Sample records for ciliata

  1. Bio-potency of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaiarasi Velayutham; Narayani Mani; Sivaraman Arumugam; Janakiraman Narayanan; Babu Anantham


    Objective: To reveal the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, larvicidal potentials of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh (D. ciliata).Methods:Phytochemical, antibacterial screening, cytotoxicity and larvicidal properties of the D. ciliata extracts were carried out according to standard methods. Cytotoxicity and larvicidal potentials were analyzed by means of computerized probit analysis program.Results:The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the crude extracts of D. ciliata. The methanolic extracts of D. ciliata showed the highest metabolites presence compared to other tested extracts. The antibacterial activity illustrated that the acetone extracts of D. ciliata exhibited the highest zone of inhibition [(10±0.2) mm] against Morganella morganii. Highest larval mortality (50%) was observed in the crude methanolic extracts of D. ciliata against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50=202.82 mg/L and LC90 value is 488.52 mg/L). The result of brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed highest cytotoxicity in methanolic extracts of D. ciliata with LC50 and LC90 values at 340.14 mg/L and 555.58 mg/L respectively.Conclusions:The results of the present phytochemical analysis and biological assays will help the manufacturers for identification and selection of raw materials for drug production.

  2. Bio-potency of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh

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    Kalaiarasi Velayutham


    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, larvicidal potentials of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh (D. ciliata. Methods: Phytochemical, antibacterial screening, cytotoxicity and larvicidal properties of the D. ciliata extracts were carried out according to standard methods. Cytotoxicity and larvicidal potentials were analyzed by means of computerized probit analysis program. Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the crude extracts of D. ciliata. The methanolic extracts of D. ciliata showed the highest metabolites presence compared to other tested extracts. The antibacterial activity illustrated that the acetone extracts of D. ciliata exhibited the highest zone of inhibition [(10±0.2 mm] against Morganella morganii. Highest larval mortality (50% was observed in the crude methanolic extracts of D. ciliata against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50=202.82 mg/L and LC90 value is 488.52 mg/L. The result of brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed highest cytotoxicity in methanolic extracts of D. ciliata with LC50 and LC90 values at 340.14 mg/L and 555.58 mg/L respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present phytochemical analysis and biological assays will help the manufacturers for identification and selection of raw materials for drug production.

  3. A New Record of Volutella ciliata Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea. (United States)

    Babu, Anam Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su


    During a survey of fungal species in South Korea, a species of Volutella ciliata was isolated and described based on the analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of its rDNA and its morphological characteristics. This is the first record of Volutella ciliata isolated from crop field soil in Korea.

  4. Larval growth in the dominant polychaete Polydora ciliata is food-limited in a eutrophic Danish estuary (Isefjord)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Almeda, Rodrigo; Fotel, Frank Lech;


    Food limitation in larval growth of the spionid polychaete Polydora ciliata was examined in a typical eutrophic estuary, Isefjord, in Denmark. In the field, food availability and the energetic requirements of the P. ciliata larval population were measured during 2 different periods in 2004 and 20...

  5. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.W.; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders Peter


    The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assum...

  6. Supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of the adults of the sycamore lace bug, corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera:Tingidae). (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wang, Feng; Xiao, Yu-Yu; Li, Bo


    Supercooling point (SCP) of female adults of Corythucha ciliata was significantly lower than that of male adults, with an average being -11.49 degrees C and -9.54 degrees C, respectively. Low temperature survival of adults of different ages indicated that there were differences in cold survival ability among age groups of adults. Nonlinear regression analysis found that the response of C. ciliata adults to exposure time under different low temperature regimes (above -5 degrees C) was best fitted by a logistic equation. Both low temperature and exposure time had significant effects on mortality of adults. Temperatures above 5 degrees C did not prevent C. ciliata adults from surviving. C. ciliata was shown to be a freeze-intolerant but chill-tolerant insect. C. ciliata could tolerate subzero temperatures by supercooling. Temperature around -8 degres C is a critical point for successful overwintering of C. ciliata adults, which can establish in the whole areas where Platanus trees are planted in China.

  7. Effects of temperature on the development and population growth of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata. (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wang, Feng; Li, Bo


    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an important invasive exotic pest of Platanus (Proteales: Platanaceae) trees in China. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of temperature on C. ciliata in the laboratory so that forecasting models based on heat accumulation units could be developed for the pest. Development and fecundity of C. ciliata reared on leaves of London plane tree (Platanus × acerifolia) were investigated at seven constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 26, 30, 33, and 36° C) and at a relative humidity of 80% with a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D). The developmental time was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature. The developmental time from egg hatching to adult emergence was respectively 47.6, 35.0, 24.1, 20.0, and 17.1 days at the temperatures of 19, 22, 26, 30, and 33° C. C. ciliata could not complete full development at 16° and 36° C. The developmental threshold temperature (C) estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.17° C, with a thermal constant of (K) 370.57 degree-days. Longevity of females was found to be the shortest, 17.7 days at 33° C and the longest, 58.9 days at 16° C, and that of males was the shortest, 19.7 days at 33° C and the longest, 59.7 days at 16° C. Fecundity was the highest at 30° C, being 286.8 eggs per female over an oviposition period of 8.9 days. Female lifetime fecundity was reduced at other temperatures, being the lowest (87.7 eggs per female) at 19° C. The population trend index (I) of C. ciliata was the highest (130.1) at 30° C and the lowest (24.9) at 19° C. Therefore, the optimal developmental temperature for C. ciliata was determined to be 30° C.


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    Kaushik Rajan


    Full Text Available In the present study, we identified and justified the use of MeOH extract from Toona ciliata bark as a reducing and capping agent for the ecofriendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the basis of modern analytical techniques. The reduction of 1.0 mM aqueous solution of aurochloric acid with 1 ml, 1% w/v aqueous solution of MeOH bark extract from Toona ciliata has resulted in the formation of stabilised Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs. The synthesised gold particles showed a surface plasmon band around 550 nm when analysed via UV-Visible Spectroscopy, indicated the gold particles of nano dimensions (10-9 m. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study of gold nano particles revealed the formation of spherical, poly dispersed nanoparticles of varying sizes ranging from 40-75 nm along with encapsulating cage. The time for the synthesis of gold nano particles was noted to be 30 minute. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanol extract form the bark confirmed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavanoids, tannins and reducing sugars. The results of the present study clearly reveal the Toona ciliata methanolic bark extract as a new, novel and renewable, cost effective, reducing and capping agent for the application in the field of nanobiotechnology as well as pharmaceutical sciences. Further, the ecofriendly approach developed for AuNPs synthesis with Toona ciliata MeOH bark extract is the rapid and cost effective alternative to the traditional chemical methods of AuNPs synthesis.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae). (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Yu, Weiwei; Du, Yuzhou


    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata, was sequenced in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitogenome of family Tingidae in Heteroptera. The mitogenome of C. ciliata is 15,257bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a large non-coding region. Gene arrangement, nucleotide content, codon usage, and amino acid composition and asymmetry indicate a high degree of conservation with six other species of Cimicomorpha. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN as the start codon and terminated with TAA, TA or T as stop codon. The evolutionary rate of each PCG was different, among which ATP8 showed the highest rate while ATP6 indicated the lowest rate. The 22 tRNAs genes apparently fold into a typical cloverleaf structure; however, the anticodon (TTC) of trnSer (AGN) differs from other Heteropteran insects. Secondary structure modeling of rRNA genes revealed similarity to other insects, except for two incomplete helices (H1648 and H2735) in lrRNA. The predicted secondary structure of lrRNA indicates 45 helices in six domains, whereas srRNA has 27 helices in three domains. Three potential stem-loops and two tandem repeats (-TCTAAT-) were identified in the A+T-rich region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. ciliata is a sister group to other Heteroptera species based on analysis of the 13 PCGs.

  10. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng


    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  11. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome. (United States)

    Li, Fengqi; Wang, Ran; Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Luo, Chen; Xu, Yihua


    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences.

  12. Future prospects for the rare, late-flowering Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata in Dutch nutrient-poor calcareous grasslands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Luijten, S.H.; Ellis-Adam, A.C.; den Nijs, J.C.M.


    We discuss the population biology of two calcareous grassland gentians, Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata, in relation to the habitat management currently practiced in The Netherlands. There, at the margin of their range, both species are rare. Gentianella germanica persists on six rema

  13. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Jacobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders


    The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assumed...... that the ciliary swimming apparatus is primarily composed of the prototroch and secondarily by the telotroch. The model predicted swimming speeds and feeding rates that corresponded well with the measured speeds and rates. Applying empirical data to the model, we were able to explain the profound decrease...... in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus and thus...

  14. Pharmacognostical study and Phytochemical evaluation of the Toona ciliata M. Roem. leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Monika Rana; Tarun Kumar; Dinesh Kumar; Deepak Kashyap; Aman Thakur


    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostical study of leaf of Toona ciliate M. Roem. Methods:The qualitative and quantitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were done according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study shows that leaves are compound type, 30-50 cm length, shape: lanceolate, apex: acute and having the entire margin. Stomata present in the leaf are anomocytic type of stomata. Microscopic evaluation of the leaves powder shows the presence of trichomes (multicelluar), lignified vascular bundles and stomata. The transverse section of the leaf shows the presence of epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer, lignified vascular bundles, trichomes, collenchyma, and palisade cells. Conclusion:Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in his study help in the identification and standardization of the Toona ciliata M. Roem.

  15. Propagação vegetativa de cedo-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roemer por miniestaquia Vegetative propagation of Toona ciliata M. Roemer by the minicutting technique

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    Jonicélia Cristina Araújo Vieira de Souza


    Full Text Available O método de propagação usual do cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata é via seminal, entretanto a oferta sazonal das sementes e sua curta viabilidade ao longo do tempo representam um problema para a produção contínua de mudas destinadas à implantação de povoamentos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da propagação vegetativa da espécie por miniestaquia e a necessidade da aplicação de acido indolbutírico (AIB para o enraizamento das miniestacas. A partir de um banco de estacas de origem seminal, foram obtidas brotações para produção de mudas clonais, em três diferentes épocas de coleta (2,5; 4,5; e 5,5 meses após a recepa das mudas. Antes do estaqueamento, as miniestacas tiveram suas bases imersas em quatro concentrações de AIB (0; 1.500; 3.000; e 4.500 mg L-1. Durante o experimento, obtiveram-se 100% de sobrevivência das minicepas e das miniestacas. Houve 100% de enraizamento das miniestacas nas três coletas, não ocorrendo diferença no comprimento de raízes em função das doses de auxina aplicadas. Quanto maior o intervalo entre as coletas e quanto maiores as brotações que originaram as miniestacas, maior a velocidade de crescimento das mudas. Miniestacas de cedro-australiano possuem capacidade de enraizamento, e mudas recepadas apresentam brotação, possibilitando a clonagem da espécie pelo processo de miniestaquia.Sexual propagation is the method commonly used for the Australian Red Cedar Toona ciliata. However, seasonal seed availability and short viability are a concern for the continuous offer of seeds for implantation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the viability of vegetative propagation of this species through minicutting and to test indolbutiric acid (IBA application for rooting of minicuttings. Sprouts for clonal minicutting production were obtained from a miniclonal garden established from seeds, in three different harvest times (2.5; 4.5 and 5.5 months

  16. Chemical Constituents in Essential Oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Guang-hui


    Objective To compare the chemical constituents in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds of Elsholtzia ciliata and their antimicrobial activities.Methods The chemical constituents in essential oils were extracted by the hydro-distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS.The chemical constituents in essential oils were identified on the basis of comparison on their retention indices and MS spectrum with published data.Moreover,the antimicrobial activities of the chemical constituents in the oils against the growth of six bacteria strains and one pathogenic yeast strain were evaluated by using minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods.Results A total of 58 compounds were identified,while compounds 31,35,and 36 were identified in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds,respectively.Fifteen compounds were identified as shared constituents in the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The chemical constituents in the essential oils showed the inhibitory activities against the six bacteria strains and the yeast strain.Conclusion The major constituents are different in the essential oils of the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The major chemical constituents in the essential oils are monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.And the chemical constituents in the essential oils obtained from the leaves show higher inhibitory activities especially against Bacillus subtillis CMCC63501 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922.

  17. Growth and mineral nutrition in seedlings of australian cedar (Toona ciliata subjected to nutrient deprivation

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    Bruno da Silva Moretti


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate nutritional requirements and the effect of nutrient deprivation on the development of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis, a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The substrate used was a dystroferric red latosol with low nutrient availability, using 15 treatments and applying the missing element technique. The experiment included two complete treatments (one provided N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Zn with limestone while another provided N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu and Zn without limestone, besides deprivation of each nutrient (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B, -Cu and -Zn, one treatment with combined deprivation of B, Cu and Zn, one treatment applying limestone only, one treatment applying N, P, K, S, B, Cu and Zn, without limestone, and one absolute control treatment (natural soil. The following characteristics were evaluated: height, diameter, shoot dry matter and root dry matter, and nutrient content in the shoot dry matter after 150 days. Australian cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, and nutrients P, N, S, Ca, K, Mg and Cu, in that order, were found to be limiting factors to plant development. B and Zn deprivation did not affect plant development. Limestone application was essential for the development of Australian cedar plants. Initial deficiency symptoms were found to be the result of S, limestone and N deprivation.

  18. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae, in subtropical China.

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    Rui-Ting Ju

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1 progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  19. Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). Diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis



    Summary The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in ...

  20. Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis. (United States)

    Dutto, M; Bertero, M


    The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in examining subjects who visit or live near wooded areas which are infested.

  1. Biodeterioration of products made from australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

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    Natália Amarante Almeida


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the natural resistance of composite and solid wood panels from Toona ciliata to fungal attack through accelerated laboratory testing, to characterize the anatomical components of the wood according to IAWA, to quantify the soluble and insoluble lignin contents by acid hydrolysis and to determine the colorimetric parameters before and after fungal attack by using the CIE-L*a*b*(1976 system. Solid wood was classified as moderately and highly resistant to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor and to brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum. OSB panels were found to be resistant and moderately resistant to white-rot fungus and highly resistant to brown-rot fungus. Variation in species and particle type did not have a positive effect on the treatments. As regards the wood, both fungi were inhibited by the presence of phenolic resin. Particleboard panels were classified as moderately resistant to white-rot fungus. Treatments T2 (cedar and T4 (cedar-eucalyptus were resistant while treatment T3 (cedar-pine was not resistant to attack by brown-rot fungus. The urea-formaldehyde resin failed to inhibit attack in the same way the phenolic resin did. Anatomically, the species was found to have medium texture, straight vessel lines, pleasant smell after incision and poor luster on the radial surface. Its anatomical structure favored colonization by the threadlike filaments of the fungi. All treatments caused wood darkening after attack by the G. trabeum fungus, with total variation in color. It was observed that with weight loss an increase followed in insoluble lignin contents, in all treatments, indicating that this chemical property is a determining factor in wood resistance to the attack of the fungi being evaluated.

