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Sample records for ciliate mesodinium rubrum

  1. Potential risk of Mesodinium rubrum bloom in aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China: diurnal changes in the ciliate community structure in the surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxue Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal changes in the structure of the ciliate community in surface waters were studied in the aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove,China. Two periods of heavy rainfall occurred during the study period, intensifying water column stratification and influencing the water'sproperties. A total of 21 ciliate taxa from 15 genera were identified; the dominant species was Mesodinium rubrum. The maximumabundance of M. rubrum reached 3.92 × 104 indiv. dm-3,contributing 95.1% (mean value to the total ciliate abundance.Diurnal changes in M. rubrum abundance were highly variable, the driving force probably being irradiance and food availability.The results suggest that M. rubrum may form blooms in aquaculture areas when there is a suitable physical regime with enriched nutrients,which is potentially harmful to the fish-farming industry.

  2. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator–prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss and...... aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in...

  3. Vibrios associated with red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Romalde, J L; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1990-01-01

    Vibrios were isolated from red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and also throughout the year in the Ria de Pontevedra, Spain. The isolates were grouped into 14 phena by numerical toxonomy. Strains associated with red tides were restricted to four phena: phena I and II were Vibrio alginolyticus, and phena III and IV were Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio anguillarum, respectively. V. anguillarum-like strains (phena V through XI) predominated throughout the year outside the red tide areas. Cytotoxic...

  4. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles, not only for water pumping in many active filter-feeding organisms, but also for the swimming activity of ciliates and other aquatic organisms that use cilia for propulsion. The present study concerns the effect of temperature-dependent viscosity of the amb...

  5. Bio-optical characteristics of a red tide induced by Mesodinium rubrum in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Laurencia; Varela, Ramón; Muller-Karger, Frank; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The bio-optical changes of the water induced by red tides depend on the type of organism present, and the spectral characterization of such changes can provide useful information on the organism, abundance and distribution. Here we present results from the bio-optical characterization of a non-toxic red tide induced by the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Particle absorption was high [ap(440) = 1.78 m- 1], as compared to measurements done in the same region [ap(440) = 0.09 ± 0.06 m- 1], with detrital components contributing roughly 11% [ad(440) = 0.19 m- 1]. The remainder was attributed to absorption by phytoplankton pigments [aph(440) = 1.60 m- 1]. These aph values were ~ 15 times higher than typical values for these waters. High chlorophyll a concentrations were also measured (52.73 μg L- 1), together with alloxanthin (9.52 μg L- 1) and chlorophyll c (6.25 μg L- 1). This suite of pigment is typical of the algal class Cryptophyceae, from which Mesodinium obtains its chloroplasts. Remote sensing reflectance showed relatively low values [Rrs(440) = 0.0007 sr- 1], as compared to other Rrs values for the region under high bloom conditions [Rrs(440) = 0.0028 sr- 1], with maxima at 388, 484, 520, 596 and 688 nm. Based on the low reflection in the green-yellow, as compared to other red tides, we propose a new band ratio [Rrs(688)/Rrs(564)] to identify blooms of this particular group of organisms.

  6. Acquired phototrophy in Mesodinium and Dinophysis – A review of cellular organization, prey selectivity, nutrient uptake and bioenergetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Johnson, Matthew; Berge, Terje; Flynn, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    chloroplasts may be retained, and the host ciliate has considerable control over the acquired chloroplasts; Mesodinium rubrum is capable of dividing its acquired chloroplasts and can also photoacclimate. In Dinophysis spp., the contents of ciliate prey are sucked out, but only the chloroplasts are retained...

  7. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  8. Role of food uptake for photosynthesis, growth and survival of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    Dinophysis acuminata is a mixotrophic dinoflagellate frequently causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. D. acuminata was isolated from Danish coastal waters and cultivated using the mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as prey. The roles of food uptake and photosynthesis for the growth and...

  9. Ciliate protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruby and Delafond discovered the rumen protozoa in 1843 and suggested that their digestive activity was the primary means by which ruminants could survive on an all-plant diet. However, subsequent studies have clearly shown that bacteria actually play a prominent role in the fermentation of plant materials, and fungi are also involved. The rumen ciliates range in size from 18 to 500 μm and can be enumerated and identified microscopically at relatively low magnifications. On the basis of cell morphology, they have been classified into at least five families containing 24 different genera. Although new species are still being reported yearly, the last summary was compiled in 1992 by Williams and Coleman and listed 257 separate species. Ciliate protozoa belonging to different families are found in most other herbivorous mammals. This includes those animals in which fermentation occurs in the hindgut, such as the horse, elephant, rhinoceros and capybara, as well as in the non-ruminant foregut fomenters, i.e. camelids, hippopotamus and kangaroo. These ciliates can be enumerated and identified using the methods and techniques presented in this chapter, presuming appropriate procedures are used for obtaining representative samples from the animal

  10. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  11. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol.

  12. The trophic role and impact of plankton ciliates in the microbial web structure of a tropical polymictic lake dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the plankton structures and dynamics in tropical and subtropical lakes has revealed important trends that set these lakes apart from temperate lakes, and one of the main differences is the enhanced importance of the microbial food web with respect to net plankton. Ciliates are a key component of subtropical and tropical microbial webs because of their role as dominant picoplankton grazers and their ability to channel picoplankton production to the uppermost trophic levels. Plankton ciliates have been found to play a crucial role in the survival of fish larvae in lakes that share several features with Lake Catemaco, a eutrophic tropical Mexican lake. Therefore, the plankton ciliate composition, abundance, and biomass of Lake Catemaco were studied to assess their role in the microbial food web. The data were obtained from surface and bottom water samples collected at eleven points during three surveys in 2011 and an additional survey in 2013, with the surveys covering the local climatic seasons. The most abundant components of the plankton ciliate assemblages were small prostomatids (Urotricha spp., choreotrichs (Rimostrombidium spp., cyclotrichs (Mesodinium and Askenasia, and scuticociliates (Cyclidium, Cinetochilum, Pleuronema, and Uronema. Other important ciliates in terms of abundance and/or biomass were haptorids (Actinobolina, Belonophrya, Monodinium, Paradileptus, and Laginophrya, Halteria, oligotrichs (Limnostrombidium and Pelagostrombidium, Linostomella, Bursaridium, Cyrtolophosis, and Litonotus. The ciliate abundance averaged 57 cells mL-1 and ranged from 14 to 113 cells mL-1. The mean ciliate biomass was 71 µg C L-1 and ranged from 10 to 202 µg C L-1. Differences were not detected in ciliate abundance or biomass between the sampling points or sampling depths (surface to bottom; however, significant differences were observed between seasons for both variables. Nano-sized filamentous cyanobacteria were the most

  13. The Ciliate Colpoda: "Instant" Protozoan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne Muller; Giese, Arthur C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan which is able to survive in a dry, encysted state for long periods of time. Outlines the procedures for culturing the organism and producing cyst preparations, and recommends its use in the high school biology laboratory. (JR)

  14. Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration by Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, J E; Weaver, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata were able to grow anaerobically in the dark either by a strict mixed-acid fermentation of sugars or, in the presence of an appropriate electron acceptor, by an energy-linked anaerobic respiration. Both species fermented fructose without the addition of accessory oxidants, but required the initial presence of bicarbonate before fermentative growth could begin. Major products of R. rubrum fermentation were succinate, acetate, propionate, form...

  15. Ciliates Expel Environmental Legionella-Laden Pellets To Stockpile Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Fuhito; Sato, Daisuke; Matsuo, Junji; Miyake, Masaki; Nakamura, Shinji; Kunichika, Miyuki; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Takemura, Hiromu; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    When Tetrahymena ciliates are cultured with Legionella pneumophila, the ciliates expel bacteria packaged in free spherical pellets. Why the ciliates expel these pellets remains unclear. Hence, we determined the optimal conditions for pellet expulsion and assessed whether pellet expulsion contributes to the maintenance of growth and the survival of ciliates. When incubated with environmental L. pneumophila, the ciliates expelled the pellets maximally at 2 days after infection. Heat-killed bact...

  16. Optimal swimming of model ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    In order to swim at low Reynolds numbers, microorganisms must undergo non-time-reversible shape changes. In ciliary locomotion, this symmetry breaking is achieved through the actuation of many flexible cilia distributed on the surface of the organism. Experimental studies have demonstrated the collective synchronization of neighboring cilia (metachronal waves), whose exact origin is still debated. Here we consider the hydrodynamic energetic cost of ciliary locomotion and consider an axisymmetric envelope model with prescribed tangential surface displacements. We show that the periodic strokes of this model ciliated swimmer that minimize the energy dissipation in the surrounding fluid achieve symmetry-breaking at the organism level through the propagation of wave patterns similar to metachronal waves. We analyze the properties of the optimal strokes, in particular the impact on the swimming performance introduced by a restriction on maximum cilia tip displacement due to the finite cilia length.

  17. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  18. Effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth and ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-li; XU Jing; ZHUO Feng-lin; WANG Li; XU Wei; XU Ying; ZHANG Xiao-yan; ZHAO Jun-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is the most common causative agent of dermatophytosis worldwide.In this study,we examined the effect of laser irradiation on the growth and morphology of T.rubrum.Methods Colonies of T.rubrum were isolated (one colony per plate),and randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups:Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment,long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser treatment,intense pulsed light (IPL)treatment,308 nm excimer laser treatment and the blank control group without treatment.Standardized photographs were obtained from grown-up fungal plates prior to treatment.Colonies were then exposed to various wavelengths and fluences of laser light.To compare the growth of colonies,they were re-photographed under identical conditions three and six days post-treatment.To investigate the morphology of T.rubrum,scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from specimens exposed to 24 hours of laser treatment.Results Growth of T.rubrum colonies was significantly inhibited following irradiation by 694 nm Q-switched and 1064nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG lasers.Other treatments exerted little or no effect.Q-switched laser irradiation exerted a stronger growth inhibitory effect than long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Following treatment by the Q-switched ruby laser system,T.rubrum hyphae became shrunken and deflated,and SEM images revealed rough,fractured hyphal surfaces,punctured with small destructive holes.TEM images showed that the hyphae were degenerating,as evidenced by the irregular shape of hyphae,rough and loose cell wall,and obscure cytoplasmic texture.Initially high elect(io)n density structure was visible in the cell; later,low-density structure appeared as a result of cytoplasmic dissolution.In contrast,the blank control group showed no obvious changes in morphology.Conclusion The Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment significantly inhibits the growth and changes the morphology of T.rubrum.

  19. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the Bla

  20. Dispersal of the parasitic ciliate Lambornella clarki: implications for ciliates in the biological control of mosquitoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Egerter, D E; Anderson, J R; Washburn, J O

    1986-01-01

    Lambornella clarki (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae), an endoparasite of Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae), is dispersed by infected adult mosquitoes. Invasion of the ovaries induces parasitically castrated females to exhibit oviposition behavior and thereby actively disperse ciliates through deposition into water. Oviposition behavior of infected females is prolonged and mimics that of normal gravid females in their first gonotropic cycle. Adults of both sexes also passively disperse ciliates...

  1. Are freshwater pelagic ciliates important bacterivores?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Macek, Miroslav; Nedoma, Jiří; Dolan, J. R.

    Innsbruck : Institute for Limnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2003. s. 36. [Assessing the Variability in Aquatic Microbial Populations: Facts and Fiction. 16.02.2003-20.02.2003, Mondsee] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : flagellate and ciliate bacterivory * freshwater plankton Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Binding site on Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2 for the Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome bc1 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytochrome c2 and the detergent-solubilized cytochrome bc1 complex, both from Rhodospirillum rubrum, form a tight complex at a low ionic strength that can be isolated by gel permeation chromatography. The dissociation constant of the complex is estimated to be 10-6 M or less. [14C]-labelled and [3H]-labelled acetic anhydride were used in the acetylation experiments, and the 3H/14C ratio was analyzed. The binding site for the cytochrome bc1 complex on cytochrome c2 was analyzed by differential acetylation of lysine residues in free and cytochrome bc1 complex bound cytochrome c2. In bound cytochrome c2, three lysine residues at sequence positions 12, 13, and 97 were less reactive toward acetic anhydride. Lys13, which is located above the exposed heme edge, was the least reactive, i.e., the most shielded by the cytochrome bc1 complex. Correlating this information with the crystal structure of cytochrome c2 indicates that the binding site for the cytochrome bc1 complex on cytochrome c2 involves a surface area above, and probably including, the exposed heme edge. This mode of binding is similar to that observed for horse cytochrome c interacting with the mitochrondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. A simplified version of the method of differential chemical modification is presented

  3. Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis in an 8-week-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K Khurana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week-old infant presented with 7 weeks history of nail involvement and discoloration. Lesions started over the middle fingernail of right hand at 1 week of age, spreading over to other nails within 2 weeks. Only two nails of the feet were spared. On KOH examination, fungal hyphae were seen and culture showed growth of Trichophyton rubrum. The purpose is to report the earliest case of onychomycosis having multiple nail involvement of fingers and toes (18 nails.

  4. ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM, TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES AND TRICHOPHYTON VERRUCOSUM

    OpenAIRE

    F Zaini

    1991-01-01

    Since most of the studies on chemical compounds of dermatophytes have shown the existence of a relationship between their pathogenisity and proteolytec enzymes. Activities of 19 different enzymes in viable mycelia and cytoplasmic extracts of T.rubrum (CETr), T.mentagrophytes (CETm) and T.verrucosum (CETv) were investigated by the API-Zym System. The results showed that Viable mycelia of T.rubrm and T.mentagrophytes had valine arylamidase and cystine arylamidase activity where as no such activ...

  5. Pyruvate-dependent diauxic growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum in light.

    OpenAIRE

    Solaiman, D; Uffen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    When Rhodospirillum rubrum mutant C was first exposed to radiant energy after long-term anaerobic dark growth, the cells often exhibited a diauxic growth response. This happened with pyruvate in the medium and when cultures were exposed to a less-than-growth-saturating white light intensity of about 6,460 lx. Under the growth-saturating light condition, mutant C photometabolized and growth was not affected by Na hypophosphite, an inhibitor of pyruvate fermentation. In lower intensity light, i...

  6. Sensibilidad al fluconazol de aislamientos de Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma T Gross-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Trichophyton rubrum es el dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente: piel glabra, uñas de las manos y de los pies. El fluconazol es utilizado con frecuencia para el tratamiento de las onicomicosis en nuestra población, por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar la sensibilidad a este antifúngico, de aislamientos costarricenses de T. rubrum. Métodos: se investigó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol de 80 aislamientos de T. rubrum, obtenidos de muestras de piel y sus anexos. El método utilizado fue el de microdilución M-38A, descrito por el “National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards”. Las diluciones finales del fluconazol fueron de 0,25 a 128 μg/ml. Resultados: la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de uñas de los pies (68,75%. El 86,25% de los aislamientos analizados presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria entre 0,25-8 μg/ml, el 8,75% entre 16-32 μg/ml y un 5% > 64 μg/ml. De estos aislamientos resistentes, dos fueron de uñas de los pies y dos de plantas de pie. Conclusión: debido a que la mayoría de los aislamientos de T. rubrum demostraron ser sensibles al fluconazol, solo se recomienda realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a este antifúngico en casos de falla terapéutica, especialmente en pacientes con onicomicosis en la cual el tratamiento es prolongado.

  7. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  8. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  9. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5psu, 8.9psu, 29.5psu and 50.5psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils. PMID:26773903

  10. TrED: the Trichophyton rubrum Expression Database

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    Liu Tao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide. It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways. We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Description All publicly available ESTs and expression profiles of T. rubrum during conidial germination in time-course experiments and challenged with antifungal agents are deposited in the database. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included. ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. TrED provides functional analysis based on GenBank, Pfam, and KOG databases, along with KEGG pathway and GO vocabulary. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST. Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. rubrum and comparative results of dermatophytes. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. TrED is available from URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/TrED/.

  11. Xanthomegnin detection does not discriminate between Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Hazal; Ilkit, Macit; Çürük, Akif

    2015-04-01

    Here, we aimed to discriminate the Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complexes, via detection of xanthomegnin using HPLC. We concluded that it is not a reliable technique for discriminating the two complexes, because strains belonging to both T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes displayed xanthomegnin activity. PMID:25702626

  12. Photoletter to the editor: Subcutaneous ciliated Mullerian cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisling, Matthew; Marinovich, Adrian; Burkey, Brooke

    2015-12-31

    Cutaneous ciliated cysts are benign lesions occurring primarily on the lower extremity of girls and young women. We present a case of a cutaneous ciliated Mullerian cyst arising in the lower leg of a 14-year-old girl, with brief discussion of etiology and diagnosis. This is a rare entity with approximately 50 cases in the literature. PMID:26848322

  13. Reality-and-Desire in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Hoogeboom, Hendrik Jan

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has a number of similarities with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both theories model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper, we show how the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, can be used in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  14. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reslewic, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhou, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Place, M. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhang, Y. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Briska, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Goldstein, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Churas, C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Runnheim, R. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Forrest, D. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lim, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lapidus, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Han, C. S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Roberts, G. P. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Schwartz, D. C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison

    2005-09-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium known for its unique and well-studied nitrogen fixation and carbon monoxide oxidation systems and as a source of hydrogen and biodegradable plastic production. To better understand this organism and to facilitate assembly of its sequence, three whole-genome restriction endonuclease maps (XbaI, NheI, and HindIII) of R. rubrum strain ATCC 11170 were created by optical mapping. Optical mapping is a system for creating whole-genome ordered restriction endonuclease maps from randomly sheared genomic DNA molecules extracted from cells. During the sequence finishing process, all three optical maps confirmed a putative error in sequence assembly, while the HindIII map acted as a scaffold for high-resolution alignment with sequence contigs spanning the whole genome. In addition to highlighting optical mapping's role in the assembly and confirmation of genome sequence, this work underscores the unique niche in resolution occupied by the optical mapping system. With a resolution ranging from 6.5 kb (previously published) to 45 kb (reported here), optical mapping advances a "molecular cytogenetics" approach to solving problems in genomic analysis.

  15. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jegsen Melcher; Maciej Andrzej Zwieniecki

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (DPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on three year old potted A. rubrum plants also had no eff...

  16. Polyadenylated mRNA from the photosynthetic procaryote Rhodospirillum rubrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total cellular RNA extracted from Rhodospirillum rubrum cultured in butyrate-containing medium under strict photosynthetic conditions to the stationary phase of growth has been fractionated on an oligodeoxy-thymidylic acid-cellulose column into polyadenylated [poly(A)+] RNA and poly(A)- RNA fractions. The poly(A)+ fraction was 9 to 10% of the total bulk RNA isolated. Analysis of the poly(A)+ RNA on a denaturing urea-polyacrylamide gel revealed four sharp bands of RNA distributed in heterodisperse fashion between 16S and 9S. Similar fractionation of the poly(A)- RNA resulted in the separation of 23, 16, and 5S rRNAs and 4S tRNA. Poly(A)+ fragments isolated after combined digestion with pancreatic A and T1 RNases and analysis by denaturing gel electrophoresis demonstrated two major components of 80 and 100 residues. Alkaline hydrolysis of the nuclease-resistant, purified residues showed AMP-rich nucleotides. Through the use of snake venom phosphodiesterase, poly(A) tracts were placed at the 3' end of poly(A)+ RNA. Stimulation of [3H]leucine incorporation into hot trichloroacetic acid-precipitable polypeptides in a cell-free system from wheat germ primed by the poly(A)+ RNA mixture was found to be 220-fold higher than that for poly(A)- RNAs (on a unit mass basis), a finding which demonstrated that poly(A)+ RNAs in R. rubrum are mRNAs. Gel electrophoretic analysis of the translation mixture revealed numerous 3H-labeled products including a major band (M/sub r/, 52,000). The parent protein was precipitated by antibodies to ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and comprised 6.5% of the total translation products

  17. Experimental and modeling evidence of appendicularian-ciliate interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Eloire, Damien; Gobet, Angelique;

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between appendicularians and ciliates were observed over the life span of Oikopleura dioica in laboratory cultures and clarified with the use of mathematical modeling and microscopic observations. Complex interactions including competition, parasitism, predation, and histophagy occur...

  18. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A; Chatterji, A

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  19. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solan...

  20. Microaerophilic Cooperation of Reductive and Oxidative Pathways Allows Maximal Photosynthetic Membrane Biosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Grammel, Hartmut; Gilles, Ernst-Dieter; Ghosh, Robin

    2003-01-01

    The purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been employed to study physiological adaptation to limiting oxygen tensions (microaerophilic conditions). R. rubrum produces maximal levels of photosynthetic membranes when grown with both succinate and fructose as carbon sources under microaerophilic conditions in comparison to the level (only about 20% of the maximum) seen in the absence of fructose. Employing a unique partial O2 pressure (pO2) control strategy to reliably adjust the ...

  1. DNA rearrangements directed by non-coding RNAs in ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Extensive programmed rearrangement of DNA, including DNA elimination, chromosome fragmentation, and DNA descrambling, takes place in the newly developed macronucleus during the sexual reproduction of ciliated protozoa. Recent studies have revealed that two distant classes of ciliates use distinct types of non-coding RNAs to regulate such DNA rearrangement events. DNA elimination in Tetrahymena is regulated by small non-coding RNAs that are produced and utilized in an RNAi-related process. It ...

  2. Community Structure and Biodiversity of Soil Ciliates at Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest in Hainan Island, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Qingyu Liao; Mei Li; Jinhong Zhang; Nora Fungyee Tam; Runlin Xu

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The abundance, biodiversity, and community similarity of ciliates in fresh and air-dried soil with different, physical/chemical properties were analyzed. Three Classes, 11 Orders, 34 Genera, and 70 species of ciliates were found with the first dominant group being Hypotrichida. Ciliate biodiversities followed Site B < Site A < Site C in both fresh and...

  3. Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2014-05-01

    To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple ( Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ˜7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ˜16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.

  4. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  5. TRANSUNGUAL PERMEATION OF THE VORICONAZOLE NAIL LACQUER AGAINST TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Tandel Amruta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral therapies encounter side effects and topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by poor permeability of nail plate. An optimal penetration enhancer would improve drug delivery through nail plate facilitating new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if the systemic circulation is reached. The purpose of study was to determine amount of voriconazole permeating through the nail plate from the nail lacquer formulation containing permeation enhancer and to demonstrate its susceptibility to the onchomycotic dermatophyte. The permeability studies were performed on avulsed human cadaver nail plates using modified Franz diffusion apparatus containing phosphate buffer saline in the acceptor chamber. The amount of Voriconazole permeated was quantitatively determined by the UV spectrophotometer. The amount of Voriconazole remaining in the nail after permeation had been retrieved by milling test. The addition of thioglycolic acid, 5% improved the permeability of the drug by 0.7 as the enhancement factor. The formulation followed zero order kinetics and Korsmeyer- Peppas mechanism of drug release on analyzing on DDSolver. The voriconazole flux of 5592.1 µg/cm/min and 596.75 µg/cm/min had been observed at 24 and 48 hours aliquots respectively for the nail lacquer containing an enhancer. Significantly higher permeation rates were achieved in the presence of an enhancer. The inhibitory zones for the voriconazole transungual nail lacquer were evaluated by testing against the dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar. The effective zones of inhibitions suggested Voriconazole nail lacquer exhibiting moderate antifungal activity for the onchomycosis treatment.

  6. TRANSUNGUAL PERMEATION OF THE VORICONAZOLE NAIL LACQUER AGAINST TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Ashok Tandel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral therapies encounter side effects and topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by poor permeability of nail plate. An optimal penetration enhancer would improve drug delivery through nail plate facilitating new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if the systemic circulation is reached. The purpose of study was to determine amount of voriconazole permeating through the nail plate from the nail lacquer formulation containing permeation enhancer and to demonstrate its susceptibility to the onchomycotic dermatophyte. Methods and materials: The permeability studies were performed on avulsed human cadaver nail plates using modified Franz diffusion apparatus containing phosphate buffer saline in the acceptor chamber. The amount of Voriconazole permeated was quantitatively determined by the UV spectrophotometer. The amount of Voriconazole remaining in the nail after permeation had been retrieved by milling test. Results and discussion: The addition of thioglycolic acid, 5% improved the permeability of the drug by 0.7 as the enhancement factor. The formulation followed zero order kinetics and Korsmeyer- Peppas mechanism of drug release on analyzing on DDSolver. The voriconazole flux of 5592.1 µg/cm/min and 596.75 µg/cm/min had been observed at 24 and 48 hours aliquots respectively for the nail lacquer containing an enhancer. Significantly higher permeation rates were achieved in the presence of an enhancer. Conclusion: The inhibitory zones for the voriconazole transungual nail lacquer were evaluated by testing against the dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar. The effective zones of inhibitions suggested Voriconazole nail lacquer exhibiting moderate antifungal activity for the onchomycosis treatment.

  7. The Effects of Oil Pollution on Free-living Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    ASADULLAYEVA, Esmira; ALEKPEROV, Ilham

    1999-01-01

    For the first time the effects of oil pollution on free-living ciliates at community level and also at cellular level were studied at the same time. The effects of various oil concentrations from two oil fields (Sangachal and Guneshli) on psammophile and periphyton ciliates were studied. As a result, the parameters using the oil pollution biotesting with the help of these test systems were determined. Oil from the Guneshli oil field was determined to be more toxic. The effects of oil pollutio...

  8. Act together - implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziallas, Claudia; Allgaier, Martin; Monaghan, Michael T.;

    2012-01-01

    ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh, and nutrient-deficient habitats. It is therefore not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are......Mutual interactions in the form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new lifeforms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components...

  9. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

  10. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Aleksandra; Bogdanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity (TAA) represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l) on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change i...

  11. 2-Aminoethylphosphonic acid concentrations in some rumen ciliate protozoa.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, F G; Bruce, L. A.; Eadie, J M; Shand, W J

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid has been measured in seven genera of rumen ciliate protozoa. Expressed as milligrams per gram of total nitrogen, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid concentrations ranged from 17.2 in Ophryoscolex spp. to 72.4 in Eremoplastron spp.

  12. Tipification of oligotrophic lakes using the ciliate assemblage structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Lugo-Vázquez, A.; Šimek, Karel

    Messina: Istituto per l Ambiente Marino Costiero, 2002 - (Giuliano, L.; Yakimov, M.). s. L112 [Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology SAME-8 /8./. 25.10.2002-30.10.2002, Taormina] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : tipification * oligotrophic lakes * ciliate assemblage Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  13. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  14. Transmission of phytoplasmas associated with full blossom disease in Ribes rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Kubelková, Darina; Špaková, Vlastimila

    Leueven 1 : ISHS Acta Horticulturea, 2008 - (Martin, R.), s. 67-70 ISBN 978-90-6605-038-9. ISSN 0567-7572. [International Symposium on Small Fruit Virus Diseases /11./. Antalya (TR), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : currant * aster yellows phytoplasma * Ribes rubrum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  16. On computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene assembly in stichotrichous ciliates happening during sexual reproduction is one of the most involved DNA manipulation processes occurring in biology. This biological process is of high interest from the computational and mathematical points of view due to its close analogy with such concepts and notions in theoretical computer science as permutation and linked list sorting and string rewriting. Studies on computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates represent a good example of interdisciplinary research contributing to both computer science and biology. We review here a number of general results related both to the development of different computational methods enhancing our understanding on the nature of gene assembly, as well as to the development of new biologically motivated computational and mathematical models and paradigms. Those paradigms contribute in particular to combinatorics, formal languages and computability theories.

  17. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating compet...

  18. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult ...

  19. Ciliated epithelial cell lifespan in the mouse trachea and lung

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Brigid L M Hogan

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state turnover of epithelial cells in the lung and trachea is highly relevant to investigators who are studying endogenous stem cells, manipulating gene expression in vivo, or using viral vectors for gene therapy. However, the average lifetime of different airway epithelial cell types has not previously been assessed using currently available genetic techniques. Here, we use Cre/loxP genetic technology to indelibly label a random fraction of ciliated cells throughout the airways of...

  20. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kenta Watanabe; Ryo Nakao; Masahiro Fujishima; Masato Tachibana; Takashi Shimizu; Masahisa Watarai

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling...

  1. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l-1, LC5) and lead (0.12 mg l-1, LC5), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l-1, LC5). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

  2. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  3. Effect of ciliates on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Prast, M.; Bischof, Adrian A.; Waller, Uwe; Amann, R.; Berninger, U.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification in aquatic sediments is catalyzed by bacteria. While many autecological studies on these bacteria have been published, few have regarded them as part of the benthic microbial food web. Ciliates are important as grazers on bacteria, but also for remineralization of organic matter. We tested the hypothesis that ciliates can affect nitrification. Experiments with Baltic Sea sediments in laboratory flumes, with or without the addition of cultured ciliates, were conducted. We found i...

  4. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Ege A.; Doner G.

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm m...

  5. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifaz Alexandro; Vázquez-González Denisse; Saúl Amado; Fierro-Arias Leonel; Ponce-Olivera M. Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychom...

  6. Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye*

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indi...

  7. Analysis of tests used to differentiate Trichophyton rubrum from Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinski, J T; Van Avermaete, D; Kelley, L M

    1981-01-01

    Differential identification of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was evaluated by using the standard in vitro hair perforation test as a criterion for identification and comparing its effectiveness with that of nine other tests used to differentiate these two taxa. Correlation and multiple regression analysis showed that no single test or combination of these tests was able to make the differentiation as effectively as the standard in vitro hair perforation test. Using relat...

  8. Establishing a Method of Inoculum Preparation for Susceptibility Testing of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, D. A.; Barros, M. E. S.; J. S. Hamdan

    2006-01-01

    A total of 92 clinical isolates of dermatophytes (52 of Trichophyton rubrum and 40 of Trichophyton mentagrophytes) were selected for testing with six antifungal drugs (terbinafine, griseofulvin, clotrimazole, miconazole, isoconazole, and fluconazole) and two pairs of drug combinations (ketoconazole-cyclopiroxolamine and itraconazole-cyclopiroxolamine). Two methods of inoculum preparation for susceptibility testing were evaluated that used (i) inocula consisting only of microconidia of dermato...

  9. Rapid method for differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and related dermatophyte species.

    OpenAIRE

    Summerbell, R C; Rosenthal, S. A.; Kane, J.

    1988-01-01

    Bromocresol purple-milk solids-glucose medium, proposed by Fischer and Kane in 1971 (Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 43:169-180, 1971) as an aid in the rapid determination of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, was evaluated across a wide range of isolates to determine its accuracy and efficacy in the clinical laboratory. Results showed that it facilitated accurate determination of typical and atypical isolates of both species and also permitted the rapid identification of other clo...

  10. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Anderson; Peter Ryser

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consiste...

  11. Partial purification and characterization of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase from Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, S M; Budde, R J; Chollet, R

    1986-01-01

    We confirmed an earlier report (B. B. Buchanan, J. Bacteriol. 119:1066-1068, 1974) that the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum contains pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (EC 2.7.9.1) activity that is absolutely dependent upon all three substrates by performing enzyme assays in both the forward (phosphoenolpyruvate formation) and reverse (ATP formation) directions. Of the various carbon sources tested, photoheterotrophic growth on DL-lactate plus bicarbonate proved...

  12. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; ZHANG Qian; QI YiPeng; JIN Qi; WANG LingLing; PENG JunPing; YU Lu; LIU Tao; LENG WenChuan; YANG Jian; CHEN LiHong; ZHANG WenLiang

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is correlated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins.The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction system were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration.This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expression, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  13. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  14. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, chlorobium phaeobacteroides, and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  15. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L; McElwain, Jennifer C; Adams, Jonathan M; Wilf, Peter

    2008-01-01

    * Variation in the size and shape (physiognomy) of leaves has long been correlated to climate, and paleobotanists have used these correlations to reconstruct paleo-climate. Most studies focus on site-level means of largely nonoverlapping species sets. The sensitivity of leaf shape to climate within species is poorly known, which limits our general understanding of leaf-climate relationships and the value of intraspecific patterns for paleoclimate reconstructions. * The leaf physiognomy of two species whose native North American ranges span large climatic gradients (Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii) was quantified and correlated to mean annual temperature (MAT). Quercus kelloggii was sampled across a wide elevation range, but A. rubrum was sampled in strictly lowland areas. * Within A. rubrum, leaf shape correlates with MAT in a manner that is largely consistent with previous site-level studies; leaves from cold climates are toothier and more highly dissected. By contrast, Q. kelloggii is largely insensitive to MAT; instead, windy conditions with ample plant-available water may explain the preponderance of small teeth at high elevation sites, independent of MAT. * This study highlights the strong correspondence between leaf form and climate within some species, and demonstrates that intraspecific patterns may contribute useful information towards reconstructing paleoclimate. PMID:18507771

  16. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDziallas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  17. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  18. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Charles James Newbold; Gabriel ede la Fuente; Alejandro eBelanche; Eva eRamos-Morales; Neil eMcEwan

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear.Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult t...

  19. SHORT TIME DYNAMICS OF CILIATE ABUNDANCE IN THE BOHAI SEA (CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate community in the Bohai Sea (China) was studied from23 September to 7 October 1998. A hurricane struck the study area between the two grid station investigations, which were six days apart. Six tintinnid species(Favella panamensis, Leptotintinnus nordqvisti, Tintinnopsis butschlii, T. karajacensis, T. Radix and Wangiella dicollaria) were identified. Total cililate abundance in the surface layer ranged from 20 to 770 ind/l. In the first grid investigation, Tintinnopsis karajacensis dominated in the warm, low salinity waters at the Huanghe River mouth. Aloricate ciliate sp.1 dominated in the cold, high salinity waters in the northwest of the study area and the Bohai Strait. In the second grid investigation, T. Karajacensis almost disappeared. The abundance of aloricate ciliate sp.1 decreased drastically. The aloricate ciliate sp.2 dominatedat the Bohai Strait. The change of ciliate abundance may be due to the disturbance of hurricane.``

  20. Community Structure and Biodiversity of Soil Ciliates at Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest in Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The abundance, biodiversity, and community similarity of ciliates in fresh and air-dried soil with different, physical/chemical properties were analyzed. Three Classes, 11 Orders, 34 Genera, and 70 species of ciliates were found with the first dominant group being Hypotrichida. Ciliate bio diversities followed Site B 42-), but negatively with ph and total potassium (TK). Site A and Site B and Site B and Site C showed the highest similarity in fresh and dried samples, respectively. The ubiquitous characteristics of ciliate distribution suggested their important role in food webs and nutrient cycling. The presence of Colpodida was linked with mangrove plants.

  1. Müllerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst in the gluteal cleft mimicking a pilonidal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Sol; Bhalla, Varun K; Needham, Lance; Sharma, Suash; Pipkin, Walter L; Hatley, Robyn M; Howell, Charles G

    2014-05-01

    A cutaneous ciliated cyst is a rare entity found predominantly in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. Although initially described by Hess in 1890, the present day term, "cutaneous ciliated cyst," was proposed by Farmer in 1978 and includes a wide array of cyst types. Despite their typical female predominance and location, many have described cutaneous ciliated cysts in males and atypical locations. In addition, Mullerian cysts in the posterior mediastinum and the retroperitoneum have been reported. To date, only 40 cases have been reported in the literature of a Mullerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst. Here, we report a case of 13-year-old female with one in the gluteal cleft, initially presenting as a pilonidal cyst. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of pediatric sacrococcygeal lesions and pathogenesis of a Mullerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst. PMID:23913265

  2. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem:effects on accumulation of ambient ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Hu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ciliated protozoa, Euplotes vannus and Uronema marinum, on accumulation of ammonia in marine waters are detected using experimental ecological method, in order to reveal the contributions and functions of ciliates to the marine ecosystem. During experiments, the concentrations of ammonia-N, and the densities of ciliates and bacteria are measured. The results reveal that ciliates can change the procedure of ammonia accumulation by their grazing activity, and maintain ambient ammonium at low levels through interrupting the stationary phase of bacteria population growth and enhancing their growth and metabolism. The present work confirms that ciliates, as bacteria-predators, play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in intensive mariculture biotopes.

  3. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Kampo Medicine Water Extracts against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Xia; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Morita, Eishin

    2016-06-01

    Kampo medicines consist of a variety of crude animal, plant, and mineral extracts that have long been used to relieve different symptoms, and are relatively safe. However, their mechanisms of actions have not been well investigated. We screened 61 commercially available Kampo medicines to determine if they contain constituents with antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal effect of the Kampo medicines was determined by measuring the mean absorbance of treated fungal culture media. Lower absorbance values suggested a higher inhibition of the growth rate of T. rubrum by the Kampo medicines. We found that seven of the evaluated formulations exhibited a comparable antifungal activity to that of fluconazole at 14 mg/mL. The seven active Kampo medicines were Saiko-keishi-kankyou-to, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Saiko-keishi-to, Keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Dai-saiko-to, Bohu-tsu-sho-san, and Otsu-ji-to. The seven Kampo medicines with antifungal activity contain 30 different crude extracts, and Ou-gon (Scutellaria root) is a supplement contained in six of the seven formulations. Therefore, Ou-gon was considered to play a major role in their antifungal effect. The antifungal assay of the Ou-gon water extract showed that it significantly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Future studies will focus on the isolation and identification of the antifungal components of the crude extracts of Ou-gon, which may be potentially useful, new, and safe antifungal drugs. PMID:27534111

  4. Identification of chromatophore membrane protein complexes formed under different nitrogen availability conditions in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selao, Tiago Toscano; Branca, Rui; Chae, Pil Seok;

    2011-01-01

    The chromatophore membrane of the photosynthetic diazotroph Rhodospirillum rubrum is of vital importance for a number of central processes, including nitrogen fixation. Using a novel amphiphile, we have identified protein complexes present under different nitrogen availability conditions by the use...... expressed proteins, such as subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex and other TCA cycle enzymes that are usually found in the cytosol, thus hinting at a possible association to the membrane in response to nitrogen deficiency. We propose a redox sensing mechanism that can influence the membrane...

  5. Toxicogenomic Response of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H to the Micropollutant Triclosan▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Vanermen, Guido; Monsieurs, Pieter; De Wever, Heleen; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy; Leys, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project, a pilot study was performed to identify the effects of triclosan on the MELiSSA carbon-mineralizing microorganism Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H. Triclosan is a biocide that is commonly found in human excrement and is considered an emerging pollutant in wastewater and the environment. Chronic exposure to MELiSSA-relevant concentrations (≥25 μg liter−1) of triclosan resulted in a significant extension of the...

