.A1-Rasheid; Abdulaziz A.Al-Khedhairy; Zigui Chen; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on ciliate protists using molecular approaches have been demonstrated to be very reliable to form strong conclusions and results.In the present work,species separation of some morphologically similar stichotrichous ciliates,two species of Pseudokeronopsis and two species of Apokeronopsis,was reexamined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (PCRRFLP).Five of 10 restriction enzymes revealed species-specific polymorphic patterns,of which four similar stichotrichs could be significantly separated and identified.Among them,EcoR I offered almost no significantly different restriction fragment patterns,but the four species could be separated from one another and identified with Hae III.Distinctly different restriction digestion haplotypes and similarity indices separated the species,and were used to construct a phylogeny.Phylogenies based on ITS2 nucleotide sequences and ITS2 secondary structures supported the separation of Pseudokeronopsis and Apokeronopsis using RFLP analysis,although three Pseudokeronopsis carnea populations did not cluster together.In addition,phylogenetic analyses using multiple algorithms confirmed that these two genera formed two distinct groups within the urostylids.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  10. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  11. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA, will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  12. A cover of glass: first report of biomineralized silicon in a ciliate, Maryna umbrellata (Ciliophora: Colpodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Weissenbacher, Birgit; Krautgartner, Wolf-Dietrich; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Using hydrofluoric acid, scanning electron microscope-assisted X-ray microanalysis, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, we present the first definite proof of biomineralized silicon [(SiO(2))](n) in a ciliophoran protist, Maryna umbrellata, a common inhabitant of ephemeral pools. In the trophic specimen, the amorphic silicon (glass) granules are accumulated in the anterior half of the body. When entering the dormant stage, most glass granules are excreted to form the surface cover of the globular resting cyst. Most likely, the silicon granules are synthesized in vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. First, nanospheres with a size of 20-40 nm are formed in a fibrous matrix; they grow to be spongious complexes, eventually becoming amorphous glass granules with an average size of 819 nm x 630 nm. In the transmission electron microscope, the silicon granules show the characteristic fracture pattern of glass known from many other silicon-bearing organisms. A literature survey suggests that silicon is very rare in ciliates. The fine structure and genesis of silicon granules in M. umbrellata are very similar to those of other organisms, including vascular plants and animals, indicating a common mechanism. Light perception and protection against mechanical stress and predators might be functions of the silicon granules in M. umbrellata. The palaeontological significance of glass cysts in ciliates is also discussed.

  13. Diversity of apostome ciliates, Chromidina spp. (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae), parasites of cephalopods of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chromidina spp. are enigmatic apostome ciliates (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae) that parasitise the renal and pancreatic appendages of cephalopods. Only four species have been described, among which only three have been formally named. No DNA sequence has been reported so far. To investigate Chromidina spp. diversity, we sampled cephalopods in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunis, Tunisia, and identified two distinct Chromidina spp. in two different host species: Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis. From haematoxylin-stained slides, we described morphological traits for these parasitic species and compared them to previous descriptions. We also re-described the morphology of Chromidina elegans (Foettinger, 1881) from Chatton and Lwoff’s original materials and designated a neohapantotype and paraneohapantotypes for this species. We describe a new species, Chromidina chattoni Souidenne, Florent and Grellier n. sp., found in L. vulgaris off Tunisia, and evidence for a probable novel species, found in S. officinalis off Tunisia, although this latter species presents similarities to some morphological stages previously described for Chromidina cortezi Hochberg, 1971. We amplified, for the first time, an 18S rDNA marker for these two Chromidina species. Phylogenetic analysis supports the association of Chromidina within apostome ciliates. Genetic distance analysis between 18S rDNA sequences of representative apostomes indicates Pseudocollinia as the most closely related genus to Chromidina. PMID:27530149

  14. Diversity of apostome ciliates, Chromidina spp. (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae, parasites of cephalopods of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souidenne Dhikra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromidina spp. are enigmatic apostome ciliates (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae that parasitise the renal and pancreatic appendages of cephalopods. Only four species have been described, among which only three have been formally named. No DNA sequence has been reported so far. To investigate Chromidina spp. diversity, we sampled cephalopods in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunis, Tunisia, and identified two distinct Chromidina spp. in two different host species: Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis. From haematoxylin-stained slides, we described morphological traits for these parasitic species and compared them to previous descriptions. We also re-described the morphology of Chromidina elegans (Foettinger, 1881 from Chatton and Lwoff’s original materials and designated a neohapantotype and paraneohapantotypes for this species. We describe a new species, Chromidina chattoni Souidenne, Florent and Grellier n. sp., found in L. vulgaris off Tunisia, and evidence for a probable novel species, found in S. officinalis off Tunisia, although this latter species presents similarities to some morphological stages previously described for Chromidina cortezi Hochberg, 1971. We amplified, for the first time, an 18S rDNA marker for these two Chromidina species. Phylogenetic analysis supports the association of Chromidina within apostome ciliates. Genetic distance analysis between 18S rDNA sequences of representative apostomes indicates Pseudocollinia as the most closely related genus to Chromidina.

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium

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    Lynch Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa remains a virtually unexplored issue. Results By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Our observations 1 shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2 are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3 reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  16. ATP4 and ciliation in the neuroectoderm and endoderm of Xenopus embryos and tadpoles

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    Peter Walentek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During gastrulation and neurulation, foxj1 expression requires ATP4a-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for ciliation of the gastrocoel roof plate (Walentek et al. Cell Rep. 1 (2012 516–527. and the mucociliary epidermis (Walentek et al. Dev. Biol. (2015 of Xenopus laevis embryos. These data suggested that ATP4a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulate foxj1 throughout Xenopus development. Here we analyzed whether foxj1 expression was also ATP4a-dependent in other ciliated tissues of the developing Xenopus embryo and tadpole. We found that in the floor plate of the neural tube ATP4a-dependent canonical Wnt signaling was required for foxj1 expression, downstream of or in parallel to Hedgehog signaling. In the developing tadpole brain, ATP4-function was a prerequisite for the establishment of cerebrospinal fluid flow. Furthermore, we describe foxj1 expression and the presence of multiciliated cells in the developing tadpole gastrointestinal tract. Our work argues for a general requirement of ATP4-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for foxj1 expression and motile ciliogenesis throughout Xenopus development.

  17. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; CHEN Jian; HUANG Huai-qiu; XI Li-yan; LAI Wei; XUE Ru-zeng; ZHANG Xiao-hui; CHEN Rong-zhang

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dermatophytoses and the development of new antifungal agents has focused interest on susceptibility tests of dermatophytes. The method used universally for susceptibility tests of dermatophytes was published as document (M38-A) in 2002 by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), dealing with the standardization of susceptibility tests in filamentous fungi, though not including dermatophytes especially. However, it is not a very practical method for the clinical laboratory in routine susceptibility testing. In this test, we developed a novel rapid susceptibility assay --glucose consumption method (GCM) for dermatophytes.Methods In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to itraconazole (ITC),voriconazole (VOC), econazole nitrate (ECN) and terbinafine (TBF) by glucose consumption method (GCM), in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A method. Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates,including Trichophyton rubrum ( T. Rubrum) (n=14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ( T. Mentagrophytes) (n=14), were tested. In the GCM, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of enzyme substrate color mix. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually.Results Comparison revealed best agreement for TBF against T. Mentagrophytes and T. Rubrum, since MIC range, MIC50, and MIC90 were identical from two methods. However, for ITC and VOC, GCM showed wider MIC ranges and higher MICs than CLSI methods in most isolates. For ECN against T. Rubrum, high MICs were tested by GCM (0.125-16 μg/ml) but not M38-A method (0.5-1 μg/ml). The overall agreements for all isolates between the two methods within one dilution and two dilutions for ITC, VOC, ECN and TBF was 53.6% and 75.0%, 57.1% and 75.0%, 82.1% and 89.3%, and 85.7 and 85.7%, respectively.Conclusion Measurement of glucose uptake can predict the susceptibility

  18. Structure and biodiversity of coralligenous assemblages dominated by the precious red coral Corallium rubrum over broad spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Güell, Edgar; Cebrian, Emma; Garrabou, Joaquim; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Linares, Cristina; Teixidó, Núria

    2016-11-01

    Data on species diversity and structure in coralligenous outcrops dominated by Corallium rubrum are lacking. A hierarchical sampling including 3 localities and 9 sites covering more than 400 km of rocky coasts in NW Mediterranean, was designed to characterize the spatial variability of structure, composition and diversity of perennial species inhabiting coralligenous outcrops. We estimated species/taxa composition and abundance. Eight morpho-functional groups were defined according to their life span and growth to characterize the structural complexity of the outcrops. The species composition and structural complexity differed consistently across all spatial scales considered. The lowest and the highest variability were found among localities (separated by >200 km) and within sites (separated by 1–5 km), respectively supporting differences in diversity indices. The morpho-functional groups displayed a consistent spatial arrangement in terms of the number, size and shape of patches across study sites. These results contribute to filling the gap on the understanding of assemblage composition and structure and to build baselines to assess the response of this of this highly threatened habitat to anthropogenic disturbances.

  19. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.

    2016-06-06

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species’ bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans.

  20. A note on the occurrence of the encrusting foraminifera Homotrema rubrum in reef sediments from two distinctive hydrodynamic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO ALTAIR J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from two different reef environments were analyzed for their foraminiferal content: the Sioba/Rio do Fogo reefs, located in a broad shallow shelf dominated by strong currents (Rio Grande do Norte State, and the Praia do Forte reefs, located in a narrow shelf under the influence of wind-induced waves (Bahia State. The recorded foraminiferal fauna, from forty-six samples, is represented by 113 species, being the encrusting species Homotrema rubrum present in nine samples from the Sioba/Rio do Fogo reefs and in 11 samples from Praia do Forte reefs. Homotrema fragments recovered from Sioba/Rio do Fogo are mostly polished with rounded edges (51.59% and some have a whitish color, whereas the specimens from Praia do Forte reefs are predominantly composed of reddish fragments (82.41% with sharpened points (63.88%. The high wave energy on the reef environment of Praia do Forte is responsible for the fragmentation of living Homotrema tests (red color, which are deposited near to their source area. The effects of the strong current system operating in the broad continental shelf of Sioba/Rio do Fogo is the major cause of sediment reworking, producing polished grains accumulated in its reef surroundings.

  1. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

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    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (rutin and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no cytotoxic activity of fraction 3 or flavonoids 1 and 2 was observed against the tumor cells tested. However, analysis of the antifungal activity of flavonoids 1 and 2 revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, against the Trichophyton rubrum strains tested (wild type and mutant. This study demonstrates for the first time the antifungal activity of isolated flavonoids, validating the same activity for A. arvense.

  2. Biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank bioreactor from synthesis gas by anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium: Rhodopirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Habibollah; Najafpour, Ghasem; Ku Ismail, Ku Syahidah; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen may be considered a potential fuel for the future since it is carbon-free and oxidized to water as a combustion product. Bioconversion of synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrogen was demonstrated in continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTBR) utilizing acetate as a carbon source. An anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum catalyzed water-gas shift reaction which was applied for the bioconversion of syngas to hydrogen. The continuous fermentation of syngas in the bioreactor was continuously operated at various gas flow rates and agitation speeds, for the period of two months. The gas flow rates were varied from 5 to 14 ml/min. The agitation speeds were increasingly altered in the range of 150-500 rpm. The pH and temperature of the bioreactor was set at 6.5 and 30 degrees C. The liquid flow rate was kept constant at 0.65 ml/min for the duration of 60 days. The inlet acetate concentration was fed at 4 g/l into the bioreactor. The hydrogen production rate and yield were 16+/-1.1 mmol g(-1)cell h(-1) and 87+/-2.4% at fixed agitation speed of 500 rpm and syngas flow rate of 14 ml/min, respectively. The mass transfer coefficient (KLa) at this condition was approximately 72.8h(-1). This new approach, using a biocatalyst was considered as an alternative method of conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthetic reactions, which were able to convert syngas into hydrogen.

  3. Meiosis gene inventory of four ciliates reveals the prevalence of a synaptonemal complex-independent crossover pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jingyun; Mahé, Frédéric; Loidl, Josef; Logsdon, John; Dunthorn, Micah

    2014-03-01

    To establish which meiosis genes are present in ciliates, and to look for clues as to which recombination pathways may be treaded by them, four genomes were inventoried for 11 meiosis-specific and 40 meiosis-related genes. We found that the set of meiosis genes shared by Tetrahymena thermophila, Paramecium tetraurelia, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and Oxytricha trifallax is consistent with the prevalence of a Mus81-dependent class II crossover pathway that is considered secondary in most model eukaryotes. There is little evidence for a canonical class I crossover pathway that requires the formation of a synaptonemal complex (SC). This gene inventory suggests that meiotic processes in ciliates largely depend on mitotic repair proteins for executing meiotic recombination. We propose that class I crossovers and SCs were reduced sometime during the evolution of ciliates. Consistent with this reduction, we provide microscopic evidence for the presence only of degenerate SCs in Stylonychia mytilus. In addition, lower nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation rates of some of the meiosis genes suggest that, in contrast to most other nuclear genes analyzed so far, meiosis genes in ciliates are largely evolving at a slower rate than those genes in fungi and animals.

  4. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa,Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32x-9.51 (R2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was fotnd to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86x+0.89 (R2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2862.85e-0.0ax (R2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y = 127.15e-0.13x (R2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  5. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  6. Evaluation of double formalin--Lugol's fixation in assessing number and biomass of ciliates: an example of estimations at mesoscale in NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; Van Wambeke, France; Dalby, Andrew P

    2004-03-01

    Ciliated protozoa are potential grazers of primary and bacterial production and act as intermediaries between picoplankton and copepods and other large suspension feeders. Accurate determination of ciliate abundance and feeding mode is crucial in oceanic carbon budget estimations. However, the impact of different fixatives on the abundance and cell volume of ciliates has been investigated in only a few studies using either laboratory cultures or natural populations. Lugol's solution and formalin are the most commonly used fixatives for the preservation of ciliates samples. In the present study, the aim was to compare 0.4% Lugol's solution and 2% borated-formalin fixation and evaluate the need of counting duplicate samples each using a different fixative. For this, a large number of samples (n = 110) from the NE Atlantic was analyzed in the frame of POMME program (Multidisciplinary Mesoscale Ocean Program). We established a statistically significant relationship (p Lugol's and formalin fixed samples for both abundance (r2 = 0.50) and biomass (r2 = 0.76) of aloricate ciliates which showed that counts were higher in Lugol's solution by a factor of 2 and a non-taxon specific cell-loss in formalin. However, loricate ciliate abundance in our samples which were represented primarily by Tintinnus spp. did not show any difference between the two treatments. Abundance and biomass of mixotrophic ciliates (chloroplast-bearing cells) were for various reasons underestimated in both treatments. Our results show that unique fixation by formalin may severely underestimate ciliates abundance and biomass although their population may not alter. For this reason, Lugol's solution is best for the estimation of their abundance and biomass. However, for counts of mixotrophs and the evaluation of the ecological role of ciliates in carbon flux, double fixation is essential. Compromises regarding the fixatives have lead to severe underestimations of mixotrophs in studies conducted by now.

  7. A simplified experimental model for clearance of some pathogenic bacteria using common bacterivorous ciliated spp. in Tigris river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Talib Hassan; Saleh, Dhuha Saad

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-specific uptake rates of three different protozoan taxa on a pure and mixed bacterial community was studied by means of a simplified and functionally reproducible experimental model. The bacterial species Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were isolated and classified from stool samples of patients suffering from diarrhea. Paramecium caudatum, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Halteria grandinella, free living ciliate Protozoans, were isolated and identified from Tigris river water. Pure and mixed ( E. coli + S. typhi), ( E. coli + Sh. flexneri) bacterial cultures were used with each ciliate genera to evaluate the following: predator duplication rate, prey reduction rate, clearance rate and net grazing rate. We used selective lactose fermentation phenomena of enteric bacteria on MacConkey medium for the quantification of bacteria cultural characteristics. The final bacteria concentration was reduced by growing protozoa of 98-99.9 % compared to protozoa-free controls. It showed that Tetrahymena pyriformis had the highest duplication rate (4.13 time/day) in both types of cultures (pure and mixed), followed by Paramecium caudatum and Halteria grandinella, respectively. Paramecium caudatum had the highest rate of ingestion in both types of cultures (26 × 103 bacteria/organism/hr) and yielded the longest time required for 90 % bacterial reduction in a pure suspension of S. typhi (166 h). Clearance rates of pathogenic bacteria by ciliates ranged between 106 nanoliter/organism/h by P. caudatum to S. typhi and 1.92 nanoliter/organism/h seen in T. pyriformis in ( E. coli + S. typhi) mixed culture. We used aquatic experimental microcosms under controlled conditions to explore bacteria-dependent ciliate growth and examined whether these ciliates could discriminate between equally sized bacterial preys in a mixture.

  8. Influence of ciliated protozoa and heterotrophic nanoflagellates on the fate of primary production in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; van Wambeke, France; Denis, Michel; Moutin, Thierry

    2005-07-01

    Heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates and their herbivorous activity were studied within the framework of the Programme Océan Multidisciplinaire Méso Echelle (POMME) in the northeastern Atlantic between 16°-22°W and 38°-45°N during winter, spring, and late summer/autumn 2001. Ciliate ingestion rates of Synechococcus and eukaryotic algae were measured using fluorescently labeled prey. Heterotrophic nanoflagellate ingestion rates of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus were also estimated. Heterotrophic nanoflagellate and ciliate standing stock within the surface layer (0-100 m) showed seasonal variation, with maximal values in spring (866 mg C m-2 and 637 mg C m-2, respectively). Oligotrichs dominated the ciliate assemblages, except at one site visited during spring, where a tintinnid bloom was observed. Ingestion of photosynthetic cells less than 10 μm in size was positively correlated (r = 0.7, p consumption reflected differences in the evolution of the phytoplankton bloom and in the structure of the microbial food web, both associated with the strong mesoscale hydrodynamic variability of the study area. In that context it is worthy to note that when tintinnids reached high abundances locally (1260 cells L-1), their impact as phytoplankton grazers was important and reached 69% of primary production. Generally, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates were relatively more important in determining the fate of phytogenic carbon during spring. Another interesting feature of primary production consumption was that during the autumn, when Prochlorococcus dominated the phytoplankton community, the protozoan grazing activity was ineffective in regulating the fate of primary producers.

  9. Importance and nutritional value of large ciliates for the reproduction of Acartia clausi during the post spring-bloom period in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Peters, J.

    2008-01-01

    enriched with large prey (> 20 mu m). The mineral (C, N) and lipid contents of the food suspensions were determined for size-fractionated samples to characterize the nutritional composition of prey. Large oligotrich ciliates and Strobiliidae dominated the seston biomass. Ciliates, particularly...... of the mineral and lipid content confirmed a high seston nutritional quality. The 20 to 48 mu m fraction reflected the composition of female diets and indicated an enrichment of N and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet compared to total seston. The fraction > 48 mu m consisted mostly of ciliates...

  10. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  11. New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-San Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC, 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC, 8-12 transverse cirri (TC, 1 buccal cirrus (BC, 9-12 midventral pairs (MP, 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK, and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC, 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.

  12. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NOREEN SHER AKBAR; ADIL WAHID BUTT; DHARMENDRA TRIPATHI; O ANWAR BÉG

    2017-03-01

    The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re $\\ll$ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.

  13. Current status of parasitic ciliates Chilodonella spp. (Phyllopharyngea: Chilodonellidae) in freshwater fish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Gomes, G; Jerry, D R; Miller, T L; Hutson, K S

    2016-07-30

    Freshwater fish farming contributes to more than two-thirds of global aquaculture production. Parasitic ciliates are one of the largest causes of production loss in freshwater farmed fishes, with species from the genus Chilodonella being particularly problematic. While Chilodonella spp. include 'free-living' fauna, some species are involved in mortality events of fish, particularly in high-density aquaculture. Indeed, chilodonellosis causes major productivity losses in over 16 species of farmed freshwater fishes in more than 14 countries. Traditionally, Chilodonella species are identified based on morphological features; however, the genus comprises yet uncharacterized cryptic species, which indicates the necessity for molecular diagnostic methods. This review synthesizes current knowledge on the biology, ecology and geographic distribution of harmful Chilodonella spp. and examines pathological signs, diagnostic methods and treatments. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics and the ability to culture Chilodonella spp. in vitro will enable the development of preventative management practices and sustained freshwater fish aquaculture production.

  14. Thermodynamic Stability of Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Pheromones of the Protozoan Ciliate Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Wüthrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three psychrophilic protein pheromones (En-1, En-2 and En-6 from the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, and six mesophilic pheromones (Er-1, Er-2, Er-10, Er-11, Er-22 and Er-23 from the temperate-water sister species, Euplotes raikovi, were studied in aqueous solution for their thermal unfolding and refolding based on the temperature dependence of their circular dichroism (CD spectra. The three psychrophilic proteins showed thermal unfolding with mid points in the temperature range 55–70 °C. In contrast, no unfolding was observed for any of the six mesophilic proteins and their regular secondary structures were maintained up to 95 °C. Possible causes of these differences are discussed based on comparisons of the NMR structures of the nine proteins.

  15. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  16. Divisional morphogenesis in the marine ciliate Anteholosticha manca(Kahl,1932) Berger,2003(Ciliophora: Urostylida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liqiong; HU Xiaozhong; WARREN Alan; AL-RASHEID Khaled A S; AL - FARRAJ Saleh A; SHAO Chen; SONG Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The cortical development and macronuclear evolution of the marine hypotrichous ciliate Anteholosticha manca,collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao,China,were investigated using the protargol impregnation method.The morphogenesis of A.manca is generally typical for the genus,and can be characterized as the following features:(1) in the proter,a new oral primordium is formed on the bottom (beneath the pellicle) of the buccal cavity,disorganization of the parental undulating membranes do not contribute to the formation of this primordium; (2) FVT-cirral anlagen in both dividers develop independently,and very likely on-ly a few midventral cirri join in the formation of these primordia; (3) both marginal row and dorsal kinety anlagen develop intraki-netally within the parental structure; (4) at the middle stage,macronuclear segments fuse together to form a single mass as ob-served in most of its related forms.

  17. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar

    2017-03-01

    The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.

  18. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Gao, Shan; Min, Gi-Sik; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  19. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  20. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  1. Structure and seasonal dynamics of the protozoan community (heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, amoeboid protozoa) in the plankton of a large river (River Danube, Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Aron Keve; Acs, Eva; Kiss, Keve Tihamér; Török, Júlia Katalin

    2009-05-01

    Seasonal dynamics of all major protozoan groups were investigated in the plankton of the River Danube, upstream of Budapest (Hungary), by bi-weekly sampling over a 1-year long period. Sixty-one heterotrophic flagellate, 14 naked amoeba, 50 testate amoeba, 4 heliozoan and 83 ciliate morphospecies were identified. The estimated abundance ranges of major groups throughout the year were as follows: heterotrophic flagellates, 0.27-7.8 x 10(6)ind.l(-1); naked amoebae, max. 3300ind.l(-1); testaceans, max. 1600ind.l(-1); heliozoans, max. 8500ind.l(-1); ciliates, 132-34,000ind.l(-1). In terms of biovolume, heterotrophic flagellates dominated throughout the year (max. 0.58mm(3)l(-1)), and ciliates only exceeded their biovolume in summer (max. 0.76mm(3)l(-1)). Naked amoeba and heliozoan biovolume was about one, and testacean biovolume 1-3, orders of magnitude lower than that of ciliates. In winter, flagellates, mainly chrysomonads, had the highest biomass, whilst ciliates were dominated by peritrichs. In 2005 from April to July a long spring/summer peak occurred for all protozoan groups. Beside chrysomonads typical flagellates were choanoflagellates, bicosoecids and abundant microflagellates (large chrysomonads and Collodictyon). Most abundant ciliates were oligotrichs, while Phascolodon, Urotricha, Vorticella, haptorids, Suctoria, Climacostomum and Stokesia also contributed significantly to biovolume during rapid succession processes. In October and November a second high protozoan peak occurred, with flagellate dominance, and slightly different taxonomic composition.

  2. [Relationship of bacteria of Bacillus genus with ciliate Colpoda steinii and their impact on germination of plant seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2012-01-01

    Features of symbiotic coexistence of bacteria of the genus Bacillus with ciliates Colpoda steinii have been studied. In their mutual cultivation during 10 days the number of bacteria B. subtilis IMV V-7023 was reduced 4.4 times, B. pumilus 3 - 3.4 times, B. megaterium 12 - 2.5 times. In the mixed culture with B. pumilus 3 the number of the ciliates increased gradualluy while under availability of the other two bacilli strains the number of protozoan increased in the first two days, after that their amount decreased. Treatment of some plants seeds by suspension of B. subtilis IMV V-7023 with the protozoan increased their germination and stimulated the growth of plants at the early stages of development.

  3. Ectopic Ciliated Cyst in the Mandible Secondary to Genioplasty and Lefort after Two Years: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Safoura; Sohanian, Shabnam; Khakbaz, Oveis; Abesi, Farida; Aliakbarpour, Fatemeh; Rayani, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The ectopic ciliated cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst which occurs as a delayed complication after maxillary sinus radical surgery; this lesion emerges due to the destruction of the sinus mucosa during the surgery and entrapment of the respiratory epithelium in the region. This lesion has been observed in very rare cases following genioplasty and bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Case Report: We reported a case of the ectopic ciliated cyst in in the mandible of a 37-year-old Iranian woman following genioplasty and Lefort 1 surgery after 2 years. Its treatment was enucleation. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up after cosmetic surgery of both jaws is recommended due to the probability of this cyst. PMID:27738612

  4. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae, on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schefter, M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations. Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been documented in situ and that multi-scale patchiness has been reported for a benthic ciliate. Colonies were mapped and monitored; some patches over 1 m diameter were recorded. Since 2008, the distribution has again consisted of scattered colonies, as it did from 1999–2004.

  5. The influence of environmental characteristics on the distribution of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora in an urban stream of southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJP. Dias

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the ciliated protozoa community at three sampling stations that receive different levels of domestic sewage along the São Pedro Stream in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to determine the influence of organic pollution on this community and to assess the feasibility of using ciliates as water quality indicators. Four physical-chemical parameters of the water samples were evaluated: dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, pH and temperature. The sediment was obtained manually, using dredges with capacity of 300 mL, at each collection point. Point 1 was located in a rural region that receives a low sewage load, while Points 2 and 3 were located in populated regions receiving high sewage loads. We found 22 ciliate species, of which 18 are included in the saprobic system and are considered bioindicators. These showed beta-mesosaprobic environments at Point 1 and alfa-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic environments at Points 2 and 3. The low levels of dissolved oxygen and the high electrical conductivity values at Points 2 and 3, together with the strong similarity between the ciliate taxocenoses of these points and the weak similarity between Point 1 and the other two, confirm the high sewage loads received at the latter two points. The combination of the biological indicators and physical-chemical analyses therefore proved itself to be an efficient method of evaluating water quality, and has excellent potential to support decisions on the conservation of headwaters and recuperation of degraded environments in lotic systems.

  6. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae), on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note)

    OpenAIRE

    Schefter, M.; Lobban, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations). Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been ...

  7. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  8. Determination of trace elements in freshwater rotifers and ciliates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfl, S.; Óvári, M.; Nimptsch, J.; Neu, T. R.; Mages, M.

    2016-02-01

    Element determination in plankton is important for the assessment of metal contamination of aquatic environments. Until recently, it has been difficult to determine elemental content in rotifers or ciliates derived from natural plankton samples because of the difficulty in handling and separation of these fragile organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for separation of rotifers and large ciliates from natural plankton samples (μg range dry weight) and subsequent analysis of their elemental content using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). Plankton samples were collected from different aquatic environments (three lakes, one river) in Chile, Argentina and Hungary. From one to eighty specimens of five rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus falcatus, Asplanchna sieboldii, Asplanchna sp., Philodina sp.) and four to twelve specimens of one large ciliate (Stentor amethystinus) were prepared according to the dry method originally developed for microcrustaceans, and analysed by TRXF following in situ microdigestion. Our results demonstrated that it possible to process these small and fragile organisms (individual dry mass: 0.17-9.39 μg ind- 1) via careful washing and preparation procedures. We found species-dependent differences of the element mass fractions for some of the elements studied (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb), especially for Cu, Fe and Mn. One large rotifer species (A. sieboldii) also showed a negative correlation between individual dry weight and the element content for Pb, Ni and Cr. We conclude that our application of the in situ microdigestion-TRXF method is suitable even for rotifers and ciliates, greatly expanding the possibilities for use of plankton in biomonitoring of metal contamination in aquatic environments.

  9. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions.

  10. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem: effects of ammonium on the population growth of Euplotes vannus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Xu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ammonium on the population growth of the marine ciliate, Euplotes vannus, were examined using ecotoxicological method. It is showed that ammonium exerts inhibitory effects on the growth of the ciliate populations in a concentration-dependent way. Statistical analysis reveals that the population growth dynamics exposed to ammonium-N concentration over 100mg/L are significantly different from that in the control at P<0.05 level. Linear regression determined that the 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h and 84h IC50 values of ammonium-N are 19.68, 201.51, 167.49, 47.86, 50.43 and 43.11 concentration over 100mg/L, respectively (P<0.05; pH 8.2; salinity 28 ppt; temperature, 25℃). The results indicate that the tolerance to ammonium in E. vannus is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, such as cultured prawns and oysters. Therefore, it is believed that the high tolerance to ammonium is necessary for ciliated protozoa to play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in the intensive aquaculture waters with high-level ammonium. In addition, the correlation between IC50 values and exposure time was discussed.

  11. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  12. Acute Toxicities of Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, and Lugol's Iodine Solution to a Marine Ciliate,Pleuronema coronatum ( Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yantao; SONG Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a commonly occurred ma-rine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the resultshighlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capabili-ty to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper,and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00 × 10-6 and 43.57 × 10 6, while those of Lugol's solutions were 90.13 and67.84 × 10 6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol' s iodine solutionand potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  13. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Eisen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC, which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases, using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters, and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins. In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from

  14. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julius C; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis.

  15. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role.

  16. Electrochemical study of the interaction between Eu{sup 3+} and ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Baojuan; Wang Ziwei [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Tian Yanni, E-mail: tianyann@sxu.edu.c [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Wang Zhijun [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Yang Binsheng, E-mail: yangbs@sxu.edu.c [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A new species was formed when protein P{sub 23} (one segment of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin) was added to a solution of Eu{sup 3+}. The interaction between P{sub 23} and Eu{sup 3+} was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 7.4) using a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The formal potential (E{sup o}') of Eu{sup 3+} shifted from -0.61 to -0.84 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) after P{sub 23} was added to the Eu{sup 3+} solution. The diffusion coefficient (D), the charge-transfer coefficient (alpha) and the electron transfer standard rate constant (k{sub s}) were obtained in the absence and the presence of P{sub 23}. The affinity constant of Eu{sup 3+} and P{sub 23} was determined to be (1.89 +- 0.51) x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}. The electrochemical investigation of europium bound to the protein provided useful data for the studies of calcium-binding proteins.

  17. Calcium in ciliated protozoa: sources, regulation, and calcium-regulated cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Klauke, N

    2001-01-01

    In ciliates, a variety of processes are regulated by Ca2+, e.g., exocytosis, endocytosis, ciliary beat, cell contraction, and nuclear migration. Differential microdomain regulation may occur by activation of specific channels in different cell regions (e.g., voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cilia), by local, nonpropagated activation of subplasmalemmal Ca stores (alveolar sacs), by different sensitivity thresholds, and eventually by interplay with additional second messengers (cilia). During stimulus-secretion coupling, Ca2+ as the only known second messenger operates at approximately 5 microM, whereby mobilization from alveolar sacs is superimposed by "store-operated Ca2+ influx" (SOC), to drive exocytotic and endocytotic membrane fusion. (Content discharge requires binding of extracellular Ca2+ to some secretory proteins.) Ca2+ homeostasis is reestablished by binding to cytosolic Ca2+-binding proteins (e.g., calmodulin), by sequestration into mitochondria (perhaps by Ca2+ uniporter) and into endoplasmic reticulum and alveolar sacs (with a SERCA-type pump), and by extrusion via a plasmalemmal Ca2+ pump and a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Comparison of free vs total concentration, [Ca2+] vs [Ca], during activation, using time-resolved fluorochrome analysis and X-ray microanalysis, respectively, reveals that altogether activation requires a calcium flux that is orders of magnitude larger than that expected from the [Ca2+] actually required for local activation.

  18. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the microfibrillar ecto-endoplasmic boundary in the ciliate Isotricha prostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigues, B; Metenier, G; Groliere, C A

    1984-01-01

    The cytoplasm of the ciliated protozoan Isotricha prostoma is compartmented by a continuous fibrillar system made up of a double layer of 4 nm-diameter filaments: the microfibrillar ecto-endoplasmic boundary (EEB). Isolation of this structure after treatment of the cells in a buffer of low ionic strength in the presence of the detergent Triton X-100 evidenced connections linking the two filamentous layers. One dimensional electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gel of EEB fractions revealed several major proteins with apparent molecular weights between 11 and 23 K. Of these, two neighboring bands of MW22 and 23 K were removed from gels and used as antigens to obtain rabbit antibodies. The antiserum obtained reacted specifically with injected proteins as shown by the technique of immunological detection on nitrocellulose sheets using the peroxidase reaction product. Electron microscopy localization of the antigens with anti-IgG coupled with colloidal gold showed significant labeling of the EEB within the cortex of Isotricha permeabilized with Triton X-100. We hope that the 22-23 K antiserum will prove to be a useful tool for the comparative study of other non-actin filament systems in Protozoa.

  19. Purification and partial characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Errafiy; Abdelaziz Soukri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,we purified the glycolytic enzymeglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)which is involved in cellular energy production and has important housekeeping functions,from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila using a three-step procedure.The enzyme was purified ~68 folds by ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by two steps of column chromatography (DEAE-cellulose and Mono-S).The purified enzyme is a homotetramer with a molecular weight of ~120 kDa.Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one basic GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 8.8.Western blot analysis showed a single 32-kDa band corresponding to the enzyme subunit using a monospecific polyclonal antibody against the T.thermophila GAPDH.The maximum of enzyme activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 30-35℃.The apparent Km values for both NAD+ and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate were 0.102±0.012 and 0.360 + 0.018 mM,respectively.The maximal velocity (Vmax) was 39.40 + 2.95 U/mg.The T.thermophila GAPDH is inhibited by oxidative and nitrosative stress reagents.

