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Sample records for ciliata

  1. Bio-potency of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaiarasi Velayutham; Narayani Mani; Sivaraman Arumugam; Janakiraman Narayanan; Babu Anantham

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, larvicidal potentials of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh (D. ciliata).Methods:Phytochemical, antibacterial screening, cytotoxicity and larvicidal properties of the D. ciliata extracts were carried out according to standard methods. Cytotoxicity and larvicidal potentials were analyzed by means of computerized probit analysis program.Results:The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the crude extracts of D. ciliata. The methanolic extracts of D. ciliata showed the highest metabolites presence compared to other tested extracts. The antibacterial activity illustrated that the acetone extracts of D. ciliata exhibited the highest zone of inhibition [(10±0.2) mm] against Morganella morganii. Highest larval mortality (50%) was observed in the crude methanolic extracts of D. ciliata against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50=202.82 mg/L and LC90 value is 488.52 mg/L). The result of brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed highest cytotoxicity in methanolic extracts of D. ciliata with LC50 and LC90 values at 340.14 mg/L and 555.58 mg/L respectively.Conclusions:The results of the present phytochemical analysis and biological assays will help the manufacturers for identification and selection of raw materials for drug production.

  2. Bio-potency of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh

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    Kalaiarasi Velayutham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, larvicidal potentials of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh (D. ciliata. Methods: Phytochemical, antibacterial screening, cytotoxicity and larvicidal properties of the D. ciliata extracts were carried out according to standard methods. Cytotoxicity and larvicidal potentials were analyzed by means of computerized probit analysis program. Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the crude extracts of D. ciliata. The methanolic extracts of D. ciliata showed the highest metabolites presence compared to other tested extracts. The antibacterial activity illustrated that the acetone extracts of D. ciliata exhibited the highest zone of inhibition [(10±0.2 mm] against Morganella morganii. Highest larval mortality (50% was observed in the crude methanolic extracts of D. ciliata against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50=202.82 mg/L and LC90 value is 488.52 mg/L. The result of brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed highest cytotoxicity in methanolic extracts of D. ciliata with LC50 and LC90 values at 340.14 mg/L and 555.58 mg/L respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present phytochemical analysis and biological assays will help the manufacturers for identification and selection of raw materials for drug production.

  3. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDISATION STUDY ON TOONA CILIATA M. ROEM., BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Avninder Singh; Sandhu Bharpur Singh; Dwivedi Gopal Krishna; Kaushik Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Toona ciliata M. Roem formerly called as Cedrella toona Roxb, known as Tooni in Sanskrit and Red cedar in English is a very important medicinal plant of renowned Meliaceae family. Tooni is used in our traditional system of medicine for the cure and prevention of various ailments viz. Antileprotic, bitter tonic and as anthelimintic. In the present study an attempt was made to study the pharmacognostical features of fresh and dried bark of Toona ciliata. Organoleptic (Colour, odour & taste), Ma...

  4. Actividad biológica de los aceites esenciales de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass Biological activity of essential oils from Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Andrés Rincón Mejía; Jhon Carlos Castaño Osorio; Eunice Ríos Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass. es una arvense nativa del norte de Suramérica conocida por su contenido de alcamidas alifáticas, se usa popularmente como anestésico y analgésico contra los dolores de muelas y de garganta. Objetivos: obtener, analizar y evaluar la actividad biológica de los aceites esenciales de las flores y hojas de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass. Métodos: se obtuvieron los aceites esenciales de Acmella ciliata por hidrodestilación e hidrodestilación asistida por mi...

  5. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDISATION STUDY ON TOONA CILIATA M. ROEM., BARK

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    Mann Avninder Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Toona ciliata M. Roem formerly called as Cedrella toona Roxb, known as Tooni in Sanskrit and Red cedar in English is a very important medicinal plant of renowned Meliaceae family. Tooni is used in our traditional system of medicine for the cure and prevention of various ailments viz. Antileprotic, bitter tonic and as anthelimintic. In the present study an attempt was made to study the pharmacognostical features of fresh and dried bark of Toona ciliata. Organoleptic (Colour, odour & taste, Macroscopic (Size, shape, texture & fracture and Microscopic (Powder microscopic characteristics evaluations were performed to establish the qualitative and diagnostic features. The various physiochemical parameters (Loss on drying, foreign matter, extractive values, ash values, pH, percent crude fibres were also determined for the effective standardisation of the medicinal plant material. Beside all above mentioned conventional methods of standardisation, the powdered bark was also subjected to powder drug analysis with different chemical reagent and for fluorescence drug analysis on exposure to different wavelengths of ultraviolet light. The various determinations and analysis which were carried out in the present study will certainly help for first line identification and quality control of plant material in its crude form. Further, the authentic material can be subjected to the phytochemical investigations, isolation of phytochemicals and many more for the validation of vast traditional therapeutic potential of the plant material in terms of its in-vivo pharmacological screening.

  6. Auto-incompatibilidade em Miconia ciliata (L.C.Rich. DC. (Miconieae - Melastomataceae Self-incompatibility in Miconia ciliata (L.C.Rich. DC. (Miconieae-Melastomataceae

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    Gladys Flavia de Melo

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Miconia ciliata é uma espécie arbustiva, com período de floração que se estende por 11 meses. As flores são hermafroditas e apresentam antese diurna. A interrupção do crescimento do tubo polínico ocorre no estilete, sugerindo haver um mecanismo de autoincompatibilidade do tipo gametofítico. Foram registradas visitas de duas espécies de abelhas Halictidae, que coletam pólen através de vibração (buzz pollination. A pequena quantidade de flores abertas diariamente por inflorescencia, provavelmente induz os polinizadores efetivos a visitarem maior número de inflorescencia por indivíduo, promovendo a fecundação cruzada. Miconia ciliata é uma espécie cujo sucesso reprodutivo é favorecido pelas frequentes visitas dos polinizadores efetivos, elevada razão P/O e viabilidade polínica.Miconia ciliata is a shrub whith flowers over a period of 11 months. The flowers are hermaphrodite with diurnal anthesis. Probably Miconia ciliata exhibits gametophytic incompatibility - pollen tube growth's interrupted in the style. Bees of the family Halictidae were observed to use the vibration technique to extract pollen (buzz pollination. Only few flowers per inflorescence open each day. which probably induces the effective pollinators to visit a larger number of inflorescence in each individual plant, promoting cross pollination. Reproductive success in Miconia ciliata is favoured by the high frequency of pollinators visits, high P/O ration and high pollen fertility.

  7. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES USING TOONA CILIATA METHANOL BARK EXTRACT AND THEIR CHARACTERISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Rajan; Mann Avninder Singh; Sandhu Bharpur Singh; Parihar Vidya Bhushan Singh

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we identified and justified the use of MeOH extract from Toona ciliata bark as a reducing and capping agent for the ecofriendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the basis of modern analytical techniques. The reduction of 1.0 mM aqueous solution of aurochloric acid with 1 ml, 1% w/v aqueous solution of MeOH bark extract from Toona ciliata has resulted in the formation of stabilised Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs). The synthesised gold particles showed a surface plasmon band ...

  8. Biodeterioration of products made from australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Amarante Almeida; Lourival Marin Mendes; Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino; Alencar Garlet; Fábio Akira Mori; Rafael Farinassi Mendes

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the natural resistance of composite and solid wood panels from Toona ciliata to fungal attack through accelerated laboratory testing, to characterize the anatomical components of the wood according to IAWA, to quantify the soluble and insoluble lignin contents by acid hydrolysis and to determine the colorimetric parameters before and after fungal attack by using the CIE-L*a*b*(1976) system. Solid wood was classified as moderately and highly resist...

  9. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  10. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Extracts Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

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    Li Yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Veronica ciliata Fisch. has been traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine prescriptions due to its curative effects for hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. The present study was focused on investigating the role of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity (scavenging of DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, and nitrite radicals; reducing power; β-carotene bleaching and the hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract by means of CCl4-induced oxidative stress in mice were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract of Veronica ciliata Fisch. displayed more noteworthy in vitro antioxidant activities than the aqueous extract. Moreover, it significantly prevented the increase in serum T-AOC, ALT, AST and ALP level in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, decreased the extent of MDA formation in liver and elevated the activities of SOD and GSH in liver. This activity was found to be comparable to that of bifendate. Histopathological observation of the liver was also performed to further support the evidence from the biochemical analysis. The results indicated that strong antioxidant activities and a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 of Veronica ciliata Fisch. were concentrated in the ethyl acetate extract. The results suggested that this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties.

  11. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Jacobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    larvae that feed without trailing threads. We observed bell shaped particle retention spectra with a minimum prey size of approximately 4 microm equivalent spherical diameter, and we found that an ontogenetic increase in maximum prey size add to a reduction in intra-specific food competition in the...... decrease in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus...... various larval stages. In a grazing experiment using natural seawater, ciliates were cleared approximately 50% more efficiently than similar sized dinoflagellates. The prey sizes retainable for P. ciliata larvae covers the microplankton fraction and includes non-motile as well as motile prey items, which...

  12. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.W.; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, A.;

    2010-01-01

    larvae that feed without trailing threads. We observed bell shaped particle retention spectra with a minimum prey size of approximately 4 m equivalent spherical diameter, and we found that an ontogenetic increase in maximum prey size add to a reduction in intra-specific food competition in the various...... decrease in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus...... larval stages. In a grazing experiment using natural seawater, ciliates were cleared approximately 50% more efficiently than similar sized dinoflagellates. The prey sizes retainable for P. ciliata larvae covers the microplankton fraction and includes non-motile as well as motile prey items, which is why...

  13. Larval growth in the dominant polychaete Polydora ciliata is food-limited in a eutrophic Danish estuary (Isefjord)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Almeda, Rodrigo; Fotel, Frank Lech; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Mariani, Patrizio; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2010-01-01

    Food limitation in larval growth of the spionid polychaete Polydora ciliata was examined in a typical eutrophic estuary, Isefjord, in Denmark. In the field, food availability and the energetic requirements of the P. ciliata larval population were measured during 2 different periods in 2004 and 2007...... that together cover the productive part of the year for plankton. In the laboratory, specific growth rates (µ) of larvae reared on natural food suspensions (~0.10 d–1) were always lower than those of larvae reared on phytoplankton-enriched food suspensions (100% retention efficiency for Rhodomonas...... commonly the dominant meroplanktonic larvae (average: 0.5 µg C l–1, range: 0.03 to 2.51 µg C l–1). The available food in the optimal prey size fraction (2004, average:...

  14. The biological invasion of Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in Portugal: an habitat modeling approach using a maximum-entropy technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Almeida, Mónica; Gonçalves, Ana; SANTOS, Sónia A.P.; Azevedo, João

    2009-01-01

    Corythucha ciliata is native to North America and has been introduced into Europe, through Italy, in 1964. Since then it has expanded across Europe being its date of arrival and distribution in Portugal unknown. This pest feeds on the underside of the leaves of sycamore trees (one of the most widespread ornamental tree in urban areas of Portugal) causing their premature senescence and death, in case of consecutive severe infestations. Habitat modeling is becoming an increasingly important too...

  15. Propagação vegetativa de cedo-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roemer por miniestaquia Vegetative propagation of Toona ciliata M. Roemer by the minicutting technique

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    Jonicélia Cristina Araújo Vieira de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O método de propagação usual do cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata é via seminal, entretanto a oferta sazonal das sementes e sua curta viabilidade ao longo do tempo representam um problema para a produção contínua de mudas destinadas à implantação de povoamentos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da propagação vegetativa da espécie por miniestaquia e a necessidade da aplicação de acido indolbutírico (AIB para o enraizamento das miniestacas. A partir de um banco de estacas de origem seminal, foram obtidas brotações para produção de mudas clonais, em três diferentes épocas de coleta (2,5; 4,5; e 5,5 meses após a recepa das mudas. Antes do estaqueamento, as miniestacas tiveram suas bases imersas em quatro concentrações de AIB (0; 1.500; 3.000; e 4.500 mg L-1. Durante o experimento, obtiveram-se 100% de sobrevivência das minicepas e das miniestacas. Houve 100% de enraizamento das miniestacas nas três coletas, não ocorrendo diferença no comprimento de raízes em função das doses de auxina aplicadas. Quanto maior o intervalo entre as coletas e quanto maiores as brotações que originaram as miniestacas, maior a velocidade de crescimento das mudas. Miniestacas de cedro-australiano possuem capacidade de enraizamento, e mudas recepadas apresentam brotação, possibilitando a clonagem da espécie pelo processo de miniestaquia.Sexual propagation is the method commonly used for the Australian Red Cedar Toona ciliata. However, seasonal seed availability and short viability are a concern for the continuous offer of seeds for implantation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the viability of vegetative propagation of this species through minicutting and to test indolbutiric acid (IBA application for rooting of minicuttings. Sprouts for clonal minicutting production were obtained from a miniclonal garden established from seeds, in three different harvest times (2.5; 4.5 and 5.5 months

  16. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Bergenia crassifolia, B. x ornata and B. ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrychová, Helena; Vildová, Anna; Kocevar-Glavac, Nina; Tůmová, Lenka; Kanybekovna, Elnura Abdykerimova; Tůma, Jirí

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on a phytochemical analysis of Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch., B. ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., and B. x ornata Stein. and evaluation of their free radical scavenging properties. Arbutin and total tannin contents of the leaves of the Bergenia species were determined during different seasons. The present study also aimed at analyzing, for the first time, environmental influence on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in Bergenia leaves. The highest total tannin content was found in the leaves of B. crassifolia (24.9-48.7 mg x g(-1) DW) and B. x ornata (36.9 mg.g(-1) DW). The highest amount of arbutin was in the leaves of B. x ornata (35.8-51.0 mg.g(-1) DW) and B. crassifolia (24.6-41.7 mg x g(-1) DW). Autumn was better than spring for the collection of Bergenia leaves for the highest amount of arbutin (B. x ornata: 51.0 mg x g(-1) DW). Free radical scavenging potential, in DPPH and ABTS assays, of the water leaf extracts revealed that extracts of B. crassifolia and B. x ornata are the most active radical scavengers. Antioxidant activity correlated well with the content of total tannin, especially in the ABTS assay, which suggests an important role for these compounds in antioxidant activity. It was shown that phenolic concentrations in Bergenia leaves are affected by seasonal factors. A significant correlation was found between arbutin and tannin contents and the average humidity. PMID:24868873

  17. Chemical Constituents in Essential Oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Guang-hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chemical constituents in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds of Elsholtzia ciliata and their antimicrobial activities.Methods The chemical constituents in essential oils were extracted by the hydro-distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS.The chemical constituents in essential oils were identified on the basis of comparison on their retention indices and MS spectrum with published data.Moreover,the antimicrobial activities of the chemical constituents in the oils against the growth of six bacteria strains and one pathogenic yeast strain were evaluated by using minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods.Results A total of 58 compounds were identified,while compounds 31,35,and 36 were identified in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds,respectively.Fifteen compounds were identified as shared constituents in the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The chemical constituents in the essential oils showed the inhibitory activities against the six bacteria strains and the yeast strain.Conclusion The major constituents are different in the essential oils of the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The major chemical constituents in the essential oils are monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.And the chemical constituents in the essential oils obtained from the leaves show higher inhibitory activities especially against Bacillus subtillis CMCC63501 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922.