  6. The effects of different fertilizers on the ciliate communities of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of lime, mineral fertilizers and different composts on the ciliate communities (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of very acidified spruce forests were tested. In succession culture experiments species range, total numbers, abundance and dominance structure of the ciliate communities showed continued changes over a 90 day period. This method offers the opportunity not only to diagnose, but also to quantify effects of soil treatments. Investigations at the ARINUS-site Schluchsee (Black Forest) showed the following results: Liming led to a greater change in the ciliate communities than fertilization with magnesium-sulphate and ammonia-sulphate. Liming and treatment with compost, made from household garbage, and compost, made from chopped wood on the Beimerstetten site (Swabian Alb) led also to remarkably changes in the ciliate communities. The total ciliate numbers of the household garbage area were very low. In contrast, the ciliate community of the chopped wood compost areas were characterized by a great species number and high abundances of spirotrichuous ciliates, especially Halteria grandinella. (orig./UWA)

  7. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  8. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  9. Diverse modes of reproduction in the marine free-living ciliate Glauconema trihymene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufall Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most free-living ciliates reproduce by equal fission or budding during vegetative growth. In certain ciliates, reproduction occurs inside the cyst wall, viz. reproductive cysts, but more complex reproductive strategies have generally been thought to be confined to parasitic or symbiotic species, e.g. Radiophrya spp. Results In addition to equal fission, asymmetric binary division and reproductive cysts were discovered in the free-living bacterivorous scuticociliate Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. Asymmetric division is an innate physiological state that can be induced by sufficient food, and the higher the food concentration, the longer the asymmetric division persists. During asymmetric division, nuclear and somatic structures divide with transiently arrested cytokinesis and variable positioning of macronuclei. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA sequences, showed that the G. trihymene isolate studied here nests with typical scuticociliates and is paraphyletic to both the symbiotic apostome and astome ciliates, some of which also produce progeny by asymmetric division. Conclusions The asymmetric division in G. trihymene has no precedent among undisturbed free-living ciliates. The coexistence of multiple modes of reproduction may represent a previously undescribed reproductive strategy for ciliates living on food patches in coastal waters. This may also be indicative of similar reproductive strategies among other polyphenic ciliates, which have not been intensively studied. Asymmetric division provides a special opportunity for studying ciliates' phenotypic plasticity and may also illuminate the origins of multicellularity.

  10. Attempts to apply affinity labeling techniques to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. [Comparison of spinach leaf and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F. C.; Norton, I. L.; Stringer, C. D.; Schloss, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on carboxylases/oxygenases from different species may be necessary to confirm that a residue implicated as essential is indeed an active-site component. To provide an especially stringent test case for the identification of species invariant structural features the enzymes from two phylogenetically distant species, spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum, were compared. To date, the reactions of Br-butanone-P/sub 2/ and BrAcNHEtOP with the spinach enayme have been rather thoroughly characterized; only preliminary experiments have been completed with the R. rubrum enzyme. Both enzymes were isolated and assayed for carboxylase activity (spectrophotometrically or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-fixation) and for oxygenase activity.

  11. Polyclonality of Trichophyton rubrum Isolates in aDermatophytosis Patient with Multiple Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kiminobu; Mochizuki, Hirokazu; Izumi, Katsuhiko; Sakata, Yuichi; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Nishibu, Akiko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We cultured 15 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and one isolate of Trichophyton mentagrophytes from an 82-year-old male tinea patient with multiple lesions. To determine whether feet lesions were the source of dermatophytes of other tinea lesions, we extracted total cellular DNA from the T. rubrum isolates(13 from feet, two from right waist and buttock). PCR targeting the non-transcribed spacer(NTS)region of ribosomal RNA gene was performed. Molecular polymorphisms were detected by length variation of amplicons.Four molecular types were found among the 15 isolates. The predominant type, which we previously named Type III, comprised seven isolates cultured from both feet and from left waist and buttock. This was followed by Type VI, five isolates; Type V, two isolates; and Type IV, one isolate. Apart from type III, which was cultured from both feet, isolates were cultured from one foot only. The patient was successfully treated for all types with a six-month course of oral terbinafine and topical luliconazole. The molecular typing supported the notion that tinea pedis was the source of tinea corporis in the patient. PMID:27251316

  12. Molecular Characterization of Subunit G of the Vacuolar ATPase in Pathogen Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic fungus causing up to 90% of chronic cases of dermatophytosis. Several properties of this fungus have been investigated so far. However, a few studies were carried out in the field of molecular biology of this fungus. In the present study, we tried to identify the subunit G of its vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase. Pairs of 21 nt primers were designed from highly conserved regions of the V-ATPase subunit G genes in other fungi. Mentioned primers were utilized in PCR using isolated genomic DNA template as well as cytoplasmic RNA of T.rubrum and the PCR and RT-PCR fragments were then sequenced. About 469 nucleotides were sequenced which encoded a polypeptide with 119 amino acids. Nucleotide sequence comparison in gene data banks (NCBI, NIH for both the DNA and its deduced amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with V-ATPase subunit G genes and proteins of other eukaryotic cells. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein was about 84% identical to the sequence of V-ATPase subunit G from other fungi. In summary, we have cloned the first V-ATPase subunit G of dermatophytes and characterized it as a member of this gene family in other eukaryotic cells.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Paenibacillus kribbensis POC 115 against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; da Mota, Fabio Faria; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia; E Silva, Davi Oliveira; da Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-03-01

    In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes. PMID:22805816

  14. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravaud, Stéphanie [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Watzlawick, Hildegard [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Industrielle Genetik, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Haser, Richard [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Mattes, Ralf [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Industrielle Genetik, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Aghajari, Nushin, E-mail: n.aghajari@ibcp.fr [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France)

    2006-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  15. Dermatofitose por Tricophyton rubrum como infecção oportunista em pacientes com doença de Cushing Dermatophytosis caused by Tricophyton rubrum as an opportunistic infection in patients with Cushing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isy Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum é um agente comum nas micoses superficiais, podendo apresentar lesões extensas pauci-inflamatórias de evolução crônica, especialmente em imunocomprometidos. O hipercortisolismo, na síndrome de Cushing, aumenta o risco de infecções, resultado do efeito imunossupressor dos glicocorticóides. Os casos relatados apresentam duas formas distintas de dermatofitose, em pacientes com doença de Cushing, causadas por Tricophyton rubrum e posterior remissão após normalização da cortisolemia.Trichophyton rubrum is a common agent found in superficial mycoses, which present ample nonin?ammatory lesions, with chronic evolution, especially in immunocompromised patients. The hypercortisolism in Cushing's syndrome increases the risk of infections as a result of the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids. The reported cases here refer to two different types of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in patients with Cushing's disease, resistant to antifungal treatment. The disease remitted after the levels of cortisol went back to normal.

  16. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption of Cu2+ onto C.rubrum biomass at the equilibrium. Langmuir model fitted well the equilibrium data for all biosorbents. Maximum biosorption capacity of dried biomass was calculated 25.51 mg/g, while it was calculated 42.92 mg/g and 30.03 mg/g for sodium hydroxide modified and formaldehyde modified biomass, respectively. Modified biomasses have higher maximum biosorption capacities indicating that modification of biomass with NaOH and HCHOH may increase responsible active sites for biosorption on the C.rubrum.

  17. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated [methyl-3H]-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration

  18. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  19. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is a rare condition almost always found incidentally on a computerized tomography scan or at autopsy. Rarely, portal vein compression can be a presenting finding. The cysts are usually unilocular and occur with greater frequency in males. There is a predilection for the left lobe. The cysts average 3 cm in size. We present in this case report a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst found incidentally in the setting of renal carcinoma. The patient was a man known to have a large renal mass, assumed to be cancer, and a liver mass suspicious for metastatic disease. This liver mass was cystic and upon further analysis showed ciliated epithelial lining. We describe the gross and histological appearance, as well as a brief discussion of ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. We report the first case of a patient with coexisting renal cell carcinoma and a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst. While this may represent a coincidental finding, a possibility of a neoplastic or non-neoplastic disorder associated with ciliated hepatic foregut cysts can not be completely ruled out

  20. Effect of heterotrophic versus autotrophic food on feeding and reproduction of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa : relationship with prey fatty acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broglio, E.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Calbet, A.; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Saiz, E.

    2003-01-01

    ) and ingestion rates, or as the quotient: EPR/ingestion rate. The diets, offered in monoculture, were the heterotrophic ciliates Strombidium sulcatum or Mesodinium pulex, the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium dominans, the autotrophic cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the autotrophic...

  1. snRNA and Heterochromatin Formation Are Involved in DNA Excision during Macronuclear Development in Stichotrichous Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    Juranek, Stefan A.; Rupprecht, Sina; Postberg, Jan; Lipps, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    Several models for specific excision of micronucleus-specific DNA sequences during macronuclear development in ciliates exist. While the template-guided recombination model suggests recombination events resulting in specific DNA excision and reordering of macronucleus-destined sequences (MDS) guided by a template, there is evidence that an RNA interference-related mechanism is involved in DNA elimination in holotrichous ciliates. We describe that in the stichotrichous ciliate Stylonychia, snR...

  2. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifaz Alexandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychomycosis. At the end of the follow-up 17/32 patients had clinical and mycologic cure (53.12%, 5 had clinical improvement only (15.6%, and 10 (31.2% failed. Conclusion: Weekly alternate therapy with itraconazole + terbinafine represents a safe rescue treatment.

  3. Metabolic Regulation as a Consequence of Anaerobic 5-Methylthioadenosine Recycling in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Justin A.; Sriram, Jaya; Chourey, Karuna; Ecker, Christopher D.; Sharma, Ritin; Wildenthal, John A.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a novel oxygen-independent, aerobic methionine salvage pathway (MSP) for recycling methionine from 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), the MTA-isoprenoid shunt. This organism can also metabolize MTA as a sulfur source under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also function anaerobically as well. In this study, deep proteomics profiling, directed metabolite analysis, and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed metabolic changes in response to anaerobic growth on MTA versus sulfate as sole sulfur source. The abundance of protein levels associated with methionine transport, cell motility, and chemotaxis increased in the presence of MTA over that in the presence of sulfate. Purine salvage from MTA resulted primarily in hypoxanthine accumulation and a decrease in protein levels involved in GMP-to-AMP conversion to balance purine pools. Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolic protein levels for lipid metabolism were lower in abundance, whereas poly-β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and storage were increased nearly 10-fold. The known R. rubrum aerobic MSP was also shown to be upregulated, to function anaerobically, and to recycle MTA. This suggested that other organisms with gene homologues for the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also possess a functioning anaerobic MSP. In support of our previous findings that ribulose-1,5-carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is required for an apparently purely anaerobic MSP, RubisCO transcript and protein levels both increased in abundance by over 10-fold in cells grown anaerobically on MTA over those in cells grown on sulfate, resulting in increased intracellular RubisCO activity. These results reveal for the first time global metabolic responses as a consequence of anaerobic MTA metabolism compared to using sulfate as the sulfur source. PMID:27406564

  4. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments. PMID:27098881

  5. High cryptic soil ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) diversity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    The diversity and distribution of soil ciliates from Australia is poorly known. Thus, we studied eight taxa, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, silver impregnation, detailed morphometrics, ontogenesis, and reinvestigation of type slides. At first glance, the Australian taxa looked very similar to described species, however, detailed investigations resulted in the identification of six cryptic species: Afroamphisiella multinucleata minima nov. subspec., Cladotricha similis nov. spec., Erimophrya similis nov. spec., Heterogonostomum salinarum nov. gen., nov. spec., Pseudohemisincirra arabica australiensis nov. subspec., and Pattersoniella (Pattersoniellides) australiensis nov. subgen., nov. spec. This new subgenus is unique among all described hypotrichs in having reduced some anterior paroral dikinetids the fibrillar associates of which are, however, still present. Only two of the eight taxa are possibly cosmopolitans: Apourosomoida halophilaFoissner et al., 2002 and Urosoma karinaeFoissner, 1987. This supports the moderate endemicity model, i.e., that a third of protists have a restricted distribution (Foissner, Chao and Katz 2008). PMID:26844781

  6. Tintinnid ciliates of Amundsen Sea (Antarctica plankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dolan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea has been described as one of the most productive and dynamic pelagic systems in Antarctica and is one of the least studied. Based on samples from 15 stations in the Amundsen Sea, we describe for the first time the composition of the tintinnid ciliate assemblage of the microzooplankton. We compared the species compositions of coastal polynya sites, where the phytoplankton communities are dominated by Phaeocystis, to those of the offshore deep water sites, which are dominated by diatoms. We found a total of 15 species. Polynya sites were dominated by a few species of tintinnids, mostly those endemic to the Southern Ocean. In contrast, the deep-water sites contained many widespread tintinnid species, which are known from a wide variety of systems as well as other areas of the Southern Ocean. We examined polymorphism known to characterize the Antarctic tintinnid species Cymatocylis affinis/convallaria and Codonellopsis gaussi. We found that the types or forms found appeared unrelated to the type of microplankton community, defined by the identity of the dominant phytoplankton taxa. However, the number of different morphotypes found at a site appeared related to the overall concentration of the species, suggesting that different morphologies, previously considered distinct species, may simply be developmental stages.

  7. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  8. Origins of learned reciprocity in solitary ciliates searching grouped 'courting' assurances at quantum efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Learning to reciprocate socially valued actions, such as cheating and cooperation, marks evolutionary advances in animal intelligence thought unequalled by even colonial microbes known to secure respective individual or group fitness tradeoffs through genetic and epigenetic processes. However, solitary ciliates, unique among microbes for their emulation of simple Hebbian-like learning contingent upon feedback between behavioral output and vibration-activated mechanosensitive Ca(2+) channels, might be the best candidates to learn to reciprocate necessary preconjugant touches perceived during complex 'courtship rituals'. Testing this hypothesis here with mock social trials involving an ambiguous vibration source, the large heterotrich ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum showed it can indeed learn to modify emitted signals about mating fitness to encourage paired reproduction. Ciliates, improving their signaling expertise with each felt vibration, grouped serial escape strategies gesturing opposite 'courting' assurances of playing 'harder to get' or 'easier to get' into separate, topologically invariant computational networks. Stored strategies formed patterns of action or heuristics with which ciliates performed fast, quantum-like distributed modular searches to guide future replies of specific fitness content. Heuristic-guided searches helped initial inferior repliers, ciliates with high initial reproductive costs, learn to sensitize their behavioral output and opportunistically compete with presumptive mating 'rivals' advertising higher quality fitness. Whereas, initial superior repliers, ciliates with low initial reproductive costs, learned with the aid of heuristics to habituate their behavioral output and sacrifice net reproductive payoffs to cooperate with presumptive 'suitors', a kind of learned altruism only before attributed to animal social intelligences. The present findings confirm that ciliates are highly competent decision makers capable of achieving paired

  9. The mitochondrial genomes of the ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Minh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are thousands of very diverse ciliate species from which only a handful mitochondrial genomes have been studied so far. These genomes are rather similar because the ciliates analysed (Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia are closely related. Here we study the mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus. These ciliates are only distantly related to Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia, but more closely related to Nyctotherus ovalis, which possesses a hydrogenosomal (mitochondrial genome. Results The linear mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of several Tetrahymena species, Paramecium aurelia and the partially sequenced mitochondrial genome of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis. This study reports new features such as long 5'gene extensions of several mitochondrial genes, extremely long cox1 and cox2 open reading frames and a large repeat in the middle of the linear mitochondrial genome. The repeat separates the open reading frames into two blocks, each having a single direction of transcription, from the repeat towards the ends of the chromosome. Although the Euplotes mitochondrial gene content is almost identical to that of Paramecium and Tetrahymena, the order of the genes is completely different. In contrast, the 33273 bp (excluding the repeat region piece of the mitochondrial genome that has been sequenced in both Euplotes species exhibits no difference in gene order. Unexpectedly, many of the mitochondrial genes of E. minuta encoding ribosomal proteins possess N-terminal extensions that are similar to mitochondrial targeting signals. Conclusion The mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus are rather different from the previously studied genomes. Many genes are extended in size compared to mitochondrial

  10. Multiple genes of apparent algal origin suggest ciliates may once have been photosynthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2008-07-01

    Plantae (as defined by Cavalier-Smith, 1981) plastids evolved via primary endosymbiosis whereby a heterotrophic protist enslaved a photosynthetic cyanobacterium. This "primary" plastid spread into other eukaryotes via secondary endosymbiosis. An important but contentious theory in algal evolution is the chromalveolate hypothesis that posits chromists (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles) and alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common ancestor that contained a red-algal-derived "secondary" plastid. Under this view, the existence of several later-diverging plastid-lacking chromalveolates such as ciliates and oomycetes would be explained by plastid loss in these lineages. To test the idea of a photosynthetic ancestry for ciliates, we used the 27,446 predicted proteins from the macronuclear genome of Tetrahymena thermophila to query prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. We identified 16 proteins of possible algal origin in the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium tetraurelia. Fourteen of these are present in other chromalveolates. Here we compare and contrast the likely scenarios for algal-gene origin in ciliates either via multiple rounds of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from algal prey or symbionts, or through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) during a putative photosynthetic phase in their evolution. PMID:18595706

  11. Involvement of Crawling and Attached Ciliates in the Aggregation of Particles in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Arregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological community in activated sludge wastewater plants is organized within this ecosystem as bioaggregates or flocs, in which the biotic component is embedded in a complex matrix comprised of extracellular polymeric substances mainly of microbial origin. The aim of this work is to study the role of different floc-associated ciliates commonly reported in wastewater treatment plants-crawling Euplotes and sessile Vorticella- in the formation of aggregates. Flocs, in experiments with ciliates and latex beads, showed more compactation and cohesion among particles than those in the absence of ciliates. Ciliates have been shown to contribute to floc formation through different mechanisms such as the active secretion of polymeric substances (extrusomes, their biological activities (movement and feeding strategies, or the cysts formation capacity of some species. Staining with lectins coupled to fluorescein showed that carbohydrate of the matrix contained glucose, manose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and galactose. Protein fraction revealed over the latex beads surfaces could probably be of bacterial origin, but nucleic acids represented an important fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of ciliate origin.

  12. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  13. Distal and lateral toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye*

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The study showed the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue to treat severe distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis. 22 patients were divided into two groups: group A consisting of 11 patients with severe toenail onychomycosis and group B consisting of 11 patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. All patients had onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patients were treated with sessions of 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated wi...

  14. Functional interfacing of Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores to a conducting support for capture and conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, John W; Woronowicz, Kamil; Lamptey, Joana L; Awong, John; Baird, James; Moshar, Amir; Vittadello, Michele; Falkowski, Paul G; Niederman, Robert A

    2013-09-26

    Owing to the considerable current interest in replacing fossil fuels with solar radiation as a clean, renewable, and secure energy source, light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems offers a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. In particular, intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum provide a fully functional and robust photosynthetic apparatus, ideal for biophysical investigations of energy transduction and incorporation into biohybrid photoelectrochemical devices. These vesicular organelles, which arise by invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane, are the sites of the photochemical reaction centers and the light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex. The LH1 protein is responsible for collecting visible and near-IR radiant energy and funneling these excitations to the reaction center for conversion into a transmembrane charge separation. Here, we have investigated the morphology, fluorescence kinetics and photocurrent generation of chromatophores from Rsp. rubrum deposited directly onto gold surfaces in the absence of chemical surface modifications. Atomic force microscopy showed a significant coverage of the gold electrode surface by Rsp. rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of photochemistry was demonstrated in the photoactive films. Chronoamperometric measurements showed that the assembled bioelectrodes were capable of generating sustained photocurrent under white light illumination at 220 mW/cm(2) with a maximum current of 1.5 μA/cm(2), which slowly declines in about 1 week. This study demonstrates the possibility of photoelectrochemical control of robust chromatophore preparations from Rsp. rubrum that paves the way for future incorporation into functional solar cells. PMID:23789750

  15. Sertaconazole Nitrate Shows Fungicidal and Fungistatic Activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, Causative Agents of Tinea Pedis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J.; Tur-Tur, Cristina; Cárdenes, Delia C.; Estivill, Dolors; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against dermatophytes were evaluated by testing 150 clinical isolates of causative agents of tinea pedis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The overall geometric means for fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against these isolates were 0.26 and 2.26 μg/ml, respectively, although values were higher for T. mentagrophytes than for the others. This is the first comprehensive...

  16. Extracellular Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Three Common Species of Dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis

    OpenAIRE

    Moazeni, Maryam; Rashidi, Niloofar; Shahverdi, Ahmad R; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Sassan REZAIE

    2012-01-01

    Background: To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nanotechnology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25°C...

  17. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon; Boesen, Sven; Krämer, Alwin; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions. The SAR of the griseofulvin analogues toward the two fungi followed the same trend with the majority being less active than griseofulvin and none had more than twice the potency of the parent compound. A ...

  18. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonam, D; Lehman, L.; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo an...

  19. Ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jihyoung

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cyst of gallbladder is a very rare benign cystic lesion. A 39-year-old woman was referred to our hospital after abdominal ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion of gallbladder. On abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, a unilocular cystic lesion was found at right upper quadrant with attachment to the gallbladder neck. The gallbladder with cystic lesion was resected through laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cystic lesion revealed a unilocular cyst with ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium and abundant goblet cells. Pathologic examination is essential to distinguish from other cystic lesions of the gallbladder and avoid unnecessary additional treatment. In the current case report, we presented the clinico-pathologic findings of the ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder and review of literature.

  20. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    population may be encysted. The factors governing the dynamics of active and encysted cells in the soil are not well understood. Our objective was to determine the dynamics of active and encysted populations of ciliates during the decomposition of freshly added organic material. We monitored, in soil...... mathematical modeling. Following the addition of fresh organic material, bacterial numbers increased more than 1,400-fold. There was a temporary increase in the number of active ciliates, followed by a rapid decline, although the size of the bacterial prey populations remained high. During this initial burst...

  1. Ciliated Foregut Cyst of the Gallbladder: A Case Report with US and CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder is very rare with only a few reports to date. In our case, an ultrasonogram (US) showed a well-demarcated hypoechoic mass containing internal hyperechoic material in the fundus of the gallbladder. The CT scans showed a poorly enhancing round soft tissue mass in the gallbladder wall lined by an enhancing intact mucosal layer. We report here on a very rare form of the ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder including ultrasound and CT image results

  2. Ciliated Foregut Cyst of the Gallbladder: A Case Report with US and CT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Jeon, Yong Sun; Lee, Jung Il; Han, Jee Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder is very rare with only a few reports to date. In our case, an ultrasonogram (US) showed a well-demarcated hypoechoic mass containing internal hyperechoic material in the fundus of the gallbladder. The CT scans showed a poorly enhancing round soft tissue mass in the gallbladder wall lined by an enhancing intact mucosal layer. We report here on a very rare form of the ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder including ultrasound and CT image results.

  3. Taxonomic list of ciliated protist (Protozoa: Ciliophora in Cojimar river, Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Caridad Ymas González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoan’s communities from Cojimar river (Havana city was determinated, over the study period. Samples were collected from six stations located along the river. The samples were cultured in Petri dishes and were main-tained in environmental temperature and natural ilumination. Species identification was made taking into account morphological characters and Levine’s et al.(1980 taxonomic classification was used. It were identified 49 species of ciliated protozoans, which are the first records for the locality. The species are distri-buted in three classes, ten orders, eighteen families and twenty-six genera.

  4. Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorni, A; Diamant, A

    2005-06-01

    Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:16060271

  5. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L. Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Anderson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L. over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season.

  6. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Federica; Carlesi, Lorenzo; Abbiati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC) were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations. PMID:23646109

  7. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Costantini

    Full Text Available While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations.

  8. [Recombinant intracellular Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase with low L-glutaminase activity and antiproliferative effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaia, M V; Pokrovskiĭ, V S; Aleksandrova, S S; Anisimova, N Iu; Adrianov, R M; Treshchalina, E M; Ponomarev, G V; Sokolov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant producer of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase (RrA) was received and purification procedure of RrA was developed. It was shown that RrA has following biochemical and catalytic characteristics: K(m) for L-asn 0.22 MM, pH optimum 9.2; temperature optimum 54 degrees C; pI = 5.1 +/- 0.3; L-gln activity seems to be low-to-negligible. K562, DU145 and MDA-MB-231 cellular lines displayed significant sensitivity towards the enzyme (IC50 = 1.80; 9.19 and 34.62 ME/ml, respectively. In comparison with L-asparaginases from E. coli II type (EcA) and Erwinia carotovora (EwA) cytotoxicity of RrA seems to be higher than EwA, but lower than EcA. 10-fold i.p. RrA administration (4000 ME/kg per day) in L5178y bearing mice showed T/C = 172%. The received results show that RrA belongs to I type cellular L-asparaginases with low L-gln activity and the high antiproliferative effect. PMID:23789346

  9. Root - shoot - signaling in Chenopodium rubrum L. as studied by 15O labeled water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It has been demonstrated with C. rubrum that the different organ systems are transmitting surface action potentials which might be the basis for systemic signal transduction. Shoot tip respectively root generated action potentials travel along the stem axis. Shoot tip generated action potentials arriving at the basis can be reflected and travel upwards. The radioactive labeling technique was established at the NIRS in Inage, Japan. About 2 GBq of 15O labeled Hoagland's solution was supplied to the plant root or cut stem in a phytotron at 25oC with 45 % of relative humidity and continuous light. By cutting the shoot apical bud and the apices of main side branches the uptake of 15O labeled water was inhibited in plants with intact roots but not in plants with roots cut. Because of the short half-life of 15O (2 min), experiments could be repeated in hourly intervals. Cutting the apex probably limits root water uptake via a hydraulic-electrochemical signal. The results are discussed with respect to the significance of a continuous communication between the root system and the shoot apical meristem(s) in the adaptation of plants to their environment. (author)

  10. Nickel-specific, slow-binding inhibition of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibition of purified carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide was investigated in both the presence and absence of CO and electron acceptor. The inhibition was a time-dependent process exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics under both sets of conditions. The true second-order rate constants for inhibition were 72.2 M-1 s-1 with both substrates present and 48.9 and 79.5 M-1 s-1, respectively, for the reduced and oxidized enzymes incubated with cyanide. CO partially protected the enzyme against inhibition after 25-min incubation with 100 μM KCN. Dissociation constants of 8.46 μM (KCN) and 4.70 μM (CO) were calculated for the binding of cyanide and CO to the enzyme. Cyanide inhibition was fully reversible under an atmosphere of CO after removal of unbound cyanide. N2 was unable to reverse the inhibition. The competence of nickel-deficient (apo) CO dehydrogenase to undergo activation by NiCl2 was unaffected by prior incubation with cyanide. Cyanide inhibition of holo-CO dehydrogenase was not reversed by addition of NiCl2. 14CN- remained associated with holoenzyme but not with apoenzyme through gel filtration chromatography. These findings suggest that cyanide is a slow-binding, active-site-directed, nickel-specific, reversible inhibitor of CO dehydrogenase. The authors propose that cyanide inhibits CO dehydrogenase by being a analogue of CO and by binding through enzyme-bound nickel

  11. The Inhibition of Human Pathogens: Trichophyton rubrum and Trichoderma harzianum by a Natural Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand R. Hafidh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A number of studies have recently conducted to identify novel and potent antifungal components from natural products. One of the reasons is to overcome the antifungal resistant developed against most of commercially available drugs. Studies confirmed that mung beans have increased phenolic compounds and enhanced defenses during germination. Approach: We hypothesized that antifungal activities might be found in sprouts of mung beans, or Vigna radiate (L. R. Wilczek. The screening method was conducted using disc diffusion assay against 12 fungi. It was followed by the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration. Results: The screening results revealed a potential antifungal activity by mung bean sprout extract against 2 out of 12 fungi including remarkable antifungal activity against human fungal pathogens, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichoderma harzianum. The potential antifungal activity of mung bean sprout reflects effective quality/quantity of polyphenolic compounds present after bean germination. Conclusion/Recommendations: This unprecedented study showed that mung bean sprout extract is a potential source for novel antifungal compound (s that is inexpensive and readily available at a large scale for pharmaceutical companies.

  12. Changes in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2 and subsequent renaturation: An 15N NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15N-enriched ferrocytochrome c2from Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied by 15N NMR at different solvent pH values. The mobility and chemical shift to the N-terminal glutamic acid (335.4 ppm at pH 5.1) were found to depend on pH. It was least mobile between pH 8 and 9.0, which is explained in terms of pH-dependent conformational changes and formation of salt linkages and/or hydrogen bonds. The resonances of the lysine side chains are centered around 341.7 ppm at low pH and move upfield with pH by about 8.4 ppm with pH/sub a/ values of 10.8. The exchange rates of the εNH protons are lowest near the pK/sub a/ values. The protein is very stable in the pH range between 4.9 and 10.0 but unfolds abruptly at pH 10.5-11. Denaturation was verified by the measurement of several parameters by NMR. The renaturation of the protein demonstrates that the folding begins with reformation of home coordination and establishment of a hydrophobic core, followed by positioning of side chains and peptide backbones linking the nucleation centers. The repositioning processes had time scales of minutes to hours in contrast to the reported values of seconds in some studies

  13. Isolation and in vitro cultivation of the fibrolytic rumen ciliate Eremoplastron (Eudiplodinium) dilobum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Pietrzak, Marta; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Wereszka, Krzysztof; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Hackstein, Johannes H P

    2015-02-01

    The rumen ciliate Eremoplastron dilobum was isolated from sheep rumen fluid and cultivated in vitro as a species population. Four different salt solutions were used to prepare the culture media. However, only the "Artificial rumen fluid" composed of (g/L): K2HPO4-3.48, NaHCO3-2.1, NaCl-0.76, CaCl2×6H2O-0.33, CH3COONa-6.12, MgCl2×6H2O-0.3, Na2HPO4-1.71, NaHPO4×H2O-1.01 and distilled water enabled cultivation of this species for over 56 weeks. The protozoa were able to grow in a medium consisting of culture salt solution and powdered meadow hay (0.6mg/ml per d). The addition of wheat gluten did not increase the population density of E. dilobum whereas the supplemented crystalline cellulose and/or barley flour improved the growth of ciliates (Pdensity of the ciliate population. The recommended food consisted of meadow hay, wheat gluten, crystalline cellulose and barley flour when supplied in the proportions of 0.6, 0.16, 0.12 and 0.12mg/mL per day. We observed morphological variation of the ciliates, involving partial or complete reduction of the caudal lobes. PMID:25660229

  14. Ciliated Adenosquamous Carcinoma: Expanding the Phenotypic Diversity of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkay-Gonzalez, Lisa; Faquin, William; McHugh, Jonathan B; Lewis, James S; Tuluc, Madalina; Seethala, Raja R

    2016-06-01

    This study describes a unique subset of ciliated, human papillomavirus (HPV) related, adenosquamous carcinomas (AsqCA) of the head and neck that in contrast to most AsqCA, often show areas with lower grade cytonuclear features. They are comprised of largely non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma components with cystic change, gland formation, mucin production, and cilia in tumor cells. Seven cases of ciliated AsqCA were retrieved. Site distribution was as follows: palatine tonsil-3/7, base of tongue-1/7, and neck (unknown primary site)-3/7. Despite the occasional resemblance to mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the tumors showed focal keratinizing morphology and atypia, and all tumors were negative for MAML2 rearrangements. Oropharyngeal and neck tumors were uniformly p16 positive and showed punctate staining by in situ hybridization for high risk HPV DNA. There were two distant metastases (lung), and one tumor related death. Thus, ciliated AsqCA are HPV-associated lesions that pose unique pitfalls, closely mimicking MEC and other salivary gland tumors. These tumors add to the list of those which defy the dogma that ciliated epithelium always equates to a benign process. PMID:26411881

  15. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematic

  16. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high altitude warm-monomictic saline lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peštová, D.; Macek, Miroslav; Pérez, M. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-25. ISSN 0932-4739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : ciliates * autotrophic picoplankton * feeding rates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008

  17. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors of the lung: a clinicopathologic analysis of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tsugumasa; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kosuge, Tomoo; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuta, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors (CMPTs) are rare peripheral nodules of the lung first described in 2002. Because of their rarity and nonstandardized diagnostic terminology, CMPTs have been poorly recognized among pathologists. To better characterize these lesions, we undertook a detailed clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 archival cases. Ten CMPTs occurred in 7 men and 3 women with a median age of 62 years. All were small peripheral nonendobronchial nodules with a mean diameter of 1.0 cm. All but 1 tumor were incidentally detected by computed tomography-based screening, all of which were radiologically interpreted as adenocarcinomas. Although limited surgery treated all but 1 CMPT, they followed a benign course with no recurrence at a mean follow-up of 43 months (range: 2 to 88 mo). Histologically, CMPTs showed glandular and/or papillary architecture, comprising a vaguely organized mixture of nonatypical ciliated columnar cells, mucous cells, and basal cells, often enveloped by copious intra-alveolar mucin. Micropapillary tufts of ciliated cells and seemingly discontinuous growth along alveolar walls were occasionally present, mimicking adenocarcinomas. Ciliated cells and basal cells were immunopositive for TTF-1 and p40, respectively, whereas mucous cells lacked HNF4α expression. CMPTs are rare, likely benign, underrecognized processes of the lung that should be distinguished from adenocarcinomas. PMID:25803171

  18. Multiple genes of apparent algal origin suggest ciliates may once have been photosynthetic

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    Plantae (sensu Cavalier-Smith 1981) [1] plastids evolved via primary endosymbiosis whereby a heterotrophic protist enslaved a photosynthetic cyanobacterium. This 'primary' plastid spread into other eukaryotes via secondary endosymbiosis. An important but contentious theory in algal evolution is the chromalveolate hypothesis that posits chromists (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles) and alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common ancestor that contained a...

  19. Bottom-up versus top-down effects on ciliate community composition in four eutrophic lakes (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Feizhou; Liu, Zhengwen; Zhao, Xiuxia; Yang, Kun; Lu, Wenxuan; Cui, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that ciliate plankton is generally controlled by food resources (e.g., algae) and predators (e.g., metazooplankton). Among lakes with similar trophic levels but different distributions of phyto- and metazooplankton, the main forces acting on ciliate assemblages may be different. We investigated the relationship between ciliate communities and bottom-up versus top-down variables based on a survey of four subtropical eutrophic lakes (China). Two of the lakes (Chaohu, Taihu) are located on the Mid-lower Yangtze Plain near sea level, and the other two (Dianchi, Xingyunhu) on the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau at 1700m above sea level. Blooms of cyanobacteria developed during summer in Lakes Chaohu and Taihu and throughout the year in Lakes Dianchi and Xingyunhu. Ciliate functional feeding groups differed significantly between lakes. The results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and variation partitioning showed that cyanobacteria significantly influence ciliate species, whereas 'edible' algae (cryptophytes, diatoms) and cladocerans were the important variables in explaining the ciliate community structure of Lakes Dianchi and Xingyunhu compared with Lakes Taihu and Chaohu. Our results highlight the importance of consistent cyanobacterial blooms in shaping the ciliate community in subtropical eutrophic shallow lakes by interacting with top-down and bottom-up factors. PMID:26773905

  20. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  1. Probing the bacteriochlorophyll binding site by reconstitution of the light-harvesting complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum with bacteriochlorophyll a analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural features of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a that are required for binding to the light-harvesting proteins of Rhodospirillum rubrum were determined by testing for reconstitution of the B873 or B820 (structural subunit of B873) light-harvesting complexes with BChl a analogues. The results indicate that the binding site is very specific; of the analogues tested, only derivatives of BChl a with ethyl, phytyl, and geranylgeranyl esterifying alcohols and BChl b (phytyl) successfully reconstituted to form B820-and B873-type complexes. BChl analogues lacking magnesium, the C-3 acetyl group, or the C132 carbomethoxy group did not reconstitute to form B820 or B873. Also unreactive were 132-hydroxy BChl a and 3-acetylchlorophyll a. Competition experiments showed that several of these nonreconstituting analogues significantly slowed BChl a binding to form B820 and blocked BChl a-B873 formation, indicating that the analogues may competitively bind to the protein even though they do not form red-shifted complexes. With the R. rubrum polypeptides, BChl b formed complexes that were further red-shifted than those of BChl a; however, the energies of the red shifts, binding behavior, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were similar. B873 complexes reconstituted with the geranylgeranyl BChl a derivative, which contains the native esterifying alcohol for R. rubrum, showed in-vivo-like CD features, but the phytyl and ethyl B873 complexes showed inverted CD features in the near infrared. The B820 complex with the ethyl derivative was about 30-fold less stable than the two longer esterifying alcohol derivatives, but all formed stable B873 complexes

  2. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon;

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions. The...... analogues showed increased activity against the cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighted by 2'-benzyloxy-2'-demethoxy-griseofulvin, which showed low activity against both fungi but was among the most potent compounds against MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Tubulin has been proposed as the target of griseofulvin in...

  3. Colonization of periphytic ciliated protozoa on an artificial substrate in mariculture waters with notes on responses to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiqiu Li; Henglong Xu; Xiaofeng Lin; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Colonization of periphytic ciliates and their usefulness for monitoring water quality were evaluated using the glass slide method in two enclosed mariculture ponds used to culture crab larva and in a natural seawater reservoir. The results revealed that (1) the ciliate species composition and colonizing process differed between the culturing ponds and the natural reservoir and (2) the dominant ciliate species showed a greater distribution in terms of both the abundance and the occurrence frequency. This study also demonstrated that structural parameters were strongly related to water conditions. For example, the abundance was positively associated with NO-3-N and soluble reactive phosphate (P < 0.05), whereas the species number, species diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with nutrients (e.g. NO-3N and NH3-N) and temperature (P < 0.05). These findings support the evidence that periphytic ciliates are useful bioindicators of water quality in enclosed mariculture ecosystems.