  20. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs.

  1. Adaptation responses of individuals to environmental changes in the ciliate Euplotes crassus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ju, Se-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Although the response unit of living organisms to environmental changes is at the individual level, most experiments on the adaptation responses of ciliates have been conducted in batches, comprising multiple-individuals, due to their microscopic size. However, here, we confirmed that individuals undergo different division cycles in monocultures of Euplotes crassus. They also exhibited transcript variations of 4.63-fold in SSU and of 22.78- fold in Hsp70. Additionally, in salt-stressed E. crassus individuals, SSU transcripts of individuals varied by 6.92-fold at 27 psu, 8.69- fold at 32 psu, and 2.51-fold at 37 psu. However, the maximum difference in Hsp70 was only 4.23-fold under all conditions. These results suggest there may be different biological rhythms even in siblings derived from the same parent. It can also be inferred that various environmental factors have different effects on different E. crassus individuals. Therefore, to elucidate relationships between organism adaptations and environmental changes, studies at the individual level should be conducted with multi-individual approaches.

  2. Distribution of a centrosomal antigen during morphogenesis in the ciliated protozoan Euplotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A; Lemullois, M; Coffe, G

    1998-07-01

    Ciliates assemble basal bodies in great number at many stages of the life-cycle. In order to understand their assembly mechanisms, we screened a library of monoclonal antibodies directed against pericentriolar material. One of these antibodies, CTR210, was used previously to follow steps of this assembly process: in Paraurostyla, new basal bodies appear along a scaffold of linear structures recognized by this antibody. The very unusual behavior of this antigen deserved confirmation in other species. In the present study, we show by immunofluorescence that, in another phylogenetically very distant species, Euplotes, basal bodies are assembled in the same pathway during division. In addition, this antibody recognizes a filamentous ring located at the division furrow and linking many basal body assemblages. By cell fractionation and cytoskeletal extraction, we obtained fractions enriched in basal bodies and associated material. Such fractions still display a high complexity in protein composition. These fractions were used to characterize the main target of the antibody as a doublet of 45 kDa. These results confirm previous results in terms of functionality of the protein recognized by the antibody, but raise new questions in terms of the assignment of the recognized protein to the HSP70 family as hypothesized previously.

  3. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated.

  4. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Moraes Ramos Valladão

    Full Text Available In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae, from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided.

  5. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Sánchez Medina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010; the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (APP and flagellates were analysed using epifluorescence microscopy. Ciliates were evaluated either in DAPI stained samples (looking for pigmented organelles and/or ingested phototrophs or in quantitative protargol stain (QPS permanent preparations, where they were identified at the genus or species level. The end of the stratification period in Lake Alchichica was characterized by almost uniform heterotrophic picoplankton (HPP numbers (106 cells mL-1 throughout the water column. Meanwhile, APP showed epilimnetic and/or metalimnetic maxima of 105 cells mL-1 followed by an order of magnitude drop in the hypolimnion. A very important peak (105 cells mL-1 of the autotrophic or mixotrophic flagellate Pyramimonas sp. was observed repeatedly above and within the oxycline of Lake Alchichica. Ciliate biomass maxima were found around the oxycline and in the above-bottom layer. The top of the oxycline was dominated by Euplotes spp. and Spirostomum teres fine- to coarse-filter feeders (feeding upon APP, nanodiatoms and algae. Raptorial haptorids (in particular, Phialina sp. were the second most important group, generally occupying the layer below euplotids, followed by Holophrya and Prorodon facultative anaerobic prostomes. Sometimes, strictly anaerobic Caenomorpha sp. was found to be important in the anoxic hypolimnion. Minute picoplankton feeding species (both APP and heterotrophic bacteria feeders were important throughout the water column: in the epilimnion

  6. Ultrastructure of the ciliated cells of the free-swimming larva, and sessile stages, of the marine sponge Haliclona indistincta (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kelly M; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lalor, Pierce; McCormack, Grace P

    2013-11-01

    We provide a detailed, comparative study of the ciliated cells of the marine haplosclerid sponge Haliclona indistincta, in order to make data available for future phylogenetic comparisons at the ultrastructural level. Our study focuses on the description and analysis of the larval epithelial cells, and choanocytes of the metamorphosed juvenile sponge. The ultrastructure of the two cell types is sufficiently different to prevent our ability to conclusively determine the origin of the choanocytes from the larval ciliated cells. However, ciliated, epithelial cells were observed in a migratory position within the inner cell mass of the larval stages. Some cilia were observed within the cell's cytoplasm, which is indicative of the ciliated epithelial cell undergoing transdifferentiation into a choanocyte; while traces of other ciliated epithelial cells were contained within phagosomes, suggesting they are phagocytosed. We compared our data with other species described in the literature. However, any phylogenetic inference must wait until further detailed comparisons can be made with species whose phylogenetic position has been determined by other means, such as phylogenomics, in order to more closely link genomic, and morphological information.

  7. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  8. Ciliate Nassula sp. grazing on a microcystin-producing cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii): impact on cell growth and in the microcystin fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, Audrey; Dellinger, Marc [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cadel-six, Sabrina [' Unite Caracterisation des Toxines' - Laboratoire de securite des aliments de Maisons-Alfort - ANSES, F-94701 Maisons Alfort Cedex (France); Amand, Severine [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comte, Katia, E-mail: kcomte@mnhn.fr [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-01-15

    The proliferation of microcystins (MCs)-producing cyanobacteria (MCs) can have detrimental effects on the food chain in aquatic environments. Until recently, few studies had focused on the fate of MCs in exposed organisms, such as primary consumers of cyanobacteria. In this study, we investigate the impact of an MC-producing strain of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii on the growth and physiology of a Nassula sp. ciliate isolated from a non-toxic cyanobacterial bloom. We show that this Nassula sp. strain was able to consume and grow while feeding exclusively on an MC-producing cyanobacterium over a prolonged period of time (8 months). In short-term exposure experiments (8 days), ciliates consuming an MC-producing cyanobacterial strain displayed slower growth rate and higher levels of antioxidant enzymes than ciliates feeding on two non-MC-producing strains. Three high-performance methods (LC/MS, LC/MS-MS and ELISA) were used to quantify the free and bound MCs in the culture medium and in the cells. We show that ciliate grazing led to a marked decrease in free MCs (methanol extractable) in cells, the MCs were therefore no longer found in the surrounding culture medium. These findings suggest that MCs may have undergone redistribution (free vs bound MCs) or chemical degradation within the ciliates.

  9. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  10. Gene expression in a paleopolyploid: a transcriptome resource for the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

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    Kapusta Aurélie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, a unicellular model that belongs to the ciliate phylum, has been shaped by at least 3 successive whole genome duplications (WGD. These dramatic events, which have also been documented in plants, animals and fungi, are resolved over evolutionary time by the loss of one duplicate for the majority of genes. Thanks to a low rate of large scale genome rearrangement in Paramecium, an unprecedented large number of gene duplicates of different ages have been identified, making this organism an outstanding model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of polyploidization. The most recent WGD, with 51% of pre-duplication genes still in 2 copies, provides a snapshot of a phase of rapid gene loss that is not accessible in more ancient polyploids such as yeast. Results We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray platform for P. tetraurelia genome-wide expression profiling and used the platform to measure gene expression during 1 the sexual cycle of autogamy, 2 growth of new cilia in response to deciliation and 3 biogenesis of secretory granules after massive exocytosis. Genes that are differentially expressed during these time course experiments have expression patterns consistent with a very low rate of subfunctionalization (partition of ancestral functions between duplicated genes in particular since the most recent polyploidization event. Conclusions A public transcriptome resource is now available for Paramecium tetraurelia. The resource has been integrated into the ParameciumDB model organism database, providing searchable access to the data. The microarray platform, freely available through NimbleGen Systems, provides a robust, cost-effective approach for genome-wide expression profiling in P. tetraurelia. The expression data support previous studies showing that at short evolutionary times after a whole genome duplication, gene dosage balance constraints and not functional change are

  11. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

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    Arias Covadonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate. Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan. BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value -5 hits and further Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289. Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

  12. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  13. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  14. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators.

  15. Proteomic approach to reveal the proteins associated with encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwu Chen

    Full Text Available In order to identify and reveal the proteins related to encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus, we analyzed variation in the abundance of the proteins isolated from the resting cyst comparing with proteins in the vegetative cell. 2-D electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS techniques and Bioinformatics were used for proteome separation, quantification and identification. The comparative proteomics studies revealed 26 proteins with changes on the expression in the resting cysts, including 12 specific proteins and 14 differential proteins. 12 specific proteins and 10 out of the 14 differential proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The identified specific proteins with known functions included type II cytoskeletal 1, keratin, Nop16 domain containing protein, protein arginine n-methyltransferase, epsilon-trimethyllysine hydroxylase and calpain-like protein. The identified differential proteins with known functions included Lysozyme C, keratinocyte growth factor, lysozyme homolog AT-2, formate acetyltransferase, alpha S1 casein and cold-shock protein. We discussed the functions of these proteins as well as their contribution in the process of encystment. These identified proteins covered a wide range of molecular functions, including gene regulation, RNA regulation, proteins degradation and oxidation resistance, stress response, material transport and cytoskeleton organization. Therefore, differential expression of these proteins was essential for cell morphological and physiological changes during encystment. This suggested that the peculiar proteins and differential proteins might play important roles in the process of the vegetative cells transforming into the resting cysts. These observations may be novel findings that bring new insights into the detailed mechanisms of dormancy.

  16. Effects of sodium nitrite on Trichophywsis rubrum%亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌形态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟盼琢; 谢红霞; 杨云; 杨晓亮; 冯琴; 王冰心

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the morphological changes of cultured Trichophytosis rubrum treated by sodium nitrite in vitro. Methods: MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthia zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphen- yltetrazolium bromide] microdilution method was used to evaluate the inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum by sodium nitrite in vitro, according to the recommendations of the CLSI(M38-A). The ultrastructural morphology of the fungal strains before and after the sodium nitrite treatment was observed under the scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results: As the concentrations of sodium nitrite as 160 mmol/L, 80 mmol/L, 40 mmol/L, 20 mmol/L,10 mmoi/L, 5 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, or 1.25 mmol/L, the inhibition rates of Trichophyton rubrum were 73.62% ± 9.7%, 71.93% ±1.47%, 73.53% ± 1.14%, 70.80% ± 1.50%, 68.67% ± 1.27%, 41.76% ± 1.53%, 29.59% ± 1.90%, or 16.98% ± 1.82%, respectively.With the concentrations of sodium nitrite decreased, a statistically gradual reduction in the inhibition rate of Trichophyton rubrum was seen (P <0.05). The scanning electron microscopy showed the hyphae were damaged and broken, the surface of the hyphae became rough and shrunken, with many destructive fissures and small holes on it. The transmission electron microscopy showed the hyphae became deformed and irregular, the cell wall was roughly and loosely, the cytoplasm texture obscured and cellular nucleus was of syneresis and quassation. Conclusions: The growth of Trichophytosis rubrum could be inhibited by sodium nitrite in vitro and the morphology of Trichophytosis rubrum could be changed.%目的:观察亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌生长的抑制作用.方法:应用美国临床实验室标准化委员会(CLSI)制订的M38-A方案,采用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)微量稀释法测定亚硝酸钠对红色毛癣菌的体外抑制率.将亚硝酸钠作用前、后的红色毛癣菌制成标本.分别在扫描电子显微镜(扫描电镜)和透射电子显

  17. 红色毛癣菌感染 BalB/C 小鼠肉芽肿模型的构建%Establishment of a model of granuloma infected by Trichophyton rubrum in BalB/C mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苏扬; 孔庆涛; 沈永年; 杜雪; 杨瑞; 桑红; 刘维达

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trichophyton rubrum strains can cause superficial infection and also deep tissue infection, but relevant animal model has not been reported yet.The aim of this study was to construct an animal model of granuloma infected by T.rubrum. Methods Three T.rubrum strains isolated from clinical granuloma tissues, 2 T.rubrum strains isolated from tinea infection and a standard strain of ATCCMYA4438 were selected.Corticosteroids were given to the Balb/C mice before and after the injection of the T. rubrum and mucin suspension and the mice model of granuloma was established.Direct microcopy, culture and histopathologic method were adopt to verify the infection effects. Results The mice inoculated with the T.rubrum granuloma strains with mucin suspension were examined after 21 days in the condition of applying appropriate dose of glucocorticoids.Direct microscopic examination showed the slender mycelium, fungal culture showed the growth of colony and histopathology showed excessive keratinization of foot tissue, formation of granuloma in the dermis with inflammatory cell infiltration of neutro-philic granulocyte and lymphocytes.However, the mice inoculated with the T.Rubrum tinea strains with mucin suspension showed the negative result. Conclusion The rubrum granuloma mice model can be es-tablished using the clinical isolates of T.rubrum granuloma strains with the mucin and glucocorticoids interventions.%目的:红色毛癣菌不仅引起皮肤浅部感染还可引起深部感染,但相关动物模型研究报道较少。文中拟构建红色毛癣菌感染的癣菌性肉芽肿模型。方法选取临床培养分离出的3株红色毛癣菌肉芽肿菌株、2株体癣株和标准菌株ATCCMYA4438,经糖皮质激素预处理Balb/c鼠,接种红色毛癣菌与黏液素混悬液后追加应用糖皮质激素,构建小鼠红色毛癣菌肉芽肿模型;采用直接镜检、真菌培养和组织病理方法验证感染结果。结果在应用适当剂

  18. Effect of the nature of energy and nitrogen sources on the population of ciliates in the rumen of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Selmi,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nature of raw materials in concentrate on the population of ciliated protozoa was evaluated in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde sheep. Four rams with permanent rumen canulas, 4.8 ± 0.5 years with an average live weight of 45.25 ± 3.5 kg were used. Rams were fed a common base ration of hay oats (1.5 kg DM/ head/day. Animals were supplemented with 500g/head/day of one of four iso-energetic and iso-proteic concentrates. The four concentrates were: A concentrate (10% barley, 43.3% corn, 25% wheat bran, 17.7% soybean meal and 4% CMV, B concentrate (71.5% barley, 17.5% horse bean, soybean meal, 7% and 4% CMV, C concentrate (66% white sorghum, 30% fava, 4% CMV and D concentrate (71% triticale, 18% horse bean, soybean meal, 7%, 4% CMV. The determination of ciliates was performed on unfiltered rumen fluid, collected two hours after the morning meal. The enumeration of protozoa and determination of various genuses were carried out with a HAWSKLEY counting room after several dilutions, using a microscope. The population of ciliates for, the concentrate B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those for A, C and D concentrates while different genus of these protozoa were comparable among diets. It can be concluded from this study that the use of local resources in the diet of sheep increased micro organisms in the rumen.

  19. Cross-study analysis of genomic data defines the ciliate multigenic epiplasmin family: strategies for functional analysis in Paramecium tetraurelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravet Viviane

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sub-membranous skeleton of the ciliate Paramecium, the epiplasm, is composed of hundreds of epiplasmic scales centered on basal bodies, and presents a complex set of proteins, epiplasmins, which belong to a multigenic family. The repeated duplications observed in the P. tetraurelia genome present an interesting model of the organization and evolution of a multigenic family within a single cell. Results To study this multigenic family, we used phylogenetic, structural, and analytical transcriptional approaches. The phylogenetic method defines 5 groups of epiplasmins in the multigenic family. A refined analysis by Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA identifies structural characteristics of 51 epiplasmins, defining five separate groups, and three classes. Depending on the sequential arrangement of their structural domains, the epiplasmins are defined as symmetric, asymmetric or atypical. The EST data aid in this classification, in the identification of putative regulating sequences such as TATA or CAAT boxes. When specific RNAi experiments were conducted using sequences from either symmetric or asymmetric classes, phenotypes were drastic. Local effects show either disrupted or ill-shaped epiplasmic scales. In either case, this results in aborted cell division. Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Their affiliation with the distinctive structural groups of Paramecium epiplasmins demonstrates an interspecific multigenic family. Conclusion The epiplasmin multigenic family illustrates the history of genomic duplication in Paramecium. This study provides a framework which can guide functional analysis of epiplasmins, the major components of the membrane skeleton in ciliates. We show that this set of proteins handles an important developmental information in Paramecium since maintenance of epiplasm organization is crucial for cell morphogenesis.

  20. A mesocosm study of the changes in marine flagellate and ciliate communities in a crude oil bioremediation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Näther, Daniela J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Malpass, Mark C; Golyshin, Peter N

    2010-07-01

    Protozoan grazers play an important role in controlling the density of crude-oil degrading marine communities as has been evidenced in a number of microcosm experiments. However, small bioreactors contain a low initial titre of protozoa and the growth of hydrocarbon-depleting bacteria is accompanied by the fast depletion of mineral nutrients and oxygen, which makes microcosms rather unsuitable for simulating the sequence of events after the oil spill in natural seawater environment. In the present study, the population dynamics of marine protozoan community have been analysed in a 500 l mesocosm experiment involving bioaugmented oil booms that contained oil sorbents and slow-release fertilisers. A significant increase in numbers of marine flagellates and ciliates on biofilms of oil-degrading microbes was microscopically observed as early as 8 days after the start of the experiment, when protozoa exhibited a population density peak making up to 3,000 cells ml(-1). Further, the protozoan density varied throughout the experiment, but never dropped below 80 cells ml(-1). An 18S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting analysis revealed several changes within the eukaryotic community over the whole course of the experiment. Initial growth of flagellates and small ciliates was followed by a predominance of larger protozoa. According to microscopic observations and SSU rRNA molecular analyses, most predominant were the ciliates belonging to Euplotidae and Scuticociliatia. This is the first study to characterise the eukaryotic communities specifically in a large-scale oil bioremediation trial using both microscopy-based and several molecular techniques.

  1. Role of essential lipids in copepod nutrition: no evidence for trophic upgrading of food quality by a marine ciliate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein Breteler, W.; Koski, Marja; Rampen, S.

    2004-01-01

    copepod species consumed S. sulcatum at significant rates, but after 3 d, weight-specific ingestion decreased more than 2-fold. Larvae and copepodites feeding on S. sulcatum developed at suboptimal rates, survived poorly and showed abnormal morphology in comparison to control individuals fed a good......., although in low abundance of unuseful Delta7 sterols. Obviously, S. sulcatum did not biochemically enhance bacterial or algal food for subsequent use at higher trophic levels, and only transferred fatty acids without further conversion. The results indicate a deficiency in the ciliate of HUFAs and sterols...

  2. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen ; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 - 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1 - 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the fight of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  3. Scuticociliatid ciliate outbreak in Australian potbellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827): clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and treatment with metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cicco, Emiliano; Paradis, Erika; Stephen, Craig; Turba, Maria Elena; Rossi, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    A severe outbreak of scuticociliatosis occurred in Australian pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1872), kept at the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada). Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, irregular respiration, and death. Cytology and histopathology revealed a high number of histophagous ciliated protozoa within the tissues. The parasite, identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi, was observed in several internal organs that appeared edematous and hemorrhagic upon postmortem examination. Severe histopathologic lesions were reported in particular in the ovary, the kidney, and the intestine. This infection was successfully treated with metronidazole via bath therapy. No further evidence of this parasite was found in the treated fish.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the phosphoinositide kinome from two ciliates reveals novel evolutionary links for phosphoinositide kinases in eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leondaritis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complexity of phosphoinositide signaling in higher eukaryotes is partly due to expansion of specific families and types of phosphoinositide kinases (PIKs that can generate all phosphoinositides via multiple routes. This is particularly evident in the PI3Ks and PIPKs, and it is considered an evolutionary trait associated with metazoan diversification. Yet, there are limited comprehensive studies on the PIK repertoire of free living unicellular organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a genome-wide analysis of putative PIK genes in two free living ciliated cells, Tetrahymena and Paramecium. The Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia genomes were probed with representative kinases from all families and types. Putative homologs were verified by EST, microarray and deep RNA sequencing database searches and further characterized for domain structure, catalytic efficiency, expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships. In total, we identified and characterized 22 genes in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome and 62 highly homologues genes in Paramecium tetraurelia suggesting a tight evolutionary conservation in the ciliate lineage. Comparison to the kinome of fungi reveals a significant expansion of PIK genes in ciliates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study highlights four important aspects concerning ciliate and other unicellular PIKs. First, ciliate-specific expansion of PI4KIII-like genes. Second, presence of class I PI3Ks which, at least in Tetrahymena, are associated with a metazoan-type machinery for PIP3 signaling. Third, expansion of divergent PIPK enzymes such as the recently described type IV transmembrane PIPKs. Fourth, presence of possible type II PIPKs and presumably inactive PIKs (hence, pseudo-PIKs not previously described. Taken together, our results provide a solid framework for future investigation of the roles of PIKs in ciliates and indicate that novel functions and novel regulatory

  5. Effect of the rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum, Epidinium ecaudatum and Eudiplodinium maggii, and combinations thereof, on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Amelchanka, Sergej L; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Wereszka, Krzysztof; Meile, Leo; Hartnack, Sonja; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2012-06-01

    The quantitative importance of individual ciliate species and their interaction in the rumen is still unclear. The present study was performed to test whether there are species differences in the influence on ruminal fermentation in vivo and if combinations of ciliates act additive in that respect. Six adult wethers fed a hay-concentrate diet were defaunated, then refaunated either with Entodinium caudatum (EC), Epidinium ecaudatum (EE) or Eudiplodinium maggii (EM) alone, then progressively with all possible species combinations. Feed, faeces, urine, ruminal fluid and gas were sampled for eight days always after at least 21 days of adaptation. With a linear mixed model, accounting for the 2 x 2 x 2 full factorial study design, mean marginal effect sizes, i.e., the magnitude of change in variables as caused by the presence of each ciliate species or of combinations of them, were estimated. The apparent digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre remained unaffected. The apparent N digestibility increased by 0.054 with EM (0.716 with defaunation). Ruminal ammonia increased by 1.6, 4.0 and 8.7 mmol/l in the presence of EM, EC and EE, respectively, compared to defaunation (6.9 mmol/l). In the EM + EE combination, ruminal ammonia was lower than would have been expected from an additive effect. With EE, total short-chain fatty acids increased by 23 mmol/l (100 mmol/l with defaunation), but not when EE was combined with EM. The acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased by 0.73 units in the presence of EE (4.0 with defaunation), but only when EE was the sole ciliate species in the rumen. In the presence of any ciliate species, the 16S rDNA copies of total Bacteria and major fibrolytic species decreased to 0.52- and 0.22-fold values, respectively of that found without protozoa. Total Archaea were unaffected; however, Methanobacteriales copies increased 1.44-fold with EC. The CH4-to-CO2 ratio of ruminal gas decreased by 0.036 with EM and 0.051 with EE (0.454 with

  6. Coding genes and molecular structures of the diffusible signalling proteins (pheromones) of the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Pedrini, Bill; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2012-12-01

    In protozoan ciliates, diffusible signalling proteins (pheromones) regulate the vegetative growth and mating interactions. Here, the coding genes and the structures of the encoded pheromones were studied in genetically distinct wild-type strains representing interbreeding Antarctic and Arctic populations of the marine ciliate Euplotes nobilii. Determination of seven allelic pheromone-coding DNA sequences revealed that an unusual extension and high structural conservation of the 5' non-coding region are peculiar traits of this gene family, implying that this region is directly involved in the mechanism of pheromone gene expression, possibly through phenomena of intron splicing and/or frame-shifting. For four pheromones, the three-dimensional structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in solution. These structures show that the pheromones represent a protein family which adapts to its polar environment by combining a structurally stable core of a three-helix bundle with extended polypeptide segments that are devoid of regular secondary structures and concomitantly show enhanced structural flexibility.

  7. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  8. AÇÃO DO LASER DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE NA PRODUÇÃO DE METABÓLITOS SECUNDÁRIOS DO DERMATÓFITO TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Aparecida Waltrick de Brito Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ação do laser arseneto de gálio alumínio (GaAlAs nos comprimentos de onda 685nm e 830nm em cultura de Trichophyton rubrum, foi estudada visando obter  os metabólitos secundários e avaliar  a citotoxicidade dos mesmos em cultura de células. Foram utilizadas cepas do dermatófito T. rubrum provenientes do laboratório de Microbiologia da Universidade do Vale do Paraíba. O cultivo foi realizado em meio de cultura sólido de ágar Sabouraud (Merck, Alemanha em placa de Petri. A colônia de T. rubrum foi irradiada com o laser (GaAlAs a uma distância de 1cm da placa e incubadas em estufa 26ºC. Para o ensaio de citotoxicidade foi utilizada a linhagem ce-lular L929 (tecido conjuntivo de camundongo proveniente do laboratório Adolf Lutz em São Paulo. As células foram plaqueadas e incubadas com o extrato fúngico em diferentes concentrações, por 1 h. Após esta incubação foi reali-zado o teste de Metil tiazol tetrazólio (MTT para avaliação da citotoxicidade. Obteve-se uma diferença no cresci-mento das colônias controle e irradiadas a 685 nm estatisticamente significante (p<0,05. Na análise estatística com-parativa da citotoxicidade causada pelos extratos nas concentrações 2,5 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml, foi obtido p<0,05, o mesmo ocorreu entre as concentrações 25x10-2 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml. Na concentração de 25x10-2 mg/ml, observa-se uma elevação considerável (78,55% na atividade mitocondrial dos grupos com tratamento em relação ao controle. O laser GaAlAs, nas condições metodológicas deste estudo, apresentou efeitos no metabolismo celular, alteração de morfologia e da taxa de crescimento da colônia in vitro. O extrato fúngico das colônias irradiadas apre-sentou efeito bioestimulador quando comparado ao extrato obtido do grupo controle e sem tratamento com laser.

  9. A dark-light transition triggers expression of the floral promoter CrFTL1 and downregulates CONSTANS-like genes in a short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolař, Jan; Haškovcová, Kateřina; Štorchová, Helena

    2014-05-01

    The proper timing of flowering is essential for the adaptation of plant species to their ever-changing environments. The central position in a complex regulatory network is occupied by the protein FT, which acts as a florigen. We found that light, following a permissive period of darkness, was essential to induce the floral promoter CrFTL1 and to initiate flowering in seedlings of the short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum L. We also identified two novel CONSTANS-like genes in C. rubrum and observed their rhythmic diurnal and circadian expressions. Strong rhythmicity of expression suggested that the two genes might have been involved in the regulation of photoperiod-dependent processes, despite their inability to complement co mutation in A. thaliana. The CrCOL1 and CrCOL2 genes were downregulated by dark-light transition, regardless of the length of a preceding dark period. The same treatment activated the floral promoter CrFTL1. Light therefore affected CrCOL and CrFTL1 in an opposite manner. Both CrCOL genes and CrFTL1 displayed expression patterns unique among short-day plants. Chenopodium rubrum, the subject of classical physiological studies in the past, is emerging as a useful model for the investigation of flowering at the molecular level.

  10. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  11. Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Nishanth; Suseela, Vidya; Triebwasser, Daniella J; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    • Climate change could increase the frequency with which plants experience abiotic stresses, leading to changes in their metabolic pathways. These stresses may induce the production of compounds that are structurally and biologically different from constitutive compounds. • We studied how warming and altered precipitation affected the composition, structure, and biological reactivity of leaf litter tannins in Acer rubrum at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment, in Massachusetts, USA. • Warmer and drier climatic conditions led to higher concentrations of protective compounds, including flavonoids and cutin. The abundance and structure of leaf tannins also responded consistently to climatic treatments. Drought and warming in combination doubled the concentration of total tannins, which reached 30% of leaf-litter DW. This treatment also produced condensed tannins with lower polymerization and a greater proportion of procyanidin units, which in turn reduced sequestration of tannins by litter fiber. Furthermore, because of the structural flexibility of these tannins, litter from this treatment exhibited five times more enzyme (β-glucosidase) complexation capacity on a per-weight basis. Warmer and wetter conditions decreased the amount of foliar condensed tannins. • Our finding that warming and drought result in the production of highly reactive tannins is novel, and highly relevant to climate change research as these tannins, by immobilizing microbial enzymes, could slow litter decomposition and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in a warmer, drier world.

  12. Taxonomic Studies on a New Marine Ciliate, Apocoleps magnus gen. nov., spec. nov. (Ciliophora, Colepidae),Isolated from Qingdao, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiangrui; Alan Warren; SONG Weibo

    2009-01-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of a new marine colepid ciliate, Apocoleps magnus gen. nov., spee. nov., are described based on living observations and silver impregnations. The new genus Apocoleps is characterized by having 8 (vs. 6 in most other related genera) armour tiers, spines at both ends of the cell, 3 adoral organelles and plates with 4 reniform uni-windows. Apocoleps magnus spec. nov. is defined by the following features: body elongated and slightly curved, about 100-120μm×35-45 μm in vivo; anterior tertiary tier plate with four uni-windows, most secondary and main tier plates with four uni-windows, posterior tertiary tier plate with two uni-windows; left plate margin slightly serrated; on average 23 transverse and 22 longitudinal ciliary rows; one terminal contractile vacuole; marine habitat.

  13. Directed Induction of Functional Multi-ciliated Cells in Proximal Airway Epithelial Spheroids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Konishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-ciliated airway cells (MCACs play a role in mucociliary clearance of the lung. However, the efficient induction of functional MCACs from human pluripotent stem cells has not yet been reported. Using carboxypeptidase M (CPM as a surface marker of NKX2-1+-ventralized anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs, we report a three-dimensional differentiation protocol for generating proximal airway epithelial progenitor cell spheroids from CPM+ VAFECs. These spheroids could be induced to generate MCACs and other airway lineage cells without alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, the directed induction of MCACs and of pulmonary neuroendocrine lineage cells was promoted by adding DAPT, a Notch pathway inhibitor. The induced MCACs demonstrated motile cilia with a “9 + 2” microtubule arrangement and dynein arms capable of beating and generating flow for mucociliary transport. This method is expected to be useful for future studies on human airway disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

  14. The giant ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and its thiotrophic epibiont Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli: a model system to study interspecies cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eBright

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Symbioses between chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic bacteria and protists or animals are among the most diverse and prevalent in the ocean. They are extremely difficult to maintain in aquaria and no thiotrophic symbiosis involving an animal host has ever been successfully cultivated. In contrast, we have cultivated the giant ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and its obligate ectosymbiont Cand. Thiobios zoothamnicoli in small flow-through aquaria. This review provides an overview of the host and the symbiont and their phylogenetic relationships. We summarize our knowledge on the ecology, geographic distribution and life cycle of the host, on the vertical transmission of the symbiont, and on the cultivation of this symbiosis. We then discuss the benefits and costs involved in this cooperation compared with other thiotrophic symbioses and outline our view on the evolution and persistence of this byproduct mutualism.

  15. First Record and Redefinition of the Qingdao Population of Marine Ciliate Cardiostomatella vermiformis (Kahl, 1928) Corliss, 1960 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a marine ciliate, Cardiostomatella vermiformis isolated from a sand beach of the Jiaozhou Bay near Qingdao, China, were investigated by live observation, protargol and silver carbonate impregnation methods. Both the morphological and morphometric data largely agree with former records. Based on the data obtained, an improved diagnosis for Cardiostomatella vermiformis is supplied: Large marine Cardiostomatella with cylindrical body shape and several prolonged caudal cilia; cells in vivo about (90-500)μm × (30-120)μm; macronucleus beaded; single contractile vacuole caudally positioned; buccal apparatus conspicuously small, genus typical; three to six postoral kineties; 96-130 somatic kineties. This species is recorded for the first time in China.

  16. Complementary Notes on a‘Well-known' Marine Heterotrichous Ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859) Fraure-Fremiet,1936 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Daode; LIN Xiaofeng; SONG Weibo

    2004-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a heterotrichous ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859)Fraure-Fremiet, 1936, which was collected from the north coast of China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation techniques. As a new contribution, a redescription is presented: large Folliculinopsis of green to dark green in color, 800-1500μm in size; two peristomial lobes of approximately equal size, 300-400μm in length; adoral zone of membranelles containing about 1000 membranelles, lying along lobe margins and exhibiting two circles within buccal cavity;50-70 somatic kineties in mid-body; macronucleus miniliform, consisting of about 20 beads; lorica smooth, vase-shaped,(300 500)μm ×(90-130)μm in size, with 5-12 spiral ridges on neck tube; marine habitat.

  17. Laminin-332 alters connexin profile, dye coupling and intercellular Ca2+ waves in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Colin E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events mediated by intercellular communication. We hypothesized that alterations in cell matrix, specifically type I collagen and laminin α3β3γ2 (LM-332 proteins within the matrix, directly affect intercellular communication in ciliated rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC. Methods Functional coupling of RTEC was monitored by microinjection of the negatively charged fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and Alexa 350, into ciliated RTEC grown on either a LM-332/collagen or collagen matrix. Coupling of physiologically significant molecules was evaluated by the mechanism and extent of propagated intercellular Ca2+ waves. Expression of connexin (Cx mRNA and proteins were assayed by reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results When compared to RTEC grown on collagen alone, RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen displayed a significant increase in dye transfer. Although mechanical stimulation of RTEC grown on either LM-332/collagen or collagen alone resulted in intercellular Ca2+ waves, the mechanism of transfer was dependent on matrix: RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen propagated Ca2+waves via extracellular purinergic signaling whereas RTEC grown on collagen used gap junctions. Comparison of RTEC grown on collagen or LM-332/collagen matrices revealed a reorganization of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx46 proteins. Conclusion Alterations in airway basement membrane proteins such as LM-332 can induce connexin reorganizations and result in altered cellular communication mechanisms that could contribute to airway tissue function.