  2. Iridoid Glycosides Fraction Isolated from Veronica ciliata Fisch. Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mice (United States)

    Tan, Shancai; Lu, Qiuxia; Shu, Yueyue; Sun, Yiran


    Veronica ciliata Fisch. has traditionally been used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. We analyzed the chemical composition of the iridoid glycosides fraction (IGF) isolated from V. ciliata and evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The IGF was separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and the main compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array. We determined the in vitro antioxidant ability of the IGF through radical scavenging assays and assessed the in vivo hepatoprotective potential in an acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced acute liver injury murine model. The IGF was separated by HSCCC and three major iridoid glycosides (verproside, catalposide, and amphicoside) were identified as potent antioxidants and hepatoprotective compounds. Treatment with the IGF significantly suppressed the APAP-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); improved serum total antioxidant capacity; decreased malondialdehyde formation; elevated superoxide dismutase and glutathione activity; and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, nuclear factor kappa B) in the liver. Finally, we examined the histopathology of resected livers for evidence of hepatoprotection. The protection conferred by the IGF may be related to the reinforcement of antioxidant defense systems. PMID:28293265

  3. Evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of plywoods produced with Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

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    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels produced with Toona ciliata wood using two different pressure levels and two spread rates; besides the effect of Pinus sp. veneer inclusion on the quality of the panels. The phenol formaldehyde resin was used to produce plywood of five veneers. The physical-mechanical tests were conducted according to ABNT 31:000.05-001/2:2001 standard. The results of apparent density, water absorption after 24 hours, static bending (MOR and MOE and glue line dry shear strength presented significant statistical differences between the treatments. All the treatments presented parallel MOE and MOR value above the one established by the NBR 31.000.001/2:2001 standard; however just the panels with inclusion of Pinus sp. in the inner presented perpendicular MOE and MOR above the one established by the same. For the glue line shear strength tests, the panels presented values above the minimum established by EN 314-2 (1993 standard.It was not observed influence of the spread rate and pressure on the physical and mechanical properties between the panels produced only with Toona ciliata. The inclusion of Pinus sp. veneers both in the face and inner of the panels contributed to improve most of the physical and mechanical properties.

  4. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

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    Gaurav Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  5. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira


    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.

  6. Comparative analysis of bioactive N-alkylamides produced by tissue culture raised versus field plantlets of Spilanthes ciliata using LC-Q-TOF (HRMS). (United States)

    Bhat, Zubair Shanib; Jaladi, Neeharika; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Arumugam, Neelakantan


    Spilanthes ciliata (S. ciliata) is a perennial herb of global importance owing to its luscious source of bioactive fatty acid derived amides known as N-alkylamides. It finds application in skin creams, mouth gels and toothpastes. Despite multifaceted applications, a major limitation associated for its commercial application is the scarcity of contamination free plant source, fluctuations in active metabolites due to variation in extraction procedures, and lack of rapid qualitative method for alkylamide profiling. In the current work, attempts were made to 1) optimize conditions for mass propagation of contamination free plants of S. ciliata by tissue culture using leaf discs as explants, 2) establish an optimum extraction ratio of plant/solvent (w/v) for maximum elution of alkylamides and 3) develop a rapid method for qualitative estimation of alkylamide from in vitro raised plants in comparison with that of the field grown counterpart by using LC-Q-TOF (HRMS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first qualitative report on alkylamide profile of micropropagated whole plant of Spilanthes. The correlation pattern reported in this study may form the basis for using tissue culture raised plantlets of S. ciliata as potential source of bioactive alkylamides on industrial scale.

  7. Rapid cold hardening increases cold and chilling tolerances more than acclimation in the adults of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae). (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Xiao, Yu-Yu; Li, Bo


    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata is a new, invasive pest of Platanus trees in China. Although C. ciliata is often subjected to acute low temperatures in early winter and spring in northern and eastern China, the cold tolerance of C. ciliata has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adults of C. ciliata are capable of rapid cold hardening (RCH), and to compare the benefits of RCH vs. cold acclimation (ACC) in the laboratory. When the adult females incubated at 26°C were transferred directly to the discriminating temperature (-12°C) for 2 h, survival was only 22%. However, exposure to 0°C for 4 h before transfer to -12°C for 2 h induced RCH, i.e., increased survival to 68%. RCH could also be induced by gradual cooling of the insects at rates between 0.1 and 0.25°C min(-1). The protection against cold shock obtained through RCH at 0°C for 4 h was lost within 1h if the adults were returned to 26°C before exposure to -12°C. Survival at both -12 and -5°C was greater for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults (for ACC, adults were kept at 15°C for 5 days), and the lethal temperature (2 h exposure) was lower for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults. The results suggest that RCH may help C. ciliata survive the acute low temperatures that often occur in early winter and early spring in northern and eastern China.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cell suspension and tissue cultures of mature himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata). (United States)

    Cheema, G S


    Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation were obtained from callus and cell suspension cultures of 40-year- old Himalayan Poplar (Populus ciliata Wall ex Royle). Callus and cell suspensions were obtained by transfer of inoculum of semiorganized leaf cultures, which were maintained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP), to MS with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Reduction of 2,4-D concentration during subsequent subculture of cell suspensions resulted in the formation of embryoids. These embryoids developed further only after being transferred to agar-based MS medium supplemented with BAP and naphthalene acetic acid. Loss of embryogenic potential was observed in cell suspensions after 6 subcultures. However, callus cultures retained the embryogenic potential even after repeated subcultures for more than a year. Plantlets could be successfully hardened and grown in natural outdoor conditions.

  9. 北京发现悬铃木方翅网蝽为害%The first discovery of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞国跃; 王合; 朱晓清; 冯术快; 卢绪利


    The sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata was first observed with low population at a park in Huairou District,Beijing in August 2012.However,it broken out in Changping District,Beijing,with heavy infestation on Platanus × acerifolia in 2013.Beijing is the northernmost distribution record of C .ciliata in China.The lace bug obviously could overwinter in Beijing and causes damage.The present paper records its occurrence in Beijing, provides with their color pictures.%2012年8月在北京怀柔的二球悬铃木上初次发现了外来入侵物种-悬铃木方翅网蝽(Corythucha ciliata ),但数量较少,未造成明显危害;2013年在北京昌平再度发现悬铃木方翅网蝽为害,且种群数量极大。北京发现的悬铃木方翅网蝽是该入侵物种在我国的最北分布记录。本文记述了悬铃木方翅网蝽在北京的为害现状,并提供了彩色图片。

  10. Morfogénesis in vitro de Toona ciliata a partir de raquis de hojas jóvenes con tidiazuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquinta Marcos


    Full Text Available The Meliacea are of great importance in construction and furniture-making. Toona ciliata is a Meliacea originally from the Himalayan region; it is known as Himalayan Cedar in Cuba. Natural regeneration occurs in this specie by seed diffusion and grafting; such propagation is limited. The object of this paper was to promote callus formation and plant regeneration in Toona ciliata from in vitro propagation. Two to three year old mature trees (Toona ciliata were used. Rachis were taken from young branches from these plants. They were disinfected in 0.25% (w/v mercuric chloride solution for 10 min followed by three rinses in autoclaved distilled-water. They were then established in MS supplemented with 0-1 mg/L thidiazuron culture medium. Nodular calluses were obtained having good morphogenic characteristics. Shoots sprouted from six-month-old calluses in the dark and plant regeneration was done in the light. AIB shoots were rooted in MS medium supplement with 1 mg/L IBA. Key words: callus, Himalayan Cedar, Meliacea, growth regulators, plant regeneration. Abbreviations: IBA- indolebutyric acid, thidiazuron-N-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl-N-phenylurea.

  11. A study on factors affecting seed germination of Toona ciliata var.pubescens%毛红椿种子萌发影响因素初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 张露


    Effects of factors such as temperature and light on seed germination of Toona ciliata. var. pubescent were studied in laboratory condition. The results showed that the appropriate temperature was 25-27 ℃. Seed soaking could enhance the germination percentage and germination energy and shorten germination time. The highest germination percentage and germination energy could be reached after soaking for 20h. Illumination could restrain seed germination. Sterilizing treatment with 0.3% potassium permanganate solution could promote the germination of T. ciliata var. pubescent seeds.%在实验室务件下研究了温度、光照等因素对毛红椿种子萌发的影响.结果表明:毛红椿种子萌发最佳温度是25~27℃;浸种可以提高毛红椿种子发芽势和发芽率,加快种子的发芽;且浸种20 h,发芽势和发芽率达最大值;光照会抑制毛红椿种子发芽;0.3%高锰酸钾溶液消毒处理能显著促进毛红椿种子萌发.

  12. Establishment of high frequency shoot regeneration system in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle) from petiole explants using Thidiazuron cytokinin as plant growth regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Aggarwal; A Gaur; D K Srivastava


    Populus species are important resources for industry and in scientific study on biological and agricul-tural systems. Our objective was to enhance the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata wall. ex Royle). The effect of TDZ alone and in combi-nation with adenine and NAA was studied on the regen-eration potential of petiole explants. The explants were excised from Himalayan poplar plants grown in glass-houses. After surface sterilization the explants were cul-tured on shoot induction medium. High percentage shoot regeneration (86%) was recorded on MS medium sup-plemented with 0.004 mg L-1 TDZ and 79.7 mg L-1 adenine. The regenerated shoots for elongation and multi-plication were transferred to MS ? 0.5 mg L-1 BAP ? 0.2 mg L-1 IAA ? 0.3 mg L-1 GA3. Root re-generation from shoots developed in vitro was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg L-1 IBA. Hi-malayan poplar plantlets could be produced within 2 months after acclimatization in a sterile mixture of sand and soil. We developed a high efficiency plant regeneration protocol from petiole explants of P. ciliata.

  13. Anaerobic respiration and antioxidant responses of Corythucha ciliata (Say) adults to heat-induced oxidative stress under laboratory and field conditions. (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wei, He-Ping; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo


    High temperature often induces oxidative stress and antioxidant response in insects. This phenomenon has been well documented under controlled laboratory conditions, but whether it happens under fluctuating field conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we used an invasive lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as a model species to compare the effects of controlled thermal treatments (2 h at 33-43 °C with 2 °C intervals in the laboratory) and naturally fluctuating thermal conditions (08:00-14:00 at 2-h intervals (29.7-37.2 °C) on a hot summer day in a field in Shanghai, China) on lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) was the marker) and anaerobic respiration (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the marker), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR). The results show that MDA concentration increased significantly in response to heat stresses with similar trend in the laboratory and field. LDH activities did not significantly vary across temperatures in the laboratory-exposed individuals, but they significantly increased by rising temperature in the field. The activities or concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH, and GR all significantly increased with increasing temperature in the two populations. These findings indicate that high temperature induces oxidative stress, resulting in high anaerobic respiration and antioxidant defenses in C. ciliata under both the laboratory and field conditions, which likely provide a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS.

  14. Geraniol, E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, as the alarm pheromone of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Say). (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Kawai, Akihiro; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Tokumaru, Susumu; Ueyama, Hiroshi


    Although adult sycamore lace bugs Corythucha ciliata (Say) show no sign of aggregation, nymphs at all developing stages are gregarious. When an individual nymph in the center of a colony was squashed with a needlepoint, proximate nymphs showed evasive behavior. The same evasive reaction was produced by exposing aggregated nymphs to nymph hexane extract. The active component, E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, geraniol, was responsible for the evasive behavior, and identified as the alarm pheromone. One nanogram of the alarm pheromone elicited activity similar to that in a third instar nymph. Presence of 2-acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones and their 4-hydroxy analogues are reconfirmed as nymph-specific components, though their biological significance remains unknown.

  15. Tissue Culture of Precious Timber Species Toona ciliata Roem%珍贵用材树种红椿的组培育苗技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽文; 时群; 梁刚; 蔡林; 何贵整


    The seeds of Toona ciliata were used as explants to study the tissue culture of T. ciliata. The results showed that the MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1 media was good for the bud induction of the asepsis seedling, the optimal bud proliferation culture medium was 2/3MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1+GA3 1.0 mg·L-1, and the optimal root induction culture medium was 1/2MS+IBA 0.5 mg·L-1, The plantlet was transplanted with the matrix of the peat soil, yellow subsoil and river sand, and the survival rates up to 85%.%以红椿种子为外植体材料,对其组织培养技术进行初步研究。结果表明,适宜红椿种子无菌苗芽诱导的培养基为MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1,适宜的芽继代增殖培养基为2/3MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1+GA 31.0 mg·L-1,适宜生根培养基为1/2MS+IBA 0.5 mg·L-1,以泥炭土、黄心土、河沙按1∶1∶1混合作为基质,移栽成活率达85%以上。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice da Silva Pinto


    Full Text Available Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae is an insect native to North America which has been introduced into Europe, through Italy, in 1964. Since then it has expanded across Europe being its date of arrival and distributional range in Portugal unknown. This important invasive pest feeds on the underside of the leaves of sycamore trees, one of the most widespread ornamental tree in urban areas of Portugal, causing their premature senescence and eventually death, in case of consecutive severe infestations. Habitat modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool for managing biological invasions, either prior or after the introduction of the invasive organism. In this study the software MaxEnt (maximum entropy was used to model the distribution of Corythucha ciliata in its Portuguese invasive range, from a set of environmental variables and georeferenced occurrence data obtained from observation of Platanus spp. leaves sampled all over the country. According to the best model developed, the areas of greater suitability to invasion of Corythucha ciliata are located in the northern portion of the country whereas the more southern and mountainous areas are of low or virtually null suitability. Laboratory observations of Corythucha ciliata biology allied to records of pest absence across several localities of southern Portugal and predominant occurrence in the northern half of Spain support the model developed. However, model validation requires future prospection in the areas of predicted reduced suitability and where the pest was virtually absent at the moment of sampling. Suitability models can be a useful tool for decision making in management of green spaces.