  4. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  5. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum Ação fototóxica do diodo emissor de luz na viabilidade de Trichophyton rubrum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Faria Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. METHODS: The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. RESULTS: A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.FUNDAMENTOS: Trichophyton rubrum é o agente mais comum das micoses superficiais de pele e unhas causando infecções de longa duração e altas taxas de recidiva. As desvantagens do tratamento atual envolvem medicações tópicas as quais n

  6. Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kuidong; CHOI Joong Ki; LEI Yanli; YANG Eun Jin

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution. The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 μm. A total of 78 species were classified: 55 species at Station 2, 51 species each at Stations 1 and 4, and 47 species at Station 3. The mean number of species at each site was 29.2±2.0 (Station 1), 28.5±2.9 (Station 2), 27.8±1.7 (Station 3), and 24.5±2.3 (Station 4). The abundance was highly variable: 19 331±11 187 ind./L at Station 1, 7 960±5 639 ind./L at Station 2, 29 015± 12 999 ind./L at Station 3, and 8 190±4 658 ind./L at Station 4. Our results suggest that neither the simple chemical analysis (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate) nor the eutrophication/pollution index adequately described the water quality at the four stations. The same was true of the number of species and their abundance, both of which had no correlation with the chemical indices. In contrast, Margalef's diversity index values (3.12 at Station 2, 2.89 at Station 1, and 2.64 at Stations 3 and 4) generally discriminated the water quality status of the four stations. The difference in water quality among the stations was strongly supported by the pattern of species richness (i.e. the total number of species) of ciliates at each station. Our evaluation was consistent with the results of long-term water quality monitoring at the four stations. With increasing eutrophication, we observed also a compositional and functional shift in the ciliate assemblages from algivorous oligotrich/choreotrich to nonselective-omnivorous gymnostomatids to bacterivorous-detrivorous scuticociliatids. Thus, ciliates may be used to indicate the coastal water quality status of a given site.

  7. Preferential Feeding by the Ciliates Chilodonella and Tetrahymena spp. and Effects of These Protozoa on Bacterial Biofilm Structure and Composition▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa are important components of microbial food webs, but protozoan feeding preferences and their effects in the context of bacterial biofilms are not well understood. The feeding interactions of two contrasting ciliates, the free-swimming filter feeder Tetrahymena sp. and the surface-associated predator Chilodonella sp., were investigated using biofilm-forming bacteria genetically modified to express fluorescent proteins. According to microscopy, both ciliates readily consumed cells from...

  8. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Sánchez Medina; Miroslav Macek; Fernando Bautista-Reyes; Andrea Perz; Patricia Bonilla Lemus; Mario Chávez Arteaga

    2016-01-01

    noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010); the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (...

  9. The coupling of oligotrich ciliate populations and hydrography in the East China Sea: spatial and temporal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Lin, Chiu-Yi; Lee, Chung-Hsien; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Chang, Jeng

    2003-03-01

    Variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of oligotrich ciliate populations in the East China Sea were investigated during four cruises of the R/V Ocean Researcher I between December 1997 and October 1998. Over the entire continental shelf, a seasonal cycle was found with a distinct 3-5-fold increase in the abundance of oligotrich ciliates in summer. This increase appeared to be induced by the tremendous summertime runoff from the Changjiang. A radial-type spatial distribution pattern also was observed in summer, with population densities higher toward the Changjiang plume but highest of all in the margins of the plume. In spring and fall, the spatial distribution of the oligotrich ciliates was closely correlated to the abundance of cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In summer in the plume region, mixotrophic ciliates accounted for over 50% of the total ciliate population, compared to less than 30% outside the plume or that in other seasons. We propose a model in which these ciliates constitute part of the pathway through which the particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the runoff water is incorporated into the oceanic food web.

  10. Complementation of a pleiotropic Nif-Gln regulatory mutant of Rhodospirillum rubrum by a previously unrecognized Azotobacter vinelandii regulatory locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Z; Yoch, D C

    1990-01-01

    A spontaneous pleiotropic Nif- mutation in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been partially characterized biochemically and by complementation analysis with recombinant plasmids carrying Azotobacter vinelandii DNA in the vicinity of ORF12 [Jacobson et al. (1989) J. Bacteriol 171: 1017-1027]. In addition to being unable to grow on N2 as a nitrogen source the phenotypic characterization of this and other metronidazole enriched spontaneous mutants showed (a) no nitrogenase activity, (b) the absence of NifHDK polypeptides, (c) a slower growth rate on NH4+, (d) approximately 50% higher glutamine synthetase (GS) activity than the wild-type, which was repressible, (e) an inability to switch-off GS activity in response to an NH4+ up-shift, and (f) an inability to modify (32P-label) the GS polypeptide. The apparent relationship between the absence of nifHDK expression and the absence of GS adenylylation cannot be explained in terms of the current model for nif gene regulation. However, R. rubrum transconjugants receiving A. vinelandii DNA which originated immediately upstream from nifH, restored all aspects of the wild-type phenotype. These data suggest a here-to-fore unrecognized relationship between nif expression and GS switch-off (adenylylation) activity, and the existence of a previously unidentified regulatory locus in Azotobacter that complements this mutation. PMID:1980582

  11. Eficacia de Medios de Cultivo con Infusiones de Variedades de Papa en la Identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Urcia A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca, Solanum chaucha (papa huayro y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla, para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar Papa Dextrosa (APDc. Las cepas de T. rubrum fueron inoculadas en los diferentes medios de cultivo, incubados a 2°C durante 10 días. Para la evaluación consideramos características culturales y microscópicas. Los resultados muestran que el medio de cultivo Agar Papa Huayro Dextrosa (APHD fue más eficiente en la producción del pigmento rojo vino, pero se obtuvo mayor esporulación en los medios de cultivo Agar Papa Blanca Dextrosa (APBD y Agar Papa Amarilla Dextrosa (APAD.

  12. Sulfide assimilation by ectosymbionts of the sessile ciliate, Zoothamnium niveum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røy, Hans; Vopel, Kay; Huettel, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the constraints on sulfide uptake by bacterial ectosymbionts on the marine peritrich ciliate Zoothamnium niveum by a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Protists with symbionts were collected on large blocks of mangrove-peat. The blocks were placed in a flow cell wi...... filtering organs. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00227-008-1117-6 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.......We investigated the constraints on sulfide uptake by bacterial ectosymbionts on the marine peritrich ciliate Zoothamnium niveum by a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Protists with symbionts were collected on large blocks of mangrove-peat. The blocks were placed in a flow cell with...

  13. THE TELOMERES OF REPLICATING MACRONUCLEAR DNA-MOLECULES OF THE HYPOTRICHOUS CILIATE STYLONYCHIA LEMNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Juranek, Stefan; Jonsson, Franziska; Maercker, Christian; Lipps, Hans

    2000-01-01

    While the telomeres of higher eukaryotic cells show heterogenity in their length no such length heterogenity is observed in the macronuclear DNA of hypotrichous ciliates. Since the analysis of the telomere structure of replicating DNA molecules might give an insight in the mechanisms of telomere length regulation Stylonychia cell cultures were synchronized, the replicating DNA was labeled with BrdU and isolated by immuno-precipitation. The 3as well as the 5-end of these replicating DNA was la...

  14. Bioassay of genotoxic effects of environmental particles in a feeding ciliate.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Sonneborn, J; Palizzi, R A; McCann, E A; Fisher, G L

    1983-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan, Paramecium, can be used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ingested complex environmental particles. Cytotoxicity is quantitated by the increased proportion of treated versus control cells which do not retain their capacity for normal cell replication. Genotoxic effects are assessed by the increased fraction of nonviable offspring from treated versus control parent cells after the self-fertilization process of autogamy. Since these cells ingest nonnutrien...

  15. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley Clark

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by rivals and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via power or refrigeration cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and nonmodal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  16. A Rab-based view of membrane traffic in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    OpenAIRE

    Turkewitz, Aaron P.; Bright, Lydia J

    2011-01-01

    Biologists have long recognized that some single-celled organisms show striking morphological and behavioral complexity, and details of the genetic underpinnings can be mined from the trove of newly-sequenced genomes. Ciliates, among which Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia have received most attention, provide clear examples of a lineage in which, as in animal cells, the core pathways of membrane traffic have undergone dramatic expansion and elaboration to facilitate multiple...

  17. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to i...

  18. Taxonomic list of ciliated protist (Protozoa: Ciliophora) in Cojimar river, Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel de la Caridad Ymas González; Dania Prieto Trueba

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoan’s communities from Cojimar river (Havana city) was determinated, over the study period. Samples were collected from six stations located along the river. The samples were cultured in Petri dishes and were main-tained in environmental temperature and natural ilumination. Species identification was made taking into account morphological characters and Levine’s et al.(1980) taxonomic classification was used. It were identified 49 sp...

  19. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost. PMID:26446290

  20. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day. PMID:26684192

  1. Ciliated foregut cyst in the triangle of Calot: the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Beteddini, Osama S; Amra, Nasir K; Sherkawi, Emad

    2016-12-01

    Ciliated foregut cysts are rare anomalies arising from remnants of aberrant embryological development. Around 100 reports on the presence of these congenital masses in the tracheobronchial tree, mediastinum, liver, pancreas and, rarely, the gallbladder have been described. In this article, the case of a 33-year-old woman, who was operated for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is presented. During the dissection of the triangle of Calot, a cystic mass, attached to the common hepatic duct, was discovered incidentally. This cyst was dissected off the hepatic duct, and no communication between both structures was found. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with a ciliated foregut cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful. After reviewing the literature on this pathological entity, we found that this is the first report of a ciliated foregut cyst that is located in the triangle of Calot and found separate from the biliary structures, the gallbladder and the liver. We present a review of the literature on this entity, discussing diagnostic measures and therapeutic options. PMID:26943696

  2. Declines in both redundant and trace species characterize the latitudinal diversity gradient in tintinnid ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John R; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-09-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known biogeographic pattern. However, rarely considered is how a cline in species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another) or fewer trace species, those occurring in very low concentrations. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics, whereas those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. In lower latitudes there are more trace species, more size-classes and the dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates. Furthermore, the relatively small species pools of the northern high latitude assemblages suggest a low capacity to adapt to changing conditions. PMID:26990873

  3. Effect of adrenergic stimulation on clearance from small ciliated airways in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartengren, K; Philipson, K; Svartengren, M; Camner, P

    1998-01-01

    Mucociliary transport is an important clearance mechanism of larger airways, but in the smallest ciliated airways (bronchioles) it may be less effective. The present study aimed at investigating whether clearance from the bronchioles in subjects with healthy airways was stimulated by an adrenergic agonist (terbutaline sulphate). Tracheobronchial clearance was studied twice in 10 healthy subjects after inhalation of 6-micron (aerodynamic diameter) monodisperse Teflon particles labeled with 111In. At one exposure, oral treatment with terbutaline sulphate, known to stimulate clearance in large airways, began immediately after inhalation of the particles. The other exposure was a control measurement. The particles were inhaled at an extremely slow flow, 0.05 L/s, which gave deposition mainly in the small ciliated airways (bronchioles). Lung retention was measured at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Clearance was significant every 24 h for both exposures (p terbutaline sulphate, the subjects' pulse rates tended to be higher, but clearance rates did not increase. We found, as expected, no significant correlation between lung retention and lung function in either exposure. This study shows that an adrenergic agonist does not significantly influence overall clearance from the bronchiolar region in healthy subjects. This suggests that mucociliary transport does not significantly contribute to clearance from the smallest ciliated airways. Other mechanisms may be more important for the transportation of mucus from these airways. PMID:9555573

  4. Unfolding Thermodynamics of Cysteine-Rich Proteins and Molecular Thermal-Adaptation of Marine Ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cazzolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii and mesophilic (E. raikovi protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones.

  5. Escape response of planktonic protists to fluid mechanical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The escape response to fluid mechanical signals was examined in 6 protists, 4 ciliates and 2 dinoflagellates. When exposed to a siphon flow. 3 species of ciliates, Balanion comatum, Strobilidium sp., and Mesodinium pulex, responded with escape jumps. The threshold deformation rates required to...

  6. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Arendrup, Maiken C; Cmokova, Adela; Kubatova, Alena; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year...

  7. A darklight transition triggers expression of the floral promoter CrFTL1 and downregulates CONSTANS-like genes in a short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolář, Jan; Haškovcová, Kateřina; Štorchová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 8 (2014), s. 2137-2146. ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0300; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * CONSTANS-like * flowering Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  8. A static and dynamical Mössbauer study of photochemical biological switch of valence states in the respiratory pigments of rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R. P. M.; Iyengar, P. K.

    1986-04-01

    We have carried out a dynamical Mössbauer spectroscopy study of photochemical reversible biological switching of oxidation-reduction processes in iron atoms present in the respiratory pigments of Rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium. The experimental technique utilised enabled us to determine an upper limit to the reaction time of about 25 ms.

  9. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  10. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the CO/sub 2/ activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, M.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Joworski, R.J.; Hartman, F.C.

    1979-02-01

    Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxy-lyase (dimerizing), EC 4.1.1.39) from Rhodospirillum rubrum is activated by CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/. /sup 13/C NMR spectra were determined for the unactivated enzyme and for enzyme that had been activated by /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/. In addition to the expected resonance for H/sup 13/CO/sub 3//sup -//CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ at 161.8 ppM downfield from tetramethylsilane, the spectrum of the activated enzyme shows a broad resonance at 164.9 ppM. Analogy with previous NMR studies of /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ binding to hemoglobin suggests that the CO/sub 2/ activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase involves formation of a carbamate between an enzyme amino group and CO/sub 2/.

  11. Isolation, Stereochemical Study, and Antioxidant Activity of Benzofuranone Derivatives from a Mangrove-derived Fungus Eurotium rubrum MA-150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Mándi, Attila; Li, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yang; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-01

    Enantiomers of a 2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one derivative [(-)- and (+)-] and four known analogs () were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a fungus obtained from the mangrove-derived rizospheric soil. Their structures were established by detailed interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the structure of (±)- was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configuration of the enantiomers (-)- and (+)- was determined by means of online high-performance liquid chromatography - electronic circular dichroism (HPLC-ECD) measurements and time-dependent Density Functional Theory - electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. Compounds (±)- as well as and exhibited potent DPPH radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 1.23, 2.26, and 3.99 μg/mL, respectively. Chirality 28:581-584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27376714

  12. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed regenerative life support system for future space flights developed by the European Space Agency. It consists of interconnected processes (i.e. bioreactors, higher plant compartments, filtration units,..) targeting the total recycling of organic waste into oxygen, water and food. Within the MELiSSA loop, the purple non-sulfur alpha-proteobacterium R. rubrum ATCC25903 is used to convert fatty acids released from the upstream raw waste digesting reactor to CO2 and biomass, and to complete the mineralization of aminoacids into NH4+ that will be forwarded to the nitrifying compartment. Among the numerous challenges of the project, the functional stability of the bioreactors in long term and under space flight conditions is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the life support system and consequently the crew safety. Therefore, the physiological and metabolic changes induced by space flight were investigated for R. rubrum. The bacterium grown on solid medium during 2 different 10-day space flights to the ISS (MES- SAGE2, BASE-A experiments) were compared to cells grown on Earth 1 g gravity or modeled microgravity and normal Earth radiation or simulated space flight radiation conditions in order to relate each single stress to its respective cellular response. For simulating the radiation environment, pure gamma and neutron sources were combined, while simulation of changes in gravity where performed using the Random Positioning Machine technology. Transcriptome analysis using R. rubrum total genome DNA-chip showed up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress response after a 10-day mission inside the ISS, without loss of viability. As an example, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, thioredoxin reductase and bacterioferritin genes are least 2 fold induced although the radiation dose experienced by the bacterium (4 mSv) is very low compared to its radiotolerance (D10 = 100 Sv

  13. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: Effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to CO dehydrogenase, the CO-induced hydrogenase was 95% inactivated by heating at 70 degrees C for 5 min. Unlike other hydrogenases, this CO-induced hydrogenase was inhibited only 60% by a 100% CO gas phase

  14. Effects of Seasonality and Dispersal on the Ciliate Community Inhabiting Bromeliad Phytotelmata in Riparian Vegetation of a Large Tropical River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buosi, Paulo R B; Cabral, Adalgisa F; Utz, Laura R P; Vieira, Ludgero C G; Velho, Luiz F M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of rainfall amount on the abundance, species richness, and species occurrence and abundance distribution of the ciliate community associated with the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha. The plants were collected from a rock wall of about 10-km long at the left bank of Paraná River. We assessed the effects of both spatial and temporal variables on the community attributes, as well as whether plants geographically closer have a similar abundance distribution and species composition. The ciliate community was substantially distinct between both hydrological periods, with greater values of species richness and abundance in the rainy period. No spatial structuring (differences in the species occurrence and abundance distribution among strata) or geographical similarity (similarity in ciliate species composition among the plants) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive relationship only between the ciliate abundances and water volumes for both periods. Although few of the formulated predictions were confirmed, our study provides valuable information on the ecological aspects of the ciliate community inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata. PMID:25963550

  15. Extracellular Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Three Common Species of Dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nano technology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25degreeC for 5-7 days. The cell-free filtrate of each culture was obtained and subjected to synthesize silver nanoparticles in the presence of 1 m M AgNO3. Results: The reduction of Ag+ ions in metal nanoparticles was investigated virtually by tracing the solution color which was switched into reddish-light brown after 72 h. For T. mentagrophytes, a UV-visible spectra demonstrating a strong, quite narrow peak located between 422 and 425 nm was obtained. For M. canis, a fairly wide peak centering at 441 nm and for T. rubrum, a weak spectrum to decipher were observed. According to transmission electron microscopy results, fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost less than 50 nm particles were forms in case of T. mentagrophytes. For the other two species, transmission electron microscopy images showed existence of small spherical nano silvers but not as small as nanoparticles synthesized by T. mentagrophytes. Conclusion: We observed that species belong to a single genus of the fungi have variable ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles extracellulary with different efficiency. Furthermore, the extracellular synthesis may make the process simpler and easier for following processes.

  16. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system o f the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964 , collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by obser vation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton -Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13-14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1-2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the rig ht of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometri cally tabulated.

  17. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  18. Natural variation in methane emission of sheep fed on a lucerne pellet diet is unrelated to rumen ciliate community type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Pinares-Patiño, Cesar S; Seedorf, Henning; Kirk, Michelle R; McEwan, John C; Janssen, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Only limited information is available on the roles of different rumen ciliate community types, first described by Eadie in 1962, in enteric methane (CH4) formation by their ruminant hosts. If the different types were differentially associated with CH4 formation, then ciliate community typing could be used to identify naturally high and low CH4-emitting animals. Here we measured the CH4 yields [g CH4 (kg feed dry matter intake, DMI)- 1] of 118 sheep fed a standard pelleted lucerne diet at two different times, at least 2 weeks apart. There were significant differences (P sheep selected as high [16.7 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)- 1] and low emitters [13.3 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)- 1]. A rumen sample was collected after each of the two measurements, and ciliate composition was analysed using barcoded 454 Titanium pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA genes. The genera found, in order of mean relative abundance, were Epidinium, Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eudiplodinium, Polyplastron, Isotricha and Anoplodinium-Diplodinium, none of which was significantly correlated with the CH4 emissions ranking associated with the rumen sample. Ciliate communities naturally assembled into four types (A, AB, B and O), characterized by the presence and absence of key genera. There was no difference in CH4 yield between sheep that harboured different ciliate community types, suggesting that these did not underlie the natural variation in CH4 yields. Further research is needed to unravel the nature of interactions between ciliate protozoa and other rumen micro-organisms, which may ultimately lead to contrasting CH4 emission phenotypes. PMID:26813792

  19. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts. PMID:26894821

  20. An annotated and revised checklist of pleurostome ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora: Litostomatea) from Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, L'ubomír

    2014-01-01

    Pleurostomatids are predatory ciliates, living especially in the periphyton and benthos of various freshwater and marine habitats. In the present work, we provide an annotated and revised checklist of this ciliate group from the territory of Slovakia. Altogether 29 pleurostome species belonging to five genera have been reported there: Acineria incurvata, Ac. punctata, Ac. uncinata, Amphileptus claparedii, Am. falcatus, Am. fusiformis, Am. parafusidens, Am. pleurosigma, Am. procerus, Am. punctatus, A. rotundus, Litonotus alpestris, Li. anguilla, Li. carinatus, Li. crystallinus, Li. cygnus, Li. fasciola, Li. fusidens, Li. hirundo, Li. lamella, Li. minisculus, Li. muscorum, Li. obtusus, Li. triqueter, Li. varsaviensis, Loxophyllum helus, Lo. meleagris, Lo. rostratum, and Siroloxophyllum utriculariae. We have catalogued these records providing the following data for each species: (1) author(s) and date of publication; (2) name(s) of the species as appeared in the publication(s) followed by chronologically listed references including relevant page(s) in literature; (3) nomenclatural and taxonomic notes if needed; (4) main morphological characters; (5) morphological data on Slovak populations if available; and (6) all faunistic records. PMID:24870102

  1. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA, will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  2. ATP4 and ciliation in the neuroectoderm and endoderm of Xenopus embryos and tadpoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walentek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During gastrulation and neurulation, foxj1 expression requires ATP4a-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for ciliation of the gastrocoel roof plate (Walentek et al. Cell Rep. 1 (2012 516–527. and the mucociliary epidermis (Walentek et al. Dev. Biol. (2015 of Xenopus laevis embryos. These data suggested that ATP4a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulate foxj1 throughout Xenopus development. Here we analyzed whether foxj1 expression was also ATP4a-dependent in other ciliated tissues of the developing Xenopus embryo and tadpole. We found that in the floor plate of the neural tube ATP4a-dependent canonical Wnt signaling was required for foxj1 expression, downstream of or in parallel to Hedgehog signaling. In the developing tadpole brain, ATP4-function was a prerequisite for the establishment of cerebrospinal fluid flow. Furthermore, we describe foxj1 expression and the presence of multiciliated cells in the developing tadpole gastrointestinal tract. Our work argues for a general requirement of ATP4-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for foxj1 expression and motile ciliogenesis throughout Xenopus development.

  3. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. PMID:27231270

  4. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Massaroto, Bruna Gabriele; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of th...

  5. Transcription profile of Trichophyton rubrum conidia grown on keratin reveals the induction of an adhesin-like protein gene with a tandem repeat pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Macedo, Claudia; Franco, Matheus Eloy; Assis, Amanda Freire; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Stehling, Eliana Guedes; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Malavazi, Iran; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus that can infect human keratinized tissue (skin, nails and, rarely, hair) and is the major agent of all chronic and recurrent dermatophytoses. The dermatophyte infection process is initiated through the release of arthroconidial adhesin, which binds to the host stratum corneum. The conidia then germinate, and fungal hyphae invade keratinized skin structures through the secretion of proteases. Although arthroconidia play a cent...

  6. Results of German multicenter study of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains causing tinea unguium. German Collaborative Dermatophyte Drug Susceptibility Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, H C; Ollert, M.; Abeck, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-two strains of Trichophyton rubrum and 16 strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolated from patients with tinea unguium in various parts of Germany were subjected to a microdilution test with six systemic or topical antimycotic agents. Apart from griseofulvin, there were no species-specific differences between the two species. Terbinafine was the most active antimycotic agent, with a MIC not exceeding 0.05 micrograms/ml.

  7. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Guohui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum.

  8. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of a ciliate assemblage in a warm-monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Peštová, D.; Pérez, M. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-35. ISSN 0188-8897. [International Meeting Mex. Soc. Planktology /7./. Morelia, Michoacán, 30.05.2006-02.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : ciliates * athalassohaline lake * anoxic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.132, year: 2008

  9. Factors involved in the distribution pattern of ciliates in the water column of a transparent alpine lake

    OpenAIRE

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; Summerer, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The recurrent depth preference of three ciliate species (two prostomatids and one haptorid) in a transparent alpine lake indicates the existence of niche partitioning among them involving potential factors such as avoidance of high UVR levels and zooplankton predation, as well as competition for food resources. (Sonntag, Bettina) (Summerer, Monika) (Sommaruga, Ruben) University...

  10. Several RNase T2 enzymes function in induced tRNA and rRNA turnover in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    RNase T2 enzymes are produced by a wide range of organisms and have been implicated to function in diverse cellular processes, including stress-induced anticodon loop cleavage of mature tRNAs to generate tRNA halves. Here we describe a family of eight RNase T2 genes (RNT2A-RNT2H) in the ciliate...

  11. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  12. Substitution of valine for histidine 265 in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum affects activity and spectroscopic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, N J; Meyers, M R; Gierke, K L; Kerby, R L; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1998-02-13

    In carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, histidine 265 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis of the cooS gene. The altered form of CODH (H265V) had a low nickel content and a dramatically reduced level of catalytic activity. Although treatment with NiCl2 and CoCl2 increased the activity of H265V CODH by severalfold, activity levels remained more than 1000-fold lower than that of wild-type CODH. Histidine 265 was not essential for the formation and stability of the Fe4S4 clusters. The Km and KD for CO as well as the KD for cyanide were relatively unchanged as a result of the amino acid substitution in CODH. The time-dependent reduction of the [Fe4S4]2+ clusters by CO occurred on a time scale of hours, suggesting that, as a consequence of the mutation, a rate-limiting step had been introduced prior to the transfer of electrons from CO to the cubanes in centers B and C. EPR spectra of H265V CODH lacked the gav = 1.86 and gav = 1.87 signals characteristic of reduced forms of the active site (center C) of wild-type CODH. This indicates that the electronic properties of center C have been modified possibly by the disruption or alteration of the ligand-mediated interaction between the nickel site and Fe4S4 chromophore. PMID:9461598

  13. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (rutin and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no cytotoxic activity of fraction 3 or flavonoids 1 and 2 was observed against the tumor cells tested. However, analysis of the antifungal activity of flavonoids 1 and 2 revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, against the Trichophyton rubrum strains tested (wild type and mutant. This study demonstrates for the first time the antifungal activity of isolated flavonoids, validating the same activity for A. arvense.

  14. Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Satoru; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Maruyama, Sachie; Nakano, Toshiaki; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis. PMID:25384912

  15. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M; Melkonian, Rémy; Junca, Howard; Voolstra, Christian R; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Allemand, Denis; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species' bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans. PMID:27263657

  16. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  17. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.

    2016-06-06

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species’ bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans.

  18. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  19. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa,Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32x-9.51 (R2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was fotnd to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86x+0.89 (R2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2862.85e-0.0ax (R2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y = 127.15e-0.13x (R2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  20. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  1. Thermodynamic Stability of Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Pheromones of the Protozoan Ciliate Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Wüthrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three psychrophilic protein pheromones (En-1, En-2 and En-6 from the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, and six mesophilic pheromones (Er-1, Er-2, Er-10, Er-11, Er-22 and Er-23 from the temperate-water sister species, Euplotes raikovi, were studied in aqueous solution for their thermal unfolding and refolding based on the temperature dependence of their circular dichroism (CD spectra. The three psychrophilic proteins showed thermal unfolding with mid points in the temperature range 55–70 °C. In contrast, no unfolding was observed for any of the six mesophilic proteins and their regular secondary structures were maintained up to 95 °C. Possible causes of these differences are discussed based on comparisons of the NMR structures of the nine proteins.

  2. New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-San Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC, 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC, 8-12 transverse cirri (TC, 1 buccal cirrus (BC, 9-12 midventral pairs (MP, 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK, and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC, 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.

  3. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  4. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X; Katz, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a "heteromeric" macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into "gene-sized" chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a "gene bank" that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using "nonmodel" organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. PMID:27189988

  5. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Henglong; ZHU Mingzhuang; JIANG Yong; GAO Shan; MIN Gi-Sik; AL-RASHEID Khaled A.S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  6. Tetrahymena pyriformis in the ciliate mobility test. Validation and description of a testing procedure for the registration of harmful substances in the air as well as the effects of cigarette smoke on the human respiratory ciliated epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, W; Gräf, H; Wenz, M

    1999-02-01

    The damage of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium or its ciliar activity caused by mixtures of harmful substances in the air and cigarette smoke is a considerable parameter for the judgment of acute harmful influences on the human respiratory tract. As an immediate measuring or a quantitative statement about the influence on cilia in vivo at human beings is extremely difficult and problematic, a convenient model experimental system in form of the so called ciliate mobility test (CMT) has been used. In this connection the influence on cilia of the protozan single-celled organism Tetrahymena pyriformis, regarding its average speed of locomotion has been taken as standard. The proof, that the cilia are identical in morphological and functional respect at the human ciliated epithelium and at T. pyriformis has been reached by electron optical comparative representation and bibliographical known substances, influencing cilia (theophylline, bromhexine, ambroxol, terpin hydrate, mercaptoethanesulfonat-sodium, amrinon, salbutamol, tetracosactid-hexaacetate, histamine, and phenol). With regard to the comparability and applicability to the human respiratory ciliated epithelium we have been able to gain statements by means of the CMT. By constructing a special reaction vessel the influence of harmful gases at a thin layer of ciliate culture suspension (1 cm) for a standardised exposure time (1 hour) has been made possible and with that a model for the comparability with the conditions of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium has been created. A number of harmful gases, that are relevant in the air hygiene (CO, CO2, N2, N2O, NO2, O3, SO2) as well as cigarette smoke at active smokers (primary stream smoke) and the inhalation of the smoke of other people's cigarettes has been tested. It turned out, that especially NO2 (nitric oxide) shows a high ciliar toxicity, while the controversially discussed ozone (O3) has not resulted in detraction of cilia. CO, N2O and SO2 have

  7. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor of the lung: a newly defined low-grade malignant tumor with CT findings reminiscent of adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yoshinobu; Yuasa, Rena; Sato, Fumitomo; Otsuka, Hajime; Goto, Hidenori; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Mitsuda, Aki; Wakayama, Megumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Takagi, Keigo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    A ciliated muconodular papillary tumor has been reported to be a peripheral low-grade malignant tumor, consisting of ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells with basaloid cell proliferation. Although ciliated muconodular papillary tumors have not yet been classified according to the World Health Organization classification, they can pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Here we report a resected case of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor with computed tomography findings reminiscent of adenocarcinoma, showing a small irregular nodule adjacent to the intersegment pulmonary vein. There was no uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The patient underwent surgical resection, and a lobectomy was performed because intraoperative needle biopsy suggested neoplastic proliferation. No EGFR mutations were detected. No recurrence was noted during 24-month follow-up after lobectomy. PMID:23275641

  8. Notes on Soil Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from The Netherlands, with Description of Keronopsis schminkei nov. spec. and Apobryophyllum schmidingeri nov. spec.

    OpenAIRE

    Foissner, Wilhelm; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-six ciliate taxa, including three new species, were found in two soil samples from the Hoge Veluwe National Park in The Netherlands. A literature search showed that The Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark are terra incognita with respect to soil ciliates: only about 100 species have been recorded. Likely, a much greater number, including many undescribed species, can be found on more detailed investigations. Two of the three new species are described in detail. Keronopsis schminkei nov. sp...

  9. Identification and functional characterization of NifA variants that are independent of GlnB activation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Yu; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Li, Jilun; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P.

    2008-01-01

    The activity of NifA, the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene, is tightly regulated in response to ammonium and oxygen. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of NifA activity are quite different among various nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unlike the well-studied NifL–NifA regulatory systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii, in Rhodospirillum rubrum NifA is activated by a direct protein–protein interaction with the uridylylated form of GlnB, which ...

  10. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Zhu Huang; Pan-Pan Liang; Han Ma; Jin-Ling Yi; Song-Chao Yin; Zhi-Rui Chen; Mei-Rong Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues.These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner.Therefore,this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supematant derived from T.rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively.Methods: The culture supematants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes.The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage.Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants.Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test.Results: The T.rubrum strains (T1 a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media.The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants.HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1 a than TXHB.The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1 a supernatant than TXHB.The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB.After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h.Conclusion: The culture

  11. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Zhu Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, T XHB were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and T XHB released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2, TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than T XHB . The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than T XHB . The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than T XHB . After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after

  12. Bioassessment of water quality status using a potential bioindicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-09-15

    The feasibility of a potential ecological indicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates for bioassessment of water quality status were studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different water quality status during a 1-year period. The multivariate approach based on "bootstrap-average" analysis was used to summarize the spatial variation in functional structure of the samples. The functional patterns represented a significant spatial variability, and were significantly correlated with the changes of nutrients (mainly nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N), alone or in combination with dissolve oxygen and salinity among five stations. The functional diversity represented a clear spatial variation among five stations, and was found to be significantly related to the nutrient NO3-N. According to the results, we suggest that the ecological parameter based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates may be used as a potential bioindicator of water quality status in marine ecosystems. PMID:27318762

  13. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae, on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schefter, M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations. Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been documented in situ and that multi-scale patchiness has been reported for a benthic ciliate. Colonies were mapped and monitored; some patches over 1 m diameter were recorded. Since 2008, the distribution has again consisted of scattered colonies, as it did from 1999–2004.

  14. The Condensin Complex Is Essential for Amitotic Segregation of Bulk Chromosomes, but Not Nucleoli, in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Marcella D.; Coyne, Robert S.; Xi, Xiaohui; Yao, Meng-Chao

    2006-01-01

    The macronucleus of the binucleate ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila contains fragmented and amplified chromosomes that do not have centromeres, eliminating the possibility of mitotic nuclear division. Instead, the macronucleus divides by amitosis with random segregation of these chromosomes without detectable chromatin condensation. This amitotic division provides a special opportunity for studying the roles of mitotic proteins in segregating acentric chromatin. The Smc4 protein is a core component of the condensin complex that plays a role in chromatin condensation and has also been associated with nucleolar segregation, DNA repair, and maintenance of the chromatin scaffold. Mutants of Tetrahymena SMC4 have remarkable characteristics during amitosis. They do not form microtubules inside the macronucleus as normal cells do, and there is little or no bulk DNA segregation during cell division. Nevertheless, segregation of nucleoli to daughter cells still occurs, indicating the independence of this process and bulk DNA segregation in ciliate amitosis. PMID:16738332

  15. The Plastid Genome of the Cryptomonad Teleaulax amphioxeia.

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    Jong Im Kim

    Full Text Available Teleaulax amphioxeia is a photosynthetic unicellular cryptophyte alga that is distributed throughout marine habitats worldwide. This alga is an important plastid donor to the dinoflagellate Dinophysis caudata through the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the marine food web. To better understand the genomic characteristics of T. amphioxeia, we have sequenced and analyzed its plastid genome. The plastid genome sequence of T. amphioxeia is similar to that of Rhodomonas salina, and they share significant synteny. This sequence exhibits less similarity to that of Guillardia theta, the representative plastid genome of photosynthetic cryptophytes. The gene content and order of the three photosynthetic cryptomonad plastid genomes studied is highly conserved. The plastid genome of T. amphioxeia is composed of 129,772 bp and includes 143 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA operons and 30 tRNA sequences. The DNA polymerase III gene (dnaX was most likely acquired via lateral gene transfer (LGT from a firmicute bacterium, identical to what occurred in R. salina. On the other hand, the psbN gene was independently encoded by the plastid genome without a reverse transcriptase gene as an intron. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the algae with red-algal derived plastids, phylogenetic analyses of 32 taxa were performed, including three previously sequenced cryptophyte plastid genomes containing 93 protein-coding genes. The stramenopiles were found to have branched out from the Chromista taxa (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles, while the cryptophytes and haptophytes were consistently grouped into sister relationships with high resolution.

  16. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  17. Associative behaviour and antagonism of bovine rumen ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D'Agosto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at obtaining the community profile and verifying the occurrence of antagonism and association among ciliates, samples of rumen content were analysed in 100 bovines soon after their death. The animals were killed at the Juiz de Fora Municipal slaughter house (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil between August 1996 and May 1997. Ciliates occurred, respectively, in the following percents and samples number: Entodinium Stein, 1859 (50,48; 100, Diplodinium Schuberg, 1888 (5,59; 98, Eudiplodinium Dogiel, 1927 (6,91; 97, Ostracodinium Dogiel, 1927 (9,68; 95, hotricha Stein, 1859 (4,15; 93, Dasytricha Schuberg, 1888 (3,31; 93, Metadi nium Awerinzew & Mutafowa, 1914 (3,06; 90, Eremoplastron Kofoid & MacLennan. 1932 (7,39; 87, Epidinium Crawley, 1923 (5,31; 73, Charonina Strand, 1928 (1,33; 65, Eodinium Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (1,49; 59, Diploplastron Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (0,88; 24, Elytroplastron Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (0,36; 16, Polyplastron Dogiel, 1927 (0,04; 03 and Buetschlia Schuberg, 1888 (0,02; 01. When the antagonistic behaviour and the association were analyzed, it was observed that Eudiplodinium was detected in the absence of Polyplastron and in the presence of Epidinium in 94% and 73% of the samples, respectively. These data confirm the antagonism and the coexistence among particular populations of rumen ciliates and allowed the identification of 94% of the samples examined as being of profile type B, none of type A and 3% of mixed A-B community and of type O. It is suggested the use of the term community profile instead of population profile, as the respective types involve associations of various ciliate populations.

  18. The behaviour of both Listeria monocytogenes and rat ciliated ependymal cells is altered during their co-culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fadaee-Shohada, Mina J.; Hirst, Robert A; Andrew Rutman; Roberts, Ian S.; Chris O'Callaghan; Andrew, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ciliated ependymal cells line the cerebral ventricles and aqueducts separating the infected CSF from the brain parenchyma in meningitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Investigation of the interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with cultured rat brain ependymal cells showed that certain strains reduced the beat frequency of the cilia but all the strains studied significantly reduced the ciliary beat amplitude (the linear distance travelled by the tip of each cilium per beat cycle). CONCLUSION...

  19. The extracellular matrix protein artichoke is required for integrity of ciliated mechanosensory and chemosensory organs in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-04-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conserved leucine-rich repeat ECM protein that is required for normal morphogenesis and function of ciliated sensilla in Drosophila. atk is transiently expressed in accessory cells in all ciliated sensory organs during their late embryonic development. Antibody stainings show ATK protein in the ECM that surrounds sensory cilia. Loss of ATK protein in atk null mutants leads to cilium deformation and disorientation in chordotonal organs, apparently without uncoupling the cilia from the ECM, and consequently to locomotion defects. Moreover, impaired chemotaxis in atk mutant larvae suggests that, based on ATK protein localization, the ECM is also crucial for the correct assembly of chemosensory receptors. In addition to defining a novel ECM component, our findings show the importance of ECM integrity for the proper morphogenesis of ciliated organs in different sensory modalities. PMID:24496014

  20. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  1. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem: effects of ammonium on the population growth of Euplotes vannus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Xu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ammonium on the population growth of the marine ciliate, Euplotes vannus, were examined using ecotoxicological method. It is showed that ammonium exerts inhibitory effects on the growth of the ciliate populations in a concentration-dependent way. Statistical analysis reveals that the population growth dynamics exposed to ammonium-N concentration over 100mg/L are significantly different from that in the control at P<0.05 level. Linear regression determined that the 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h and 84h IC50 values of ammonium-N are 19.68, 201.51, 167.49, 47.86, 50.43 and 43.11 concentration over 100mg/L, respectively (P<0.05; pH 8.2; salinity 28 ppt; temperature, 25℃). The results indicate that the tolerance to ammonium in E. vannus is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, such as cultured prawns and oysters. Therefore, it is believed that the high tolerance to ammonium is necessary for ciliated protozoa to play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in the intensive aquaculture waters with high-level ammonium. In addition, the correlation between IC50 values and exposure time was discussed.