  18. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoyan; HU Xiaozhong; Khaled A. S. AL-RASHEID; Saieh A. AL-FARRAJ; SONG Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and -αtubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxylricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  19. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  20. Natural products from aquatic eukaryotic microorganisms for cancer therapy: Perspectives on anti-tumour properties of ciliate bioactive molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalani, Elisabetta; Proietti Serafini, Francesca; Zecchini, Silvia; Picchietti, Simona; Fausto, Anna Maria; Marcantoni, Enrico; Buonanno, Federico; Ortenzi, Claudio; Perrotta, Cristiana; Cervia, Davide

    2016-11-01

    Several modern drugs, including those for cancer therapy, have been isolated from natural sources, are based on natural products and its derivatives, or mime natural products. Some of them are in clinical use, others in clinical trials. The success of natural products in drug discovery is related to their biochemical characteristics and to the technologic methods used to study their feature. Natural compounds may acts as chemo-preventive agents and as factors that increase therapeutic efficacy of existing drugs, thus overcoming cancer cell drug resistance that is the main factor determining the failure in conventional chemotherapy. Water environment, because of its physical and chemical conditions, shows an extraordinary collection of natural biological substances with an extensive structural and functional diversity. The isolation of bioactive molecules has been reported from a great variety of aquatic organisms; however, the therapeutic application of molecules from eukaryotic microorganisms remains inadequately investigated and underexploited on a systematic basis. Herein we describe the biological activities in mammalian cells of selected substances isolated from ciliates, free-living protozoa common almost everywhere there is water, focusing on their anti-tumour actions and their possible therapeutic activity. In particular, we unveil the cellular and molecular machine mediating the effects of cell type-specific signalling protein pheromone Er-1 and secondary metabolites, i.e. euplotin C and climacostol, in cancer cells. To support the feasibility of climacostol-based approaches, we also present novel findings and report additional mechanisms of action using both in vitro and in vivo models of mouse melanomas, with the scope of highlighting new frontiers that can be explored also in a therapeutic perspective. The high skeletal chemical difference of ciliate compounds, their sustainability and availability, also through the use of new organic synthesis

  1. Impacts of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on summer distribution of phytoplankton, copepods and ciliates in relation to abiotic variables along the near-shore of the southwestern Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Amira; Drira, Zaher; Guermazi, Wassim; Elloumi, Jannet; Maalej, Sami; Aleya, Lotfi; Ayadi, Habib

    2012-02-01

    In connection with the Taparura Project, studies of spatial distribution of the crustacean zooplankton community, nutrients, phytoplankton and ciliates were conducted in July 2007 at 45 stations spread over fifteen transects along the coast north of Sfax. The results showed that the N/P ratio was lower than the Redfield ratio, suggesting potential N limitation. Phytoplankton was characterised by the proliferation of several diatoms, while ciliates were largely dominated by spirotrichs. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton present during the entire study period, comprising 61% of the total zooplankton community. Twelve copepod families were identified at every station, with a high percentage of Oithonidae (77% of copepods) dominated by Oithona nana. The abundance of this species was correlated with that of diatoms, Cocoolithophorideae and ciliated Colpodea, suggesting that O. nana may feed on a wide range of prey. Despite human pressure and industrial activities, the coastal waters north of Sfax showed a wide diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton.

  2. Distinct structures and environments for the three hemes of the cytochrome bc1 complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum. A resonance Raman study using B-band excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, C; Schoepp, B; Othman, S; Verméglio, A; Desbois, A

    1999-01-19

    The B-band excited resonance Raman (RR) spectra (100-1700 cm-1) of the bacterial cytochrome bc1 complex purified from Rhodospirillum rubrum are reported. Four redox states, i.e., the persulfate-oxidized, "as prepared", and ascorbate- and dithionite-reduced states of the complex, were investigated with the laser excitations at 406.7, 413.1, and 441.6 nm. Following the different absorption properties of the b- and c-type hemes and the different resonance enhancements of the vibrational modes of oxidized and reduced hemes, RR contributions from the b- and c-type hemes were characterized. For the nu2, nu10, and nu8 porphyrin vibrational modes, individual contributions of hemes c1, bH, and bL were determined. The data show that the macrocycle conformation of the three hemes of the cytochrome bc1 complex is different. In particular, the frequencies assigned to ferrous heme bL (1580, 1610, and 352 cm-1, respectively) reveal that its porphyrin is more strongly distorted than that of ferrous heme bH (1584, 1614, and 344 cm-1, respectively). The frequencies of the nu11 modes (1543, 1536, and 1526 cm-1 for ferrous heme c1, heme bH, and heme bL, respectively) confirm that the axial histidylimidazole ligands of heme bL have a marked anionic character. Strong differences in the peripheral interactions of the three hemes with the proteins were also detected through the frequency differences of the nu5, nu13, nu14, and nu42 modes. Considering that hemes bH and bL are inserted into a four-helice bundle, the RR data are interpreted in the frame of a strong protein constraint on heme bL.

  3. [Morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of astome ciliates Almophrya bivacuolata and A. maediovacuolata (protozoa: ciliophora) endocommensal of terricolous oligochaetes in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, P A; Ngassam, P; Fokam, Z; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Coffe, G; Sime, Gando T; Zébazé, Togouet S H

    2010-12-01

    The silver impregnation supplemented by DAPI and Feulgen nuclear coloration enabled us to study the morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of two species of endocommensal Astome ciliates, Almophrya bivacuoloata (de Puytorac & Dragesco, 1968) and A. mediovocuolata (Ngassam, 1983). We highlighted important digitations and the presence of dark bands in the structure of the "H" macronucleus of the small cellular types as well as the presence of intermediate forms between "H" and "X" in these two species.

  4. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours.

  5. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  6. Impacts of restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on the seasonal distribution of abiotic variables, phytoplankton, copepods, and ciliates in a man-made solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobbi-Rebai, Rayda; Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Khemakhem, Hajer; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-03-01

    The restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum landfill was investigated for its effects on the seasonal distribution of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods. Sampling was carried out monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at four ponds of increasing salinity (A1, 41 psu; A5, 46 psu; A16, 67 psu; and C31, 77 psu) in the Sfax solar saltern (southeastern Tunisia). Physicochemical and biological analyses were carried out using standard methods. Results showed drastic reduction of phosphate input and greater diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods than before restoration. Pennate diatoms and new ciliates, considered bio-indicators of less-stressed marine ecosystems, proliferated in the A1 pond for the first time after restoration. Copepods appeared to feed on a wide range of prey. Economically, removal of the 1.7 million m(3) of phosphate improved the quality of the site's salt production, enabling the salt company to receive the quality ISO 9001 accreditation.

  7. Infraciliature and morphogenesis in three rumen Diplodinium ciliates, Diplodinium polygonale, Diplodinium leche, and Diplodinium nanum, observed by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2005-01-01

    Infraciliature and morphogenesis of three rumen ophryoscolecid ciliates, Diplodinium polygonale Dogiel, 1925, Diplodinium leche Imai et al., 1992, and Diplodinium nanum Imai, 1988, are described from pyridinated silver carbonate-impregnated specimens. These three species have two polybrachykineties in the buccal area and a polybrachykinety in the dorsal ciliary zone. The vestibular polybrachykinety (VP) of D. polygonale and D. leche arises from the dorsal extremity of the adoral polybrachykinety (AP) as in Entodinium species, extending toward the left in D. polygonale and toward the left posterior in D. leche. The VP of D. nanum arises from the inner side of the AP, separate from its dorsal extremity, as in other Diplodinium species and extends toward the left posterior. These series of the polybrachykinety arrangements in D. polygonale, D. leche, and D. nanum can be regarded as transitional forms in the evolution of an Entodinium-like ancestor to Diplodinium. Morphogenesis of these three Diplodinium species is not different from that of other Diplodinium species.

  8. A P450 gene associated with robust resistance to DDT in ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila by efficient degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lifang; Fu, Chengjie; Yuan, Dongxia; Miao, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of metabolic mechanisms of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) accumulation and degradation in microorganisms, which could be used to reduce its hazard to higher organisms at the higher in the food chain, have not been investigated. Robust resistance to DDT (grows well in 256 mg/L DDT) and a surprising ability to degrade DDT (more than 70% DDT within 4h) were found in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. A P450 gene (CYP5013C2) was found to respond specifically to DDT treatment. In the presence of 256 mg/L DDT, cells with overexpressing CYP5013C2 (p450-OE) grew faster and degraded DDT more efficiently than wild-type (WT) cells, while cells with CYP5013C2 partially knocked down (p450-KD) grew slower and exhibited reduced ability to degrade DDT compared to WT cells. Both dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) were detected in cells after exposure to DDT, and the concentration of DDD in the p450-OE strain gradually decreased from 0.5 to 4h. Thus, we argue that this P450 gene (CYP5013C2), by efficiently degrading DDT to DDD, is associated with robust resistance to DDT in Tetrahymena, and that a strain overexpressing this gene has the potential to serve as bioreactor that degrades environmental DDT.

  9. Estimation of divergence times in litostomatean ciliates (Ciliophora: Intramacronucleata), using Bayesian relaxed clock and 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes.

  10. Morphology and morphogenesis of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Hartmannula sinica nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chen; Song, Weibo; Gong, Jun

    2008-02-01

    The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Hartmannula sinica nov. spec., collected from Qingdao, north China, have been investigated. The new species is characterized by: size in vivo 90-130 x 40-50 microm, body long elliptical in outline, cilium-free field covered with a conspicuous alveolar layer; 24-31 ventral kineties, the rightmost 6-9 of which extend apically; 20-24 nematodesmal rods; about 15 sparsely distributed contractile vacuoles; a yellowish pigment spot is always present near the anterior tip of the cell. Morphogenetic events exhibit a pattern, which is homologous with that of related cyrtophorids. The main features are as follows: (1) preoral and circumoral kineties of opisthe develop from the oral primordium that forms in mid-body from sections of 3 postoral kineties, while parental preoral and circumoral kineties are retained; (2) parental cytostome and nematodesmal rods are resorbed in middle divisional stages and then replaced by newly formed structures; (3) the heteromerous macronucleus unifies in the late divisional stage.

  11. Morphology, ontogeny and molecular phylogeny of a novel saline soil ciliate, Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Lyu, Zhao; Warren, Alan; Wang, Feng; Shao, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new ciliate, Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp., collected from saline soil in Weinan, China, were studied in vivo and after protargol staining. Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp. is characterized as follows: body elongate-elliptical with no tail, flexible and slightly contractile; cortical granules dark-brown, 0.5μm across, arranged in short irregular rows; about 33 adoral membranelles; 14 frontoventral-transverse cirri; right and left marginal rows not confluent posteriorly; two macronuclear nodules. Morphogenesis of U. paragiliformis n. sp. corresponds well with that of other Urosomoida-species except that in reorganisers the oral primordium develops membranelles that replace those at the proximal end of the old adoral zone, whereas in dividers the entire parental adoral zone of membranelles is inherited by the proter. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequence data suggest a close relationship between U. paragiliformis n. sp. and Paraurosomoida indiensis. A new combination is made: Oxytrichella subtropica (Fan et al., 2015) comb. nov. (basionym Urosomoida subtropica).

  12. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Alejandra; Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean.

  13. The water-born protein pheromones of the polar protozoan ciliate, Euplotes nobilii: Coding genes and molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Pedrini, Bill; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2010-08-01

    The protozoan ciliate Euplotes nobilii found in Antarctic and Arctic coastal waters relies on secretion of water-soluble cell type-specific signal proteins (pheromones) to regulate its vegetative growth and sexual mating. For three of these psychrophilic pheromones we previously determined the three-dimensional structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with protein solutions purified from the natural sources, which led to evidence that their adaptation to cold is primarily achieved by increased flexibility through an extension of regions free of regular secondary structures, and by increased exposure of negative charges on the protein surface. Then we cloned the coding genes of these E. nobilii pheromones from the transcriptionally active cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus) and characterized the full-length sequences. These sequences all contain an open reading frame of 252-285 nucleotides, which is specific for a cytoplasmic pheromone precursor that requires two proteolytic cleavages to remove a signal peptide and a pro segment before release of the mature protein into the extracellular environment. The 5‧ and 3‧ non-coding regions are two- to three-fold longer than the coding region and appear to be tightly conserved, probably in relation to the inclusion of intron sequences destined to be alternatively removed to play key regulatory roles in the mechanism of the pheromone gene expression.

  14. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Verde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI and white band disease (WBD are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder, O. annularis (massive-columnar and Acropora cervicornis (branching. We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day. However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day. Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean.

  15. Notes on Two Marine Ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China: Placus salinus and Strombidium apolatum (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dapeng; SONG Weibo; HU Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of two rare marine ciliates, Placus salinus Dietz, 1964 and Strombidium apolatum Wilbert and Song, 2005, collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation technique. The improved diagnosis for Placus salinus is as follows: medium-sized marine Placus, in vivo (50 -60) μm × (30 -40)μm; cell elliptical to barrel-shaped; 28 -31 somatic kineties; single macronucleus usually ellipsoid and one micronucleus located in the indention of the macronucleus; one contractile vacuole posteriorly positioned. Strombidium apolatum is characterized by: marine strombidium (40-60) μm × (30-45) μm in vivo, cordiform in shape with somewhat pointed posterior end and conspicuous apical protrusion; extrusomes prominent, about 15μm in length and evenly arranged along the circle kinety; about 16 collar and 5-6 buccal membranelles; one elongate macronucleus and one micronucleus; circle and ventral kineties consisting of about 53 and 45 dikinetids respectively.

  16. Morphology of four cyrtophorian ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Yangtze Delta, China, with notes on the phylogeny of the genus Phascolodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongbo; Wang, Liqing; Jiang, Jiamei; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    The morphology of four cyrtophorian ciliates, Dysteria ovalis, D. semilunaris, Phascolodon vorticella, and Chlamydonellopsis calkinsi, were investigated using living observation and protargol-staining. The morphology of D. ovalis is revealed in detail for the first time, and it is characterized by the following combination of features: size 40-50×20-30μm in vivo; oval in outline; four right kineties, including two frontoventral kineties and one shortened leftmost right kinety; three left frontal kineties; two ventrally located contractile vacuoles; marine habitat. New Chinese populations of three other species correspond well with previous descriptions, but a well-developed alveolar layer on the cell surface of P. vorticella is reported for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences clustered Dysteria ovalis with Mirodysteria decora, whereas D. semilunaris is grouped with D. lanceolata. Although Phascolodon appeared as sister to Pseudochilodonopsis in the present work, its accurate phylogenetic position is still uncertain because AU test did not reject the possibility that it clustered with Odontochlamys and Chilodonella.

  17. Morphologic and Genetic Variability in the Marine Planktonic Ciliate Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia), with Notes on its Ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGATHA, SABINE; STRÜDER-KYPKE, MICHAELA C.; BERAN, ALFRED

    2010-01-01

    Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 is a conspicuous oligotrich ciliate in the marine plankton. In order to compare different populations, the morphology of specimens from the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, and Irish Sea was investigated using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the PCR-amplified products of the SSrRNA gene from a monoclonal culture of L. strobila from the Mediterranean Sea were sequenced and aligned with sequences of other oligotrichs, including a population of L. strobila from the Atlantic coast of the USA. Finally, the data from the ecological literature were summarized and the cultivation methods were described. The SSrRNA gene sequences of the two distantly located L. strobila populations from the North Atlantic are identical. Likewise, the morphometrics of most populations so far investigated after protargol impregnation (i.e. from the North Atlantic) do not show obvious differences. In all computed phylogenetic trees, L. strobila groups with Strombidium species, forming a monophyletic taxon corresponding to the subclass Oligotrichia. These results are corroborated by the ontogenetic comparison. Since no type species was fixed for Laboea Lohmann, 1908, L. strobila was designated in the present paper. PMID:15218695

  18. Primary and secondary siRNA synthesis triggered by RNAs from food bacteria in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradec, Quentin; Götz, Ulrike; Arnaiz, Olivier; Pouch, Juliette; Simon, Martin; Meyer, Eric; Marker, Simone

    2015-02-18

    In various organisms, an efficient RNAi response can be triggered by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an endogenous gene. However, the detailed mechanisms and natural functions of this pathway are not well understood in most cases. Here, we studied siRNA biogenesis from exogenous RNA and its genetic overlap with endogenous RNAi in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by high-throughput sequencing. Using wild-type and mutant strains deficient for dsRNA feeding we found that high levels of primary siRNAs of both strands are processed from the ingested dsRNA trigger by the Dicer Dcr1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases Rdr1 and Rdr2 and other factors. We further show that this induces the synthesis of secondary siRNAs spreading along the entire endogenous mRNA, demonstrating the occurrence of both 3'-to-5' and 5'-to-3' transitivity for the first time in the SAR clade of eukaryotes (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria). Secondary siRNAs depend on Rdr2 and show a strong antisense bias; they are produced at much lower levels than primary siRNAs and hardly contribute to RNAi efficiency. We further provide evidence that the Paramecium RNAi machinery also processes single-stranded RNAs from its bacterial food, broadening the possible natural functions of exogenously induced RNAi in this organism.

  19. Several RNase T2 enzymes function in induced tRNA and rRNA turnover in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    RNase T2 enzymes are produced by a wide range of organisms and have been implicated to function in diverse cellular processes, including stress-induced anticodon loop cleavage of mature tRNAs to generate tRNA halves. Here we describe a family of eight RNase T2 genes (RNT2A-RNT2H) in the ciliate...... Tetrahymena thermophila. We constructed strains lacking individual or combinations of these RNT2 genes that were viable but had distinct cellular and molecular phenotypes. In strains lacking only one Rnt2 protein or lacking a subfamily of three catalytically inactive Rnt2 proteins, starvation-induced tRNA...... fragments continued to accumulate, with only a minor change in fragment profile in one strain. We therefore generated strains lacking pairwise combinations of the top three candidates for Rnt2 tRNases. Each of these strains showed a distinct starvation-specific profile of tRNA and rRNA fragment accumulation...

  20. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies.

  1. Contrasting nutritional acclimation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and red maple (Acer rubrum L. to increasing conifers and soil acidity as demonstrated by foliar nutrient balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Collin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall, SM is believed to be more sensitive to acidic and nutrient-poor soils associated with conifer-dominated stands than red maple (Acer rubrum L., RM. Greater foliar nutrient use efficiency (FNUE of RM is likely the cause for this difference. In the context of climate change, this greater FNUE could be key in favouring northward migration of RM over SM. We used the concept of foliar nutrient balances to study the nutrition of SM and RM seedlings along an increasing gradient in forest floor acidity conditioned by increasing proportions of conifers (pH values ranging from 4.39 under hardwoods, to 4.29 under mixed hardwood-conifer stands and 4.05 under conifer-dominated stands. Nutrients were subjected to isometric log-ratio (ilr transformation, which views the leaf as one closed system and considers interactions between nutrients. The ilr method eliminates numerical biases and weak statistical inferences based on raw or operationally’’ log-transformed data. We analyzed foliar nutrients of SM and RM seedlings and found that the [Ca,Mg,K|P,N] and [Ca,Mg|K] balances of SM seedlings were significantly different among soil acidity levels, whereas they did not vary for RM seedlings. For SM seedlings, these differences among soil acidity levels were due to a significant decrease in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations with increasing forest floor acidity. Similar differences in foliar balances were also found between healthy and declining SM stands estimated from literature values. Conversely, foliar balances of RM seedlings did not differ among soil acidity levels, even though untransformed foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly different. This result highlights the importance of using ilr transformation, since it provides more sensitive results than standard testing of untransformed nutrient concentrations. The lower nutrient requirements of RM and its greater capacity to maintain nutrient equilibrium are

  2. UV Radiation and Visible Light Induce hsp70 Gene Expression in the Antarctic Psychrophilic Ciliate Euplotes focardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Passini, Valerio; Colombetti, Giuliano; Miceli, Cristina; La Terza, Antonietta; Marangoni, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The psychrophilic ciliate Euplotes focardii inhabits the shallow marine coastal sediments of Antarctica, where, over millions of years of evolution, it has reached a strict molecular adaptation to such a constant-temperature environment (about -2 °C). This long evolution at sub-zero temperatures has made E. focardii unable to respond to heat stress with the activation of its heat shock protein (hsp) 70 genes. These genes can, however, be expressed in response to other stresses, like the oxidative one, thus indicating that the molecular adaptation has exclusively altered the heat stress signaling pathways, while it has preserved hsp70 gene activation in response to other environmental stressors. Since radiative stress has proved to be affine to oxidative stress in several organisms, we investigated the capability of UV radiation to induce hsp70 transcription. E. focardii cell cultures were exposed to several different irradiation regimes, ranging from visible only to a mixture of visible, UV-A and UV-B. The irradiation values of each spectral band have been set to be comparable with those recorded in a typical Antarctic spring. Using Northern blot analysis, we measured the expression level of hsp70 immediately after irradiation (0-h-labeled samples), 1 h, and 2 h from the end of the irradiation. Surprisingly, our results showed that besides UV radiation, the visible light was also able to induce hsp70 expression in E. focardii. Moreover, spectrophotometric measurements have revealed no detectable endogenous pigments in E. focardii, making it difficult to propose a possible explanation for the visible light induction of its hsp70 genes. Further research is needed to conclusively clarify this point.

  3. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  4. Mating of the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax induces production of a class of 27 nt small RNAs derived from the parental macronucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Zahler

    Full Text Available Ciliated protozoans possess two types of nuclei; a transcriptionally silent micronucleus, which serves as the germ line nucleus, and a transcriptionally active macronucleus, which serves as the somatic nucleus. The macronucleus is derived from a new diploid micronucleus after mating, with epigenetic information contributed by the parental macronucleus serving to guide the formation of the new macronucleus. In the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax, the macronuclear DNA is highly processed to yield gene-sized nanochromosomes with telomeres at each end. Here we report that soon after mating of Oxytricha trifallax, abundant 27 nt small RNAs are produced that are not present prior to mating. We performed next generation sequencing of Oxytricha small RNAs from vegetative and mating cells. Using sequence comparisons between macronuclear and micronuclear versions of genes, we found that the 27 nt RNA class derives from the parental macronucleus, not the developing macronucleus. These small RNAs are produced equally from both strands of macronuclear nanochromosomes, but in a highly non-uniform distribution along the length of the nanochromosome, and with a particular depletion in the 30 nt telomere-proximal positions. This production of small RNAs from the parental macronucleus during macronuclear development stands in contrast to the mechanism of epigenetic control in the distantly related ciliate Tetrahymena. In that species, 28-29 nt scanRNAs are produced from the micronucleus and these micronuclear-derived RNAs serve as epigenetic controllers of macronuclear development. Unlike the Tetrahymena scanRNAs, the Oxytricha macronuclear-derived 27 mers are not modified by 2'O-methylation at their 3' ends. We propose models for the role of these "27macRNAs" in macronuclear development.

  5. Ciliates (Protozoa from dried sediments of a temporary pond from Argentina Ciliados (Protozoa de sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Küppers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds represent special environments that are inhabited by organisms adapted to changing environmental conditions. Ciliates are able to survive complete loss of water in these transient habitats through cyst formation. However, ciliates from the Neotropical region in general have been poorly studied with modern techniques. The main goal of this study is to describe the ciliates in dried sediments of a temporary pond from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, through sampling efforts that were performed 2003-2005. Soil samples were obtained during drought phases and re wetted in laboratory to establish raw and enriched cultures. Ciliates were then studied both in vivo and after impregnation with protargol. In this study, we present 4 new records for Argentina (Gonostomum affine (Stein, 1859 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia bifaria (Stokes, 1887 Berger, 1999, Pleurotricha lanceolata (Ehrenberg, 1835 Stein, 1859, Meseres corlissi Petz and Foissner, 1992, 1 for South America (Blepharisma americanum (Suzuki, 1954 Hirshfield, Isquith and Bhandary, 1965, and 2 for the Neotropical Realm (Gonostomum strenuum (Engelmann, 1862 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia lemnae Ammermann and Schlegel, 1983.Los cuerpos de agua temporarios son ambientes particulares que se encuentran habitados por organismos adaptados a condiciones fluctuantes. Los ciliados son capaces de sobrevivir a la pérdida completa de agua del ambiente gracias a la formación de estructuras de resistencia. Por otra parte, los ciliados de la región Neotropical han sido poco investigados con técnicas modernas. El objetivo de este estudio es referir los ciliados que se desarrollaron a partir de los sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en la que se realizaron muestreos durante el período 2003-2005. Las muestras de suelo fueron obtenidas durante las fases de sequía y luego resuspendidas en el laboratorio para realizar cultivos naturales y enriquecidos. Los

  6. Identification of cAMP-dependent phosphorylated proteins involved in the formation of environment-resistant resting cysts by the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Sogame

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus, an elevation of the intracellular cAMP concentration was reported to be involved in environment-resistant resting cyst formation. In the present study, cAMP-dependently phosphorylated proteins of encystment-induced C. cucullus were isolated with Phos-tag agarose phosphate-affinity beads and subsequent SDS-PAGE. In a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of these phosphoproteins, 27-, 37- and 43-kDa proteins (p27, p37 and p43 were identified as Rieske iron-sulfur protein, histone H4 (hyperacetylated form, and actin, respectively.

  7. The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum reveals a shift in nucleotide composition and codon usage within the genus Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendonk Thomas U

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that the organization of the ciliate mitochondrial genome is exceptional, only few ciliate mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced until today. All ciliate mitochondrial genomes are linear. They are 40 kb to 47 kb long and contain some 50 tightly packed genes without introns. Earlier studies documented that the mitochondrial guanine + cytosine contents are very different between Paramecium tetraurelia and all studied Tetrahymena species. This raises the question of whether the high mitochondrial G+C content observed in P. tetraurelia is a characteristic property of Paramecium mtDNA, or whether it is an exception of the ciliate mitochondrial genomes known so far. To test this question, we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of Paramecium caudatum and compared the gene content and sequence properties to the closely related P. tetraurelia. Results The guanine + cytosine content of the P. caudatum mitochondrial genome was significantly lower than that of P. tetraurelia (22.4% vs. 41.2%. This difference in the mitochondrial nucleotide composition was accompanied by significantly different codon usage patterns in both species, i.e. within P. caudatum clearly A/T ending codons dominated, whereas for P. tetraurelia the synonymous codons were more balanced with a higher number of G/C ending codons. Further analyses indicated that the nucleotide composition of most members of the genus Paramecium resembles that of P. caudatum and that the shift observed in P. tetraurelia is restricted to the P. aurelia species complex. Conclusions Surprisingly, the codon usage bias in the P. caudatum mitochondrial genome, exemplified by the effective number of codons, is more similar to the distantly related T. pyriformis and other single-celled eukaryotes such as Chlamydomonas, than to the closely related P. tetraurelia. These differences in base composition and codon usage bias were, however, not reflected in the amino

  8. Phylogenetic positions of two marine ciliates, Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), inferred from complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene was sequenced for two marine scuticociliates Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi. The results show that this gene comprises 1763 and 1753 nucleotides in the two marine ciliates respectively.Metanophrys similis is phylogenetically closely related to the clade containing Mesanophrys carcini and Anophyroides haemophila, which branches basally to other species within the order Philasterida. Pseudocohnilembus hargisi groups with its congener, P. marinus, with strong bootstrap support. Paranophrys magna groups with the clade including Cohnilembus and Uronema, representing a sister clade to that containing the two Pseudocohnilembus species.

  9. Ku-mediated coupling of DNA cleavage and repair during programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Marmignon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During somatic differentiation, physiological DNA double-strand breaks (DSB can drive programmed genome rearrangements (PGR, during which DSB repair pathways are mobilized to safeguard genome integrity. Because of their unique nuclear dimorphism, ciliates are powerful unicellular eukaryotic models to study the mechanisms involved in PGR. At each sexual cycle, the germline nucleus is transmitted to the progeny, but the somatic nucleus, essential for gene expression, is destroyed and a new somatic nucleus differentiates from a copy of the germline nucleus. In Paramecium tetraurelia, the development of the somatic nucleus involves massive PGR, including the precise elimination of at least 45,000 germline sequences (Internal Eliminated Sequences, IES. IES excision proceeds through a cut-and-close mechanism: a domesticated transposase, PiggyMac, is essential for DNA cleavage, and DSB repair at excision sites involves the Ligase IV, a specific component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathway. At the genome-wide level, a huge number of programmed DSBs must be repaired during this process to allow the assembly of functional somatic chromosomes. To understand how DNA cleavage and DSB repair are coordinated during PGR, we have focused on Ku, the earliest actor of NHEJ-mediated repair. Two Ku70 and three Ku80 paralogs are encoded in the genome of P. tetraurelia: Ku70a and Ku80c are produced during sexual processes and localize specifically in the developing new somatic nucleus. Using RNA interference, we show that the development-specific Ku70/Ku80c heterodimer is essential for the recovery of a functional somatic nucleus. Strikingly, at the molecular level, PiggyMac-dependent DNA cleavage is abolished at IES boundaries in cells depleted for Ku80c, resulting in IES retention in the somatic genome. PiggyMac and Ku70a/Ku80c co-purify as a complex when overproduced in a heterologous system. We conclude that Ku has been integrated in the Paramecium

  10. Ku-mediated coupling of DNA cleavage and repair during programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmignon, Antoine; Bischerour, Julien; Silve, Aude; Fojcik, Clémentine; Dubois, Emeline; Arnaiz, Olivier; Kapusta, Aurélie; Malinsky, Sophie; Bétermier, Mireille

    2014-08-01

    During somatic differentiation, physiological DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can drive programmed genome rearrangements (PGR), during which DSB repair pathways are mobilized to safeguard genome integrity. Because of their unique nuclear dimorphism, ciliates are powerful unicellular eukaryotic models to study the mechanisms involved in PGR. At each sexual cycle, the germline nucleus is transmitted to the progeny, but the somatic nucleus, essential for gene expression, is destroyed and a new somatic nucleus differentiates from a copy of the germline nucleus. In Paramecium tetraurelia, the development of the somatic nucleus involves massive PGR, including the precise elimination of at least 45,000 germline sequences (Internal Eliminated Sequences, IES). IES excision proceeds through a cut-and-close mechanism: a domesticated transposase, PiggyMac, is essential for DNA cleavage, and DSB repair at excision sites involves the Ligase IV, a specific component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. At the genome-wide level, a huge number of programmed DSBs must be repaired during this process to allow the assembly of functional somatic chromosomes. To understand how DNA cleavage and DSB repair are coordinated during PGR, we have focused on Ku, the earliest actor of NHEJ-mediated repair. Two Ku70 and three Ku80 paralogs are encoded in the genome of P. tetraurelia: Ku70a and Ku80c are produced during sexual processes and localize specifically in the developing new somatic nucleus. Using RNA interference, we show that the development-specific Ku70/Ku80c heterodimer is essential for the recovery of a functional somatic nucleus. Strikingly, at the molecular level, PiggyMac-dependent DNA cleavage is abolished at IES boundaries in cells depleted for Ku80c, resulting in IES retention in the somatic genome. PiggyMac and Ku70a/Ku80c co-purify as a complex when overproduced in a heterologous system. We conclude that Ku has been integrated in the Paramecium DNA cleavage

  11. Morphology, morphogenesis and gene sequence of a freshwater ciliate, Pseudourostyla cristata (Ciliophora, Urostyloidea) from the ancient Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xumiao; Li, Zicong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Kusuoka, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    The urostyloid freshwater ciliate Pseudourostyla cristata was recorded for the first time from Lake Biwa, a 4-million-year-old lake located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Its morphology and morphogenesis were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation, and the SSU ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced. Based on the current observations and previous descriptions, this species is readily recognized mainly by the following characters: body slender or broadly oval to elliptical, and dark grey in color; size in vivo about 170-400 x 40-150 microm; pellicle flexible and contractile, with extrusomes forming a hyaline seam underneath; ciliature comprising about 60-130 adoral membranelles, usually 1 buccal cirrus, 20-24 frontal, 2 frontoterminal, 17-26 pairs of midventral, and 5-16 transverse cirri, 4-6 left and 4-5 right marginal rows, and 8-10 dorsal kineties; 15-83 macronuclear nodules and 2-9 micronuclei; freshwater habitat. The main morphogenetic developments are: (1) the oral primordium for the proter originates de novo on the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity, and the dedifferentiated undulating membranes and some parental proximal membranelles join in the primordial development; the old adoral zone will be partly replaced by new structures; (2) the oral primordium for the opisthe occurs epiapokinetally left of the midventral complex between the adoral zone and the transverse cirri; (3) the fronto-midventral transverse cirral (FVT) anlagen develop separately in both dividers by dedifferentiation of most of the midventral cirri; (4) the single buccal cirrus is generated from the posterior end of FVT anlage II; (5) the leftmost frontal cirrus is derived from the anterior end of the undulating membranes anlage (FVT anlage I); (6) the marginal rows of each side are formed from a single anlage which arises within the rightmost row; (7) the dorsal kineties develop by intrakinetal basal body proliferation; and (8) the most posterior FVT anlage contributes the two

  12. Ruminal degradability and ciliates protozoa population in rumen of Nellore steers fed with high concentrated diet supplemented with live yeast, monensin and salinomycin

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    Josiane Hernades Ortolan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Nelore steers had been used, with average alive weight of 190±32 kg, in experimental delineation by 4x4 latin square, whith the objective of evaluate the effect of the yeast monensin and salinomycin on the parameters of ruminal degradability and the ciliates protozoa population present in the animals rumen. The diet offered to the animals was composed by sorghum silage and concentrated (30:70, respectively, where the four different treatments had been submitted in accordance with the used additive: 5,0g of yeast culture (Beef Sacc®; 0.42g of salinomycin (Coxistac®; 2.0g of monensin (Rumensin® and the control, without additive. The experimental period was subdivided in 21 days of adaptation and seven of harvest, totalized 28 days of experimental period. It had increase of the value for fraction “b” in the dry matter, the treatment with yeast culture, and the salinomycin treatment (P<0,05. The treatment with yeast significantly increased the number of rumen ciliates protozoa (P<0,05.

  13. Isolation and structural characterization of two water-borne pheromones from Euplotes crassus, a ciliate commonly known to carry membrane-bound pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Federici, Sergio; di Giuseppe, Graziano; Fernando, Dini; Carratore, Vitale; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2011-01-01

    Ciliates comprise species synthesizing water-diffusible mating type factors or pheromones and species synthesizing insoluble, cell membrane-bound pheromones. Euplotes crassus has traditionally been placed in the latter group. In contrast with this notion, we found that E. crassus is a constitutive pheromone-secreting ciliate, like other Euplotes species. From cell-free filtrate preparations of the E. crassus strain L-2D, we isolated two distinct pheromones, designated as Ec-α and Ec-1, and determined their complete amino acid sequences by combined chemical and genetic approaches. The Ec-α pheromone sequence extends for 56 amino acid residues with six cysteines and shows a molecular mass of 6,183 Da, while the Ec-1 pheromone sequence extends for 45 amino acid residues with 10 cysteines and shows a molecular mass of 4,840 Da. Marked structural differences distinguish the full-length Ec-α and Ec-1 coding sequences, which have been cloned and characterized from the transcriptionally active macronuclear genome. They were taken as clear indication that the Ec-α and Ec-1 pheromones are specified by genes that are not allelic, but likely derived from a duplicated genetic locus of the transcriptionally silent micronuclear genome.