  17. 鄂西北濒危植物红椿天然种群动态分析%Analysis on natural population dynamics of endangered species Toona ciliata in northwestern Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 闫魁星; 滕家喜; 陈文学; 汪林波; 陈松


    Statistics on three natural populations ( Zhushan, Gucheng T1 and Gucheng T2 ) of Toona ciliata Roem. in northwestern Hubei were carried out by contiguous grid quadrate method, individual quantity dynamic index ( Vn ) in different age classes, static life table and survival curve of different populations were analyzed by method of diameter class structure of tree replacing age structure of population, and spectrum analysis of three populations was also conducted. The results show that all of three populations of T. ciliata belong to growth population, individual quantity dynamic index of Zhushan, Gucheng T1 and Gucheng T2 populations in natural state is 46. 27%, 53. 46% and 37. 71%, respectively. And standardized survival curve of three populations is conformed to be Deevey Ⅲ type, Deevey Ⅱ type and Deevey Ⅱ type, respectively. Mortality of sapling in the 2nd age class ﹝2. 5 cm≤DBH (diameter at breast height)<7. 5 cm〕 of three populations is comparatively high, that of sapling in the 3rd age class (7. 5 cm≤DBH<12. 5 cm) of Zhushan population is the highest, that of big tree in the 7th age class (27. 5 cm≤DBH<32. 5 cm) of Gucheng T1 population is the highest, and that of middle-aged tree in the 6th age class (22. 5 cm≤DBH<27. 5 cm) of Gucheng T2 population is the highest. Average life expectancy of individuals in the 1st age class (DBH<2. 5 cm) and the 2nd age class of three populations is relatively high. Amplitude of fundamental wave of Zhushan, Gucheng T1 and Gucheng T2 populations is 1. 061 6, 1. 097 1 and 0. 788 2, respectively, and their obvious minor cycles appear in the 4th, 2nd and 4th harmonic waves accordingly, which is indicated that there is periodicity in regeneration of natural population of T. ciliata in northwestern Hubei with multi-harmonic wave superposition of minor cycle, and fluctuation of population is in accordance with Vn value of age class. The analysis result of population dynamics shows that due to strong light

  18. Analysis of genetic diversity of natural populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens in Jiangxi Province%江西毛红椿天然群体的遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温强; 叶金山; 周诚


    Genetic diversity analysis was carried out by ISSR and SSR molecular markers in 5 natural populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens distributed in Jiangxi Province. The result of these indices generally suggested more or less heterozygote excess, homozygote deficiency and low genetic diversity among five populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens. Nei's genetic diversity (h) of species level was 0.2524, and the characteristic of diversity distribution is that: Jiulianshan>Ganshan>Jinggangshan>Matoushan>Yanquan. According to the small population size and the single structure of forest age, we inferred that it is the main reason of heterozygote excess but overall genetic diversity by the low levels. Genetic divergence indexes (GST) showed significant genetic differentiation among 5 populations, but about 70% of total genetic variance existed within populations, which was the main source of variation. The gene flow (Nm) among 5 populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens was 0.596, and the populations could be made more divergent due to random genetic drift. To ensure the genetic integrity and maintain the diversity of the population, resource preservation and ex-situ conservation should be done using Jiulianshan population and Guanshan population, whose diversity were relatively high.%以江西境内的5个毛红椿天然群体为研究对象,开展基于ISSR与SSR分子标记的群体遗传多样性研究。结果显示,5个群体总体表现为杂合子过剩,纯合子不足,总的遗传多样性偏低;物种水平的基因多样度(h)为0.2524,各群体基因多样度按大小排序为:九连山>官山>井冈山>马头山>岩泉。毛红椿群体规模小且林龄结构单一,推测这是造成其杂合子过剩但是基因多样性低下的主要原因。遗传分化指标(GST)显示受检测的毛红椿各群体间已发生显著分化,但群体内的遗传变异约占总变异的70%,仍是变异的主要来源;群体

  19. 枯枝落叶物厚度影响毛红椿种子出苗的模拟研究%Simulation Study on the Effects of Litter Layer Thickness on Seedling Emergence of Toona Ciliata Var.Pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓燕; 张露; 梁跃龙; 袁生贵; 邓邦良; 雷先高


    为了探讨枯枝落叶物对毛红椿天然更新的影响,通过室内模拟试验,研究了毛红椿枯枝落叶物厚度及置放位置对其种子萌发及幼苗存活的影响。结果表明:当种子置于枯枝落叶物上时,枯枝落叶物越厚种子萌发时间越晚,一定厚度的枯枝落叶物对幼苗发生有显著促进作用,幼苗茎长变短;当种子被枯枝落叶物覆盖时,枯枝落叶物越厚出苗时间越晚,出苗率随着枯枝落叶物厚度的增加而降低(枯枝落叶物厚度≥2 cm显著降低出苗率),幼苗苗根变短,枯枝落叶物厚度与幼苗生物量呈较弱的负相关。幼苗存活率随枯枝落叶物厚度的增加而显著降低,5 cm厚枯枝落叶物覆盖的幼苗29 d全部死亡。从而说明毛红椿种子萌发在一定程度上受地表枯枝落叶限制,或虽能萌发但幼苗纤弱,自然死亡率较高。建议在毛红椿林分管理过程中,可以适当去除枯落物以促进种子萌发与幼苗生长。%Effects of litter thickness and implantation position on seed germination and seedling survival of Toona ciliata var.pubescens were studied by simulation in laboratory in order to explore the effect of litter layer on natural regeneration .The results showed that the thicker the litter things was ,the later seed germination time was when the seeds were in the litter on .A certain thickness of litter content in seedlings had significant role in promoting and seedling stem length was shorter .The thicker the litter layer was ,the later and lower seedling e-mergence was when litter covered seeds .With the litter layer thickness increased ,the germination rate declined . The seedling emergence rate reduced significantly when litter thickness was greater than or equal to 2 cm.The seedling root length was shorter .Litter layer thickness was weaker negatively related to the biomass .The seed-ling survival rate reduced significantly with increasing of litter layer

  20. 不同种源红椿SRAP标记的遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity of Toona ciliata from Different Provenances Based on Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism ( SRAP) Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培; 阙青敏; 欧阳昆唏; 李俊成; 湛欣; 朱芹; 张俊杰; 邓小梅; 陈晓阳


    果与地理分布格局基本吻合.在红椿保护和管理的过程中,在对原有生境进行保护的同时,要加强人工繁育技术研究,并注意最大限度地保护红椿的遗传多样性.%[Objective]Poor natural regeneration and over-exploitation have resulted in the continual decline of natural forests and trees of Toona ciliata. In depth studies of genetic diversity and structure of T. ciliata of different provenances are particularly important for conservation,utilization of genetic resources,and the development of future breeding programs for the species.[Method]Sequence-related amplified polymorphism ( SRAP) markers were used to investigate genetic diversity of 29 provenances from China and one provenance from Australia of T. ciliata to define the level of genetic diversity and the relationships among different provenances. Samples from China were collected from natural stands. Each provenance was represented by 30 sample trees with a distance of at least 50 m among the sample trees. The Australian provenance was taken from the resources collection nursery of the South China Agricultural University. The POPGENE1. 32 software was used for genetic diversity parameters calculation. The NTSYS-pc2. 1 software was used for cluster analysis based on the matrix of Nei's genetic distances and the degree of genetic relatedness among provenances was assessed by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and MANTEL analysis with GenAIEx 6. 5. STRUCTRUE 2. 3 was used to analysis the genetic structure. [Result]A total of 505 polymorphic bands were amplified by 24 pairs of primers. The average value of polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0. 41. The average value of Nei's gene diversity index (H) was 0. 377 0. Shannon's information index (I) within provenances ranged from 0. 157 5 to 0. 467 5,the average value was 0. 556 9 among provenances. The AMOVA indicated that 79. 24% of the total variation was among provenances and 20. 76% was within provenances,revealing that provenance

  1. Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var.pubescens forest%毛红椿天然林种子雨、种子库与天然更新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红兰; 张露; 廖承开


    2008-2011年,调查江西九连山国家级自然保护区毛红椿天然林的种子雨、种子库及林下幼苗数量.结果表明:在毛红椿天然林,种子雨散布时间为10月下旬至12月下旬.2010年不同样地的种子雨强度为虾公塘气象观测站(320.3±23.5粒·m-2)>虾公塘保护站(284.7±24.2粒·m-2)>大丘田保护站(251.6±24.7粒·m-2),分别以222.0、34.3和22.6粒·m-2完好种子供土壤萌发更新;毛红椿种子储量取决于结实量、鸟类取食和种子活力等因素,鸟类取食是其种子储量大幅下降的首要因素;由于种子不耐储藏以及大量腐烂,种子有效贮藏期不足1个月.12月天然林种子库平均萌发数≤2株·m-2,次年1月土壤种子库种子量最少,为6.7~11.8粒·m-2,平均仅萌发0.4~0.6株·m-2,与林下实生幼苗分布极少相吻合.毛红椿种子雨储备、种子库种子活力保存及幼苗建成等因素影响其天然更新.%Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320. 3+23. 5 seeds · m-2) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7±24. 2 seeds · m-2) > Daqiutian protection station (251. 6±24. 7 seeds · m-2) , and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222. 0, 34. 3 , and 22.6 seeds · m-2 , respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc. , of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil

  2. 上海地区悬铃木方翅网蝽种群动态及防治指标%Population dynamics and control threshold of sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤; 詹慧敏; 鞠瑞亭


    The population density of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Say) and damage level were investigated to evaluate the economic injury level (EIL) with the benefit/cost ratio of the Platanus.The regression equation of population density and damage index was fitted.The results indicated that there were five significant peaks in the occurrence of the eggs,nymphs and adults per year.The bugs were first found in the middle and last ten days of April and the peak period of population occurrence was from the last ten days of July to mid-September.The EIL was determined as 36.77%.There was significant correlation between population density and damage indices,fitting the Logistic regression model:Y=0.928 4/(1+e0.8952 0.0019x).The control threshold was 250 adults and nymphs per hundred leaves.Based on the management strategy of "early prevention and early control",the optimum control period is from mid-to end of April,when the density reaches the control threshold.%定期调查了悬铃木方翅网蝽的虫口密度和悬铃木叶片的受害情况,利用悬铃木效益成本比,计算悬铃木方翅网蝽的经济允许损失水平,结合虫口密度与危害指数回归方程,确定了悬铃木方翅网蝽的防治指标.结果表明:悬铃木方翅网蝽卵、若虫、成虫1年有5个相对明显的高峰期,4月中下旬虫口密度开始上升,7月下旬至9月中旬为种群发生高峰.悬铃木方翅网蝽的经济允许损失水平为36.77%,其百叶虫量与危害指数间呈显著的Logistic回归,其关系式为Y=0.928 4/(1+e0.895 2-0.001 9x),防治指标为250头成若虫/百叶.根据“早防旱治”原则,在上海地区,悬铃木方翅网蝽在4月中下旬虫口密度达到防治指标时,需及时开展防治.

  3. Sycamore lace bug,Corythucha ciliata,an invasive alien pest rapidly spreading in urban China%悬铃木方翅网蝽:一种正在迅速扩张的城市外来入侵害虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠瑞亭; 李博


    悬铃木方翅网蝽(Corythucha ciliata)是新近入侵我国城市生态系统的外来害虫,严重危害城市行道树悬铃木(Platanus spp.),自2002年该虫在湖南长沙首度报道以来,已在我国11个省(直辖市)的25个城市发生,尤其在长江流域呈现爆发态势.本文系统介绍了悬铃木方翅网蝽的生活史、生活习性、繁殖潜力等生物学特性,以及扩散速度与方式、影响发生的主要环境因素、种群的耐寒耐热能力等生态学特性.最后,在分析该虫的寄主及危害特点的基础上,对其控制与管理对策进行了综述,以为其管理提供参考.

  4. 几种植物对入侵害虫悬铃木方翅网蝽的适合性评价%Evaluation of suitability of several plants to invasive pest,sycamore lace bug,Corythucha ciliata(Say)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安红柳; 邱国强; 李传仁


    The 2nd instar nymphs, 4th instar nymphs and adults of Corythucha ciliata (Say) were fed on 4 kinds of young leaves (Platanus acerifolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Castanea mollissima, Rhododendron simsii ) in the laboratory, and the results indicated that sycamore lace bugs could feed, develop and oviposite on sycamore leaves,but not in the other three leaves and died within 2 ~ 7 days. The analysis suggest that Broussonetia papyrifera,Castanea mollissima and Rhododendron simsii are not the host plants of sycamore lace bug.%实验条件下用二球悬铃木、构树、板栗、杜鹃等4种植物的幼嫩叶片饲养悬铃木方翅网蝽2龄若虫、4龄若虫和成虫,观察该虫发育、存活、寿命和产卵量,结果表明,在悬铃木叶片上悬铃木方翅网蝽能取食、发育或产卵,在其他3种植物叶片上存活时间仅2~7d左右,不能取食、发育或产卵.证实构树、板栗和杜鹃不是悬铃木方翅网蝽的寄主植物.

  5. Passage of selected heavy metals from Sphaerotilus (bacteria: Chlamydobacteriales) to Paramecium caudatum (protozoa: Ciliata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri-Aliabadi, M.; Sharp, R.E.


    Sphaerotilus, a bacterium occurring in polluted waters, was found to take up Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn. Metal-containing cultures of this bacterium were employed to feed the protozoan Paramecium caudatum, and analytical results revealed the accumulation of Zn, Pb and Ni. Since Sphaerotilus wa the only food source for paramecia during this study, the results indicate that trace amounts of metal were passed from bacteria to protozoa in a predator-prey relationship.

  6. The ethogram of Euplotes crassus (ciliata, hypotrichida): I. The wild type. (United States)

    Ricci, N; Giannetti, R; Miceli, C


    The behavior of Euplotes crassus has been studied qualitatively and quantitatively in an attempt of throwing new light onto the problem of the relationships occurring among motor behavior, systematic position and evolutionary strategies of the ciliated protozoa. It was found that both single and paired Euplotes creep along piecewise pathways whose geometric elements (arcs, segments, angles) have been measured. E. crassus performs different delicate maneuvers to shift from one element of its trajectory to the next: beyond the Continuous Trajectory Change, the Smooth Trajectory Change and the Rough Trajectory Change, described elsewhere for other ciliates, three different kinds of Side-Stepping Reaction were recognized and carefully described. The average velocity is 850 μm/sec during creeping and 800 μm/sec during swimming. Finally, also the mating behavior has been analyzed and the successive steps leading to pair formation thoroughly described. The data are compared with those already available for different species.