  18. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis Biosolids as substrate for Toona ciliata var. australis seedlings production

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.The demand for wood for various purposes increases dramatically to meet the demand and need to produce forest seedlings in quantity and quality, to establish good stands. In this sense, the success of forest plantations is not linked solely to the species used, but directly depends on the type of container, the quality of seeds and substrate used. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of biosolids as substrate for the production of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at forest nursery/CCA / UFES. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of six treatments with biosolids, in decreasing proportions associated with subsoil, and two treatments without the use of biosolids (manure + soil and commercial substrate, respectively, with 8 repetitions. In general, the best results for the morphological

  19. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

    OpenAIRE

    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa; Paulo Sérgio dos Santos; Sílvio Nolasco de Oliveira Neto; Daniele Nunes de Castro; Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.) e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell.) Bahadur). O substrato utilizado foi composto...

  20. Biodeterioration of products made from australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Amarante Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the natural resistance of composite and solid wood panels from Toona ciliata to fungal attack through accelerated laboratory testing, to characterize the anatomical components of the wood according to IAWA, to quantify the soluble and insoluble lignin contents by acid hydrolysis and to determine the colorimetric parameters before and after fungal attack by using the CIE-L*a*b*(1976 system. Solid wood was classified as moderately and highly resistant to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor and to brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum. OSB panels were found to be resistant and moderately resistant to white-rot fungus and highly resistant to brown-rot fungus. Variation in species and particle type did not have a positive effect on the treatments. As regards the wood, both fungi were inhibited by the presence of phenolic resin. Particleboard panels were classified as moderately resistant to white-rot fungus. Treatments T2 (cedar and T4 (cedar-eucalyptus were resistant while treatment T3 (cedar-pine was not resistant to attack by brown-rot fungus. The urea-formaldehyde resin failed to inhibit attack in the same way the phenolic resin did. Anatomically, the species was found to have medium texture, straight vessel lines, pleasant smell after incision and poor luster on the radial surface. Its anatomical structure favored colonization by the threadlike filaments of the fungi. All treatments caused wood darkening after attack by the G. trabeum fungus, with total variation in color. It was observed that with weight loss an increase followed in insoluble lignin contents, in all treatments, indicating that this chemical property is a determining factor in wood resistance to the attack of the fungi being evaluated.

  1. Comparative analysis of bioactive N-alkylamides produced by tissue culture raised versus field plantlets of Spilanthes ciliata using LC-Q-TOF (HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zubair Shanib; Jaladi, Neeharika; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Arumugam, Neelakantan

    2016-04-01

    Spilanthes ciliata (S. ciliata) is a perennial herb of global importance owing to its luscious source of bioactive fatty acid derived amides known as N-alkylamides. It finds application in skin creams, mouth gels and toothpastes. Despite multifaceted applications, a major limitation associated for its commercial application is the scarcity of contamination free plant source, fluctuations in active metabolites due to variation in extraction procedures, and lack of rapid qualitative method for alkylamide profiling. In the current work, attempts were made to 1) optimize conditions for mass propagation of contamination free plants of S. ciliata by tissue culture using leaf discs as explants, 2) establish an optimum extraction ratio of plant/solvent (w/v) for maximum elution of alkylamides and 3) develop a rapid method for qualitative estimation of alkylamide from in vitro raised plants in comparison with that of the field grown counterpart by using LC-Q-TOF (HRMS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first qualitative report on alkylamide profile of micropropagated whole plant of Spilanthes. The correlation pattern reported in this study may form the basis for using tissue culture raised plantlets of S. ciliata as potential source of bioactive alkylamides on industrial scale. PMID:26990734

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of Elsholtzia ciliata

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of Elsholtzia ciliata. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of E. ciliata were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of E. ciliata were examined using different assay model systems in vitro. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems in vitro compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, E. ciliata extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  3. Evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of plywoods produced with Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

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    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels produced with Toona ciliata wood using two different pressure levels and two spread rates; besides the effect of Pinus sp. veneer inclusion on the quality of the panels. The phenol formaldehyde resin was used to produce plywood of five veneers. The physical-mechanical tests were conducted according to ABNT 31:000.05-001/2:2001 standard. The results of apparent density, water absorption after 24 hours, static bending (MOR and MOE and glue line dry shear strength presented significant statistical differences between the treatments. All the treatments presented parallel MOE and MOR value above the one established by the NBR 31.000.001/2:2001 standard; however just the panels with inclusion of Pinus sp. in the inner presented perpendicular MOE and MOR above the one established by the same. For the glue line shear strength tests, the panels presented values above the minimum established by EN 314-2 (1993 standard.It was not observed influence of the spread rate and pressure on the physical and mechanical properties between the panels produced only with Toona ciliata. The inclusion of Pinus sp. veneers both in the face and inner of the panels contributed to improve most of the physical and mechanical properties.

  4. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.

  5. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjara Silveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K. Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae, three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1, N-(2-phenethyl-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2 and (2E,7Z-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3. While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM.

  6. Correlation between the carbon isotope composition (δ13 C) of puccinellia ciliata and balansa clover in duel stresses of water logging and salinity (Nacl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretically, plants growing under stress conditions, such as in saline or waterlogged conditions, should behave with 13C02 discrimination and have different δ13C values. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of factors such as salinity and hypoxia in affecting delta values of Puccinellia ciliata and Balansa clover (Trifolium michelianum Savi. Var balansae boiss). This study reveals that these two species (C3 plants) behave differently and B. clover has more positive δ13C values (7.6%) compared to P. ciliata. The overall average of δI3C were -28.85 and -26.66 0/00, respectively, for P. ciliata and B. clover. The δI3C values for the shoots and roots of the two species also have different values (more positive values in roots compared to shoots). Water logging and salinity have a significant affect on 13C02 discrimination and, statistically, these effects on δ13C values are significant (ρ I3C would be changed (less discrimination for hypoxia and more for salinity conditions). The combined effects on species and plant parts of water logging and salinity are not statistically insignificant on δ13C values, however, each factor separately has a significant effect on δ13C values. P. ciliata was grown in different seasons (summer and winter) and showed significant differences in δ13C values (by almost 4%). The carbon content (%) of the two species was different, but, were not related to δ13C, respectively

  7. Attack intensity of Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera, Tingidae) on Platanus spp. in an urban area in Portugal: a comparison between pruned and unpruned trees.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ana; SANTOS, Sónia A.P.; Pinto, M. Alice

    2010-01-01

    Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832), commonly known as sycamore lace bug (SLB), is an insect species native to North America. Since its accidental introduction in Europe (through Italy) in 1964, it has expanded across most European countries. The arrival of SLB in Portugal is uncertain but its distribution is wide. Sycamore (Platanus spp.), the only host of SLB, is one of the most widespread and important urban tree species in Portugal. It provides a wide range of environmental, social and economi...

  8. Morfogénesis in vitro de Toona ciliata a partir de raquis de hojas jóvenes con tidiazuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquinta Marcos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Meliacea are of great importance in construction and furniture-making. Toona ciliata is a Meliacea originally from the Himalayan region; it is known as Himalayan Cedar in Cuba. Natural regeneration occurs in this specie by seed diffusion and grafting; such propagation is limited. The object of this paper was to promote callus formation and plant regeneration in Toona ciliata from in vitro propagation. Two to three year old mature trees (Toona ciliata were used. Rachis were taken from young branches from these plants. They were disinfected in 0.25% (w/v mercuric chloride solution for 10 min followed by three rinses in autoclaved distilled-water. They were then established in MS supplemented with 0-1 mg/L thidiazuron culture medium. Nodular calluses were obtained having good morphogenic characteristics. Shoots sprouted from six-month-old calluses in the dark and plant regeneration was done in the light. AIB shoots were rooted in MS medium supplement with 1 mg/L IBA. Key words: callus, Himalayan Cedar, Meliacea, growth regulators, plant regeneration. Abbreviations: IBA- indolebutyric acid, thidiazuron-N-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl-N-phenylurea.

  9. Individual spatial aggregation correlates with between-population variation in fine-scale genetic structure of Silene ciliata (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Romero, C; García-Fernández, A; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Roumet, M; Morente-López, J; López-Gil, A; Iriondo, J M

    2016-05-01

    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) can vary among populations within species depending on multiple demographic and environmental factors. Theoretical models predict that FSGS should decrease in high-density populations and increase in populations where individuals are spatially aggregated. However, few empirical studies have compared FSGS between populations with different degrees of individual spatial aggregation and microhabitat heterogeneity. In this work, we studied the relationship between spatial and genetic structure in five populations of alpine specialist Silene ciliata Poiret (Caryophyllaceae). We mapped all individuals in each population and genotyped 96 of them using 10 microsatellite markers. We found significant FSGS consistent with an isolation-by-distance process in three of the five populations. The intensity of FSGS was positively associated with individual spatial aggregation. However, no association was found between FSGS and global population density or microhabitat heterogeneity. Overall, our results support theoretical studies indicating that stronger spatial aggregation tends to increase the magnitude of FSGS. They also highlight the relevance of characterizing local plant distribution and microhabitat to better understand the mechanisms that generate intraspecific variation in FSGS across landscapes. PMID:26604191

  10. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur. O substrato utilizado foi composto por uma mistura de 80% de substrato comercial e 20% de argila. Foram avaliados o diâmetro de colo e a altura das mudas aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a repicagem. Nessa última ocasião, determinou-se também o peso de massa seca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e total, bem como o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson. Houve efeito do volume do tubete sobre as características das mudas, sendo o cedro-australiano a espécie mais responsiva. Conclui-se que para o guanandi o tubete mais indicado é o de 180 cm³ e para o cedro-australiano, o de 280 cm³.

  11. Community composition, abundance and biomass of tintinnids (Ciliata: Protozoa) in the Western Harbour, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneash, Ahmed M M; Abdel-Rahman, Nasser S; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variations in species composition, abundance and biomass of tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliata) were investigated in the Western Harbour, seasonally during 2012. There were remarkable seasonal variations in environmental parameters, phytoplankton concentrations and abundance and biomass of tintinnids: highest in spring and lowest in autumn. Annual average abundance and biomass of tintinnids were 8.435 ind. l(-1) and 3.725 μg C l(-1), respectively. A total of 29 species of tintinnids belonging to 11 genera was identified. Of which, Tintinnopsis was the most abundant genus in terms of number of species (9), but Favella was the best quantitatively (89% of the total tintinnids). The overall mean abundance and biomass were highest (mean 24.415 ind. l(-1) and 10.355 μg C l(-1), respectively) during spring than the remaining seasons. Due to significant positive relationship between the total biomass of tintinnids and phytoplankton concentrations, food supply is not a problem for tintinnids harbouring in the Western Harbour. Hence, predation loss by meso- and macrozooplankton might be the possible reasons for the estimated low biomass of tintinnids in the present study. Some of the seasonal environmental factors as water salinity, nitrite, dissolved oxygen and pH values exert an influence on the species composition, abundance and biomass of tintinnids. PMID:26202815

  12. 毛红椿人工林密度定量管理技术研究%Study on stand density quantitative management technology of Toona ciliata var. pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林; 叶金山; 温强; 帅小鹏; 龚擎红; 周诚

    2015-01-01

    Based on the investigation data such as crown width (CW) and diameter at breast height (DBH) of natural and artificial Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in Jiangxi Province, the relationship formula between CW and DBH has be fitted as: CW=1.1304+0.098315 ×DBH+0.000390 ×DBH2, and suitable management density, principal felling age and planting density were given respectively of T. ciliata var. pubescens for various cultivation objectives. This research provides a theoretical basis for planting density and reasonable management density of T. ciliata var. pubescens forest in some specified region, as the same time, this provides reference for stand density quantitative management of the other afforestation tree species.%以江西省毛红椿天然林和人工林的冠幅、胸径调查数据为基础,拟合了冠幅(CW)与胸径(DBH)的相关关系,关系式为CW=1.1304+0.098315×DBH+0.000390×DBH2,并据此推算出不同经营目标下毛红椿的适宜经营密度、主伐年龄和造林密度。本研究为一定区域内毛红椿造林密度和合理经营密度的确定提供了一种理论依据,同时也为其他造林树种密度定量管理提供了借鉴。

  13. Establishment of high frequency shoot regeneration system in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle) from petiole explants using Thidiazuron cytokinin as plant growth regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Aggarwal; A Gaur; D K Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Populus species are important resources for industry and in scientific study on biological and agricul-tural systems. Our objective was to enhance the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata wall. ex Royle). The effect of TDZ alone and in combi-nation with adenine and NAA was studied on the regen-eration potential of petiole explants. The explants were excised from Himalayan poplar plants grown in glass-houses. After surface sterilization the explants were cul-tured on shoot induction medium. High percentage shoot regeneration (86%) was recorded on MS medium sup-plemented with 0.004 mg L-1 TDZ and 79.7 mg L-1 adenine. The regenerated shoots for elongation and multi-plication were transferred to MS ? 0.5 mg L-1 BAP ? 0.2 mg L-1 IAA ? 0.3 mg L-1 GA3. Root re-generation from shoots developed in vitro was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg L-1 IBA. Hi-malayan poplar plantlets could be produced within 2 months after acclimatization in a sterile mixture of sand and soil. We developed a high efficiency plant regeneration protocol from petiole explants of P. ciliata.