  14. The Anti-Oxidant Defense System of the Marine Polar Ciliate Euplotes nobilii: Characterization of the MsrB Gene Family

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    Francesca Ricci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisms living in polar waters must cope with an extremely stressful environment dominated by freezing temperatures, high oxygen concentrations and UV radiation. To shed light on the genetic mechanisms on which the polar marine ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, relies to effectively cope with the oxidative stress, attention was focused on methionine sulfoxide reductases which repair proteins with oxidized methionines. A family of four structurally distinct MsrB genes, encoding enzymes specific for the reduction of the methionine-sulfoxide R-forms, were identified from a draft of the E. nobilii transcriptionally active (macronuclear genome. The En-MsrB genes are constitutively expressed to synthesize proteins markedly different in amino acid sequence, number of CXXC motifs for zinc-ion binding, and presence/absence of a cysteine residue specific for the mechanism of enzyme regeneration. The En-MsrB proteins take different localizations in the nucleus, mitochondria, cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring a pervasive protection of all the major subcellular compartments from the oxidative damage. These observations have suggested to regard the En-MsrB gene activity as playing a central role in the genetic mechanism that enables E. nobilii and ciliates in general to live in the polar environment.

  15. Emergence of the Terrestrial Ciliate Colpoda cucullus from a Resting Cyst: Rupture of the Cyst Wall by Active Expansion of an Excystment Vacuole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funadani, Ryoji; Suetomo, Yasutaka; Matsuoka, Tatsuomi

    2013-01-01

    The first sign of excysting Colpoda cucullus cells is the initiation of the pulsation of a contractile vacuole, which is then replaced by a non-pulsating vacuole (excystment vacuole) that continues to expand and finally ruptures the outermost cyst wall (ectocyst) due to inner pressure. A ciliate surrounded by flexible membranes (endocyst) thus emerges. The osmolarity of the excysting cells is estimated to be 140 mOsm L−1 from the relationship between the frequency of contractile vacuole pulsation and the external sucrose concentration. Both the expansion of the excystment vacuole and the emergence of ciliates occurred even when the cysts were immersed in hypertonic medium. In hypotonic medium containing sodium azide (NaN3, a cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), the contractile vacuole of vegetative cells stopped pulsating and gradually expanded, causing cells to burst. When C. cucullus was induced to encyst in a hypotonic medium containing NaN3, the expansion of the excystment vacuoles was inhibited. These results suggest that the active uptake of water may be responsible for the expansion of the excystment vacuole required for the ectocyst to rupture. PMID:23268793

  16. Separate Culture and Morphological Observation of Free Living Amoebae and Ciliates%自生阿米巴和纤毛虫的分离培养与观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳爱梅; 刘营; 谭叶; 丛慧; 林佳慧; 张英杰; 张忠广

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the methods of cultivation and morphological observation of free living amoebae and ciliates and observe the growth and species change of parasites in different time and vegetables. Methods Various green vegetable juice were prepared for cultivating the amoebae and ciliates at 37℃ The growth of free living amoebae and ciliates were observed using microscope. Results Rotary motion of ciliates was observed after cultivation for 48 hours.Decreased quantity and activity of ciliates and increased quantity and activity of free living amoebae were observed after cultivation for 72 hours. Decreased quantity of free living amoebae and ciliates were observed even disappeared but the cysts appeared after cultivation for 144 hours. And various green vegetable juice showed differences in culturing the amoebae and ciliates; between 72 h to 120 h ciliates could be found in celery juice, while free living amoebae were found between 96 h to 120 h. Ciliates could be easier to observe in rape flower juice between 72 h to 96h and free living amoebae easier to see in caraway juice between 72 h to 120 h. Conclusion This method is simple and convenient to observe the living amoebae and ciliates. It is useful in the parasitology teaching.%目的 研究建立自生阿米巴和纤毛虫的培养方法,观察不同菜种在不同时间寄生虫的生长情况及种类的变化.方法 制作不同蔬菜叶的悬液,37℃恒温培养,镜下观察不同时间自生阿米巴和纤毛虫的生长情况.结果 培养48 h后,可观察到纤毛虫活跃的旋转运动;72 h后纤毛虫数量减少,活动度降低,自生阿米巴出现,蠕动活跃;144 h后自生阿米巴、纤毛虫数量减少甚至观察不到,包囊出现,不同菜种在不同时间自生阿米巴、纤毛虫数量、种类也相应变化,如芹菜中纤毛虫在72~120 h、阿米巴在96~120 h数量最多,最易观察到,油菜中纤毛虫在72~96 h最易观察到,香菜中阿米巴在72~120 h

  17. Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor Listeriolysin O favors bacterial growth in co-culture with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, causes protozoan encystment and promotes bacterial survival inside cysts

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    Ermolaeva Svetlana A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is widely spread in the nature. L. monocytogenes was reported to be isolated from soil, water, sewage and sludge. Listeriolysin O (LLO is a L. monocytogenes major virulence factor. In the course of infection in mammals, LLO is required for intracellular survival and apoptosis induction in lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the potential of LLO to promote interactions between L. monocytogenes and the ubiquitous inhabitant of natural ecosystems bacteriovorous free-living ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Results Wild type L. monocytogenes reduced T. pyriformis trophozoite counts and stimulated encystment. The effects were observed starting from 48 h of co-incubation. On the day 14, trophozoites were eliminated from the co-culture while about 5 × 104 cells/ml remained in the axenic T. pyriformis culture. The deficient in the LLO-encoding hly gene L. monocytogenes strain failed to cause mortality among protozoa and to trigger protozoan encystment. Replenishment of the hly gene in the mutant strain restored toxicity towards protozoa and induction of protozoan encystment. The saprophytic non-haemolytic species L. innocua transformed with the LLO-expressing plasmid caused extensive mortality and encystment in ciliates. During the first week of co-incubation, LLO-producing L. monocytogenes demonstrated higher growth rates in association with T. pyriformis than the LLO-deficient isogenic strain. At latter stages of co-incubation bacterial counts were similar for both strains. T. pyriformis cysts infected with wild type L. monocytogenes caused listerial infection in guinea pigs upon ocular and oral inoculation. The infection was proved by bacterial plating from the internal organs. Conclusions The L. monocytogenes virulence factor LLO promotes bacterial survival and growth in the presence of bacteriovorous ciliate T. pyriformis. LLO is responsible for L. monocytogenes

  18. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

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    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  19. 红色毛癣菌致慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病的临床分析%Clinical analysis on chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆涛; 邓琳; 李宗辉; 胡治丽; 梅寰; 桑红; 刘维达

    2015-01-01

    目的:慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病患者较少见。文中探讨红色毛癣菌所致的慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病的原因及诊疗方法。方法收集南京军区南京总医院2012年6月至2014年6月就诊的5例红色毛癣菌所致的慢性复发性泛发型体癣患者,取患者皮损进行真菌镜检及培养,对其中1例典型患者(病程7年,趾甲严重累及、皮疹全身泛发)的皮损进行组织病理学检查,对其不同部位皮损处分离的4株菌株行微生物学及分子生物学研究,并根据体外药敏试验进行药物选择。结果患者皮损处真菌学检查见大量有隔分枝的菌丝,培养及分子生物学鉴定为红色毛癣菌。不同皮损处菌株基因型鉴定为同一菌株。组织病理示鳞状上皮轻度增生,表面角化过度,真皮浅层血管周围少量淋巴细胞浸润。 PAS染色表皮见少量有隔菌丝。确诊后给予口服伊曲康唑,外用特比萘芬乳膏,酮康唑洗剂洗浴等综合治疗取得良好效果。结论慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病,对病原菌的分离鉴定尤为重要,且应注意患者有无指/趾甲的累及,治疗不能仅针对体癣治疗,而应结合药敏试验采取综合治疗。%Objective There have been a few reports on chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum.This article was to investigate the cause, diagnosis and therapy of the mycosis. Methods 5 patients with chron-ically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum were collected from June 2012 to June 2014 in our hospital.Bacterioscopic examination and cultivation were made on skin lesions of the patients.A typical patient who had 7-year course of desease with toenails seriously infected and widespread skin eruption was selected for histopathology examination on skin lesions, mi-crobiology and molecular biology study on 4 bacterial strains isolated

  20. Use of the PCR and fluorescent probes to recover SSU rRNA gene sequences from single cells of the ciliate protozoon Spathidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, P L; Hope, S; Roberts, D M; Embley, T M

    1995-08-01

    A two-stage heminested PCR approach was developed to amplify small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences, via two overlapping fragments, from single cells of microbial eucaryotes. The method was evaluated using the ciliate protozoon Spathidium when PCR products were obtained from nine of 10 cells tested. Southern blotting demonstrated that all fragments contained the same sequence in a region of SSU rDNA which is normally highly variable between species. A fluorescent oligonucleotide probe was used to demonstrate that this sequence also occurred in fixed cells of Spathidium. Fixatives containing mercuric salts preserved cell shape and allowed probe binding with little background autofluorescence. The Spathidium sequence is closely related to that from the haptorid Homalozoon vermiculare.

  1. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  2. ParameciumDB in 2011: new tools and new data for functional and comparative genomics of the model ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2011-01-01

    ParameciumDB is a community model organism database built with the GMOD toolkit to integrate the genome and biology of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Over the last four years, post-genomic data from proteome and transcriptome studies has been incorporated along with predicted orthologs in 33 species, annotations from the community and publications from the scientific literature. Available tools include BioMart for complex queries, GBrowse2 for genome browsing, the Apollo genome editor for expert curation of gene models, a Blast server, a motif finder, and a wiki for protocols, nomenclature guidelines and other documentation. In-house tools have been developed for ontology browsing and evaluation of off-target RNAi matches. Now ready for next-generation deep sequencing data and the genomes of other Paramecium species, this open-access resource is available at http://paramecium.cgm.cnrs-gif.fr.

  3. Temporal variability of the microbial food web (viruses to ciliates under the influence of the Black Sea Water inflow (N. Aegean, E. Mediterranean

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    A. GIANNAKOUROU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Τhe entire pelagic microbial food web was studied during the winter-spring period in the frontal area of the North Aegean Sea. Abundance of viruses, heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, auto- and hetero-trophic flagellates, and ciliates, as well as bacterial production, were measured at three stations (MD1, MD2, MD3 situated along a N-S transect between the area directly influenced by the inflowing Black Sea water and the area covered by the Levantine water. Samples were collected in December 2009, and January, March, April, and May 2011. Station MD1 exhibited the highest values of abundance and integrated biomass of all microbial groups and bacterial production during all months, and MD3 the lowest. Bacteria dominated the total integrated biomass at all stations and months, followed by cyanobacteria, auto-, hetero-trophic flagellates and ciliates. On a temporal scale, the microbial food web was less important in March as all microbial parameters at all stations showed the lowest values. After the phytoplankton bloom in March, the heterotrophic part of the microbial food web (mainly strongly increased, though the intensity of the phenomenon was diminished from North to South. Pico-sized plankton was found to be heterotrophic whereas nanoplankton was autotrophic. It seems that the influence of the Black Sea water on station MD1, permanent throughout the study period of early winter to late spring, was reflected in all microbial populations studied, and produced a more productive pelagic food web system, with potential consequences for the upper trophic levels.

  4. Effect of high levels of the rotifer Lecane inermis on the ciliate community in laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyda, Janusz; Babko, Roman; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kocerba-Soroka, Wioleta; Sobczyk, Mateusz; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Due to its ability to feed on filamentous bacteria, the rotifer Lecane inermis has already been recognized as a potential control agent of activated sludge bulking, which is usually caused by the excessive growth of filamentous microorganisms. However, their effectiveness depends, in part, on their abundance. We studied the influence of high densities of L. inermis on the protozoan community in activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in 4 laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs). Two treatments and two controls were subjected to nutrient removal system in process similar to that used in a WWTP. The experiment lasted 9 days and was repeated in 24-h cycles, including phases of agitation with feeding, aeration and agitation and sedimentation with decantation at the end of the cycle. In total, 32 taxa were identified, among which 25 were ciliated protozoa, 4 were amoebae, 2 were flagellates, and one was a nematode. Rotifers were then introduced to 2 bioreactors at a final concentration of 500ind.mL(-1), and the taxonomic composition and abundance of the activated sludge microfauna were assessed 2, 5 and 8 days thereafter. The mean density of ciliates on the first day of experiment was 12,610ind.mL(-1) and diminished to 4868±432ind.mL-±432ind.mL(-1) in the control and 5496±638ind.mL(-1) in the rotifer-treated group on the last day. Thus, even extremely high densities of artificially introduced rotifers did not negatively affect the protozoan community. On the contrary, the protozoan community was more diverse in the treatment group than in the control.

  5. Probing the effect of the binding site on the electrostatic behavior of a series of carotenoids reconstituted into the light-harvesting 1 complex from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum detected by stark spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Katsunori; Suzuki, Satoru; Fujii, Ritsuko; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Nango, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2008-08-01

    Reconstitutions of the LH1 complexes from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 were performed with a range of carotenoid molecules having different numbers of C=C conjugated double bonds. Since, as we showed previously, some of the added carotenoids tended to aggregate and then to remain with the reconstituted LH1 complexes (Nakagawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Fujii, R.; Gardiner, A.T.; Cogdell, R.J.; Nango, M.; Hashimoto, H. Photosynth. Res. 2008, 95, 339-344), a further purification step using a sucrose density gradient centrifugation was introduced to improve purity of the final reconstituted sample. The measured absorption, fluorescence-excitation, and Stark spectra of the LH1 complex reconstituted with spirilloxanthin were identical with those obtained with the native, spirilloxanthin-containing, LH1 complex of Rs. rubrum S1. This shows that the electrostatic environments surrounding the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules in both of these LH1 complexes were essentially the same. In the LH1 complexes reconstituted with either rhodopin or spheroidene, however, the wavelength maximum at the BChl a Qy absorption band was slightly different to that of the native LH1 complexes. These differences in the transition energy of the BChl a Qy absorption band can be explained using the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of this absorption band, i.e., the polarizability change Tr(Deltaalpha) and the static dipole-moment change |Deltamu| upon photoexcitation, as determined using Stark spectroscopy. The local electric field around the BChl a in the native LH1 complex (ES) was determined to be approximately 3.0x10(6) V/cm. Furthermore, on the basis of the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of the carotenoids in the reconstituted LH1 complexes, it is possible to suggest that the conformations of carotenoids, anhydrorhodovibrin and spheroidene, in the LH1 complex were similar to that of rhodopin glucoside in crystal structure of

  6. Influence of Cd{sup 2+} on the spin state of non-heme iron and on protein local motions in reactions centers from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirilium rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, M [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Orzechowska, A [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 4 (Poland); Fiedor, J; Slezak, T; Zajac, M; Matlak, K; Korecki, J; Halas, A; Burda, K [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 19 (Poland); Chumakov, A I [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Strzalka, K; Fiedor, L, E-mail: burda@novell.ftj.agh.edu.p [Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Gronostajowa 7 (Poland)

    2010-03-01

    Non-heme Fe is a conservative component of the Q-type photosynthetic reaction centers but its function remains unknown. Applying Moessbauer spectroscopy we show that in Rhodospirillum rubrum the non-heme Fe exists mostly in a ferrous low spin state. The binding of Cd{sup 2+} ions in the vicinity of the quinone-Fe complex changes the high spin state of the non-heme Fe into a low spin one characterized by hyperfine parameters similar to those obtained for the non-heme Fe low spin state in untreated reaction centers, as confirmed by Moessbauer measurements. The nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation experiments show that the contribution of vibrations at low energies, between 3-15 meV, activated at 240 K are damped in the bacterial reaction centers treated with CdCl{sub 2}. No influence of Cd{sup 2+} ions is observed on the soft vibrational states at 60 K. These results suggest that binding of cadmium cations within the reaction centers may enhance decoupling of the non-heme Fe from the surrounding protein matrix at temperatures higher than 200 K, what can explain the slowing down of electron transfer between the Q{sub A} and Q{sub B} quinones by Cd{sup 2+}.

  7. Ciliate and mesozooplankton community response to increasing CO2 levels in the Baltic Sea: insights from a large-scale mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischka, Silke; Bach, Lennart T.; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Community approaches to investigating ocean acidification (OA) effects suggest a high tolerance of micro- and mesozooplankton to carbonate chemistry changes expected to occur within this century. Plankton communities in the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea frequently experience pH variations partly exceeding projections for the near future both on a diurnal and seasonal basis. We conducted a large-scale mesocosm CO2 enrichment experiment ( ˜ 55 m3) enclosing the natural plankton community in Tvärminne-Storfjärden for 8 weeks during June-August 2012 and studied community and species-taxon response of ciliates and mesozooplankton to CO2 elevations expected for this century. In addition to the response to fCO2, we also considered temperature and chlorophyll a variations in our analyses. Shannon diversity of ciliates significantly decreased with fCO2 and temperature with a greater dominance of smaller species. The mixotrophic Myrionecta rubra seemed to indirectly and directly benefit from higher CO2 concentrations in the post-bloom phase through increased occurrence of picoeukaryotes (most likely Cryptophytes) and Dinophyta at higher CO2 levels. With respect to mesozooplankton, we did not detect significant effects for either total abundance or for Shannon diversity. The cladocera Bosmina sp. occurred at distinctly higher abundance for a short time period during the second half of the experiment in three of the CO2-enriched mesocosms except for the highest CO2 level. The ratio of Bosmina sp. with empty to embryo- or resting-egg-bearing brood chambers, however, was significantly affected by CO2, temperature, and chlorophyll a. An indirect CO2 effect via increased food availability (Cyanobacteria) stimulating Bosmina sp. reproduction cannot be ruled out. Although increased regenerated primary production diminishes trophic transfer in general, the presence of organisms able to graze on bacteria such as cladocerans may positively impact organic matter transfer to higher

  8. Sulphur-cycling bacteria and ciliated protozoans in a Beggiatoaceae mat covering organically enriched sediments beneath a salmon farm in a southern Chilean fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Carlos P; Valenzuela, Cristian; Matamala, Yessica; Godoy, Félix A; Aranda, Nicol

    2015-11-15

    The colourless mat covering organically enriched sediments underlying an intensive salmon farm in Estero Pichicolo, southern Chile, was surveyed by combined 454 PyroTag and conventional Sanger sequencing of 16S/18S ribosomal RNA genes for Bacteria and Eukarya. The mat was dominated by the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Candidatus Isobeggiatoa, Candidatus Parabeggiatoa and Arcobacter. By order of their abundances, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were represented by diverse deltaproteobacterial Desulfobacteraceae, but also within Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. The eukaryotic PyroTags were dominated by polychaetes, copepods and nematodes, however, ciliated protozoans were highly abundant in microscopy observations, and were represented by the genera Condylostoma, Loxophyllum and Peritromus. Finally, the abundant Sulfurimonas/Sulfurovum also suggest the occurrence of zero-valence sulphur oxidation, probably derived from Beggiatoaceae as a result of bacteriovorus infaunal activity or generated as free S(0) by the Arcobacter bacteria. The survey suggests an intense and complex sulphur cycle within the surface of salmon-farm impacted sediments.

  9. Description of the rare marine ciliate, Uronychia multicirrus song, 1997 (Ciliophora; Euplotida) based on morphology, morphogenesis and SS rRNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhuo; Shao, Chen; Gao, Shan; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiqiu; Hu, Xiaozhong; Song, Weibo

    2009-01-01

    A population of the marine euplotid ciliate, Uronychia multicirrus Song 1997, found in the littoral zone of the Daya Bay, Guangdong, South China, was investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation method. This species is diagnosed by possessing a long row of ventral cirri, which has never been seen in all other known congeners. Divisional process, described based on protargol-impregnated specimens, is typical of the genus regarding its general pattern: (1) the oral primordia in both proter and opisthe develop de novo in two subcortical pouches, while the UM-anlage forms de novo (i.e. does not develop from the oral primordium); (2) five frontoventral-transverse (FVT)-cirral anlagen develop in a primary-mode on the cell surface, and almost all the cirri are derived from the FVT-anlagen, except the first frontal cirri, which are formed de novo in both dividers; (3) the species characteristic ventral row derives from the right-most FVT-anlage; (4) the parental structures do not take part in the construction of the marginal anlagen, and (5) the caudal cirri originate in the right-most two dorsal kineties in a multi-segmentation mode. The small subunit rRNA gene of U. multicirrus (GenBank accession number: EU267929) is 1,773 bp and differs by 0.9-1.41% from its closely related congeners.

  10. The use of protozoa in ecotoxicology: application of multiple endpoint tests of the ciliate E. crassus for the evaluation of sediment quality in coastal marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, A; Dagnino, A; Nasci, C; Viarengo, A

    2013-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of surveys describing adverse effects of contaminated sediments on marine organisms, few studies have addressed protists. In this study, the free-crawling marine ciliate Euplotes crassus was evaluated as the test organism for the screening of sediment toxicity using sediments from both coastal and estuarine sites of the Venice Lagoon (Marghera harbour [MH], Valle Millecampi [MV], Murano island [MI] and Lido inlet [LI]). Two endpoints of high ecological value, mortality (Mry) and replication rate (RpR), were assessed in combination with the two sublethal biomarkers of stress, endocytotic rate (Ecy) and lysosomal membrane stability (NRRT). The results showed a significant inhibition of RpR, Ecy and NRRT paralleled by a small and insignificantly increased Mry of the exposed specimens. Our results thus demonstrate that only a combination of mortality and sublethal biomarkers was able to characterise an exposure-related stress syndrome. The suite of biomarkers described here was also able to detect and resolve a pollution-induced stress syndrome at an early stage of pollution. The contamination level of the sediments was assessed using chemical analysis, by estimating bioavailability and by computing a toxic pressure coefficient (TPC) to account for potential additive effects of different pollutants. The observed biological responses were consistent with the contamination levels in sediments, suggesting a high potential for using Protozoa in bioassays to assess environmental risk in coastal marine systems.

  11. The water-borne protein signals (pheromones) of the Antarctic ciliated protozoan Euplotes nobilii: structure of the gene coding for the En-6 pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terza, Antonietta; Dobri, Nicoleta; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2009-01-01

    The marine Antarctic ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, secretes a family of water-borne signal proteins, denoted as pheromones, which control vegetative proliferation and mating in the cell. Based on the knowledge of the amino acid sequences of a set of these pheromones isolated from the culture supernatant of wild-type strains, we designed probes to identify their encoding genes in the cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus). The full-length gene of the pheromone En-6 was determined and found to contain an open-reading frame specific for the synthesis of the En-6 cytoplasmic precursor (pre-pro-En-6), which requires 2 proteolytic cleavages to remove the signal peptide (pre) and the prosegment before secretion of the mature protein. In contrast to the sequence variability that distinguishes the secreted pheromones, the pre- and pro-sequences appear to be tightly conserved and useful for the construction of probes to clone every other E. nobilii pheromone gene. Potential intron sequences in the coding region of the En-6 gene imply the synthesis of more En-6 isoforms.

  12. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: involvement of interleukin-2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervia, Davide; Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Picchietti, Simona; Alimenti, Claudio; Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell-cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth.

  13. Phylogeny and establishment of a new ciliate family, Wilbertomorphidae fam. nov. (Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), a highly specialized taxon represented by Wilbertomorpha colpoda gen. nov., spec. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Jiamei; Song, Weibo; Warren, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new marine interstitial karyorelictean ciliate, Wilbertomorpha colpoda gen. nov., spec. nov., isolated from a sandy beach at Qingdao, China, are investigated. The ciliature is mainly on the right surface with the left surface barren except for a single marginal kinety, which is typical of the order Loxodida. Nevertheless, other morphological features, such as the highly reduced buccal structure, the absence of a buccal cavity and the presence of extremely specialized cortical granules, prevent its assignation to any known family. Furthermore, the secondary structure of the variable region 2 of the SSU rRNA gene is unique among loxodids. Thus, we establish a new family, Wilbertomorphidae fam. nov. for the genus Wilbertomorpha. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data suggest that this taxon is a sister group to the family Geleiidae which belongs to the order Protoheterotrichida. However, morphologically Wilbertomorpha bears a much stronger resemblance to Loxodidae which belongs to the order Loxodida. Based on these findings, we tentatively place Wilbertomorphidae nov. fam. incertae sedis within Karyorelictea.

  14. 纤毛类原生动物中宿主-共生体系统的研究%Studies on the Host-Symbiont System in Ciliates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾福康; 孙军; 何远; 田沁

    2001-01-01

    目前已经在100多种纤毛虫中观察到细菌、藻类和其他微生物等共生体。对纤毛虫中宿主-共生体系统的研究表明,双小核草履虫中卡巴粒的遗传为细胞质遗传理论提供了例证;含细菌共生体的许多厌氧纤毛虫无线粒体,共生体对宿主代谢有重要作用;尾草履虫-钝状全孢螺菌共生作用中,共生菌感染形式的39kDa、15kDa周质蛋白可分别与IF-3-1、IF-3-2两种单抗反应,其共生体早期感染过程中两种抗原的量发生显著变化,并且共生体生殖 形式选择性地合成63kDa蛋白质,该蛋白质可能是与共生作用有联系的关键分子;绿草履虫-小球藻共生系统中,共生藻中存在葡糖胺硬性壁是其与草履虫发生共生关系的基本条件,其中,共生藻参与宿主代谢,与宿主形成相互受益的专一性关系,并且藻类共生体的作用可能影响了宿主草履虫基因组有关结构,改变了其基因表达。作者推测,探索共生体对宿主基因结构及其表达产物的影响可能是对纤毛虫中共生作用研究的主要趋势,这对于深入了 解真核细胞中宿主-共生体双方的相互作用、物质交流在分子水平上的调控机理、细胞结构与功能的关系等细胞生命活动规律是有意义的。%To date, bacterial,algal and other microbial symbionts have been found in more than 100 species of ciliates. The study of the host-symbiont system in ciliates shows that: ( 1 ) The inheritance of kappa particles in the cytoplasm of Paramecium aurelia is a classic example of the cytoplasmic inheritance theory. (2) Bacterial symbionts in some anerobic ciliates that lack mitochondria play the major role in the host's metabolism. (3) In the P. Caudatum-Holospora obtusa system, 39- and 15-kDa periplasmic pro teins of the infectious H. Obtusa reacted with IF-3-1 and IF-3-2 monoclonal antibodies respectively. The amounts of both antigens were reduced during

  15. Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengchao; Xing, Yi; Li, Jiamei; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; He, Songke; Shao, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, morphogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate Perisincirra paucicirrata, isolated from north China, were investigated. Perisincirra paucicirrata differs from its congeners in: (1) having a body length to width ratio in vivo of 4:1, (2) its adoral zone occupying between 15% and 25% of the total body length, and (3) the presence of two parabuccal cirri, three left (with 10-16 cirri each) and two right marginal rows (with 14-24 cirri each), and three dorsal kineties. Our study offers a first attempt to begin to map the morphogenetic processes of the genus, which are mainly characterised by the following: the formation of four frontal ventral transverse anlagens for each daughter cell, with the proter's anlage I originating from the reorganised anterior part of the parental paroral; the paroral and endoral anlage developed from the reorganised old endoral and do not contribute the first frontal cirrus; the frontoventral transverse anlage I contributing the left frontal cirrus; anlage II generating the middle frontal and the buccal cirri; anlage III developing the right frontal cirrus and the anterior parabuccal cirrus; and anlage IV contributing the posterior parabuccal cirrus. As an additional contribution, we judge that the inner one or the two right rows of P. kahli and P. longicirrata are marginal rows. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences suggests that Perisincirra is related to sporadotrichids, but provides no credible evidence for its taxonomic position.

  16. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-10-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  17. Morphology of four new solitary sessile peritrich ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China, with description of an unidentified species of Paravorticella (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Warren, Alan; Ma, Honggang

    2017-02-01

    Sessile peritrichs are a large assemblage of ciliates that have a wide distribution in soil, freshwater and marine waters. Here, we document four new and one unidentified species of solitary sessile peritrichs from aquaculture ponds and coastal waters of the northern Yellow Sea, China. Based on their living morphology, infraciliature and silverline system, four of the five forms were identified as new members belonging to one of three genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella and Scyphidia, representing two families, Vorticellidae and Scyphidiidae. The other isolate was found to be an unidentified species of the poorly known genus Paravorticella. Vorticella chiangi sp. nov. is characterized by its inverted bell-shaped zooid, short row 3 in infundibular polykinety 3 and marine habitat. Pseudovorticella liangae sp. nov. posseses a thin, broad peristomial lip and a granular pellicle. Pseudovorticella haiboensis sp. nov. is differentiated from its congeners by having an elongated zooid that is covered by a layer of thin pellicular vesicles, and two rows of kineties in infundibular polykinety 3. Scyphidia perezuzae sp. nov. and Paravorticella sp. are stalkless ectoparasites or ectocommensals of aquatic animals. The former has a short, plump body, a narrow peristomial lip and a conspicuous, flattened, disc-shaped scopula for adhesion. Paravorticella sp. has an extremely elongated clavate body, a broad peristomial lip, and a narrow scopula.

  18. PCR fingerprint identification of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes using single primers specific to minisatellites and simple repetitive DNA sequence%用微小卫星引物PCR鉴定红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红梅; 廖万清; 戴建新; 李志刚; 吴建华; 温海

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株DNAPCR指纹的差异,找出一种区分红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的基因分类方法。方法:采用寡核苷酸重复序列(GACA)4、(GTG)5及M13中心序列(5′-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3′)3种引物,对23株红色毛癣菌和11株须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA进行PCR扩增,观察产物电泳带型的差异。结果:在3种引物的扩增产物中,均可见红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌呈现出不同的DNA指纹,其中,以引物(GACA)4扩增的条带差异最为清晰。结论:红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌可以用PCR方法加以鉴别,以(GACA)4作引物区分这两种菌较为合适。%Objective: To observe the difference between the speciesTrichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.Methods: Three primers, including (GACA)4, (GTG)5 and M13 core sequence (5′-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3′), were used to distinguish variations among 23 clinical isolates of T. rubrum and 11 of T. mentagrophytes. Results: Different PCR-fingerprinting were seen between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes by using 3 different primers, especially amplification with primer (GACA)4 could give more distinct bands. Conclusion: T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes can be distinguished by PCR, (GACA)4 is the most suitable primer.

  19. La estria supranuclear de las células ciliadas en la rinitis alérgica Supranuclear stria of ciliated cells in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zerdiew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 80 pacientes adultos alérgicos, que cursaron con los siguientes cuadros clínicos: 16 casos de rinitis intermitente y 64 de rinitis persistente. Se realizó el recuento porcentual de la estría supranuclear de las células ciliadas, respecto de los leucocitos presentes en los extendidos obtenidos por toma endonasal. Con los datos obtenidos se clasificaron los extendidos en 4 grupos; Grupo A (N=23: predominio leucocitario eosinófilo con eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo B (N=15: abundantes leucocitos neutrófilos y eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo C (N=29: con escasos leucocitos, Grupo D (N=13: con abundantes leucocitos de predominio neutrófilo sin eosinofilia. Se observó que el incremento porcentual de estría supranuclear se correlacionó con eosinofilia nasal >10% y con las muestras que presentaron escasos leucocitos. Sin embargo se evidenció una marcada disminución del porcentaje de estría supranuclear en la leucocitosis neutrófila de etiología bacteriana.Nasal secretions were studied in 80 allergic adults patients: 16 with intermittent rhinitis and 64 with persistent rhinitis. The percentage of supranuclear stria of ciliated cells with regard to leucocytes was studied by nasal scraping. Four groups of patients were classified according to nasal leucocytic predominance: patients with eosinophilic predominance with eosinophils > 10% in Group A (N=23, patients with abundant neutrophils and eosinophils >10% in Group B (N=15, patients with scant leucocytes in Group C (N=29, patients with neutrophilic predominance without eosinophils in Group D (N=13. An increase of supranuclear stria percentage was correlated to eosinophils > 10% and also correlated to scant leucocytes. Nevertheless, a significant decrease of supranuclear stria percentage was observed in neutrophilic leukocytosis of bacterial etiology.

  20. Role of four conserved aspartic acid residues of EF-loops in the metal ion binding and in the self-assembly of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Duan, Lian; Sun, Tijian; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-12-01

    Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein closely related to the prototypical calcium sensor protein calmodulin. Four mutants (D37K, D73K, D110K and D146K) were created firstly to elucidate the importance of the first aspartic acid residues (Asp37, Asp73, Asp110 and Asp146) in the beginning of the four EF-loops of EoCen. Aromatic-sensitized Tb(3+) fluorescence indicates that the aspartic acid residues are very important for the metal-binding of EoCen, except for Asp73 (in EF-loop II). Resonance light scattering (RLS) measurements for different metal ions (Ca(2+) and Tb(3+)) binding proteins suggest that the order of four conserved aspartic acid residues for contributing to the self-assembly of EoCen is Asp37 > Asp146 > Asp110 > Asp73. Cross-linking experiment also exhibits that Asp37 and Asp146 play critical role in the self-assembly of EoCen. Asp37, in site I, which is located in the N-terminal domain, plays the most important role in the metal ion-dependent self-assembly of EoCen, and there is cooperativity between N-terminal and C-terminal domain (especially the site IV). In addition, the dependence of Tb(3+) induced self-assembly of EoCen and the mutants on various factors, including ionic strength and pH, were characterized using RLS. Finally, 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) binding, ionic strength and pH control experiments indicate that in the process of EoCen self-assembly, molecular interactions are mediated by both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces, and the hydrophobic interaction has the important status.