  7. Potential for Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora ciliata mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collect...

  8. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

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    Bruno da Silva Moretti


    Full Text Available The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient solution under the missing element technique. The omission of the micronutrients B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn affect negatively the height, diameter, and dry matter yield of the Australian Red Cedar plants. The micronutrient which affected the relative growth of the plants the most was B. Australian Red Cedar plants deficient in micronutrients present several visual symptoms characteristic of the metabolism disorders. The perception of the deficiencies through the visual diagnosis can be useful in the nutrient management of the culture of the Australian Red Cedar.

  9. Salt Dynamics in Rhizosphere of Puccinellia ciliata a Loamy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-Hua; C. TANG; Z. RENGEL


    A glasshouse experiment using a rhizobox technique was conducted to examine salt dynamics in the rhizosphere of a on salt accumulation in the rhizosphere. The rhizobox (10 × 5.5 × 50 cm) had a nylon mesh (1 μm) positioned vertically in the middle to create two compartments filled with soil amended with 1 g NaCl kg-1. The plants were grown in one compartment only. Flushed treatments received 275 mL of deionized water two days before harvest. In the plant-growing compartment, soils were sectioned vertically at 5 cm intervals. Significant differences in soil electrical conductivity (EC)(P<0.05) and pH (P<0.05) were observed for depths, but not between flushed and non-flushed treatments. In the no-plant compartment (rhizosphere), soil cores were taken horizontally at depths of 5, 20 and 40 cm and sliced at 1, 2,3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 mm away from the roots. Soil EC and Cl- concentration at the 5 and 20 cm depths, and Na+ concentration at the 5 cm depth significantly decreased (P<0.05) with the distance away from the root, but no significant differences were observed in soil pH and concentrations of the K+ and Ca2+. The flush treatment only had significant influence on soil EC, pH, and Cl- concentration at the 20 cm depth. Thus, salt accumulation could occur in the rhizosphere of salt-tolerant species on saline soils, and the periodic low rainfall might not have a strong influence on salt distribution in the rhizosphere and/or root zone.

  10. The effect of climate change on the population of sycamore lace bug (Corythuca ciliata, Say) based on a simulation model with phenological response



    Climate change affects on insect populations in many ways: it can cause a shift in geographical spread, abundance, or diversity, it can change the location, the timing and the magnitude of outbreaks of pests and it can define the phenological or even the genetic properties of the species. Long-time investigations of special insect populations, simulation models and scenario studies give us very important information about the response of the insects far away and near to our century. Gettin...

  11. Phytotoxicity of triterpenes and limonoids from the Rutaceae and Meliaceae. 5α,6β,8α,12α-Tetrahydro-28-norisotoonafolin--a potent phytotoxin from Toona ciliata. (United States)

    Nebo, Liliane; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Severino, Vanessa G P; Sarria, André L F; Cazal, Cristiane M; Fernandes, Maria Fátima das Graças; Fernandes, João B; Macías, Francisco A


    Limonoids and triterpenes are the largest groups of secondary metabolites and have notable biological activities. Meliaceae and Rutaceae are known for their high diversity of metabolites, including limonoids, and are distinguished from other families due to the frequent occurrence of such compounds. The increased interest in crop protection associated with the diverse bioactivity of these compounds has made these families attractive in the search for new allelopathic compounds. In the study reported here we evaluated the bioactivity profiles of four triterpenes (1-4) and six limonoids (5-10) from Meliaceae and Rutaceae. The compounds were assessed in a wheat coleoptile bioassay and those that had the highest activities were tested on the standard target species Lepidinum sativum (cress), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Allium cepa (onion). Limonoids showed phytotoxic activity and 5α,6β,8α, 12α- tetrahydro-28-norisotoonafolin (10) and gedunin (5) were the most active, with bioactivity levels similar to, and in some cases better than, those of the commercial herbicide Logran. The results indicate that these products could also be allelochemicals involved in the ecological interactions of these plant species.

  12. Nieuwe en interessante Nederlandse wantsen III (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Hermes, D.


    In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van 38 soorten nieuwe of anderszins interessante Nederlandse wantsen. Corythucha ciliata (Tingidae), Macrolophus rubi, Orthotylus ochrotrichus (Miridae), Amphiareus constrictus, Buchananiella continua, Cardiasthetus fasciiventris, Lyctocoris dimidiatus (Ant

  13. 悬铃木叶片对悬铃木方翅网蝽为害的生理响应%Leaf physiological responses in the London plane tree(Platanus×acerifolia)(Platanaceae)to injury by the sycamore lace bug,Corythucha ciliata(Hemiptera: Tingidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠瑞亭; 王凤; 李博


    为了认识近年来入侵中国的外来害虫悬铃木方翅网蝽Corythucha ciliata刺吸为害对寄主的影响,将室内饲养虫源接入野外悬铃木Platanus×acerifolia叶片上,利用光合作用仪和比色法,测定了不同受害级别下悬铃木叶片几种生理性状的变化.结果表明:随着受害级别的增高,叶片光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)总体呈下降趋势.叶片不同受害级别与胞间CO2浓度(Ci)呈正相关(P<0.01).悬铃木方翅网蝽刺吸悬铃木叶片组织后,叶片叶绿素a、b和类胡萝卜素素较对照降低,且随着被害级别的增高,降低程度逐渐增大.叶面积受害级别与叶绿体色素之间呈显著的负相关关系(P<0.01).随着叶片受害级别的增大,可溶性糖含量呈下降趋势,而游离脯氨酸含量的变化则无规律性.这些结果说明,悬铃木方翅网蝽的刺吸为害能造成寄主植物光合作用的减弱及叶片其他生理生化指标变化.

  14. Advance in Biological Characteristics and Control Techniques of the New Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug(Corythucha ciliata)%新入侵物种悬铃木方翅网蝽的生物学特性与防治技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福莲; 李传仁; 刘万学; 万方浩



  15. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajbhandari


    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  16. A revision of Dimeria (Gramineae-Dimeriinae) in Malesia with a note on Cymbachne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.


    In Malesia there are 4 species of Dimeria (Gramineae). A brief history of the genus with a key, nomenclature, descriptions, and notes is provided. Dimeria ciliata, D. dipteros, and D. fuscescens are reduced to D. chloridiformis, D. leptorhachis and its var. velutina to D. gracilis, D. monostachya to

  17. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Neuquén and La Rioja provinces, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech


    Full Text Available The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.

  18. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

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    Ludwik Frey


    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  19. Assessing intraspecific variation in effective dispersal along an altitudinal gradient: a test in two Mediterranean high-mountain plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lara-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant recruitment depends among other factors on environmental conditions and their variation at different spatial scales. Characterizing dispersal in contrasting environments may thus be necessary to understand natural intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment. Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa are two representative species of cryophilic pastures above the tree line in Mediterranean high mountains. No explicit estimations of dispersal kernels have been made so far for these or other high-mountain plants. Such data could help to predict their dispersal and recruitment patterns in a context of changing environments under ongoing global warming. METHODS: We used an inverse modelling approach to analyse effective seed dispersal patterns in five populations of both Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa along an altitudinal gradient in Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain. We considered four commonly employed two-dimensional seedling dispersal kernels exponential-power, 2Dt, WALD and log-normal. KEY RESULTS: No single kernel function provided the best fit across all populations, although estimated mean dispersal distances were short (<1 m in all cases. S. ciliata did not exhibit significant among-population variation in mean dispersal distance, whereas significant differences in mean dispersal distance were found in A. caespitosa. Both S. ciliata and A. caespitosa exhibited among-population variation in the fecundity parameter and lacked significant variation in kernel shape. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the complexity of intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment, showing that effective dispersal kernels can remain relatively invariant across populations within particular species, even if there are strong variations in demographic structure and/or physical environment among populations, while the invariant dispersal assumption may not hold for other species in the same environment

  20. Habitat-specific size structure variations in periwinkle populations ( Littorina littorea) caused by biotic factors (United States)

    Eschweiler, Nina; Molis, Markus; Buschbaum, Christian


    Shell size distribution patterns of marine gastropod populations may vary considerably across different environments. We investigated the size and density structure of genetically continuous periwinkle populations ( Littorina littorea) on an exposed rocky and a sheltered sedimentary environment on two nearby islands in the south-eastern North Sea (German Bight). On the sedimentary shore, periwinkle density (917 ± 722 individuals m-2) was about three times higher than on the rocky shore (296 ± 168 individuals m-2). Mean (9.8 ± 3.9 mm) and maximum (22 mm) shell size of L. littorea on the sedimentary shore were smaller than on the rocky shore (21.5 ± 4.2 and 32 mm, respectively), where only few small snails were found. Additionally, periwinkle shells were thicker and stronger on the rocky than on the sedimentary shore. To ascertain mechanisms responsible for differences in population structures, we examined periwinkles in both environments for growth rate, predation pressure, infection with a shell boring polychaete ( Polydora ciliata) and parasitic infestation by trematodes. A crosswise transplantation experiment revealed better growth conditions on the sedimentary than on the rocky shore. However, crab abundance and prevalence of parasites and P. ciliata in adult snails were higher on the sedimentary shore. Previous investigations showed that crabs prefer large periwinkles infested with P. ciliata. Thus, we suggest that parasites and shell boring P. ciliata in conjunction with an increased crab predation pressure are responsible for low abundances of large periwinkles on the sedimentary shore while high wave exposure may explain low densities of juvenile L. littorea on the rocky shore. We conclude that biotic factors may strongly contribute to observed differences in size structure of the L. littorea populations studied on rocky and sedimentary shores.

  1. Limnology of Priyadarshani Lake, Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    in Schinnacher Oasis (Antarctica), was surveyed during the austral summers of 1984-85 and 1986-87 in limnological and benthic studies. Benthic microfaWla included seven taxonomic groups, dominated numerically by protozoa, rotifera, nematoda, turbellaria... insulation during the harsh winter (Goldman and others 1972). Seven microfaunal groupswer~recorded, in which ten genera and four species were identified. Most ofthese are exclusively benthic animals ofboth peripheral and littoral zones. Protozoa (ciliata...

  2. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  3. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Neuquén and La Rioja provinces, Argentina Nuevos registros de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en las provincias de Neuquén y La Rioja, Argentina Novo registro de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae nas províncias de Neuquén e La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech


    Full Text Available The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.Se reporta la presencia de Aedes aegypti al sur de su límite actual de distribución en Argentina, en la ciudad de Neuquén, provincia de Neuquén. Huevos de esta especie fueron colectados mediante el uso de ovitrampas que fueron colocadas de diciembre/2009 a abril/2010. La distribución geográfica de Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata y Ps. cingulata se amplía, incluyendo nuevos registros para dos provincias.Relata-se a presença de Aedes aegypti ao sul de seu limite atual de distribuição na Argentina, na cidade de Neuquén, província de Neuquén. Ovitrampas foram instaladas de dezembro/2009 a abril/2010. A distribuição geográfica de Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata e Ps. cingulata aumenta, incluindo novos registros para duas províncias.

  4. Phytotoxicity evaluation and phytochemical analysis of three medicinally important plants from Pakistan. (United States)

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Mirza, Bushra


    This work examines the crude methanolic extracts of three medicinally important plants native to Pakistan for potent phytotoxic activities and important phytochemicals. These plants include Euphorbia wallichii, Bergenia ciliata and Phytolacca latbenia. The phytotoxic effects were checked at 10,000, 1000, and 100 µg/ml against two economically important standard target species, Triticum aestivum (monocot representative) and Brassica napus (dicot representative). The phytotoxicity effects on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling weight were checked. A simple, cost-effective in vitro phytotoxicity assay (that uses petri plates) was used to evaluate the allelopathic properties of crude extracts. At highest concentration, extracts from all the three plants showed phytotoxic activities such that P. latbenia > E. wallichii > B. ciliata. In seedling growth, root length was affected more than shoot length, whereas among the target species B. napus was found to be more sensitive towards extracts when compared with T. aestivum. Phytochemical analysis showed that P. latbenia is rich in saponins and terpenoids, while E. wallichii and B. ciliata are rich in tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. P. latbenia also carries a moderate amount of cardiac glycosides.

  5. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina Host preference of Culicidae (Diptera collected in central Argentina

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    Walter R. Almirón


    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.Com o propósito de estudar a preferência de mosquitos fêmeas por hospedeiros vertebrados, realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais nas cidades de Córdoba e Cosquín (Argentina, durante o período de outubro a abril (primavera-verão, por dois anos consecutivos. Utilizaram-se armadilhas com iscas animais: anfíbios, aves, mamíferos e répteis. Dos espécimes coletados, 92,9% pertenciam ao gênero Culex, 7,0% a Aedes e 0,02% a Psorophora ciliata, única espécie coletada desse gênero. A maior proporçãoo de fêmeas (68,7% foi capturada em armadilhas iscadas com galinhas, seguindo-se em ordem as armadilhas com coelhos (29,9%, com tartarugas (0,8% e com anfíbios (0,05%. Assim, a maioria dos mosquitos foi coletada em armadilhas com hospedeiros homeotermos. Culex

  6. Determination of Leaf Dust Accumulation on Certain Plant Species Grown Alongside National Highway- 22, India

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    Navjot Singh Kaler


    Full Text Available Vehicular traffic is one of the major contributors to accumulate dust on plants grown alongside roads. Plants intercept tons of dust, absorb noise and serve as acoustic screens on busy highways. Vegetation contributes in reducing dust concentration in environment by acting as a sink for air pollutants. Taking this into account, the present study was conducted on National highway- 22 from Parwanoo to Solan, falling in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Specifically, four plant species namely Grewia optiva Drummond ex Burret, Toona ciliata M. Roem, Melia azedarach L. and Woodfordia floribunda (L. Kurz of uniform size, age, spread and common in occurrence on both sides of the highway were selected for the study. Dust accumulation on leaves of selected plants was estimated during three main seasons (Rainy, Winter and Summer of the year. Samples were collected from two horizontal distances (0-5 m and 5-10 m from both sides of the road. Results showed that dust accumulation on the leaves ranged from 0.0083 g m-2 in T. ciliata to 0.0597 g m-2 in G. optiva and followed the descending order G. optiva > W. floribunda > M. azedarach > T. ciliata. Season wisethe examined plant species followed the descending order winter > summer > rainy season. Plants grown at a distance of 0-5 m accumulated higher dust on their leaves as compared to 5-10 m distance from the road. Due to surface characteristics of twigs, bark and foliage of the plants particulate matters are captured by them and remain there for extended time period. From the results of this study, it could be inferred that the air quality in urban/ arid areas can be improved by planting firstly the species G. optiva and W. floribunda along road sides of similar highways to national highway-22.