  14. Actividad antimicrobiana y análisis de la composición química de una fracción de las flores de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mejía, C.; Osorio, J.; Barrera, M.; Rezek, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 409-418. ISSN 1028-4796 Grant ostatní: European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Acmella ciliata * alkamides * spilanthol Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1028-47962015000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso

  15. INVASÃO BIOLÓGICA DE Corythucha ciliata EM ESPAÇOS VERDES URBANOS DE PORTUGAL: MODELAÇÃO DO NICHO ECOLÓGICO COM O MÉTODO DE MÁXIMA ENTROPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alice da Silva Pinto; Ana Paula Soares Gonçalves; Sónia Alexandra Paiva Santos; Mónica Roldão Lemos de Almeida; João Carlos Martins de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815741Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) é um inseto nativo da América do Norte que foi introduzido na Europa, pela Itália, em 1964. Desde então tem se expandido por toda a Europa, desconhecendo-se a data de chegada e a sua área de distribuição em Portugal. Esta importante praga invasora alimenta-se na face inferior das folhas de plátano, uma das mais importantes árvores ornamentais nos espaços verdes urbanos em Portugal, causando senescência prematura e...

  16. 低毒杀虫剂对悬铃木方翅网蝽的室内毒力测定%Toxicity Effect of Low-toxic Insecticides Against Corythucha ciliata in Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓英; 万宝荣; 李传仁

    2012-01-01

    采用浸虫法测定了9种低毒杀虫剂对悬铃木方翅网蝽高龄若虫的毒力,结果表明:吡虫啉、印楝素和绿僵茵对高龄若虫没有触杀活性,其余6种药剂的毒力大小依次是甲维盐〉阿维菌素〉联笨菊酯〉鱼藤酮〉三唑磷〉敌百虫,建议使用甲维盐、阿维菌素、联苯菊酯和鱼藤酮进行悬铃木方翅网蝽的应急防治。%The toxicity of 9 low-taxic insecticides against the exotic species Corythucha ciliata were studied by dip method. The results showed that imidacloprid intermediates, azadirachtin and metarhizium anisopliae were not contact activity. And the remaining six virulence in turn was emamectin benzoate-chlorfenapyr, abamectin, bifenthrin, rotenone, triazophos, trichlorfon. Emamectin benzoate- chlorfenapyr, avermectins, bifenthrin and mtenone were suggested as the effective insecticides for controlling Corythucha ciliata.

  17. Invasão biológica de Corythucha ciliata em espaços verdes urbanos de Portugal: modelação do nicho ecológico com o método de máxima entropia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Gonçalves, Ana; Santos, Sónia A.P.; Almeida, Mónica; Azevedo, João

    2014-01-01

    Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) é um inseto nativo da América do Norte que foi introduzido na Europa, pela Itália, em 1964. Desde então tem se expandido por toda a Europa, desconhecendo-se a data de chegada e a sua área de distribuição em Portugal. Esta importante praga invasora alimenta-se na face inferior das folhas de plátano, uma das mais importantes árvores ornamentais nos espaços verdes urbanos em Portugal, causando senescência prematura e eventualmente morte, em ca...

  18. DNA damage and repair in Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliata, Protozoa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation with X rays, UV irradiation after incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BU) into the DNA, and cis-platinum (cis-Pt) treatment each cause the loss of micronuclei of Stylonychia lemnae while the macronuclei are not severely affected. The abilities of both nuclei to repair DNA were investigated. Unscheduled DNA synthesis could not be demonstrated after X-ray irradiation, but it was found after treatment with BU/UV and cis-Pt in macro- and micronuclei. The extent of the repair process in the micro- and macronuclei was alike, as indicated by grain counts of [6-3H]thymidine-treated cells. One reason for the different sensitivity of both nuclei to DNA-damaging treatment may be the different number of gene copies in the macro- and micronuclei

  19. Shrinkage of the Toona ciliata wood from three counties in the south of Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the shrinkage, in the bottom-up and pith-bark direction, of the australian cedar wood from three Counties in the south of Minas Gerais state, and also to check the variation in chemical composition of wood due the location of planting. The australian cedar wood was obtained with four years of age and in three cities in the south of Minas Gerais state (Campo Belo, Cana Verde and Santo Antonio do Amparo. The chemical constituents of wood, shrinkage values (tangential, radial, longitudinal and volumetric and the anisotropy coefficient. According to the results, there was no significant variation in the levels of holocellulose were determined, lignin, extractives and ashes between the three plantation sites evaluated. For the shrinkage of the wood in the bottom-up direction, there was no significant variation of the radial and longitudinal contractions for the three locations evaluated. However, significant variation was observed for the tangential and volumetric contractions for cities of Campo Belo and Cana Verde, and significant variation of Tangential contraction for the plantation of Santo Antonio do Amparo. In the pith-bark direction, significant variation was observed only on the radial contraction and the coefficient of anisotropy for location of Cana Verde.

  20. Salt Dynamics in Rhizosphere of Puccinellia ciliata Bor.in a Loamy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-Hua; C. TANG; Z. RENGEL

    2005-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment using a rhizobox technique was conducted to examine salt dynamics in the rhizosphere of a on salt accumulation in the rhizosphere. The rhizobox (10 × 5.5 × 50 cm) had a nylon mesh (1 μm) positioned vertically in the middle to create two compartments filled with soil amended with 1 g NaCl kg-1. The plants were grown in one compartment only. Flushed treatments received 275 mL of deionized water two days before harvest. In the plant-growing compartment, soils were sectioned vertically at 5 cm intervals. Significant differences in soil electrical conductivity (EC)(P<0.05) and pH (P<0.05) were observed for depths, but not between flushed and non-flushed treatments. In the no-plant compartment (rhizosphere), soil cores were taken horizontally at depths of 5, 20 and 40 cm and sliced at 1, 2,3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 mm away from the roots. Soil EC and Cl- concentration at the 5 and 20 cm depths, and Na+ concentration at the 5 cm depth significantly decreased (P<0.05) with the distance away from the root, but no significant differences were observed in soil pH and concentrations of the K+ and Ca2+. The flush treatment only had significant influence on soil EC, pH, and Cl- concentration at the 20 cm depth. Thus, salt accumulation could occur in the rhizosphere of salt-tolerant species on saline soils, and the periodic low rainfall might not have a strong influence on salt distribution in the rhizosphere and/or root zone.

  1. Potential for Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora ciliata mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collect...

  2. Characterization of benthic types in the lower Medway estuary, Kent. [Nereis diversicolor; Polydora ciliata; Spiophanes bombyx; Hydrobia ulvae; Peloacolex benedeni; Capitella capitatus; Heteromastus filiformis; Caulleriella zetlandica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharfe, J.R.

    1976-09-01

    A number of sediment parameters, including particle size and redox potential profiles, were measured during an ecological study of the benthic invertebrate macrofauna of the lower Medway estuary, Kent. The results proved more meaningful in characterizing the sediment habitats of the benthic invertebrate fauna than did measurements on the overlying water.

  3. Antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial potential of Zakhm-e-hayat rhizomes crude extract and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Madiha; Phul, Abdul Rehman; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Bibi, Gulnaz; Mazhar, Kehkashan; Rehman, Tofeequr; Zia, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-05-01

    Bergenia ciliata (locally known as Zakhm-e-hayat; wound healer) is commonly employed for wound healing, curing diarrhea and vomiting, fever, cough and pulmonary affections. Local community uses this plant as tea decoction with table salt. B. ciliata crude extract and its fractions were subjected to antibacterial, antioxidant effects as well as determination of total flavonoids and phenolics, DNA damage and anticancerous activities following standard protocols. Increased percentage inhibition of free radical in DPPH assay as well as elevated phenolic and flavonoid contents revealed antioxidant potential of this potent herb. Ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed IC(50) of 0.7 and 0.3 mg/ml respectively, against H157 cell line. Antibacterial analysis showed MIC 0.4-10mg/ml for crude extract and fractions. The results obtained conclude that extracts of B. ciliata contain remedial latent and can be used as possible source for drug development by pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27166554

  4. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  5. Het geslacht Vulpia C.C. Gmel. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auquier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Nine species of Vulpia (Poaceae), 4 indigenous and 5 (+ 1 subspecies) adventitious, are recorded from the Netherlands. Variability in some species is discussed. Remarks are made on the recent expansion of the area of V. ciliata Dum subsp. ambigua (Le Gall) Stace & Auquier and V. fasciculata (Forsk)

  6. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Fayyaz M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition. Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

  7. THE GENUS SCLERIA (CYPERACEAE) IN COLOMBIA. AN UPDATED CHECKLIST

    OpenAIRE

    CAMELBEKE KONRAED; GOETGHEBEUR PAUL

    2002-01-01

    An updated, annotated checklist of the genus Scleria (Cyperaceae) for Colombia ispresented. An identification key to the 32 species recognized in this treatment isincluded. Following species are new records for Colombia: Scleria huberi, S.longigluma, S. macrogyne, S. martii, S. setuloso-ciliata, S. splitgerberiana, S.stipularis and S. tepuiensis.

  8. Habitat-specific size structure variations in periwinkle populations ( Littorina littorea) caused by biotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschweiler, Nina; Molis, Markus; Buschbaum, Christian

    2009-06-01

    Shell size distribution patterns of marine gastropod populations may vary considerably across different environments. We investigated the size and density structure of genetically continuous periwinkle populations ( Littorina littorea) on an exposed rocky and a sheltered sedimentary environment on two nearby islands in the south-eastern North Sea (German Bight). On the sedimentary shore, periwinkle density (917 ± 722 individuals m-2) was about three times higher than on the rocky shore (296 ± 168 individuals m-2). Mean (9.8 ± 3.9 mm) and maximum (22 mm) shell size of L. littorea on the sedimentary shore were smaller than on the rocky shore (21.5 ± 4.2 and 32 mm, respectively), where only few small snails were found. Additionally, periwinkle shells were thicker and stronger on the rocky than on the sedimentary shore. To ascertain mechanisms responsible for differences in population structures, we examined periwinkles in both environments for growth rate, predation pressure, infection with a shell boring polychaete ( Polydora ciliata) and parasitic infestation by trematodes. A crosswise transplantation experiment revealed better growth conditions on the sedimentary than on the rocky shore. However, crab abundance and prevalence of parasites and P. ciliata in adult snails were higher on the sedimentary shore. Previous investigations showed that crabs prefer large periwinkles infested with P. ciliata. Thus, we suggest that parasites and shell boring P. ciliata in conjunction with an increased crab predation pressure are responsible for low abundances of large periwinkles on the sedimentary shore while high wave exposure may explain low densities of juvenile L. littorea on the rocky shore. We conclude that biotic factors may strongly contribute to observed differences in size structure of the L. littorea populations studied on rocky and sedimentary shores.

  9. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hipper; Karmacharya, N.; Gewali, M. B.; Bhattarai, S.; Chaudhary, R.P.; Jha, P. K.; M. Rajbhandari; R. Mentel; U. Lindequist

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace str...

  10. Assessing intraspecific variation in effective dispersal along an altitudinal gradient: a test in two Mediterranean high-mountain plants.

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    Carlos Lara-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant recruitment depends among other factors on environmental conditions and their variation at different spatial scales. Characterizing dispersal in contrasting environments may thus be necessary to understand natural intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment. Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa are two representative species of cryophilic pastures above the tree line in Mediterranean high mountains. No explicit estimations of dispersal kernels have been made so far for these or other high-mountain plants. Such data could help to predict their dispersal and recruitment patterns in a context of changing environments under ongoing global warming. METHODS: We used an inverse modelling approach to analyse effective seed dispersal patterns in five populations of both Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa along an altitudinal gradient in Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain. We considered four commonly employed two-dimensional seedling dispersal kernels exponential-power, 2Dt, WALD and log-normal. KEY RESULTS: No single kernel function provided the best fit across all populations, although estimated mean dispersal distances were short (<1 m in all cases. S. ciliata did not exhibit significant among-population variation in mean dispersal distance, whereas significant differences in mean dispersal distance were found in A. caespitosa. Both S. ciliata and A. caespitosa exhibited among-population variation in the fecundity parameter and lacked significant variation in kernel shape. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the complexity of intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment, showing that effective dispersal kernels can remain relatively invariant across populations within particular species, even if there are strong variations in demographic structure and/or physical environment among populations, while the invariant dispersal assumption may not hold for other species in the same environment

  11. Strategy and scenario for wetland conservation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Monjit Paul; Mukti Chanda; Supriya Sen Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are the most important ecosystems for the organisms in Animal Kingdom (including human beings) and Plant Kingdom. There are about hundred species of flora in and around Indian Wetlands. They include Sagittaria montividensis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cyperus spp., Acrostichum aureum, Ipomoea aquatica, etc. They are also the habitats of several mammals like the marsh mongoose, small Indian mongoose, palm civet and the small Indian civet. Endangered species like the Indian mud turtle have ...