  1. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervia, Davide, E-mail: d.cervia@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  2. Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dongxia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of

  3. Moss ciliated protozoa as bioindicators. A study on the urban area of Pisa (Italy); Protozoi ciliati del muschio come biondicatori. Uno studio nell'area urbana di Pisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verni, F.; Rosati, G. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Etologia, Ecologia, Evoluzione

    2000-07-01

    Samples of moss were collected, every month for 7 months, from five zones of Pisa (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6) and a woody zone (S1) as control. For each sample the type and the number of the ciliate species as well as the number of individuals for each species were determined. Lead content was also measured. The data were statistically elaborated and compared. The diversity Shannon index (H) was calculated to determine the health state of ciliate communities. In any case an inverse correlation between H and the lead content was reported; the highest the H value, the lowest the lead content and vice versa. On the basis of the results here reported the use of Ciliates as biondicators appears suitable for the control of urban soil. An analysis like this appears advantageous as it is rather simple and cheap and allows to determine the possible variations in a real time. [Italian] Sono stati analizzati campioni di muschio prelevati, con cadenza mensile per 7 mesi, in 5 stazioni di Pisa (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6) e da una zona boscosa (S1), come controllo. Per ogni campione si e' proceduto all'identificazione dei Ciliati presenti, al conteggio delle specie e del numero di individui per specie, nonche' alla misurazione del piombo presente. I dati sono stati confrontati dopo elaborazione statistica. L'indice della diversita' di Shannon ha fornito informazioni sulla salute della comunita' dei Protozoi delle varie stazioni. In ogni caso risulta una correlazione inversa tra i valori dell'indice di Shannon e la quantita' di piombo: S5, la stazione piu' esposta al traffico, risulta quella piu' degradata. L'uso dei Ciliati come biondicatori risulta quindi appropriato e vantaggioso considerando che e' semplice, poco costoso e permette di valutare in tempi reali variazioni nell'ambiente.

  4. [Revision of of the subfamily of Metaracoelophryinae de Puytorac 1972 (Oligohymenophora: Hoplytophryida: Hoplytophryidae), astome ciliates of the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms of Africa: description of five new species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokam, Z; Ngassam, P; Nana, P A; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Sime Ngando, T

    2012-02-01

    Five new species belonging to the astome ciliates, living in the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms belonging to the genus Alma from Cameroon, have been described. The techniques used are: vital staining, staining of the nucleus with Diamidino Phenyl Indol (DAPI), scanning electron microscopy and silver staining method (Fernandez Galiano, 1976, 1994). This work confirms the presence of the genus Paracoelophrya and Dicoelophrya in the digestive track of the oligochaete Alma from Gabon and Cameroon; it helps to understand the general taxonomy of this Metaracoelophryinae subfamily. Moreover, the homogeneity of this group is confirmed and the phylogenetic relationship inside the Hoplitophryida order need more studies to be solved.

  5. Protocruzia,a highly ambiguous ciliate(Protozoa;Ciliophora):Very likely an ancestral form for Heterotrichea,Colpodea or Spirotrichea? With reevaluation of its evolutionary position based on multigene analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thorsten; STOECK; Shin; Mann; Kyoon; Al-Rasheid; Khaled; A.; S.; Al-Khedhairy; Abdulaziz; A.

    2010-01-01

    The ciliate genus Protocruzia belongs to one of the most ambiguous taxa considering its systematic position,possibly as a member of the classes Heterotrichea,Spirotrichea or Karyorelictea,which is tentatively placed into Spirotrichea in Lynn’s 2008 system.To test these hypotheses,multigene trees(Bayesian inference,evolutionary distance,maximum parsimony,and maximum likelihood) were constructed using the small subunit rRNA(SSU rRNA) gene,internal transcribed spacer 2(ITS2) and a protein coding gene(histone H4).All analyses agree that:(1) four morphotypes of Protocruzia from different geographical origins group together and form a monophyletic clade,which cannot be assigned to any of the eleven described ciliate classes;(2) it is invariably positioned on an isolated branch separated from the class Spirotrichea suggesting that this clade should be clearly removed from Spirotrichea;(3) this leads us to hypothesize that this taxon may indeed represent a lineage on a class rank.Based on the fact that it is,both morphologically and in molecular features,closely related to the heterotrichs,Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea,Protocruziida might be an ancestral form for the subphylum Intramacronucleata in the evolutionary line from the class Heterotrichea(subphylum Postciliodesmatophora) to higher taxa.

  6. ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS OF COPEPOD NAUPLII AND CILIATES IN JIAOZHOU BAY%胶州湾桡足类幼虫和浮游生纤毛虫的丰度与生物量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents data of ciliates and copepod nauplii abundance and biomass from eight cruises (September, December, 1997; February, April, August, November, 1998; February, May, 1999) in Jiaozhou Bay. Water samples were taken by 2L Niskin Bottles at ten stations during every cruise. One liter water was preserved in plastic bottle with Lugol's (1%). The sample scheme of water layer was surface, middle and bottom according to water depth. The samples were examined with the method of Utermohl (1958) one month after sampling. Carbon:volumn ratio was 0.05 pgC/μm3 for copepod nauplii (Mullin, 1969), 0.19pgC/μm3 for ciliates (Putt et al, 1989). Body volume of tintinnids was assumed to be 50% of that of the lorica (Beers et al, 1969).   Copepod nauplii dominated in September 1997. The aloricate oligotrichous ciliates were dominant through December 1997 to February 1999. Tintinnids dominated in May 1999. The maximum abundance of copepod nauplii, aloricate ciliates and tintinnids were 850 (August, 1998), 21300 (August, 1998) and 1720 ind/L (May, 1999) respectively. The total abundance of the above three in the surface layer was 10—22350 ind/L, with larger abundance in the inner part of the bay. There was no obvious trend in the vertical distribution. The total biomass of copepod nauplii, aloricate ciliates and tintinnids in the surface layer was in the range of 0.10—380.27μgC/L, water column biomass 0.20—1426.02mgC/m2.%1997年9月、12月,1998年2月、4月、8月、11月以及1999年2月和5月在胶州湾采集桡足类幼虫和浮游生纤毛虫的样品。样品用Lugol's试剂固定(最后浓度1%),用显微镜计数桡足类幼虫和浮游生纤毛虫的丰度,并计算总生物量(表层生物量和水体生物量)。桡足类幼虫、无壳纤毛虫和砂壳纤毛虫的最大丰度分别为850ind/L(1998年8月)、21300ind/L(1998年8月)和1720ind/L(1999年5月)。表层的总丰度为10—22630ind/L,水平分布湾内比湾外多。表层纤

  7. GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF FIVE PERITRICHOUS CILIATES INFERRED FROM INTER SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (ISSR) MOLECULAR MARKERS%五种缘毛类纤毛虫遗传关系的ISSR研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文静; 余育和; 沈韫芬

    2005-01-01

    In this study, ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) molecular markers were used to clarify genetic relationships of five peritrichous ciliates: Carchesium polypinum, Epistylis chrysemydis, E. plicatilis, E. urceolata and Vorticella campanula.From 34 primers, 13 polymorphic primers were selected and tested. The genetic distance values going from 0.6667 to 1. 0000 among the five species show the ISSR-PCR method has a high resolution. In the phylogenetic tree constructed with the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA), V. campanula was separated from other species firstly; C.polypinum and E. chrysemydis were closely related; in the group of Epistylis species, E. plicatilis and E. urceolata were first clustered together and then grouped with E. chrysemydis. These results were compared with the phylogenetic tree from the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) gene sequences. We found that: 1) ISSR primers can give the informative profiles in peritrichous ciliates; 2) C. polypinum has a nearer relation with Epistylis than V. campanula. The colonial or solitary status might be a more important phylogenetic character within peritrichs than the characters of stalk and the myoneme; 3) E.urceolata shared closer relationship with E. plicatilis than E. chrysemydis. The hollow nature of the stalk is a useful phylogenetic and taxonomic character in the genus Epistylis. This study demonstrated that ISSR-PCR method was a new useful method to reveal the relationships among related or similar species in ciliates.%应用ISSR分子标记揭示了5种缘毛类纤毛虫(Carchesium polypinum,Epistylis chrysemydis,E.plicatilis,E.urceolata和Vorticella campanula)的遗传关系.从34个引物中筛选到13个多态性高的引物进行研究.得到的遗传距离(0.666 7~1.000 0)显示ISSR技术具有较高的分辨率.依据构建的UPGMA聚类树,V.campanula首先和其他种类分开;C.polypinum和E.chrysemydis聚在了一起;在3种Epistylis纤毛虫中,E

  8. Predação e canibalismo entre protozoários ciliados (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae no rúmen de ovinos (Ovis aries Predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar ocorrências de predação e canibalismo em protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos. Foram analisadas amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cinco ovinos mestiços Santa Inês, fistulados no rúmen, mantidos em pastagem natural de caatinga, no município de Sertânia, Pernambuco. Foram obtidas seis amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cada ovino, totalizando 30 amostras, as quais foram fixadas em formalina 18,5% (v/v. De cada amostra foi retirada uma alíquota de 1 ml de conteúdo ruminal ao qual se adicionaram três gotas de solução de lugol para a coloração e identificação dos protozoários ciliados. Estas alíquotas foram analisadas utilizando-se lâminas e lamínulas, em campos determinados randomicamente. Constatou-se a ocorrência de interações do tipo predador-presa entre ciliados de Ophryoscolecidae Stein, 1859, onde Elytroplastron bubali (Dogiel, 1928 apresentou comportamento predatório sobre Enoploplastron triloricatum (Dogiel, 1925 e sobre outras espécies de Epidinium Crawley, 1923 e de Entodinium Stein, 1859. Foram ainda observados casos de canibalismo entre espécimes de E. bubali, o que consiste no primeiro registro deste tipo de interação nesta espécie. Registra-se, ainda, pela primeira vez a ocorrência de E. bubali no rúmen de ovinos no Brasil.The objective of the present study was to record the occurrence of predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans in the rumen of sheep. The analyzed samples consisted of ruminal contents of five fistulated Santa Inez crossbred sheep, maintained in a natural caatinga (scrubland pasture in the municipality of Sertânia, Pernambuco. Six samples of ruminal content were obtained from each sheep (total of 30 samples and fixed in formalin at 18.5% (v/v. One 1 ml aliquot was obtained from each sample of ruminal content and received tree drops of a lugol solution for staining and identification of protozoa ciliates. These aliquots were analyzed in

  9. Morphological Studies of a Ciliate from the External Ulcerative Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus%一种纤毛虫的分类及形态研究 ——寄生于牙鲆体表溃烂组织中的指状拟舟虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽; 徐奎栋; 战文斌; 宋微波

    2001-01-01

    报道从牙鲆(Paralichthysolivaceus)体表溃烂组织分离的一种纤毛虫,通过活体观察、扫描电镜、蛋白银染色法、银浸法,对其形态学及纤毛图式做了研究。经鉴定,该纤毛虫为指状拟舟虫(Paralembus digitiformis Kahl,1933),隶属于寡膜纲、盾纤目、嗜污科、拟舟虫属。这是指状拟舟虫在牙鲆上兼性寄生的首次报道。%An external ulcerative disease frequently occurred in Ja paneseflounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, cultured in artificial propagation facilities along the coasts of Shandong, China, has caused mass mortalities in r ecent years. The ciliate was a pathogen to flounder and was identified as Para lembus digitiformis Kahl 1933, a marine facultative parasitic scuticociliatid ciliate. Morphological studies were made on living observations and specimens tr eated with protargol-impregnation techniques and Chatton-Lwoff silver impregna tion techniques as well as scanning electron microscopy. The ciliate, Paralemb us digitiformis Kahl 1933, as an opportunistic pathogen of cultured flounder, is first reported in this paper.

  10. 显示纤毛虫细胞微管骨架的两种荧光标记方法%Two fluorescent labeling methods for revealing microtubular cytoskeleton in ciliates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余齐耀; 张萌; 陈季武; 倪兵

    2012-01-01

    应用直接荧光标记和免疫荧光标记显微术显示了几种原生动物纤毛虫(如尾草履虫、大尾柱虫、阔口游仆虫)的细胞微管骨架,并据结果提出了用所述方法制备标本时需注意的几个方面:对游仆虫,可以忽略某些步骤;对大尾柱虫各种药品的浓度以及处理时间以较小为宜.%The direct fluorescent labeling and the immunofluorescent labeling with antibody against a-tubulin were used to show the mi-crotubular cytoskeleton of several ciliate protozoans such as Paramecium caudatum, Euplotes eurystomus and Urostyla grandis. Based on the results, the study also proposed some points which should be noted in the preparation of specimen with the methods mentioned a-bove (I.e. , some steps can be ignored in Euplotes; a lower concentration of various drugs and a less processing time will be appropriate for Urostyla species).

  11. Classification of the peritrich ciliate Opisthonecta matiensis (Martín-Cereceda et al. 1999) as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb., based on new observations and SSU rDNA phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; Guinea, Almudena; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Dyal, Patricia; Novarino, Gianfranco; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2007-11-01

    New observations on Opisthonecta matiensis Martín-Cereceda et al. [1999. Description of Opisthonecta matiensis n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora), a new peritrich ciliate from wastewater. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46, 283-289] especially the lack of an epistomial membrane, reveal that the species does not belong to the genus Opisthonecta, but to Telotrochidium, the other genus within the family Opisthonectidae Foissner, 1975. The contractile vacuole and the cytopyge are on the dorsal wall of the vestibulum and the trochal band is limited distally and proximally by rows of narrowly spaced pellicular pores. Thus the species is redefined as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb. The morphological, cortical and nuclear events occurring during conjugation are illustrated, compared with those in other species, and phylogenetically discussed. Invariably, the microconjugants attach to and penetrate the lateral side of the macroconjugants. Nuclear processes are very similar to those reported from other peritrichs. The small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) is sequenced and the phylogeny within Opisthonectidae and peritrichs examined. T. matiense is more closely related to Epistylis (63% Maximum Parsimony (MP), 85% Maximum Likelihood (ML)) than to any other genus, while another representative of the family, viz., Opisthonecta henneguyi, is closely related to Vorticella microstoma, Astylozoon enriquesi and clone RT3n18 (100% MP, 100% ML). Morphology and gene sequences suggest that Telotrochidium and Opisthonecta have derived from different lineages of stalked peritrichs: Opisthonecta could have arisen from peritrichs with stalk myonemes, while Telotrochidium probably evolved from peritrichs without stalk myonemes.

  12. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PELAGIC NANOFLAGELLATES AND CILIATES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH JELLYFISH OCCURRENCE IN SOUTHERN YELLOW SEA%黄海水母旺发区浮游鞭毛虫和纤毛虫群落结构分布及其与水母发生关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁军军; 徐奎栋

    2012-01-01

    The role of nanoflagellates and ciliates during jellyfish bloom remains unexplored. We investigated the changes of the community structure and distribution of planktonic nanoflagellates and ciliates collected from the transects E, G and I in the southern Yellow Sea in April and August of 2011. The nanoflagellates and ciliates were studied using DAPI epifluorescence microscopy and the quantitative protargol stain. The abundance of total nanoflagellates was high in the coastal area and decreased towards the offshore area, Vertically, nanoflagellates mainly distributed in the surface and near the bottom layers in water. Compared with those in spring, the total abundance and biomass of nanoflagellates in- creased in summer. The abundance of ciliates increased from inshore to offshore area. This was different from that of nan- oflagellates. Ciliates in the surface layer contributed up to 80% of total abundance and abruptly decreased below the 30 m depth. Compared with those in spring, the overall ciliate abundance and biomass decreased by about 50% in summer when jellyfish appeared. The ciliate abundance in summer was only 30%--40% of that in spring at transects E and G, while the ciliate abundance at the transect I, where there was no jellyfish observed, highly increased in summer. Jellyfish can cause direct and indirect changes to nano- and microzooplankton through cascading effects. The sharp decreases of ciliates at transects E and G were likely attributed to the predation pressure from increasing jellyfish, and consequently resulted in the increase of nanoflagellates. In contrast, ciliates increased at transect I without the impact of jellyfish.%鞭毛虫和纤毛虫在海洋微食物环和经典食物链间的能量流动中起着重要的枢纽作用,但其在水母暴发过程中的作用仍然不明。本研究基于2011年春季以及水母旺发的夏季黄海专项航次,通过荧光染色技术和定量蛋白银法研究了南黄海水母频发海域3

  13. Potential distribution of sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliate in China (Hemiptera : Tingidae)%悬铃木方翅网蝽在我国的潜在分布分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耿平; 王晓静; 刘国卿; 卜文俊

    2012-01-01

    运用生态位模型MaxEnt和GARP对悬铃木方翅网蝽Corythucha ciliate (Say)在我国的潜在分布进行了模拟,并结合其寄主植物悬铃木在我国的分布进行了分析.实验采用悬铃木方翅网蝽在我国的分布数据,结合6种气候变量和海拔数据构建模型,并将MaxEnt和GARP的输出结果进行合意.研究显示MaxEnt和GARP的模拟结果基本一致,均能较好的模拟悬铃木方翅网蝽在我国的分布,二者均显示山东西南部和中部、四川中部和东部、重庆、陕西中部、河南中部和东部、安徽、江苏、上海、贵州、湖南、江西、浙江、福建中部和北部、云南中部等地区为悬铃木方翅网蝽的适宜分布区,此外,河北中部和南部、山东东部,广东和广西的北部亦具潜在分布的可能性.与MaxEnt输出结果相比,GARP相对较为保守.MaxEnt输出结果显示年平均气温和极端低温对悬铃木方翅网蝽地理分布的限制作用最大.考虑到该虫对高低温度的耐受性,我国二球悬铃木栽培的南界(南宁和广州)和北界(大连、北京、石家庄、太原)需要重视和监控起来.%Potential distribution of Corythucha ciliate (Say) in China were predicted using two ecological niche modelling algorithms (i.e. , MaxEnt and GARP). The models were calibrated using domestic records and 6 bioclimatic variables plus elevation. These potential distributions were then evaluated with respect to the distribution of pest host plant ( i. e. , Platanus spp. ). Significant variables associating with the bug' s occurrence were identified. Both models performed good discriminability compared to random prediction. Result of GARP was a little conservative compared to MaxEnt. High suitable areas identified by the consensus of two models including; southwestern and central Shandong, eastern and central Sichuan, Chongqing, central Shaanxi, eastern and central Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang

  14. 汉中市兴元湖纤毛虫群落结构与水质评价%Study on Community Structure of Ciliates and Water Evaluation in Xingyuan Lake of Hanzhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智峰

    2015-01-01

    2014年3~5月,利用PFU法对汉中市兴元湖水中纤毛虫群落进行调查,从3个采样点共观察到56种纤毛虫,隶属1门,3纲,11目,32属。优势种为纵长板壳虫(Coleps elonqatus)、钝漫游虫(Litonotus obtusus)、钩刺斜管虫(Chilodonella uncinata)、珍珠映毛虫(Cinetochilum margaritaceum)、沟钟虫(Vorti-cella convallaria)、尾瘦尾虫(Uroleptus candatus)、伪尖毛虫(Oxyticha fallax)、阔口游仆虫(Euplotes eurys-tomus)。通过计算水体纤毛虫的多样性指数,大小关系为3号采样点﹤1号采样点﹤2号采样点。水质评价结果,1号采样点属于β-中污型,2号采样点属于寡污型,3号采样点属于a-中污型。%The investigation on ciliates community and water quality assessment in Xingyuan Lake was carried out from April to May in 2014. Fifty-six species belonging to three classes of eleven orders of thirty genuses are discovered from three test sites. The dominant spices were Coleps elonqatus, Litonotus obtusus, Chilodonella uncinata, Cinetochilum margaritaceum, Vorticella convallaria, Uroleptus candatus, Oxyticha fallax and Euplotes eurystomus. Using species diversity index to assess water quality of Xingyuan Lake, the results showed that site one belonged to β-mesosaprobic zone; site two belonged to oligosaprobic zone; and site three belonged to a-mesosaprobic zone.

  15. 夏季蓝藻水华期间太湖河口区和敞水区纤毛虫群落组成及水平分布%COMMUNITY COMPOSITIONS AND HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF CILIATES IN LAKE TAIHU DURING THE CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOM IN SUMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 卢文轩; 张雷燕; 陈非洲

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ciliate samples were collected from 10 sites in the estuary zones and 14 sites in the pe-lagic zones in the northern area of Lake Taihu in July 2009. The ciliate species and their horizontal distribution were analyzed with quantitative protargol stain (QPS) method. We also explored the relationship between the ciliate commu-nity compositions and the environmental variables. We observed 105 species that represented 60 genera, 15 orders and 3 classes. The numbers of the species in different order were counted and compared. Orders Haptorida (21 species) and Oligotrichida (20 species) ranked the first and second, followed by orders Prostomatida (12 species), Peritrichida (11 species), and Hypotrichida (11 species). These five orders were predominant in the samples, while less species belonged to the other ten orders -- Karyorelictida, Pleurostomatida, Colpodida, Nassulida, Cyrophorida, Suctoria, Hy-menostomatida, Synhymeniida, Scuticociliatida, and Heterotrichida. Halteria bifurcate Tamar, H. grandinella Dujardin, Rimostrombidium brachykinetum Krainer, Tintinnopsis cylindrata Kofoid & Campbell and Cyclidium glaucoma Müller were the dominant species in both estuary (3.1%-12.3% in abundance) and pelagic (4.5%-18.1%) zones, followed by Urotricha farcta Claparède & Lachmann, Codonella cratera Leidy, R. humile Penard, Strombidium mirabile Penard, Tintinnidium pusillum Entz, Vorticella aquadulcis complex and V. campanula Ehrenberg. The abundance of ciliate was higher in the estuary zones than that in the pelagic zones, which fell in the range of 1600 to 80900 cells/L (average 31407 cells/L) and 1225 cells/L to 36000 cells/L (average 18618 cells/L), respectively. The biomass of ciliate showed the same pattern which was 1322.6μg/L and 543.6μg/L on average in the estuary and pelagic zones, respectively. Nei-ther the abundance nor the biomass of ciliates showed significant differences (P>0.05). Among the functional feeding groups, bactivorous and

  16. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of a ciliate assemblage in a warm-monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico Dinámica temporal y espacial de la comunidad de ciliados en un lago monomíctico-cálido Alchichica (Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Macek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the ciliate assemblage was surveyed along a depth gradient in the maar crater, athalassohaline, warm monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico from June 2003 to October 2006 (monthly. DAPI staining was employed to count ciliates while the Quantitative Protargol Staining was used for their identification. Peritrichs often numerically dominated the ciliate assemblage; a maximum of 54 cells ml-1 (Rhabdostyla sp. was observed in the surface layer at the end of the mixing period, during the development of diatoms (Cyclotella alchichicana, cyanobacterial (Nodularia sp. bloom and its decay. Minute spirotrichs (particularly Halteria grandinella and a haptorid, Belonophrya pelagica occasionally dominated the epilimnion while mixotrophic Euplotes cf. daidaleos and Pelagothrix sp. were important round the oxycline along with haptorids, particularly Phialina sp. Scuticociliates Cyclidium glaucoma, Uronema nigricans, and anaerobic ciliates Isocyclidium globosum and Caenomorpha sp. dominated within the hypolimnetic assemblages.De junio de 2003 a diciembre de 2006 se estudió mensualmente la distribución de la comunidad de ciliados en el gradiente de profundidades del Lago Alchichica (Puebla, México, un lago cráter, tipo maar, atalasohalino de comportamiento monomíctico-cálido. La tinción de DAPI fue empleada para el recuento de los ciliados y la tinción de protargol cuantitativa para su identificación. Frecuentemente los ciliados perítricos dominaron numéricamente la comunidad. Al final del periodo de estratificación y durante el desarrollo de las diatomeas (Cyclotella alchichicana y el florecimiento y posterior decaimiento de las cianobacterias filamentosas (Nodularia sp., se observó un máximo de 54 cél. ml-¹ de Rhabdostyla sp. en la superficie del lago. Los espirotricos pequeños (particularmente Halteria grandinella y los haptóridos como Belonophrya pelagica, dominaron ocasionalmente en el epilimnion, mientras que los

  17. 三聚氰胺对纤毛类原生动物梨形四膜虫的细胞毒性%Cytotoxicity Assessment of Melamine Using the Ciliated Protozoan Tetrahymena pyriforrnis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正方; 齐小花; 邹明强; 张卓勇; 徐芳

    2009-01-01

    三聚氰胺曾被用为牛类的非蛋白类氮源,并被非法掺入食品中从而提高其表观蛋白含量.实验利用一种单细胞真核生物模型--纤毛类原生动物梨形四膜虫(Tetrahymena pyriformis)研究了三聚氰胺的细胞毒性.结果显示,三聚氰胺对梨形四膜虫的生长速率具有抑制作用,并且这种抑制作用与三聚氰胺浓度成正相关性,其IC50值为0.78g·L-1.细胞同时发生形变.实验证明梨形四膜虫生物测定法相对于动物实验具有耗时短、成本低、操作简便的优势,在潜在毒性物质的风险性评估实验中可成为一种优良的替代模型.%Melamine was once used as a non-protein nitrogen(NPN)source for cattle,and unethically added to food productions in order to increase the apparent protein content.In this study,the cytotoxicological impact of melamine was determined using a unicellular eukaryote bioassay model,the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis(T.pyriformis).The results showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of melamine on the cell proliferation rate of T.pyriformis populations,and the IC50 value was estimated to be 0.78g·L-1.Deformed cells were also observed.Our experiment demonstrated that T. pyriformis bioassay,with advantages such as less time-consuming,lower cost and simpler operations,provides a good alternative in vitro method to animal experiments for the risk assessment of potentially toxic substances.

  18. Sex determination: ciliates' self-censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gareth

    2014-07-07

    Differentiation involves the expression of certain latent cellular characteristics and the repression of others. A new study has revealed how Paramecium uses short RNAs to delete information from the somatic genome of one of its two sexes.

  19. Ciliates as engineers of phototrophic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, Ellen J.; van der Geest, Harm G.; van der Meulen, Myra D.; Manders, Erik M. M.; van de Koppel, Johan; Herman, Peter M. J.; Admiraal, Wim

    2011-01-01

    1. Phototrophic biofilms consist of a matrix of phototrophs, non-photosynthetic bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which is spatially structured. Despite widespread exploitation of algae and bacteria within phototrophic biofilms, for example by protozoans, the 'engineering' effect

  20. Ciliates as engineers of phototrophic biofilms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, E.J.; Geest, H.G.; Meulen, M.D.; Manders, E.M.M.; Van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    1.Phototrophic biofilms consist of a matrix of phototrophs, non-photosynthetic bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which is spatially structured. Despite widespread exploitation of algae and bacteria within phototrophic biofilms, for example by protozoans, the ‘engineering’ effects

  1. Ciliates as engineers of phototrophic biofilms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, E.J.; van der Geest, H.G.; van der Meulen, M.D; Manders, E.M.M.; van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    1. Phototrophic biofilms consist of a matrix of phototrophs, non-photosynthetic bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which is spatially structured. Despite widespread exploitation of algae and bacteria within phototrophic biofilms, for example by protozoans, the ‘engineering’ effect

  2. Using the Ciliate Protozoan Vorticella in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alick R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for collection, culture, observation, and making permanent stained preparations of the protozoan vorticella. Suggestions are made for experiments to investigate growth, reproduction, settlement, ecology, feeding, and osmoregulation. (CS)

  3. 甘肃徽县水阳江铅锌污染段纤毛虫群落特征及对水质的评价%Community Characteristics of Ciliates and Water Quality Assessment in the Pb-Zn-Contaminated Section of the Shuiyangjiang River in Huixian County,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马正学; 贺鹏辉; 杨镇; 宁应之

    2009-01-01

    2006年10月至2008年5月,在甘肃徽县水阳江铅锌污染段选择4个样点,分别在3个水期采集水样,研究了纤毛虫物种多样性及群落结构.共鉴定到纤毛虫52种,隶属于3纲12目29科33属.利用纤毛虫群落特征指标对水阳江铅锌污染段的水质进行了初步评价.综合评价结果显示,4个样点受污染程度为县城>厂区>牟坝>对照,污染级别为中度至重度.初步筛选出瓜形膜袋虫(Cyclidium citrullus)、尾草履虫(Paramoecium caudatum)、薄漫游虫(Litonotus lamella)作为铅锌污染水体的指示物种.%Species diversity and community structure of ciliates in the Pb-Zn-Contaminated section of the Shuiyangjiang River were studied during the period from October 2006 to May 2008,using water samples collected from 4 sampling sites in that section in 3 different periods.In the water samples,52 species of ciliates,sorted into 3 classes,12 orders,29 family and 33 genus,were identified,based on which water quality of that section of the Shuiyangjiang River was preliminarily evaluated.Results show that pollution of the water varied in degree between the four sampling sites in the section,following a decreasing order of Xiancheng>Changqu>Muba>Duizhao,from severe to moderate.Ciliates of Cyclidium citrullus,Paramecium caudatum,and Litonotus lamella were screened out to be indicators of Pb-Zn-contamination of water bodies.

  4. 广东沿海的砂壳纤毛虫及3种国内新纪录%TINTINNID CILIATES FROM COASTAL WATERS OFF GUANGDONG, WITH NOTES ON THREE NEW RECORDS OF CHINA (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 姜勇; 李继秋; 马洪钢; 许恒龙

    2012-01-01

    Tintinnid ciliates are an important component of plankton communities and widely distribute in the coastal waters. However, in morphological studies, the tintinnids belonged to the poorly known groups, especially in the water of the South China Sea. In the winter of 2008, the tintinnids sampled from the coastal waters in the South China Sea (Guangdong) were investigated. The water temperature was 17-20℃ and the salinity was about 30‰-31‰. Samples were collected by a horizontal tow net from 1.5 m under the water surface. Part of samples were immediately stored in 4℃ for in vivo observation and the others were fixed in formalin at a final concentration of 5% for future observations of lorica characteristics. The morphological characteristics including lorica features were observed and described by using light microscopical method. In this present study, 16 species were indentified and they belonged to Tintinnopsis, Codonella, Stenosemella and Favella. Three of them were believed to be the first records of China, Codonella apicata Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis turbo Meunier, 1919 and Stenosemella expansa Wailes, 1925. In addition, another three species were the first records in the semi-tropical and tropical areas of China, Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier, 1910; Tintinnopsis lohmanni (Jorgensen, 1927) Laackmann, 1906, and Codonella rapa Kofoid & Campbell, 1929. The other 10 species included Tintinnopsis beroidea Stein, 1867, Tintinnopsis acuminata (Daday, 1887) Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis tocantinensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier, 1910, Tintinnopsis tublosa Levander, 1900, Tintinnopsis clongata Daday, 1887, Tintinnopsis lohmanni (Jorgensen, 1927) Laackmann,, 1906, Stenosemella parvicollis (Marshall, 1934) Hada, 1935, Favella campanula (Schmidt, 1901)J(o)rgensen, 1924, and Codonella rapa Kofoid & Campbell, 1929.%对广东沿海的砂壳纤毛虫进行了初步研究,涉及7属16种,其中3种确定为中

  5. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamae, Karin; Berge, Terje

    2016-01-01

    obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed......Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acute takes control over "third-hand" chloroplasts...... that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1). While a acute cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts...

  6. Role of food uptake for photosynthesis, growth and survival of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    ) and subsequently allowed to deplete the prey. When the ciliate prey was added, the photosynthetic rate of D. acuminata increased from about 7 to 38 pg C cell-1 h-1 within the first 2 d. When subsequently subjected to starvation, the photosynthetic activity rapidly decreased to a pre-feeding level, and, without...... and survival of D. acuminata were studied. The observed maximum growth rate was ca. 0.45 d-1 at an irradiance of 100 µmol photons m-2 s-1 when supplied with well-fed M. rubrum at concentrations >1000 M. rubrum ml-1. The corresponding ingestion rate per D. acuminata was about 9 M. rubrum d-1, or 3200 pg C d-1....... Apart from the importance of prey concentration, data revealed that ingestion and growth of D. acuminata are, to a certain degree, dependent on the growth rate of its ciliate prey. Photosynthesis was studied in a culture of D. acuminata, initially grown at prey saturation (>1000 M. rubrum cells ml-1...