  2. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294

  3. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  4. Acute Toxicities of Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, and Lugol's Iodine Solution to a Marine Ciliate,Pleuronema coronatum ( Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yantao; SONG Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a commonly occurred ma-rine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the resultshighlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capabili-ty to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper,and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00 × 10-6 and 43.57 × 10 6, while those of Lugol's solutions were 90.13 and67.84 × 10 6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol' s iodine solutionand potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  5. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Eisen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC, which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases, using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters, and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins. In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from

  6. Molecular Characterization of a Copper Metallothionein Gene From a Ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Muhammad Tariq; Shakoori, Farah Rauf; Zulifqar, Soumble; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Al-Ghanim, Khalid; Mehboob, Shahid; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2016-08-01

    A new copper metallothionein (TfCuMT) gene has been identified from a locally isolated ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis. It contains 327 nucleotides encoding a peptide chain of 108 amino acids and belongs to class MTT2 and subfamily 7b. Amplification from both gDNA and mRNA confirmed the intronless nature of this gene. Like most of the metallohtioneins, cysteine residues contribute nearly 30% content with the specific CKC motifs. Structural repeats present in peptide sequence of TfCuMT indicate internal duplication of gene at some stage of gene evolution. The predicted model of copper metallothionein protein showed that copper ions are mainly chelated by thiol sulfur of cysteine residues and are embedded in the folds of polypeptide chain. For in vivo expression of TfCuMT in Escherichia coli host cells the classical stop codons, which coded for glutamine in the ciliate were mutated to CAA and CAG through site directed mutagenesis. The mutated gene showed higher expression in pET28a expression vector compared with pET21a. Optimum expression was obtained after 6-8 h of 0.1 mM IPTG induction. Stability of His tagged TfCuMT in 5% SDS was low, with half-life of about 104 min. Presence of 1.0 μM copper increased the expression level by 1.65-fold. Presence of 100 μM Cysteine in culture medium caused 2.4-fold increase in expression level. His tagged TfCuMT was purified through affinity chromatography using NTN-His binding resin in the presence of 0.1 M imidazole and NaCl. The modeled structure of the TfCuMT showed a cleft for Cu binding with correct orientation of Cys residues in the motif CKC. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1843-1854, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754785

  7. Identification and functional characterization of NifA variants that are independent of GlnB activation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Yu; Pohlmann, Edward L; Li, Jilun; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P

    2008-09-01

    The activity of NifA, the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene, is tightly regulated in response to ammonium and oxygen. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of NifA activity are quite different among various nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unlike the well-studied NifL-NifA regulatory systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii, in Rhodospirillum rubrum NifA is activated by a direct protein-protein interaction with the uridylylated form of GlnB, which in turn causes a conformational change in NifA. We report the identification of several substitutions in the N-terminal GAF domain of R. rubrum NifA that allow NifA to be activated in the absence of GlnB. Presumably these substitutions cause conformational changes in NifA necessary for activation, without interaction with GlnB. We also found that wild-type NifA can be activated in a GlnB-independent manner under certain growth conditions, suggesting that some other effector(s) can also activate NifA. An attempt to use Tn5 mutagenesis to obtain mutants that altered the pool of these presumptive effector(s) failed, though much rarer spontaneous mutations in nifA were detected. This suggests that the necessary alteration of the pool of effector(s) for NifA activation cannot be obtained by knockout mutations. PMID:18757802

  8. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. - Highlights: ► Metal resistance in trees from an industrially contaminated region was investigated. ► Both red maple and white birch have developed some degree of resistance. ► There is indication of a cost for resistance. ► Populations from non-contaminated regions show variation in response to contamination. - Adaptive metal resistance can also develop in trees with long generation times, but the degree of resistance is lower than for herbaceous species from the same region.

  9. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladão, Gustavo Moraes Ramos; Giannecchini, Luiz Gustavo; Martins, Maurício Laterça; de Pádua, Santiago Benites

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae), from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided. PMID:26154956

  10. Morphology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of two brackish urostylid ciliates (Protist, Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xumiao; Miao, Miao; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Xu, Kuidong; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of hypotrichous ciliates has encouraged numerous researchers to use a combination of morphological, morphogenetic, and phylogenetic data to provide a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this complex group. In this study, we investigate the morphology and morphogenesis of Pseudourostyla subtropica sp. nov., isolated from mangrove wetland. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the huge body size, many more adoral membranelles and marginal cirral rows, and numerous macronuclear nodules. In addition, we provide a morphological characterization of a population of Pseudourostyla nova Wiackowski 1988 from an estuarine habitat. The main events during binary fission of P. subtropica sp. nov. and the Chinese population of P. nova are also revealed to be conservative. The morphological, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequences corroborate the monophyly of Pseudourostyla Borror, 1972, which corresponds well with previous research. The phylogenetic analyses also show that Pseudourostyla and Hemicycliostyla Stokes, 1886, both of which are assigned to the family Pseudourostylidae based on morphological and morphogenetic data, in fact fall into separated clades. The approximately unbiased tests, however, do not reject the possibility that the family Pseudourostylidae is a monophyletic lineage. PMID:25040093

  11. Electrochemical study of the interaction between Eu3+ and ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new species was formed when protein P23 (one segment of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin) was added to a solution of Eu3+. The interaction between P23 and Eu3+ was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 7.4) using a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The formal potential (Eo') of Eu3+ shifted from -0.61 to -0.84 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) after P23 was added to the Eu3+ solution. The diffusion coefficient (D), the charge-transfer coefficient (α) and the electron transfer standard rate constant (ks) were obtained in the absence and the presence of P23. The affinity constant of Eu3+ and P23 was determined to be (1.89 ± 0.51) x 104 M-1. The electrochemical investigation of europium bound to the protein provided useful data for the studies of calcium-binding proteins.

  12. Genealogical analyses of multiple loci of litostomatean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Litostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vd'ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-11-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of free-living and endocommensal species. However, their traditional morphology-based classification conflicts with 18S rRNA gene phylogenies indicating (1) a deep bifurcation of the Litostomatea into Rhynchostomatia and Haptoria+Trichostomatia, and (2) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea. To test whether 18S rRNA molecules provide a suitable proxy for litostomatean evolutionary history, we used eighteen new ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region sequences from various free-living litostomatean orders. These single- and multiple-locus analyses are in agreement with previous 18S rRNA gene phylogenies, supporting that both 18S rRNA gene and ITS region sequences are effective tools for resolving phylogenetic relationships among the litostomateans. Despite insertions, deletions and mutational saturations in the ITS region, the present study shows that ITS1 and ITS2 molecules can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships not only at species level but also at higher taxonomic ranks when their secondary structure information is utilized to aid alignment. PMID:22789763

  13. Novel Discovery of Two Heterotrichid Ciliates, Climacostomum virens and Fabrea salina (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea: Heterotrichida in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Ji Hye

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two heterotrichid ciliates, Climacostomum virens (Ehrenberg, 1838 Stein, 1859 from brackish water and freshwater, and Fabrea salina Henneguy, 1890 from a solar saltern, were collected in Korea. They are novelly investigated in Korea by means of live observation, protargol staining and nuclear small subunit (SSU rRNA gene sequencing. Climacostomum virens is characterized by pouch-like body shape, body length of $200-370{\\mu}m$ 수식 이미지 in vivo, conspicuous cytopharyngeal tube, macronuclei ribbon-like shape, and one to four in number, with or without symbiont algae in cytoplasm, 34-66 somatic kineties, 67-113 adoral zone of membranelles, 8-42 peristomial kineties, 24-37 apical membranelles. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,591 bp and GC contents 48.52%. Fabrea salina is also characterized by scoop-like body shape with proboscis, body length of $190-240{\\mu}m$ 수식 이미지 in vivo, one to two rod-shaped macronuclei, oval micronuclei, grayish green cortical granules, 104-186 somatic kineties, 4-8 preoral kineties, 7-19 peristomial kineties and fragmented paroral membrane. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,598 bp and GC contents 47.50%.

  14. Purification and partial characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Errafiy; Abdelaziz Soukri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,we purified the glycolytic enzymeglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)which is involved in cellular energy production and has important housekeeping functions,from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila using a three-step procedure.The enzyme was purified ~68 folds by ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by two steps of column chromatography (DEAE-cellulose and Mono-S).The purified enzyme is a homotetramer with a molecular weight of ~120 kDa.Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one basic GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 8.8.Western blot analysis showed a single 32-kDa band corresponding to the enzyme subunit using a monospecific polyclonal antibody against the T.thermophila GAPDH.The maximum of enzyme activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 30-35℃.The apparent Km values for both NAD+ and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate were 0.102±0.012 and 0.360 + 0.018 mM,respectively.The maximal velocity (Vmax) was 39.40 + 2.95 U/mg.The T.thermophila GAPDH is inhibited by oxidative and nitrosative stress reagents.

  15. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion. (paper)

  16. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Sánchez Medina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010; the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (APP and flagellates were analysed using epifluorescence microscopy. Ciliates were evaluated either in DAPI stained samples (looking for pigmented organelles and/or ingested phototrophs or in quantitative protargol stain (QPS permanent preparations, where they were identified at the genus or species level. The end of the stratification period in Lake Alchichica was characterized by almost uniform heterotrophic picoplankton (HPP numbers (106 cells mL-1 throughout the water column. Meanwhile, APP showed epilimnetic and/or metalimnetic maxima of 105 cells mL-1 followed by an order of magnitude drop in the hypolimnion. A very important peak (105 cells mL-1 of the autotrophic or mixotrophic flagellate Pyramimonas sp. was observed repeatedly above and within the oxycline of Lake Alchichica. Ciliate biomass maxima were found around the oxycline and in the above-bottom layer. The top of the oxycline was dominated by Euplotes spp. and Spirostomum teres fine- to coarse-filter feeders (feeding upon APP, nanodiatoms and algae. Raptorial haptorids (in particular, Phialina sp. were the second most important group, generally occupying the layer below euplotids, followed by Holophrya and Prorodon facultative anaerobic prostomes. Sometimes, strictly anaerobic Caenomorpha sp. was found to be important in the anoxic hypolimnion. Minute picoplankton feeding species (both APP and heterotrophic bacteria feeders were important throughout the water column: in the epilimnion

  17. Ciliate Nassula sp. grazing on a microcystin-producing cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii): impact on cell growth and in the microcystin fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, Audrey; Dellinger, Marc [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cadel-six, Sabrina [' Unite Caracterisation des Toxines' - Laboratoire de securite des aliments de Maisons-Alfort - ANSES, F-94701 Maisons Alfort Cedex (France); Amand, Severine [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comte, Katia, E-mail: kcomte@mnhn.fr [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-01-15

    The proliferation of microcystins (MCs)-producing cyanobacteria (MCs) can have detrimental effects on the food chain in aquatic environments. Until recently, few studies had focused on the fate of MCs in exposed organisms, such as primary consumers of cyanobacteria. In this study, we investigate the impact of an MC-producing strain of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii on the growth and physiology of a Nassula sp. ciliate isolated from a non-toxic cyanobacterial bloom. We show that this Nassula sp. strain was able to consume and grow while feeding exclusively on an MC-producing cyanobacterium over a prolonged period of time (8 months). In short-term exposure experiments (8 days), ciliates consuming an MC-producing cyanobacterial strain displayed slower growth rate and higher levels of antioxidant enzymes than ciliates feeding on two non-MC-producing strains. Three high-performance methods (LC/MS, LC/MS-MS and ELISA) were used to quantify the free and bound MCs in the culture medium and in the cells. We show that ciliate grazing led to a marked decrease in free MCs (methanol extractable) in cells, the MCs were therefore no longer found in the surrounding culture medium. These findings suggest that MCs may have undergone redistribution (free vs bound MCs) or chemical degradation within the ciliates.

  18. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  19. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

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    Arias Covadonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate. Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan. BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value -5 hits and further Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289. Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

  20. Effects of a radiosensitizer and radiation on the ciliated mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionated irradiation (2 Gy/F, TD:2-20 Gy) in vivo on the ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea, caused measurable physiological alternations ten consecutive days after completion of irradiation with an initial heightening of the ciliary activity after 2 and 4 Gy, followed by a dose-dependent decrease. On scanning electron microscopy-pictures, knobs were observed on the cilia with the number being related to the dose. The addition of misonidazole potentiated the effects described above, with an enhancement ratio ( physiologically) of 1.2 and an enhancement ratio (morphologically) of 1.6. Furthermore, administration of misonidazole to the rabbits caused an increased vascularity in the subepithelial layer of the trachea, directly correlated to an oedema in the same region. Single doses (2,2.5,5,10,15,20,25, and 30 Gy) were given to the trachea in vivo and daily investigation of the ciliary beating and morphologic examinations of the tissue were made for ten days. The ciliary activity showed a dose-dependent reduction of about 50% after 30 Gy. A development of damage, in relation to the dose, was observed in the cilia. The changes were blebs, swollen tips, bent and curved tips, and broken cilia clustered together. During in vitro irradiation with 10 Gy Single Dose, an increase of the ciliary activity to about 25 % of its original value was observed without any morphological changes, while in vivo irradiation and examinations during 10 days thereafter, showed three different phases, day 1-3: Stimulation phase, day 4-8: Damage-phase, day 9-10: Repair-phase. The ciliary epithelium offers an exceptional system for the study of early radiobiological effects, since mutual comparisons can be made between physiology and morphology. (Author)

  1. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF5 using a TAM air microcalorimeter. ► QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF5 growth in a dose-dependent manner. ► The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF5 was investigated. ► QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF5. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF5 (T. thermophila BF5) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF5 growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd2+, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF5 was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF5 growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  2. Proteomic approach to reveal the proteins associated with encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwu Chen

    Full Text Available In order to identify and reveal the proteins related to encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus, we analyzed variation in the abundance of the proteins isolated from the resting cyst comparing with proteins in the vegetative cell. 2-D electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS techniques and Bioinformatics were used for proteome separation, quantification and identification. The comparative proteomics studies revealed 26 proteins with changes on the expression in the resting cysts, including 12 specific proteins and 14 differential proteins. 12 specific proteins and 10 out of the 14 differential proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The identified specific proteins with known functions included type II cytoskeletal 1, keratin, Nop16 domain containing protein, protein arginine n-methyltransferase, epsilon-trimethyllysine hydroxylase and calpain-like protein. The identified differential proteins with known functions included Lysozyme C, keratinocyte growth factor, lysozyme homolog AT-2, formate acetyltransferase, alpha S1 casein and cold-shock protein. We discussed the functions of these proteins as well as their contribution in the process of encystment. These identified proteins covered a wide range of molecular functions, including gene regulation, RNA regulation, proteins degradation and oxidation resistance, stress response, material transport and cytoskeleton organization. Therefore, differential expression of these proteins was essential for cell morphological and physiological changes during encystment. This suggested that the peculiar proteins and differential proteins might play important roles in the process of the vegetative cells transforming into the resting cysts. These observations may be novel findings that bring new insights into the detailed mechanisms of dormancy.

  3. 红椿育苗密度研究%Cultivation Density of Toona ciliate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴际友; 黄明军; 陈明皋; 程勇; 廖德志; 李艳; 刘球; 王旭军

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨2年生红椿苗最佳的育苗密度,开展了红椿育苗密度试验研究,结果表明:随着育苗密度增加,苗木的苗高和地径均减小,苗木的质量下降。因此,确定合理的育苗密度是培育优质红椿苗并取得最佳育苗效益的关键。研究表明:二年生的红椿苗木如只生产Ⅰ级苗,则合适的育苗密度为30株/m2;如Ⅰ、Ⅱ级苗均用于生产造林,则合适的育苗密度为40株/m2。%ln order to discuss the optimum seedling density of Toona ciliate, different seedling densities were studied. The results showed that seeding height and basal diameter decreased and quality of the seedlings declined with the increase of seedling density. The reasonable density of seedlings is key to cultivate high-quality seedlings and achieve the best seedling efficiency. The optimum density was 30 plants/m2 for the first class seedlings of biennial seedlings, and the optimum density of l and ll seedlings for production afforestation was 40 plants/m2.

  4. Further insights into the phylogeny of two ciliate classes Nassophorea and Prostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Yi, Zhenzhen; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Gong, Jun; Song, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    The Nassophorea and Prostomatea are two of the key classes in understanding the morphological diversification and higher classification of the phylum Ciliophora. However, their phylogenetic relationships with other ciliate groups within the subphylum Intramacronucleata remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the small and large subunit (SSU and LSU) rRNA gene-based phylogeny of these groups with sequences of additional taxa including several key species. The results show that: (1) the class Nassophorea remains polyphyletic, with the microthoracids clustering with the Phyllopharyngea, whereas the nassulids represent a basal group of the CONthreeP superclade in the SSU tree; (2) the Prostomatea is not depicted as a monophyletic group in phylogenetic trees, and the monophyly of this class is marginally rejected by statistical tree topology tests; (3) the nassulid genus Parafurgasonia is more closely related to the family Colpodidiidae than to Furgasonia; (4) Paranassula, which was previously thought to be a nassulid, is phylogenetically related to the oligohymenophorean peniculids in both the SSU and LSU trees; (5) the microthoracid genus Discotricha does not group with the other microthoracids in either SSU or LSU trees; (6) the family Plagiocampidae is closely related to the prostome parasite Cryptocaryon irritans and to the family Urotrichidae in the order Prorodontida; and (7) the family Placidae, represented by Placus salinus, is sister to the family Holophryidae in the order Prorodontida. Based on the present data, we consider the genus Discotricha to be an unclassified taxon within the CONthreeP. We also propose resurrecting the order Paranassulida and classifying it within the subclass Peniculia, class Oligohymenophorea. Primary and secondary structure signatures for higher taxa within Phyllopharyngea and Nassophorea are supplied. PMID:24075983

  5. Improvement of silver impregnation technique (Protargol to obtain morphological features of protists ciliates, flagellates and opalinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA-NETO I. D. da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on ciliates, flagelates and opalinates have been widespread by the utilization of techniques employing silver impregnation (Protargol, modified by several authors. However, these are time consuming and its results are variable. The present work is a variant of the technique described by Tuffrau (1964, 1967 showing some adaptations made in our laboratory. The organisms can be preserved by different fixatives (alcoholic Bouin, Stieve's fluid, 2.5% glutaraldehyde and others and then rinsed in destilled water followed by a fast clarification by 3% sodium hypochloride. If the organism is very sensitive to hypochloride, 4% sodium lauryl sulfate may be used and then washed 3 times in distilled water. The protista can be adhered to the glass slides with Mayer's glycerinated-albumin (1 glycerin vol. to 1 or 2 albumin vol., diluted in water at a proportion of 1:10 Cv/v., or with 1% polylysine followed by fast washes with distilled water. After the slide preparation, they were covered with a layer of 0,8% Silver proteinate. Right after that, the slide has to be placed in a glass tray lined with moist tissue and covered to prevent the proteinate to dry. The tray was placed in a incubator at 40º-50ºC for 30 minutes. The slides are rinsed for 1 minute. with warm (35ºC distilled water. The development of the material should be done with 0.4% hydroquinone with a maximum incubation time of 1 minute. It should be developed gradually, controlling the silver impregnation intensity by observation under optical microscope. Next, rinse in distilled water for 1 minute, and then, fix in 2,5% Sodium thiosulfate. Rinse the slide for two minutes before dehydrating it in an alcoholic serial 50-100º. Finally rinse the slides in xylene. Mount the slides with Entellan MerckTM or Canada balsam.

  6. Gene expression in a paleopolyploid: a transcriptome resource for the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

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    Kapusta Aurélie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, a unicellular model that belongs to the ciliate phylum, has been shaped by at least 3 successive whole genome duplications (WGD. These dramatic events, which have also been documented in plants, animals and fungi, are resolved over evolutionary time by the loss of one duplicate for the majority of genes. Thanks to a low rate of large scale genome rearrangement in Paramecium, an unprecedented large number of gene duplicates of different ages have been identified, making this organism an outstanding model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of polyploidization. The most recent WGD, with 51% of pre-duplication genes still in 2 copies, provides a snapshot of a phase of rapid gene loss that is not accessible in more ancient polyploids such as yeast. Results We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray platform for P. tetraurelia genome-wide expression profiling and used the platform to measure gene expression during 1 the sexual cycle of autogamy, 2 growth of new cilia in response to deciliation and 3 biogenesis of secretory granules after massive exocytosis. Genes that are differentially expressed during these time course experiments have expression patterns consistent with a very low rate of subfunctionalization (partition of ancestral functions between duplicated genes in particular since the most recent polyploidization event. Conclusions A public transcriptome resource is now available for Paramecium tetraurelia. The resource has been integrated into the ParameciumDB model organism database, providing searchable access to the data. The microarray platform, freely available through NimbleGen Systems, provides a robust, cost-effective approach for genome-wide expression profiling in P. tetraurelia. The expression data support previous studies showing that at short evolutionary times after a whole genome duplication, gene dosage balance constraints and not functional change are

  7. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  8. A mesocosm study of the changes in marine flagellate and ciliate communities in a crude oil bioremediation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Näther, Daniela J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Malpass, Mark C; Golyshin, Peter N

    2010-07-01

    Protozoan grazers play an important role in controlling the density of crude-oil degrading marine communities as has been evidenced in a number of microcosm experiments. However, small bioreactors contain a low initial titre of protozoa and the growth of hydrocarbon-depleting bacteria is accompanied by the fast depletion of mineral nutrients and oxygen, which makes microcosms rather unsuitable for simulating the sequence of events after the oil spill in natural seawater environment. In the present study, the population dynamics of marine protozoan community have been analysed in a 500 l mesocosm experiment involving bioaugmented oil booms that contained oil sorbents and slow-release fertilisers. A significant increase in numbers of marine flagellates and ciliates on biofilms of oil-degrading microbes was microscopically observed as early as 8 days after the start of the experiment, when protozoa exhibited a population density peak making up to 3,000 cells ml(-1). Further, the protozoan density varied throughout the experiment, but never dropped below 80 cells ml(-1). An 18S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting analysis revealed several changes within the eukaryotic community over the whole course of the experiment. Initial growth of flagellates and small ciliates was followed by a predominance of larger protozoa. According to microscopic observations and SSU rRNA molecular analyses, most predominant were the ciliates belonging to Euplotidae and Scuticociliatia. This is the first study to characterise the eukaryotic communities specifically in a large-scale oil bioremediation trial using both microscopy-based and several molecular techniques. PMID:20393846

  9. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen ; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 - 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1 - 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the fight of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  10. FS-study on energy relaxation in light-harvesting (LH1) complexes from Rhodospirillum rubrum with carotenoids of different conjugation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution comprises of a comparative fs-spectroscopic study on light-harvesting (LH1) complexes from mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum. These complexes contain carotenoids of different conjugation lengths (n), Spirilloxanthin (Spx, n=13) as found in wild-type or tetra-hydro-Spirilloxanthin (thSpx, n=11), but no reaction center. After selective carotenoid (Car)-excitation we are able to separate the characteristic Car-signals in transient-absorption spectra, which are similar in both cases, but overall blue-shifted for thSpx. Besides the characteristic ground-state absorption bleaching, two excited state absorption components are observed. These are separated by about 1050 cm-1 and decay on different time scales. From comparison with an LH1 complex lacking Car, direct evidence is given for Car to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer

  11. Cultivation-independent analysis reveals a shift in ciliate 18S rRNA gene diversity in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using cultivation-independent methods the ciliate communities of a clay-rich soil with a 90-year record of pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (4.5 g kg−1 PAH) were compared with that of a nonpolluted soil collected in its vicinity and with similar properties. A ciliate-specific set of 18S rRNA gene targeting primers was designed and used to amplify DNA extracted from both soils (surface and 20 cm depth). Four clone libraries were generated with PCR products that covered an 18...

  12. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Sagar; Bethani Sagar; Patel, Adam F.; Shak, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also th...

  13. Distribution of ciliates in relation to environmental factors along the coastline of the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kchaou, Nouha; Elloumi, Jannet; Drira, Zaher; Hamza, Asma; Ayadi, Habib; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Aleya, Lotfi

    2009-08-01

    We studied the seasonal distribution of the ciliate community coupled with environmental factors along the coast at three stations sampled (from March 2006 to February 2007) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). A total of 56 species belonging to 11 orders, were identified. Harbor of Gabes station was more diversified (45 species) than both Tabia (26 species) and Karboub (31 species) stations. The ciliate assemblage was numerically dominated by Spirotrichea in Tabia (82% of the total abundance), in the Harbor of Gabes (86% of the total abundance), whereas, in Karboub, Spirotrichea represented only 40% of the total abundance. The unexpected lower quantitative importance of Spirotrichea in Karboub station was apparently the result of the high salt concentration found in water samples throughout the study, probably originating from the saline area surrounding Karboub station, known as Sabkha. The distribution of species in the nearshore of the Gulf of Gabes seemed most likely influenced by the combined effects of temperature, salinity and hydrographic conditions.

  14. Fate of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles in an aquatic environment and their toxicity toward 14 ciliated protist species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Pu, Zhichao; Du, Songyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on aquatic organisms have remained largely unknown. Therefore, the laboratory study featured herein was performed to determine the fate of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment and their toxicity towards 14 different ciliated protist species at a specified population level. An investigation of 48 h aggregation kinetics in the Dryl's solution showed the CeO2 NPs to be relatively stable. The pH values in three test medium were too far away from PZC, which explained the stability of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs generally elicited more toxicity with increasing NP concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. Nano-CeO2 resulted in greater toxicity in a particle state than when added as bulk material. LC50 values showed a negative correlation with the surface-to-volume ratio for these protists, suggesting that surface adsorption of CeO2 NPs might contribute to the observed toxicity. Additionally, acute toxic responses of 14 ciliated protist species to CeO2 NPs were not significantly phylogenetically conserved. The results of these observations provide a better insight into the potential risks of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment. PMID:26986089

  15. Non-invasive detection and quantification of the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousson, Olivier; Pretti, Carlo; Di Bello, Domenica; Cognetti-Varriale, Anna M

    2005-07-18

    The main parasitic threat to freshwater fish is the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. We developed a real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green intercalating fluorescent dye for rapid detection and quantification of I. multifiliis. This non-invasive assay was based on the quantification of I. multifiliis free-swimming stages from filtered water samples, and thus made it possible to preserve host individuals. An alignment of 18S rDNA sequences of I. multifiliis and related species of the ciliate order Hymenostomatida was used to design amplification primers specifically targeting the I. multifiliis 18S rDNA gene. Different standard curves consisting of 2-fold serial dilutions of DNA extracted from 20, 60, 100 and 1000 I. multifiliis cells were constructed. The assay was able to detect less than 0.5 cell equivalent and showed a strong linearity (R2 = 0.984). Water samples were collected from 2 tanks containing heavily infected and apparently uninfected Carassius auratus specimens and were used to test this technique. Positive signals were obtained from water samples collected from both tanks, with a deduced concentration ranging from 3 to 58 I. multifiliis cells l(-1). The assay can detect low concentrations of the parasite in water, presumably corresponding to an early phase of the disease. It may, thus, be a valuable tool in assisting in the monitoring and control of ichthyophthiriasis in aquaculture. PMID:16119894

  16. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  17. The CNA1 Histone of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila Is Essential for Chromosome Segregation in the Germline MicronucleusD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Marcella D.; Xi, Xiaohui; Vermaak, Danielle; Yao, Meng-Chao; Malik, Harmit S.

    2006-01-01

    Ciliated protozoans present several features of chromosome segregation that are unique among eukaryotes, including their maintenance of two nuclei: a germline micronucleus, which undergoes conventional mitosis and meiosis, and a somatic macronucleus that divides by an amitotic process. To study ciliate chromosome segregation, we have identified the centromeric histone gene in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome (CNA1). CNA1p specifically localizes to peripheral centromeres in the micronucleus but is absent in the macronucleus during vegetative growth. During meiotic prophase of the micronucleus, when chromosomes are stretched to twice the length of the cell, CNA1p is found localized in punctate spots throughout the length of the chromosomes. As conjugation proceeds, CNA1p appears initially diffuse, but quickly reverts to discrete dots in those nuclei destined to become micronuclei, whereas it remains diffuse and is gradually lost in developing macronuclei. In progeny of germline CNA1 knockouts, we see no defects in macronuclear division or viability of the progeny cells immediately following the knockout. However, within a few divisions, progeny show abnormal mitotic segregation of their micronucleus, with most cells eventually losing their micronucleus entirely. This study reveals a strong dependence of the germline micronucleus on centromeric histones for proper chromosome segregation. PMID:16251352

  18. The response of the ciliated epithelium during and after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the ciliated tissues of the body gives undesirable sideefects. In vitro irradiation (10 Gy) of the rabbit's trachea shows that 1.5 Gy of indirectly ionizing radiation (50 kV and 6 MV X-ray 60Co-gamma 1.25 MeV) causes a 20 per cent increase of the ciliary beat frequency lasting 5-10 seconds, followed by a decline to normal ciliary activity during the ensuing course of irradiation. Electron radiation (4 MeV) proved to be three times more effective than photon radiation in regard to the physiological response of the cilia to ionizing radiation. This finding led to introduction of the concept Relative Physiological Efficiency (RPE) in this study, complementing the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) concept. This momentary increase in frequency can be caused by a radiation-induced increased hydrolysis of the ATP available in the cilia. The ciliary activity was 20 per cent lower than normal at 45 min following irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray), whereupon it increased to 12 per cent above normal activity at two hours after initial irradiation. At re-irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) administered two hours after initial irradiation, the cilia showed a constant rate of activity. In vivo irradiation (10 Gy, 160 kV X-ray) of the trachea of the rabbit caused a heightened activity (10%) during the first three days after irradiation, indicating a stimulation of the ATP-synthesis. During days 4 to 8 after irradiation, the ciliary epithelium's morphology was damaged resulting in reduced transport ability. Repair took place during days 9 and 10 after irradiation, i.e. the function of the ciliary epithelium appeared to be restored. The membrane potential of the ciliary cell, registered during irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) showed no changes, which supports the assumption that the increased ciliary beat frequency recorded during irradiation can be due to rapid radiation-induced biochemical changes that are connected to the motility of the cilia. (author)

  19. Structure of planktonic ciliates community (Protist, Ciliophora from an urban lake of southern Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.18579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Machado Velho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined temporal and spatial (vertical variations of composition, richness and abundance of the planktonic ciliates community in an urban and eutrophic lake, as well as identified the limnological factors involved in determining the patterns observed. To this end, samples of ciliates and measures of limnological variables were taken at different depths and hydrological periods. 35 ciliate species were identified, among which 14 species occurred in all periods and strata, being Prostomatida the most specious, followed by Gymnostomatida, Oligotrichida, Peritrichida, and Scuticociliatida. The patterns found for composition, abundance and species richness evidenced a vertical and temporal variation of these attributes. However, in general the composition and species richness have varied more along the vertical gradient than between periods, whereas for the abundance, only temporal differences could be detected. Results observed herein indicated that benthic species seem to be mainly influenced by the amount of organic matter, phosphorus and ammonia, while planktonic ones, abundant at the surface, were mainly associated with higher dissolved oxygen concentrations. In this way, seasonal and vertical variations of limnological characteristics were decisive for the patterns of occurrence and abundance of ciliate species.

  20. The effect of low- and high-fiber diets on the population of entodiniomorphid ciliates Troglodytella abrassarti in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Schovancová, Kateřina; Profousová, Ilona; Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Pekár, S.; Kamler, Jiří; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2012), s. 669-675. ISSN 0275-2565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : entodiniomorphid ciliate * chimpanzee * fiber * starch Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.459, year: 2012

  1. A Review of Some Basic Parasite Diseases in Culture Fisheries Flagellids, Dinoflagellides and Ichthyophthriasis, Ichtyobodiasis, Coccidiosis Trichodiniasis, Heminthiasis, Hirudinea Infestation, Crustacean Parsite and Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; O.F. Briyai; S.E. Bassey

    2011-01-01

    A review some basic parasite diseases in fish: flagellids, dinoflagellides and ichthyophthriasis in African fish was carried out to educate fish culturist and the private sector on some challenges faced in culture fisheries. Some common parasite diseases: Ichtyobodiasis, Coccidiosis, Ichtyopthiariasis, Trichodiniasis, Heminthiasis, Crustacean parasite, Hirudinea infestation, Flagellates and Ciliates, Taxonomy and diagnosis, Life cycle and biology, Epizootiology, pathology, control, Infections...

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  3. [Physiological and biochemical activity of bacteria during germination of cucumber seeds and impact of ciliates Colpoda steinii on this process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobotarova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the bacteria Bacillus subtilis B-7023 IMV produce indole-3-acetic acid and amino acids in the liquid medium Knoop. Processing cucumber seed suspension containing 10(7) cfu/ml as bacilli, and Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076, resulted in a decrease in the length of the roots of plants. Reduction of bacterial load bacilli to 10(6) cfu/ml followed by reduction of indole-3-acetic acid in the medium, and to an increase in the length of roots, shoots and total plant mass. During the cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 with ciliates Colpoda steinii reduced the amount of free forms of auxin in the medium to 5.5 times, and the related--to trace amounts. The content of histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and lysine significantly reduced. PMID:26036028

  4. Influence of Magnetic Field and Slip on Jeffrey Fluid in a Ciliated Symmetric Channel with Metachronal Wave Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The instinct system of cilia motion with magnetic field and slip for Jeffrey fluid model in a symmetric channel is examined. The problem of two-dimensional fluid motion in a symmetric channel with ciliated walls is considered. The structures of ciliary motion are stubborn by the sovereignty of viscid possessions above inertial properties by the long-wavelength and low Reynolds approximation. Exact solutions for the longitudinal pressure gradient, temperature and velocities are obtained. The pressure gradient and volume flow rate for different values of the flow parameters are also discussed. The flow property for the Jeffrey fluid is presented graphically as a function of the cilia and metachronal wave velocity.

  5. Complementary Notes on a‘Well-known' Marine Heterotrichous Ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859) Fraure-Fremiet,1936 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Daode; LIN Xiaofeng; SONG Weibo

    2004-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a heterotrichous ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859)Fraure-Fremiet, 1936, which was collected from the north coast of China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation techniques. As a new contribution, a redescription is presented: large Folliculinopsis of green to dark green in color, 800-1500μm in size; two peristomial lobes of approximately equal size, 300-400μm in length; adoral zone of membranelles containing about 1000 membranelles, lying along lobe margins and exhibiting two circles within buccal cavity;50-70 somatic kineties in mid-body; macronucleus miniliform, consisting of about 20 beads; lorica smooth, vase-shaped,(300 500)μm ×(90-130)μm in size, with 5-12 spiral ridges on neck tube; marine habitat.

  6. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass. PMID:25781253

  7. The behaviour of both Listeria monocytogenes and rat ciliated ependymal cells is altered during their co-culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina J Fadaee-Shohada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciliated ependymal cells line the cerebral ventricles and aqueducts separating the infected CSF from the brain parenchyma in meningitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Investigation of the interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with cultured rat brain ependymal cells showed that certain strains reduced the beat frequency of the cilia but all the strains studied significantly reduced the ciliary beat amplitude (the linear distance travelled by the tip of each cilium per beat cycle. CONCLUSION: The presence of the ependyma caused aggregation of some listeria strains and in some cases extracellular material also was seen in association with bacterial aggregates. These observations were dependent on the expression of genes required for invasion, intracellular survival and listerial cell to cell spread that are regulated by the transcriptional activator, positive regulatory factor A (PrfA.

  8. Studies on synergistic toxic effects of copper and dithiocarbamate pesticides with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum (Stokes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, H; Dive, D

    1990-06-01

    The toxicity of seven dithiocarbamates and interactions occurring with copper were studied with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum. No product was toxic at 0.1 mg liter-1. Thiram and mancozeb are the most toxic products (lethal at 1 mg liter-1) and ziram and propineb the least toxic. Concerning interactions with copper, no or slight interactions were observed with propineb and mancozeb, although a strong synergistic toxic effect was observed in a previous work with two structurally related products, maneb and zineb. On the contrary, the responses observed with alkyl-related dithiocarbamates (ferbam and ziram) and ethylene bis-related dithiocarbamates (nabam, thiram, and metiram) are in correlation with the results known in the literature. The synergistic toxic effect of copper and dithiocarbamates thus seems to be related mainly to the alkyl- or the ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate structure, but is not constant for molecules associated with metals (propineb, mancozeb, maneb, and zineb). PMID:2114279

  9. First Record and Redefinition of the Qingdao Population of Marine Ciliate Cardiostomatella vermiformis (Kahl, 1928) Corliss, 1960 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a marine ciliate, Cardiostomatella vermiformis isolated from a sand beach of the Jiaozhou Bay near Qingdao, China, were investigated by live observation, protargol and silver carbonate impregnation methods. Both the morphological and morphometric data largely agree with former records. Based on the data obtained, an improved diagnosis for Cardiostomatella vermiformis is supplied: Large marine Cardiostomatella with cylindrical body shape and several prolonged caudal cilia; cells in vivo about (90-500)μm × (30-120)μm; macronucleus beaded; single contractile vacuole caudally positioned; buccal apparatus conspicuously small, genus typical; three to six postoral kineties; 96-130 somatic kineties. This species is recorded for the first time in China.