  7. Low level of genetic variation within Melica transsilvanica populations from the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland and the Pieniny Mts revealed by AFLPs analysis

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    Magdalena Szczepaniak


    Full Text Available Fragmented distribution, the breeding system and effects of genetic drift in small-size populations occurring at edge of the species range play an important role in shaping genetic diversity of such a species. Melica transsilvanica is a plant rare in the flora of Poland, where it reaches the northern limit of its continuous range. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP DNA profiling method was applied to measure genetic diversity among and within populations of M. transsilvanica. Additionally, genetic relationships between M. transsilvanica and Melica ciliata, two closely related species, were explored. A total of 68 plants from 7 populations of M. transsilvanica and 24 plants from 2 populations of M. ciliata, collected in Poland and outside it, were analyzed. Using 294 AFLP fragments from 3 primer combinations, accessions were grouped into two major clusters associating with M. ciliata and M. transsilvanica, respectively. Further, two subclusters, corresponding to the samples collected from the Pieniny Mts and from the Kraków - Częstochowa Upland were clearly distinguished within the M. transsilvanica group. The hierarchical AMOVA exhibited significant genetic distinction between these geographic regions (60.89%, p < 0.001. The obtained results showed that the most genetic diversity resided between the populations of M. transsilvanica (86.03% while considerably lower genetic variation was found within the populations (13.97%, which is consistent with the results reported for self-plants. The low level of AFLP genetic variation of M. transsilvanica can be caused by the geographic isolation of populations, which preserves the dominant self-mating breeding system of the species. Individual populations of M. transsilvanica are characterized by isolated gene pools differing by a small number of loci.

  8. Control de malezas en arroz de temporalcon clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanily 2,4-d

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    Valent\\u00EDn A. Esqueda


    Full Text Available Control de malezas en arroz de temporal con clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D. Se establecieron tres experimentos con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del herbicida clomazone sólo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D en el control de malezas y la toxicidad al arroz cv. Milagro Filipino desarrollado en condiciones de temporal. Los tres experimentos se establecieron en la zona arrocera de Los Naranjos, localizada en el Mpio. de Tres Valles en el estado de Veracruz. Las especies dominantes de malezas fueron: Cyperus iria, Echinochloa colona, Cyperus rotundus, Scleria setuloso- ciliata y Malachra fasciata. El clomazone aplicado en preemergencia, controló eficientemente E. colona en dosis de 0,72 y 0,96 kg i.a./ha, pero tuvo un efecto temporal y limitado sobre S. setuloso-ciliata y no tuvo efecto sobre C. iria y C. rotundus. La mezcla de clomazone + propanil + 2,4-D controló E. colona y C. iria a partir de la dosis de 0,60 + 1,44 + 0,24 kg i.a./ha. Asimismo, tuvo un buen control inicial de C. rotundus, pero su efecto sobre esta especie se perdió entre los 45 y 60 días después de la aplicación y su efecto sobre S. setuloso-ciliata estuvo influenciado por las condiciones de humedad en el terreno, a mayor humedad se tuvo mejor control de esta maleza y viceversa. En todos los casos, los rendimientos de arroz palay obtenidos con los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el clomazone sólo o en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D, fueron estadísticamente semejantes a los obtenidos en los testigos regionales

  9. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

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    Krisler Alveal


    Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?, Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.


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    UK Sahoo


    Full Text Available The allelopathic impact of multiple trees was studied on the composition, density and biomass of herbaceous weeds in home gardens of Mizoram,North-East India. The weed density in the control was significantly (PAleurites fordii>Areca catechu>Azadiratcha indica,Gmelina arborea and Toona ciliata > Tectona grandis. No relationship between the light intensity and nutrient status of the soil beneath the tree species with the under storey weed diversity and density depicts less impact of the growth resources on weed vegetation

  11. (United States)



    Summary The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in examining subjects who visit or live near wooded areas which are infested. PMID:24397008

  12. Patterns of diatom treatment in two coexisting species of filter-feeding freshwater gastropods

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    Sitnikova T.Ya.


    Full Text Available To assess trophic partitioning among sympatric gastropod species in ancient lakes, we quantified diatoms in the guts of two coexistent Baikal gastropod species and tested for differences in species, size, and fracturing of large and small diatoms by taenioglossan radulae. In May 2010, the diatom Synedra acus dominated the littoral phytoplankton and gut contents of Baicalia turriformis and Teratobaikalia ciliata (Baicaliidae, both inhabiting the rocky Baikal littoral. In laboratory experiments, both ctenidial filter-feeding gastropods were fed with two diets of cultivated Synedra acus of different cell sizes: >150 μm and <100 μm. Field and laboratory studies revealed intact diatom cells (often with green chromatophores and fragmented frustules of diatoms <60 μm in the guts of both species. The two baicaliids varied in the number of ingested microalgae. In addition, they exhibited significantly different efficiencies for breaking large diatoms; B. turriformis broke large diatoms into more fragments than T. ciliata. The differences in the utilization of large and small diatoms by gastropods are discussed in terms of the relationships among coexisting species. Small diatom survival is considered from the view of interactions between producers and their consumers in the freshwater food web.

  13. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina

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    Almirón Walter R.


    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.

  14. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach. (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Guilbert, Éric; Lhuillier, Émeline; Murienne, Jerôme


    Lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of phytophagous heteropterans, some of which are important agricultural and forestry pests. They currently comprise around 2500 species distributed worldwide, for which only one mitochondrial genome has been described so far. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal gene segment of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae using a genome skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. Fifty-four additional heteropteran mitogenomes, including the one of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata, were retrieved to allow for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. P. perseae mitochondrial genome was determined to be 15,850 bp long, and presented the typical organisation of insect mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis placed P. perseae as a sister to C. ciliata but did not confirm the monophyly of Miroidae including Tingidae. Our results contradicted widely accepted phylogenetic hypothesis, which highlights the limits of analyses based on mitochondrial data only. Shotgun sequencing approaches should provide substantial improvements in harmonizing mitochondrial and nuclear databases.

  15. [Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico]. (United States)


    Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatopha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sessd ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J. rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we


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    Full Text Available Ammonites collected bed-by-bed by the late K.W. Barthel allow a high biostratigraphic resolution of the succession of the Neuburg Formation (Unterhausen Member into 2 regional Biochronozones (Ciliata Zone, Palmatus Zone and 5 ammonite faunal horizons. The new finds are important for a revision of the taxa described in the monographs of Th. Schneid. The fauna consists of a Submediterranean stock of perisphinctids, together with some Tethyan and Subboreal faunal elements. Especially the co-occurring Tethyan immigrants Volanoceras schwertschlageri, Virgatosimoceras rothpletzi, and Richterella cf. richteri point to a correlation of basal parts of the Neuburg Formation with the Fallauxi Zone. In the younger faunal horizons the Tethyan influx strongly decreases, so that a direct correlation with the Tethyan standard zonation is impossible. Nevertheless, the ammonites of the younger horizons allow a correlation with the Subboreal zonal scheme.

  17. Semisynthetic Modification of Cedrelone and its Antimicrobial Activity

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    P. Malairajana


    Full Text Available Cedrelone was isolated from Toona ciliata heart wood and the compound was modified with various chemical reagents and the resultant product was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectra. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities and the zone of inhibition was ascertained by disc diffusion method. The microorganisms selected for the study was Gram positive organisms such as a Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 9144, b Staphylococcus epidermitis (ATCC 155, c Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, d Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778, e Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 46789 and Gram negative organisms a Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, b Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027. Fungi organism a Candida albicans (ATCC 1091, b Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275. Cedrelone and its derivatives exerted pronounced inhibitory response against all the species of bacterial organism tested, except E. coli. Bromohydroxy cedrelone and Michael adduct showed good antifungal activity.

  18. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

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    Priti KUMARI


    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  19. Caracterização morfológica de minas foliares em espécies de Melastomataceae de Mata Atlântica, PE Morphological characterization of leaf mines in species of Melastomataceae in Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Aretuza B Brito-Ramos


    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a morfologia e a anatomia de folhas íntegras e minadas de cinco espécies de Melastomataceae, ocorrentes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, PE. As minas foram visualizadas em uma ou ambas as faces das folhas, possuindo padrão sinuoso ou retilíneo, distribuídas entre as nervuras ou por toda a lâmina, sendo estas características distintas para cada espécie. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada com estômatos presentes na face abaxial e tricomas dendríticos, multicelulares, estrelados e com mais de cinco ramos, em ambas ou apenas uma das faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e o sistema vascular em forma de arco. As larvas minadoras observadas em Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl. DC., M. albicans (Sw. Triana e Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don consomem o parênquima paliçádico e esponjoso, enquanto as de M. prasina (Sw. DC. e M. ciliata (Rich. DC. se alimentam do conteúdo e das paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas, caracterizando-as como do tipo epidérmica. Entretanto, em M. minutiflora, M. albicans e C. capitellata a epiderme permaneceu intacta formando uma proteção para o minador, enquanto que em M. prasina e M. ciliata a proteção é realizada pelas paredes periclinais externas e cutícula da folha. Tecido de cicatrização foi observado ao longo das minas em M. prasina.This study describes the morphology and anatomy of whole and mined leaves of five species of Melastomataceae native to an Atlantic Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mines can be found on one or both sides of the leaves, with a sinuous or rectilinear pattern, and distributed between the veins or throughout the entire leaf blade. These characteristics are distinct for each species. The leaves, in cross section, have a uniseriate epidermis, stomata on the abaxial surface, and unbranched hairs on both or at least one side. The mesophyll is bifacial and the vascular bundle is semi-circular. The leaf-miner larvae observed in

  20. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

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    Tadeusz Korniak


    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wahizatul Afzan A; Che Salmah M R


    Adult dragonfly communities were dominated by Libellulidae as 29 species were successfully collected from this family in marginal areas of Saleh, Setul and Serdang rivers. Zygopterans Coenagrionidae, Platycnemididae, Calopterygidae were common while Gomphidae and Chlorocyphidae were rather rare. Libellulids Neurothemis fluctuans, Trithemis aurora, Crocothemis servilia, T. festiva and Orthetrum chrysis were widely distributed in shaded, muddy areas. Among the zygopterans, Pseudagrion pruinosumwas the most dominant species. Agriocnemis femina, Ictinogomphus rapax, Cratilla lineata, Lathrecista asiatica, Neurothemis tullia, Tholymis tillarga and Copera ciliata were strictly found at Saleh River implicating their preference for smaller, slow moving and polluted river with floating microphytes and few other surrounding plant species. Neurobasis chinensis and Vestalis gracilis were only found in open, undisturbed, fast flowing waters of Setul and Serdang rivers. Generally the adults perched on marginal vegetation as well as those on the river bank areas.

  2. Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis

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    Sumit Manna


    Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly rever sites of lower Bengal is very usual and this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to the other south Asian countries. The abandoned brick Kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due to tidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim of the present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the community dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem. Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m. Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image and ground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2 contingency/species association table. Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratia caseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangrove associates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. The high importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparum indicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3 species also suggests to help in developing community in stressed environment. Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their community dynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for future afforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

  3. In-situ Protection Management and Conservation Study of Some Medicinal Plants%一些药用植物自然状态下管理和保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan SHER; Z.D.KHAN; A.U.KHAN; Farrukh HUSSAIN


    In-situ study on eleven commercially important species viz;Adiantum capillus-veneris L,Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb,Colchicum luteum Baker,Polygonum amplexicaule D.Den,Cuminum cyminum L,Dioscorea deltoidea Wall Kunth,L Morchella esculenta L,Paeonia emodi Wall ex H Kf,Podophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Chatt & Mukh,Valeriana wallichii DC and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted in four locations viz; Malam (1 400 to 2 000m),Bargin (1 700 to 2 300m),Biakand (1 500 to 2 100m) and Shinko (2 100 to 2 700m).The data was recorded from both protected and unprotected sites of each site.Each site had 3 altitudinal sampling point.The density, herbage coverage and fresh biomass were determined in each locations for every species.All the investigated parameters generally showed an increase of 3 to 6 times over unprotected sites in each locations.Morchella esculenta,Dioscorea deltoidea,Colchicum luteum and Podophyllum hexandrum were absent in all unprotected sites while other species had low values in these sites.The investigated parameters of Colchicum luteum,Bergenia ciliata,Paeonioa emodi,Dioscorea deltoidea and Podophyllum hexandrum generally increased with the increasing elevation.Soil analysis,soil and air temperatures were recorded for each site.The air and soil temperature were slightly higher in open areas than in the protected site and showed decrease with increasing elevation.While the soil fertility was relatively high in protected sites as compared to unprotected area.The study shows that protection promotes the growth, distribution and occurrence of medicinal plants.It is possible with the participation of local communities to conserve these resources.

  4. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

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    Singh, S.


    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  5. Methodology significantly affects genome size estimates: quantitative evidence using bryophytes. (United States)

    Bainard, Jillian D; Fazekas, Aron J; Newmaster, Steven G


    Flow cytometry (FCM) is commonly used to determine plant genome size estimates. Methodology has improved and changed during the past three decades, and researchers are encouraged to optimize protocols for their specific application. However, this step is typically omitted or undescribed in the current plant genome size literature, and this omission could have serious consequences for the genome size estimates obtained. Using four bryophyte species (Brachythecium velutinum, Fissidens taxifolius, Hedwigia ciliata, and Thuidium minutulum), three methodological approaches to the use of FCM in plant genome size estimation were tested. These included nine different buffers (Baranyi's, de Laat's, Galbraith's, General Purpose, LB01, MgSO(4), Otto's, Tris.MgCl(2), and Woody Plant), seven propidium iodide (PI) staining periods (5, 10, 15, 20, 45, 60, and 120 min), and six PI concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 microg ml(-1)). Buffer, staining period and staining concentration all had a statistically significant effect (P = 0.05) on the genome size estimates obtained for all four species. Buffer choice and PI concentration had the greatest effect, altering the 1C-values by as much as 8% and 14%, respectively. As well, the quality of the data varied with the different methodology used. Using the methodology determined to be the most accurate in this study (LB01 buffer and PI staining for 20 min at 150 microg ml(-1)), three new genome size estimates were obtained: B. velutinum: 0.46 pg, H. ciliata: 0.30 pg, and T. minutulum: 0.46 pg. While the peak quality of flow cytometry histograms is important, researchers must consider that changes in methodology can also affect the relative peak positions and therefore the genome size estimates obtained for plants using FCM.