  7. Níveis de proteína degradável para novilhas em crescimento sobre a concentração de protozoários ciliados e outros parâmetros ruminais Levels of degradable protein given to heifers for the ciliate protozoa concentration and other ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Balcells

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Em um ensaio de controle de parâmetros ruminais (pH, ritmo de trânsito (%h, volume ruminal (l, e concentração de protozoários ciliados, foram utilizadas quatro novilhas Holstein, canuladas no rúmen e duodeno, recebendo dietas com 4 níveis de proteína degradável, sem suplementar ou suplementadas com 25, 50 e 75 gramos de proteína degradável por quilo de concentrado em forma de uréia e caseína (98,2 e 93,2% de matéria orgânica e proteína bruta, respectivamente. As rações experimentais foram compostas por 25% de palha de cevada sem tratar e 75% de concentrado formulado em base a diferentes proporções (25/75 e 75/25 de milho/cevada, com 5% de resíduo de trigo e 5% de suplemento vitamínico mineral. Uma contínua infusão de marcador de fluxo de fase líquida (Cr-EDTA foi executada. Os oito tratamentos experimentais (2 dietas x 4 níveis de infusão foram administrados em 8 períodos de balanço em um delineamento cross-over, em esquema fatorial. O nível de infusão de N degradável afetou de forma significativa os valores médios ponderados de pH, que decresceram ao aumentar a suplementação (p 3/mL que de cevada (59,5 x 103/mL; p Entodinium alcançou 87,8% da população total. O gênero Epidinium apresentou menores valores com a dieta de cevada (3,73 vs. 1,89x103/mL, p 3/mL, p 5/mL, p In this experiment four Holstein heifers fitted with rumen and duodenum canulae were utilized to evaluate the rumen parameters as pH, passage rate (%/h, volume (L and ciliated protozoa concentration, when fed diets with four levels of rumen degradable protein. This was achieved supplementing 0, 25, 50 or 75 grams of degradable protein per kg of concentrate as a urea and casein (98.2% OM and 93.2% CP. The diets had 25% of barley straw without treatment and 75% concentrate formulated to contain different proportions (25/75 and 75/25 of corn and barley and also 5% of wheat residue and 5% of mineral and vitamin supplement. A continuous infusion of

  8. Abundância de ciliados planctônicos em reservatórios em cascata do rio Paranapanema, Brasil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1532 Abundance of planktonic ciliates in a cascading reservoirs of the Paranapanema River, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1532

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Cláudia Zolin Perenha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os padrões de distribuição espacial e temporal da densidade e biomassa dos ciliados planctônicos em reservatórios em cascata do rio Paranapanema (22o 18’ - 23o 35’ S; 49o 30’ - 52o 50’ W. Pretende-se testar a hipótese de que, ao longo da série de reservatórios, observa-se um decréscimo da abundância desses organismos no sentido montante-jusante. Para tal, foram coletadas amostras em sete reservatórios, no ano de 2001, em dois períodos hidrológicos distintos, à sub-superfície da região lacustre, com o auxílio de uma garrafa de Van Dorn de 5 litros. Alíquotas de um litro foram obtidas e sua fixação realizada com solução fixadora composta de lugol alcalino, formol e tiossulfeto de sódio. Os valores obtidos para a abundância (densidade e biomassa de ciliados nos diferentes reservatórios (0,4 a 16,6 células.mL-1; 0,23 a 20,7 µg.C.L-1, respectivamente foram inferiores aos resultados encontrados em ambientes eutróficos, porém similares àqueles registrados em ambientes oligo-mesotróficos. A análise dos resultados de distribuição da abundância ao longo da série de reservatórios não corroborou a hipótese preconizada de uma diminuição de densidade e biomassa no sentido montante-jusante, em função da expectativa de uma possível oligotrofização rio abaixo. Em relação aos diferentes grupos funcionais de ciliados, foi constatada a dominância dos Oligotrichida, principalmente os de menor porte (The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of density and biomass of the planktonic ciliates, in a reservoir serie of the Paranapanema River (22o 18’ - 23o 35’ S; 49o 30’ - 52o 50’ W. We intend to test the hypothesis that, along reservoirs serie, there is a decrease of abundance from river towards the dam. Samplings were carried out in seven reservoirs, during 2001, in two distinct hydrological periods, at subsurface

  9. A New Method of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscope Used to Observe the Structure under Pellicle in Ciliates%一种用于观察纤毛虫表膜下结构的扫描电镜样品制备新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶; 周围; 乔良; 陈瑛; 邱子健

    2011-01-01

    A new method of observing three-dimensional structure under pellicle of ciliates by scanning electron microscope was established. The suitable concentration of KMnO4 was used to fix cell pellicle. The cell bursts and the cytoplasm overflows in the hypotonic solution by adjusting the osmotic pressure of fixative. Then the pellicle peels off and the inside out. After removing the cytoplasm and dehydration, freeze drying and spraying gold, the structure under pellicle was observed by scanning electron microscope in Climacostomum sp., Parame-cium caudatum and Paraurostyla weissei. The result shows that a clearly and stratified three-dimensional images of structure under pellicle can be observed by this method. It could provide a new way for the study on the pellicle of ciliates and other cell memberanes.%该实验摸索出通过扫描电镜观察纤毛虫表膜下三维结构的新方法:用适当浓度的KMnO4作为固定剂,固定虫体细胞表膜,调整固定液的渗透压使细胞在低渗溶液中胀破,细胞质溶出,表膜剥落下来、内外翻转,经脱水、冷冻干燥、喷金后,在扫描电镜下对爽口虫(Climacostomum sp.)、尾草履虫(Paramecium caudatum)及拟尾柱虫(Paraurostyla weissei)的表膜下结构进行了观察.结果表明:利用此方法能够观察到表膜下层次分明而又清晰的三维立体构象.此方法可为纤毛虫表膜及其它细胞质膜的研究提供可借鉴的样品制备新方法.

  10. Efeito da monensina e do óleo de soja sobre os protozoários ciliados do rúmen e correlação dos protozoários com parâmetros da fermentação ruminal e digestivos Effect of monensin and soybean oil on rumen ciliate protozoa and correlation between protozoa with ruminal fermentation and digestive parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-06-01

    lactating cows on the counting of ciliate protozoa beyond establishing correlations between number of protozoa with some parameters of digestion and ruminal fermentation. The treatments consisted of the inclusion of 33 ppm of sodium monensin or soybean oil at 4% DM, as following: control diet, without oil or monensin - CT; diet with monensin - MN; diet with soybean oil - OL; diet with the combination of 33 ppm of monensin and 4% of soybean oil - OM. Occurrence of 11 ciliate genera was observed, being Entodinium the predominant in all treatments. No significant soybean oil × monensin interaction was observed on protozoa number and genera. The genera Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Isotricha reduced in the diets with oil, while monensin reduced the counting of Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Epidinium. The total number of ciliate protozoa and cellulolytics protozoa was reduced by soybean oil and monensin effects, showing a defaunatory additive effect when combined the oil and the monensin. The ciliate cellulolytics was reduced by linoleic acid intake and was related positively with NDF ruminal digestibility and ruminal ammonia. The total number of protozoa was correlated with the molar proportion of propionate in the ruminal liquid, suggesting that monensin and soybean oil, due their defaunatory effect, can reduce the loss of methane in the rumen.

  11. Act together - implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziallas, Claudia; Allgaier, Martin; Monaghan, Michael T.;

    2012-01-01

    are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic...... relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes...

  12. Stomatogenesis in the ditransversal ciliate Homalozoon vermiculare (Ciliophora, Rhabdophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, D D; Oppelt, A; Hausmann, K; Foissner, W

    1992-05-22

    H. vermiculare possesses about 10 somatic kineties on the right lateral side, 3 somatic kineties on the left lateral side and a single circumoral kinety. The somatic kineties are composed of monokinetids exc\\~ept for the anterior ends of the brush kineties which are composed of dikinetids. The circumoral kinety consists of paired kinetosomes one of which is nonciliated and associated with a microtubular lamella and a nematodesma. Stomatogenesis commences when the anteriormost somatic kinetosomes in the opisthe are transformed into the nonciliated kinetosomes of the future oral dikinetid. They lose the somatic infraciliary fibers and the ciliary shaft and each gives rise to a nematodesma and a microtubular ribbon. Adjacent to each of the transformed somatic kinetosomes, a new kinetosome is assembled, thus producing an oral dikinetid anlage. The new anterior kinetosome bears a cilium and becomes the ciliferous kinetosome of the oral wreath of cilia. In protargol stained specimens, proliferation of kinetosomes can first be observed in the left lateral kineties but, eventually, each of the somatic kineties produces one kinetofragment. Thus, H. vermiculare has a holotelokinetal type of stomatogenesis. The cirumoral kinety arises from a counter-clockwise rotation (as viewed from outside the cell) of all 15 dikinetid kinetofragments and subsequent "head to tail" fusion of the fragments after cell division has been completed. The oral apparatus of the proter seems to be largely conserved during division. Some aspects of the evolution of the oral apparatus and the origin of the oral microtubular ribbons are discussed.

  13. Unsteady feeding and optimal strokes of model ciliates

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The flow field created by swimming microorganisms not only enables their locomotion but also leads to advective transport of nutrients. In this paper we address analytically and computationally the link between unsteady feeding and unsteady swimming on a model microorganism, the spherical squirmer, actuating the fluid in a time-periodic manner. We start by performing asymptotic calculations at low P\\'eclet number (Pe) on the advection-diffusion problem for the nutrients. We show that the mean rate of feeding as well as its fluctuations in time depend only on the swimming modes of the squirmer up to order Pe^(3/2), even when no swimming occurs on average, while the influence of non-swimming modes comes in only at order Pe^2. We also show that generically we expect a phase delay between feeding and swimming of 1/8th of a period. Numerical computations for illustrative strokes at finite Pe confirm quantitatively our analytical results linking swimming and feeding. We finally derive, and use, an adjoint-based opt...

  14. A new peritrichous Ciliate as a symphoriont on a Tardigrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, van der J.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION On 24 September 1962 a number of Tardigrada was obtained from a sample of lichens from the French Alps. The lichens had been collected Figs. 1, 2. Pyxidium tardigradum n. sp. on Hypsibius oberhaeuseri (Doy.). on 27 June 1961 from a rock in the department Haute Savoie and had been preser

  15. Effects of irradiation on the peritrich ciliates Vorticella and Telotrochidium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, W.W.

    1976-07-01

    Vorticella microstoma and Telotrochidium henneguyi were exposed to doses of x- and gamma-radiation ranging from 46 r to 120 Kr. Irradiation was applied to freshly excysted motile organisms. Doses below 2 Kr did not induce noticeable morphological effects in either peritrich. Doses between 2 and 5 Kr induced Pellicular blisters in Vorticella but to a very limited extent; the blisters were more prevalent 12 hr post-irradiation. Pellicular blisters were not induced in Telotrochidium, regardless of the dose. A 30 Kr dose caused both peritrichs to become more rounded than the control animals. Doses above 2 Kr altered the normal life cycle of both peritrichs as follows. The post-excystment binary fission stage was extended beyond the normal 18 yr. Post-excystment conjugation occurred later than the usual 18 to 36 hr period. A 38 Kr dose depressed Vorticella's population growth curve during the first 24 hr after irradiation, but recovery and growth was almost complete between 24 to 48 hr post-irradiation. A 57 Kr dose also depressed the population growth curve during the 24 hr following irradiation, but recovery to near normal did not occur until 60 hr post-irradiation. Telotrochidium's response was different and inconsistent in comparison with Vorticella's response. In some experiments only 10% of the Telotrochidium population survived a single 38 Kr dose and growth occurred. Likewise, 57 Kr gave inconsistent results in that it was lethal to the total population in some experiments but merely retarded growth and recovery of the total population in other experiments.

  16. Persistent disruption of ciliated epithelium following paediatric lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Aurora, Paul; Spencer, Helen; Elliott, Martin; Rutman, Andrew; Hirst, Robert A; O'Callaghan, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    It is unclear whether ciliary function following lung transplantation is normal or not. Our aim was to study the ciliary function and ultrastructure of epithelium above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of children following lung transplantation. We studied the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and beat pattern, using high speed digital video imaging and ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy, of bronchial epithelium from above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of 10 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 10 non-suppurative lung disease (NSLD) paediatric lung transplant recipients. Compared to epithelium below the anastomosis, the epithelium above the anastomosis in the CF group showed reduced CBF (median (interquartile range): 10.5 (9.0-11.4) Hz versus 7.4 (6.4-9.2) Hz; pepithelium above the anastomosis, the epithelium below the anastomosis showed marked ultrastructural abnormalities (median duration post-transplant 7-12 months). Ciliary dysfunction is a feature of native airway epithelium in paediatric CF lung transplant recipients. The epithelium below the airway anastomosis shows profound ultrastructural abnormalities in both CF and NSLD lung transplant recipients, many months after transplantation.

  17. Effect of an energy-deficient diet on populations of ciliate protozoans in bovine rumen Efeito da deficiência de energia na dieta sobre a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten young rumen-cannulated crossbred steers were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (C; n=4, which was fed a balanced diet for daily weight gain of 900g; and a pronounced energy-deprived group (PED; n=6, receiving 30% less of the required energy for maintenance. After 140 days of these alimentary regimes, rumen fluid and urine samples were collected for biochemical and functional tests, before feeding and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours after feeding. The energy-deprivation diet caused a significant reduction in the number of Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium, and Epidinium protozoa. There was no effect of the time of sampling in both groups on the total number of ciliates in rumen fluid. A higher number of protozoan forms in binary division were recorded in the control group, at the 6th and 9th hours after feeding (PForam utilizados 10 novilhos mestiços com cânula ruminal, distribuídos em dois grupos: no grupo controle (C; n=4 receberam dieta balanceada para ganho diário de 900g; no grupo tratado com carência pronunciada de energia (CP; n=6, receberam dieta com 30% a menos do nível de mantença em energia. Após 140 dias sob esses regimes de alimentação, foram coletadas amostras do fluido ruminal e urina, para realização de provas bioquímicas e funcionais, antes e às 1, 3, 6 e 9 horas após o fornecimento do alimento. A carência energética resultou em diminuição significativa na quantidade dos protozoários Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium e Epidinium. Não houve efeito da hora de coleta sobre o total de ciliados nos grupos C e CP. Maior número de formas em divisão binária foi registrado no grupo C, na sexta e nona horas pós-alimentação (P<0,019. Observaram-se altas correlações positivas entre a contagem total de protozoários e a fermentação de glicose, am

  18. Leaf Shape Responds to Temperature but Not CO2 in Acer rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate recon...

  19. Molluscs associated with a Sardinian deep water population of Corallium rubrum (Linnι, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molluscan species living in association with Corallium rubrumcolonies are poorly known. Specimensfound on the branches of red coral colonies located off Capo Caccia (Alghero – SS, West Sardinia,Mediterranean Sea were studied by analyzing red coral branches collected at a depth of between 100 and120 m; their assemblage was made up of 44 species, all belonging to the classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia.Some data on the geographical distribution, ecology, taxonomy and dominance of these species, bothalive and dead, are given and the most interesting are commented on. Among the recorded species Triviamultilirata, Simnia purpurea, Coralliophila brevis, Ocinebrina paddeui, Pleurotomella demosia, Palliolumstriatum and Pseudamussium sulcatum deserve attention. Moreover, the second finding of livingspecimens of Asperarca secreta, described only on loose valves, is reported, and finally the prey-predatorrelationships among several gastropods and Cnidarians are confirmed.

  20. Identification of chromatophore membrane protein complexes formed under different nitrogen availability conditions in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selao, Tiago Toscano; Branca, Rui; Chae, Pil Seok

    2011-01-01

    expressed proteins, such as subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex and other TCA cycle enzymes that are usually found in the cytosol, thus hinting at a possible association to the membrane in response to nitrogen deficiency. We propose a redox sensing mechanism that can influence the membrane...

  1. Spectral characteristics analysis of red tide water in mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hongliang; Ma, Yi; Gao, Xuemin

    2003-05-01

    Mesocosm ecosystem experiment with seawater enclosed of the red tide was carried out from July to September 2001. We got four species of biology whose quantities of bion are dominant in the red tide. During the whole process from the beginning to their dying out for every specie, in situ spectral measurements were carried out. After data processing, characteristic spectra of red tide of different dominant species are got. Via comparison and analysis of characteristics of different spectra, we find that in the band region between 685 and 735 nanometers, spectral characteristics of red tide is apparently different from that of normal water. Compared to spectra of normal water, spectra of red tide have a strong reflectance peak in the above band region. As to spectra of red tide dominated by different species, the situations of reflectance peaks are also different: the second peak of Mesodinium rubrum spectrum lies between 726~732 nm, which is more than 21nm away from the other dominant species spectra"s Leptocylindrus danicus"s second spectral peak covers 686~694nm; that of Skeletonema costatum lies between 691~693 nm. Chattonella marina"s second spectral peak lies about 703~705 nm. Thus we can try to determine whether red tide has occurred according to its spectral data. In order to monitor the event of red tide and identify the dominant species by the application of the technology of hyperspectral remote sensing, acquiring spectral data of different dominant species of red tide as much as possible becomes a basic work to be achieved for spectral matching, information extraction and so on based on hyperspectral data.

  2. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP concentration against the emulsion droplet size and determine the encapsulation efficiency of red ginger oleoresin. Encapsulation method was done by mixing 2% chitosan solution with 1% acetic acid, 1% sodium alginate and 8 g of red ginger oleoresin. The mixture was stirred and added sodium tripolyphosphate (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5%, respectively, emulsion preparation process was done by adding tween 80 (3, 4 and 5%, respectively and then stirred using homogenizer with a speed of 22,000 rpm, emulsions formed were analyzed using nano-particle analyzer. Emulsion formed was flowed on to the spray dryer inlet temperature of 180°C to form a powder encapsulation. Powder products were analyzed for determining encapsulation efficiency and morphology of red ginger oleoresin powder using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Based on the research results, the smallest droplet size of the emulsion was obtained at 481.5 nm and the largest encapsulation efficiency was as high as 70.59%.

  3. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale) var. Rubrum) With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanudin; Rochmadi,; Wiratni; Meri Yulvianti; Dhena Ria Barleany; Widya Ernayati

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentration against the emulsio...

  4. Contribution by the methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic ciliates to methane production in Dutch freshwater sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Alen, T.A.; Vogels, G.D.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic methane contributes substantially to the atmospheric methane concentration and thus to global warming. This trace gas is predominantly produced by strictly anaerobic methanogenic archaea, which thrive in the most divergent ecological niches, e. g. paddy fields, sediments, landfills, and the

  5. The influence of flap inclination angle on fluid transport at ciliated walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenbach, A.; Schnakenberg, U.

    2017-01-01

    In optimizing fluid flow at walls, research has turned to artificial cilia to mimic the propulsion of their whip-like beat of a metachronal traveling wave. Recently we developed a pneumatically actuated micro-membrane device which has rows of long flaps positioned off-center on membranes over a row of cavities, much like the comb row of a ctenophore. As little is known about how the flap inclination angle influences the fluid transport near the wall of such devices, this paper presents a detailed modeling and experimental investigation of this question using combined FEM-FVM (finite element method-finite volume method)-based simulations for inclination angles of 0°, 20°, 30°, and 45°. The experimental results agree well with those of the FEM-FVM simulations. Antiplectic fluid transport was observed for flap inclination angles lower than 20° whereas symplectic fluid transport was determined for those higher than 20°. In conclusion, the inclination angle of the flaps decisively affects the fluid transport direction and velocity.

  6. Navigation organs of the oriental hornet : the ocelli and ciliated sensory epithelium of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenzweig, Eyal

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structure and the role of the orientation and navigation organs in the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L. 1771 (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), with special reference to the ocelli. The role of the cuticle, acting as a voltaic system providing the energy for the hornet to fly and

  7. The ciliate Paramecium shows higher motility in non-uniform chemical landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Giuffre

    Full Text Available We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of "uniform distribution" (or lack thereof. Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants.

  8. The accidental protozoologist--my journey through the world of ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyman, Lea K

    2003-01-01

    The Past-President's Address has been the opportunity for the speaker to reminisce about the road traveled to get to this time in life. In this paper, I continue in that tradition. During my journey to the present day, I visited different laboratories, studying the genetics of mating and mating types in Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Blepharisma and Euplotes. I have met and worked with many distinguished scientists, including other Past-Presidents of the Society. I also became an active participant in the Society of Protozoologists. I hope the recounting of my trip will be both entertaining and enlightening.

  9. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    dedicated to 90 th anniversary of T. I. Vyazemsky Karadag Scientific Station and 25 th anniversary of Karadag Natural Reserve of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences). Book 2. Simferopol: Sonat. pp. 313–316. (In Rus- sian). Chatterjee, T., De Troch, M... Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter, 7, pp. 1–17. Dovgal, I.V. (1996) Keys for identification of tentaculous infusoria (Ciliophora,Suctoria) of the Ukrainian fauna. Vestnik Zoologii, Suppl., N2, 1–42. (In Russian). Dovgal, I.V. (2002) Evolution, phylogeny...

  10. Ciliate protozoa of the forestomach of llamas (Lama glama) from locations at different altitude in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, María Cerón; Marcoppido, Gisela; Dekker, Anna; Fondevila, Manuel; Fuente, Gabriel De La; Morici, Gabriel; Cravero, Silvio

    2016-01-20

    This study describes the diversity and concentration of the protozoal population from the forestomach of llamas in Argentina at three altitudinal locations. Protozoal diversity was studied in samples from eight llamas from Hurlingham (Buenos Aires, 43 m altitude), four from Tilcara (Jujuy, 2465 m altitude) and six llamas from Cieneguillas (Jujuy, 3800 m altitude). The total concentrations of protozoa in the forestomach contents were 7.9, 9.1 and 4.1 cells x 104 ml-1 in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively (P>0.05). Entodinium spp. represented 97.9, 92.3 and 71.4% of the protozoal community in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively, and the remaining protozoa belonged to the Eudiplodinium genus. Entodinium spp. were identified as E. caudatum (mostly morphotype dubardi), E. longinucleatum, E. parvum, E. bovis, E. exiguum, E. dubardi, and a minor presence of E. bimastus (in three animals) and E. ovibos (in one animal). In regards to the rest of protozoal species, Eudiplodinium maggii is the first reported host record for the genus in llamas. This species was present in the forestomach of 14 out of 18 llamas tested, and in one case it was the unique protozoal species. The vestibuliferids, Dasytricha and Isotricha were absent from the forestomach of llamas. Similarly, other species such as those from the Caloscolex genus, Diplodinium cameli and Entodinium ovumrajae, commonly found in Old World Camelids, were also absent from llamas.

  11. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  12. Structures linking the myonemes, endoplasmic reticulum, and surface membranes in the contractile ciliate Vorticella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R D

    1973-02-01

    An electron microscope investigation of the interface between the myonemes of Vorticella convallaria and their associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has revealed structures of a complex morphology linking these two organelles. These structures are named "linkage complexes". Each complex contains a spindle-shaped midpiece which lies in a groove of the ER membrane. Microfilaments splay out from the tips of the midpiece and may come in contact with the inner alveolar sac membrane. Three to six raillike structures lie on each side of the midpiece and parallel it. The ER membrane appears to pass through the sides of the rails. In the lumen of the ER these rails are associated with a meshwork of filaments. A cradle of five rods lies within the groove under the midpiece. The ER membrane also passes through these rods which contact the same meshwork. In the scopular region and in the stalk the microfilaments from the midpiece form a bundle which passes into the lumen of modified basal bodies. These basal bodies are connected to the alveolar sac which, in the stalk, passes as a flattened tube along its length. The parts of the dissociated linkage complex are scattered throughout the spasmoneme of the stalk along membranes of the intraspasmonemal tubules. Thus, both stalk and body contractile bundles have linkage complexes that link their associated membrane systems to the microfibrils and, in turn, connect this membrane-microfibrillar interface to the pellicular membranes. The arrangement of the linkage complex suggests an involvement in the control of the transport of calcium ions between ER and microfibrils, and possibly the transfer of a message from the surface membranes to the sites of calcium release to trigger myonemal contraction.

  13. Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Odontostomatida): An anaerobic ciliate hosting multiple cytoplasmic and macronuclear endocytobionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Paiva, Thiago; Küppers, Gabriela Cristina; Lahr, Daniel José Galafasse; Schweikert, Michael; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2017-01-19

    Odontostomatids are among the less studied representatives of the Ciliophora. They are anaerobic microeukaryotes usually occurring as rare species in sapropelic environments. Here we describe a novel species of Discomorphella, named Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov., using light and electron microscopy observations. Discomorphella pedroeneasi displays many complex morphological features, for which new terms are introduced, such as the auricules, epistomial fringe spacer, frontal awning, odontostomatid ciliary sockets, oral lips and ventral flap. Remarkably, D. pedroeneasi has at least six types of endocytobionts, including intramacronuclear ones, and organelles ultrastructurally similar to the M/H bodies of the odontostomatid Saprodinium dentatum. Based on the new data and revision of the literature, we propose two new diagnostic characters for species separation within Discomorphella: the fringe spacer ratio and the posterior fringe ratio. The taxonomy of Discomorphella is revised and an identification key is provided.

  14. Functional intron+ and intron- rDNA in the same macronucleus of the ciliate Tetrahymena pigmentosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    alleles was followed in the total culture and in single cells during their vegetative segregation and it was observed that replication was non-preferential with respect to the two alleles. The diallelic clones were also used to demonstrate that intron-containing rDNA was transcribed and the transcript......Diallelic clones of Tetrahymena pigmentosa containing equal amounts of intron+ and intron- rDNA in the macronucleus were constructed. The macronucleus of the resulting strains divides amitotically during vegetative growth and the diallelic genotype is therefore unstable. The coexistence of the two...

  15. Preliminary identification schemes for some unicellular ciliated and flagellated parasites of warmwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few keys for the identification of small unicellular parasites of warmwater fishes and few experts who can confidently identify these parasites to species. Molecular identification tools for these parasites are largely unavailable. For fishery biologists and even fish health diagnosticia...

  16. The ciliate Paramecium shows higher motility in non-uniform chemical landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffre, Carl; Hinow, Peter; Vogel, Ryan; Ahmed, Tanvir; Stocker, Roman; Consi, Thomas R; Strickler, J Rudi

    2011-04-11

    We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of "uniform distribution" (or lack thereof). Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants.

  17. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  18. Notes on the use of invertebrates, especially ciliates, in studies on pollution and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komala, Z

    1995-01-01

    After treatment of the paramecia with 0.0005% cartap solution a high mortality of the paramecia in the postautogamic experimental group was observed. In the studied postautogamic experimental daily isolation line some defective paramecia were found. The abnormality was manifested by a defective separation of animals during binary fission resulting in the formation of chain forms.

  19. Ciliated cultured dermal fibroblasts in a patient with hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haust, M D

    1995-10-01

    Hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria (HHH)-syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle, probably caused by a defect in ornithine transport across the hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane. Single rudimentary cilia were present in approximately ten percent of post-divisional or dividing fibroblasts cultured from the skin of a patient with the HHH-syndrome, whereas no such organelles were observed in dermal fibroblasts cultured from normal controls. Since single rudimentary ("primary," "oligo," "solitary") cilia have been observed in a variety of cells in animals and men but the stimuli for their formation and their significance remain controversial, a brief report on their presence in the as yet unreported condition (HHH-syndrome) was considered of interest; hopefully, it might contribute to the ultimate unravelling of some of the unresolved problems. It is of note that unlike the author's previous findings of these unusual organelles in cells affected by a pathological process (atherosclerosis), the rudimentary cilia were observed in the present instance in dividing or postdivisional cells. The implications of these (and other) observations must await further work.

  20. Evidence for a relationship between bovine erythrocyte lipid membrane peculiarities and immune pressure from ruminal ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythrocytes of bovines and other ruminants have a strikingly anomalous phospholipid composition, with low or absent phosphatidylcholine (PC) together with high sphingomyelin (SM) content. Here, we report the presence in normal bovine serum of high levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies of IgM isoty...

  1. Spatial-temporal Distribution and Hazard Grading of Red Tide and Variation of Red-tide Species in Qingdao Adjacent Sea Area%青岛近海赤潮灾害分级与时空分布及赤潮生物的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霜; 张继民; 张洪亮; 李钦亮; 崔文林

    2014-01-01

    根据赤潮发生面积和赤潮藻类的危害类型,将青岛近海发生的赤潮划分为特大、重度、中度、轻度和轻微共计5个灾害级别。结果表明,1990-2013年青岛近海共计发生赤潮33次,以轻微灾害和轻度灾害为主,其它级别尚未发生;其中,发生面积小于10 km2赤潮占总数的51.5%,60.6%的赤潮由基本无害的赤潮种类引起,发生范围以胶州湾和浮山湾近海为主;赤潮次数和面积基本呈现4~5年的波动周期,高发期集中在每年的6-8月;主要赤潮生物种类是红色中缢虫(Mesodinium rubrum)和夜光虫(Noctiluca scintillans);引发赤潮的生物种类逐渐增多,甲藻比例升高,罕见种类逐渐出现。赤潮种类的变化反映出青岛近海浮游植物的种类组成发生了改变,与期间青岛近岸海洋环境的变化密切相关。%Red tides occurred in Qingdao adjacent sea area were classified into five levels,i,e.,extra large, large,moderate,mild and slight,according to the red tide scales and hazard types.Thirty-three red tide events were recorded from 1990 to 2013 with the main types of slight red tide and mild red tide.Among them,the scale of red tides was less than 10 km2 accounting for 5 1 .5%of the total red tides and 60.6%of the red tides were caused by harmless red tide species.Jiaozhou Bay and Fushan Bay adjacent sea area were the red tide-frequent-occurrence areas.The frequencies and scales of red tides peaked every four to five years from June to August,with the main red tide species of Mesodinium rubrum and Noctiluca scintillans.The species of red tide gradually increased with a rising tendency of Pyrrophyta occurrence frequency,even rare species have appeared in the past few years.The changes of the red tide species indicated that the species composition of phytoplankton in Qingdao inshore area has changed,which is closely related to the marine environment of Qingdao near-shore areas.

  2. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  3. The effect of temperature and extraction period of time on the chemicals content of emprit ginger ethanol extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningrum, Diah; Endah, Een Sri; Pudjiraharti, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Research on extraction method of emprit ginger using ethanol with agitation of 100 rpm at different temperatures (ambient temperature, 40, and 50°C) and various extraction period of times (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was conducted. Analysis of chemicals content i.e. total phenolic and total flavonoid. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperatures and extraction period of times on the chemicals content of its ethanol extract. Based on the results of the test, the highest content total flavonoid (5.17% w/w) was resulted at 40°C for 90 minutes, while the total phenolic content was not affected by either temperature or extraction period of times used. The content of total phenolic was around 2.39% to 2.65% w/w.

  4. Product Standarization of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum Simplicia through Washing Time, Slice Thickness and Raw Materials Drying Process Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Kusumawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On this study has been conducted product standardization of ginger and red ginger simplicias as one of post-harvest processed form. To get ginger and red ginger simplicia product with high quality, has been done the optimization on the stage of washing, slicing, and drying process. Optimization has done in a range of 1-3 minutes washing time and raw material sliced thickness of 0.15 cm and 0.30 cm. In addition, the production of the entire simplicia has done with three drying methods, including sundried, sunlight through the intermediary of black fabric and dried by the oven. Specifically for the dried by the oven, has conducted optimization on the drying temperatures of 70° C; 85° C; 100˚C; and 115˚C. The analysis results of active compound content in the simplicia product indicates that the product of ginger and red ginger simplicia with optimum quality has obtained from the production process by washing time for 1 minute, slicing thickness of 0.15 cm, and oven drying method using temperature of 115° C. The ginger and red ginger simplicia product with optimum active compound content obtained by drying time, each for 310 minutes and 280 minutes. The ginger simplicia products contain essential oils, oleoresins, zingiberene in essential oils, gingerol and shogaol in the oleoresins, each by 1.7%; 0.86%; 56.90%; 42.50%; and 21.54%. Meanwhile, the red ginger simplicia products contain essential oils, oleoresins, zingiberene in essential oils, gingerol and shogaol in the oleoresins, each by 2.11%; 0.88%; 78.60%; 80.06%; and 8.02%. Thus, it can be said that, overall, red ginger simplicia product contains an active compound higher than the ginger simplicia product.

  5. AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA MINYAK ESENSIAL JAHE MERAH (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum DAN LENGKUAS MERAH (Alpinia purpurata K. Schum TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN DAN PERUSAK PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Rialita

    2015-05-01

    pertumbuhan bakteri uji pada nilai MIC 2,65-3,97 mg/mL dan nilai MBC 3,10-5,29 mg/mL, sedangkan minyak esensial lengkuas merah dapat menghambat bakteri uji dengan nilai MIC 1,79-4,03 mg/mL dan nilai MBC 1,79-4,92 mg/mL. Berdasarkan nilai MIC dan MBC, sensitivitas bakteri uji terhadap minyak esensial jahe merah dan lengkuas merah menurun berturut-turut dari B. cereus > E. coli > S. typhimurium > P. aeruginosa. Sensitivitas bakteri Gram positif dan Gram negatif terhadap kedua minyak esensial ini menunjukkan potensi minyak esensial jahe merah dan lengkuas merah untuk digunakan sebagai pengawet alami di industri pangan. Kata kunci: Antimikroba, jahe merah, lengkuas merah, minyak esensial

  6. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  7. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  8. 纤毛虫中的编程性翻译移码%Programmed translational frameshifting in ciliates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李禄琴; 胡苗清; 梁爱华

    2014-01-01

    编程性翻译移码现象存在于病毒、原核生物和真核生物中.单细胞真核生物游仆虫基因组中含有的编程性翻译移码基因远远高于其他真核生物基因组.游仆虫中已经报道的编程性翻译移码基因的滑动序列特征为AAA-UAR-V,其上游都有SD(Shine-Dalgarno sequence)相似序列CAAGAA.同时,编程性移码的发生受肽链释放因子eRF1和tRNALys的影响.

  9. The Advances on the Pheromone of Ciliates%纤毛虫信息素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志云; 梁爱华

    2003-01-01

    信息素(pheromone)在纤毛虫的生长分裂和接合生殖中起重要的信号传导作用,由典型的多结构域"信号肽-前体片段-成熟信息素"组成.本文着重阐述了信息素及其受体的结构、功能及作用机制等方面的研究进展.

  10. X-ray microanalysis in cryosections of natively frozen Paramecium caudatum with regard to ion distribution in ciliates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, M.; Meyer, R.; Zierold, K.

    1985-01-01

    Cells of Paramecium caudatum were shock-frozen without pretreatment for cryoultramicrotomy and freeze-dried for subsequent X-ray microanalysis. Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca were detected in different amounts in several subcellular compartments. In particular, calcium was localized below the cell surface (pellicle). Trichocysts were found to contain significant amounts of Na in their base but not in the tip. Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca were found in electron dense deposits within the lumen of the contractile vacuole. A small K concentration was found in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. X-ray microanalysis of the element distribution in different subcellular compartments provides information for the understanding of cellular functions such as exocytosis, locomotion, and ion regulation.

  11. MORPHOLOGY OF SIX FRESHWATER CILIATES%六种淡水纤毛虫形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卿; 郝瑞娟; 李雪琪; 潘宏博

    2016-01-01

    借助活体观察和银染法对6种淡水纤毛虫(纵长板壳虫Coleps elongatus、瓜形原膜袋虫Protocyclidium citrullus、亨氏累枝虫Epistylis hentscheli、钟形钟虫Vorticella campanula、长柄球吸管虫Metacineta macrocaulis、四分锤吸管虫Tokophrya quadripatita)的形态和纤毛图式进行了详尽研究.本工作首次描述了亨氏累枝虫、四分锤吸管虫、纵长板壳虫的中国种群,同时揭示了亨氏累枝虫长期未知的纤毛图式特征并给出该种类的新定义:虫体高钟形,活体大小约(100-130)μm×(60-65)μm;伸缩泡1个,腹位;大小核各1枚,大核“C”型;群体为规则对称二叉分枝;口区三片小膜均由三列动基列组成,第三小膜由三列等长的动基列组成,其终止处高于第一小膜下端;虫体前端到反口纤毛环间的银线约71-74条,反口纤毛环到帚胚间的银线约35-47条;淡水生境.此外,本研究对长柄球吸管虫、钟形钟虫、瓜形原膜袋虫进行了重新描述,补充了显微照片.

  12. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration at greater doses to favorably alter rumen microbial fermentation.

  13. Design and validation of four new primers for next-generation sequencing to target the 18S rRNA genes of gastrointestinal ciliate protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-09-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen.