  10. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  11. The symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean within a new species of calcifying ciliate (Tiarina sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Solenn; Romac, Sarah; Henry, Nicolas; Colin, Sébastien; Carmichael, Margaux; Berney, Cédric; Audic, Stéphane; Richter, Daniel J; Pochon, Xavier; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Symbiotic partnerships between heterotrophic hosts and intracellular microalgae are common in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic waters of benthic and pelagic marine habitats. The iconic example is the photosynthetic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium that establishes mutualistic symbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts, sustaining highly biodiverse reef ecosystems worldwide. Paradoxically, although various species of photosynthetic dinoflagellates are prevalent eukaryotic symbionts in pelagic waters, Symbiodinium has not yet been reported in symbiosis within oceanic plankton, despite its high propensity for the symbiotic lifestyle. Here we report a new pelagic photosymbiosis between a calcifying ciliate host and the microalga Symbiodinium in surface ocean waters. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy, together with an 18S rDNA-based phylogeny, showed that the host is a new ciliate species closely related to Tiarina fusus (Colepidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the endosymbionts based on the 28S rDNA gene revealed multiple novel closely related Symbiodinium clade A genotypes. A haplotype network using the high-resolution internal transcribed spacer-2 marker showed that these genotypes form eight divergent, biogeographically structured, subclade types that do not seem to associate with any benthic hosts. Ecological analyses using the Tara Oceans metabarcoding data set (V9 region of the 18S rDNA) and contextual oceanographic parameters showed a global distribution of the symbiotic partnership in nutrient-poor surface waters. The discovery of the symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean provides new insights into the ecology and evolution of this pivotal microalga and raises new hypotheses about coastal pelagic connectivity. PMID:26684730

  12. Laminin-332 alters connexin profile, dye coupling and intercellular Ca2+ waves in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Colin E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events mediated by intercellular communication. We hypothesized that alterations in cell matrix, specifically type I collagen and laminin α3β3γ2 (LM-332 proteins within the matrix, directly affect intercellular communication in ciliated rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC. Methods Functional coupling of RTEC was monitored by microinjection of the negatively charged fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and Alexa 350, into ciliated RTEC grown on either a LM-332/collagen or collagen matrix. Coupling of physiologically significant molecules was evaluated by the mechanism and extent of propagated intercellular Ca2+ waves. Expression of connexin (Cx mRNA and proteins were assayed by reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results When compared to RTEC grown on collagen alone, RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen displayed a significant increase in dye transfer. Although mechanical stimulation of RTEC grown on either LM-332/collagen or collagen alone resulted in intercellular Ca2+ waves, the mechanism of transfer was dependent on matrix: RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen propagated Ca2+waves via extracellular purinergic signaling whereas RTEC grown on collagen used gap junctions. Comparison of RTEC grown on collagen or LM-332/collagen matrices revealed a reorganization of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx46 proteins. Conclusion Alterations in airway basement membrane proteins such as LM-332 can induce connexin reorganizations and result in altered cellular communication mechanisms that could contribute to airway tissue function.

  13. Pigment exchange in the light collecting complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum purple bacteria and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy on metallo-bacterio-pheophytins a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light collecting complexes (antennas) in membranes of photosynthetic bacteria and plants capture solar light during photosynthesis and transmit the excitation energy to the reaction centre where it is transformed into energy which can be used by the organism. Antennas and reaction centres are made of polypeptides and pigments (bacterio-chlorophylls) which have a crucial role in solar energy capture, but also in subsequent energy transfers. Whereas three-dimensional structures of some antennas and reaction centres are already known with a high resolution, there is almost no quantitative data on interactions between polypeptides and pigments which however confer their specificity to these complexes. A possibility to obtain such data is to introduce chemically modified pigments within antennas and reaction centres. In this research thesis, some metallo-bacteriopheophytins a have been synthesized and studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Vibrations modes have been studied. A process of exchange of the bacterio-chlorophyll a in the LHI antenna of the Rhodospirillum rubrum purple bacteria has been developed to obtain a good efficiency in antennas containing zinc-bacterio-pheophytin a and nickel-bacterio-pheophytin a, as well as bacterio-pheophytin a. Absorption spectra are discussed as well as the occurring relationships between complexes, and the extent of the occurring exchange

  14. DESCRIPTION OF FIVE NEW SPECIES OF HYSTEROCINETIAN CILIATES (CILIOPHORA, HYSTEROCINETIDAE), ENDOCOMMENSAL IN A TERRESTRIAL OLIGOCHAETE OF THE GENUS ALMA FROM CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Nana, Paul; Fokam, Zephyrin; EBAGUE GUY MARTIAL NTOUNGWA; Ngassam, Pierre; Bricheux, Genevieve; Bouchard, Philippe; Ngando, Telesphore

    2012-01-01

    Studies on five new species of hysterocinetian ciliates, endocommensal within a terrestrial oligochaete from the genus Alma (Cameroon), reveal the existence of three distinct types of cytoskeletal topography within their adhesive apparatus. In the first topographical type, four superimposed antagonistic strata of skeletal fibres that correspond to the arrangement observed in the genus Ptychostomum, Stein 1860 are found. The second topographical type is characterized by the existence of an uno...

  15. Zygotic Expression of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motif Protein Drb2p Is Required for DNA Elimination in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Motl, Jason A.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM)-containing proteins play many roles in the regulation of gene transcription and translation, including some with tandem DSRMs that act in small RNA biogenesis. We report the characterization of the genes for double-stranded RNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (DRB1 and DRB2), two genes encoding nuclear proteins with tandem DSRMs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Both proteins are expressed throughout growth and development but exhibit distinct peaks of ...

  16. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  17. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  18. The use of multiple endpoints to assess cellular responses to environmental contaminants in the interstitial marine ciliate Euplotes crassus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, A; Sforzini, S; Dagnino, A; Nasci, C; Viarengo, A

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents the results of investigations on the suitability of Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, to be used as model organism in ecotoxicology and thereafter to evaluate the toxicity of estuarine and coastal sediments upon laboratory exposure. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have resulted in accumulation of metals and organic pollutants in the environment as well as in the food chain hence leading to serious ecological and human health problems. This may pose a risk to benthic and epibenthic organisms and it is crucial to discover toxicity tests that will identify adverse effects of sediment-associated chemicals on benthic organisms. Due to their nature as a eukaryotic cell/organism and their position in the food web, ciliated protozoa are suitable models for evaluating the effects of pollution on aquatic communities. Lethal and sublethal effects of exposure to inorganic and organic pollutants were tested on the cell mortality, replication rate, lysosomal membrane stability and endocytosis rate of E. crassus. Increasing nominal concentrations of individual and mixtures of mercury, copper, and benzo(a)pyrene were investigated in this study as they might be bioavailable in naturally occurring polluted sites. A significant decrease in the mean replication rate (ppollutants. At the same time, significant decreases of lysosomal membrane stability (ppollutants were performed showing both inorganic-organic and inorganic-inorganic additive and/or antagonist effects. Moreover, medium salinity was also varied to mimic estuarine-like environmental conditions linking biological response to ionic strengths. Under these conditions significant increases of both endocytosis rate and lysosomal membrane stability were observed and related to the increment of some Hg- and Cu-related toxic complexes. The studied biomarkers were always able to discriminate between the effects of organic and inorganic pollutants. Together with the short time and simplicity of

  19. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψL) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (gwv) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (Pn), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and Pn demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  20. Characterization of pH-dependent conformational heterogeneity in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2 using 15N and 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15N-enriched ferricytochrome c2 from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied by 15N and 1H NMR spectroscopy as a function of pH. The 15N resonance of the heme and ligand τ nitrogen are broadened beyond detection because of paramagnetic relaxation. The 15N resonance of the ligand histidine π nitrogen was unambiguously identified at 184 ppm (pH 5.6). The 15N resonances of the single nonligand histidine are observed only at low pH, as in the ferrocytochrome because of the severe broadening caused by tautomerization. The dependence of the 15N and 1H spectra of the ferricytochrome on pH indicated that the ligand histidine π NH does not dissociate in the neutral pH range and is involved in a hydrogen bond, similar to that in the reduced state. Transitions having pKa's of 6.2, 8.6, and 9.2 are observed in the ferricytochrome. Structural heterogeneity leads to multiple resonances of the heme ring methyl at position 8. The exchange rate between the conformations is temperature dependent. The transition with a pKa of 6.2 is assigned to the His-42 imidazole group. The displacement of the ligand methionine causes gross conformational change near the heme center. There are multiple conformations at high pH, as judged by saturation-transfer experiments. The N-terminus of the ferricytochrome has a pKa of 8.6. In contrast to its partially restricted mobility in the reduced state, it is found to be very mobile, reflecting a looser structure of the ferricytochrome

  1. Scanning electron microscopy and recording of the physiological activity of tracheal ciliated cells treated by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea was irradiated with daily fractions of 2 Gy to an accumulated dose of 20 Gy. The beat frequency of the cilia was recorded and specimens were taken for SEM-, TEM- and LM-investigations. Examination was made 1-10 days after each fractionation schedule. An increased ciliary beat frequency was recorded at 2 Gy and 4 Gy. With increasing dose, there was an inverted relationship to the frequency. Light-microscopy showed edema and an increased amount of goblet cells in relation to the increasing dose. With SEM an increased number of ciliary blebs could be seen. These could be classified according to size and number, and showed a positive correlation to the dose. TEM-investigations showed signs of increased intracellular activity at higher doses in the form of multilobulated nuclei and an increasing number of nuclear pores. At lower doses, an increased amount of mitochondria appeared in the apical part of the cell. It is at present difficult to evaluate any correlation between the physiological activity and the morphology. More biological data are needed to explain the early irradiation effects

  2. Estimation of divergence times in litostomatean ciliates (Ciliophora: Intramacronucleata), using Bayesian relaxed clock and 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes. PMID:26204556

  3. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean. PMID:27547525

  4. The water-born protein pheromones of the polar protozoan ciliate, Euplotes nobilii: Coding genes and molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Pedrini, Bill; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2010-08-01

    The protozoan ciliate Euplotes nobilii found in Antarctic and Arctic coastal waters relies on secretion of water-soluble cell type-specific signal proteins (pheromones) to regulate its vegetative growth and sexual mating. For three of these psychrophilic pheromones we previously determined the three-dimensional structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with protein solutions purified from the natural sources, which led to evidence that their adaptation to cold is primarily achieved by increased flexibility through an extension of regions free of regular secondary structures, and by increased exposure of negative charges on the protein surface. Then we cloned the coding genes of these E. nobilii pheromones from the transcriptionally active cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus) and characterized the full-length sequences. These sequences all contain an open reading frame of 252-285 nucleotides, which is specific for a cytoplasmic pheromone precursor that requires two proteolytic cleavages to remove a signal peptide and a pro segment before release of the mature protein into the extracellular environment. The 5‧ and 3‧ non-coding regions are two- to three-fold longer than the coding region and appear to be tightly conserved, probably in relation to the inclusion of intron sequences destined to be alternatively removed to play key regulatory roles in the mechanism of the pheromone gene expression.

  5. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection

  6. Molecular phylogeny and species delimitation within the ciliate genus Spirostomum (Ciliophora, Postciliodesmatophora, Heterotrichea), using the internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Vďačný, Peter; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Seok Won; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2016-09-01

    Morphological and molecular delimitation of Spirostomum species is currently under debate. We addressed species boundaries within the genus Spirostomum, using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the secondary structure of the ITS2 molecule, and 18S and 28S (D1D2) sequences additionally. The Spirostomum ITS region is among the shortest within the ciliates hitherto studied. The Spirostomum ITS2 molecule matches the "ring model", but exhibits only two helices radiating from a common loop. According to comparative analyses, they very likely correspond to helices II and III of other eukaryotes. Our phylogenetic analyses of the ITS region revealed a complex genealogical structure within the genus Spirostomum. However, boundaries among Spirostomum species could not be unambiguously determined either by phylogenetic trees, networks or sequence divergence cutoffs, because ITS2 sequences transcended species boundaries of the following morphospecies: S. ambiguum, S. minus, S. subtilis and S. teres. According to molecular diversity analysis, this is very likely caused by polymorphism in S. minus and S. teres, and by the lack of variability in S. ambiguum and S. subtilis. No compensatory base changes (CBCs) were detected in helices of the ITS2 molecule between different Spirostomum species, documenting that CBC analysis per se is not able to effectively discriminate Spirostomum species. PMID:27261253

  7. Notes on Two Marine Ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China: Placus salinus and Strombidium apolatum (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dapeng; SONG Weibo; HU Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of two rare marine ciliates, Placus salinus Dietz, 1964 and Strombidium apolatum Wilbert and Song, 2005, collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation technique. The improved diagnosis for Placus salinus is as follows: medium-sized marine Placus, in vivo (50 -60) μm × (30 -40)μm; cell elliptical to barrel-shaped; 28 -31 somatic kineties; single macronucleus usually ellipsoid and one micronucleus located in the indention of the macronucleus; one contractile vacuole posteriorly positioned. Strombidium apolatum is characterized by: marine strombidium (40-60) μm × (30-45) μm in vivo, cordiform in shape with somewhat pointed posterior end and conspicuous apical protrusion; extrusomes prominent, about 15μm in length and evenly arranged along the circle kinety; about 16 collar and 5-6 buccal membranelles; one elongate macronucleus and one micronucleus; circle and ventral kineties consisting of about 53 and 45 dikinetids respectively.

  8. Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    Full Text Available Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety. Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

  9. Multigene-based analyses on evolutionary phylogeny of two controversial ciliate orders: Pleuronematida and Loxocephalida (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Katz, Laura A; Song, Weibo

    2013-07-01

    Relationships among members of the ciliate subclass Scuticociliatia (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) are largely unresolved. Phylogenetic studies of its orders Pleuronematida and Loxocephalida were initially based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU-rDNA) analyses of a limited number of taxa. Here we characterized 37 sequences (SSU-rDNA, ITS-5.8S and LSU-rDNA) from 21 taxonomically controversial members of these orders. Phylogenetic trees constructed to assess the inter- and intra-generic relationships of pleuronematids and loxocephalids reveal the following: (1) the order Loxocephalida and its two families Loxocephalidae and Cinetochilidae are not monophyletic when more taxa are added; (2) the core pleuronematids are divided into two fully supported clades, however, the order Pleuronematida is not monophyletic because Cyclidium glaucoma is closer to Thigmotrichida; (3) the family Pleuronematidae and the genus Schizocalyptra are monophyletic, though rDNA sequences of Pleuronema species are highly variable; (4) Pseudoplatynematum and Sathrophilus are closely related to the subclass Astomatia, while Cinetochilum forms a monophyletic group with the subclass Apostomatia; and (5) Hippocomos falls in the order Pleuronematida and is closely related to Eurystomatellidae and Cyclidium plouneouri. Further, in an effort to provide a better resolution of evolutionary relationships, the secondary structures of ITS2 transcripts and the variable region 4 (V4) of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) are predicted, revealing that ITS2 structures are conserved at the order level while V4 region structures are more variable than ITS2 structures. PMID:23541839

  10. Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Yi, Zhenzhen; Xu, Dapeng; Clamp, John C; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence. PMID:26121340

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate class Heterotrichea (Protista, Ciliophora, Postciliodesmatophora) inferred from multiple molecular markers and multifaceted analysis strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Vd'ačný, Peter; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Seok Won; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2014-09-01

    The ciliate class Heterotrichea is defined by somatic dikinetids bearing postciliodesmata, by an oral apparatus consisting of a paroral membrane and an adoral zone of membranelles, as well as by features of nuclear division involving extramacronuclear microtubules. Although phylogenetic interrelationships among heterotrichs have been analyzed several times, deeper nodes of the heterotrichean tree of life remain poorly resolved. To cast more light on the evolutionary history of heterotricheans, we performed phylogenetic analyses of multiple loci (18S rRNA gene, ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region, and 28S rRNA gene) using traditional tree-building phylogenetic methods and statistical tree topology tests as well as phylogenetic networks, split spectrum analysis and quartet likelihood mapping. This multifaceted approach has shown that (1) Peritromus is very likely an adelphotaxon of all other heterotrichs; (2) Spirostomum and Anigsteinia are sister taxa and their common monophyletic origin is strongly supported by a uniquely posteriorly-thickened paroral membrane; (3) the monotypic family Chattonidiidae should be suppressed because its type genus clusters within the family Condylostomatidae; and (4) new families are needed for Gruberia and Fabrea because their affiliation with Spirostomidae and Climacostomidae, respectively, is not supported by molecular phylogenies nor the fine structure of the paroral membrane. PMID:24859684

  12. Social information from immigrants: multiple immigrant-based sources of information for dispersal decisions in a ciliate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Staffan; Chaine, Alexis S; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Huet, Michèle; Clobert, Jean

    2015-09-01

    1. Dispersal is increasingly recognized as being an informed process, based on information organisms obtain about the landscape. While local conditions are often found to drive dispersal decisions, local context is not always a reliable predictor of conditions in neighbouring patches, making the use of local information potentially useless or even maladaptive. In this case, using social information gathered by immigrants might allow adjusting dispersal decisions without paying the costs of prospecting. However, this hypothesis has been largely neglected despite its major importance for ecological and evolutionary processes. 2. We investigated three fundamental questions about immigrant-informed dispersal: Do immigrants convey information that influences dispersal, do organisms use multiple cues from immigrants, and is immigrant-informed dispersal genotype dependent? 33. Using Tetrahymena thermophila ciliates in microcosms, we manipulated the number of immigrants arriving, the density of congeners, the resource quality in neighbouring patches, matrix characteristics and the level of cooperation of individuals in the neighbouring populations. 4. We provide the first experimental evidence that immigrants convey a number of different cues about neighbouring patches and matrix (patch quality, matrix characteristics and cooperation in neighbouring populations) in this relatively simple organism. Furthermore, we demonstrate genotype-dependent immigrant-informed dispersal decisions about patch quality and matrix characteristics. 5. Multiple cues from immigrants and genotype-dependent use of cues have major implications for theoretical metapopulation dynamics and the potential for local adaptation. PMID:25902764

  13. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies. PMID:26276254

  14. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential. PMID:27322227

  15. Pequenas Parmelia S.L. (Líquens: Ascomycotina ciliadas dos cerrados brasileiros Little ciliate Parmeliae in the brazilian cerradoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Marcelli

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi baseado em coletas realizadas em todos os tipos estruturais de cerrado, incluindo formações de altitude e rochosas. São apresentadas descrições detalhadas, chave de identificação e ilustrações das espécies de Bulboíhrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 e Hypotrachyna (3 encontradas. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli e B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli são descritas como novas. E feita a combinação nova Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale é nova para o Brasil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale e Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale são novas para o Continente Americano. Há um grande número de primeiras citações para vários estados e várias segundas referências para o Brasil.This work deals with species of the lichen genera Bulboihrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 and Hypotrachyna (3 (ciliate species growing in the brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. All types of cerradoes were investigated, since almost open fields to forestal formations and including altitude rock fields, gallery forests and others placed inside cerrado areas. Altogether 30 species were found and are described in detail. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli and B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli are new species. The new combination Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli is done. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale is new for Brazil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale and Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale are new for the American Continent.

  16. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  17. Mating of the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax induces production of a class of 27 nt small RNAs derived from the parental macronucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Zahler

    Full Text Available Ciliated protozoans possess two types of nuclei; a transcriptionally silent micronucleus, which serves as the germ line nucleus, and a transcriptionally active macronucleus, which serves as the somatic nucleus. The macronucleus is derived from a new diploid micronucleus after mating, with epigenetic information contributed by the parental macronucleus serving to guide the formation of the new macronucleus. In the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax, the macronuclear DNA is highly processed to yield gene-sized nanochromosomes with telomeres at each end. Here we report that soon after mating of Oxytricha trifallax, abundant 27 nt small RNAs are produced that are not present prior to mating. We performed next generation sequencing of Oxytricha small RNAs from vegetative and mating cells. Using sequence comparisons between macronuclear and micronuclear versions of genes, we found that the 27 nt RNA class derives from the parental macronucleus, not the developing macronucleus. These small RNAs are produced equally from both strands of macronuclear nanochromosomes, but in a highly non-uniform distribution along the length of the nanochromosome, and with a particular depletion in the 30 nt telomere-proximal positions. This production of small RNAs from the parental macronucleus during macronuclear development stands in contrast to the mechanism of epigenetic control in the distantly related ciliate Tetrahymena. In that species, 28-29 nt scanRNAs are produced from the micronucleus and these micronuclear-derived RNAs serve as epigenetic controllers of macronuclear development. Unlike the Tetrahymena scanRNAs, the Oxytricha macronuclear-derived 27 mers are not modified by 2'O-methylation at their 3' ends. We propose models for the role of these "27macRNAs" in macronuclear development.

  18. Identification of cAMP-dependent phosphorylated proteins involved in the formation of environment-resistant resting cysts by the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Sogame

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus, an elevation of the intracellular cAMP concentration was reported to be involved in environment-resistant resting cyst formation. In the present study, cAMP-dependently phosphorylated proteins of encystment-induced C. cucullus were isolated with Phos-tag agarose phosphate-affinity beads and subsequent SDS-PAGE. In a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of these phosphoproteins, 27-, 37- and 43-kDa proteins (p27, p37 and p43 were identified as Rieske iron-sulfur protein, histone H4 (hyperacetylated form, and actin, respectively.

  19. Phylogenetic positions of two marine ciliates, Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), inferred from complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene was sequenced for two marine scuticociliates Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi. The results show that this gene comprises 1763 and 1753 nucleotides in the two marine ciliates respectively.Metanophrys similis is phylogenetically closely related to the clade containing Mesanophrys carcini and Anophyroides haemophila, which branches basally to other species within the order Philasterida. Pseudocohnilembus hargisi groups with its congener, P. marinus, with strong bootstrap support. Paranophrys magna groups with the clade including Cohnilembus and Uronema, representing a sister clade to that containing the two Pseudocohnilembus species.

  20. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts. PMID:27460894

  1. GlnD is essential for NifA activation, NtrB/NtrC-regulated gene expression, and posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in the photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoping; Pohlmann, Edward L; Roberts, Gary P

    2005-02-01

    GlnD is a bifunctional uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme and is thought to be the primary sensor of nitrogen status in the cell. It plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation and metabolism by reversibly regulating the modification of P(II) proteins, which in turn regulate a variety of other proteins. We report here the characterization of glnD mutants from the photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum and the analysis of the roles of GlnD in the regulation of nitrogen fixation. Unlike glnD mutations in Azotobacter vinelandii and some other bacteria, glnD deletion mutations are not lethal in R. rubrum. Such mutants grew well in minimal medium with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, although they grew slowly with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source (MN medium) and were unable to fix N(2). The slow growth in MN medium is apparently due to low glutamine synthetase activity, because a DeltaglnD strain with an altered glutamine synthetase that cannot be adenylylated can grow well in MN medium. Various mutation and complementation studies were used to show that the critical uridylyltransferase activity of GlnD is localized to the N-terminal region. Mutants with intermediate levels of uridylyltransferase activity are differentially defective in nif gene expression, the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase, and NtrB/NtrC function, indicating the complexity of the physiological role of GlnD. These results have implications for the interpretation of results obtained with GlnD in many other organisms. PMID:15687189

  2. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  3. Redescriptions of three trachelocercid ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), with notes on their phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xu, Yuan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Warren, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Three trachelocercid ciliates, Kovalevaia sulcata (Kovaleva, 1966) Foissner, 1997, Trachelocerca sagitta (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1840 and Trachelocerca ditis (Wright, 1982) Foissner, 1996, isolated from two coastal habitats at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and silver impregnation methods. Data on their infraciliature and morphology are supplied. The small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes of K. sulcata and Trachelocerca sagitta were sequenced for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that both organisms, and the previously sequenced Trachelocerca ditis, are located within the trachelocercid assemblage and that K. sulcata is sister to an unidentified taxon forming a clade that is basal to the core trachelocercids. PMID:23847285

  4. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model org...

  5. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model orga...

  6. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely relat...

  7. Life Cycle, Morphology, Ontogenesis, and Phylogeny of Bromeliothrix metopoides nov. gen., nov. spec., a Peculiar Ciliate (Protista, Colpodea) from Tank Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-11-15

    Bromeliothrix metopoides was discovered in tank bromeliads from Central and South America. Pure cultures could be established in various media stimulating growth of its food, i.e. bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates of the genus Polytomella. The new ciliate was investigated in the light- and scanning electron microscope, with various silver impregnation techniques, and with molecular methods, using the small-subunit rDNA. The morphology and its changes during the life cycle are documented by 167 figures and a detailed morphometry. Bromeliothrix metopoides is about 27-55 × 22-36 μm in size and has a complex life cycle with Metopus-shaped, bacteriophagous theronts and trophonts (microstomes) and obovate, flagellate-feeding macrostomes having a large, triangular oral apparatus. The thin-walled resting cysts of the theronts and trophonts are uniquely ellipsoidal, while the thick-walled cyst of the macrostome morph is globular. Reproduction occurs in freely motile condition either by binary fission or polytomy, producing a unique, motile "division chain" composed of four globular offspring, of which the central ones are connected by a curious, plug-like holdfast. Division is associated with a complete reorganization of the parental oral and somatic infraciliature. Stomatogenesis is merotelokinetal as in other members of the order Colpodida. The right polykinetid is generated by the rightmost postoral kinety, while the left polykinetid is produced by the two left postoral kineties and five left side kineties. The division in freely motile condition resembles the Exocolpodidae Foissner et al., 2002, to which Bromeliothrix is tentatively assigned, differing from Exocolpoda mainly by the formation of a macrostome morph and a division chain. Bromeliothrix has a ciliary and silverline pattern typical for members of the family Colpodidae. This matches the molecular classification which, however, hardly reflects the outstanding division and life cycle, suggesting some

  8. Zygotic Expression of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motif Protein Drb2p Is Required for DNA Elimination in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Jason A.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM)-containing proteins play many roles in the regulation of gene transcription and translation, including some with tandem DSRMs that act in small RNA biogenesis. We report the characterization of the genes for double-stranded RNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (DRB1 and DRB2), two genes encoding nuclear proteins with tandem DSRMs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Both proteins are expressed throughout growth and development but exhibit distinct peaks of expression, suggesting different biological roles. In support of this, we show that expression of DRB2 is essential for vegetative growth while DRB1 expression is not. During conjugation, Drb1p and Drb2p localize to distinct nuclear foci. Cells lacking all DRB1 copies are able to produce viable progeny, although at a reduced rate relative to wild-type cells. In contrast, cells lacking germ line DRB2 copies, which thus cannot express Drb2p zygotically, fail to produce progeny, arresting late into conjugation. This arrest phenotype is accompanied by a failure to organize the essential DNA rearrangement protein Pdd1p into DNA elimination bodies and execute DNA elimination and chromosome breakage. These results implicate zygotically expressed Drb2p in the maturation of these nuclear structures, which are necessary for reorganization of the somatic genome. PMID:22021239

  9. 纤毛类原生动物中宿主-共生体系统的研究%Studies on the Host-Symbiont System in Ciliates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾福康; 孙军; 何远; 田沁

    2001-01-01

    目前已经在100多种纤毛虫中观察到细菌、藻类和其他微生物等共生体。对纤毛虫中宿主-共生体系统的研究表明,双小核草履虫中卡巴粒的遗传为细胞质遗传理论提供了例证;含细菌共生体的许多厌氧纤毛虫无线粒体,共生体对宿主代谢有重要作用;尾草履虫-钝状全孢螺菌共生作用中,共生菌感染形式的39kDa、15kDa周质蛋白可分别与IF-3-1、IF-3-2两种单抗反应,其共生体早期感染过程中两种抗原的量发生显著变化,并且共生体生殖 形式选择性地合成63kDa蛋白质,该蛋白质可能是与共生作用有联系的关键分子;绿草履虫-小球藻共生系统中,共生藻中存在葡糖胺硬性壁是其与草履虫发生共生关系的基本条件,其中,共生藻参与宿主代谢,与宿主形成相互受益的专一性关系,并且藻类共生体的作用可能影响了宿主草履虫基因组有关结构,改变了其基因表达。作者推测,探索共生体对宿主基因结构及其表达产物的影响可能是对纤毛虫中共生作用研究的主要趋势,这对于深入了 解真核细胞中宿主-共生体双方的相互作用、物质交流在分子水平上的调控机理、细胞结构与功能的关系等细胞生命活动规律是有意义的。%To date, bacterial,algal and other microbial symbionts have been found in more than 100 species of ciliates. The study of the host-symbiont system in ciliates shows that: ( 1 ) The inheritance of kappa particles in the cytoplasm of Paramecium aurelia is a classic example of the cytoplasmic inheritance theory. (2) Bacterial symbionts in some anerobic ciliates that lack mitochondria play the major role in the host's metabolism. (3) In the P. Caudatum-Holospora obtusa system, 39- and 15-kDa periplasmic pro teins of the infectious H. Obtusa reacted with IF-3-1 and IF-3-2 monoclonal antibodies respectively. The amounts of both antigens were reduced during

  10. Molecular phylogeny and species separation of five morphologically similar Holosticha-complex ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using ARDRA riboprinting and multigene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Jun; Al-Rasheid Khaled, A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2010-05-01

    To separate and redefine the ambiguous Holosticha-complex, a confusing group of hypotrichous ciliates, six strains belonging to five morphospecies of three genera, Holosticha heterofoissneri, Anteholosticha sp. pop1, Anteholosticha sp. pop2, A. manca, A. gracilis and Nothoholosticha fasciola, were analyzed using 12 restriction enzymes on the basis of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Nine of the 12 enzymes could digest the DNA products, four ( Hinf I, Hind III, Msp I, Taq I) yielded species-specific restriction patterns, and Hind III and Taq I produced different patterns for two Anteholosticha sp. populations. Distinctly different restriction digestion haplotypes and similarity indices can be used to separate the species. The secondary structures of the five species were predicted based on the ITS2 transcripts and there were several minor differences among species, while two Anteholosticha sp. populations were identical. In addition, phylogenies based on the SSrRNA gene sequences were reconstructed using multiple algorithms, which grouped them generally into four clades, and exhibited that the genus Anteholosticha should be a convergent assemblage. The fact that Holosticha species clustered with the oligotrichs and choreotrichs, though with very low support values, indicated that the topology may be very divergent and unreliable when the number of sequence data used in the analyses is too low.

  11. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-05-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  12. Morphology and phylogeny of three karyorelictean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora), including two novel species, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. and Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yan, Ying; Li, Lifang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the morphology and infraciliature of three karyorelictean ciliates, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n., Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. and a rarely known form, Geleia acuta (Dragesco, 1960) Foissner, 1998, which were isolated from the intertidal zone of sandy beaches at Zhanjiang and Qingdao, China. Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. is distinguished from related forms by having 26-30 somatic kineties, a narrow glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of approximately four to six macronuclei and two micronuclei. Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. can be recognized through its 14-22 somatic kineties, wide glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of about four macronuclei. Phylogenetic analyses based on small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences indicated that the genera Trachelocerca and Tracheloraphis are closely related but that neither of them appears to be a clearly monophyletic group. Nonetheless, the monophyly of Trachelocerca is not rejected by the approximately unbiased (AU) test (P = 0.143, >0.05), although that of Tracheloraphis is rejected (P = 0.011, <0.05). Geleia acuta, meanwhile, branched with Geleia fossata and falls in the Geleia clade. PMID:25238761

  13. Phylogenetic positions of four hypotrichous ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora) based on SSU rRNA gene, with notes on their morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caiting; Liu, An; Xu, Yusen; Xu, Yuan; Fan, Xinpeng; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Ni, Bing; Gu, Fukang

    2015-01-01

     The morphology and infraciliature of the four hypotrichous ciliates; Rigidohymena inquieta (Stokes, 1887) Berger, 2011, Pattersoniella vitiphila Foissner, 1987, Notohymena australis Foissner & O' Donoghue, 1990, and Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) australis (Foissner, 1995) Foissner, 2004, collected from east China, were investigated by using live observation and protargol impregnation method. An improved diagnosis for R. inquieta was supplied based on descriptions of present and previous populations. New morphology and morphogenesis information based on Chinese populations of another three hypotrichids were also supplemented. The Small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of the four species were characterized and their phylogenetic positions were revealed by means of Bayesian inference and Maximum-likelihood analysis. The analyses shows that R. inquieta clusters with other members of the subfamily Stylonychinae, which confirms the monophyly of the subfamily and verified R. inquieta as a separated species from R. candens though it differs from others mainly by body size. C. (C.) australis occupying the basal position of the clade which contains cyrtohymenids and some other groups, declines the idea of separating Cyrtohymena into two subgenus. Notohymena australis and China population of Pattersoniella vitiphila respectively clustering with their congeners correspond well with the systematics revealed by morphological similarities. PMID:26623736

  14. 亚硝基胍诱变选育高转化率异麦芽酮糖菌株%Screening of high isomaltulose-conversion rate protaminobacter rubrum strain by NTG mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢汉浪; 许黎明; 吕军; 蒋永强

    2012-01-01

    异麦芽酮糖作为一种新型的功能性蔗糖替代品,特别适合应用于运动型、功能性和健康型的食品和饮料中,目前工业化生产是以蔗糖为主要原料通过蔗糖异构酶转化形成,产蔗糖异构酶的主要菌种包括红色精朊杆菌、大黄欧文氏菌等.但是由于异麦芽酮糖生产工艺长、能耗多和蔗糖原料成本高,抑制了它的市场成长率,因此提高蔗糖的收率、降低生产成本成为亟需解决的问题.本文利用亚硝基胍在0.2mg/mL的浓度下处理60min对处于对数生长期的红色精朊杆菌进行诱变,采用班氏试剂和高效液相色谱法筛选出酶活力显著提高、遗传稳定且转化蔗糖生成异麦芽酮糖的比例较高的菌株,干细胞酶活力最高为1230U/g,异麦芽酮糖在蔗糖完全转化溶液中占固型物的最高比例为87.7%,分别比原始菌株提高了一倍和7.48%.%As a new functional sugar substitute, Isomaltulose is perfectly for all sports, functional and wellness food and beverages. At present isomaltulose is industrially produced by a enzyme - converting process in which sucrose is transformed into isomaltulose. The main strains which can produce sucrose isomerase include Protaminobacter rubrum, Erwinia rhqpontici. However, the market growth of isomaltulose was inhibited because of the long production processes , high energy consumption and high costs of sucrose. In this study, a highly active sucrose isomerase and high isomaltulose - convertion rate Protaminobacter rubrum mutant strain was screened using nitrosoguanidine (NTG) - mutated method. The wild strain was mutated 60 minutes by 0. 2mg/mL NTG in the exponential phase, and the mutant strain was screened by Benedict reagent and HPLC. The mutant strain showed excellent genetic stability and the activity of sucrose isomerase could reach 1230U per gram of dried cell. Then the mutant strain was used in converting sucrose to isomaltulose. The maximum content of

  15. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  16. Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dongxia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of

  17. La estria supranuclear de las células ciliadas en la rinitis alérgica Supranuclear stria of ciliated cells in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zerdiew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 80 pacientes adultos alérgicos, que cursaron con los siguientes cuadros clínicos: 16 casos de rinitis intermitente y 64 de rinitis persistente. Se realizó el recuento porcentual de la estría supranuclear de las células ciliadas, respecto de los leucocitos presentes en los extendidos obtenidos por toma endonasal. Con los datos obtenidos se clasificaron los extendidos en 4 grupos; Grupo A (N=23: predominio leucocitario eosinófilo con eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo B (N=15: abundantes leucocitos neutrófilos y eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo C (N=29: con escasos leucocitos, Grupo D (N=13: con abundantes leucocitos de predominio neutrófilo sin eosinofilia. Se observó que el incremento porcentual de estría supranuclear se correlacionó con eosinofilia nasal >10% y con las muestras que presentaron escasos leucocitos. Sin embargo se evidenció una marcada disminución del porcentaje de estría supranuclear en la leucocitosis neutrófila de etiología bacteriana.Nasal secretions were studied in 80 allergic adults patients: 16 with intermittent rhinitis and 64 with persistent rhinitis. The percentage of supranuclear stria of ciliated cells with regard to leucocytes was studied by nasal scraping. Four groups of patients were classified according to nasal leucocytic predominance: patients with eosinophilic predominance with eosinophils > 10% in Group A (N=23, patients with abundant neutrophils and eosinophils >10% in Group B (N=15, patients with scant leucocytes in Group C (N=29, patients with neutrophilic predominance without eosinophils in Group D (N=13. An increase of supranuclear stria percentage was correlated to eosinophils > 10% and also correlated to scant leucocytes. Nevertheless, a significant decrease of supranuclear stria percentage was observed in neutrophilic leukocytosis of bacterial etiology.

  18. Morphology and phylogenetic analysis of two oxytrichid soil ciliates from China, Oxytricha paragranulifera n. sp. and Oxytricha granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983 (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chen; Lv, Zhao; Pan, Ying; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Yi, Zhenzhen

    2014-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two hypotrichous ciliates, Oxytricha paragranulifera n. sp. and Oxytricha granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983, collected respectively from the surface of a sandy soil in the Huguang mangrove forest, Zhanjiang, China, and the surface of soil in a forest beside Ziwu Road, Xian, north-west China, were examined. O. paragranulifera n. sp. is characterized by an elongate body with slightly tapered anterior end, two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei, paroral and endoral in Stylonychia-pattern, colourless cortical granules distributed in clusters or irregular short rows, adoral zone occupying 37 % of the body length, marginal rows almost confluent posteriorly, six dorsal kineties and three caudal cirri, caudal cirri and dorsal bristles almost indistinguishable when viewed in vivo. The well-known O. granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983 was also redescribed and can be separated from the novel species by having cortical granules arranged along dorsal kineties and marginal rows on both sides (vs grouped in clusters as well as in short irregular rows), paroral and endoral in Oxytricha-pattern (vs in Stylonychia-pattern), macronuclear nodules obviously detached (vs adjacent) and a non-saline terrestrial habitat (vs saline terrestrial). The separation of these two taxa is also firmly supported by the molecular data, which show a significant difference between the two in their SSU rRNA gene sequences (similarity 97.1 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data suggest a close relationship within the Oxytrichidae assemblage between O. paragranulifera n. sp. and O. granulifera. PMID:24928427

  19. SSU rDNA sequence diversity and seasonally differentiated distribution of nanoplanktonic ciliates in neritic Bohai and Yellow Seas as revealed by T-RFLP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    Full Text Available Nanociliates have been frequently found to be important players in the marine microbial loop, however, little is known about their diversity and distribution in coastal ecosystems. We investigated the molecular diversity and distribution patterns of nanoplanktonic oligotrich and choreotrich (OC ciliates in surface water of three neritic basins of northern China, the South Yellow Sea (SYS, North Yellow Sea (NYS, and Bohai Sea (BS in June and November 2011. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries generated from three summertime samples (sites B38, B4 and H8 were analyzed and revealed a large novel ribotype diversity, of which many were low-abundant phylotypes belonging to the subclass Oligotrichia, but divergent from described morphospecies. Based on the data of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of all 35 samples, we found that the T-RF richness was generally higher in the SYS than in the BS, and negatively correlated with the molar ratio of P to Si. Overall, multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the community turnover demonstrated a distinct seasonal pattern but no basin-to-basin differentiation across all samples. Nevertheless, significant community differences among basins were recognized in the winter dataset. Mantel tests showed that the environmental factors, P:Si ratio, water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, determined the community across all samples. However, both biogeographic distance and environment shaped the community in winter, with DO being the most important physicochemical factor. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric ratio of P:Si is a key factor, through which the phytoplankton community may be shaped, resulting in a cascade effect on the diversity and community composition of OC nanociliates in the N-rich, Si-limited coastal surface waters, and that the Yellow Sea Warm Current drives the nanociliate community, and possibly the

  20. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervia, Davide, E-mail: d.cervia@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  1. Arsenic Speciation and Seasonal Changes in Nutrient Availability and Micro-plankton Abundance in Southampton Water, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. G.; Comber, S. D. W.; Kifle, D.; Antai, E. E.; Purdie, D. A.