  6. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

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    J. C. Manning


    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  7. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

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    Priyanka Verma


    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  8. Afforestation of degraded grass land

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    Basappa, B.


    The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

  9. Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments (United States)

    Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo


    An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

  10. In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent. (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana


    Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  11. Polychaetes of an artificial reef in the central mediterranean sea (United States)

    Gravina, M. F.; Ardizzone, G. D.; Belluscio, A.


    The development of a polychaete community over five years on a man-made reef was analyzed. The reef was composed of 280 concrete blocks (2 × 2 × 2 m) and located in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) 1.5 miles offshore and 12-14 m deep. Sixty-three species were collected—serpulids, nereids and cirratulids being the most abundant families. Ordination by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique showed three main stages in the colonization process: a pioneer phase, when mainly serpulids ( Pomatoceros triqueter, P. lamarckii, Hydroides pseuduncinata) occurred; a second phase, characterized by mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) dominance and a more differentiated community structure with a lot of new species especially recurring on hard bottom ( Serpula concharum, H. dianthus, Ceratonereis costae); and a third phase, with an alteration of the substratum through soft deposits and the polychaete community characterized by also the occurrence of soft bottom species ( Heteromastus filiformis, Polydora ciliata, Dorvillea rubrovittata). From the trophic point of view, the structure of the community changed from dominance by filter feeders (97%) to a more differentiated situation with abundant detritic feeders ( c. 20%). The rates of immigration and extinction and the colonization curve showed that an actual stable steady-state was not reached.

  12. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

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    Francine Rubin


    Full Text Available The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevation (1 800 m, and relatively high rainfall (406 mm montane grasslands occupy communities dominated by grasses (Merxmuellera disticha, Themeda triandra and woody species (Diospyros austro-africana, Elytropappus rhinocerotis, Euryops annae, Passerina montana. The increasing aridity away from the escarpment edge in a northerly direction is steep, and Montane Karoo dwarf shrublands replace these mesic communities. Species such as Eriocephalus ericoides, Rosenia oppositifolia and Pteronia tricephala dominate. At lower elevation (800 m the precipitation is very low (175 mm and uncertain (coefficient of variation of 78 . The substrata influence the vegetation, with the sandy substrata of the drainage lines supporting more woody taxa (Acacia karroo, Lycium cinereum and grasses (Hyparrhenia hirta, Stipagrostis namaquensis, Cenchrus ciliaris. Moving away from the mesic environment of the riparian zone, rapid desiccation occurs and the most xeric communities are encountered, dominated by Stipagrostis obtusa, S. ciliata and Pent-da incana. This document provides descriptions of the general communities and their associated landscape, lithology and soils.

  13. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong


    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  14. DNA strand-scission by phloroglucinols and lignans from heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. and Justicia plants. (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Ko, Horng-Huey; Lin, Chun-Nan


    Five 2,4,6-prenylated phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones HA (1), HB (2), HC (3), HD (4) and HE (5), were isolated from the heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data analysis. The ability of phloroglucinols, 1-5 and lignans, tuberculatin (8), justicidin A (9), procumbenoside A (10) and ciliatosides A (11) and B (12), isolated from Justicia ciliata and Justicia procumbens, to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using pBR322, a supercoiled, covalently closed circular DNA, and it was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the presence of Cu (II), compounds 3, 8, 10 and 11 caused significant breakage of supercoiled plasmid pBR322. The products were relaxed circles with no detectable linear forms. In the Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage of 3 and selective compound 8, Cu(I) was shown not to be an essential intermediate by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine.

  15. Quantitative Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Different Plant Materials by HPLC

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    Izabela RYCHLINSKA


    Full Text Available A simple, fast method of high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination and quantification of arbutin and hydroquinone in many different raw materials was developed and validated. The optimum conditions for the separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on a LiChro-CARD 125-4 Superspher®100 RP-18 column with the water-methanol (gradient elution mobile phase and recorded at 289 nm. The purities of peaks were verified by PDA analysis of impurities. The results of validation have shown that the HPLC method is stable and accurate for the simultaneous determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in extracts from various plants. The developed method gave a good sensitivity (LOD 1µg/ml for arbutin and 0.49 µg/ml for hydroquinone with linearity R2 >0.9993 (for both. The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 2.53% for intra-day assays and 3.23% for inter-day assay, the accuracy of the recovery test ranged from 98.96% to 106.4%. This method was used in comparative qualitative analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in 16 different raw materials from families Lamiaceae, Ericacaeae, Saxifragaceae, Rosaceae. The content of arbutin in B. ciliata, B. cordifolia and Ledum palustre was examined for the first time.

  16. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India. (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh


    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  17. Cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the teleost heart in vivo. (United States)

    Axelsson, M; Ehrenström, F; Nilsson, S


    The tonical cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the heart rate was investigated in vivo in seven species of marine teleosts (pollack, Pollachius pollachius; cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus; ballan wrasse, Labrus berggylta; five-bearded rockling, Ciliata mustela; tadpole fish, Raniceps raninus; eel-pout, Zoarces viviparus and short-spined sea scorpion, Myoxocephalus scor pius) during rest and, in two of the species (P. pollachius and L. mixtus), also during moderate swimming exercise in a Blazka-type swim tunnel. Ventral aortic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded via a catheter implanted in an afferent branchial artery, and the influence of the cholinergic and adrenergic tonus on the heart rate was assessed by injection of atropine and sotalol respectively. During rest the adrenergic tonus was higher than the cholinergic tonus in all species except L. berggylta, where the reverse was true. In P. pollachius and L. mixtus, exercise appeared to produce a lowering of the cholinergic tonus on the heart and, possibly, a slight increase of the adrenergic tonus. The nature of the adrenergic tonus (humoral or neural) is not clear, but the low plasma concentrations of catecholamines both during rest and exercise could be interpreted in favour of a mainly neural adrenergic tonus on the teleost heart. These experiments are compatible with the view that both a cholinergic inhibitory tonus and an adrenergic excitatory tonus are general features in the control of the teleost heart in vivo, both at rest and during moderate swimming exercise.

  18. Adaptive response of trivial activated sludge towards toxic effect of oNP, PCP and combination oNP/PCP

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    Topalova, Y.; Dimkov, R. (Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Faculty of Biology); Kozuharov, D. (Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (Bulgaria))


    The reaction of the real aerobic activated sludge taken from the Sofia Waste Water Treatment Plant (SWWTP) and treated with the xenobiotics pentachlorphenol (PCP) (0.16 mMol), ortho-nitrophenol (oNP) (0.58 mMol) and with a combination of PCP (0.08 mMol), oNP (0.29 mMol) has been investigated in a model detoxification process. The adaptive changes are studied in the microbial structure level and at the level of changes in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the macro-organisms in the activated sludge (consuments of 1 and 2 level). The presence of several different taxonomic groups has been shown by other researchers to be essential in the detoxification process. The quantitative changes in these taxonomic and physiological groups of micro-organisms are studied. The number of micro-organisms from Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and the bacteria from the xenobiotic-catabolizing complex considerably increased with the individual and the combined effect of the xenobiotics oNP, PCP and oNP PCP. At the same time the toxic shock leads to a remarkable reduction of NH[sub 3] releasing, nitrifying bacteria and those from family Enterobacteriaceae. It is ascertained that the number of Ciliata, Flagellata apochromata, Oligochaeta and Rotatoria is strongly decreased in the series of samples treated with xenobiotics. The leading role of micro-organisms in the real detoxification of hazardous pollutants was experimentally confirmed by research.

  19. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa

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    J. C. Manning


    Full Text Available Three new species of Iridaceae are described from the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Escarpments.  Ixia amethystina. a member of section Dichone, is endemic to the edge of the Roggeveld Escarpment. It shares an unusual, inclined spike that is nodding in bud with  I. trifolia but is distinguished by its blackish purple (not yellow anthers, narrower leaves 1.5-2.0 mm wide, medium-textured corm tunics that form a distinct neck at the base of the stem, and short style branches 2.0-2.5 mm long.Moraea marginata. another Roggeveld endemic, is a member of section Polvanthes and florally similar to M. fistulosa and M. monticola but differs in its linear, channelled leaves 5-7 mm wide, with unusual, thickened margins. Romulea singularis. from the edge of the Kobee River Valley in the Bokkeveld Mountains, is a member of section  Ciliatae. It is unique in the genus in its narrowly funnel-shaped, mauve to purple flowers with slender perianth tube 10-11 mm long, and unusually long filaments, 8-9 mm long, inserted in the lower half of the tube.

  20. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland (United States)

    Janke, Klaus


    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  1. Seasonal, annual, and spatial variation in the development of hard bottom communities (United States)

    Harms, J.; Anger, K.


    The development of hard bottom communities has been studied on test panels in Helgoland Harbour (German Bight) since 1977. Settlement and growth of epibenthic species was examined monthly. Natural variation in different seasons, years, and at three stations (the latter, only in 1981 and 1982) was investigated. At Station A (Binnenhafen), barnacles (Balanus crenatus) and polychaetes (Polydora ciliata) were always among the first settlers in spring. They were followed by other barnacles (Elminius modestus, Balanus improvisus) and by colonial ascidians (Botryllus schlosseri). The latter species often dominated from August to October, and tended to overgrow the barnacle populations. E. modestus showed strong annual variation, probably due to extremely low winter temperatures: after the cold winter of 1978/79, its populations were less dense than in previous years. In 1981 they recovered, and settlement increased again, but the cold winter 1981/82 damaged the population again. At Station B (Nordosthafen), mussels (Mytilus edulis) soon covered barnacles and empty space. By October they had monopolized the fouling community. At Station C (Südhafen), barnacle settlement in spring was followed by an overgrowth of hydrozoans ( Laomedea spec.). In summer, ascidians ( Ciona intestinalis and Ascidiella aspersa) settled and began to dominate. Barnacles were weaker in the competition for space as opposed to later colonizers at all three stations.

  2. Seasonal changes in Sphagnum peatland testate amoeba communities along a hydrological gradient. (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Słowińska, Sandra; Słowiński, Michał; Muszak, Witold; Lamentowicz, Mariusz


    Testate amoebae are an abundant and functionally important group of protists in peatlands, but little is known about the seasonal patterns of their communities. We investigated the relationships between testate amoeba diversity and community structure and water table depth and light conditions (shading vs. insolation) in a Sphagnum peatland in Northern Poland (Linje mire) in spring and summer 2010. We monitored the water table at five sites across the peatland and collected Sphagnum samples in lawn and hummock micro-sites around each piezometer, in spring (3 May) and mid-summer (6 August) 2010. Water table differed significantly between micro-sites and seasons (Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.001). The community structure of testate amoebae differed significantly between spring and summer in both hummock and lawn micro-sites. We recorded a small, but significant drop in Shannon diversity, between spring and summer (1.76 vs. 1.72). Strongest correlations were found between testate amoeba communities and water table lowering and light conditions. The relative abundance of mixotrophic species Hyalosphenia papilio, Archerella flavum and of Euglypha ciliata was higher in the summer.


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    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein


    Full Text Available Some scientific contributions have used near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and reliable tool for characterizing engineered wood products. However, to our knowledge, there are no published papers that used this technique in order to evaluate wood-cement panels. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the ability of NIR spectroscopy to estimate physical and mechanical properties in wood-cement panels. The wood-cement panels were produced using Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, Pinus taeda, and Toona ciliata woods with Portland cement under different manufacturing conditions. Wood-cement panels were characterized by traditional methods, and Partial Least Squares regressions were used to build calibrations. Our cross-validated models for MOR, IB, and TS24h of the panels yielded good coefficients of determination (0.80, 0.82, and 0.91, respectively. Based on the significant absorption bands and regression coefficients of the PLS models, our results indicate that cellulose and aromatic groups in lignin are components that play an important role in the calibrations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During the years 2001 and 2002 were parasitologically examined 16 species of fishes (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama danubii, Alburnus alburnus, Gobio spp., Leuciscus cephalus, Tinca tinca, Pseudorasbora parva, Esox lucius, Silurus glanis, Stizostedion lucioperca, Perca fluviatilis, Lepomis gibbosus, Acipenser ruthenus. The fish came from rivers (Danube, Bega, Timis, Barzava, Nera and reservoirs (Surduc, Pischia, Sacosu Turcesc, Ghiroda,Ineu and irrigation chanell of Giroc-Chisoda. It has been performed the microscopical examination of gills and skin, as well as the macroscopical and stereomicroscopical examination of organs and muscles, being identified 45 species of parasites as follows:•Protozoa: 8 species (4 species of Myxozoa and 4 species of Ciliata. •Monogena: 5 species•Trematoda: 11 species•Cestoda: 8 species•Nematoda: 7 species•Acanthocephala: 4species•Anellida (Hirudina: 2 species•Crustacea: 5 species (Copepoda: 4 species, Branchiura:1 specia.The variety of parasites from the Banat fishes it is related with the diversity of the regional water conditions.

  5. Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils. (United States)

    Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S


    The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response.

  6. Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species. (United States)

    Perez, Julian; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Hilje, Luko; Tripepi, Robert R; Aguilar, Maria E; Mesen, Francisco


    The susceptible species Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species Khaya senegalensis and Toona ciliata. Six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to H. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. Two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with H. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. Damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. Larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. In both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (P grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar.

  7. The Ecology of Al-Samaliah Island, U.A.E. (United States)

    Zahran, M. A.; Al-Ansari, F. M.