  14. The fenestrin antigen in submembrane skeleton of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is proposed as a marker of cell polarity during cell division and in oral replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczanowska, Janina; Joachimiak, Ewa; Kiersnowska, Mauryla; Krzywicka, Anna; Golinska, Krystyna; Kaczanowski, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila cells have two types of polarized morphogenesis: divisional morphogenesis and oral reorganization (OR). The aim of this research is the analysis of cortical patterns of immunostaining during cell division and in OR using previously characterized antibodies against fenestrin and epiplasm B proteins. During cell division, the anarchic field of basal body proliferation of the new developing oral apparatus (AF) showed concomitant strong binding of the fenestrin antigen and withdrawal of a signal of the epiplasm B antigen. At a specific stage, the fenestrin antigen also appeared as a character of the anterior cortex pole, with a co-localized decrease in the detected epiplasm B antigen. The fenestrin antigen also showed a polarity of duplicating basal bodies in ciliary rows. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling experiments were performed in the absence and presence of an inhibitor of activity of serine/threonine kinases, 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) as an inducer of the oral replacement process. In the presence of 6-DMAP, one class of cells started OR, and some others were trapped and affected in cell division. Both types of cells showed an instability of oral structures and formed enlarged primordial oral fields. These anarchic fields (AFs) bind the fenestrin antigen, with disappearance of epiplasmic antigen staining. Only one protein (about 64 kDa) is detected in western blots by the anti-fenestrin antibody and it accumulated in 6-DMAP-treated cells that are involved in uncompleted morphogenetic activity. At a defined stage of oral development, both during cell division and in OR, the fenestrin antigen served as a marker of polarity of the cell of the anterior pole character.

  15. Biodiversity and molecular phylogeny of Australian Clevelandella species (Class Armophorea, Order Clevelandellida, Family Clevelandellidae), intestinal endosymbiotic ciliates in the wood-feeding roach Panesthia cribrata Saussure, 1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Denis H; Wright, André-Denis G

    2013-01-01

    There are over 100 species in the Order Clevelandellida distributed in many hosts. The majority is assigned to one of the five families, the Nyctotheridae. Our knowledge of clevelandellid genetic diversity is limited to species of Nyctotherus and Nyctotheroides. To increase our understanding of clevelandellid genetic diversity, species were isolated from intestines of the Australian wood-feeding roach Panesthia cribrata Saussure, 1864 from August to October, 2008. Four morphospecies, similar to those reported in Java and Japan by Kidder [Parasitologica, 29:163-205], were identified: Clevelandella constricta, Clevelandella nipponensis, Clevelandella parapanesthiae, and Clevelandella panesthiae. Small subunit rRNA gene sequences assigned all species to a "family" clade that was sister to the clade of species assigned to the Family Nyctotheridae in the Order Clevelandellida. Genetics and morphology were consistent for the first three Clevelandella species, but isolates assigned to C. panesthiae were assignable to three different genotypes, suggesting that this may be a cryptic species complex.

  16. TINTINNID CILIATES FROM QINGDAO (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, TINTINNIDA)%青岛沿海砂壳纤毛虫(原生动物,纤毛门,砂纤目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大鹏; 宋微波

    2005-01-01

    对采自青岛沿海的9属26种砂壳纤毛虫进行了形态学描述,其中11种为中国新纪录种:简单薄铃虫Leprotintinnus simplex Schmidt,1901,波特薄铃虫Leprotintinnus bottnicus(Nordqvist,1890)Jorgensen,1912,波罗的拟铃虫Tintinnopsis baltica Brandt,1896,长形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis elongata Daday,1887,盾形拟铃虫Tintinnopsis urnula Meunier,1910,弯叶拟铃虫Tintinnopsis lobiancoi Daday,1887,管状拟铃虫Tintinnopsis tubulosoides Meunier,1910,小拟铃虫Tintinnopsis minuta Wailes,1925,塔拉卡拟铃虫Favella taraikaensis Hada,1932,太平洋领细壳虫Stenosemella pacifica Kofoid et Campbell,1929和贪婪铃壳虫Codonella rapa Kofoid et Campbell,1929.

  17. GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF FIVE CILIATE STRAINS INFERRED FROM ISSR ANALYSIS%五株纤毛虫遗传关系的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文静; 余育和; 沈韫芬

    2005-01-01

    采用ISSR分子标记技术,尝试对四种五株纤毛虫(褶累枝虫(Epistylis plicatilis)、绿草履虫(Paramecium bursaria)、多态喇叭虫(Stentor polymorphus)、嗜热四膜虫BF1株(Tetrahymena thermophila BF1)和嗜热四膜虫BF5株(T.thermophila BF5))进行遗传关系研究.用13个ISSR引物对五株纤毛虫进行扩增,六个ISSR引物获得多态片段.根据Nei's遗传距离矩阵构建了五株纤毛虫的遗传关系树状图.UPGMA,NJ聚类图表明:两株嗜热四膜虫最先聚在一起;其次是褶累枝虫和多态喇叭虫聚在一起,然后再与嗜热四膜虫聚在一起;咽膜亚纲的绿草履虫形成独立的一枝.结果显示:①缘毛亚纲纤毛虫可能是寡膜纲中较独特的一个类群,建议提升缘毛亚纲纤毛虫的分类地位;②缘毛亚纲褶累枝虫与膜口亚纲嗜热四膜虫的亲缘关系近于咽膜亚纲绿草履虫,在寡膜纲中绿草履虫处于原始地位;③五株纤毛虫基因组中均含有微卫星DNA序列:(GTG)4、(GACA)4、(AG)8、(CAA)6和(GAA)6.

  18. Characterizing dose-responses of catalase to nitrofurazone exposure in model ciliated protozoan Euplotes vannus for ecotoxicity assessment: enzyme activity and mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqiu; Zhou, Liang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-02-01

    In environmental studies, some biological responses, known as biomarkers, have been used as a powerful bioassay tool for more than four decades. Disparity between enzyme activity and mRNA abundance leads to correlation equivocality, which makes the application of biomarkers for environmental risk assessment more complicated. This study investigates this disparity in the case of catalase when used as a biomarker for detecting ecotoxicity induced by antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, dose-responses for catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance were investigated in Euplotes vannus which were exposed to graded doses of nitrofurazone for several discrete durations, and dose-response models were developed to characterize the dose-response dynamics. Significant differences were found in both catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance among the E. vannus treated with nitrofurazone. Catalase activity showed a hormetic-like effect in terms of dose-response, characterized by a biphasic relationship which was more clearly evident after a longer exposure period, while mRNA expression abundance increased linearly with the exposure duration. Additionally, the correlation between catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance reversed along with the duration of exposure to nitrofurazone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that catalase mRNA expression offers a more straightforward dose-response model than enzyme activity. Our findings suggest that both catalase enzyme activity and mRNA expression abundance can be used jointly as bioassay tools for detecting ecotoxicity induced by nitrofurazone in aquatic ecosystems.

  19. PLANKTON CILIATES IN ABALONE CULTIVATION ENVIRONMENT%鲍养成阶段养殖环境中的浮游纤毛虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建荣; 白庆笙; 黄绍松; 祝铃; 徐润林

    2004-01-01

    在使用表层海水作养殖水的杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)养成池,整个养成阶段共检测到浮游纤毛虫33种,其中寡毛目(Oligotrichida)的种类最多,为14种.在一个使用沙井水作养殖水的杂色鲍养成池周年研究中,共观察到浮游纤毛虫24种.2类养成池的纤毛虫优势种都是尾丝虫(Uronema sp.)、钟虫(Vorticella sp.)和具沟急游虫(Strombidium sulcatum).虽然后者养殖用水为沙井水,但养殖密度较大,水体交换量稍低,养殖水体中有机质含量高,嗜污性纤毛虫得以大量繁殖,其密度较前者高一倍.在养殖用水取水海区--红海湾近岸表层海水中,共检测到浮游纤毛虫27种,其中砂壳亚目(Tintinnina)纤毛虫16种.受水环境中二氧化碳浓度变化影响,养成池与取水海区砂壳虫的种类组成和密度有较大区别.

  20. Observation on Variation Process of the Fall-color Leaf of Different Cultivars of Acer rubrum%美国红枫不同品种秋色叶变化过程的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕章; 赵振军; 王斌成; 陈红艳; 税玉成; 何玉枝

    2013-01-01

    以美国红枫改良品种系列中3个品种“秋红枫”(Autumn Flaze)、“十月光辉”(OctoberGlory)和“夕阳红”(Red Sunset)的容器苗为试材,采用同一视野定时拍照的方法,研究了秋季叶色变化过程.结果表明:“秋红枫”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月28日,共34 d,其中最佳观叶期为6d,秋叶变色期为27 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-橙红色-红色.“十月光辉”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月22日,共28 d,其中最佳观叶期为7d,秋叶变色期为21 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色.“夕阳红”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月26日,共32 d,其中最佳观叶期10 d,秋叶变色期为22 d,落叶期23 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色-橙红色.综上所述,“夕阳红”的观赏效果最好,其次是“十月光辉”和“秋红枫”.该研究结果为上述3个美国红枫品种的园林应用提供了实践依据.

  1. 巢式PCR诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌%Nested PCR in the diagnosis of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes infections in onychomycosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 童中胜; 万喆; 陈伟; 胡志敏; 李若瑜

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价巢式PCR诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的敏感性和特异性.方法:液氮冷冻甲标本,微量法提取DNA,应用特异性引物,巢式PCR方法扩增DNA.结果:36例直接镜检和培养均为阳性的甲标本,培养显示24例为红色毛癣菌,12例为须癣毛癣菌.巢式PCR中First PCR 34例阳性,34例标本均产生了650 bp目的片段;Nest PCR 32例阳性,32例中有22例标本产生了137 bp的片段,为红色毛癣菌;10例标本产生了102 bp的片段,为须癣毛癣菌.PCR敏感性为88.9%,特异性为100%.结论:巢式PCR是一种快速、特异和敏感的诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的方法.

  2. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora) on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias; Sthefane D'ávila; Marta D'Agosto

    2006-01-01

    This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two ...

  3. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    . membranacea larva. The velum carries two rows of ciliated cells, though the lower "row" consists of only one or two cells. Both rows of ciliated cells are innervated by nerves, which have not been detected in the M. membranacea larva. The ciliated ridge of H. malayensis lacks the frontal cilia...

  4. Environ: E00750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00750 Glochidion shaft Crude drug Glochidion rubrum [TAX:271533], Glochidion phili...ppicum [TAX:271531] Phyllanthaceae (leaf flower family) Glochidion rubrum, Glochidion philippicum shaft (mix...ed) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Phyllanthaceae (leaf flower family) E00750 Glochidion shaft ...

  5. Symbiotic Chlorella variabilis incubated under constant dark conditions for 24 hours loses the ability to avoid digestion by host lysosomal enzymes in digestive vacuoles of host ciliate Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Endosymbiosis between symbiotic Chlorella and alga-free Paramecium bursaria cells can be induced by mixing them. To establish the endosymbiosis, algae must acquire temporary resistance to the host lysosomal enzymes in the digestive vacuoles (DVs). When symbiotic algae isolated from the alga-bearing paramecia are kept under a constant dark conditions for 24 h before mixing with the alga-free paramecia, almost all algae are digested in the host DVs. To examine the cause of algal acquisition to the host lysosomal enzymes, the isolated algae were kept under a constant light conditions with or without a photosynthesis inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea for 24 h, and were mixed with alga-free paramecia. Unexpectedly, most of the algae were not digested in the DVs irrespective of the presence of the inhibitor. Addition of 1 mM maltose, a main photosynthetic product of the symbiotic algae or of a supernatant of the isolated algae kept for 24 h under a constant light conditions, did not rescue the algal digestion in the DVs. These observations reveal that unknown factors induced by light are a prerequisite for algal resistance to the host lysosomal enzymes.

  6. Influence of Corythucha ciliate hazards on photosynthesis of two types of Platanus acerifolia%方翅网蝽对两种类型悬铃木光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德斌; 刘桂华; 唐燕平; 杨春材; 张栋

    2011-01-01

    于2010年4-8月通过对两种不同类型悬铃木的叶片净光合速率、叶绿素含量和方翅网蝽危害程度进行了测定,并运用多元逐步回归和通径分析方法分析了光合作用与环境因子之间的相互关系.结果表明,虫口密度与叶绿素含量呈负相关关系,且不同类型悬铃木间叶绿素含量差异显著;方翅网蝽危害使叶绿素含量减少是影响光合作用的最直接和最重要的原因.生长季节各月所选典型天气下的Pn大小顺序表现为7月>8月>6月>5月>4月;其中4、5月悬铃木净光合速率(Pn)日变化呈现"单峰"曲线,经分析发现大气温度、光合有效辐射、气孔导度是影响Pn变化的主要因子;6-8月Pn日变化呈现"双峰"曲线,环境因子大气水汽压差、相对湿度和胞间CO2浓度成为主要影响因子.由此可见,悬铃木生长季节光合作用存在较大差异,同时各环境因子对光合作用的影响及影响程度也各不相同.%From April to August in 2010, the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of the net photosynthesis rate, the chlorophyll content and the degree of Corythucha ciliata hazards in two types of Platanus acerifolia were determined and the relationships between the dynamics and environmental factors were analyzed by the stepwise multiple regression and the path analysis. The results showed there was a negative relationship between the insect density and the chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll content was remarkably different between the two types of P. acerifolia. The reluction of chlorophyll content in the leaves resulted from C. ciliata hazards was the most directly and the most important reason for affecting the photosynthesis. The daily mean net photosynthesis rate (Pn) for each month was in the order of July > August > June > May > April.The diurnal change of Pn was a "one peak" curve in April and in May respectively, while it was a "two peaks" pattern in June to August. The dynamics of Pn was very sensitive to the air temperature, photosynthetic active radiation and stomatal conductance in April and May,and to vapor pressure deficit, relative humidity and Ci in June, July and August. It was suggested that there existed greater differences in the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of Pn in the growth period of Platanus acerifolia, and the effects of the environmental factors on Pn were different.

  7. Method to reduce the movement of the living ciliate Paramecium caudarum for observation%减缓草履虫虫体运动的活体观察方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仙玉; 黄幸; 章鑫炯; 周圻

    2008-01-01

    本文报告活体尾草履虫观察的体积定量法、矿物油封闭法和脱纤毛法.这三种方法均操作简单、快速、无污染、无干扰、无细胞丢失,观察活体草履虫的成功率几乎达100%,既适用于科学研究亦适用于高校和中学的生物学实验教学.

  8. New details indicated by different stainings during conjugation of ciliated protozoa Paramecium%不同染色方法揭示纤毛原生动物草履虫接合生殖过程的新细节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高欣; 杨仙玉; 朱嘉骏; 袁进强; 王逸雯; 宋敏国

    2011-01-01

    During conjugation of Paramecium caudatum,nuclear events occur in a scheduled program.Morphological studies on nuclear behavior during conjugation of P.caudatum have been performed since the end of the 19th century.Here we report on new details concerning the conjugation of P.caudatum through the staining of conjugating cells with protargol,carbol fuchsin solution,Hoechst 33342 and immunofluorescence labeling with monoclonal antibody of anti-α tubulin.1) The crescent nucleus is a characteristic of the meiotic prophase of P.caudatum,has an unstained area.We stained this area with protargol,which was separated from the chromatin area and was not detected by the other stainings.2) In regards to the four meiotic products,it has long been considered that only one product enters the paroral cone region (PC) and survives after meiosis.However,our protargol and immunofluorescence labeling results indicated that PC entrance of the meiotic product happened before the completion of meiosis instead of after.3) In our previous study,protargol staining indicated the presence of a swollen structure around the central part of the "U" and "V" shaped spindles connecting the two types of prospective pronuclei.However,immunofluorescence labeling with anti-α tubulin antibodies gave a different image from protargol.All these observations form the basis for further studies of their molecular mechanisms.%通过石炭酸品红、Hoechst 33342、蛋白银及免疫荧光标记等染色方法对草履虫接合生殖过程进行了重新观察,结果发现:1)新月核是第一次减数分裂前期小核的主要形态学特征,在核内有一未被石炭酸品红、Hoechst 33342着色区域,蛋白银染色则清楚显示该结构;2)4个单倍体减数分裂产物中的1个核进入口旁锥完成配前第三次核分裂,其余3核退化.蛋白银染色和抗α微管蛋白单克隆抗体进行免疫荧光标记显示,核进入口旁锥的时期在第二次减数分裂末期而非减数分裂结束后;3)配前第三次分裂末期,核间连丝的中间段有一被蛋白银识别的结构,但免疫荧光标记却无显示,只表现为纤维状结构与两侧核间连丝相连.观察结果为草履虫接合生殖过程中相关分子生物学机制研究奠定了必要的形态学基础.

  9. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the highly expressed ribosomal protein l3 of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. Evidence for differential codon usage in highly expressed genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L K; Andreasen, P H; Dreisig, H

    1999-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized the cDNA and the macronuclear genomic copy of the highly conserved ribosomal protein (r-protein) L3 of Tetrahymena thermophila. The r-protein L3 is encoded by a single copy gene interrupted by one intron. The organization of the promoter region exhibits features...

  10. 一种淡水缘毛类纤毛虫——沟钟虫的形态学研究%MORPHOLOGY OF A FRESHWATER PERITRICHOUS CILIATE,VORTICELLA CONVALLARIA (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA,PERITRICHIDA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施心路; 王文敬; 刘桂杰; 彭晓辉

    2007-01-01

    利用活体观察及蛋白银染色技术对一淡水缘毛目纤毛虫--沟钟虫(Vorticella convallaria)的形态学和表膜下纤维系进行了研究.结果表明:沟钟虫的活体个员自然伸展时外形较稳定,并呈明显的倒置钟状,长宽约为50-85μm×40-75μm;口围缘完全外展时为虫体最宽处;伸缩泡一个,较大,位于口围唇下方及口前庭的左侧.胞质均匀而透明,无脂肪滴存在,游泳体呈圆柱形.细胞表面横纹从口围唇到反口纤毛环为74-78条,自反口纤毛环到帚胚为18-24条.大核呈大幅度盘绕的长肠状,两端高度弯曲,纵贯于细胞内.蛋白银制片后表膜下纤维系特征为:虫体纵向纤维稀疏而粗壮,37-42条,似灯笼状;口围盘纤维呈典型的倾斜态分布,并呈放射状排列.第三咽膜(P3)在近口末端处呈明显的分离态,可视为该物种重要的分类学依据.

  11. Analysis on Serious Occurrence Reason and Sustainable Control Strategies of Corythucha ciliate in Taian City%泰安市悬铃木方翅网蝽重发原因分析及可持续控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐加利; 燕玉圳; 尹红增

    2013-01-01

    悬铃木方翅网蝽是一种检疫性有害生物,目前已发展成危害泰安市悬铃木等园林植物的常发性害虫.本文介绍了近年来悬铃木方翅网蝽在泰安的发生危害情况,分析了其偏重发生的原因,并提出了可持续控制对策.

  12. 三种锦纶织物对红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的生长抑制效应观察%Experimental study on antifungal activity of three polyamide textiles against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠让松; 杨雪琴; 万哲

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究三种抗真菌处理后的锦纶织物对红色毛癣菌,须癣毛癣菌生长的抑制效应,以及洗涤次数对其抗真菌作用的影响.方法 制备红色毛癣菌、须癣毛癣菌的菌悬液,分别接种于洗涤1、15、30、50次的空白锦纶织物、载银1.8%锦纶织物、载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物以及作为对照的纯棉织物,并紧贴在马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂培养基表面培养,每12h观察并记录菌落形态及大小.结果 洗涤1、15、30、50次的空白锦纶织物布样上红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌菌落生长情况与棉布对照组相近.载银1.8%锦纶织物洗涤1次及15次布样上菌落直径在120h内均明显小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),洗涤30及50次布样上须癣毛癣菌菌落直径在:120h内与棉布对照组相近,洗涤30次布样上红色毛癣菌菌落直径在96h内小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),此后与棉布对照组相近(P>0.05).载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物洗涤1次的布样对两种癣菌生长的抑制作用最为明显,洗涤15次后有所降低,但两种癣菌在120h内菌落直径均小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),洗涤30次布样上红色毛癣菌菌落直径在84h内小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),之后与棉布对照组相近(P>0.05),洗涤30及50次布样上须癣毛癣菌的生长与棉布对照组相近.结论 载银1.8%锦纶织物、载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物均可显著抑制红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的生长,且具有一定的耐洗涤性,洗涤15次后仍有明显抑菌作用.

  13. Deformation of a micro-torque swimmer

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Imai, Yohsuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Daiki

    2016-01-01

    The membrane tension of some kinds of ciliates has been suggested to regulate upward and downward swimming velocities under gravity. Despite its biological importance, deformation and membrane tension of a ciliate have not been clarified fully. In this study, we numerically investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modelled as a capsule with a hyperelastic membrane enclosing a Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary bea...

  14. Biological and chemical data determined in mesocosm experiments by Dauphin Island Sea Lab in June and August of 2011 (NODC Accession 0118680)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abundances of viruses, prokaryotes, diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates were determined over time in mesocosm experiments measuring...

  15. Environ: E00541 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00541 Mica mineral clay Halloysitum rubrum Crude drug Kaolinite, Iron(III) oxide, ...inite, containing a large amount of iron(III) oxide Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals E00541 Mica mineral clay ...

  16. Two-dimensional self-organization of the light-harvesting polypeptides/BChl a complex into a thermostable liposomal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, K; Kiriyama, H; Fukai, A; Konings, WN; Nango, M

    2001-01-01

    The detergent-isolated light-harvesting polypeptide (LR)/bacteriochlorophyll alpha (BChl alpha) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was organized in thermostable liposomal membranes comprising membrane-spanning tetraether lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius to develop a

  17. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  18. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  19. Habitat constraints and self-thinning shape Mediterranean red coral deep population structure: implications for conservation practice

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Cau; Lorenzo Bramanti; Rita Cannas; Maria Cristina Follesa; Michela Angiolillo; Simonepietro Canese; Marzia Bo; Danila Cuccu; Katell Guizien

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, is one of the most precious corals worldwide. Below 50 m depth, C. rubrum populations are generally characterised by large and sparse colonies, whereas shallow populations (above 50 m depth) show high densities of small colonies. We show here instead that populations dwelling between 80 and 170 m depth exhibited a continuous range of population density (from 2 to 75 colonies per 0.25 m 2), with less than 1% of variance exp...

  20. [Effects of hypomagnetic fields on motility of the cilia of ependymal cells in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandodze, V Ia; Svanidze, I K; Didimova, E V

    1995-01-01

    The effect of reduced vertical component of geomagnetic field on motor activity of ciliate apparatus of ependymal cells in newborn rats in vivo has been studied. In has been shown that hypomagnetic field causes the inhibitory effect on the activity of ciliate apparatus up to absolute stoppage.

  1. Spatiotemporal distribution of protozooplankton and copepod nauplii in relation to the occurrence of giant jellyfish in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33°N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 μg C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 μg C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 μg C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 μg C/(L·d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.

  2. Antifungal property of quaternized chitosan and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond; Saesoo, Somsak; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai

    2012-01-01

    Five water-soluble chitosan derivatives were carried out by quaternizing either iodomethane or N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (Quat188) as a quaternizing agent under basic condition. The degree of quaternization (DQ) ranged between 28±2% and 90±2%. The antifungal activity was evaluated by using disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) methods against Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Trichophyton mentagrophyte (T. mentagrophyte), and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) at pH 7.2. All quaternized chitosans and its derivatives showed more effective against T. rubrum than M. gypseum and T. mentagrophyte. The MIC and MFC values were found to range between 125-1000 μg/mL and 500-4000 μg/mL, respectively against all fungi. Our results indicated that the quaternized N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan chloride showed highest antifungal activity against T. rubrum and M. gypseum compared to other quaternized chitosan derivatives. The antifungal activity tended to increase with an increase in molecular weight, degree of quaternization and hydrophobic moiety against T. rubrum. However, the antifungal activity was depended on type of fungal as well as chemical structure of the quaternized chitosan derivatives.

  3. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  4. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  5. Population growth performance and productivity of ciliated protozoa community under two different industrialized grouper larval rearing systems%石斑鱼工厂化育苗水体浮游原生动物种群增长与生产量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珺; 陈国华; 林彬; 黄宗文; 王永波; 郭仁湘; 杨薇

    2011-01-01

    An in situ experiment was conducted to study the population growth performance and productivity of protozoa community under two different industrialized grouper larval rearing systems. In the bacteria-added group, 13 new species of protozoa were recorded. and the total population density and the total biomass of protozoa community were 87. 3×103 ind . L-1 and 502. 9 mg · m-3; in the microalgae-added group, there were 9 new species derived, and the total population density and the total biomass of protozoa community were 60. 8 × 103 ind · L-1 and 70. 3 mg · m-3 , respectively. For these two groups, Phyllomitus sp. , Strobilidium gyrans , and Oxytricha sp. were the dominant species. The species with relatively high population growth rate in the bacteria-added group were Strombidinopsis sp. ( 0. 0578 ) , Halteria sp. ( 0. 0493 ) , Cyclidium litomesum (0. 0405 ) , Actinophrys sp. (0. 0383 ) , and Mesodimium sp. (0. 0373 ) , and those in the microalgae-added group were Lacrymaria sp. (0. 0153 ) , Strobilidium gyrans (0. 0144) , Strombidium sp. (0. 0117) and Phyllomitus sp. (0. 0100). The total protozoa community productivity varied with rearing-system, being 10. 232 mg · m-3 · h-1 in bacteria-added group and 1. 22 mg · m-3 · h-1 in microalgae-added group. In bacteria-added group, Euplotes eurystoma , Strobilidium gyrans, Amoeba sp. , and Oxytricha sp. had higher productivity than other species; and in microalgae-added group, the species with relatively higher productivity were Actinophrys sp. , Strobilidium gyrans , Phyllomitus sp. , and Mesodimium sp. Overall, the ponds with bacteria added had more abundant diversity, higher biomass, and population growth rate of protozoa community than the ponds with microalgae added, and hence, the water culturing regime with bacteria added could attain more live preys during the mouth-opening period of grouper fry. In the cultured water, some species had high population growth rate, but their biomass was not large. The density of these species in breeding ponds was controlled by large zooplanktons, indicating that these plankton species probably played an important role in the balance of artificial ecosystem in the cultured water.%设计二种石斑鱼工厂化育苗方法,测定水体的浮游原生动物种类组成、生物量,采用原位测定法研究水体原生动物的种群增长和生产量.结果表明:加菌组出现原生动物13种,总密度87.3×1023ind·L-1,总生物量502.9 mg·m-3,生物量较大的种类有阔口游仆虫(Euplotes eurystoma)、叶鞭虫(Phyllomitus sp.)、旋回侠盗虫(Strobilidium gyrans)、尖毛虫(Oxytricha sp.)等;加藻组出现原生动物9种,总密度60.8×103ind·L-1,总生物量70.3 mg·m-3,生物量较大的种类有尖毛虫、旋回侠盗虫、叶鞭虫等.加菌组种群增长率较高的种类有拟急游虫(Strombidinopsis sp.)0.0578、弹跳虫(Halteria sp.)0.0493、周毛虫(Cyclidium litomesum)0.0405、太阳虫(Actinophrys sp.)0.0383、中缢虫(Mesodimium sp.)0.0373;加藻组种群率增长较高的种类有匕口虫(Lacrymaria sp.)0.0153、旋回侠盗虫0.0144、急游虫(Strombidium sp.)0.0117、叶鞭虫0.0100.加菌组原生动物群落总生产量10.232 mg·m-3·h-1,生产量较高的种类有阔口游仆虫6.543、旋回侠盗虫0.992、变形虫(Amoeba sp.)0.462、尖毛虫0.413 mg·m-3·h-1;加藻组原生动物总生产量1.22mg·m-3·h-1,生产量较高的种类有太阳虫0.437、旋回侠盗虫0.350、叶鞭虫0.194、中缢虫0.159 mg·m-3·h-1.分析认为,加菌组原生动物种类更丰富、生物量较大,相同种类的种群增长率也较高,表明加菌的方法进行石斑鱼育苗能为石斑鱼仔鱼提供更丰富的开口期饵料.育苗水体中,一些种类的种群增长率较高,但生物量并不大,这些种类在育苗池中的密度被大型浮游动物所控制,暗示着这些种类在育苗人工生态系统的物质循环中具有重要的作用.

  6. 三亚珊瑚礁水域纤毛虫种类组成和数量分布及与环境因子的关系%The relationships between ciliate composition,abundance,and environmental factors in Sanya Bay coral reef waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭烨辉; 黄良民; 黄小平; 苏强; 时翔; 黄建荣

    2010-01-01

    2004年8月通过对二亚珊瑚礁水域纤毛虫进行表、底层采集分析,共鉴定6纲14目33属58种浮游纤毛虫,其中旋毛纲41种,叶13纲6种,寡膜纲5种,叶咽纲4种,前口纲和伪纤毛纲各1种.在14个目中,以旋毛纲环毛亚纲砂壳目纤中毛虫种类最多,达到31种.主要优势种为布氏拟铃虫Tintinnopsis batschlii、小拟铃虫Tintinnopsis minuta、丁丁急游虫Strombidium tintinnodes 和具沟急游虫Strombidium sulcatum等,底层纤毛虫数量和种类都较表层高,底、表层平均丰度分别为375个/L和346个/L,表、底层纤毛虫种类差异明显,表层主要由浮游纤毛虫组成,以旋毛纲环毛亚纲砂壳目纤毛虫为主,急游目纤毛虫次之;而底层主要由缘毛目组成,如长圆靴纤虫Cothurnia oblonga、透明鞘居虫Vaginicola crystalline、钟虫Vorticella sp.以及吸管日的壳吸管虫Acineta sp.等.结果显示,在活珊瑚覆盖率高的站位(S4,S7和S9)纤毛虫数量明显低于珊瑚覆盖率低或没有珊瑚覆盖的站位,这暗示了珊瑚对纤毛虫的摄食作用.典型对应分析结果表明,影响三业湾海域纤毛虫分布的主要因素有Chla、颗粒悬浮物SS和活性磷,以及水体溶解有机碳含量.通过对纤毛虫数量与环境因子关系的分析表明,三亚湾珊瑚礁水域纤毛虫的数量与叶绿素呈明显的正相关性.

  7. 兰州市雁儿湾污水处理厂活性污泥中纤毛虫春季群落特征%Studies on community structure of ciliates from activated sludge in Yanerwan sewage plant in spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢云中; 宁应之; 马正学; 刘智峰

    2007-01-01

    从2006年2月至2006年4月,对兰州市雁儿湾污水处理厂曝气池活性污泥中的纤毛虫群落进行了调查研究.共记录到纤毛虫57种,隶属于11目21科27属.缘毛目为优势类群.其中优势种为:小口钟虫(Vorticella microstoma)、沟钟虫(Vorticella convallaria)、八钟虫(Vorticella octava)、卑怯管叶虫(Trachelophyllum pusillum)、彩盖虫(Opercularia phryganeae)、有肋楯纤虫(Aspidisca costata)、片状漫游虫(Litonotus fasciola).同时记录到10种常见种.与两对照样点相比较,活性污泥中纤毛虫种类数、丰度都大于两对照样点.结果表明,缘毛目优势种可以作为污水处理效果的指示生物.

  8. 小球藻绿钟虫--中国东北淡水生缘毛类纤毛虫的形态学重述%Morphological redescription of a peritrichous ciliate Vorticella chlorellata(Stiller,1940)(Protozoa:Ciliophora:Peritrichida) from Harbin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文敬; 施心路; 胡晓钟

    2004-01-01

    The morphology, infraciliature and myonemic system of Vorticella chlorellata (Stiller, 1940), collected from a eutrophic freshwater pond near Harbin, China, was studied using living and protargol-impregnated specimens. No recent data derived from silver impregnation on this species are available, and an emended diagnosis and description of it are provided. Freshwater Vorticella, zooid in vivo 53- 63 × 41 -62 μm, stout in shape; cell conspicuously green-colored with symbiotic green algae; one macronucleus "J" -shape, but rather curved in both end. The number of transverse striations from peristomial area to aboral ciliary wreath was 33- 36, from aboral ciliary wreath (ACW) to scopula, 15 - 18.The adstomal end of peniculus 3 is rather dispersed. Peristomial disc fibers are conspicuously oblique radiate assignment,with dichotomous end in each fiber. Through the study of characteristics of the green Vorticella species, we found there still existed some confusions and believed it was wrong to identify V. chlorellata with Vorticella chlorostigma in many descriptions. The green species redescribed in this paper was V. chlorellata, but not V. chlorostigma [ Acta ZoologicaSinica 50 (5): 817-822, 2004].%小球藻绿钟虫(Vorticella chlorellata Stiller,1940)采自哈尔滨附近水域.本文在活体观察基础上,利用蛋白银染色技术对其形态学进行了研究,给出了该种染色后的特征.小球藻绿钟虫因其细胞内充满共生小球藻呈鲜绿色而得名.该种自然伸展时呈稳定的矮钟状,体长53-63×41-62 μm;大核"J"型,两端明显盘绕,纵贯于体内.细胞表面具横纹,蛋白银制片后可见从口围唇到反口纤毛环之间有33-36条纹,从反口纤毛环到帚胚有条纹15-18条;第三咽膜(P3)由三列毛基列组成,最内侧一列长度仅是另外两列的一半,并显著分离;口围盘纤维斜向并呈轮辐式放射状排列,纤维末端分叉.通过对本文描述的绿色钟虫一小球藻绿钟虫的研究,发现对绿色钟虫的描述与归属问题仍存在一些混淆.本文认同将小球藻绿钟虫与绿钟虫严格分立的观点[动物学报50(5):817 822,2004].

  9. Feeding selectivity of Calanus finmarchicus in the Trondheimsfjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiknes, Øystein; Striberny, Anja; Tokle, Nils Egil; Olsen, Yngvar; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The feeding selectivity of Calanus finmarchicus was studied by carrying out three incubation experiments; two experiments with natural seawater sampled during spring bloom (Exp. 1) and post-bloom conditions (Exp. 2) and a third experiment with cultured dinoflagellates and ciliates (Exp. 3). In the first two experiments a gradient in ciliate concentration was created to investigate the potential for prey density dependent selective feeding of C. finmarchicus. Results of microplankton counts indicated C. finmarchicus to be omnivorous. Diatoms contributed chiefly to the diet during spring bloom conditions. Despite the high microphytoplankton biomass during the spring bloom (Exp. 1), ciliates were selected positively by C. finmarchicus when the ciliate biomass exceeded 6.5 μg C L- 1. A selection in favor of large conic ciliates such as Laboea sp. and Strombidium conicum was indicated by positive selectivity indices. Ciliates were throughout positively selected by C. finmarchicus during Exp. 2, and selectivity indices indicated a negative selection of diatoms. The results from Exp. 3 showed that C. finmarchicus has the ability to switch from dinoflagellates to ciliates as sole food source, even if the dinoflagellate was offered in surplus. This suggests that other factors, such as nutrition may be of significance for the feeding selectivity of C. finmarchicus.