  12. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  13. Phytotoxicity evaluation and phytochemical analysis of three medicinally important plants from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the crude methanolic extracts of three medicinally important plants native to Pakistan for potent phytotoxic activities and important phytochemicals. These plants include Euphorbia wallichii, Bergenia ciliata and Phytolacca latbenia. The phytotoxic effects were checked at 10,000, 1000, and 100 µg/ml against two economically important standard target species, Triticum aestivum (monocot representative) and Brassica napus (dicot representative). The phytotoxicity effects on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling weight were checked. A simple, cost-effective in vitro phytotoxicity assay (that uses petri plates) was used to evaluate the allelopathic properties of crude extracts. At highest concentration, extracts from all the three plants showed phytotoxic activities such that P. latbenia > E. wallichii > B. ciliata. In seedling growth, root length was affected more than shoot length, whereas among the target species B. napus was found to be more sensitive towards extracts when compared with T. aestivum. Phytochemical analysis showed that P. latbenia is rich in saponins and terpenoids, while E. wallichii and B. ciliata are rich in tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. P. latbenia also carries a moderate amount of cardiac glycosides. PMID:23344824

  14. Increases in both temperature means and extremes likely facilitate invasive herbivore outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Although increases in mean temperature (MT) and extreme high temperature (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer temperature and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT + EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both temperature means and extremes. The increases in summer temperature associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects.

  15. Low level of genetic variation within Melica transsilvanica populations from the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland and the Pieniny Mts revealed by AFLPs analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szczepaniak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragmented distribution, the breeding system and effects of genetic drift in small-size populations occurring at edge of the species range play an important role in shaping genetic diversity of such a species. Melica transsilvanica is a plant rare in the flora of Poland, where it reaches the northern limit of its continuous range. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP DNA profiling method was applied to measure genetic diversity among and within populations of M. transsilvanica. Additionally, genetic relationships between M. transsilvanica and Melica ciliata, two closely related species, were explored. A total of 68 plants from 7 populations of M. transsilvanica and 24 plants from 2 populations of M. ciliata, collected in Poland and outside it, were analyzed. Using 294 AFLP fragments from 3 primer combinations, accessions were grouped into two major clusters associating with M. ciliata and M. transsilvanica, respectively. Further, two subclusters, corresponding to the samples collected from the Pieniny Mts and from the Kraków - Częstochowa Upland were clearly distinguished within the M. transsilvanica group. The hierarchical AMOVA exhibited significant genetic distinction between these geographic regions (60.89%, p < 0.001. The obtained results showed that the most genetic diversity resided between the populations of M. transsilvanica (86.03% while considerably lower genetic variation was found within the populations (13.97%, which is consistent with the results reported for self-plants. The low level of AFLP genetic variation of M. transsilvanica can be caused by the geographic isolation of populations, which preserves the dominant self-mating breeding system of the species. Individual populations of M. transsilvanica are characterized by isolated gene pools differing by a small number of loci.

  16. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

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    Rajani Chauhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum, Allium cepa, Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia ciliata, Bergenia stracheyi, Hamamelis virginiana Ruscus aculeatus, Terminalia chebula Vaccinium myrtillus, Verbascum thapus etc.

  17. A karyotypic study of the genus Vulpia Gmel. (Poaceae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Amene Faramarzi; Hojatollah Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the morphological investigations, 5 sepcies of the genus Vulpia grow in Iran. This study concerns the cytotaxonomy of the genus Vulpia Gmel. in Iran. A total of 8 accessions belonging to V. unilateralis, V. myuros, V. persica, V. ciliata and V. hirtiglumis were examined. Mitosis were counted from three root tips of each accession. Diploid numbers counted were 2n=14, 28, 35, 42 with baisic chromosome number x=7. The pentaploidy (2n=5x=35) was observed in V. persica, V. ciliate and V. ...

  18. Estimation of holocellulose, alphacellulose and lignin contents of wood of some populus species growing in pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, A.; Mahmood. T.

    1984-01-01

    In the trunk of P. ciliata, P. deltoides, P. Enphratica, and P. enramericana, the amount of holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin ranged between 74.00 and 77.53%, 41.22 and 48.80%, and 22.64 and 26.79%, respectively. The average alcohol-C6H6 extractive contents of poplars in trunk and branch were 3.06 plus or minus 0.38% and 3.81 plus or minus 0.28% respectively, these values were less than those of coniferous wood.

  19. Morphologic evaluations of Australian Cedar submitted to different doses of osmocote plus® fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem is an exotic specie that has been highlighting due its great potential in brazilian commercial silviculture for presenting high growing taxes. This work aimed evaluate the development of seedlights of Toona ciliata when submitted to differets doses of fertilizer. The experiment was developed in random blocks, being the respective doses of Osmocote Plus®: 0; 3; 6; 9; 12 kg m-³ of substrate. The fertilizer of controlled solubilization Osmocote Plus® in formulation of 15-09-12, in all dosing, afforded the increase in morphologic characteristics evaluated. Thus, the fertilization of Australian Ceder with Osmocote Plus® provided the best parameters evaluated, in doses ranging of 7,5 to 8,5 kg m-³ of substrate. So it is porssible infer that an ideal dose of Osmocote Plus® fertilizer in formulation of 15-09-12 for fertilization of Australian Cedar seedlights, is of 8,0 kg m-³ of substrate.

  20. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina

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    Almirón Walter R.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.

  1. Patterns of diatom treatment in two coexisting species of filter-feeding freshwater gastropods

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    Sitnikova T.Ya.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess trophic partitioning among sympatric gastropod species in ancient lakes, we quantified diatoms in the guts of two coexistent Baikal gastropod species and tested for differences in species, size, and fracturing of large and small diatoms by taenioglossan radulae. In May 2010, the diatom Synedra acus dominated the littoral phytoplankton and gut contents of Baicalia turriformis and Teratobaikalia ciliata (Baicaliidae, both inhabiting the rocky Baikal littoral. In laboratory experiments, both ctenidial filter-feeding gastropods were fed with two diets of cultivated Synedra acus of different cell sizes: >150 μm and <100 μm. Field and laboratory studies revealed intact diatom cells (often with green chromatophores and fragmented frustules of diatoms <60 μm in the guts of both species. The two baicaliids varied in the number of ingested microalgae. In addition, they exhibited significantly different efficiencies for breaking large diatoms; B. turriformis broke large diatoms into more fragments than T. ciliata. The differences in the utilization of large and small diatoms by gastropods are discussed in terms of the relationships among coexisting species. Small diatom survival is considered from the view of interactions between producers and their consumers in the freshwater food web.

  2. Heterochromatin differentiation in holocentric chromosomes of Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae

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    André L.L. Vanzela

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Holocentric chromosomes of six species of Rhynchospora, R. ciliata, R. pubera, R. riparia and R. barbata (2n = 10, R. nervosa (2n = 30 and R. globosa (2n = 36, were stained with CMA3/DAPI fluorochromes or treated with C-banding and sequentially stained with Giemsa or CMA3/DAPI. Variability in banding pattern was found among the species studied. Heterochromatin was observed on terminal and interstitial chromosome regions, indicating that the holocentric chromosomes of Rhynchospora show a heterochromatin distribution pattern similar to those plant monocentric chromosomes.Cromossomos holocêntricos de seis espécies de Rhynchospora (R. ciliata, R. pubera, R. riparia e R. barbata (2n = 10, R. nervosa (2n = 30 and R. globosa (2n = 36 foram corados com os fluorocromos CMA3/DAPI ou tratados para bandeamento C e seqüencialmente corados com Giemsa ou CMA3/DAPI. Variabilidade no padrão de bandas foi encontrada entre as espécies estudadas. A heterocromatina foi observada em regiões terminais e intersticiais dos cromossomos, indicando que os cromossomos holocêntricos de Rhynchospora mostram um padrão de distribuição de heterocromatina similar àqueles dos cromossomos monocêntricos de plantas.

  3. Interdecadal modulation of the relationship between ENSO, IPO and precipitation: insights from tree rings in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Ingo [School of Resources, Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Potsdam (Germany); Weidner, Kathrin [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Potsdam (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute for Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Juelich (Germany); Helle, Gerhard [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Potsdam (Germany); Vos, Heinz [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute for Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Juelich (Germany); Lindesay, Janette; Banks, John C.G. [School of Resources, Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Australian climate-proxy reconstructions based on tree rings from tropical and subtropical forests have not been achieved so far due to the rarity of species producing anatomically distinct annual growth rings. Our study identifies the Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata) as one of the most promising tree species for tree-ring research in Australasia because this species exhibits distinct annual tree rings, a prerequisite for high quality tropical dendroclimatology. Based on these preliminary studies, we were able, for the first time in subtropical and tropical Australia, to develop a statistically robust, precisely dated and annually resolved chronology back to AD1854. We show that the variability in ring widths of T. ciliata is mainly dependent on annual precipitation. The developed proxy data series contains both high- and low-frequency climate signals which can be associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). A comparison of different data sets (Brisbane precipitation, tree rings, coral luminescence record from the Great Barrier Reef, ENSO and IPO) revealed non-stationary correlation patterns throughout the twentieth century but little instability between the new tree-ring chronology and Brisbane precipitation. (orig.)

  4. Effects of human proximity and nomadic grazing on the diversity of medicinal plants in temperate hindukush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over exploitation and overgrazing are considered major factors for decreasing plant species diversity. However, we do need some more exploration on the types of anthropogenic disturbances responsible for variation in species decline among different regions. Therefore, the current study was conducted in a temperate Hindukush region of Pakistan with the aim to assess human settlements pressure on the diversity of medicinal plants. Field data was collected from 15 plots, of which 5 plots each were randomly selected at three distant locations in derived woodland forest. Near to community plots were heavily disturbed due to natives proximity, 2 kilometer away plots from the native community were moderately disturbed, while 4 kilometer away plots were under the disturbance regime from temporary settlers (Nomads). We have found all 10 studied medicinal plant species at 2 Km distance followed by 8 species found at 4 km distance. Economically important species such as Bergenia ciliata, Paeonia emodi, Podophyllum emodi, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens were completely absent near village. Similarly, density (8.72 n m-2) and species richness (8.2 n 40 m-2) were found significantly highest at 2 km distance than other locations. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that among forest stand structural variables, slope was the influencing variable related to the density of only Bergenia ciliata. In conclusions, moderate disturbance is associated to increase in the diversity of medicinal plants, while high anthropogenic pressures the otherwise. Hence, effective management strategies may be adopted to conserve such precious eroding flora. (author)

  5. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Guilbert, Éric; Lhuillier, Émeline; Murienne, Jerôme

    2015-03-01

    Lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of phytophagous heteropterans, some of which are important agricultural and forestry pests. They currently comprise around 2500 species distributed worldwide, for which only one mitochondrial genome has been described so far. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal gene segment of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae using a genome skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. Fifty-four additional heteropteran mitogenomes, including the one of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata, were retrieved to allow for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. P. perseae mitochondrial genome was determined to be 15,850 bp long, and presented the typical organisation of insect mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis placed P. perseae as a sister to C. ciliata but did not confirm the monophyly of Miroidae including Tingidae. Our results contradicted widely accepted phylogenetic hypothesis, which highlights the limits of analyses based on mitochondrial data only. Shotgun sequencing approaches should provide substantial improvements in harmonizing mitochondrial and nuclear databases. PMID:25636225

  6. [Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatopha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sessd ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J. rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were observed.in San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we

  7. Primary productivity and its correlation with rainfall on Aldabra Atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shekeine

    2015-01-01

    O. ciliata with sufficient precision to deduce long-term patterns of productivity. However, satellite data were used to derive Aldabra's land surface phenology (LSP for the period 2001–2012 which was then linked to rainfall seasonality. This relationship was strongest in the eastern parts of the atoll (with a time-lag of about six weeks between rainfall changes and LSP responses, an area dominated by deciduous grasses that supports high densities of tortoises. While the seasonality in productivity, as reflected in the satellite record, is correlated with rainfall, we did not find any change in mean rainfall or productivity for the shorter period 2001–2012. The sensitivity of Aldabra's vegetation to rainfall highlights the potential impact of increasing water stress in East Africa on the region's endemic ecosystems.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14720-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9.0 1 ( AF208933 ) Smithia ciliata tRNA-Leu (trnL) gene, partial int... 44 9.0 1 ( AE014298 ) Drosophila me...lknqrnhdrayt*kmendqdqqqqqqqsqqqqpqqeeqe qvdvdlsslqgqerieyintliadsyniaiakkleefldiqinenty...-07 CR940348_660( CR940348 |pid:none) Theileria annulata strain Ankara... 59 2e-07 (B3NN00) RecName: Full=Eukaryotic translation in...va (indica cultivar-grou... 47 7e-04 (A6SDU6) RecName: Full=Eukaryotic translation initiati...Q7S2R9) RecName: Full=Eukaryotic translation initiation factor ... 45 0.004 AX885806_1( AX885806 |pid:none) Sequence 1669 from Paten

  9. ADULT DRAGONFLY COMMUNITIES IN TROPICAL RIVERS OF THE NORTHERN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: SPECIES COMPOSITION, BIOTOPE AND HOST PLANT PREFERRENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wahizatul Afzan A; Che Salmah M R

    2005-01-01

    Adult dragonfly communities were dominated by Libellulidae as 29 species were successfully collected from this family in marginal areas of Saleh, Setul and Serdang rivers. Zygopterans Coenagrionidae, Platycnemididae, Calopterygidae were common while Gomphidae and Chlorocyphidae were rather rare. Libellulids Neurothemis fluctuans, Trithemis aurora, Crocothemis servilia, T. festiva and Orthetrum chrysis were widely distributed in shaded, muddy areas. Among the zygopterans, Pseudagrion pruinosumwas the most dominant species. Agriocnemis femina, Ictinogomphus rapax, Cratilla lineata, Lathrecista asiatica, Neurothemis tullia, Tholymis tillarga and Copera ciliata were strictly found at Saleh River implicating their preference for smaller, slow moving and polluted river with floating microphytes and few other surrounding plant species. Neurobasis chinensis and Vestalis gracilis were only found in open, undisturbed, fast flowing waters of Setul and Serdang rivers. Generally the adults perched on marginal vegetation as well as those on the river bank areas.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE LICHEN FLORA FROM BISTRITA MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA LOREDANA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of the field-researches made between 2004-2005 in different places of Bistrita Mountains are presented. The lichen flora analysis had carried out to 115 taxa identification, belonging to Ascomycotina Class. The species have been analysed from the ecological point of view, on the values of ecological indexes (light, humidity, temperature and chemical reaction of the substrata published by Ellemberg et al (1992. 93,05% of the total number of species are common species and 6,95% are rare species (Cladonia amaurocraea, C. rangiformis, C. sulphurina, Cetraria sepincola, Pheophyscia ciliata, Peltigera pretextata. One species – Collema subflaccidum is for the second time cited in romanian lichenological flora.