    Al-Samaliah Island is one of the inshore islands of U.A.E. located at about 12 km north-east of Abu Dhabi in the Arabian Gulf. It has a flat undulating surface with neither sand dunes nor rocky hills. Its sandy soil is generally salt-affected with variable percentages of salts. The vegetation of Al-Samaliah Island is essentially halophytic and may be categorized as: seagrasses, mangal and littoral saltmarsh types. The main species include: Cymodocea ciliata, Halophila spp. and Halodula univervis (seagrasses), some algae, Avicennia marina (mangrove), Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, and Suaeda vermiculata (salt marsh). Other halophytes commonly present are: Anabasis setifera, Halocnemum strobilaeum, Halopeplis perfoliata, Salsola imbricata and Zygophyllum gatarense in addition to two annuals: Schangenia aegyptiaca and Zygophyllum simplex. Phoenix dactylifera is cultivated in local areas covered with sandy sheets. Between the date palm trees there is a thin growth of Cyperus conglomeratus. Some plant species have been analysed chemically to determine their main constituents. The relationships between the environmental factors and the plant life of the islands are discussed.

  8. Protozoa in a stressed area of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast of Damietta, Egypt

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    Mohamed Moussa Dorgham


    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  9. Upwelling dynamics in the Baltic Sea studied by a combined SAR/infrared satellite data and circulation model analysis

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    Evgenia Gurova


    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  10. Macrobenthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary (Portugal) (United States)

    Amaral, Maria José; Costa, Maria Helena


    A 1-year study on the evolution of benthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary was carried out in order to evaluate its density, biomass and diversity, and to understand its trophic-dynamic structure under harsh environmental conditions. Physical and chemical parameters of the water column and sediments were also studied. Salinity and redox potential fluctuated sharply. Of eighteen taxa observed, a few occurred in significant numbers Chironomus salinarius (99 %) at crystallisation ponds where Artemia is present in the water column at salinities ranging from 23 to 249 g .L -1, Hydrobia (95 %) at evaporation pond (salinities between 29 and 112 g .L -1), while the reservoir, with salinities from 22 to 45 g .L -1, showed higher diversity nevertheless lower than in the estuary itself. It is colonised all year by Abra ovata, Cerastoderma glaucum, Hedistes diversicolor, Capitella sp., Microspio mecznikowianus, Mellina palmata, Polydora ciliata, Capitellidae and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa. The diversity of macrobenthic communities decreases with increasing salinity. Among trophic dynamic groups, surface detritivores burrowers, which are present at 85 % of the samples, are the dominant group at evaporation and crystallisation ponds and appears as an isolated group linked to organic matter of sediments and nutrients.

  11. Seasonal variation of Hemiptera community of a temple pond of Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India

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    K. Das


    Full Text Available The study records seven families, 11 genera and 14 species of hemipteran insect community in different seasons in a temple pond near Silchar, Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India. The pond is very rich in macrophytes like Nelumbo nucifera (Water Lotus, Hygrorhiza aristata (Indian Lotus, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda Grass, Philotria sp. etc. The hemipteran families recorded in the system were Corixidae, Gerridae, Aphididae, Mesoveliidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae and Belostomatidae. The species were Micronecta haliploides, Micronecta (Basileonecta scutellaris scutellaris (Stål (Corixidae; Neogerris parvula (Stål, Limnogonus nitidus (Mayr, Tenagogerris sp., Rhagadotarsus sp. (Gerridae; Enithares ciliata (Fabricius, Anisops lundbladiana Landsbury, (Notonectidae; Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius and Diplonychus annulatus (Fabricius (Belostomatidae, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (Linnaeus (Aphididae, Ranatra elongata (Fabricius, Ranatra varipes varipes (Stål (Nepidae and Mesovelia vittigera Horváth (Mesoveliidae. The highest population of Hemiptera was recorded during the post-monsoon followed by the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. The lowest was recorded in the winter. Shannon Weiner diversity index (H/ and evenness index (J/ showed the highest diversity and evenness during the post monsoon period. Berger Parker index of dominance (d was found highest in winter. In winter both diversity and density were the lowest. The study revealed the presence of four dominant species and three sub-dominant species in the pond. Insect diversity did not show any significant relationship with the environmental variables.

  12. Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India

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    Harsh SINGH


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservation in the Indian Himalayan of Kumaon region, and to this, systematic field surveys were conducted during 2007-2010 covering all four seasons viz., summer, rainy, winter and spring. A total of 64 species in 58 genera under 47 families were identified, of which 35 species are flowering plants and 29 species are non-flowering plants. The dominant family was Parmeliaceae of lichen which recorded the maximum 6 species. 35 plant species under 32 genera and 23 families are used as an ethno-medicinal and the information about the ethno-medicinal plants was gathered from knowledgeable elderly local peoples of the area. Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Origanum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, etc. are highly exploited species and need to be conserved.

  13. 造纸废水处理过程中浮游动物的生态演替规律%Ecological succession of zooplankton in the treating process of paper-making wastewater.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜娜; 王海磊; 陈建军; 刘国生



  14. Notes on some rust fungi from southern China%中国南部锈菌新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄剑云; 魏淑霞


    Ravenelia millettiae var. major var. nov. on Millettia heterocarpa and M. reticulata is described. Atelocauda ormosiae com. nov. (≡Uromyces ormosiae) on Ormosia pinnata and O. semicastrata is proposed. Hapalophragmium setulosum on Millettia pachyloba, Nyssopsora trevesiae on Euaraliopsis ciliata, Ravenelia baumiana on Cassia surattensis, and Ravenelia clemensae on Albizia procera are newly reported from China.%描述了崖豆藤伞锈菌大头变种(新变种)Ravenelia millettiae Var.major var.nov..建立了新组合红豆细柄锈菌Atelocaudaormosiae corn.nov.(≡Uromyces ormosiae).报道了四个中国新记录:海南崖豆藤Millettiapachyloba上的刚刺品字锈菌Hapalophragmium semlosum、假通草Euaraliopsis ciliata上的刺通草花孢锈菌Nyssopsora trevesiae、黄槐决明Cassia 锈菌Hapalophragmium semlosum、假通草Euaraliopsis ciliata上的刺通草花孢锈菌Nyssopsora trevesiae、黄槐决明Cassia surattensis上的鲍姆伞锈菌Ravenelia baumiana和黄豆树Albiziaprocera上的克莱门斯伞锈菌Ravenelia clemensae.

  15. Genetic Variation in Growth Traits of Toonaciliata Families in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The height and diameter at breast height were assessed for 173 Toona ciliata families at age 18 months. Analysis of varianceshowed that there were highly significant differences on height and diameter at breast height at Xinhui with 4.60 to 15.08 of Fvalue, indicating the family and replicate could affect the growth. The significant differences were also found on height anddiameter at breast height among provennances and replicates, however there was no significant differences on diameter at breastheight among families at Liangping, indicating the nearly growth speed on diameter at breast height. The coefficient of geneticvariation of height and diameter at breast height were 42.19% and 44.89% at Xinhui while those were 42.10% and 44.23% atLiangping. Heritabilities were were 0.88 for height, 0.90 for diameter at breast height at Xinhui and 0.97 for height, 0.37 fordiameter at breast height at Liangping. Family No. 169, 143, 154, 149 and 153 had significantly slowest growth whereas familyNo. 8, 1, 4, 116 and 39 were the higher growing at Xinhui. Family No. 134, 11, 86, 121 and 43 had significantly slowest growthwhereas family No. 123, 24, 89, 105 and 51 were the higher growing on height at Liangping. Furthermore, the mean values ofheight were nearly in two sites, however the diameter at breast height at Xinhui were bigger than Lianping probably due to theinsect pest.

  16. The genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Peruvian Amazonia, with description of sixteen new species and notes on local species richness. (United States)

    Hippa, Heikki; Kurina, Olavi; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E


    A comprehensive study of material of the worldwide fungus gnat genus Manota Williston, sampled from the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve in Peruvian Amazonia, was conducted. The following 16 species are described as new: M. aligera sp. n., M. aristoseta sp. n., M. calva sp. n., M. ciliata sp. n., M. exigua sp. n., M. digitata sp. n., M. flabellata sp. n., M. iquitosensis sp. n., M. limulata sp. n., M. micella sp. n., M. minutula sp. n., M. nuda sp. n., M. parvula sp. n., M. pauloides sp. n., M. pustulosa sp. n. and M. serrulata sp. n. In addition, the following 16 species are recorded: M. acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. acutistylus Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. aristata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. bisulca Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. iota Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. papillosa Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. paula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. penicillata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 and M. virgata Hippa & Kurina, 2013. Altogether 67 species of Manota are now known from the Neotropical region.

  17. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae) (United States)

    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.


    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  18. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

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    Bruno Peres Benatti


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  19. Influence of Corythucha ciliate hazards on photosynthesis of two types of Platanus acerifolia%方翅网蝽对两种类型悬铃木光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德斌; 刘桂华; 唐燕平; 杨春材; 张栋


    于2010年4-8月通过对两种不同类型悬铃木的叶片净光合速率、叶绿素含量和方翅网蝽危害程度进行了测定,并运用多元逐步回归和通径分析方法分析了光合作用与环境因子之间的相互关系.结果表明,虫口密度与叶绿素含量呈负相关关系,且不同类型悬铃木间叶绿素含量差异显著;方翅网蝽危害使叶绿素含量减少是影响光合作用的最直接和最重要的原因.生长季节各月所选典型天气下的Pn大小顺序表现为7月>8月>6月>5月>4月;其中4、5月悬铃木净光合速率(Pn)日变化呈现"单峰"曲线,经分析发现大气温度、光合有效辐射、气孔导度是影响Pn变化的主要因子;6-8月Pn日变化呈现"双峰"曲线,环境因子大气水汽压差、相对湿度和胞间CO2浓度成为主要影响因子.由此可见,悬铃木生长季节光合作用存在较大差异,同时各环境因子对光合作用的影响及影响程度也各不相同.%From April to August in 2010, the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of the net photosynthesis rate, the chlorophyll content and the degree of Corythucha ciliata hazards in two types of Platanus acerifolia were determined and the relationships between the dynamics and environmental factors were analyzed by the stepwise multiple regression and the path analysis. The results showed there was a negative relationship between the insect density and the chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll content was remarkably different between the two types of P. acerifolia. The reluction of chlorophyll content in the leaves resulted from C. ciliata hazards was the most directly and the most important reason for affecting the photosynthesis. The daily mean net photosynthesis rate (Pn) for each month was in the order of July > August > June > May > April.The diurnal change of Pn was a "one peak" curve in April and in May respectively, while it was a "two peaks" pattern in June to August. The dynamics of Pn was

  20. Atrazine degradation by aerobic microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet flag (Acorus calamus L.). (United States)

    Marecik, Roman; Króliczak, Paweł; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Białas, Wojciech; Olejnik, Anna; Cyplik, Paweł


    In presented study the capability of microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet flag (Acorus calamus) to the atrazine degradation was assessed. Following isolation of the microorganisms counts of psychrophilic bacteria, mesophilic bacteria and fungi were determined. Isolated microorganisms were screened in terms of their ability to decompose a triazine herbicide, atrazine. Our results demonstrate that within the rhizosphere of sweet flag there were 3.8x10(7) cfu of psychrophilic bacteria, 1.8x10(7) cfu of mesophilic bacteria, and 6x10(5) cfu of fungi per 1 g of dry root mass. These microorganisms were represented by more than 20 different strains, and at the first step these strains were grown for 5 days in the presence of atrazine at a concentration of 5 mg/l. In terms of the effect of this trial culture, the bacteria reduced the level of atrazine by an average of about 2-20%, but the average level of reduction by fungi was in the range 18-60%. The most active strains involved in atrazine reduction were then selected and identified. These strains were classified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Rahnella aquatilis (three strains), Umbelopsis isabellina, Volutella ciliata and Botrytis cinerea. Culturing of the microorganisms for a longer time resulted in high atrazine degradation level. The highest degradation level was observed at atrazine concentrations of 5 mg/l for S. maltophilia (83.5% after 15 days of culture) and for Botrytis sp. (82% after 21 days of culture). Our results indicate that microorganisms of the sweet flag rhizosphere can play an important role in the bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated sites.

  1. Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts? (United States)

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María


    Background and Aims In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Key Results Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Conclusions Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence

  2. Estudo taxonômico de Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae

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    Ronaldo Toma


    Full Text Available Taxonomic study of Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae. The genus Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is redescribed. Two genera are considered as its junior synonyms: Echinomasicera Townsend, 1915 syn. nov. and Parachaetopsis Blanchard, 1959 syn. nov. Thirty two especies are treated, as follows: 18 described as new, Leschenaultia aldrichi, sp. nov. (Brazil, Santa Catarina, L. arnaudi sp. nov. (Haiti, La Salle, L. bergenstammi sp. nov. (Peru, San Martin, L. bessi sp. nov. (Brazil, Santa Catarina, L. bigoti sp. nov. (Peru, Huanuco, L. blanchardi sp. nov. (Equador, Cuenca, L. braueri sp. nov. (Brazil, Mato Grosso, L. brooksi sp. nov. (Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, L. coquilletti sp. nov. (Brazil, Santa Catarina; L. cortesi sp. nov. (Venezuela, Maracay, L. currani sp. nov. (Brazil, São Paulo, L. loewi sp. nov. (Mexico, Vera Cruz, L. macquarti sp. nov. (U. S. A., Arizona, L. reinhardi sp. nov. (Canada, Quebec, L. sabroskyi sp. nov. from (U. S. A., California, L. schineri sp. nov. (U. S. A., California, L. thompsoni sp. nov. (Mexico, Mexico City, L. townsendi sp. nov. (Mexico, Puebla, and 14 known species, for these, diagnoses are given: L. adusta (Loew, 1872; L. americana (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893; L. bicolor (Macquart, 1846 = L. fusca (Townsend, 1916 syn. nov.; = Parachaetopsis proseni Blanchard, 1959 syn. nov.; L. ciliata (Macquart, 1848; L. exul (Townsend, 1892; L. fulvipes (Bigot, 1887; L. grossa Brooks, 1947; L. halisidotae Brooks, 1947; L. hospita Reinhard, 1952; L. hystrix (Townsend, 1915 comb. nov., L. jurinioides (Townsend, 1895; L. leucophrys (Wiedemann, 1830 = Leschenaultia latifrons (Walker, 1852 syn. nov. = Parachaeta nigricalyptrata (Macquart, 1855 syn. nov.; L. montagna (Townsend, 1912; L. nuda Thompson, 1963. One species was not examined, Leschenaultia nigrisquamis (Townsend, 1892, and two were not recognized, L. trichopsis (Bigot, 1887 and L. hirta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. Keys for Nearctic and Neotropical species

  3. Effect of exotic species Mytilopsis sallei on macrozoobenthos in the Maluan Bay, Xiamen in China%外来物种沙筛贝对厦门马銮湾大型底栖动物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡立哲; 高阳; 刘炜明; 林秀春; 周细平; 金亮; 杨丽; 曾国寿


    沙筛贝(Mytilopsis sallei)属于软体动物门(Mollusca)双壳纲(Bivalvia)帘蛤目(Veneroida)饰贝科(Dreissenidae),也称萨氏仿贻贝.20世纪90年代初作为鱼虾饵料被引到厦门马銮湾,逐渐成为附着生物的优势种,严重影响贝类养殖.在厦门马銮湾水域设计挂板实验和采集沉积物中大型底栖动物,获得了外来物种沙筛贝与其他大型底栖动物的时空分布数据.SPSS统计软件回归分析表明,沙筛贝与网纹藤壶(Balanus reticulatus)在挂板的垂直分布上呈负相关,沙筛贝高密度(大于105个/m2)时能导致网纹藤壶死亡,其主要原因是沙筛贝附着在网纹藤壶壳壁上,抢夺网纹藤壶食物而导致其饿死.无论是在挂板上还是在沉积物中,小头虫(Capitella capitata)、凿贝才女虫(Polydora ciliata)的数量有随沙筛贝数量增加而增加的趋势,这是因为成团的沙筛贝有利于小头虫和凿贝才女虫的栖息.