    1995-04-01

    The links between dissolved arsenic speciation, biological activity and the availabilities of the nitrogen and phosphorus plant nutrients have been investigated in a seasonal survey of Southampton Water (U.K.). Southampton Water (Hampshire, southern England) is an approximately 10 km long, and 2 km wide north-westerly extension of the Solent, receiving water from the rivers Test and Itchen. It is a partially mixed estuary bordered by broad intertidal mudflats with shingle and sand on the eastern side, and a salt marsh to the west. Two sites were chosen: NW Netley Buoy is in a sheltered high-salinity estuarine environment whilst Calshot Buoy lies just outside Southampton Water and in a more exposed location of less-variable salinity. The first evidence of arsenic(III) production at both sites occurred in the second half of April, during the decay of a major Skeletonema costatumdiatom bloom. Arsenic(III) levels rose as Skeletonemawas replaced by a numerically smaller but more chlorophyll-rich bloom of another diatom, Rhizosolenia delicatula. Rhizosoleniais therefore implicated as a possible source of arsenic(III). Methylated arsenic was absent whilst the water temperature was low and during the initial Skeletonemabloom, but a week later, during the growth phase of the succeeding bloom of the diatom R. delicatula, they became detectable. Methylated arsenic levels gradually increased through the spring to a broad maximum covering the mid-summer, when Mesodinium rubrum, Scrippsiella trochoideaand associated microflagellates also peaked. No subsequent single organism could be linked to the release of methylated arsenic into Southampton Water; organoarsenicals having been observed in the presence of flagellates, diatoms and ciliates. A large bacterial maximum was observed following blooms of S. trochoideaand M. rubrumbut laboratory culture experiments of natural bacteria from Netley failed to produce significant changes in the concentration of any arsenic species

  2. Planktonic microbes in the Gulf of Maine area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K W Li

    Full Text Available In the Gulf of Maine area (GoMA, as elsewhere in the ocean, the organisms of greatest numerical abundance are microbes. Viruses in GoMA are largely cyanophages and bacteriophages, including podoviruses which lack tails. There is also evidence of Mimivirus and Chlorovirus in the metagenome. Bacteria in GoMA comprise the dominant SAR11 phylotype cluster, and other abundant phylotypes such as SAR86-like cluster, SAR116-like cluster, Roseobacter, Rhodospirillaceae, Acidomicrobidae, Flavobacteriales, Cytophaga, and unclassified Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria clusters. Bacterial epibionts of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense include Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Cytophaga spp., Sulfitobacter spp., Sphingomonas spp., and unclassified Bacteroidetes. Phototrophic prokaryotes in GoMA include cyanobacteria that contain chlorophyll (mainly Synechococcus, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs that contain bacteriochlorophyll, and bacteria that contain proteorhodopsin. Eukaryotic microalgae in GoMA include Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Synurophyceae, and Xanthophyceae. There are no records of Bolidophyceae, Aurearenophyceae, Raphidophyceae, and Synchromophyceae in GoMA. In total, there are records for 665 names and 229 genera of microalgae. Heterotrophic eukaryotic protists in GoMA include Dinophyceae, Alveolata, Apicomplexa, amoeboid organisms, Labrynthulida, and heterotrophic marine stramenopiles (MAST. Ciliates include Strombidium, Lohmaniella, Tontonia, Strobilidium, Strombidinopsis and the mixotrophs Laboea strobila and Myrionecta rubrum (ex Mesodinium rubra. An inventory of selected microbial groups in each of 14 physiographic regions in GoMA is made by combining information on the depth-dependent variation of cell density and the depth-dependent variation of water volume. Across the entire GoMA, an

  3. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  4. 红花檵木叶片花色素提取及其性质研究%Extraction and Characterization of Anthocyanidins from Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辛雷; 李纪元; 范正琪

    2011-01-01

    The anthocyanidinsins in Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh leaves were extracted by solvent extraction method and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties.The best extraction conditions were found as follows: 99.5% methanol as extraction solvent at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5(g/mL) for 2 h extraction at 60 ℃.The pigments were unstable to light and heating but stable to strongly acidic environments and had a different color in slightly acidic and nearly neutral environments.Their tolerance to H2O2 and Na2SO3 was poor and their sensitivity to EDTA and sodium benzoate was high.Glucose and sucrose had little effect on the pigments.Salt,citric acid and some metal ions such as A13+,Ca2+ and Co2+ had hyperchromic effect on them and vitamin C and other metal ions such as Cu2+,Mg2+,Zn2+,Mn2+,K+ and Sn2+ had hypochromic effect.Moreover,Fe2+,Fe3+ and Pb2+ affected the stability of the pigments.%以红花檵木叶片为材料,对其花色素的提取条件及理化性质进行研究。结果表明,红花檵木叶片花色素提取的最佳条件为:99.5%的甲醇、料液比1:5(g/mL)、浸提温度60℃、浸提时间2h。红花檵木叶片花色素具光、热不稳定性;在强酸性时稳定,微酸近中性时变色。色素抗氧化、还原能力差;对螯合剂、苯甲酸钠敏感。葡萄糖、蔗糖对色素无明显影响,食盐、柠檬酸有增色作用,VC具减色作用。金属离子A13+、Ca2+、Co2+等具增色作用,Cu2+、Mg2+、Zn2+、Mn2+、K+、Sn2+等有减色作用,Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+影响色素稳定性。

  5. Protocruzia,a highly ambiguous ciliate(Protozoa;Ciliophora):Very likely an ancestral form for Heterotrichea,Colpodea or Spirotrichea? With reevaluation of its evolutionary position based on multigene analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thorsten; STOECK; Shin; Mann; Kyoon; Al-Rasheid; Khaled; A.; S.; Al-Khedhairy; Abdulaziz; A.

    2010-01-01

    The ciliate genus Protocruzia belongs to one of the most ambiguous taxa considering its systematic position,possibly as a member of the classes Heterotrichea,Spirotrichea or Karyorelictea,which is tentatively placed into Spirotrichea in Lynn’s 2008 system.To test these hypotheses,multigene trees(Bayesian inference,evolutionary distance,maximum parsimony,and maximum likelihood) were constructed using the small subunit rRNA(SSU rRNA) gene,internal transcribed spacer 2(ITS2) and a protein coding gene(histone H4).All analyses agree that:(1) four morphotypes of Protocruzia from different geographical origins group together and form a monophyletic clade,which cannot be assigned to any of the eleven described ciliate classes;(2) it is invariably positioned on an isolated branch separated from the class Spirotrichea suggesting that this clade should be clearly removed from Spirotrichea;(3) this leads us to hypothesize that this taxon may indeed represent a lineage on a class rank.Based on the fact that it is,both morphologically and in molecular features,closely related to the heterotrichs,Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea,Protocruziida might be an ancestral form for the subphylum Intramacronucleata in the evolutionary line from the class Heterotrichea(subphylum Postciliodesmatophora) to higher taxa.

  6. Improvement of silver impregnation technique (Protargol) to obtain morphological features of protists ciliates, flagellates and opalinates Aperfeiçoamento da técnica de impregnação pela prata (protargol) para obtenção de caracteres morfológicos de protistas ciliados, flagelados e opalinatas

    OpenAIRE

    I. D. da SILVA-NETO

    2000-01-01

    The research on ciliates, flagelates and opalinates have been widespread by the utilization of techniques employing silver impregnation (Protargol), modified by several authors. However, these are time consuming and its results are variable. The present work is a variant of the technique described by Tuffrau (1964, 1967) showing some adaptations made in our laboratory. The organisms can be preserved by different fixatives (alcoholic Bouin, Stieve's fluid, 2.5% glutaraldehyde and others) and t...

  7. 2种除草剂及混用对红花檵木容器苗杂草的防除效果%Weed Control Efficacy of Two Kinds of Herbicide and Their Mixture in Container Seedling Breeding of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金久宏

    2012-01-01

    A weed control experiment was conducted for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum container seedlings with 24% oxyfluorfen EC, 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC, and the combination of 24% oxyfluorfen EC and 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC. The results showed that the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 30 days after application was 90.3% out of the plants, and 87. 8% by the fresh weight. While the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 40 days after application was 91.7% out of the plants, and 91.6% by the fresh weight. The weed control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC was better than that of the other two types of herbicide. It was also safer to the container seedlings of L chinense var. rubrum, so it should be further extended to larger area.%用24.0%乙氧氟草醚乳油,10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油及这2种药剂的混合共3种处理对红花槛木容器苗进行杂草除治试验,结果表明:喷施24%乙氧氟草醚乳油20mL/667m2后,第30天的株防效为90.3%、鲜质量防效为87.8%;第40天的株防效为91.7%、鲜质量防效为91.6%,均明显好于另外2种药剂处理的除草效果,且对苗木较为安全,基本上能达到除治杂草的目的,可进一步推广应用.

  8. Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699

  9. CX3CR1 Is Expressed in Differentiated Human Ciliated Airway Cells and Co-Localizes with Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Cilia in a G Protein-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Il Jeong

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the principal cause of bronchiolitis in infants and a significant healthcare problem. The RSV Glycoprotein (G mediates attachment of the virus to the cell membrane, which facilitates interaction of the RSV Fusion (F protein with nucleolin, thereby triggering fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. However, a host protein ligand for G has not yet been identified. Here we show that CX3CR1 is expressed in the motile cilia of differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE cells, and that CX3CR1 co-localizes with RSV particles. Upon infection, the distribution of CX3CR1 in these cells is significantly altered. Complete or partial deletion of RSV G results in viruses binding at least 72-fold less efficiently to cells, and reduces virus replication. Moreover, an antibody targeting an epitope near the G protein's CX3CR1-binding motif significantly inhibits binding of the virus to airway cells. Given previously published evidence of the interaction of G with CX3CR1 in human lymphocytes, these findings suggest a role for G in the interaction of RSV with ciliated lung cells. This interpretation is consistent with past studies showing a protective benefit in immunizing against G in animal models of RSV infection, and would support targeting the CX3CR1-G protein interaction for prophylaxis or therapy. CX3CR1 expression in lung epithelial cells may also have implications for other respiratory diseases such as asthma.

  10. Separation and electrophysiology of ciliated olfactory receptor neu-rons in Bostrychus sinensis%中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅神经元的分离及其电生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓健; 洪万树; 杨薇

    2013-01-01

    The ciliated olfactory receptor neurons (cORNs) in the olfactory sac were dissociated from Bostrichthys sinensis by enzymatic and mechanical methods. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the resting potential, action potential and voltage-gated ion channel current. The results showed that the B. sinensis cORN was a bipolar neuron, containing cell body, axon and dendrites with olfactory knobs and cilia. The resting and action potential peaks of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons were (–57 ± 6.37) mV and (38.30 ± 0.95) mV, respec-tively. In response to depolarizing voltage steps pulse stimulation from –60 ~ +80 mV, the transient inward current was activated between –60 mV and –40 mV, and reached a peak averaging (–69.08 ± 44.15) pA at −20 to 0 mV; the outward current reached a peak averaging (267.55 ± 73.67) pA at +40 mV. The present study provides a base theory for research in the electrophysiological mechanisms of sex pheromones with their receptors and the application of sex pheromones.%  应用酶消化和机械吹打相结合的方法,快速分离出中华乌塘鳢(Bostrychys sinensis)嗅囊中纤毛嗅觉感受神经元.再应用全细胞膜片钳技术记录中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅觉感受神经元的静息电位、动作电位及电压门控离子通道电流等电生理学特征.结果表明,中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅觉感受神经元具有典型的双级神经元结构特征,包括细胞体,轴突,树突以及树突顶端的嗅结和纤毛.嗅觉感受神经元静息电位为(−57±6.37) mV,动作电位峰值为(38.30±0.95) mV.在−60~+80 mV 的阶梯去极化脉冲刺激中,内向电流在−60~−40 mV 激活,−20~0 mV 达到最大值,内向电流峰值为(−69.08±44.15) pA.外向电流在+40 mV 时达最大值,峰值为(267.55±73.67) pA.本研究结果为纤毛嗅觉感受神经元上性信息素受体感受性信息素的电生理机制以及性信息素的应用提供了方法和理论基础.

  11. Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb., a unique marine ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), with phylogenetic analysis of the ambiguous genus Caryotricha inferred from the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Miao; Shao, Chen; Jiang, Jiamei; Li, Liqiong; Stoeck, Thorsten; Song, Weibo

    2009-02-01

    A population of Kiitricha minuta Xu et al., 2008, a small kiitrichid ciliate, was isolated from a brackish water sample in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, northern China. After comparison of its morphology and infraciliature, it is believed that this morphotype should be assigned to the genus Caryotricha; hence, a new combination is suggested, Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb. The small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence was determined in order to elucidate the phylogenetic position of this poorly known, ambiguous genus. The organism can be clearly separated from its congener, Caryotricha convexa Kahl, 1932, by the extremely shortened ventral cirral rows in the posterior ends. Based on the data available, an improved diagnosis is given for the genus: marine Kiitrichidae with prominent buccal field; two highly developed undulating membranes; non-grouped, uniform cirral rows on both ventral and dorsal sides; enlarged transverse cirri present, which are the only differentiated cirri; marginal cirri not present; one short migratory row located posterior to buccal field; structure of dorsal kineties generally in Kiitricha pattern. The sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of C. minuta differs by 13 % from that of Kiitricha marina. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian inference, least squares, neighbour joining, maximum parsimony) indicate that Caryotricha, together with Kiitricha, diverges at a deep level from all other spirotrichs. Its branching position is between Phacodiniidia and Licnophoridia. The results strongly support the distinct separation of the Kiitricha-Caryotricha clade, which always branches basal to the Stichotrichia-Hypotrichia-Oligotrichia-Choreotrichia assemblage. These results also confirm the previous hypothesis that the Kiitricha-Caryotricha group, long assumed to be a close relation to the euplotids, represents a taxon at subclass level within the spirotrichs. PMID:19196791

  12. Using the Ciliate Protozoan Vorticella in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alick R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for collection, culture, observation, and making permanent stained preparations of the protozoan vorticella. Suggestions are made for experiments to investigate growth, reproduction, settlement, ecology, feeding, and osmoregulation. (CS)

  13. Sex determination: ciliates' self-censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gareth

    2014-07-01

    Differentiation involves the expression of certain latent cellular characteristics and the repression of others. A new study has revealed how Paramecium uses short RNAs to delete information from the somatic genome of one of its two sexes. PMID:25004369

  14. Fontes de lipídeos e monensina na alimentação de novilhos Nelore e sua relação com a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen Effects of feeding monensin and different sources of fat on the ruminal population of ciliate protozoa in Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Camilo Valinote

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos Nelore, fistulados e canulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4, para avaliar o caroço de algodão e o sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos como fontes de gordura assim como o efeito da monensina em dietas com caroço de algodão, sobre a população de protozoários ciliados e o pH do rúmen. Os tratamentos experimentais foram: dieta controle (CTRL, dieta com sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos (SC, dieta com caroço de algodão (CA e dieta com caroço de algodão sem monensina (CASM. Amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram colhidas às 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação. Foi utilizada câmara de contagem de Sedgwick-Rafter com capacidade de 1mL e microscópio ótico comum provido de retículo com área de 0,4362 mm², para identificação dos gêneros de ciliados. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para o pH do rúmen. Os tratamentos com caroço de algodão reduziram todos os gêneros de protozoários ciliados, em especial de Entodinium, provavelmente pela gordura liberada. Os protozoários dos gêneros Diplodinium, Epidinium e Eudiplodinum e o número total de protozoários foram os únicos que sofreram influência do tempo de alimentação. Sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos foram suficientemente inertes no ambiente ruminal, não afetando o número de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos Nelore. A utilização de monensina em dietas contendo caroço de algodão e alto concentrado não influenciou o número de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos Nelore.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 4 x 4 latin square to study the effects of feeding monensin (M and different sources of fat on the ruminal population of ciliate protozoa and ruminal pH. The experimental diets contained (DM basis 19% of sugar cane and were supplemented with M [control (CTRL], M plus calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA, M plus whole cottonseed (MWCS, or only WCS

  15. TRANSUNGUAL PERMEATION OF THE VORICONAZOLE NAIL LACQUER AGAINST TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    OpenAIRE

    Amruta Ashok Tandel; Surendra Agrawal; Shaijesh Shirish Wankhede

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The oral therapies encounter side effects and topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by poor permeability of nail plate. An optimal penetration enhancer would improve drug delivery through nail plate facilitating new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if the systemic circulation is reached. The purpose of study was to determine amount of voriconazole permeating through the nail plate from the nail lacquer formulation containing permeation enhancer and t...

  16. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamäe, Karin; Berge, Terje; Trampe, Erik C. L.; Nielsen, Lasse T.; Lips, Inga; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta takes control over “third-hand” chloroplasts obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. While D. acuta cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts they apparently lose the ability to maintain high inorganic carbon fixation rates. PMID:27303378

  17. Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos e bubalinos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com monensina ou própolis Ruminal ciliate protozoa of cattle and buffalo fed on diet supplemented with monensin or extracts from propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Barros Ríspoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas suplementadas com monensina ou produtos à base de própolis, nas populações de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos (Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis. Quatro bovinos da raça Holandesa e quatro búfalos da raça Murrah adultos, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino (4x4. A dieta constituiu-se de 50% de silagem de milho e 50% de concentrado à base de milho em grãos e farelo de soja, com adição de monensina sódica ou aditivo à base de própolis LLOSA2 ou LLOSC1. As amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram coletadas duas horas após a alimentação. O gênero Entodinium foi o mais representativo em todos os tratamentos, para ambas as raças de ruminantes. Em búfalos, foi observado o efeito redutor do tratamento LLOSC1 nas populações do gênero Entodinium, além do efeito redutor dos tratamentos monensina e LLOSA2 sobre os gêneros da subfamília Diplodiniinae. A média de ciliados foi maior em bubalinos (56x10(4 mL-1 do que em bovinos (26x10(4 mL-1. Houve aumento do pH ruminal dos bovinos no tratamento com monensina. O extrato de própolis LLOSC1 reduziu os ciliados do rúmen em bubalinos.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with monensin or with extracts of propolis, on the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Four Holstein cattle and four Murrah buffalo, fistulated in the rumen, were distributed in 4x4 Latin square design. The diet was constituted by 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate based on corn grain and soybean meal, and the supplementation of monensin sodium or propolis extracts LLOSA2 or LLOSC1. Samples of ruminal contents were collected two hours after feeding. The genus Entodinium was the most common in all treatments for both cattle and buffalo. The LLOSC1 treatment reduced the populations of the genus Entodinium in buffalo

  18. Níveis de proteína degradável para novilhas em crescimento sobre a concentração de protozoários ciliados e outros parâmetros ruminais Levels of degradable protein given to heifers for the ciliate protozoa concentration and other ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Balcells

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Em um ensaio de controle de parâmetros ruminais (pH, ritmo de trânsito (%h, volume ruminal (l, e concentração de protozoários ciliados, foram utilizadas quatro novilhas Holstein, canuladas no rúmen e duodeno, recebendo dietas com 4 níveis de proteína degradável, sem suplementar ou suplementadas com 25, 50 e 75 gramos de proteína degradável por quilo de concentrado em forma de uréia e caseína (98,2 e 93,2% de matéria orgânica e proteína bruta, respectivamente. As rações experimentais foram compostas por 25% de palha de cevada sem tratar e 75% de concentrado formulado em base a diferentes proporções (25/75 e 75/25 de milho/cevada, com 5% de resíduo de trigo e 5% de suplemento vitamínico mineral. Uma contínua infusão de marcador de fluxo de fase líquida (Cr-EDTA foi executada. Os oito tratamentos experimentais (2 dietas x 4 níveis de infusão foram administrados em 8 períodos de balanço em um delineamento cross-over, em esquema fatorial. O nível de infusão de N degradável afetou de forma significativa os valores médios ponderados de pH, que decresceram ao aumentar a suplementação (p 3/mL que de cevada (59,5 x 103/mL; p Entodinium alcançou 87,8% da população total. O gênero Epidinium apresentou menores valores com a dieta de cevada (3,73 vs. 1,89x103/mL, p 3/mL, p 5/mL, p In this experiment four Holstein heifers fitted with rumen and duodenum canulae were utilized to evaluate the rumen parameters as pH, passage rate (%/h, volume (L and ciliated protozoa concentration, when fed diets with four levels of rumen degradable protein. This was achieved supplementing 0, 25, 50 or 75 grams of degradable protein per kg of concentrate as a urea and casein (98.2% OM and 93.2% CP. The diets had 25% of barley straw without treatment and 75% concentrate formulated to contain different proportions (25/75 and 75/25 of corn and barley and also 5% of wheat residue and 5% of mineral and vitamin supplement. A continuous infusion of

  19. Efeito da monensina e do óleo de soja sobre os protozoários ciliados do rúmen e correlação dos protozoários com parâmetros da fermentação ruminal e digestivos Effect of monensin and soybean oil on rumen ciliate protozoa and correlation between protozoa with ruminal fermentation and digestive parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-06-01

    lactating cows on the counting of ciliate protozoa beyond establishing correlations between number of protozoa with some parameters of digestion and ruminal fermentation. The treatments consisted of the inclusion of 33 ppm of sodium monensin or soybean oil at 4% DM, as following: control diet, without oil or monensin - CT; diet with monensin - MN; diet with soybean oil - OL; diet with the combination of 33 ppm of monensin and 4% of soybean oil - OM. Occurrence of 11 ciliate genera was observed, being Entodinium the predominant in all treatments. No significant soybean oil × monensin interaction was observed on protozoa number and genera. The genera Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Isotricha reduced in the diets with oil, while monensin reduced the counting of Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Epidinium. The total number of ciliate protozoa and cellulolytics protozoa was reduced by soybean oil and monensin effects, showing a defaunatory additive effect when combined the oil and the monensin. The ciliate cellulolytics was reduced by linoleic acid intake and was related positively with NDF ruminal digestibility and ruminal ammonia. The total number of protozoa was correlated with the molar proportion of propionate in the ruminal liquid, suggesting that monensin and soybean oil, due their defaunatory effect, can reduce the loss of methane in the rumen.

  20. Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

    1999-03-01

    Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

  1. Chitinolytic activity of the rumen ciliates Diploplastron affine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belzecki, G.; Miltko, R.; Michalowski, T.; Šimůnek, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 201-203. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/2584 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology Poland(PL) 2 P06Z 052 30 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Diploplastron affine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  2. Ecotoxicity assessment using ciliate cells in millifluidic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Rico; Burkart, Corinna; Pfitzner, Daniel; Jungmann, Dirk; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-03-01

    Precise analysis of the aquatic cells and their responses to the toxic chemicals, i.e., water disinfective agents, is of crucial importance due to their role in the ecosystem. We demonstrate the application of the droplets based millifluidic tool for isolating and longtime monitoring of single Paramecium tetraurelia cells using a large number of water-in-oil emulsion droplets. Due to the automated monitoring of the fluorescence signal, the droplets containing cells are distinguished from the empty reservoirs. A viability indicator is used to follow the metabolic dynamic of the cells in every single droplet. Finally, we perform ecotoxicity tests in droplets, exposing the encapsulated paramecia cells to silver nitrate for determination of EC50 levels, and compare the output with the conventional microtiter plate assay. PMID:27051472

  3. A survey of entodiniomorphid ciliates in chimpanzees and bonobos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Modrý, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 1 (2010), s. 42-48. ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA AV ČR KJB600930615; GA MŠk MEB080890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Troglodytella abrassarti * entodiniomorphids * Pan troglodytes * Pan paniscus * captivity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2010

  4. Unsteady feeding and optimal strokes of model ciliates

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The flow field created by swimming microorganisms not only enables their locomotion but also leads to advective transport of nutrients. In this paper we address analytically and computationally the link between unsteady feeding and unsteady swimming on a model microorganism, the spherical squirmer, actuating the fluid in a time-periodic manner. We start by performing asymptotic calculations at low P\\'eclet number (Pe) on the advection-diffusion problem for the nutrients. We show that the mean rate of feeding as well as its fluctuations in time depend only on the swimming modes of the squirmer up to order Pe^(3/2), even when no swimming occurs on average, while the influence of non-swimming modes comes in only at order Pe^2. We also show that generically we expect a phase delay between feeding and swimming of 1/8th of a period. Numerical computations for illustrative strokes at finite Pe confirm quantitatively our analytical results linking swimming and feeding. We finally derive, and use, an adjoint-based opt...

  5. Preparation Of Ciliated Protozoa For Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Microscopy Laboratory General notes: The same procedures are used to fix and stain cells for SEM and for TEM. Cells can be fixed using conventional [glutaraldehyde-osmium fixation](http://www.ukans.edu/~bcmic/MEIL/techniques/tetrahy.html) described for transmission electron microscopy. To preserve ciliary orientation, use the "instant fixation" protocol described here. With this method, the cortex and ciliary beat form is well preserved but the cytoplasm is poorly preser...

  6. Imine-Functionalized Triazatriangulenium Platforms: Towards an Artificial Ciliated Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Melanie; Rusch, Talina; Krekiehn, Nicolai R; Bloedorn, Andreas; Magnussen, Olaf M; Herges, Rainer

    2016-06-17

    Triazatriangulenium (TATA) platforms have been used to prepare highly ordered, self-assembled monolayers of free- and vertically standing imines on Au(111) surfaces. Upon irradiation, the imines undergo trans-cis isomerization and a fast thermal reaction (t1/2 =0.58 s at 20 °C) back to the more stable trans form. It is known that the photochemical reaction proceeds through rotation of the C=N bond and the thermochemical reaction through inversion at the N atom. The imine motors, therefore, should be able to induce a net displacement of particles above the surface similar to cilia epithelia in nature. PMID:27016909

  7. Effect of an energy-deficient diet on populations of ciliate protozoans in bovine rumen Efeito da deficiência de energia na dieta sobre a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten young rumen-cannulated crossbred steers were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (C; n=4, which was fed a balanced diet for daily weight gain of 900g; and a pronounced energy-deprived group (PED; n=6, receiving 30% less of the required energy for maintenance. After 140 days of these alimentary regimes, rumen fluid and urine samples were collected for biochemical and functional tests, before feeding and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours after feeding. The energy-deprivation diet caused a significant reduction in the number of Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium, and Epidinium protozoa. There was no effect of the time of sampling in both groups on the total number of ciliates in rumen fluid. A higher number of protozoan forms in binary division were recorded in the control group, at the 6th and 9th hours after feeding (PForam utilizados 10 novilhos mestiços com cânula ruminal, distribuídos em dois grupos: no grupo controle (C; n=4 receberam dieta balanceada para ganho diário de 900g; no grupo tratado com carência pronunciada de energia (CP; n=6, receberam dieta com 30% a menos do nível de mantença em energia. Após 140 dias sob esses regimes de alimentação, foram coletadas amostras do fluido ruminal e urina, para realização de provas bioquímicas e funcionais, antes e às 1, 3, 6 e 9 horas após o fornecimento do alimento. A carência energética resultou em diminuição significativa na quantidade dos protozoários Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium e Epidinium. Não houve efeito da hora de coleta sobre o total de ciliados nos grupos C e CP. Maior número de formas em divisão binária foi registrado no grupo C, na sexta e nona horas pós-alimentação (P<0,019. Observaram-se altas correlações positivas entre a contagem total de protozoários e a fermentação de glicose, am

  8. Mercury concentration in phytoplankton in response to warming of an autumn - winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Kobos, Justyna

    2016-08-01

    Among other climate changes in the southern Baltic, there is a tendency towards warming, especially in autumn-winter. As a result, the ice cover on the coastal zone often fails to occur. This is conducive to the thriving of phytoplankton, in which metals, including mercury, can be accumulated. The dry deposition of atmospheric Hg during heating seasons is more intense than in non-heating seasons, owing to the combustion of fossil fuels for heating purposes. This has resulted in studies into the role of phytoplankton in the introduction of Hg into the first link of trophic chain, as a function of autumn and winter warming in the coastal zone of the lagoon. The studies were conducted at two stations in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, in the Puck Lagoon, between December 2011 and May 2013. The obtained results show that, in the estuary region, the lack of ice cover can lead to a 30% increase and during an "extremely warm" autumn and winter an increase of up to three-fold in the mean annual Hg pool in phytoplankton (mass of Hg in phytoplankton per liter of seawater). The Hg content in phytoplankton was higher when Mesodinium rubrum was prevalent in the biomass, while the proportion of dinoflagellates was small. PMID:27176763

  9. Cultivo en biorreactores de rhodospirillum rubrum en condiciones fotoheterotróficas

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello Bergillos, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    La presente tesis está enmarcada en el desarrollo de los sistemas de soporte de vida biológicos, de especial aplicación para los viajes espaciales tripulados de larga duración. Concretamente, este trabajo se centra en el estudio, análisis, modelización y escalado de uno de los cinco compartimentos que integran el bucle MELiSSA, el compartimento fotoheterotrófico. Los experimentos han sido encaminados a determinar la influencia de la naturaleza de la radiación, de la irradiancia incidente y de...

  10. Transmission of phytoplasmas associated with full blossom disease in Ribes rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Kubelková, Darina; Špaková, Vlastimila

    Ankara : Mustafa Kemal University, 2006, s. 71. [XXth International Symposium on Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops and XIth International Symposium of Small Fruit Virus Diseases. Antalya (TR), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : full blossom disease * plant pathology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Molluscs associated with a Sardinian deep water population of Corallium rubrum (Linnι, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molluscan species living in association with Corallium rubrumcolonies are poorly known. Specimensfound on the branches of red coral colonies located off Capo Caccia (Alghero – SS, West Sardinia,Mediterranean Sea were studied by analyzing red coral branches collected at a depth of between 100 and120 m; their assemblage was made up of 44 species, all belonging to the classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia.Some data on the geographical distribution, ecology, taxonomy and dominance of these species, bothalive and dead, are given and the most interesting are commented on. Among the recorded species Triviamultilirata, Simnia purpurea, Coralliophila brevis, Ocinebrina paddeui, Pleurotomella demosia, Palliolumstriatum and Pseudamussium sulcatum deserve attention. Moreover, the second finding of livingspecimens of Asperarca secreta, described only on loose valves, is reported, and finally the prey-predatorrelationships among several gastropods and Cnidarians are confirmed.

  12. POSSIBILITIES OF EXTRACTION AND CULTURE OF RED CORAL (Corallium rubrum, Linnaeus, 1758) IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Petar Kružić; Emi Teskeredžić

    2002-01-01

    The historical and religious significances of the red corals are presented in the paper. Its biology and physiology are described in details. The possibility of the controlled culture is shown as well as the needs of further development. To get some answers on many unknowns of biology, physiology and pathology of this very interesting organism, the basic trends of the scientific investigations are presented. Obtained data point at the careful exploitation of this natural resources.

  13. POSSIBILITIES OF EXTRACTION AND CULTURE OF RED CORAL (Corallium rubrum, Linnaeus, 1758 IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kružić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical and religious significances of the red corals are presented in the paper. Its biology and physiology are described in details. The possibility of the controlled culture is shown as well as the needs of further development. To get some answers on many unknowns of biology, physiology and pathology of this very interesting organism, the basic trends of the scientific investigations are presented. Obtained data point at the careful exploitation of this natural resources.

  14. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell) Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo; Vanessa Colnaghi Fernandes; Sônia Zingaretti; Rene Oliveira Beleboni; Ana Maria Soares Pereira; Mozart Marins; Sílvia Helena Taleb-Contini; Paulo Sérgio Pereira; Ana Lúcia Fachin

    2013-01-01

    Anemopaegma arvense (Vell) Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside) (rutin) and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside) were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no...

  15. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale) var. Rubrum) With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanudin; Rochmadi; Wiratni; Meri Yulvianti; Dhena Ria Barleany; Widya Ernayati

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentration against the emulsio...

  16. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP concentration against the emulsion droplet size and determine the encapsulation efficiency of red ginger oleoresin. Encapsulation method was done by mixing 2% chitosan solution with 1% acetic acid, 1% sodium alginate and 8 g of red ginger oleoresin. The mixture was stirred and added sodium tripolyphosphate (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5%, respectively, emulsion preparation process was done by adding tween 80 (3, 4 and 5%, respectively and then stirred using homogenizer with a speed of 22,000 rpm, emulsions formed were analyzed using nano-particle analyzer. Emulsion formed was flowed on to the spray dryer inlet temperature of 180°C to form a powder encapsulation. Powder products were analyzed for determining encapsulation efficiency and morphology of red ginger oleoresin powder using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Based on the research results, the smallest droplet size of the emulsion was obtained at 481.5 nm and the largest encapsulation efficiency was as high as 70.59%.

  17. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5–6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs. (paper)

  18. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    of Learning, I.S.M. Annexe, P.O. – I.S.M., Dhanbad-826004, Jharkhand, India. E-mail: drtchatterjee@yahoo.co.in 3 Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India. E-mail: baban@nio.org Abstract Scant... lived predominantly on halacarid adults and deutonymphs, and rarely on protonymphs and larvae because of short life span in protonymph and larva stages. Analysis of the literature and our own data have shown that only four suctorian species observed...

  19. Insights on short–term blooms of planktonic ciliates, provided by an easily recognised genus: Cyrtostrombidium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulit, C.; Macek, Miroslav; Montagnes, D. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-12. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bloom * conjugation * parasitism * patch * population dynamics * lagoon Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2013

  20. The ciliate, Troglodytella abrassarti, contributes to polysaccharide hydrolytic activities in the chimpanzee colon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profousová, Ilona; Mihaliková, K.; Laho, T.; Váradyová, Z.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Kišidayová, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2011), s. 339-343. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Grant ostatní: VFU(CZ) 245/2009/FVL Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : different protozoal populations * low-fiber diets * Eudiplodinium maggii * fibrolytic activity * degrading enzymes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.677, year: 2011

  1. Preliminary Insights into the Impact of Dietary Starch on the Ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in Captive Chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schovancová, K.; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Procházka, Petr; Modrý, David; Bolechová, P.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e81374. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0300 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Balantidium coli * nonstrach polysaccharides * lowland gorillas * resistant strach * evolution * infection * parasites * humans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EG - Zoology (UBO-W) Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  2. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming Ciliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pomajbíková, K.; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Grim, J. N.; Levecke, B.; Todd, A.; Mulama, M.; Kiyang, J.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2013), e2140. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Troglodytella abrassarti * Intestinal parasites * Coli infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.489, year: 2013

  3. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  4. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels. - Highlights: • Tetrahymena thermophila internalized QDs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. • The egested QDs were not significantly biodegraded in the food vacuoles. • In addition to phagocytosis QDs entered protozoa by alternative uptake pathways. • The clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete after 20 h in fresh medium. • The prolonged retention time of nontoxic NPs in protozoa could increase their transfer in food chain. - In addition to phagocytosis, quantum dots (QDs) entered protozoans by alternative pathways which did not lead to complete clearance of the QDs from the cells

  5. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    expressed during vegetative growth or sexual reorganization. In order to get an overview of medium-sized (40-500¿nt) RNAs expressed from the Tetrahymena genome, we created a size-fractionated cDNA library from macronuclear RNA and analyzed 80 RNAs, most of which were previously unknown. The most abundant...... class was small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), many of which are formed by an unusual maturation pathway. The modifications guided by the snoRNAs were analyzed bioinformatically and experimentally and many Tetrahymena-specific modifications were found, including several in an essential, but not conserved...

  6. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Dutz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa fed with Rhodomonas salina. We found that at a concentration of 2 cells ml-1, Euplotes sp. had no effect on the production and hatching success of eggs but increased/decreased the mortality/quality of non-subitaneous eggs. Euplotes sp. had a good fatty acid profile containing high proportion...