  11. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti KUMARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  12. A karyotypic study of the genus Vulpia Gmel. (Poaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Faramarzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the morphological investigations, 5 sepcies of the genus Vulpia grow in Iran. This study concerns the cytotaxonomy of the genus Vulpia Gmel. in Iran. A total of 8 accessions belonging to V. unilateralis, V. myuros, V. persica, V. ciliata and V. hirtiglumis were examined. Mitosis were counted from three root tips of each accession. Diploid numbers counted were 2n=14, 28, 35, 42 with baisic chromosome number x=7. The pentaploidy (2n=5x=35 was observed in V. persica, V. ciliate and V. hirtiglumis and thus ate reported for the first time. The karyotypes and the chromosomal parameters showed an approximately asymmetrical profiles for the species studied. The measured karyotypic parameters revealed significant differences among species studied.

  13. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2011-31 July 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F Keith; Bell, James J; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Bonatto, S L; Cezilly, Frank; Collins, Sarah M; Dubreuil, Christine; Dufort, Matthew J; Eraud, Cyril; Fuseya, Reiko; Heap, E A; Jacobsen, N; Madders, M; McEwing, R; Michel, Andrew P; Mougeot, F; Ogden, R S; Orantes, Lucia C; Othman, A S; Parent, Eric; Pulido-Santacruz, P; Rioux-Paré, Rachel; Roberts, M F; Rosazlina, R; Sakamoto, Takashi; De-León, Pelayo Salinas; Sévigny, Jean-Marie; St-Onge, Philippe; Terraube, J; Tingay, R E; Tremblay, Réjean; Watanabe, Seiichi; Wattier, Rémi A

    2011-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne × purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne × purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata, Cryptocoryne elliptica, Cryptocoryne griffithii, Cryptocoryne minima, Cryptocoryne nurii and Cryptocoryne schulzei. This article also documents the addition of 24 sequencing primer pairs and 24 allele-specific primers or probes for Aphis glycines. PMID:21951598

  14. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

  15. Eficiência nutricional de espécies arbóreas em função da fertilização fosfatada

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Gomes Fontes; Antonio Carlos Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri Gama-Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Estudos sobre fertilização e nutrição florestal de espécies nativas e exóticas fornecem subsídios para programas de manejo para recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa e a eficiência nutricional de plântulas das espécies arbóreas Swietenia macrophylla (mogno), Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (sabiá), Cedrela fissilis (cedro-rosa) e Toona ciliata (cedroaustraliano), em resposta à fertilização fosfatada em dois níveis de calagem. Constatouse que as...

  16. Caracterização morfológica de minas foliares em espécies de Melastomataceae de Mata Atlântica, PE Morphological characterization of leaf mines in species of Melastomataceae in Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Aretuza B Brito-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a morfologia e a anatomia de folhas íntegras e minadas de cinco espécies de Melastomataceae, ocorrentes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, PE. As minas foram visualizadas em uma ou ambas as faces das folhas, possuindo padrão sinuoso ou retilíneo, distribuídas entre as nervuras ou por toda a lâmina, sendo estas características distintas para cada espécie. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada com estômatos presentes na face abaxial e tricomas dendríticos, multicelulares, estrelados e com mais de cinco ramos, em ambas ou apenas uma das faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e o sistema vascular em forma de arco. As larvas minadoras observadas em Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl. DC., M. albicans (Sw. Triana e Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don consomem o parênquima paliçádico e esponjoso, enquanto as de M. prasina (Sw. DC. e M. ciliata (Rich. DC. se alimentam do conteúdo e das paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas, caracterizando-as como do tipo epidérmica. Entretanto, em M. minutiflora, M. albicans e C. capitellata a epiderme permaneceu intacta formando uma proteção para o minador, enquanto que em M. prasina e M. ciliata a proteção é realizada pelas paredes periclinais externas e cutícula da folha. Tecido de cicatrização foi observado ao longo das minas em M. prasina.This study describes the morphology and anatomy of whole and mined leaves of five species of Melastomataceae native to an Atlantic Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mines can be found on one or both sides of the leaves, with a sinuous or rectilinear pattern, and distributed between the veins or throughout the entire leaf blade. These characteristics are distinct for each species. The leaves, in cross section, have a uniseriate epidermis, stomata on the abaxial surface, and unbranched hairs on both or at least one side. The mesophyll is bifacial and the vascular bundle is semi-circular. The leaf-miner larvae observed in

  17. Primary productivity and its correlation with rainfall on Aldabra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekeine, J.; Turnbull, L. A.; Cherubini, P.; de Jong, R.; Baxter, R.; Hansen, D.; Bunbury, N.; Fleischer-Dogley, F.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aldabra Atoll, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1982, hosts the world's largest population of giant tortoises. In view of recent rainfall declines in the East African region, it is important to assess the implications of local rainfall trends on the atoll's ecosystem and evaluate potential threats to the food resources of the giant tortoises. However, building an accurate picture of the effects of climate change requires detailed context-specific case-studies, an approach often hindered by data deficiencies in remote areas. Here, we present and analyse a new historical rainfall record of Aldabra atoll together with two potential measures of primary productivity: (1) tree-ring measurements of the deciduous tree species Ochna ciliata and, (2) satellite-derived NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data for the period 2001-2012. Rainfall declined by about 6 mm yr-1 in the last four decades, in agreement with general regional declines, and this decline could mostly be attributed to changes in wet-season rainfall. We were unable to cross-date samples of O. ciliata with sufficient precision to deduce long-term patterns of productivity. However, satellite data were used to derive Aldabra's land surface phenology (LSP) for the period 2001-2012 which was then linked to rainfall seasonality. This relationship was strongest in the eastern parts of the atoll (with a time-lag of about six weeks between rainfall changes and LSP responses), an area dominated by deciduous grasses that supports high densities of tortoises. While the seasonality in productivity, as reflected in the satellite record, is correlated with rainfall, we did not find any change in mean rainfall or productivity for the shorter period 2001-2012. The sensitivity of Aldabra's vegetation to rainfall highlights the potential impact of increasing water stress in East Africa on the region's endemic ecosystems.

  18. In-situ Protection Management and Conservation Study of Some Medicinal Plants%一些药用植物自然状态下管理和保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan SHER; Z.D.KHAN; A.U.KHAN; Farrukh HUSSAIN

    2005-01-01

    In-situ study on eleven commercially important species viz;Adiantum capillus-veneris L,Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb,Colchicum luteum Baker,Polygonum amplexicaule D.Den,Cuminum cyminum L,Dioscorea deltoidea Wall Kunth,L Morchella esculenta L,Paeonia emodi Wall ex H Kf,Podophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Chatt & Mukh,Valeriana wallichii DC and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted in four locations viz; Malam (1 400 to 2 000m),Bargin (1 700 to 2 300m),Biakand (1 500 to 2 100m) and Shinko (2 100 to 2 700m).The data was recorded from both protected and unprotected sites of each site.Each site had 3 altitudinal sampling point.The density, herbage coverage and fresh biomass were determined in each locations for every species.All the investigated parameters generally showed an increase of 3 to 6 times over unprotected sites in each locations.Morchella esculenta,Dioscorea deltoidea,Colchicum luteum and Podophyllum hexandrum were absent in all unprotected sites while other species had low values in these sites.The investigated parameters of Colchicum luteum,Bergenia ciliata,Paeonioa emodi,Dioscorea deltoidea and Podophyllum hexandrum generally increased with the increasing elevation.Soil analysis,soil and air temperatures were recorded for each site.The air and soil temperature were slightly higher in open areas than in the protected site and showed decrease with increasing elevation.While the soil fertility was relatively high in protected sites as compared to unprotected area.The study shows that protection promotes the growth, distribution and occurrence of medicinal plants.It is possible with the participation of local communities to conserve these resources.

  19. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  20. Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis

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    Sumit Manna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly rever sites of lower Bengal is very usual and this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to the other south Asian countries. The abandoned brick Kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due to tidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim of the present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the community dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem. Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m. Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image and ground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2 contingency/species association table. Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratia caseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangrove associates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. The high importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparum indicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3 species also suggests to help in developing community in stressed environment. Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their community dynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for future afforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

  1. Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian species of the bee genus Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marchi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Revisão taxonômica das espécies de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina que ocorrem no Brasil. Com base em caracteres morfológicos, como aqueles relacionados com a pilosidade, o formato do espiráculo propodeal, as distâncias interorbitais e o comprimento do esporão mesotibial, são reconhecidas catorze espécies, seis das quais novas para a Ciência: L. ciliata. sp. nov., L. maracaia sp. nov., L. similis sp. nov., L. spinosa sp. nov., L sulina. sp. nov. e L. tropica sp. nov. São designados lectótipos para Trigona (Lestrimelitta limao var. rufipes Friese, 1903 e Trigona (Lestrimelitta limao var. rufa Friese, 1903. O macho de L. limao (Smith, 1863 é descrito pela primeira vez. É apresentada também uma diagnose das seguintes espécies: L. ehrhardti Friese, 1931; L. glaberrima Oliveira & Marchi, 2005; L. glabrata Camargo & Moure, 1989; L. monodonta Camargo & Moure, 1989; e L. nana Melo, 2003. São apresentados chaves de identificação para operárias e machos, ilustrações e mapas de ocorrência.The species of Lestrimelitta present in Brazil are revised. Fourteen species are recognized, six of them described as new: L. ciliata. sp. nov., L. maracaia sp. nov., L. similis sp. nov., L. spinosa sp. nov., L. sulina. sp. nov. and L. tropica sp. nov. The main morphological characters used to distinguish the species are pubescence, shape of the propodeal spiracle, the interorbital distances and size of the midtibial spurs. Lectotypes for Trigona (Lestrimelitta rufa Friese, 1903 and Trigona (Lestrimelitta rufipes Friese, 1903 are designated and redescribed. The male of L. limao (Smith, 1863 is described for the first time. The following additional valid species are diagnosed and their distinctive characters presented: L. ehrhardti Friese, 1931; L. glaberrima Oliveira & Marchi, 2005; L.glabrata Camargo & Moure, 1989; L. monodonta Camargo & Moure, 1989 and L. nana Melo, 2003. Identification keys for workers and

  2. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  3. RESEARCH ABOUT ICHTHYOPARASITOFAUNA OF BANAT REGION

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    C.Cojocaru

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2001 and 2002 were parasitologically examined 16 species of fishes (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama danubii, Alburnus alburnus, Gobio spp., Leuciscus cephalus, Tinca tinca, Pseudorasbora parva, Esox lucius, Silurus glanis, Stizostedion lucioperca, Perca fluviatilis, Lepomis gibbosus, Acipenser ruthenus. The fish came from rivers (Danube, Bega, Timis, Barzava, Nera and reservoirs (Surduc, Pischia, Sacosu Turcesc, Ghiroda,Ineu and irrigation chanell of Giroc-Chisoda. It has been performed the microscopical examination of gills and skin, as well as the macroscopical and stereomicroscopical examination of organs and muscles, being identified 45 species of parasites as follows:•Protozoa: 8 species (4 species of Myxozoa and 4 species of Ciliata. •Monogena: 5 species•Trematoda: 11 species•Cestoda: 8 species•Nematoda: 7 species•Acanthocephala: 4species•Anellida (Hirudina: 2 species•Crustacea: 5 species (Copepoda: 4 species, Branchiura:1 specia.The variety of parasites from the Banat fishes it is related with the diversity of the regional water conditions.