  4. A revision of Miobantia Giglio-Tos, 1917 (Mantodea: Thespidae, Miobantiinae), with molecular association of dimorphic sexes and immature stages. (United States)

    Scherrer, Marcus V


    The Neotropical praying mantis genus Miobantia Giglio-Tos, 1917 currently includes six species with a complex taxonomic history. Although frequently found in the atlantic forest of Brazil, little is known about these species. Several obstacles make it difficult identifying these mantids, including high levels of sexual dimorphism and both sexes known only for one of the six currently known species. The taxonomic boundaries among the species of Miobantia are proposed in this work, through a cladistic analysis using 99 morphological characters, and the analysis of sequence variation of approximately 700 bp of the mithocondrial gene COI for association of dimorphic sexes and nymphs. Additionally, an investigation of intraspecific variation is conducted based on a large number of specimens of M. fuscata (Giglio-Tos) in oder to choose the most relevant features for the separation of the species to be used in taxonomic descriptions and identification keys. The male of M. aptera Giglio-Tos, and the females of M. ciliata (Stål) and M. fuscata are described for the first time, and redescription of the males of these and the female of M. aptera, are provided based on additional data. Miobantia nebulosa (Giglio-Tos) is herein redescribed (male genitalia included) and proposed as a junior synonym of M. rustica (Fabr.). Additionally, four new species are here described, totaling nine species for the genus: M. immanis n. sp. (Espírito Santo, Brazil), M. arctissima n. sp. (Espírito Santo, Brazil), M. sulista n. sp. (Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; San Bernardino, Paraguay), and M. nordestina n. sp. (Bahia, Brazil); both sexes of all new species are described, except for M. arctissima, which remain known by males only. Identification keys and figures of diagnostic features are provided for both males and females of all valid species. The species distribution is mapped according to literature data and 50 new records.

  5. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

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    Zeiss, Arnold


    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  6. Biodiversity and community structural characteristics of macrobenthos in the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; LIN Heshan; HE Xuebao; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; LI Rongguan; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; JIANG Jinxiang


    Field sampling of the macrobenthos from 23 stations in the Chukchi Sea was conducted during the 4th CHI-NARE (Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions, July-August, 2010). We identified a total of 140 species of macrozoobenthos belonging to nine phyla, which were dominated by polychaetes (66), crustaceans (30), and mollusks (25), followed by echinoderms (9) and others (ten others, including four cnidarians, one oli-gochaete, one sipuncula, one priapulida, two bryozoans, and one urochordata). The dominant species were Aphelochaeta pacifica, Heteromastus filiformis, Nephtys ciliata, Nephtys caeca, Scoletoma fragilis, Golfingia margaritacea, Nuculana pernula, Macoma calcarea, Ennucula tenuis, Macoma inquinata, Musculus discors, Echinarachnius parma, and Ophiura sarsii, so there were more cold-eurythermal boreal immigrants than truly Arctic species (endemics). The average density and biomass (mean ± SD across all stations) of the total macrozoobenthos were (916 ± 907) ind/m2 and (902.9 ± 1 227.7) g/m2 (wet weight), respectively. Relatively high density and biomass were observed in the samples from the northeastern and southern Chukchi Sea. The spatial variation of benthic communities in the study sea area was relatively large;this spatial heteroge-neity has led to high diversity and a patchy distribution pattern in the community structure. Compared to the 1st CHINARE ( July-August, 1999), this investigation revealed different degrees of decreases in the aver-age taxa numbers and the average density, abundance, and biodiversity in the area over the recent decade, which might be associated with global warming, human activities, and sea ice variations.

  7. Potential of four mosses as aquarium plants-deduced from their photosynthetic parameters in water%基于光合参数探讨四种藓类作水族箱植物的应用潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申琳; 张泽悠; 夏乔莉; 郭水良


    水生藓类植物适宜作为水簇箱植物,许多半水生藓类植物同样能够生长于水体环境中.中国东部地区的水生藓类植物种类不多,陆生藓类植物能否应用于水族箱中?为了回答这一问题,需要阐明陆生藓类植物对水体环境的适应能力.该研究测定了匐枝青藓(Brachythecium procumbens ),弯叶灰藓(Hypnum hamulosum )、白发藓(Leucobryum glaucum)和虎尾藓(Hedwigia ciliata)在与它们的自然生境相似条件下以及沉水环境下的光合参数,并应用直角双曲线模型拟合了它们的光-光合响应曲线.结果表明:这四种藓类植物在最大净光合速率(Pn)、光饱和点(LSP )和光补偿点(LCP )上存在很大差异.它们的最大净光合速率、光饱和点和光补偿点的变异范围分别为122.575~19.099μmol CO2•kg-1 DW•s-1、1166.00~670.030μmol•m-2•s-1和85.000~5.3μmol•m-2•s-1.在沉水环境中生长30 d后,匐枝青藓、弯叶灰藓和白发藓的最大净光合速率分别是对照的110.78%、80.84%和109.63%,说明在实验周期里这三种藓类植物能够在水体环境中生存,而虎尾藓在水体中浸泡20 d后,其最大净光合速率仅为对照的5.25%,反映出该种植物并不适应水体环境.综上可知,四种藓类植物的光合速率与其形态结构和原生境条件有很大的关系,虽然匐枝青藓、弯叶灰藓和白发藓主要分布于陆生环境,但作为水族箱植物也具有一定的应用潜力.%Aquatic mosses could be used as aquarium plants,many semi-aquatic mosses are also able to grow in aquar-ia.In eastern China,there are few aquatic mosses.Is it possible to use some terrestrial mosses in aquaria? In order to answer the question,we elucidated the adaptability of focal terrestrial mosses to water environment.In the present work,we measured the photosynthetic parameters of four terrestrial mosses including Brachythecium procumbens, Hypnum

  8. Análise florística e estrutural de uma floresta em diferentes estágios sucessionais no município de Castanhal, Pará Floristic composition and structure of a forest in different successional stages in Castanhal, Pará

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    Roberta de Fátima Rodrigues Coelho


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sucessão florestal pela análise florística e estrutural de floresta em três estágios sucessionais (4, 8 e 12 anos, localizadas no município de Castanhal-PA. Consideraram-se duas classes de DAP: Classe I (DAP>1cm e classe II (DAPThe objective of this study is to understand secondary forest succession through florisitc and structural analysis of a forest in three successional stages (4, 8 and 12 years located in Castanhal in the state of Pará. This study considers wood species divided into two DBH classes: class I (DBH>1cm and class II (DBH<1cm. Class I individuals were measured in twelve 10m x 10m plots in the 12-year-old successional forest, and in four 10 x 10 m plots in the 4 and 8-year-old secondary forest stands. Class II individuals were measured in 48 subplots of 1m x 1m in the 12-year-old forest stand, and in 16 subplots in the 4 and 8-year-old forest stands. In Class I, 18, 30 and 73 species were identified; and were found 12, 18 and 21 individuals/ha in the 4, 8 and 12-year-old forests, respectively. In class II, 17, 21 and 62 species were identified; and were found 50, 26 and 47 individuals/m² in the 4, 8 and 12-year-old forests, respectively. For class I, Lacistema pubescens, Vismia guianensis and Myrcia sylvatica demonstrated the greatest abundance and relative dominance. In class II, Lacistema pubescens, Vismia guianensis, Miconia ciliata, Myrcia bracteata and Banara guianensis also displayed an elevated number of individuals. Myrcia sylvatica presented the greatest abundance in the three successional stages. Similarity among plots was approximately 60% for class I and 42% for class II. The results showed the forest with three stages of successional development: initiation phase (4 years, exclusion phase (8 years, and the beginning of the understory reinitiation phase (12 years.


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    E. G. Cheremnykh


    Full Text Available Complement system is an important component of innate immunity, providing primary protection against pathogens invading the body. In addition, it was shown that the complement system is associated with many diseases, not only autoimmune and infectious, but also mental disorders. In this regard, it is necessary to develop affordable and fast method of measuring activity of the complement system in real-time mode. We present a new semi-automated method for assessment of serum complement activity. The assay is based on cytolytic action of complement system upon the ciliate organism Tetrahymena pyriformis. This method consists in repeated counting of live Tetrahymena motile cells by means of specially developed Biolat device, which consists of two video cameras, light sources, and movable round plate. The plate has two rows of holes. The device also includes microprocessor control unit based on AutoCiliata software, intended for control of operation module and counting the surviving cell. The calculations are based on fixation of two sequential video-frames, with subsequent software image processing. Cell death events were observed upon incubation in triethanolamine (TEA buffer containing 5% of blood serum. We have also compared complement activity in different buffers, i.e., standard medium for culturing of ciliates, Veronal-Medinalum buffer, and the TEA buffer. TEA buffer was found superior to the Veronal buffer when applied in the test system. The time of cell death in the TEA-buffered medium containing 5% serum was < 15 minutes for all the sera studied. The parameters denoting serum complement activity were as follows: a half-life time for the moving cells (TLD50, and a similar value for 100% cell inactivation (1/TLD50, functional activity of the complement system, ACS. The sensitivity of this assay was calculated from dependencies between TLD50 and ACS, and actual serum concentrations. We have suggested an opportunity for evaluation of an


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    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira


    Full Text Available The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar, originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown from 6 cm length apical, middle and basal mini-cutting positions of the sprouts of the mini-strains - from seminal origin - and the initial growth of cuttings. It was established amulti-clone mini-garden containing a total of 284 mini-strains. After cutting off the sprouts of the seedlings - to originate the mini-strains - the mini-cuttings from the above different positions were collected. At the lifting time of the rooting sector, dry mass weight of shoot and root, length, diameter, number of adventitious roots and survival data were collected. The height and diameter were monitored fortnightly, starting from 80 days after the staking of the mini-cuttings. At the end of the production cycle, the dry mass weight of shoot, the root number, the diameter and the length of root cuttings were evaluated. Thirty percent of the cuttings were transplanted to pots of 3.8 L, in the open air where the height and basal diameter, the dry mass of shoot, the leaves and the roots were measured 60 days after the transplanting. Cuttings originated from the basal mini-cuttings at the end of the lifting time of the rooting sector, showed the highest height and diameter, however no difference was pointed out regarding to the basal diameter of cuttings originated from the middle position. There were no differences related to the shoot dry mass and the adventitious root number, the dry mass weight, the total length and the diameter of the adventitious roots of cuttings in relation to the mini-cutting positions in the

  11. Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Miller, T L; Adlard, R D


    A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma

  12. Effect of Close-to-Nature management on the natural regeneration and species diversity in a masson pine plantation%马尾松人工林近自然化改造对植物自然更新及物种多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗应华; 孙冬婧; 林建勇; 郭文福; 卢立华; 温远光


    中国人工林面积居世界第一位,而马尾松是中国人工林面积较大的树种之一,广泛分布于中国的亚热带区域.马尾松适应能力强,耐干旱、瘠薄,是南方低山丘陵区群落演替的先锋树种,也是荒山绿化造林的主要树种,马尾松人工林对生态防护、生态治理有着重大的意义.但是,绝大部分马尾松人工林为人工纯林,生态系统比较脆弱,生态服务功能较差.人工林的近自然改造对于增加林地生物多样性,提升人工林的生态服务功能具有重要意义.2005年,对中国林业科学院热带林业试验中心1993年造林的马尾松人工林进行4种不同强度(50%、40%、30%、20%)间伐后,套种大叶栎(Castan加psis fissa、米老排(Mytilarialaosensis)、润楠(Machilus pingii)、红锥(C.hystrix)4个乡土阔叶树种,各种套种密度皆为120彬hm2.分别于间伐前(2004年)及2010年对群落生物多样性及人工套种树种生态情况进行调查,结果表明:(1)间伐处理后,自然更新至乔木层的物种种类和数量都有显著的增加,600 m2的样方中,物种数由(2.75±2.56)种增加到(11.17±4.32)种,个体数由(5.75±4.31)株增加到(32.17±19.09)株,群落中乔木亚层的优势种变化不大,主要有南酸枣(Choerospondias axillaris)、水锦树(Wendlandia uvariifolia),枫香(Liuidambar formosana)、破布木(Cordia dichotoma)、白背桐(Mallotus paniculatus)等.新增加到乔木层的物种大都为之前群落中灌木层的种类,主要有三桠苦(Evodia lepta)、鸭脚木(Schefflera minutistellata)、白花龙(Styrax faberi、中平树(Macararangadenticulata)、黄毛榕(Ficus esquiroliana)、华南毛柃(Eurya ciliata)、罗浮柿(Diospyros morrisiana)、猴耳环(Pithecellobiumclypearia)、木姜子(Litseapungens)、毛黄肉楠(Actinodaphne pilosa)等.(2)间伐处理前,600 m2样方中出现的灌草种类数量为(24.63±4.24)种,间伐处理后,600 m2样方中出现的灌草种类数量为(27.58