  10. Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Terrence L; Small, Hamish J; Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Gibbs, David A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of an unidentified ciliate have occurred on several occasions in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay held during winter months in flow-through systems. The parasite was initially thought to be Mesanophrys chesapeakensis, but molecular analysis identified it as Orchitophyra stellarum, a facultative parasite of sea stars (Asteroidea). We investigated the host-parasite association of O. stellarum in the blue crab host. Crabs were inoculated with the ciliate, or they were held in bath exposures after experimentally induced autotomy of limbs in order to determine potential mechanisms for infection. Crabs inoculated with the ciliate, or exposed to it after experimental autotomy, rapidly developed fatal infections. Crabs that were not experimentally injured, but were exposed to the ciliate, rarely developed infections; thus, indicating that the parasite requires a wound or break in the cuticle as a portal of entry. For comparative purposes, fiddler crabs, Uca minax, were inoculated with the ciliate in a dose-titration experiment. Low doses of the ciliate (10 per crab) were sometimes able to establish infections, but high intensity infections developed quickly at doses over 500 ciliates per crab. Chemotaxis studies were initiated to determine if the ciliate preferentially selected blue crab serum (BCS) over other nutrient sources. Cultures grown on medium with BCS or fetal bovine serum showed some conditioning in their selection for different media, but the outcome in choice experiments indicated that the ciliate was attracted to BCS and not seawater. Our findings indicate that O. stellarum is a facultative parasite of blue crabs. It can cause infections in exposed crabs at 10-15°C, but it requires a portal of entry for successful host invasion, and it may find injured hosts using chemotaxis.

  11. Comparison of human nasal epithelial cells grown as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Meng, Na; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Luo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cell growth characteristics, ciliated cell differentiation, and function of human nasal epithelial cells established as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures. Human nasal mucosa of the uncinate process was obtained by endoscopy and epithelial cell cultures were established by explant outgrowth or dissociated tissue culture methods. Epithelial cell growth characteristics were observed by inverted phase contrast microscopy. Ciliated cell differentiation was detected by β-tubulin IVand ZO-1 immunocytochemistry. Basal and ATP-stimulated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using a highspeed digital microscopic imaging system. Both the explant and dissociated tissue cultures established as monolayers with tight junctions and differentiated cell composition, with both types of cultures comprising ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells. Fibroblasts were also frequently found in explant cultures but rarely seen in dissociated tissue cultures. In both culture systems, the highest ciliated cell density appeared at 7th-10th culture day and declined with time, with the lifespan of ciliated cells ranging from 14 to 21 days. Overall, 10% of the cells in explant cultures and 20% of the cells in the dissociated tissue cultures were ciliated. These two cultures demonstrated similar ciliary beat frequency values at baseline (7.78 ± 1.99 Hz and 7.91 ± 2.52 Hz, respectively) and reacted equivalently following stimulation with 100 μM ATP. The results of this study indicate that both the explant outgrowth and dissociated tissue culture techniques are suitable for growing well-differentiated nasal ciliated and non-ciliated cells, which have growth characteristics and ciliary activity similar to those of nasal epithelial cells in vivo.

  12. Toxin production in Dinophysis and the fate of these toxins in marine mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) poses a considerable threat to food safety and to the economy of shellfish fishers and farmers in many parts of the world. Thousands of DSP intoxications have been reported, and bivalve harvesting can sometimes be closed down several months in a row. The toxins...... showed that the bivalve (Mytilus edulis) retained the toxins very efficiently, and exceeded the regulatory limit for OA equivalents within only a few hours of feeding. Accumulation continued linearly with time for the entire one-week study period, eventually causing mussels to be highly toxic....... The mussels transformed all three toxins (OA, DTX-1b and PTX-2) to acyl esters and/or seco acids, and half-life retention time of each toxin was determined. Finally, a review of cellular organisation and plastid retention in Mesodinium spp. and Dinophysis spp. is provided. In addition to the interest...

  13. Growth and grazing on the 'Texas brown tide' alga Aureoumbra lagunensis by the tintinnid Amphorides quadrilineata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hyatt, C.; Buskey, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Growth and ingestion by the loricate ciliate Amphorides quadrilineata exposed to increasing dietary doses of the Texas brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis were investigated. The ciliate grew at a maximum rate of 0.38 d(-1), ingesting 0.032 ppm (similar to6.4 x 10(2) cells) prey d(-1) on a diet....... lagunensis by increasing the turning rate per unit time. This study suggests that efficient top-down control of A. lagunensis by heterotrophic protozoans such as the studied ciliate may not happen as long as phytoplankton organisms other than A. lagunensis make up a minor part of the standing phytoplankton...

  14. Red coral extinction risk enhanced by ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrano, Carlo; Cardini, Ulisse; Bianchelli, Silvia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The red coral Corallium rubrum is a habitat-forming species with a prominent and structural role in mesophotic habitats, which sustains biodiversity hotspots. This precious coral is threatened by both over-exploitation and temperature driven mass mortality events. We report here that biocalcification, growth rates and polyps' (feeding) activity of Corallium rubrum are significantly reduced at pCO2 scenarios predicted for the end of this century (0.2 pH decrease). Since C. rubrum is a long-living species (>200 years), our results suggest that ocean acidification predicted for 2100 will significantly increases the risk of extinction of present populations. Given the functional role of these corals in the mesophotic zone, we predict that ocean acidification might have cascading effects on the functioning of these habitats worldwide.

  15. Non-invasive sources of cells with primary cilia from pediatric and adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajzenberg, H.; Slaats, G.G.; Stokman, M.F.; Arts, H.H.; Logister, I.; Kroes, H.Y.; Renkema, K.Y.; Haelst, M.M. van; Terhal, P.A.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Knoers, N.V.; Lilien, M.R.; Jewett, M.A.; Giles, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ciliopathies give rise to a multitude of organ-specific pathologies; obtaining relevant primary patient material is useful for both diagnostics and research. However, acquisition of primary ciliated cells from patients, particularly pediatric patients, presents multiple difficulties. Bio

  16. Ultrastructural studies of the transitional zone in the nasopharyngeal epithelium, with special reference to the keratinizing process in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T

    1986-01-01

    In the nasopharynx of the SMA mouse, the 'intermediate epithelium' occupies the transitional zone between the ciliated columnar and the stratified squamous epithelia. The intermediate epithelium showed gradations ranging from ciliated stratified low-columnar through stratified cuboidal to stratified squamous type. It is suggested that the intermediate epithelium shows the various stages of the epithelium transforming from the ciliated columnar to the stratified squamous epithelium, and that the basal cells of the ciliated columnar epithelium serve as the germinal layer for the transformation. The intermediate epithelium containing a few keratohyalin granules and many membrane-coating granules represented earlier stages of keratinization. The width of the microprojections in the stratified squamous epithelium was about doubled compared to that in the intermediate epithelium. It is suggested that the difference in width is caused by cell membrane distortion associated with keratinization and is regarded as an important marker of the start of keratinization.

  17. Hydrographic and productivity characteristics along 45 degrees E longitude in the southwestern Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean during austral summer 2004

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jasmine, P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Madhu, N.V.; AshaDevi, C.R.; Alagarsamy, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Jayan, Z.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Sahayak, S.

    loop within STZ, STFZ and SAZ and the multivorous food web ecology within the PFZ. Dominance of ciliates in the microzooplankton community may be one factor resulting in the maintenance of a high mesozooplankton standing stock in SAZ. In contrast...

  18. Intersite epibiosis characterization on dominant mangrove crustacean species from Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Hanamura, Y.; Siow, R.; Chee, P.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Epibiosis was studied in dominant mangrove crustacean species in several areas in Malaysia. The observed basibionts were the crustaceans Mesopodopsis orientalis, Acetes japonicus, Acetes sibogae, Acetes indicus and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and the epibionts found were the protozoan ciliates Acinet

  19. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  20. Occurrence of scuticociliatosis in the flounder Paralichthys adspersus caused by Miamiensis avidus, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scuticociliatosis, a disease caused by ciliates from the order Scuticociliatida characterized by their high potential to invade the host, is a serious problem in marine aquaculture. This paper describes scuticociliatosis infection in farmed flounder Paralichthys adspersus. External and internal signs of infection include necrotic areas in the tegument, abundant mucus, swelling of the visceral cavity with ascitic fluid accumulation, necrotic muscle fibers and brain liquefaction, among others. The ciliate parasite was molecularly identified and characterized as M. avidus, using sequences of mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI, and nuclear genes β-tubulin and the region of the small subunit 18S rRNA, showing synonymy with P. dicentrarchi . All lesions were infested by ciliates. Histologically, ciliates are detected in almost all tissues being the brain the organ more parasitized. The infected specimens associated with secondary bacterial infections, predominantly Vibrio alginolyticus, died after a lethargy period.

  1. Balantidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Balantidium coli, the larg- est protozoan parasite and the only ciliate parasite known to infect humans. Malmsten first described the organism in 1857...been reported in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and northern Rus- sia.2 This ciliate parasite inhabits a variety of hosts, espe- cially primates.3 Humans are...colon demonstrating kidney -shaped macronucleus. x380 and right, the tiny micronucleus (arrow) adjacent to the macronucleus. BH x835 Figure15.4

  2. alpha-Tubulin of Histriculus cavicola (Ciliophora; Hypotrichea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, P; Villalobo, E; Díaz-Ramos, C; Calvo, P; Santos-Rosa, F; Torres, A

    1997-03-01

    An alpha-tubulin gene fragment amplified by PCR from the hypotrichous ciliate Histriculus cavicola has been sequenced. This fragment, 1,182 bp long, contains an in-frame "stop" codon (UAA), which in other hypotrichous species codes for a glutamine residue. The comparison of the alpha-tubulin genes from several ciliates classes have revealed amino acid positions which could serve to distinguish these taxonomic groups.

  3. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  4. Medical Modeling of Particle Size Effects for CB Inhalation Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tracheobronchial (TB) region • Larynx to the terminal bronchioles • Ciliated epithelium , mucous-secreting Pulmonary (P) region • Respiratory bronchioles to the...terminal alveoli • Gas-exchange epithelium , non-ciliated ET TB P Figure 3.1. The respiratory tract may be divided into three anatomical-functional...are painful, swollen, and may rupture and ulcerate. The ulcer may last from 1 week to several months. With glandular presentation, there is no

  5. Porpostoma guamensis n. sp., a philasterine scuticociliate associated with brown-band disease of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, Christopher S; Raymundo, Laurie M; Montagnes, David J S

    2011-01-01

    Brown band disease of coral is caused by a ciliate that consumes the tissue of the corals in the genus Acropora. We describe the ciliate associated with this disease on Guam, based on: general morphology, division stages, and ciliature observed on live and protargol-stained specimens; modification of the oral structures between divisional stages, observed on protargol-stained specimens; and some aspects of behavior in field and laboratory studies. Porpostoma guamensis n. sp. is elongate and has ciliature typical for the genus; live cells are 70-500 × 20-75 μm; the macronucleus is sausage-like, elongate but often bent, positioned centrally along the main cell axis; the oral ciliature follows a basic pattern, being composed of three adoral polykinetidal regions, as described for other species in the genus, although there is variability in the organization, especially in large cells where the three regions are not easily distinguished. Ciliates fed on coral with their oral region adjacent to the tissue, which they engulfed, leaving the coral a bare skeleton. Both zooxanthellae and nematocysts from coral occurred in the ciliates. Zooxanthellae appeared to be ingested alive but deteriorated within 2-3 days. Ciliates formed thin-walled division cysts on the coral and divided up to 3 times. Cysts formed around daughter cells within cysts. We provide some observations on the complex division pattern of the ciliate (i.e. tomont-trophont-cyst) and propose a possible complete pattern that requires further validation.

  6. Cilia walls influence on peristaltically induced motion of magneto-fluid through a porous medium at moderate Reynolds number: Numerical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Abo-Elkhair

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses, effects of a magneto-fluid through a Darcy flow model with oscillatory wavy walled whose inner surface is ciliated. The equations that governing the flow are modeled without using any approximations. Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM is used to evaluate the solution of our system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Stream function, velocity and pressure gradient components are obtained by using the vorticity formula. The effects for our arbitrary physical parameters on flow characteristics are analyzed by plotting diagrams and discussed in details. With the help of stream lines the trapping mechanism has also been discussed. The major outcomes for the ciliated channel walls are: The axial velocity is higher without a ciliated walls than that for a ciliated walls and an opposite behaviour is shown near the ciliated channel walls. The pressure gradients in both directions are higher for a ciliated channel walls. More numbers of the trapped bolus in the absent of the eccentricity of the cilia elliptic path.

  7. Comparison of microfauna communities in full scale subsurface flow constructed wetlands used as secondary and tertiary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigagut, Jaume; Salvadó, Humbert; García, David; Granes, Francesc; García, Joan

    2007-04-01

    In order to evaluate the microfauna composition and distribution in two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands used as secondary and tertiary treatment a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was monitored during five months. Results indicate that total microfauna abundance in the wetland treating primary influents is around five times higher than that found in the wetland treating secondary influents. Ciliated protozoa and microflagellates are the most important microfauna groups in both wetlands; microflagellates in terms of abundance and ciliates in terms of biomass. The most abundant ciliate species in the wetland treating primary influents are polysaprobic organisms as Dexiostoma campylum, Trimyema compressum, and to a lesser extend Metopus spp. On the other hand, the most important ciliate species found in the wetland treating secondary influents are mainly aerobic ciliates as Vorticella comvallaria-complex, Aspidisca cicada, Litonotus lamella and some ciliates belonging to the group of the scuticociliates and Hypotrichidae. The sort of the organic matter treated (particulated or dissolved) is at least as important as the amount of it in order to explain microfauna dynamics in constructed wetlands.

  8. Involvement of protozoa in anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2007-12-01

    It is only very rarely recognised in literature that anaerobic reactors may contain protozoa in addition to various bacterial and archeal groups. The role of protozoa in anaerobic degradation was studied in anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch tests. Anaerobic protozoa, especially the ciliated protozoa, have direct influence on the performance of CSTR at all organic loading rates (1-2g CODl(-1)d(-1)) and retention times (5-10 days). The studies revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is strongly correlated to ciliate density in CSTR fed with oleate (suspended COD) and acetate (soluble COD). There was no significant difference in COD removal between reactors fed suspended COD and those fed soluble COD. However, the diversity and number of ciliates is greater in CSTR fed with particulate feed. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) representing biomass was significantly lower (16-34%) in CSTR with protozoa. In batch tests, increased COD removal and methane production was observed in sludge having ciliates as compared with sludge without protozoa. Methane production increased linearly with number of ciliates (R(2)=0.96) in batch tests with protozoa. Direct utilization of COD by flagellates and ciliates was observed in bacteria-suppressed cultures. The technological importance of these results is that reactors with protozoa-rich sludge can enhance the rate of mineralization of complex wastewater, especially wastewater containing particulate COD.

  9. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Mass transfer/kinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}0 {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25{degree} and 30{degree}C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30{degree}, 32{degree} or 34{degree}C. The rate of conversion of COs and H{sub 2}O to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30{degree}C was found to be 0.243 h{sup {minus}1}. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: {mu} = {sub 351} + I{sub o}/{sup 0.152}I{sub o}. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  10. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  11. Dicarboxylic acids affect the growth of dermatophytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, J; Friege, B

    1994-09-01

    Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with known antimycotic activity. In this study we have used an agar dilution technique to test the effect of six other dicarboxylic acids (sebacic, undecanedioic, dodecanedioic, tridecanedioic, tetradecanedioic and hexadecanedioic acid, 10(-4)-10(-2) mol/l, pH 5.5) on in vitro growth of Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum (M.) canis. Furthermore, the fungicidal activity of 10(-2) mol/l undecanedioic and sebacic acid was tested using a T. rubrum growth assay. Undecanedioic acid proved fungistatic at 10(-2) mol/l for all species and fungicidal for T. rubrum. A minor fungistatic effect on T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes was also seen with the other acids at this concentration. M. canis was inhibited only by high concentrations of four acids, whereas low concentrations of all six agents resulted in enlarged thallus diameters. We conclude that among dicarboxylic acids fungistatic activity is not limited to azelaic acid. Undecanedioic acid appears promising for further investigations.

  12. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed hardwoo

  13. Secondary metabolites from Eurotium species, Aspergillus calidoustus and A. insuetus common in Canadian homes with a review of their chemistry and biological activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slack, G. J.; Puniani, E.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. T...

  14. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  15. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NB Dhayanithi; TT Ajith Kumar; M Kalaiselvam; T Balasubramanian; N Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge,Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods: The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophytonmentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results: The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 μg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 μg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 μg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion: Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  17. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    oak Quercus alba Willow oak Quercus phellos Osage orange Maclura pomifera Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Loblolly pine Pinus...Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua Pignut hickory Carya glabra Shagbark hickory Ca,’ya ovata Holly h1ex opaca Black locust Acer rubrum Black oak Quercus

  18. Isolation and Identification of a New Antifungal Sesquiterpene Lactone from Inula viscosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, M; Kashman, Y; Neeman, I

    1999-04-01

    A new sesquiterpene - tayunin - has been isolated and purified from powdered leaves of INULA VISCOSA (L.) Ait. The chemical structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and IR and MS. Tayunin inhibits the growth of MICROSPORUM CANIS at a concentration of 10 microg/ml and TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM at 50 microg/ml(MIC).

  19. Calvin cycle mutants of photoheterotrophic purple nonsulfur bacteria fail to grow due to an electron imbalance rather than toxic metabolite accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina C; McKinlay, James B

    2014-03-01

    Purple nonsulfur bacteria grow photoheterotrophically by using light for energy and organic compounds for carbon and electrons. Disrupting the activity of the CO2-fixing Calvin cycle enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO), prevents photoheterotrophic growth unless an electron acceptor is provided or if cells can dispose of electrons as H2. Such observations led to the long-standing model wherein the Calvin cycle is necessary during photoheterotrophic growth to maintain a pool of oxidized electron carriers. This model was recently challenged with an alternative model wherein disrupting RubisCO activity prevents photoheterotrophic growth due to the accumulation of toxic ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) (D. Wang, Y. Zhang, E. L. Pohlmann, J. Li, and G. P. Roberts, J. Bacteriol. 193:3293-3303, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00265-11). Here, we confirm that RuBP accumulation can impede the growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum (Rs. rubrum) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rp. palustris) RubisCO-deficient (ΔRubisCO) mutants under conditions where electron carrier oxidation is coupled to H2 production. However, we also demonstrate that Rs. rubrum and Rp. palustris Calvin cycle phosphoribulokinase mutants that cannot produce RuBP cannot grow photoheterotrophically on succinate unless an electron acceptor is provided or H2 production is permitted. Thus, the Calvin cycle is still needed to oxidize electron carriers even in the absence of toxic RuBP. Surprisingly, Calvin cycle mutants of Rs. rubrum, but not of Rp. palustris, grew photoheterotrophically on malate without electron acceptors or H2 production. The mechanism by which Rs. rubrum grows under these conditions remains to be elucidated.

  20. A Colpoda aspera isolate from animal faeces: In vitro cultivation and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tuanyuan; Shi, Xinlu; Lu, Fuzhuang; Yu, Fuxian; Fu, Yuan; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2014-02-01

    A colpodean ciliate was found in the faeces of experimental rabbits. It was initially cultivated in medium mixed with 2% (w/v) rabbit faeces. Subsequently, two chemically defined media, designated CA-1 and CA-2, were found to be suitable for axenical cultivation of the ciliate. The maximum abundance of the ciliate isolate in the CA media was 1-2 × 10(5) cells/ml. The ciliate isolate was further identified with silver impregnation and molecular analysis. Features of the left oral polykinetid, somatic dikinetids, and sliverline pattern were similar to those of Colpoda aspera as described by Foissner (1993). The 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of the ciliate isolate shared 99% sequence identity with that of C. aspera, with 100% coverage, and formed a sister clade in the phylogenetic tree with the reference C. aspera isolate. In addition, the trophozoite of C. aspera could proliferate over a temperature range from 25-37°C. When resting cysts were cultivated in CA-1 medium at 30-35°C, 98.2% of the trophozoites were detached from the cyst wall after 7 h.

  1. Abundance and species composition of planktonic Ciliophora from the wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sonia Barría de Cao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific composition and abundance variation of the ciliate community from a wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, were studied all throughout a year, from June 1995 to May 1996. The polluted area exhibited high values of particulate organic matter and nutrients, particularly phosphates. Aloricate ciliates were represented by 15 species belonging to the genera Strombidium Claparède & Lachmann, 1859; Strombidinopsis Kent, 1881; Cyrtostrombidium Lynn & Gilron, 1993; Strobilidium Schewiakoff, 1983; Lohmmanniella Leegaard, 1915 and Tontonia Fauré-Fremiet, 1914. Tintinnids were represented by nine species belonging to the genera Tintinnidium Kent, 1881, Tintinnopsis Stein, 1867 and Codonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924. The total abundance of aloricate ciliates reached a peak of 1,800 ind. 1-1 and the total abundance of tintinnids reached a peak of 9,400 ind. 1-1. Tintinnidium balechi Barría de Cao, 1981 was the most abundant ciliate in the community. Considerations on the presence and abundance of ciliates are made in relation to physicochemical and biochemical parameters.

  2. Characteristics of microfauna and their relationships with the performance of an activated sludge plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kexin; XU Muqi; LIU Biao; CAO Hong

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and abundance of the microfauna groups were compared with the physico-chemical and operational parameters of the Baoding Lugang Sewage Treatment Plant in China. Attached and crawling ciliates were the dominant groups of ciliates. Crawling ciliates and testate amoebae showed a strong association with effluent BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand). Therefore, these two groups are likely to be useful bioindicators since their number decreased as the process produced poor quality effluent. Testate amoebae also had significant negative correlations with effluent TN (total nitrogen), NH4+-N, SS (suspended solids) and SVI (sludge volumetric index), which means that this group of ciliates may be indicators of good performance of the activated sludge system. Carnivorous ciliates and flagellates had significant positive correlations with SVI, suggesting that these two groups may be indicators of bad settlement conditions of sludge. As identification of the microfauna species is difficult and time-consuming, we recommend using microfauna functional groups to evaluate the performance of the activated sludge system.

  3. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues.

  4. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Qualitative importance of the microbial loop and plankton community structure in a eutropic lake during a bloom of Cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Plankton community structure and m~or pools and fluxes of carbon were observed before and after culmination of a bloom of cyanobacteria in eutrophic Frederiksborg Slotsso, Denmark. Biomass changes of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates, microzooplankton (50 to 140 urn), and macrozooplankton...... (larger than 140 Urn) were compared to phytoplankton and bacterial production as well as micro- and macrozooplankton ingestion rates of phytoplankton and bacteria. The carbon budget was used as a means to examine causal relationships in the plankton community. Phytoplankton biomass decreased and algae......, supporting the idea that ciliates are an important link between bacteria and higher trophic levels. During and after the bloom of Aphanizornenon, major fluxes of carbon between bacteria, ciliates and crustaceans were observed, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates played a minor role in the pelagic food web...

  7. Anaerobic protozoa and their growth in biomethanation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2008-04-01

    This study was to investigate growth of protozoa and its influence on biodegradation in anaerobic treatment systems. It was done by specifically controlling and monitoring growth of protozoa versus degradation in continuous stirred anaerobic reactors and batch anaerobic reactors. Occurrence of a diverse protozoa population such as the ciliates, Prorodon, Vorticella, Cyclidium, Spathidium, Loxodes, Metopus were observed in stable anaerobic systems and the flagellates, Rhynchomonas, Naeglaria, Amoeboflagellates, Tetramitus, Trepomonas and Bodo during increased VFA concentration and affected periods of biomethanation. The abundance of ciliates in the anaerobic system had significant correlation with the reduction of MLSS, increased rate of COD removal and higher methane production. The results of this study thus tend to relate increased anaerobic degradation with the abundance of protozoa, mainly ciliates, which indicate their possible involvement in the process. Present study also reveals that performance of anaerobic process can be assessed by monitoring the protozoa population in the system.

  8. Copy number variations of 11 macronuclear chromosomes and their gene expression in Oxytricha trifallax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Doak, Thomas G; Lipps, Hans J; Wang, Jingmei; Swart, Estienne C; Chang, Wei-Jen

    2012-08-15

    Ciliated protozoa are peculiar for their nuclear dimorphism, wherein two types of nuclei divide nuclear functions: a germline micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inert during vegetative growth, but serves as the genetic blueprint for the somatic macronucleus (MAC), which is responsible for all transcripts supporting cell growth and reproduction. While all the advantages/disadvantages associated with nuclear dimorphism are not clear, an essential advantage seems to be the ability to produce a highly polyploid MAC, which then allows for the maintenance of extremely large single cells - many ciliate cells are larger than small metazoa. In some ciliate classes, chromosomes in the MAC are extensively fragmented to create extremely short chromosomes that often carry single genes, and these chromosomes may be present in different copy numbers, resulting in different ploidies. While using gene copy number to regulate gene expression is limited in most eukaryotic systems, the extensive fragmentation in some ciliate classes provides this opportunity to every MAC gene. However, it is still unclear if this mechanism is in fact used extensively in these ciliates. To address this, we have quantified copy numbers of 11 MAC chromosomes and their gene expression in Oxytricha trifallax (CI: Spirotrichea). We compared copy numbers between two subpopulations of O. trifallax, and copy numbers of 7 orthologous genes between O. trifallax and the closely related Stylonychia lemnae. We show that copy numbers of MAC chromosomes are variable, dynamic, and positively correlated to gene expression. These features might be conserved in all spirotrichs, and might exist in other classes of ciliates with heavily fragmented MAC chromosomes.

  9. Microbial food web structure in a naturally iron-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean (Kerguelen Plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Van Wambeke, F.; Veldhuis, M.; Garcia, N.; Catala, P.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study in the framework of the KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study, 2005-2007 (KEOPS) project was to examine the microbial food web structure within a phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization. Integrated bacterial production (BP, 0-100 m) varied 12-fold over the study area (23.5-304 mg C m -2 d -1), while bacterial abundance (0-100 m) varied only by a factor of 2.8. Highest bacterial abundances and rates of BP were observed in the center of the diatom-dominated bloom, and substantial decreases in BP towards the later bloom stage were detectable. The abundance of bacterial predators (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, HNF) showed a significant coupling with BP in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area only. In the core of the bloom, BP consumed by HNF was 27%, 29%, 52% and 34% during the four consecutive visits that extended over 4 weeks and was much higher (80-95%) in HNLC waters. The relative contribution of the small-sized (important within (224 mg C m -2, 0-100 m) than outside the bloom (30.5 mg C m -2, 0-100 m). This difference was attributable mainly to tintinnids Cymatocyclis spp. accounting for 30-80% of the total ciliate biomass within the Kerguelen bloom but being rare in the HNLC water. Mixotrophic ciliate biomass accounted for 40-60% of the total aloricate ciliate biomass all over the studied area. This was mainly due to the relatively large size of mixotrophic ciliates present in the samples ( Tontonia antarctica, Strombidium spp. and Laboea strobila). Overall, our results suggest a strong response of bacteria, weak response of HNF, and strong controlling effects on ciliates. The weak coupling between heterotrophic bacteria and HNF and the low abundance of ciliates suggest a low transfer of carbon from the microbial to the classical food web within the Kerguelen bloom.

  10. Escape of protists in predator-generated feeding currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate Strobilidium sp. and 2 flagellates, Chrysochromulina simplex and Gymnodinium sp., were exposed to predator-generated feeding currents, and their escape responses were quantified using 2- and 3-dimensional video techniques. All 3 studied organisms responded by escaping at a defined...... of Strobilidium sp. to the copepod Temora longicornis. The predicted reaction distance fit closely that measured, When the flagellates were exposed to the flow field of the ciliate Uronema filificum, they both responded up-stream to the feeding current. From the distance at which the flagellates responded...

  11. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The apical organ of ciliated larvae of cnidarians and bilaterians is a true larval organ that disappears before or at metamorphosis. It appears to be sensory, probably involved in metamorphosis, but knowledge is scant. The ciliated protostome larvae show ganglia/nerve cords that are retained as t...... common ancestor of the deuterostomes was very similar to the latest common pelago-benthic ancestor of the protostomes as described by the trochaea theory, and that the neural tube of the chordates is morphologically ventral....

  12. Combining O2 Microsensors and Fiber-Optic Technology to Measure Photo-Physiological Responses of Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter;

    as motility (in the case of the ciliate) and Symbiodinium genotype (in the case of A. valida). In case i) and iii) there was nonlinearity between relative electron transport rate (rETR) and gross photosynthesis measurements at moderate to high irradiances possibly due to vertical heterogeneity...... to case i) and iii) the symbionts produced relatively high gross photosynthesis rate and rETR at moderate to high irradiance due to greater efficiency of light absorption caused by a higher density of symbionts in the ciliate....

  13. First isolation of Pseudocohnilembus persalinus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) from freshwater-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon R M; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; LaPatra, Scott E

    2010-10-01

    Ciliated protists were isolated from the ovarian fluid of apparently healthy adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) maintained in freshwater. The organism was identified as Pseudocohnilembus persalinus based on morphometric and morphological analysis of silver-stained specimens obtained from culture and on analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequence of this organism also was characterized. This ciliate has been reported previously as free living only in saline environments and as an endosymbiont in a marine teleost, the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A cyst-like stage may have facilitated the novel occurrence of this organism as an endosymbiont in rainbow trout.

  14. Differential lectin binding patterns in the oviductal ampulla of the horse during oestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Desantis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the oligosaccharide sequence of glycoconjugates, mainly sialoglycoconjugates, in the horse oviductal ampulla during oestrus by means of lectin and pre-lectin methods such as the KOH-neuraminidase procedure to remove sialic acid residues and incubation with N-glycosidase F to cleave N-linked glycans. Ciliated cells displayed Nlinked oligosaccharides throughout the cytoplasm. The cilia glycocalyx expressed both N- and O-linked (mucin-type oligosaccharides, both showing a high variety of terminal sequences. In the most non-ciliated cells, the whole cytoplasm contained N-linked oligosaccharides with terminal aGal as well as mucin-type glycans with terminal Forssman pentasaccharides. In a few scattered non-ciliated cells, the whole cytoplasm displayed sialylated N-linked oligosaccharides with terminal Neu5Ac-GalNAc and O-linked glycans terminating with neutral and/or aGalNAc, Neu5Aca2,6Gal/ GalNAc, Neu5AcGalb1,3GalNAc. Supra-nuclear granules, probably Golgi zones, of non-ciliated cells showed mainly Olinked glycans rich in sialic acid residues. The luminal surface of non-ciliated cells showed N-linked oligosaccharides, containing terminal/internal aMan/aGlc, bGlcNAc and terminal aGal, as well as mucin-type oligosaccharides terminating with a large variety of either neutral saccharides or sialylated sequences. Apical protrusions containing O-linked oligosaccharides with terminal Forssman pentasaccharide, Neu5Ac-Galb1,4GlcNAc, Neu5Ac-GalNAc were seen in nonciliated cells scattered along the epithelium. These findings show the presence of sialoglycoconjugates in the oviductal ampulla epithelium of the mare and the existence of different lectin binding profiles between ciliated and non-ciliated (secretory cells, as well as the presence of non-ciliated cell sub-types which might determine functional differences along the ampullary epithelium of mare oviduct.

  15. Structural organization of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs U1 to U6 of Tetrahymena thermophila is very similar to that of plant small nuclear RNA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orum, H; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1992-01-01

    We report the sequences of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) U1 to U6 of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. The genes of the individual snRNAs exist in two to six slightly different copies per haploid genome. Sequence analyses of the gene-flanking regions indicate that there ar......We report the sequences of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) U1 to U6 of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. The genes of the individual snRNAs exist in two to six slightly different copies per haploid genome. Sequence analyses of the gene-flanking regions indicate...

  16. The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

  17. Epidemiologia, etiologia e formas clínicas das dermatofitoses em Pernambuco, 1995-2005 Epidemiology, etiology and clinical presentation of dermatophytosis in Pernambuco, 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Rodrigues de Barros Corrêa Damázio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Num total de 1.238 casos de dermatofitoses, ocorridas na Cidade de Recife /PE, observou-se predomínio das tinhas de couro cabeludo (33,7% e Trichophyton tonsurans (25,5%, entre 1995 e 1999, enquanto as tinhas de pele glabra (35,5% e Trichophyton rubrum (34% foram mais freqüentes entre 2000 e 2005. Detectou-se importante redução do Trichophyton mentagrophytes, no último período.Out of a total of 1,238 cases of dermatophytosis in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, lesions of the scalp (33.7% and Trichophyton tonsurans (25.5% predominated between 1995 and 2000, while lesions of the hairless skin (35.5% and Trichophyton rubrum (34% were the most frequent between 2000 and 2005. A significant reduction in Trichophyton mentagrophytes was detected in the second of these periods.

  18. Variation in lipid and free fatty acid content during spawning in two temperate octocorals with different reproductive strategies: surface versus internal brooder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladrich, Núria; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Georgios; Chocarro, Blanca; Martínez-Quitana, Angela; Ambroso, Stefano; Madurell, Teresa; Rossi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the energetic investment during spawning of two Mediterranean gorgonians characterized by different reproductive strategies: Corallium rubrum (internal brooder) and Paramuricea clavata (surface brooder). Sexual products (number of oocytes and spermatic sacs) were quantified, and biochemical characteristics (lipid content and free fatty acid content and composition) were determined to investigate the parental energetic investment and demand in reproduction. Results suggested that the majority of the energetic cost was due to reproductive activity (i.e., gametogenesis and spawning). The two species exhibited different life history strategies, with P. clavata investing more energy in reproduction than C. rubrum. However, P. clavata is reproductively more sensitive to inter-annual changes in environmental conditions.