  4. Seasonal changes in Sphagnum peatland testate amoeba communities along a hydrological gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Słowińska, Sandra; Słowiński, Michał; Muszak, Witold; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant and functionally important group of protists in peatlands, but little is known about the seasonal patterns of their communities. We investigated the relationships between testate amoeba diversity and community structure and water table depth and light conditions (shading vs. insolation) in a Sphagnum peatland in Northern Poland (Linje mire) in spring and summer 2010. We monitored the water table at five sites across the peatland and collected Sphagnum samples in lawn and hummock micro-sites around each piezometer, in spring (3 May) and mid-summer (6 August) 2010. Water table differed significantly between micro-sites and seasons (Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.001). The community structure of testate amoebae differed significantly between spring and summer in both hummock and lawn micro-sites. We recorded a small, but significant drop in Shannon diversity, between spring and summer (1.76 vs. 1.72). Strongest correlations were found between testate amoeba communities and water table lowering and light conditions. The relative abundance of mixotrophic species Hyalosphenia papilio, Archerella flavum and of Euglypha ciliata was higher in the summer. PMID:25176338

  5. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Iridaceae are described from the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Escarpments.  Ixia amethystina. a member of section Dichone, is endemic to the edge of the Roggeveld Escarpment. It shares an unusual, inclined spike that is nodding in bud with  I. trifolia but is distinguished by its blackish purple (not yellow anthers, narrower leaves 1.5-2.0 mm wide, medium-textured corm tunics that form a distinct neck at the base of the stem, and short style branches 2.0-2.5 mm long.Moraea marginata. another Roggeveld endemic, is a member of section Polvanthes and florally similar to M. fistulosa and M. monticola but differs in its linear, channelled leaves 5-7 mm wide, with unusual, thickened margins. Romulea singularis. from the edge of the Kobee River Valley in the Bokkeveld Mountains, is a member of section  Ciliatae. It is unique in the genus in its narrowly funnel-shaped, mauve to purple flowers with slender perianth tube 10-11 mm long, and unusually long filaments, 8-9 mm long, inserted in the lower half of the tube.

  6. Air pollution and the distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, P.W.; Stringer, M.H.L.

    1974-01-01

    Four zones based on cover and species diversity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes are designated for urban and suburban Winnipeg, Manitoba. Epiphyte cover decreases markedly towards the city center, and there is a well-defined area almost totally devoid of epiphytes in the central built-up region. As known levels of sulphur dioxide are generally low in the city center, other pollutants, especially emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles, e.g., carbon monoxide, ethylene, may be chiefly operative in the maintenance of this depauperate zone, with aridity associated with the heat island perhaps also important. Sulphur dioxide from oil refineries and the main city power plant may be locally important over smaller areas. The most city-tolerant species in Winnipeg are Candelaria concolor, Physcia adscendens, Xanthoria fallax, Amblystegium juratzkanum, Leskea obscura/polycarpa, and Pylaisiella polyantha, with Lecania dimera, Lecanora impudens, Parmelia bolliana, and P. subargentifera among the least tolerant. Increase in soredia production, and decrease in apothecial production towards the city center were observed in Candelaria concolor, Physcia millegrana, P. orbicularis, and Xanthoria fallax, and Physcia aipolia, P. ciliata, P. stellaris, and Xanthoria polycarpa respectively.

  7. O gênero Xylocopa Latreille no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae

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    Schlindwein Clemens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Xylocopa Latreille in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae. A survey of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 is given for Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost State of Brazil. Data are based on several studies on the bee fauna of southern Brazil and on unpublished observations. A key is provided to the species (males and females and information on distribution, nesting habits and relation to flowers. Rio Grande do Sul is strikingly rich in species of Xylocopa because of the diversity of habitats and its geographic position in the transition of tropical/subtropical to temperate climate. Nineteen species, classified into ten subgenera, have been recorded in Rio Grande do Sul. Here we maintain the subgenera Ioxylocopa, Megaxylocopa and Xylocospila, which were put into synonymy recently by Minckley (1998. The species are: Xylocopa (Dasyxylocopa bimaculata Friese, 1903; Xylocopa (Ioxylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, 1902; Xylocopa (Megaxylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789; Xylocopa (Nanoxylocopa ciliata Burmeister, 1876; Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa augusti Lepeletier, 1841; Xylocopa (N. brasilianorum (Linnaeus, 1767; Xylocopa (N. haematospila Moure, 1951; Xylocopa (N. hirsutissima Maidl, 1912; Xylocopa (N. nigrocincta Smith, 1854; Xylocopa (N. ordinaria Smith, 1874; Xylocopa (N. suspecta Moure & Camargo, 1988; Xylocopa (N. tacanensis Moure, 1949; Xylocopa (Schonnherria macrops Lepeletier, 1841; Xylocopa (S. simillima Smith, 1854; Xylocopa (S. splendidula Lepeletier, 1841; Xylocopa (S. varians Smith, 1874; Xylocopa (Stenoxylocopa artifex Smith, 1874; Xylocopa (Xylocopoda elegans Hurd & Moure, 1963; Xylocopa (Xylocopsis funesta Maidl, 1912; Xylocopa (Xylocospila bambusae Schrottky, 1902. Xylocopa tacanensis is for the first time recorded in Brasil.

  8. Ex-Situ Cultivation of Medicinal Plant Species in High Altitudes at Swat, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Sher; David Melick; Zaheer-ud-Ud-Khan

    2005-01-01

    An ex-situ experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of six medicinal species (Bergenia ciliata , Valeriana jatamansi , Dioscorea deltoidea , Paeonia emodi , Polygonum amplexicaule and Viola serpense) from upper Swat, Pakistan. Experiments were conducted at four different locations in the upper Swat valley at altitudes ranging from 1200 to 1900 m.a.s.l. The objectives were: 1) to determine the suitability of ex-situ cultivation of different medicinal species, and; 2) to assess the economic geasibility of growing medicinal plants in the area. A highest mean survival of 80.7 % across all locations was observed for Viola serpense, followed by 58.7 % for Valeriana jatamansi. The remaining four species exhibited very poor survival rates, although Polygonum amplexicaule, did show encouraging signs of growth and flowered, before experiencing high mortality rates late in the trial. Altitude generally seemed to enhance the degree of sprouting for all species except Viola serpense. However, the productive yield of V. serpense was certainly not reduced, but rather slightly enhanced in the higher altitude sites.Overall, cultivation of only two of the investigated species, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola serpense, appeared successful and potentially economically viable under farmland conditions at upper Swat.

  9. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

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    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  10. Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Diggles, Ben K; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed. PMID:27522364

  11. Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India

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    Harsh SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservation in the Indian Himalayan of Kumaon region, and to this, systematic field surveys were conducted during 2007-2010 covering all four seasons viz., summer, rainy, winter and spring. A total of 64 species in 58 genera under 47 families were identified, of which 35 species are flowering plants and 29 species are non-flowering plants. The dominant family was Parmeliaceae of lichen which recorded the maximum 6 species. 35 plant species under 32 genera and 23 families are used as an ethno-medicinal and the information about the ethno-medicinal plants was gathered from knowledgeable elderly local peoples of the area. Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Origanum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, etc. are highly exploited species and need to be conserved.

  12. Identification and chromosomal distribution of copia-like retrotransposon sequences in the coffee (Coffea L. genome

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    Juan-Carlos Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of copia-like transposable elements in seven coffee (Coffea sp. species, including the cultivated Coffea arabica, was investigated. The highly conserved domains of the reverse transcriptase (RT present in the copia retrotransposons were amplified by PCR using degenerated primers. Fragments of roughly 300 bp were obtained and the nucleotide sequence was determined for 36 clones, 19 of which showed good quality. The deduced amino acid sequences were compared by multiple alignment analysis. The data suggested two distinct coffee RT groups, designated as CRTG1 and CRTG2. The sequence identities among the groups ranged from 52 to 60% for CRTG1 and 74 to 85% for CRTG2. The multiple alignment analysis revealed that some of the clones in CRTG1 were closely related to the representative elements present in other plant species such as Brassica napus, Populus ciliata and Picea abis. Furthermore, the chromosomal localization of the RT domains in C. arabica and their putative ancestors was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. FISH signals were observed throughout the chromosomes following a similar dispersed pattern with some localized regions exhibiting higher concentrations of those elements, providing new evidence of their relative conservation and stability in the coffee genome

  13. Quantitative Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Different Plant Materials by HPLC

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    Izabela RYCHLINSKA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast method of high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination and quantification of arbutin and hydroquinone in many different raw materials was developed and validated. The optimum conditions for the separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on a LiChro-CARD 125-4 Superspher®100 RP-18 column with the water-methanol (gradient elution mobile phase and recorded at 289 nm. The purities of peaks were verified by PDA analysis of impurities. The results of validation have shown that the HPLC method is stable and accurate for the simultaneous determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in extracts from various plants. The developed method gave a good sensitivity (LOD 1µg/ml for arbutin and 0.49 µg/ml for hydroquinone with linearity R2 >0.9993 (for both. The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 2.53% for intra-day assays and 3.23% for inter-day assay, the accuracy of the recovery test ranged from 98.96% to 106.4%. This method was used in comparative qualitative analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in 16 different raw materials from families Lamiaceae, Ericacaeae, Saxifragaceae, Rosaceae. The content of arbutin in B. ciliata, B. cordifolia and Ledum palustre was examined for the first time.

  14. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  15. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  16. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

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    Francine Rubin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevation (1 800 m, and relatively high rainfall (406 mm montane grasslands occupy communities dominated by grasses (Merxmuellera disticha, Themeda triandra and woody species (Diospyros austro-africana, Elytropappus rhinocerotis, Euryops annae, Passerina montana. The increasing aridity away from the escarpment edge in a northerly direction is steep, and Montane Karoo dwarf shrublands replace these mesic communities. Species such as Eriocephalus ericoides, Rosenia oppositifolia and Pteronia tricephala dominate. At lower elevation (800 m the precipitation is very low (175 mm and uncertain (coefficient of variation of 78 . The substrata influence the vegetation, with the sandy substrata of the drainage lines supporting more woody taxa (Acacia karroo, Lycium cinereum and grasses (Hyparrhenia hirta, Stipagrostis namaquensis, Cenchrus ciliaris. Moving away from the mesic environment of the riparian zone, rapid desiccation occurs and the most xeric communities are encountered, dominated by Stipagrostis obtusa, S. ciliata and Pent-da incana. This document provides descriptions of the general communities and their associated landscape, lithology and soils.

  17. Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S

    2003-09-01

    The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response. PMID:14584681

  18. Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Julian; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Hilje, Luko; Tripepi, Robert R; Aguilar, Maria E; Mesen, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The susceptible species Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species Khaya senegalensis and Toona ciliata. Six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to H. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. Two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with H. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. Damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. Larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. In both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (P < 0.03). Resistant rootstocks conferred resistance to susceptible scions. In both experiments, grafting by itself, regardless of the rootstock and scion combination, also reduced damage caused by H. grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar. PMID:20878001

  19. Eficiência nutricional de espécies arbóreas em função da fertilização fosfatada

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    Alexandre Gomes Fontes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre fertilização e nutrição florestal de espécies nativas e exóticas fornecem subsídios para programas de manejo para recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa e a eficiência nutricional de plântulas das espécies arbóreas Swietenia macrophylla (mogno, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (sabiá, Cedrela fissilis (cedro-rosa e Toona ciliata (cedroaustraliano, em resposta à fertilização fosfatada em dois níveis de calagem. Constatouse que as espécies responderam de maneira distinta à aplicação de P. O sabiá apresentou maior produção de matéria seca total e maior eficiência na utilização de P em solos com baixos teores deste elemento e foi mais responsivo à adição do fertilizante fosfatado. O mogno apresentou maior eficiência na translocação e na aquisição de P e maior relação parte aérea/raiz. As doses de P adicionadas para atingir 90% da máxima produção de matéria seca variaram de acordo com a espécie.

  20. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

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    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  1. Mode of reproduction of Brazilian species of Adesmia (Leguminosae

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    Solange B. Tedesco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Mode of reproduction was studied in 15 species of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae. In six species, three treatments were used: mutual pollination, mechanical stimulation and control. Fifty-four plants of these six species were grown in a greenhouse, individually isolated in nylon screen boxes. Flowers were labelled and submitted to the different treatments. In addition, the frequency of spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of pollinators was studied in 200 plants of nine other species. These 200 plants were kept in a greenhouse, which avoided contact with any possible pollinator. Adesmia bicolor, A. muricata, A. punctata and A. riograndensis produced seed both by cross- and self-pollination. Adesmia punctata and A. riograndensis need mechanical stimulation for self-pollination. Adesmia incana reproduced by self-pollination; however, the possibility of cross-pollination cannot be totally ruled out. Adesmia tristis reproduced mainly by cross-pollination and a mechanism of self-incompatibility is suggested. Among the nine species that were not exposed to pollinators, A. securigerifolia produced a large amount of seed, indicating that it is a self-pollinating species. Adesmia arillata, A. araujoi, A. ciliata, A. psoraleoides, A. rocinhensis, A. reitziana, A. sulina and A. vallsii did not produce any seed under the experimental conditions, suggesting that they are cross-pollinated or that they need mechanical stimulation to reproduce.Foram estudadas 15 espécies do gênero Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae, quanto ao modo de reprodução. Em seis espécies do gênero Adesmia, o modo de reprodução foi determinado através de três tratamentos: polinização mútua, estímulo mecânico e controle. As 54 plantas submetidas aos tratamentos foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e mantidas isoladas individualmente, através de armações de tela de náilon. As flores foram marcadas e submetidas aos distintos tratamentos. Adicionalmente, foram observadas 200