  7. Primary structure of the mating pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffioni, S; Luporini, P; Chait, B T; Disper, S S; Bradshaw, R A

    1988-12-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the mating pheromone Er-1 purified from Euplotes raikovi homozygous for mat-1 was determined by automated Edman degradation of the whole protein and peptides generated by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and chymotrypsin. The proposed sequence is: Asp-Ala-Cys-Glu-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ile-Gln-Cys-Val-Glu-Ser-Ala-Cys-Glu-Ser-Leu- Cys-Thr-Glu-Gly-Glu-Asp-Arg-Thr-Gly-Cys-Tyr-Met-Tyr-Ile-Tyr-Ser-Asn-Cys- Pro-Pro-Tyr-Val The calculated molecular weight is 4411.0, which is in agreement with the averaged mass of 4410.2 obtained by fission fragment ionization mass spectrometry. Previously reported values of the native molecular weight, determined by gel filtration, have ranged from 9,000 to 12,000. Thus, the native structure is likely a dimer (or larger aggregate) of identical subunits with the three disulfide bonds present occurring as intrachain links. Secondary structure predictions suggest a helical structure at the amino terminus. A comparison of the Er-1 amino acid sequence with known protein sequences did not reveal any significant similarities. PMID:3142868

  8. Identification and functional characterization of an uncharacterized antimicrobial peptide from a ciliate Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengfei; Dong, Yuan; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-07-01

    The global ever-growing concerns about multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes leads to urgent demands for exploration of new antibiotics including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here we demonstrated that a cDNA from Ciliata Paramecium caudatum, designated Pcamp1, coded for a protein with features characteristic of AMPs, which is not homologous to any AMPs currently known. Both the C-terminal 91 amino acid residues of PcAMP1, cPcAMP1, expressed in Escherichia coli and the C-terminal 26 amino acid residues (predicted mature AMP), cPcAMP1/26, synthesized, underwent a coil-to-helix transition in the presence of TFE, SDS or DPC. Functional assays revealed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were both able to kill Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus. ELISA showed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to bind to microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules LPS and LTA, which was further corroborated by the observations that cPcAMP1 could deposit onto the bacterial membranes. Importantly, both cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to induce bacterial membrane permeabilization and depolarization, and to increase intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Taken together, our results show that PcAMP1 is a potential AMP with a membrane selectivity towards bacterial cells, which renders it a promising template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics against MDR microbes. It also shows that use of signal conserved sequence of AMPs can be an effective tool to identify potential AMPs across different animal classes. PMID:26883426

  9. Comparative Proteome Bioinformatics: Identification of Phosphotyrosine Signaling Proteins in the Unicellular Protozoan Ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Steen; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Joachimiak, Marcin;

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH......Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH...

  10. New records of epibiont Ciliates (Ciliophora) from Indian coast with descriptions of six new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Ramteke, D.; Ingole, B.S.

    data about the macronucleus. C. nodosa has the lorica with one or more annular ridges, without data about macronucleus, external stalk slender, two zooids per lorica. C. triangula has an external stalk curved, and all the stalk was striated...

  11. Molecular diversity of entodiniomorphid ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and its coevolution with chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallo, Peter; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, J.; Pomajbíková, K.; Leendertz, F.; Hashimoto, C.; Simmons, N.; Babweteera, F.; Machanda, Z.; Piel, A.; Robbins, M. M.; Boesch, Ch.; Sanz, C.; Morgan, D.; Sommer, V.; Furuichi, T.; Fujita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.; Kaur, T.; Huffman, M. A.; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 4 (2012), s. 525-533. ISSN 0002-9483 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : SSU rDNA * ITS * entodiniomorphida * Troglodytellidae * Pan troglodytes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.481, year: 2012

  12. Immunostaining Phospho-epitopes in Ciliated Organs of Whole Mount Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Sarah C; Francescatto, Ludmila; Tombes, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of cells, the tissue-specific expression of genes and the emergence of signaling networks characterize early embryonic development of all vertebrates. The kinetics and location of signals - even within single cells - in the developing embryo complements the identification of important developmental genes. Immunostaining techniques are described that have been shown to define the kinetics of intracellular and whole animal signals in structures as small as primary cilia. The techniques for fixing, imaging and processing images using a laser-scanning confocal compound microscope can be completed in as few as 36 hr. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a desirable organism for investigators who seek to conduct studies in a vertebrate species that is affordable and relevant to human disease. Genetic knockouts or knockdowns must be confirmed by the loss of the actual protein product. Such confirmation of protein loss can be achieved using the techniques described here. Clues into signaling pathways can also be deciphered by using antibodies that are reactive with proteins that have been post-translationally modified by phosphorylation. Preserving and optimizing the phosphorylated state of an epitope is therefore critical to this determination and is accomplished by this protocol. This study describes techniques to fix embryos during the first 72 hr of development and co-localize a variety of relevant epitopes with cilia in the Kupffer's Vesicle (KV), the kidney and the inner ear. These techniques are straightforward, do not require dissection and can be completed in a relatively short period of time. Projecting confocal image stacks into a single image is a useful means of presenting these data. PMID:26967668

  13. Spatial-temporal Distribution and Hazard Grading of Red Tide and Variation of Red-tide Species in Qingdao Adjacent Sea Area%青岛近海赤潮灾害分级与时空分布及赤潮生物的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霜; 张继民; 张洪亮; 李钦亮; 崔文林

    2014-01-01

    根据赤潮发生面积和赤潮藻类的危害类型,将青岛近海发生的赤潮划分为特大、重度、中度、轻度和轻微共计5个灾害级别。结果表明,1990-2013年青岛近海共计发生赤潮33次,以轻微灾害和轻度灾害为主,其它级别尚未发生;其中,发生面积小于10 km2赤潮占总数的51.5%,60.6%的赤潮由基本无害的赤潮种类引起,发生范围以胶州湾和浮山湾近海为主;赤潮次数和面积基本呈现4~5年的波动周期,高发期集中在每年的6-8月;主要赤潮生物种类是红色中缢虫(Mesodinium rubrum)和夜光虫(Noctiluca scintillans);引发赤潮的生物种类逐渐增多,甲藻比例升高,罕见种类逐渐出现。赤潮种类的变化反映出青岛近海浮游植物的种类组成发生了改变,与期间青岛近岸海洋环境的变化密切相关。%Red tides occurred in Qingdao adjacent sea area were classified into five levels,i,e.,extra large, large,moderate,mild and slight,according to the red tide scales and hazard types.Thirty-three red tide events were recorded from 1990 to 2013 with the main types of slight red tide and mild red tide.Among them,the scale of red tides was less than 10 km2 accounting for 5 1 .5%of the total red tides and 60.6%of the red tides were caused by harmless red tide species.Jiaozhou Bay and Fushan Bay adjacent sea area were the red tide-frequent-occurrence areas.The frequencies and scales of red tides peaked every four to five years from June to August,with the main red tide species of Mesodinium rubrum and Noctiluca scintillans.The species of red tide gradually increased with a rising tendency of Pyrrophyta occurrence frequency,even rare species have appeared in the past few years.The changes of the red tide species indicated that the species composition of phytoplankton in Qingdao inshore area has changed,which is closely related to the marine environment of Qingdao near-shore areas.

  14. Pemanfaatan Pati Jahe Merah (Zingiber Officinale Var Rubrum) sebagai Modifikasi Tepung Terigu dalam Pembuatan Kue Bawang dan Analisis Gizinya serta Daya Terimanya oleh Masyarakat

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ratih

    2016-01-01

    Food diversification is the governments effort to realize food security. Hence, as an effort to support the food diversification program, so did the utilization of red ginger starch is by product from making instant red ginger as modified of wheat flour in making onions chips. The type of research was an experiment conducted by completely randomized design. There were 2 treatment, the first treatment with composition red ginger starch 30%, cassava flour 20%, wheat flour 50% ...

  15. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Nissen, Ch.V.; Jensen, R. H.; Arendrup, M.C.; Čmoková, Adéla; Kubátová, A.; Skořepová, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 8 (2015), s. 798-809. ISSN 1369-3786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arthroderma * geophilic dermatophytes * keratinophilic fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2014

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  17. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  18. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    OpenAIRE

    Maximillan Leite Santos; Chaiana Froés Magalhães; Marcelo Barcellos da Rosa; Daniel Assis Santos; Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Leandro Machado de Carvalho; Marcelo Barreto da Silva; Carlos Leomar Zani; Ezequias Pessoa de Siqueira; Rodrigo Loreto Peres; Anderson Assunção Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  19. The Inhibition of Human Pathogens: Trichophyton rubrum and Trichoderma harzianum by a Natural Product

    OpenAIRE

    Hafidh, Rand R; A.S. Abdulamir; Law S. Vern; Bakar, Fatimah A

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A number of studies have recently conducted to identify novel and potent antifungal components from natural products. One of the reasons is to overcome the antifungal resistant developed against most of commercially available drugs. Studies confirmed that mung beans have increased phenolic compounds and enhanced defenses during germination. Approach: We hypothesized that antifungal activities might be found in sprouts of mung beans, or Vigna radiate (L.) R. Wilczek. The scr...

  20. Laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Bruns

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: This case report suggests that laparoscopy may be safe and effective for resection of CHFCs with favorable anatomy such as peripheral location and noninvolvement of key vascular and biliary structures.

  1. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Artichoke Is Required for Integrity of Ciliated Mechanosensory and Chemosensory Organs in Drosophila Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C.; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conse...

  2. Pelagic ciliate assemblage of high-altitude lake Atexcac (Puebla, México): Comparison with similar lakes in other regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Lugo, V. A.; Vilaclara, F. G.

    Leiden 093 Backhuys Publishers, 2000 - (Munawar, M.; Lawrence, S.; Munawar, I.; Malley, D.), s. 45-59 Grant ostatní: CONACyT(MX) P220 CCOR880369; EU(XE) MOLAR ENV4-CT95-0007 Keywords : hydrology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. TPP1 is a homologue of ciliate TEBP-β and interacts with POT1 to recruit telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huawei; Liu, Dan; Wan, Ma; Safari, Amin; Kim, Hyeung; Sun, Wen; O'Connor, Matthew S.; Songyang, Zhou

    2007-02-01

    Telomere dysfunction may result in chromosomal abnormalities, DNA damage responses, and even cancer. Early studies in lower organisms have helped to establish the crucial role of telomerase and telomeric proteins in maintaining telomere length and protecting telomere ends. In Oxytricha nova, telomere G-overhangs are protected by the TEBP-α/β heterodimer. Human telomeres contain duplex telomeric repeats with 3' single-stranded G-overhangs, and may fold into a t-loop structure that helps to shield them from being recognized as DNA breaks. Additionally, the TEBP-α homologue, POT1, which binds telomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), associates with multiple telomeric proteins (for example, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1) to form the six-protein telosome/shelterin and other subcomplexes. These telomeric protein complexes in turn interact with diverse pathways to form the telomere interactome for telomere maintenance. However, the mechanisms by which the POT1-containing telosome communicates with telomerase to regulate telomeres remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that TPP1 is a putative mammalian homologue of TEBP-β and contains a predicted amino-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold. TPP1-POT1 association enhanced POT1 affinity for telomeric ssDNA. In addition, the TPP1 OB fold, as well as POT1-TPP1 binding, seemed critical for POT1-mediated telomere-length control and telomere-end protection in human cells. Disruption of POT1-TPP1 interaction by dominant negative TPP1 expression or RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in telomere-length alteration and DNA damage responses. Furthermore, we offer evidence that TPP1 associates with the telomerase in a TPP1-OB-fold-dependent manner, providing a physical link between telomerase and the telosome/shelterin complex. Our findings highlight the critical role of TPP1 in telomere maintenance, and support a yin-yang model in which TPP1 and POT1 function as a unit to protect human telomeres, by both positively and negatively regulating telomerase access to telomere DNA.

  4. Ciliate food vacuole content and bacterial community composition in the warm-monomictic crater Lake Alchichica, Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bautista-Reyes, F.; Macek, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2012), s. 85-97. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : CARD-FISH * selective predation * oxygen gradient Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.563, year: 2012

  5. Complete sequence of the extrachromosomal rDNA molecule from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila strain B1868VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik

    1990-01-01

    The recent development of rDNA vectors for transformation of Tetrahymena combined with improved microinjection technology should lead to a renewed interest in this organism. In particular, the rDNA itself constitutes an attractive system for biochemical studies. The rDNA is amplified to a level of...

  6. ROLE OF CA2+ AND CAMP IN A CELL SIGNALING PATHWAY FOR RESTING CYST FORMATION OF CILIATED PROTOZOAN COLPODA CUCULLUS

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Tatsuomi; Kondoh, Asuka; Sabashi, Kunihisa; Nagano, Nobuaki; Akematsu, Takahiko; Kida, Akemi; Iino, Ryota

    2009-01-01

    Resting cyst formation (encystment) of Colpoda cucullus is caused by an increase in an external Ca2+ concentration or overpopulation of Colpoda vegetative cells. The Ca2+-mediated or overpopulation-mediated encystment was suppressed by Ca2+ channel blockers (Cd2+, La3+, Ni2+), Ca2+-chelating reagents (EGTA, BAPTA), calmodulin antagonists (W-7, trifluoperazine), Rp-cAMPS (an cAMP analog antagonist) and 2-deoxyadenosine (a P-site inhibitor of adenylate cyclase). On the other hand, by the additi...

  7. Role of essential lipids in copepod nutrition: no evidence for trophic upgrading of food quality by a marine ciliate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein Breteler, W.; Koski, Marja; Rampen, S.

    2004-01-01

    -quality Rhodomonas sp. diet. The specific mass of fatty acids in S. sulcatum was much lower than in the Dunaliella sp. diet, However, the fatty acid composition of the protozoan more or less resembled that of the food, lacking long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Sterols only occurred in Dunaliella sp...

  8. CEP164-null cells generated by genome editing show a ciliation defect with intact DNA repair capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Owen M; Gaboriau, David; Karakaya, Kadin; King, Sinéad; Dantas, Tiago J; Lalor, Pierce; Dockery, Peter; Krämer, Alwin; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2016-05-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule structures that extend from the distal end of the mature, mother centriole. CEP164 is a component of the distal appendages carried by the mother centriole that is required for primary cilium formation. Recent data have implicated CEP164 as a ciliopathy gene and suggest that CEP164 plays some roles in the DNA damage response (DDR). We used reverse genetics to test the role of CEP164 in the DDR. We found that conditional depletion of CEP164 in chicken DT40 cells using an auxin-inducible degron led to no increase in sensitivity to DNA damage induced by ionising or ultraviolet irradiation. Disruption of CEP164 in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells blocked primary cilium formation but did not affect cellular proliferation or cellular responses to ionising or ultraviolet irradiation. Furthermore, we observed no localisation of CEP164 to the nucleus using immunofluorescence microscopy and analysis of multiple tagged forms of CEP164. Our data suggest that CEP164 is not required in the DDR. PMID:26966185

  9. Seasonal dynamics, composition and feeding patterns of ciliate assemblages in oligotrophic lakes covering a wide pH range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Callieri, C.; Šimek, Karel; Vázquez, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 2 (2006), s. 261-287. ISSN 0003-9136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0072; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296; GA MŠk(CZ) OK 118 Grant ostatní: UNAM DGAPA/PAPIIT(MX) IN208502; EC(XE) ENV4-CT95-0007; EC(XE) EVK1-CT-1999-00032; FES UNAM(MX) PAPCA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : mountain lakes * timberline * acidified lakes * tropical high altitude lake * mixotrophy * oligotrichs * prostomes * gymnosotmes * peritrichs * scuticociliates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2006

  10. Acute effects of heavy metals on the expression of glutathione-related antioxidant genes in the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Significant higher increases in the relative ROS and total GSH levels were observed after exposure to heavy metals. • Real-time PCR data showed expression levels of GPx and GR mRNA were sensitively modulated within 8 h of exposure to heavy metals. • E. crassus GPx and GR genes may be involved in cellular defense mechanisms against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. • E. crassus GPx and GR genes will be useful as potential molecular markers for monitoring heavy metal contamination. - Abstract: Euplotes crassus, a single-celled eukaryote, is directly affected by environmental contaminants. Here, exponentially cultured E. crassus were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc and then the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Subsequently, the transcriptional modulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. After an 8-h exposure, significantly higher increases in the relative ROS and total GSH levels were observed in exposed group, compared to the controls. Real-time PCR data revealed that the expression levels of GPx and GR mRNA were sensitively modulated within 8 h of exposure to all heavy metals. These findings suggest that these genes may be involved in cellular defense mechanisms by modulating their gene expression against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. Thus, they may be useful as potential molecular biomarkers to assess sediment environments for contaminants

  11. Morphology and systematics of two freshwater urostylid ciliates, with description of a new species (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Fan, Yangbo; Gao, Feng; Qiu, Zijian; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Warren, Alan; Shao, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The morphology of two freshwater urostylid species, Neourostylopsis flava spec. nov. and Pseudourostyla subtropicaChen et al., 2014, isolated from freshwater ponds in northern and southern China, respectively, was investigated following examination of specimens in vivo and following protargol staining. Neourostylopsis flava spec. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by the following characteristics: body size 150-220 × 50-75 μm in vivo; yellow in colour; bright yellow to yellow-brownish spherical cortical granules densely arranged along marginal cirral rows and in irregular short rows on dorsal side; adoral zone with 40-55 membranelles; six to eight frontal, three or four buccal, two pretransverse ventral and seven to nine transverse cirri; 27-40 midventral pairs extending to about anterior 55% of cell; four or five left and four right marginal rows; freshwater habitat. A redescription of a freshwater population of P. subtropica is also provided. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences shows that P. subtropica and N. flava spec. nov. group with their congeners and both Neourostylopsis and Pseudourostyla are monophyletic. PMID:26752607

  12. A new entodiniomorphid ciliate, Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp., from the wild eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Uganda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokiwa, T.; Modrý, David; Ito, A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Imai, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2010), s. 115-120. ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Infraciliature * Kalinzu Forest * protozoa * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2010

  13. Cold-shock based method to induce the discharge of extrusomes in ciliated protists and its efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Federico; Ortenzi, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Extrusomes are ejectable organelles in protists, which are able to discharge their contents to the outside of the cell in response to external stimuli. It is known that a large number of extrusomes functions as organelles for offense or defense in predator-prey interactions among protists and/or microinvertebrates. To date, the main approach to study these interactions was to compare artificially-induced extrusome-deficient cells with normal cells as prey for predators. Commonly applied methods to obtain extrusome-deficient cells use external chemicals, which could alter the viability of cells and/or interfere with the subsequent analysis of the substances (secondary metabolites) contained in the extrusomes. The cold-shock based method here presented has proven to be effective to remove different kinds of extrusomes from several protist species without harming the treated cells and without adding external reagents. This method could be also useful to simplify the related analysis of the chemical nature of the secreted secondary metabolites. PMID:26375274

  14. Southampton water and the Solent: Biological effects of the multi-use of an estuarine system.

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, A

    1985-01-01

    An outline is provided of (1) some factors which have influenced the clam and oyster populations of the area (2) the effect of nutrient load on phytoplankton production (3) the correlation between Mesodinium blooms and the summer oxygen levels in the stratified part of the estuary and (4) a description of the fauna and flora in regions adjacent to some industrial inputs.

  15. Increased fucosyl glycoconjugate by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances adherences of Pasteurella multocida type A in the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; KANG, Ikjae; Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of how Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances secondary Pasteurella multocida type A infection which leads to porcine enzootic pneumonia in infected pigs. Sixteen pigs were experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae and then euthanized at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post inoculation. In situ hybridization for M. hyopneumoniae DNA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin histochemistry for fucosyl glycoconjugate, w...

  16. Investigations of the effects of UV and X-ray radiation and the repair of radiation damage in the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the example of Stylomychia mytilus, the effects of UV-radiation and ionizing X-ray radiation are compared. The effects on cell division and on the repair of radiation damage in DNA are compared. Sensitivity to UV radiation differs between the stages of the cell cycle while the effects of X-ray radiation are independent of phase. There is no difference in repair processes. (AJ) 891 AJ/AJ 892 MKO

  17. 纤毛虫与养殖刺参的"腐皮综合症"%Ciliates and “cankered cutis disease” of Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓云; 范瑞青; 谭金山; 高澜

    2005-01-01

    @@ 近年伴随刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)养殖业的快速发展,病害问题日趋突出.2004年山东沿海多处养殖海参发病,有些地方海参的死亡率高达50%以上.许多专家对刺参的病因和病原进行了研究,将发生于2004年春季的养殖刺参爆发性疾病称之为"腐皮综合症"或"化皮病",并定性其为细菌性疾病.

  18. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration at greater doses to favorably alter rumen microbial fermentation. PMID:19038952

  19. 肺炎患者痰中检出纤毛虫1例%Ciliated protozoan in sputum of a pneumonia patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志敏

    2007-01-01

    患者,女性,56岁,初中文化,绍兴市越城区人,现已退休,养鸟史2年余,无疫水接触史。2006年12月17日,因不明原因发热,来院就诊。主诉:畏寒,少量咳嗽,无痰。查体:体温高达40℃;血常规检查:白细胞总数7.9×109/L,中性粒细胞78.9%。血液沉降率9mm/h;血压120/90mmHg,

  20. Morphology, ontogenetic features and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of a soil ciliate, Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Stichotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangbo; Hu, Xiaozhong; Gao, Feng; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-12-01

    The morphology, ontogeny and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov., isolated from the slightly saline soil of a mangrove wetland in Zhanjiang, southern China, were investigated. The novel species was characterized by having five to eight buccal cirri arranged in a row, three to five transverse cirri, four macronuclear nodules aligned, and 17-32 and 20-34 cirri in frontoventral rows V and VI, respectively, both extending to the transverse cirri. The main ontogenetic features of the novel species were as follows: (1) the parental adoral zone of the membranelles is completely inherited by the proter; (2) the frontoventral and transverse cirri are formed in a six-anlagen mode; (3) basically, the frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlagen II-V generate one transverse cirrus each at their posterior ends, while anlage VI provides no transverse cirrus; (4) both marginal rows and dorsal kineties develop intrakinetally, no dorsal kinety fragment is formed; and (5) the macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass at the middle stage. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rRNA gene showed that the novel species groups with the clade containing Bistichella variabilis, Parabistichella variabilis, Uroleptoides magnigranulosus and two species of the genus Orthoamphisiella. Given present knowledge, it was considered to be still too early to come to a final conclusion regarding the familial classification of the genus Bistichella; further investigations of key taxa with additional molecular markers are required. PMID:25242538

  1. Biodiversity and molecular phylogeny of Australian Clevelandella species (Class Armophorea, Order Clevelandellida, Family Clevelandellidae), intestinal endosymbiotic ciliates in the wood-feeding roach Panesthia cribrata Saussure, 1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Denis H; Wright, André-Denis G

    2013-01-01

    There are over 100 species in the Order Clevelandellida distributed in many hosts. The majority is assigned to one of the five families, the Nyctotheridae. Our knowledge of clevelandellid genetic diversity is limited to species of Nyctotherus and Nyctotheroides. To increase our understanding of clevelandellid genetic diversity, species were isolated from intestines of the Australian wood-feeding roach Panesthia cribrata Saussure, 1864 from August to October, 2008. Four morphospecies, similar to those reported in Java and Japan by Kidder [Parasitologica, 29:163-205], were identified: Clevelandella constricta, Clevelandella nipponensis, Clevelandella parapanesthiae, and Clevelandella panesthiae. Small subunit rRNA gene sequences assigned all species to a "family" clade that was sister to the clade of species assigned to the Family Nyctotheridae in the Order Clevelandellida. Genetics and morphology were consistent for the first three Clevelandella species, but isolates assigned to C. panesthiae were assignable to three different genotypes, suggesting that this may be a cryptic species complex. PMID:23590673

  2. 干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响%Drought Effects on Growth and Physiological Traits of Loropetalum chinense Var·rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 周兰英

    2015-01-01

    【目的】研究土壤干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响。【方法】采用盆栽控水法,设置4个水分处理,测定在各水分处理下红花檵木的生长和生理指标,分析其差异。【结果】随胁迫程度的加深和时间的延长旱害表现越严重,营养生长和生殖生长受抑,RWC 下降,相对电导率值和 MDA 含量增加,Pro、SS、SP 不断积累,SOD、POD、CAT 活性总体上升。【结论】红花檵木对干旱胁迫较为敏感,轻度胁迫即可引起各项生理指标显著变化,但植株表观形态变化不明显;随胁迫程度的加深,各项指标变幅加剧,形态变化明显。红花檵木具有一定的抗旱性,能在中度干旱胁迫下继续存活,并能忍受连续60d 不供水的重度干旱胁迫。%Objective]The aim of the study was to study effects of soil drought on growth and physiological traits of L.chinense .[Method]Tn this study,there were four different water treat-ments.The growth and physiological indicators were measured and differences among treatments were analyzed.[Results]The damage magnitude was increased with increasing drought stress and time.RWC,nutrition and reproduction growth and was inhibited.However,relative conductivi-ty,MDA,SOD,POD and CAT were increased.Pro,SS and SP were accumulated.[Conclusion]L.chinense was sensitive to drought stress.Slight drooght treatments can cause significant chan-ges in various physiological indexes but the apparent features were not clear.The physiological and morphological indexes were affected substantially with increasing drought stress.Overall,L. chinense had strong resistance to drought.It could survive in moderate drought stress and endure severe drought stress that without water supplying for 60 days.

  3. A mechanism of transmission and factors affecting coral susceptibility to Halofolliculina sp. infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Cróquer, A.; Guzmán, H. M.; Bastidas, C.

    2009-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence collected since 2004 suggests that infections caused by ciliates in the genus Halofolliculina may be related to coral mortality in more than 25 scleractinian species in the Caribbean. However, the relationship between the presence of ciliates and coral mortality has not yet been firmly established. Field and laboratory manipulations were used to test if ciliate infections harm corals, if ciliates are able to infect healthy colonies, and if coral susceptibility to ciliate infection depends on temperature, depth, distance to an infected colony, and the presence of injuries. Ciliate infections were always characterized by a visually detectable front of ciliates located on recently exposed coral skeletons. These infections altered the normal structure of the colony by causing tissue mortality (0.8 ± 0.95 cm month-1, mean ± SD) and by delaying or preventing recovery from injuries. Under laboratory conditions, ciliates transmitted directly and horizontally from infected to healthy hosts, and coral susceptibility to ciliate infections increased with the presence of injuries. After invasion, the ciliate population grew, rapidly and after 8 d, produced tissue mortality on 32% of newly infected hosts. Thus, our results support the existence of a new Caribbean coral syndrome that is associated with tissue mortality, is infectious, and transmits directly and horizontally. Even though the role of ciliates in the development of lesions on coral tissues remains unclear, their presence is by far the most conspicuous sign of this syndrome; thus, we propose to name this condition Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI).

  4. Five-Hour Diagnosis of Dermatophyte Nail Infections with Specific Detection of Trichophyton rubrum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Brillowska-Dąbrowska, Anna; Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2007-01-01

    A rapid two-step DNA extraction method and a multiplex PCR for the detection of dermatophytes in general and Trichophyton rubrum specifically were developed and evaluated with DNA extracted from pure cultures and from clinically diseased nails. DNA from the following dermatophytes was used: Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton soudane...

  5. Description of two marine amphisiellid ciliates, Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 and A. sinica sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Hypotrichia), with notes on their ontogenesis and SSU rDNA-based phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiong; Zhao, Xiaolu; Ji, Daode; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    The morphology and taxonomy of two marine Amphisiella species, isolated from mariculture waters in northern China, were investigated using standard techniques. One species corresponds well with the original description of the poorly known Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 by remarkable characteristics, inter alia, (i) the additional cirri between the left frontal cirrus and the buccal cirrus, and (ii) ring-shaped structure in the anterior and posterior body portion (posterior one sometimes lacking). The detailed description of the cirral pattern and an informative ontogenetic stage first reveal that the additional cirri, which are uniformly absent in all congeners, originate from the frontal-ventral transverse cirral anlage I. The other species represents a new species of Amphisiella, A. sinica sp. nov. It is distinguished from its most closely related congener A. annulata (Kahl, 1928) Borror, 1972 by having numerous ring-shaped structures with a shallow brim more or less densely centralised at both ends of the body. Brief notes on the cell division and phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence for both organisms are also supplied in order to get further understanding of their systematic positions. The molecular information indicates that both organisms belong to two separate clades and confirms that the genus Amphisiella might be polyphyletic. PMID:27156119

  6. Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2013-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine scuticociliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov., collected from sandy beaches at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol-staining methods. Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long; buccal field about a quarter to a third of body length; nine or ten somatic kineties with dikinetids approximately in anterior half of body, monokinetids in posterior half; membranelles 1 and 2 almost equal in length and composed of two and three longitudinal rows of kinetids respectively; paroral membrane with zigzag structure extending anteriorly to middle portion of membranelle 2; contractile vacuole pore located at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. The genus Uronemella is redefined as follows: marine form with an elongate-elliptical or inverted pear-shaped body; apical plate conspicuous; buccal field about two-thirds of body length, cytostome subequatorially located; oral apparatus Uronema-like; somatic kineties comprising a mixture of dikinetids and monokinetids. Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. is recognized by having an elongate-elliptical body with truncated apical frontal plate, size in vivo about 25-35 × 15-20 µm, nine or ten somatic kineties, membranelle 1 consisting of two or three basal bodies, contractile vacuole pore at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. This study also compared the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of these two species with other closely related species to show the sequence divergence, which ranged from 3.53 to 9.60%. Phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Uronemella is monophyletic, while Metanophrys is non-monophyletic. PMID:23859947

  7. Microbial treatment of aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium accumulated extracellularly on the surface of Rhodobacter capsulata and Rhodospirillum rubrum cells. The rate and extent accumulation were subject to environmental parameter such as pH, temperature, carbon source, trace element and interference by certain cations. Uranium accumulation by the cells was rapid and metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by both organism. Cell-bound uranium reached concentration of 22% (Rhodospirillum rubrum) and 24% (Rhdobacter capsulata)of the dry cell weight, but in the cells grown in the presence of inhibitory concentration of CoCl2, cell-bound uranium reached concentration of 27% (Rhodospirillum rubrum) and 29% (Rhodobacter capsulata) of dry cell weight. (Author)

  8. Making Sense of Protists – aspects of phototaxis and chemo sensory behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldrup, Morten

    on copepod fecal pellets was studied for 3 species of mixotrophic dinoflagellates and 4 species of heterotrophic dinoflagellates using a combination of video recordings of feeding behavior and classic incubation experiments. Fecal pellets offered were produced by adult Acartia tonsa on Rhodomonas...... rates of M. rubrum fed these cryptophytes were measured. In addition, cells of M. rubrum were analyzed for type of chloroplast using transmission electron microscopy and DNA sequences of the nucleomorph LSU. We found that M. rubrum ingested all the offered cryptophyte species, but it was unable to...

  9. Exploiting Oxytricha trifallax nanochromosomes to screen for non-coding RNA genes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seolkyoung; Swart, Estienne C.; Minx, Patrick J.; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Landweber, Laura F.; Eddy, Sean R.

    2011-01-01

    We took advantage of the unusual genomic organization of the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax to screen for eukaryotic non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Ciliates have two types of nuclei: a germ line micronucleus that is usually transcriptionally inactive, and a somatic macronucleus that contains a reduced, fragmented and rearranged genome that expresses all genes required for growth and asexual reproduction. In some ciliates including Oxytricha, the macronuclear genome is particularly extreme, consis...

  10. The influence of zooplankton enrichment on the microbial loop in a shallow, eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingel, Priit; Agasild, Helen; Karus, Katrit; Kangro, Kersti; Tammert, Helen; Tõnno, Ilmar; Feldmann, Tõnu; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-02-01

    With increasing primary productivity, ciliates may become the most important members of the microbial loop and form a central linkage in the transformation of microbial production to upper trophic levels. How metazooplankters, especially copepods, regulate ciliate community structure in shallow eutrophic waters is not completely clear. We carried out mesocosm experiments with different cyclopoid copepod enrichments in a shallow eutrophic lake to examine the responses of ciliate community structure and abundance to changes in cyclopoid copepod biomass and to detect any cascading effects on bacterioplankton and edible phytoplankton. Our results indicate that an increase in copepod zooplankton biomass favours the development of small-sized bacterivorous ciliates. This effect is unleashed by the decline of predaceous ciliate abundance, which would otherwise graze effectively on the small-sized ciliates. The inverse relationship between crustacean zooplankton and large predaceous ciliates is an important feature adjusting not only the structure of the ciliate community but also the energy transfer between meta- and protozooplankton. Still we could not detect any cascading effects on bacterio- or phytoplankton that would be caused by the structural changes in the ciliate community. PMID:26555735

  11. Biological and chemical data determined in mesocosm experiments by Dauphin Island Sea Lab in June and August of 2011 (NODC Accession 0118680)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abundances of viruses, prokaryotes, diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates were determined over time in mesocosm experiments measuring...

  12. Incidence and prevalence of dermatophytosis in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Ramaraj

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Among dermatophytoses, T. rubrum was the predominant etiological agent present in the whole of Chennai District and T. mentagrophytes takes the second place. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 695-700

  13. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., hair, and claws caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. schoenleini, T. sulphurem, T...—(i) Amount and indications for use—(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton...

  14. Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos e bubalinos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com monensina ou própolis Ruminal ciliate protozoa of cattle and buffalo fed on diet supplemented with monensin or extracts from propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís Barros Ríspoli; Isabella Lopes Rodrigues; Rafael Gioia Martins Neto; Ricardo Kazama; Odimari Pricila Pires Prado; Lúcia Maria Zeoula; Pedro Braga Arcuri

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas suplementadas com monensina ou produtos à base de própolis, nas populações de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos (Bos taurus) e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis). Quatro bovinos da raça Holandesa e quatro búfalos da raça Murrah adultos, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino (4x4). A dieta constituiu-se de 50% de silagem de milho e 50% de concentrado à base de milho em grãos e farelo de soja, com adição...

  15. Fontes de lipídeos e monensina na alimentação de novilhos Nelore e sua relação com a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen Effects of feeding monensin and different sources of fat on the ruminal population of ciliate protozoa in Nellore steers

    OpenAIRE

    Amaury Camilo Valinote; José Carlos Machado Nogueira Filho; Paulo Roberto Leme; Saulo da Luz e Silva; José Aparecido Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Quatro novilhos Nelore, fistulados e canulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4, para avaliar o caroço de algodão e o sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos como fontes de gordura assim como o efeito da monensina em dietas com caroço de algodão, sobre a população de protozoários ciliados e o pH do rúmen. Os tratamentos experimentais foram: dieta controle (CTRL), dieta com sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos (SC), dieta com caroço de algodão (CA) e dieta com caroço de a...

  16. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  17. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two genes involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, draT and draG, were cloned and found to be contiguous on the Azospirillum brasilense chromosome. The nifH gene, encoding dinitrogenase reductase, is near to draT with an intervening gap of 1.9 kb. The organization of these genes in Azospirillum lipoferum and Rhodosprillum rubrum is similar, but nifH and draT are separated by only 400 bp in the organisms. A. brasilense draTG is very similar to draTG in R. rubrum with 91.8% similarity and 85.3% identity at the amino acid level. Apparently A. brasilense uses the normal ATG initiation codon for draT, and draG. The genes for A. brasilense were able to restore function to appropriate mutants of R. rubrum. The heterologous expression of A. brasilense draTG in R. rubrum was not fully normal, as it responded more slowly to darkness and more quickly to ammonia than wild type cells. Our mutational analysis of the draTG region of A. brasilense confirms the function of these genes in the regulation of nitrogenase activity, but it also revealed minor but demonstrable differences in the control systems of R. rubrum and A. brasilense.

  18. Intersite epibiosis characterization on dominant mangrove crustacean species from Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Hanamura, Y.; Siow, R.; Chee, P.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Epibiosis was studied in dominant mangrove crustacean species in several areas in Malaysia. The observed basibionts were the crustaceans Mesopodopsis orientalis, Acetes japonicus, Acetes sibogae, Acetes indicus and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and the epibionts found were the protozoan ciliates Acinet

  19. Non-invasive sources of cells with primary cilia from pediatric and adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajzenberg, H.; Slaats, G.G.; Stokman, M.F.; Arts, H.H.; Logister, I.; Kroes, H.Y.; Renkema, K.Y.; Haelst, M.M. van; Terhal, P.A.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Knoers, N.V.; Lilien, M.R.; Jewett, M.A.; Giles, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ciliopathies give rise to a multitude of organ-specific pathologies; obtaining relevant primary patient material is useful for both diagnostics and research. However, acquisition of primary ciliated cells from patients, particularly pediatric patients, presents multiple difficulties. Bio

  20. Studies on the associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India were studied. Among the epizoic forms two species of ciliates infesting copepods were new records from Indian waters. Eight species of suctorians were found epizoic...

  1. Chemical constituents variations of essential oils from rhizomes of four Zingiberaceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oils were extracted using the hydrodistillation method from four Zingiberaceae species; Zingiber officinale var.rubrum, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The major constituents of Zingiber officinale, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata were identified as E-citral (20.98%), zerumbone (40.70%), ethyl p -methoxycinnamate (58.47%) and camphor (57.97%), respectively. Kaempferia galanga and Zingiber amaricans were rich in sesquiterpenes whereas Boesenbergia pandurata and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum contained mostly monoterpenes. (author)

  2. Estudios histológico e histoquímico del sistema digestivo de la almeja catarina Argopecten ventricosus (Sowerby, 1842)

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, C.; Alarcón, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Histological and histochemical studies on the digestive system of Argopecten ventricosus (Sowerby, 1842) was carried out. Lips show a ciliated columnar epithelium with glycoproteins and acid and alkaline phosphatases, and α-D glucosidase activity. Esophagus and lips epitheliums are similar. Acid and alkaline phosphatases, α-D glucosidase and leucil aminopeptidase activities were detected. The epithelium of the stomach is ciliated and contains glands which secrete glycoproteins. Acid and alkal...

  3. Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis

    OpenAIRE

    McCoubrey, A.; Houghton, O; McCallion, K; McCluggage, W G

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multilocu...

  4. Utilisation des protozoaires ciliés (Paramecium africanum, Colpidium uncinatum, Neobursaridium gigas) pour l'épuration bactériologique des eaux polluées en microcosme

    OpenAIRE

    Nguedji, JBT.; Zébazé, SH.; Kemka, N.; Foto, SM.; Njiné, T.; Nola, M.; Bouetou, TB.

    2003-01-01

    An Microcosm Use of Ciliate Protozoa (Paramecium africanum, Colpidium uncinatum, Neobursaridium gigas) for Bacterial Purification of Polluted Water. Tests on the grazing of ciliated protozoa Paramecium africanum, Colpidium uncinatum and Neobursaridium gigas on the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp. were carried out in an microcosm aquatic environment. These tests aimed at assessment of the role of these predators protozoa in the bacterial purification of polluted water. The evol...

  5. Tolerance of sewage treatment plant microorganisms to mosquitocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Olson, M A; Hester, P G; Moore, J J

    1993-12-01

    Beneficial protozoa and rotifers collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Panama City, FL, were tested for tolerance to 11 commonly used mosquito larvicides and adulticides in the laboratory. The acute effects were assessed using selected concentrations of the adulticides fenthion, malathion, naled, permethrin, and resmethrin; and the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, diflubenzuron, larviciding oil, methoprene, and temephos for the following microorganism taxa: ameoboids, flagellates, free-swimming ciliates, stalked ciliates, and rotifers. PMID:8126488

  6. RNA-directed epigenetic regulations of DNA rearrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa undergo extensive DNA rearrangements, including DNA elimination, chromosome breakage and DNA descrambling, when the germline micronucleus produces the new macronucleus during sexual reproduction. It has long been known that many of these events are epigenetically controlled by DNA sequences of the parental macronuclear genome. Recent studies in some model ciliates have revealed that these epigenetic regulations are mediated by non-coding RNAs. DNA elimination in Paramecium a...