  2. Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: IV. Preferências alimentares quanto ao hospedeiro e freqüência domiciliar Some aspects of the ecology of the mosquities (Diptera: Culicidade of an area of plains (grange Calabria in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: IV. Food preferences of hosts and domiciliary frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos os resultados de capturas de mosquitos, realizadas entre janeiro de 1982 e março de 1983, em Granjas Calábria, com a finalidade de avaliar suas preferências alimentares. Usamos seis iscas: homem, cavalo, vaca, carneiro, galo e sapo. O cavalo atraiu o maior número de exemplares, seguindo-se a vaca, o homem, o galo e o carneiro, sendo que o sapo não foi atacado. A isca humana foi a que atraiu mais espécies. Observamos uma tendência zoófila para as espécies locais - An. albitarsis, An. aquasalis, Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cq. venezuelensis, Ma. titillans, Ps. ciliata, Ph. davisi e Ph. deanei sugaram principalemte cavalo e vaca, enquanto os Culex do subgênero Culex pareceram-nos mais ornitófilos e os do subgênero Microculex preferiram animais pecilotérmicos em experimentos que realizamos no laboratório. Ma. titillans foi a espécie preponderante em todas as iscas, demonstrado elevado ecletismo. Para estudar a freqüência domiciliar e peridomiciliar fizemos, mensalmente, de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1982, capturas dentro e fora de uma casa. Excetuando algumas espécies com maior propensão à endofilia principalmente An. aquasalis e Cx. quinquefasciatus, os mosquitos locais mostram-se mais exófilos. Foram visitantes ocasionais do domicílo: Ma. titillans, Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus e Cx. saltanensis.Results are presented on mosquito catches performed between january 1982 and March 1983, in Granjas Calábria, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to evaluate their host preferences. We used six baits, man, horse, cow, sheep, cock and toad. Horse attracted the greatest number of mosquitoes, followed by cow, man, cock and sheep, no mosquito fed on toad. man was the bait which attracted the largest number of species. Most local species were definetely zoophilic - An. albitarsis, An. aquasalis, Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cq. venezuelensis, Ma. titillans, Ps. ciliata, ph. davisi and Ph. deanei preferred

  3. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

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    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  4. Chemical and energetic characterization for utilization of thinning and slab wood from Australian red cedar Caracterização química e energética para aproveitamento da madeira de costaneira e desbaste de cedro australiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bufalino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to quantify and compare chemical and energetic properties of Australian red cedar Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC wood from thinning and primary sawing for reconstituted panel and energy production; and also to verify the efficiency of extractive removal by water treatments, in order to improve wood quality for particleboard production. Lignin, holocellulose, extractives, ash, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur contents and higher heating value were determined. Two water treatments for extractive removal were performed: immersion in cold water for 24 hours and immersion in boiling water for 2 hours. Lower values of ash, holocellulose, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and higher contents of lignin, total extractives, hydrogen and nitrogen contents were found for wood from primary sawing residues. For other properties, the values were significantly equal. Australian red cedar wood presents high extractive content, being water pre-treatment necessary for the production of some particleboards. Higher heating values of materials indicate potential for energy production.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.13

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi quantificar e comparar as propriedades químicas e energéticas da madeira de cedro australiano Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC proveniente de desbaste e desdobro para produção de painéis reconstituídos e energia, além de verificar a eficiência da remoção de extrativos por tratamentos em água para viabilizar a produção de painéis de partículas. Os teores de lignina, holocelulose, extrativos totais, cinzas, carbono, hidrogênio, oxigênio, nitrogênio, enxofre e poder calorífico superior foram determinados. Dois tratamentos em água para remoção de extrativos foram realizados nos materiais: imersão em água fria durante 24 horas e em água fervente durante 2 horas. Foram encontrados menores teores de cinzas, holocelulose

  5. Revalidation of llithucia Stal and descriptions of new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

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    Albino Morimasa Sakakibara

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus llithucia Stal, 1869, considered up to now as a junior synonym of Antonae Stal, 1867, is revalidated. Otherwise, the genera Centrugonia Stal, 1869, Electrophina Buckton, 1905, Penichrophorus Richter, 1943, and Achantomedes Fon-seca & Diringshofen, 1974, are brought into llithucia Stal as new synonyms, except Electrophina already considered so. Some other nomenclatural changes are introduced, such as revalidated names, new combinations, restored combinations, and new synonymies: llithucia Stal, 1867 nom. rev. = Centrugonia Stal, 1869 syn. n. = Penichrophorus Richter, 1943 syn. n. = Achantomedes Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1974 syn. n.; llithucia brevicornis (Richter, 1941 comb, n.; llithucia centrotoides (Walker, 1858 comb. n. = Stictocephala nigriventris Funkhouser, 1919 syn. n. = Centrogonia flavolimbata Goding, 1921 syn. n. = Penichrophorus bogotensis Richter, 1943 syn. n. = Ceresa luteimaculata Funkhouser, 1940 syn. n.; llithucia ciliata (Fairmaire, 1846 comb. n. = Ceresa extensa Walker, 1858 syn. n. = Centrogonia lutea Funkhouser, 1919 syn. n.; llithucia dilalata (Richter, 1943 comb. n.; llithucia elegans (Fowler, 1895 comb, n.; llithucia grisescens (Funkhouser, 1940 comb, n.; llithucia incorni-gera (Richter, 1942 comb, n.; llithucia impressa (Richter, 1943 comb, n.; llithucia nasuta (Stal, 1859 comb. n. = Penichrophorus sericatus Richter, 1943 syn. n.; llithuciapinguicornis (Funkhouser, 1919 comb, n.; llithucia reducta (Richter, 1955 comb. n.; llithucia richteri (Kopp & Yonke, 1979 comb, n.; llithucia terminata (Fairmaire, 1846 comb. rest. = Ceresa morio Fairmaire, 1846 syn. n. = Achantomedes flavocephala Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1974 syn. n.; llithucia vianai (Remes-Lenicov, 1970 comb. n. The following new species are described and illustrated: llithucia delvalle sp. n. (from Venezuela, llithucia nigrata sp. n. (from Colombia, and llithucia boliviano sp. n. (from Bolivia.

  6. Phytosociological attributes of plant biodiversity of the Fort Ranikot and adjoining area (Kirthar range)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant biodiversity, floristic composition and phytosociological attributes of the vascular plants of Fort Ranikot were analyzed. A total of 107 taxa were collected belonging to 41 families and 78 genera. The largest family was Poaceae containing 9 taxa, while the other major families were Papilionaceae with 6 species; Asclepiadaceae, Mimosaceae, and Solanaceae comprising of 5 species each respectively. Majority of the taxa are common throughout the study area, however, 6 species Viz. Aristolochia bracteolata, Physorrhynchus brahuicus, Plantago ciliata, Polygala erioptera, Salvadora persica and Viola stocksii were found to be very rare. The flora is dominated by Chamaephyte, followed by Therophytes, Phanerophytes, Hemicryptophytes and climbers. The aim of the present study is to provide comprehensive inventory of the study area along with its phytosociology and ecological parameters. Collectively on the basis of important value index six plants communities were recognized from different sites of the study area. The study area was categorized into six ecological sites on the basis of microclimatic conditions and topography. For comparison in these sites similarity index, beta diversity, diversity index, species evenness and maturity index was also calculated. The soil texture classes varied from loam to sandy loam and slit loam with pH of 7.78-8.24, electrical conductivity varied from 687-827 EC micro S/cm, Total dissolved salts varied from 0.36-0.71 mg-1, CaCO/sub 3/ varied from 3.48-4.21% and organic matter varied from 0.39-1.24%. Present study predict that there are certain edaphic factors, altitudinal variation, soil texture and amount of organic matter which are responsible for variation in vegetation. (author)

  7. Biodiversity and community structural characteristics of macrobenthos in the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; LIN Heshan; HE Xuebao; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; LI Rongguan; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; JIANG Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Field sampling of the macrobenthos from 23 stations in the Chukchi Sea was conducted during the 4th CHI-NARE (Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions, July-August, 2010). We identified a total of 140 species of macrozoobenthos belonging to nine phyla, which were dominated by polychaetes (66), crustaceans (30), and mollusks (25), followed by echinoderms (9) and others (ten others, including four cnidarians, one oli-gochaete, one sipuncula, one priapulida, two bryozoans, and one urochordata). The dominant species were Aphelochaeta pacifica, Heteromastus filiformis, Nephtys ciliata, Nephtys caeca, Scoletoma fragilis, Golfingia margaritacea, Nuculana pernula, Macoma calcarea, Ennucula tenuis, Macoma inquinata, Musculus discors, Echinarachnius parma, and Ophiura sarsii, so there were more cold-eurythermal boreal immigrants than truly Arctic species (endemics). The average density and biomass (mean ± SD across all stations) of the total macrozoobenthos were (916 ± 907) ind/m2 and (902.9 ± 1 227.7) g/m2 (wet weight), respectively. Relatively high density and biomass were observed in the samples from the northeastern and southern Chukchi Sea. The spatial variation of benthic communities in the study sea area was relatively large;this spatial heteroge-neity has led to high diversity and a patchy distribution pattern in the community structure. Compared to the 1st CHINARE ( July-August, 1999), this investigation revealed different degrees of decreases in the aver-age taxa numbers and the average density, abundance, and biodiversity in the area over the recent decade, which might be associated with global warming, human activities, and sea ice variations.

  8. Strategy and scenario for wetland conservation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are the most important ecosystems for the organisms in Animal Kingdom (including human beings and Plant Kingdom. There are about hundred species of flora in and around Indian Wetlands. They include Sagittaria montividensis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cyperus spp., Acrostichum aureum, Ipomoea aquatica, etc. They are also the habitats of several mammals like the marsh mongoose, small Indian mongoose, palm civet and the small Indian civet. Endangered species like the Indian mud turtle have also been found in the wetlands. Certain species of birds also visit the wetlands. Prominent ones are grebe, coot, darter, shag, cormorant, teals, egrets, jacanas, snipes, tern, eagle, sand piper, gulls, rails and kingfishers. The wetlands are important for production of foods and human safety. The East Kolkata wetlands with their garbage farms and fishponds have provided the city with three facilities, i.e., food, sanitation and livelihood. They also provide ecological security to the city of Kolkata. Over the past few years, wetlands have come under severe threat. With the population explosion, some of the largest fish farms have been converted from pisiculture to paddy cultivation. Industries also empty their wastewater effluent without treatment to the channels flowing eastward and these ultimately land up in the wetlands. This has caused substantial amount of deposits of metal in the canal sludge and made the wastewater incapable for the consumption by the fishes and the plants grown in the wetland. Nevertheless, due to urbanization or human interference, the wetland and its unique ecosystem biodiversity are in danger. After Ramsar Convention, 1971, different acts have been passed in India for conservation of wetlands, along with conducting general awareness program for the local people by the government, conducting different programs, management of wetlands, and research by the government, NGOs and other institutions.

  9. Identification and functional characterization of an uncharacterized antimicrobial peptide from a ciliate Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengfei; Dong, Yuan; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-07-01

    The global ever-growing concerns about multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes leads to urgent demands for exploration of new antibiotics including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here we demonstrated that a cDNA from Ciliata Paramecium caudatum, designated Pcamp1, coded for a protein with features characteristic of AMPs, which is not homologous to any AMPs currently known. Both the C-terminal 91 amino acid residues of PcAMP1, cPcAMP1, expressed in Escherichia coli and the C-terminal 26 amino acid residues (predicted mature AMP), cPcAMP1/26, synthesized, underwent a coil-to-helix transition in the presence of TFE, SDS or DPC. Functional assays revealed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were both able to kill Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus. ELISA showed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to bind to microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules LPS and LTA, which was further corroborated by the observations that cPcAMP1 could deposit onto the bacterial membranes. Importantly, both cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to induce bacterial membrane permeabilization and depolarization, and to increase intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Taken together, our results show that PcAMP1 is a potential AMP with a membrane selectivity towards bacterial cells, which renders it a promising template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics against MDR microbes. It also shows that use of signal conserved sequence of AMPs can be an effective tool to identify potential AMPs across different animal classes. PMID:26883426

  10. A biodegradation study of forest biomass by Aspergillus niger F7: correlation between enzymatic activity, hydrolytic percentage and biodegradation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger F7 isolated from soil was found to be the potent producer of cellulase and xylanase. The residue of forest species Toona ciliata, Celtris australis, Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii was selected as substrate for biodegradation study due to its easy availability and wide use in industry. It was subjected to alkali (sodium hydroxide treatment for enhancing its degradation. Biodegradation of forest waste by hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase and xylanase secreted by A. niger under solid state fermentation (SSF was explored. SSF of pretreated forest biomass was found to be superior over untreated forest biomass. Highest extracellular enzyme activity of 2201±23.91 U/g by A. niger was shown in pretreated C. australis wood resulting in 6.72±0.20 percent hydrolysis and 6.99±0.23 biodegradation index (BI. The lowest BI of 1.40±0.08 was observed in untreated saw dust of C. deodara having the least enzyme activity of 238±1.36 U/g of dry matter. Biodegradation of forest biomass under SSF was increased many folds when moistening agent i.e. tap water had been replaced with modified basal salt media (BSM. In BSM mediated degradation of forest waste with A. niger, extracellular enzyme activity was increased up to 4089±67.11 U/g of dry matter in turn resulting in higher BI of 15.4±0.41 and percent hydrolysis of 19.38±0.81 in pretreated C. australis wood. A. niger exhibited higher enzyme activity on pretreated biomass when moistened with modified BSM in this study. Statistically a positive correlation has been drawn between these three factors i.e. enzyme activity, BI and percent hydrolysis of forest biomass thus proving their direct relationship with each other.

  11. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  12. Seasonal variations in species composition, abundance, biomass and estimated production rates of tintinnids at tropical estuarine and mangrove waters, Parangipettai, southeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    2002-10-01

    Seasonal varaitions in species composition, abundance, biomass and production rates of tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliata) were investigated in the tropical estuarine and mangrove systems of Parangipettai, South India, monthly from January to December 1994. There were remarkable seasonal variations in environmental parameters, chlorophyll a concentrations and abundance, biomass and production rates of tintinnids: highest in postmosoon/summer and lowest in monsoon. The total abundance and biomass of tintinnids were in the range of 2-420 indiv. l -1 and 0.02 3.01 μg C l -1, respectively, with the peak appearing in the estuarine waters. A total of 47 species of tintinnids belonging to 14 genera was identified. Of which, Tintinnopsis was the most abundant genus in terms of number of species (20), followed by Codonellopsis (4), Stenosemella (4), Favella (3), Eutintinnus (3), and the remaining genus, number of species are one or two. Most of the tintinnid species occurred on distinct seasonal pattern and closely associated to species-specific environmental conditions. Due to large thermal gradients (range: 22.5-33.8 °C), the overall mean biomass was highest (mean: 1.64 μg C l -1) during summer than the remaining seasons. Estimated production rates of tintinnids ranged from 0.02 to 2.5 μg C l -1 day -1, with peak in summer. The trophodynamic role of tintinnids was assessed by estimating their grazing impact as expressed by daily removal of phytoplankton biomass. The grazing impact also demonstrated a seasonal pattern and ranged from 0.03% to 1.24% removal day -1. The higher grazing impact estimated during summer could be related to high concentrations of food supply. Due to significant positive relationship between the total biomass of tintinnids and chlorophyll a concentrations, food supply is not a problem for tintinnids harboring in this estuarine and mangrove systems. Hence, predation loss by meso- and macrozooplankton might be the possible reasons for the estimated

  13. 废水处理系统中微型生物群落变化与水质净化%Change of Microbiological Community in Sewage Treatment System and Water Quality Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 韩宏蕾; 辛丽花

    2012-01-01

    The microorganism community dynamics were analyzed in sewage treatment system in Harbin Pharmaceutical Factory,and the major bacteria community which would influence the refinery sewage treatment was monitored by FISH.Based on the experiment,the sewage treatment system was evaluated combining with the physiochemical index of water quality.The results showed that a total of 48 microorganism,of which 8 flagellates,5 sarcodinas,25 ciliatas,2 metazoas,8 algaes were identified,and the environment were particularly different in every sampling sites.The number of the protozoon species and diversity index grew with the increase of distance between treatment pools to effluent outlet.Aspidiscacostata,chlorella,cyclotella stelligera appeared frequently.FISH experimental results demonstrate that the amount of inhalant bacterium was larger than exhalant bacterium in the treatment system,which means that water quality of effluent improved significantly.%利用PFU法(聚氨酯泡沫塑料块)和直接采水法对哈药集团制药总厂的污水处理厂污水处理系统进行样品采集,研究该处理系统中微型生物群落动态,并应用荧光原位杂交技术监测影响系统处理效能的主要菌群,同时结合水质的理化指标对处理系统进行综合评价。结果表明:处理系统中共检出微型生物48种,其中鞭毛虫8种,肉足虫5种,纤毛虫25种,后生动物2种,藻类8种。各个采样点环境差异显著,随着处理池离排污口距离的增加原生动物的种类随之增加,多样性指数增大。经常大量出现的有肋盾纤虫(Aspidisca-costata)和小球藻(Chlorella)、广缘小环藻(Cyclotella stelligera)。FISH实验得到的细菌资料显示处理系统中,进水菌量大于出水菌量,这与原生动物变化规律相反,表明出水水质得到改善。

  14. Protozoan Community Diversity in Membrane Bioreactor%膜生物反应器系统中原生动物的群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑祥; 刘俊新

    2009-01-01

    与常规生物处理工艺相比,膜生物反应器(MBR)系统由于污泥停留时间长、污泥浓度高等特点,因此反应器内微生物种群结构呈现不同的特点.通过对MBR系统中原生动物的群落结构进行为期近2年连续的监测结果表明,过长的污泥龄对系统中原生动物的种类与数量均有负面的影响.研究发现:①在长期不排泥的MBR系统中,当环境温度从11℃上升到25℃,原生动物的多样性呈显著上升趋势;②当污泥龄从350 d下降到30 d,MBR系统中原生动物的种类与数量明显增加.特别在较低的环境温度条件下,系统中原生动物的种类与数量随着污泥龄的缩短呈显著的上升趋势;③与相同污泥龄(SRT=30d)的氧化沟(TOD)系统相比,MBR的污泥中原生动物的种类与数量均低于TOD.%Continuous monitoring on the microbial character was performed in the sludge in MBR compared with traditional active sludge process. It was found that the sludge retention time (SRT) and temperature were the dominant factors that control protozoan diversity. The extra-long SRT exhibited a negative effect on the activity of protozoa. When SRT decreased from 350 d to 30 d, protozoan diversity increased significantly. Subsequently, the structure of protozoa community in the MBR was found to be quite sensitive to environment temperature, and protozoan diversity continuously increased with the increasing temperature from 11 to 25℃ . The dominant population was alternate and in some order: running Ciliata , Epistylis and Opercularia, Rotifers , then Aeolosomatidae . Further analysis showed that MBR reactor harbored a lower detectable microbial diversity compared with the TOD reactor at the same temperature and SRT.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-living Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the Northern Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinertz, S; Hermosilla, C; Ziltener, A; Kreicker, S; Hirzmann, J; Abdel-Ghaffar, F; Taubert, A

    2014-04-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna infecting the free-living and alive Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) inhabiting waters of the Red Sea at Hurghada, Egypt. A total of 94 individual faecal samples of the examined bottlenose dolphins were collected during several diving expeditions within their natural habitats. Using classical parasitological techniques, such as sodium acetate acetic acid formalin method, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears, coproantigen ELISA, PCR and macroscopical analyses, the study revealed infections with 21 different parasite species belonging to protozoans and metazoans with some of them bearing zoonotic and/or pathogenic potential. Four identified parasite species are potential zoonotic species (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Ascaridida indet.); three of them are known to have high pathogenic potential for the examined dolphin species (Nasitrema attenuata, Zalophotrema spp. and Pholeter gastrophilus) and some appear to be directly associated with stranding events. In detail, the study indicates stages of ten protozoan species (Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Isospora (like) spp., Cystoisospora (like) spp., Ciliata indet. I and II, Holotricha indet., Dinoflagellata indet., Hexamita (like) spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), seven trematode species (N. attenuata, Nasitrema spp. I and II, Zalophotrema curilensis, Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, Trematoda indet.), one cestode species (Diphyllobothrium spp.), two nematode species (Ascaridida indet, Capillaria spp.) and one crustacean parasite (Cymothoidae indet.). Additionally, we molecularly identified adult worms of Anisakis typica in individual dolphin vomitus samples by molecular analyses. A. typica is a common parasite of various dolphin species of warmer temperate and tropical waters and has not been attributed as food-borne parasitic zoonoses so far. Overall, these parasitological findings

  16. A NEW METHOD TO ASSESS FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF SERUM COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

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    E. G. Cheremnykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement system is an important component of innate immunity, providing primary protection against pathogens invading the body. In addition, it was shown that the complement system is associated with many diseases, not only autoimmune and infectious, but also mental disorders. In this regard, it is necessary to develop affordable and fast method of measuring activity of the complement system in real-time mode. We present a new semi-automated method for assessment of serum complement activity. The assay is based on cytolytic action of complement system upon the ciliate organism Tetrahymena pyriformis. This method consists in repeated counting of live Tetrahymena motile cells by means of specially developed Biolat device, which consists of two video cameras, light sources, and movable round plate. The plate has two rows of holes. The device also includes microprocessor control unit based on AutoCiliata software, intended for control of operation module and counting the surviving cell. The calculations are based on fixation of two sequential video-frames, with subsequent software image processing. Cell death events were observed upon incubation in triethanolamine (TEA buffer containing 5% of blood serum. We have also compared complement activity in different buffers, i.e., standard medium for culturing of ciliates, Veronal-Medinalum buffer, and the TEA buffer. TEA buffer was found superior to the Veronal buffer when applied in the test system. The time of cell death in the TEA-buffered medium containing 5% serum was < 15 minutes for all the sera studied. The parameters denoting serum complement activity were as follows: a half-life time for the moving cells (TLD50, and a similar value for 100% cell inactivation (1/TLD50, functional activity of the complement system, ACS. The sensitivity of this assay was calculated from dependencies between TLD50 and ACS, and actual serum concentrations. We have suggested an opportunity for evaluation of an

  17. Resgate vegetativo e propagação de cedro-australiano por estaquia

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    Mariane de Oliveira Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar métodos de resgate vegetativo para a produção de estacas (corte raso, anelamento total e semianelamento de árvores adultas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata var. australis. Avaliou-se o número de brotos produzidos aos 60, 120 e 180 dias, bem como a correlação entre o diâmetro médio do tronco à altura do peito (DAP e o número de brotos. Com as brotações resultantes de cada método, produziram-se estacas que foram submetidas à retirada e ao corte de folíolos, e então receberam a aplicação de ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0 e 6.000 mg L-1. Avaliou-se a influência dos fatores método de resgate, tempo de coleta, número de folíolos das estacas e planta matriz, em presença e ausência de AIB, na sobrevivência e no enraizamento das estacas. Não houve correlação entre o DAP das árvores e o número de brotações. O corte raso aos 120 dias proporcionou a maior produção de brotos (15,31. Estacas obtidas do semianelamento apresentaram maior sobrevivência (57,8% e enraizamento (55,5%. Estacas com dois pares de folíolos inteiros e tratadas com 6.000 mg L-1 de AIB apresentaram maior sobrevivência (65,5% e enraizamento (56,7%. Houve grande variação na sobrevivência e no enraizamento entre plantas matrizes. O resgate vegetativo e a estaquia apresentam potencial para multiplicação clonal de árvores adultas de cedro-australiano.

  18. Nutritional value of tree leaves for livestock from a semi-hilly arid region of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Nutritional value of Toona ciliata, Morus alba, Melia azedarach and Leucaena leucocephala was assessed in vivo in bucks. The excretion of purine derivatives, in the urine and, therefore, microbial protein synthesis, was greatest in bucks receiving Melia azedarach. The leaves of Melia azedarach, Morus alba and Leucaena leucocephala supplemented with a mineral mixture and common salt could be fed as a complete feed for small ruminants. It was concluded that the leaves of Morus, Ehretia, Grewea, Melia azedarach and Leucaena had great potential as livestock feed, while feeding of Ougeinia, Zizyphus and Dodonea leaves should be avoided. (author)

  19. Análise florística e estrutural de uma floresta em diferentes estágios sucessionais no município de Castanhal, Pará Floristic composition and structure of a forest in different successional stages in Castanhal, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Fátima Rodrigues Coelho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sucessão florestal pela análise florística e estrutural de floresta em três estágios sucessionais (4, 8 e 12 anos, localizadas no município de Castanhal-PA. Consideraram-se duas classes de DAP: Classe I (DAP>1cm e classe II (DAPThe objective of this study is to understand secondary forest succession through florisitc and structural analysis of a forest in three successional stages (4, 8 and 12 years located in Castanhal in the state of Pará. This study considers wood species divided into two DBH classes: class I (DBH>1cm and class II (DBH<1cm. Class I individuals were measured in twelve 10m x 10m plots in the 12-year-old successional forest, and in four 10 x 10 m plots in the 4 and 8-year-old secondary forest stands. Class II individuals were measured in 48 subplots of 1m x 1m in the 12-year-old forest stand, and in 16 subplots in the 4 and 8-year-old forest stands. In Class I, 18, 30 and 73 species were identified; and were found 12, 18 and 21 individuals/ha in the 4, 8 and 12-year-old forests, respectively. In class II, 17, 21 and 62 species were identified; and were found 50, 26 and 47 individuals/m² in the 4, 8 and 12-year-old forests, respectively. For class I, Lacistema pubescens, Vismia guianensis and Myrcia sylvatica demonstrated the greatest abundance and relative dominance. In class II, Lacistema pubescens, Vismia guianensis, Miconia ciliata, Myrcia bracteata and Banara guianensis also displayed an elevated number of individuals. Myrcia sylvatica presented the greatest abundance in the three successional stages. Similarity among plots was approximately 60% for class I and 42% for class II. The results showed the forest with three stages of successional development: initiation phase (4 years, exclusion phase (8 years, and the beginning of the understory reinitiation phase (12 years.

  20. 福建漳江口红树林和盐沼湿地的多毛类动物群落%Polychaete community in mangrove and salt marsh in Zhangjiang River Estuary, Fujian Province of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕韡; 蔡立哲; 吴辰; 彭欣; 曹婧; 许鹏; 刘莎; 傅素晶

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the community structure of polychaete in different botanic habitats in Zhangjiang River Estuary, an investigation was conducted in the habitats of Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum, Spartina alterniflora, and Avicennia marina in four seasons, 2010. A total of 15 polychaete species were recorded, and 6 species including Eteone delta, Namalycastis abi-uma, Paraleonnates uschakovi, Polydora ciliata, Capitella capitata, and Mediomastus californiensis were found in the four habitats and four seasons. The density, biomass, richness index, evenness index, and diversity index of the polychaete had no significant differences among seasons but significant differences among habitats, and the dominant species of polychaete in S. alterniflora habitat differed from that in the other three mangrove habitats. Pearson correlation analysis showed that in the mangrove and salt marsh, there were no significant correlations between the polychaete parameters ( density, biomass, richness index, evenness index, and diversity index ) and the environmental factors ( sediment temperature, salinity, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen) , except that the species number of polychaete had significant correlation with sediment temperature due to the common species of polychaete such as Capitella capitata, Mediomastus californiensis, and Namalycastis abiuma in the mangrove and salt marsh in Zhangjiang River Estuary being of eury-therm and eurysalinity, and resistant to high organic matter content.%为了比较漳江口4种植物生境之间多毛类动物群落的差异性,2010年对漳江口潮间带秋茄、桐花树、白骨壤和互花米草4种植物生境的多毛类动物进行4个季度的定量取样.共获得15种多毛类动物,4个季度在4种植物生境中均出现三角洲双须虫、溪沙蚕、拟突齿沙蚕、凿贝才女虫、小头虫和加州中蚓虫.多毛类动物栖息密度、生物量、丰度指数、均匀度指数和多样性指