  7. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37°C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal ...

  8. Influence of palm fatty acid distillate on rumen degradability and protozoa population in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Vilas Boas Soares

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil and fat as energy sources at low cost are relevant in ruminant nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD on the degradability and ciliate protozoa population in buffalo. Four rumen fistulated buffaloes were fed a basal diet in a Latin square (4x4 design trial. Treatments were designed with four of different levels of PFAD added directly into the rumen: 0; 200; 420 and 500 g/animal/d. High levels of PFAD (420 and 500 g/d promoted higher degradation of the soluble fraction and lower in potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF with lower values of potential and effective degradability in two evaluated grasses, bermudagrass and brachiariagrass. Significant decreases in the total number of protozoa/mL of rumen content, Entodinium and ciliates belonging to subfamily Diplodiniinae were observed at higher level of PFDA addition in the rumen. Also, Epidinium and Holotrich ciliates disappeared from the rumen. Significant correlations were observed of the ciliate concentration and composition as a function of dietary lipids content. Entodinium composition increased from 68.0% to 99.6% and Diplodiniinae reduced from 30.4% to 0.4% with increasing PFAD level indicating higher fat toxicity effect on the Diplodiniinae ciliates than Entodinium species and direct action of the larger ciliates on the fibre degradation.

  9. Influence of palm fatty acid distillate on rumen degradability and protozoa population in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Franzolin

    Full Text Available Oil and fat as energy sources at low cost are relevant in ruminant nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD on the degradability and ciliate protozoa population in buffalo. Four rumen fistulated buffaloes were fed a basal diet in a Latin square (4x4 design trial. Treatments were designed with four of different levels of PFAD added directly into the rumen: 0; 200; 420 and 500 g/animal/d. High levels of PFAD (420 and 500 g/d promoted higher degradation of the soluble fraction and lower in potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF with lower values of potential and effective degradability in two evaluated grasses, bermudagrass and brachiariagrass. Significant decreases in the total number of protozoa/mL of rumen content, Entodinium and ciliates belonging to subfamily Diplodiniinae were observed at higher level of PFDA addition in the rumen. Also, Epidinium and Holotrich ciliates disappeared from the rumen. Significant correlations were observed of the ciliate concentration and composition as a function of dietary lipids content. Entodinium composition increased from 68.0% to 99.6% and Diplodiniinae reduced from 30.4% to 0.4% with increasing PFAD level indicating higher fat toxicity effect on the Diplodiniinae ciliates than Entodinium species and direct action of the larger ciliates on the fibre degradation.

  10. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Abercrombie, L. G.; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I. C.; Beldade, R.; Bernardi, G.; Boubou, A.; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F.; Bruford, M. W.; Buonamici, A.; Burnett, R. K.; Canal, D.; Cardenas, H; Caullet, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata luge...

  11. A clinico - Mycological evaluation of onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Sujatha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton rubrum, are most frequently implicated as the causative agents in onychomycosis, yeasts and moulds are increasingly recognised as causative pathogens. A study to analyse the morphological variants and mycological and cultural positivity of onychomycosis was carried out in 35 patients attending the Dermatology outpatient department of Command Hospital, Air Force, Banglore.

  12. A clinico - Mycological evaluation of onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Sujatha; Grover Sanjiv; Dash K; Singh Gurcha

    2000-01-01

    Even though dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton rubrum, are most frequently implicated as the causative agents in onychomycosis, yeasts and moulds are increasingly recognised as causative pathogens. A study to analyse the morphological variants and mycological and cultural positivity of onychomycosis was carried out in 35 patients attending the Dermatology outpatient department of Command Hospital, Air Force, Banglore.

  13. Clinico-mycological profile of superficial mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinico-mycological study of 2743 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses attending skin and VD OPD of VSS Medical College during the year 1995 - 96 was conducted. Male predominance was observed. Highest incidence of tinea versicolor was found. T. rubrum was the commonest fungus isolated.

  14. A case of tinea corporis on the radiation port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriue, Tetsuya; Ishihama, Yukiyo; Nakagawa, Toshifumi; Takaiwa, Takashi [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    We herein report a 51-year old man in whom tinea corporis developed within a radiation field while he was receiving X-ray radiation therapy for the squamous cell carcinoma of hypopharynx. At a dose of 23 Gy approximately 10 days after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to complain of a pruritic eruption on the irradiated skin. A physical examination revealed diffuse erythema, and red papules on both sides of the neck. A fungal culture grew Tricophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). The eruption completely resolved after 3 weeks of topical treatment with 1% clotrimazole cream. We next investigated the effect of X-rays on the growth of T. rubrum and the number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis. One hundred Gy of X-rays did not cause any inhibition of growth of T. rubrum. On the other hand, 25 Gy of X-rays markedly reduced the number of epidermal Langerhans cells. These results show that dermatophytes are resistant to X-rays, while epidermal Langerhans cells, which play a crucial role in the skin immune system, are sensitive to it. These are some of the reasons why tinea corporis developed in the above case entirely within the radiation field during X-ray therapy. (author)

  15. Clinico-mycological profile of superficial mycoses

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra M; Mishra S; Singh P; Mishra B.

    1998-01-01

    Clinico-mycological study of 2743 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses attending skin and VD OPD of VSS Medical College during the year 1995 - 96 was conducted. Male predominance was observed. Highest incidence of tinea versicolor was found. T. rubrum was the commonest fungus isolated.

  16. Dermatophytes from Apparently Healthy Toe-webs of Service Personnel Stationed in Northeastren Region of India

    OpenAIRE

    R. R. Mattada; Das, T. K.; K. Zachariah

    1982-01-01

    Apparently healthy toe-webs of 230 individuals belonging to various Army units stationed India were studied for dermatophytes. 35 were found positive. This revealed the presence of 28 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 4 Epidermophyton floccosum, 2 Microsporum gypseum and 1 T. rubrum.

  17. Einfluss von 2,3-Dihydrofarnesol auf das Wachstum von Dermatophyten

    OpenAIRE

    Horter, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Bei der Arbeit handelt es sich um eine Experimentelle Arbeit, die den Einfluss von 2,3-Dihydrofarnesol, einer von Candida albicans sezernierten Substanz, auf verschiedene Dermatophyten untersucht. Untersucht wurde die Wirkung an Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum und Microsproum canis.

  18. Two Feet-One Hand Syndrome: A Case Report / Sindrom dva stopala i jedne šake – prikaz slučaja

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić Milan

    2015-01-01

    Sindrom dva stopala i jedne sake” (eng. two feet and one hand syndrome) je gljivična infekcija stopala i šake, čiji je uzročnik najčešće Trichophyton rubrum, a retko i Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  19. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-12-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  20. Incidence and prevalence of dermatophytosis in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar Ramaraj; Rajyoganandh S Vijayaraman; Sudha Rangarajan; Anupma Jyoti Kindo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatophytes are group of fungi that infect keratinized tissues of human and animals. The group consist of three different genera namely, Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton and several species within each genera. Among Trichophyton, Trichophyton rubrum is predominant, followed by various strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which include both anthropophiles and zoophiles. Prevalence of dermatophytes varies with location and environmental condition. The infection is comm...

  1. Effects of Pentachloronitrobenzene and Some of Its Known and Possible Metabolites on Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Gerhard; Ruckdeschel, Gotthard

    1983-01-01

    Fungicidal activities of pentachloronitrobenzene and derivatives were tested with Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Microsporon canis. In relation to pentachloronitrobenzene, no increasing fungistatic activities were found with cysteine derivatives. Rising fungistatic activities were seen with pentachlorophenylmethylsulfone and, in some of the strains, with pentachloronitrosobenzene, pentachlorothiophenol, pentachlorophenol, pentach...

  2. Two Feet-One Hand Syndrome: A Case Report / Sindrom dva stopala i jedne šake – prikaz slučaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić Milan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sindrom dva stopala i jedne sake” (eng. two feet and one hand syndrome je gljivična infekcija stopala i šake, čiji je uzročnik najčešće Trichophyton rubrum, a retko i Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  3. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Sita Malhotra; Suresh Kumar Malhotra; Yukti Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier.

  4. Gene : CBRC-BTAU-01-2549 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2549 Novel UN B UNKNOWN CS055_HUMAN 1.0 28% ref|YP_427378.1| DNA /RNA non-specific e ... [Rhodospirillum rubrum ATCC 11170] gb|ABC23091.1| DNA /RNA non-specific endonuclease [Rhodospirillum rubr ...

  5. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  6. Onychomycosis is rare in young children, and treatment is a task for dermatological specialists.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Skov, Lone; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling;

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis was diagnosed in a two-year-old girl. The infection was caused by Trichophyton rubrum, which is the most frequent cause of toenail onychomycosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and culture. She was treated with orally given terbinafine and topic...

  7. Seed morphology of the Polish native species of the genus Ribes L. Part 1. General characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Wrońska-Pilarek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article contains general morphological and anatomical characteristics and analysis of the chemical composition of seeds of Polish Ribes species: R. uva-crispa L., R. nigrum L., R. alpinum L., R. petraeum Wulfen, R. rubrum L. and R. spicatum Robson. The investigations have been based on the different types of LM and SEM.

  8. Secondary metabolites from Eurotium species, Aspergillus calidoustus and A. insuetus common in Canadian homes with a review of their chemistry and biological activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slack, G.J.; Puniani, E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.; Miller, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. The

  9. Sixty-Five Years of Searching for the Signals That Trigger Flowering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 451-459. ISSN 1021-4437 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1354; GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * Chenopodium murale * flowering control Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.102, year: 2002

  10. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed hardwoo

  11. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Aladesanmi, A J; Iwalewa, E O; Adebajo, A C; Akinkunmi, E O; Taiwo, B J; Olorunmola, F O; Lamikanra, A

    2006-01-01

    Ten Nigerian plants suggested from their ethnomedical uses to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were studied for their anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Escherichia coli NCTC 10418, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Candida pseudotropicalis and Trichophyton rubrum (clinical isolate). Trichilia heudelotti leaf extract showed both antibacterial and antifungal activities and was t...

  12. Environ: E00541 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00541 Mica mineral clay Halloysitum rubrum Crude drug Kaolinite, Iron (III) oxide, Chromium(III) ... oxide, Magnesium oxide [CPD:C12567], Iron (II) oxide Clay anchored by mica fine powder and ka ... olinite, containing a large amount of iron (III) oxide Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Mineral ...

  13. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NB Dhayanithi; TT Ajith Kumar; M Kalaiselvam; T Balasubramanian; N Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge,Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods: The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophytonmentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results: The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 μg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 μg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 μg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion: Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery.

  14. Nutrient leaching from container-grown ornamental tree production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economically producing marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees with minimum amounts of nutrient leachate requires better management of nutrient applications during a growing season. Fertilizer practices with 16 treatments were used to test the nutrient leachate for growing Acer rubrum ‘Red...

  15. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  16. Efeito da monensina e do óleo de soja sobre os protozoários ciliados do rúmen e correlação dos protozoários com parâmetros da fermentação ruminal e digestivos Effect of monensin and soybean oil on rumen ciliate protozoa and correlation between protozoa with ruminal fermentation and digestive parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Martinele; Eduardo da Costa Eifert; Rogério de Paula Lana; Pedro Braga Arcuri; Marta D'Agosto

    2008-01-01

    Quatro vacas lactantes canuladas no rúmen, com 155 dias em lactação, foram dispostas em um quadrado latino 4 × 4 e alimentadas, duas vezes ao dia, com silagem de milho e concentrado (relação 55:45, base matéria seca), para se avaliarem os efeitos da monensina e do óleo de soja na dieta de vacas lactantes sobre a contagem de protozoários ciliados, além de estabelecer correlações entre os protozoários com alguns parâmetros da digestão e da fermentação ruminal. Os tratamentos consistiram da incl...

  17. Estudo dos protozoários ciliados em bovinos consumindo dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína não degradável no rúmen 1 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2146 Ciliated protozoa in the rumen of cattle under different levels of undegradable protein diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2146

    OpenAIRE

    José Aparecido Cunha; José Carlos Machado Nogueira Filho; Maria Regina Coalho; César Gonçalves de Lima

    2003-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo, no Campus da USP, em Pirassununga, Estado de São Paulo, e teve por objetivos estudar a variação de pH e identificar e quantificar os protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos submetidos a dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR), denominados tratamentos A-24%, B-30%, C-36% e D-42%. Todas as rações foram formuladas para serem ...

  18. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae decreases cilia beating via protein kinase C epsilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kristina L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilus influenzae infection of the nasal epithelium has long been associated with observations of decreased nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF and injury to the ciliated epithelium. Previously, we have reported that several agents that slow CBF also have the effect of activating protein kinase C epsilon (PKCϵ activity in bronchial epithelial cells. The subsequent auto-downregulation of PKCϵ or the direct inhibition of PKCϵ leads to the specific detachment of the ciliated cells. METHODS: Primary cultures of ciliated bovine bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to filtered conditioned media supernatants from non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi cultures. CBF and motile points were measured and PKCϵ activity assayed. Results NTHi supernatant exposure significantly and rapidly decreased CBF in a dose-dependent manner within 10 minutes of exposure. After 3 hours of exposure, the number of motile ciliated cells significantly decreased. Direct measurement of PKCϵ activity revealed a dose-dependent activation of PKCϵ in response to NTHi supernatant exposure. Both CBF and PKCϵ activity changes were only observed in fresh NTHi culture supernatant and not observed in exposures to heat-inactivated or frozen supernatants. Conclusions Our results suggest that CBF slowing observed in response to NTHi is consistent with the stimulated activation of PKCϵ. Ciliated cell detachment is associated with PKCϵ autodownregulation.

  19. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  20. Characteristics of microfauna and their relationships with the performance of an activated sludge plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kexin; XU Muqi; LIU Biao; CAO Hong

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and abundance of the microfauna groups were compared with the physico-chemical and operational parameters of the Baoding Lugang Sewage Treatment Plant in China. Attached and crawling ciliates were the dominant groups of ciliates. Crawling ciliates and testate amoebae showed a strong association with effluent BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand). Therefore, these two groups are likely to be useful bioindicators since their number decreased as the process produced poor quality effluent. Testate amoebae also had significant negative correlations with effluent TN (total nitrogen), NH4+-N, SS (suspended solids) and SVI (sludge volumetric index), which means that this group of ciliates may be indicators of good performance of the activated sludge system. Carnivorous ciliates and flagellates had significant positive correlations with SVI, suggesting that these two groups may be indicators of bad settlement conditions of sludge. As identification of the microfauna species is difficult and time-consuming, we recommend using microfauna functional groups to evaluate the performance of the activated sludge system.

  1. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates—ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems—on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885–3,190 and 2,387–2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function. PMID:27431197

  2. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD5/m3 d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD5/m3 d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD5/m3 d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD5/m3 d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  3. Abundance and species composition of planktonic Ciliophora from the wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sonia Barría de Cao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific composition and abundance variation of the ciliate community from a wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, were studied all throughout a year, from June 1995 to May 1996. The polluted area exhibited high values of particulate organic matter and nutrients, particularly phosphates. Aloricate ciliates were represented by 15 species belonging to the genera Strombidium Claparède & Lachmann, 1859; Strombidinopsis Kent, 1881; Cyrtostrombidium Lynn & Gilron, 1993; Strobilidium Schewiakoff, 1983; Lohmmanniella Leegaard, 1915 and Tontonia Fauré-Fremiet, 1914. Tintinnids were represented by nine species belonging to the genera Tintinnidium Kent, 1881, Tintinnopsis Stein, 1867 and Codonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924. The total abundance of aloricate ciliates reached a peak of 1,800 ind. 1-1 and the total abundance of tintinnids reached a peak of 9,400 ind. 1-1. Tintinnidium balechi Barría de Cao, 1981 was the most abundant ciliate in the community. Considerations on the presence and abundance of ciliates are made in relation to physicochemical and biochemical parameters.

  4. [The use of polymerase chain reaction in laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Yasin; Gültekin Korkmazgil, Berna; Eyigör, Mete; Aydın, Neriman

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes are among the common causes of fungal infections in the community. Classical diagnostic tests for dermatophytosis have some disadvantages such as failure of direct microscopy in species differentiation and culture methods being time consuming and having low sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical samples and the cultures. A total of 123 samples that comprise 63 skin and 60 nail scrapings obtained from 110 patients (69 female, 41 male; age range: 4-82 years) who were prediagnosed as dermatophytosis, were included in the study. Samples were examined with routine direct microscopy, culture and two different nested PCR (nPCR) protocols. The first was a pan-dermatophyte nPCR protocol targeting chitin synthase gene (CHS-1) of dermatophytes and the second was a nPCR protocol which targets specific ITS-1 genes of Trichophyton rubrum and T.mentagrophytes. Similar PCR methods were also applied to cultivated strains. Sequence analysis was performed for the samples that yielded positive results in pan-dermatophyte nPCR and negative results in T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes - specific nPCR. Hyphae and/or spore structures were observed in 62 (50%) samples with direct microscopic examination and dermatophytes were isolated in 30 (24%) samples. Twenty-eight of the isolates grown in culture were identified as T.rubrum, and two as T.mentagrophytes with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR protocol. In direct application, 67 (55%) of the clinical samples were found positive with pan-dermatophyte nPCR and 65 (53%) were positive with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR. Samples which were negative in direct microscopic examination were also negative in culture. Nine of them were found positive with pan-dermatophyte nPCR and eight were positive with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR. Two of the 30 samples which were positive in culture

  5. Linking foraging strategies of marine calanoid copepods to patterns of nitrogen stable isotope signatures in a mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Frank; Saage, A.; Santer, B.;

    2005-01-01

    The foraging modes of calanoid copepods differ in that stationary suspension-feeding is more easily detected by prey with strong escape responses (ciliates) than is 'cruising' or 'ambushing' feeding. Thus, the ability of a copepod to include heterotrophic prey in its diet may be associated with its...... copepod delta(15)N to generally increase with decreasing copepod density because of increased food availability, and predicted stronger increases for cruising than for stationary suspension-fee ding species. As an assemblage, copepods had a pronounced impact on the food web: diatoms and ciliates decreased...... longicornis, a stationary suspension-feeder, showed a uniform isotopic increase in all mesocosms, which we believe resulted from nutritional stress arising from poor feeding on both ciliates (too fast for ingestion by T. longicornis) and nanoflagellates (too small). However, Pseudocalanus elongatus, a species...

  6. Cyc17, a meiosis-specific cyclin, is essential for anaphase initiation and chromosome segregation in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guan-Xiong; Dang, Huai; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Jing; Shodhan, Anura; Ning, Ying-Zhi; Xiong, Jie; Miao, Wei

    2016-07-17

    Although the role of cyclins in controlling nuclear division is well established, their function in ciliate meiosis remains unknown. In ciliates, the cyclin family has undergone massive expansion which suggests that diverse cell cycle systems exist, and this warrants further investigation. A screen for cyclins in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila showed that there are 34 cyclins in this organism. Only 1 cyclin, Cyc17, contains the complete cyclin core and is specifically expressed during meiosis. Deletion of CYC17 led to meiotic arrest at the diakinesis-like metaphase I stage. Expression of genes involved in DNA metabolism and chromosome organization (chromatin remodeling and basic chromosomal structure) was repressed in cyc17 knockout matings. Further investigation suggested that Cyc17 is involved in regulating spindle pole attachment, and is thus essential for chromosome segregation at meiosis. These findings suggest a simple model in which chromosome segregation is influenced by Cyc17. PMID:27192402

  7. Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Forró, Barbara; Lengyel, György; Székely, Csaba; Varga, Ádám; Molnár, Kálmán

    2016-06-01

    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes. PMID:27342092

  8. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The apical organ of ciliated larvae of cnidarians and bilaterians is a true larval organ that disappears before or at metamorphosis. It appears to be sensory, probably involved in metamorphosis, but knowledge is scant. The ciliated protostome larvae show ganglia/nerve cords that are retained as the...... ‘deuterostomian’ blastopore fates both in an annelid and in a mollusk, which are both placed in families with the ‘normal’ spiralian gastrulation type, and in the chaetognaths demonstrates that the chordate type of gastrulation could easily have evolved from the spiralian type. This indicates that the latest...

  9. Tetrahymena thermophila, a unicellular eukaryote with separate germline and somatic genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orias, Eduardo; Cervantes, Marcella D.; Hamilton, Eileen P.

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila is a ciliate -- a unicellular eukaryote. Remarkably, every cell maintains differentiated germline and somatic genomes: one silent, the other expressed. Moreover, the two genomes undergo diverse processes, some as extreme as life and death, simultaneously in the same cytoplasm. Conserved eukaryotic mechanisms have been modified in ciliates to selectively deal with the two genomes. We describe research in several areas of Tetrahymena biology, including meiosis, amitosis, genetic assortment, selective nuclear pore transport, somatic RNAi-guided heterochromatin formation, DNA excision and programmed nuclear death by autophagy, which has enriched and broadened knowledge of those mechanisms. PMID:21624459

  10. The role of Scgb1a1+ Clara cells in the long-term maintenance and repair of lung airway, but not alveolar, epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Okubo, Tadashi; Xue, Yan; Brass, David M; Auten, Richard L.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Fan; Hogan, Brigid L.M.

    2009-01-01

    To directly test the contribution of Scgb1a1+ Clara cells to postnatal growth, homeostasis and repair of lung epithelium, we generated a Scgb1a1-CreERTM “knock-in” mouse line for lineage tracing these cells. Under all conditions tested the majority of Clara cells in the bronchioles both self-renew and generate ciliated cells. In the trachea, Clara cells give rise to ciliated cells but do not self-renew extensively. Nevertheless, they can contribute to tracheal repair. In the postnatal mouse l...

  11. A multi-Species Microalgae Bloom in Bahia de La Paz, Gulf of California, México (June 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Gárate Lizárraga, Ismael; Band Schmidt, Christine Johanna; AGUIRRE BAHENA, FERNANDO; GRAYEB DEL ALAMO, TANOS

    2009-01-01

    Red tides Patches were observed in Bahía de La Paz in June 17 and 18 of 2008. According to temperature and wind data this bloom occurred under upwelling-like conditions. Examination of the red tide samples showed that the ciliate Myrionecta rubra and two naked dinoflagellates Gyrodinium instriatum and Katodinium glaucum as the main species responsible for this bloom Total density (microalgae and ciliate) at the sampling stations was similar on both days, varying from 4607 × 103 to cells L-1 t...

  12. On combinatorial properties of elementary intramolecular operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we tackle a problem from biology in terms of discrete mathematics. We are interested in a complex DNA manipulation process happening in eukaryotic organisms of a subclass of ciliate species called {\\it Stichotrichia} during so-called gene assembly. This process is in particular interesting since one can interpret gene assembly in ciliates as sorting of permutations. We survey here results related to studies on sorting permutations with some specific rewriting rules that formalize elementary intramolecular gene assembly operations. The research question is ``what permutation may be sorted with our operations?"

  13. Effect of coconut oil and defaunation treatment on methanogenesis in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Machmüller, Andrea; Soliva, Carla; Kreuzer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the role of rumen ciliate protozoa with respect to the methane-suppressing effect of coconut oil. Three sheep were subjected to a 2 $\\times$ 2 factorial design comprising two types of dietary lipids (50 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ coconut oil vs. 50 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ rumen-protected fat) and defaunation treatment (with vs. without). Due to the defaunation treatment, which reduced the rumen ciliate protozoa population by 94% on average, total tract fib...

  14. 胶州湾赤潮生物种类及其生态分布特征%Harmful algae bloom species in Jiaozhou Bay and the features of distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑天; 邹景忠; 张永山

    2004-01-01

    近年来,胶州湾赤潮发生频繁,对海水养殖业、海洋环境乃至人类健康与安全都构成威胁,作者根据 1997年 6~ 9月和 1998年 4~ 9月采于胶州湾东北部富营养化海域的样品及有关历史资料,报道了赤潮生物 69种, 其中已发生过的赤潮种类有 7种,分析了中肋骨条藻 Skeletonema costatum、圆筛藻 Coscinodiscus sp.、冰河拟星杆藻(日本星杆藻) Asterionellopsis glacialis、劳氏角毛藻 Chaetoceros lorenzianus、红色中缢虫 Mesodinium rubrum等主要赤潮生物的生态分布特征.

  15. Effect of functionalized MCM41 nanoparticles on syngas fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCM41 nanoparticles with or without mercaptopropyl functional groups were added to a synthesis gas fermentation reactor to investigate their influence on syngas fermentation. Carbon monoxide was fermented using Rhodospirillum rubrum (R. rubrum), resulting in an enhanced H2 concentration in the product gas as a result of a biologically mediated water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. The results indicated that the H2 yield was enhanced by ∼200% when 0.6 wt% of the MCM41 nanoparticles functionalized with 5% molar ratio of mercaptopropyl group were added to the reactor. These results complement previous studies and suggest that the increased H2 yield is due to enhanced CO-water mass transfer through the addition of the functionalized MCM41 nanoparticles.

  16. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  17. Dermatophytosis Agents in Patients Who Attending to Dermatology Clinic of Fırat University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Dilek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the types of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in Elazığ region to provide appropriate information for therapy planning and public health prevention.Methods: A total of 652 patients who attending to outpatient clinic between June 2007 – May 2008 with clinical signs of dermatophytosis were included in this study. All samples, including with negative results on direct microscopy were cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, mycobiotic agar (Acumedia and potato dextrose agar (Oxoid. Results: Dermatophytes were isolated in 142 (21.8% out of all samples. Of the isolates 70.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 15.4% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 4.2% were , 4.2% were Microsporum canis, 2.8% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 2.11% were Trichophyton violaceum, 0.7% were Trichophyton tonsurans.Conclusion: Trichophyton rubrum was most frequently isolated dermatophytosis agent in Elazığ region.

  18. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author)

  19. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 2. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seven American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; López, B; Juárez, X; del Aguila, J; García, S

    1993-12-01

    From 52 plants screened for antifungal activity, 26 (50%) were active against dermatophytes. This paper reports further evaluation of seven American plants against four pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum), the part showing most activity, the best solvent and, in three cases, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the fungus in pure culture. Antifungal activity was confirmed in all of the plants, but not all parts; the most active parts were the bark and leaves. The most active species were Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Gliricidia sepium and Malpighia glabra. Diphysa robinioides, Rhizophora mangle and Cassia occidentalis were less active. The most susceptible fungi were E. floccosum and T. rubrum; A. flavus was not susceptible. Ethanol was usually the best solvent and the MIC of C. grandis, C. occidentalis and D. robinioides was 50 micrograms/ml. PMID:8145577

  20. Antifungal activity of violacein purified from a novel strain of Chromobacterium sp. NIIST (MTCC 5522).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Anju; Sasidharan, Nishanth Kumar; Amma, Dileepkumar Bhaskaran Nair Saraswathy; Vasu, Radhakrishnan Kokkuvayil; Nataraja, Anupama Vijaya; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    A novel strain of Chromobacterium sp. NIIST (MTCC 5522) producing high level of purple blue bioactive compound violacein was isolated from clay mine acidic sediment. During 24 h aerobic incubation in modified Luria Bertani medium, around 0.6 g crude violacein was produced per gram of dry weight biomass. An inexpensive method for preparing crystalline, pure violacein from crude pigment was developed (12.8 mg violacein/L) and the pure compound was characterized by different spectrometric methods. The violacein prepared was found effective against a number of plant and human pathogenic fungi and yeast species such as Cryptococcus gastricus, Trichophyton rubrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium expansum, and Candida albicans. The best activity was recorded against Trichophyton rubrum (2 -g/ml), a human pathogen responsible for causing athlete-s foot infection. This is the first report of antifungal activity of purified violacein against pathogenic fungi and yeast. PMID:26428920

  1. Onychomycosis is rare in young children, and treatment is a task for dermatological specialists.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Skov, Lone; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis was diagnosed in a two-year-old girl. The infection was caused by Trichophyton rubrum, which is the most frequent cause of toenail onychomycosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and culture. She was treated with orally given terbinafine and...... topically given amorolfine with clinical improvement at the following control visit. Onychomycosis is rare in children, but the occurrence seems to be increasing. Medical treatment can be topical, systemic or a combination of these....

  2. Evaluation of the Drug Treatment and Persistence of Onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Andrew W.; Ebere C. Anyanwu; Mohammed Morad

    2004-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail disease responsible for approximately 50% of diseases of the nail. It occurs more in the elderly, though several cases have been reported among children. Several factors influence, such as climate, geography, and migration. The two dermatophytes most commonly implicated in onychomycosis are Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, accounting for more than 90% of onychomycoses. Nonetheless, several other toxigenic molds have been implicated. For convenience, on...

  3. Establishing trees on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bussières; S. Boudreau; L. Rochefort

    2008-01-01

    Four major tree-planting trials on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada were surveyed in 2002, in order to evaluate the potential use of trees in rehabilitation following horticultural peat extraction. At one of the sites, an experiment to determine the appropriate fertilisation rate for trees planted on cut-over peatlands was also conducted over several years. Tree performance was assessed by measuring survival, total height and annual growth of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), tamarack (Larix la...

  4. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina Salazar, Daniel Iván; Hoyos Sánchez, Rodrigo Alberto; Fernando OROZCO SÁNCHEZ; Myrtha ARANGO ARTEAGA; Luisa Fernanda GÓMEZ LONDOÑO

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were...

  5. Clinical And Mycological Study Of Superficial Mycoses In Amritsar

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal Aruna; Arora Usha; Khanna Saroj

    2002-01-01

    A clinical and mycological study of 500 cases of superficial mycoses was conducted. Two hundred fifty two samples from various sites, viz., skin, nail and hair were positive on culture. The most prevalent clinical type was tinea corporis (36.2%) and the most prevalent aetiological agent was Trichophyton rubrum (62.3%). Nondermatophytic filamentous fungi and candida species were also isolated in 17 (6.74%) cases. It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, nondermatoph...

  6. Non- dermatophytes as emerging opportunistic causal agents of superficial mycoses at Balaghat (M.P)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh S; Barde A

    1990-01-01

    A clinico-mycological study of 75 suspected cases of superficial mycoses occurring at Balaghat (MP) was done. Out of these 51 cases were both KOH as well as culture positive. Among these 51 cases, 33 were of onychomycosis and in the rest of the cases either skin and/ or both nails were infected. Among the isolates recovered, 27 were of dermatophytes, 22 non- dermatophytes and 4 yeasts. Trichophyton rubrum was the only species recovered among dermatophytes. The most prevalent among non dermato...

  7. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  8. QUALITY INTENSIFICATION OF COMPOST PREPARED FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES BY PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikumar Vijaykumar Mahamuni*; Kavita Kumar Kulkarni; Megha Nivrutti Mulik; Vaishali Shivaji Jadhav; Kajal Pradip Shukla; Kalpana Tukaram Nanaware; Prajakta Baban Nanaware; Savita Bhagwan Deokate; Monali Hambirrao Phadtare; Rajendra Jagannath Marathe

    2013-01-01

    Compost, a soil amendment or a growth medium to plants is prepared by combining organic wastes in proper quotients. Efficient decomposing culture accelerates composting process. Present investigation was carried out to assess the composting power of consortium of five phosphate solubilizing fungi isolated from sugarcane and sugar beet rhizosphere including Aspergillus niger (NFCCI 1991), Aspergillus awamori (NFCCI 1992), Penicillium oxalicum (NFCCI 1997), Penicillium rubrum (NFCCI 1998) and T...

  9. Application of PCR to Distinguish Common Species of Dermatophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Faggi, Elisabetta; Pini, Gabriella; Campisi, Enza; Bertellini, Chiara; Difonzo, Elisa; Mancianti, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the application of PCR fingerprinting for the identification of species and varieties of common dermatophytes and related fungi utilizing as a single primer the simple repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4. The primer was able to amplify all the strains, producing species-specific profiles for Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton ajelloi, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Intraspecific variability was not observed for these species. Instead,...

  10. Comparison of in vitro activity of five antifungal agents against dermatophytes, using the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods Comparação da atividade in vitro de cinco agentes antifúngicos para dermatófitos, usando os métodos de diluição em ágar e microdiluição em caldo

    OpenAIRE

    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo Mota; Karla Carvalho Miranda; Janine de Aquino Lemos; Carolina Rodrigues Costa; Souza, Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Xisto Sena Passos; Hildene Meneses e Silva; Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine for 60 dermatophyte samples belonging to the species Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. The percentage agreement between the two methods, for all the isolates with < 2 dilutions that were tested was 91.6% for ketoconazole and griseofulvi...

  11. The Agent of Dermatophytosis in Patients Attending to the Mycrobiology Laboratory of Dicle University Medical Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncer Özekinci; Erdal Özbek; Murat Gedik; Mehmet Topçu; Fikret Tekay; Mahmut Mete

    2006-01-01

    The clinical specimens of 538 patients, sent to Microbiology Laboratory of Medical Faculty, Dicle University, with pre-diagnosis of dermatophytosis, were investigated by direct microscopic and culture methods. Of 106 patients diagnosed as having dermatophytosis, the causative dermatophytes were isolated in 75 (70,6 %); while in 31 (29,3%), dermatophytes could not be isolated. Among dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum (69,2%) was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte followed by Trichophyton...

  12. Use of the Sensititre Colorimetric Microdilution Panel for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol, I.; Capilla, J.; Fernández-Torres, B.; Ortoneda, M.; Guarro, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel was used to test 49 dermatophytes belonging to the species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The MICs of four antifungals obtained with the Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel were compared with those obtained by the reference NCCLS microdilution method. The levels of agreement between the two methods (≤2 dilutions) were 81.6% with amphoterici...

  13. Identification of Dermatophytes by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Metalloproteinase-1

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ho Jung; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Jae Wook; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; AHN, KYU JOONG

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic research on metalloproteinase-1 is an emerging field in the area of plant molecular biology. The new method reported here can similarly be applied in fungal molecular biology to identify different dermatophytes. Our method is more accurate than traditional methods such as molecular analyses. Objective To identify Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, by using the r...

  14. Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Trichophyton Species, Based on Sequence Polymorphisms of the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions, by Rolling-Circle Amplification▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Fanrong; Tong, Zhongsheng; Chen, Xiaoyou; Sorrell, Tania; Bin WANG; Wu, Qixuan; Ellis, David; Chen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    DNA sequencing analyses have demonstrated relatively limited polymorphisms within the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions among Trichophyton spp. We sequenced the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) for 42 dermatophytes belonging to seven species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense, T. tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) and developed a novel padlock probe and rolling-circle amplification (RCA)-based method for identification o...

  15. Fluorometric Assessment of In Vitro Antidermatophytic Activities of Antimycotics Based on Their Keratin-Penetrating Power

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, C. N.; Tsuboi, R; Kawai, M.; Ogawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Keratin particles impregnated with amorolfine or clotrimazole in serial doubling dilutions (64 to 0.125 μg/ml) were used to evaluate the activities of these agents against 20 isolates each of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum in a yeast carbon broth medium incorporating Alamar Blue dye. The proposed MIC with keratin impregnation (MICK) is defined as the lowest concentration of an agent used to impregnate keratin particles that effects a fluorescence-based fungal growth quoti...

  16. COMPARISON OF THE ACTIVITIES OF FOUR ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF DERMATOPHYTE NAIL INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nowrozi, Hossein; Nazeri, Golrokh; Adimi, Parvaneh; Bashashati, Mohsen; Emami, Masood

    2008-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a difficult condition to treat and cure rates are disappointing. Moreover fungicidal action of antifungal agents in NCCLS assays and their rapid accumulation in nails in vivo are not compatible with the duration of treatment. Aims: This study aimed to find the effectiveness of 4 different antifungal agents in an in vitro model with some similarities to in vivo conditions. Materials and Methods: Strains of Trichophyton rubrum I-III, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (usu...

  17. ON THE INCIDENCE OF RAKTAJA KRIMI (DERMATOPHYTES) IN CHHINDWARA, MADHYA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, M. K.; Shrivastava, K.K.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of Raktaja Krimis of Chhindwara was made during July, 1986 to June, 1987. Tinea infections were abundant followed by Tinea cruris, Tinea pedis, Tinear capitis, Tinea barbae, and Tinea unguinum. Tinea infections were common among the youth between 21 – 30 years. The percentage wise tinea infections were as follows : Trichophyton rubrum (64.5%), T. mentagrophytes (5.37%), T. violaceum (1.07%), Epidermophyton flocceum (18.12%), Micrisporum gypseum (7.52%) and M. nanum (5.37%).

  18. Synthesis of new 4-methyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines as potent antifungal compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Leonor Y. Vargas [Universidad Santo Tomas, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales; Zacchino, Susana A. [Universidad Nacional del Rosario, (Argentina). Lab. de Farmacognosia; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Lab. de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological results of new series of 2-(4-pyridyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and their closer precursors, -N-aryl-N-[1-(4-pyridyl)but-3-enyl] amines are reported. It was found that both g-pyridyl substituted precursors and final products, tetrahydroquinolines, showed very good antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (author)

  19. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii against dermatophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Edilene Bolutari Baptista; Danielle Cristina Zimmermann-Franco; Alexandre Augusto Barros Lataliza; Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of a commercial sample of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker and its antifungal activity against Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11480, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. METHODS: Morphological changes in these fungi after treatment with the oil were determined by scanning electron ...

  20. Applying cathodically polarised substrata to the restoration of a high value coral

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Alessandro; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Gerogios; Faimali, Marco; Pavanello, Giovanni; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep Maria; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Larval settlement of the high value red coral, Corallium rubrum, was studied on three different CaCO3 substrata, viz. lithogenic (marble), electro-accreted calcium carbonate in the presence and in the absence of cathodic polarisation. The last two substrata consisted of stainless steel plates galvanically coupled with Zn anodes. The electrochemical characterization of the settlement device was studied in order to investigate correlations between cathodic parameters (polarisation potential, cu...